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1

Elements & Compounds Atoms (Elements)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Elements & Compounds #12;Atoms (Elements) Molecules (Compounds) Cells Elements & Compounds #12;Nucleus Electrons Cloud of negative charge (2 electrons) Fig. 2.5: Simplified model of a Helium (He) Atom He 4.002602 2 Helium Mass Number (~atomic mass) = number of Neutrons + Protons = 4 for Helium Atomic

Frey, Terry

2

Metal atomization spray nozzle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

Huxford, T.J.

1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

3

Interaction of an aluminum atom with a closed subshell metal atom: Spectroscopic analysis of AlZn  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interaction of an aluminum atom with a closed subshell metal atom: Spectroscopic analysis of Al-block main group element, aluminum, and the 3d series of transi- tion metal atoms. Although the bonding in Al

Morse, Michael D.

4

The New Element Curium (Atomic Number 96)  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

Two isotopes of the element with atomic number 96 have been produced by the helium-ion bombardment of plutonium. The name curium, symbol Cm, is proposed for element 96. The chemical experiments indicate that the most stable oxidation state of curium is the III state.

Seaborg, G. T.; James, R. A.; Ghiorso, A.

1948-00-00T23:59:59.000Z

5

Understanding Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal Nanoparticles by Correlation with Atomic Resolution Electron Understanding Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal...

6

The New Element Berkelium (Atomic Number 97)  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

An isotope of the element with atomic number 97 has been discovered as a product of the helium-ion bombardment of americium. The name berkelium, symbol Bk, is proposed for element 97. The chemical separation of element 97 from the target material and other reaction products was made by combinations of precipitation and ion exchange adsorption methods making use of its anticipated (III) and (IV) oxidation states and its position as a member of the actinide transition series. The distinctive chemical properties made use of in its separation and the equally distinctive decay properties of the particular isotope constitute the principal evidence for the new element.

Seaborg, G. T.; Thompson, S. G.; Ghiorso, A.

1950-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

7

Atomization of metal (Materials Preparation Center)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomization of metal requires high pressure gas and specialized chambers for cooling and collecting the powders without contamination. The critical step for morphological control is the impingement of the gas on the melt stream. The video is a color video of a liquid metal stream being atomized by high pressure gas. This material was cast at the Ames Laboratorys Materials Preparation Center http://www.mpc.ameslab.gov WARNING - AUDIO IS LOUD.

None

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

The New Element Californium (Atomic Number 98)  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

Definite identification has been made of an isotope of the element with atomic number 98 through the irradiation of Cm{sup 242} with about 35-Mev helium ions in the Berkeley Crocker Laboratory 60-inch cyclotron. The isotope which has been identified has an observed half-life of about 45 minutes and is thought to have the mass number 244. The observed mode of decay of 98{sup 244} is through the emission of alpha-particles, with energy of about 7.1 Mev, which agrees with predictions. Other considerations involving the systematics of radioactivity in this region indicate that it should also be unstable toward decay by electron capture. The chemical separation and identification of the new element was accomplished through the use of ion exchange adsorption methods employing the resin Dowex-50. The element 98 isotope appears in the eka-dysprosium position on elution curves containing berkelium and curium as reference points--that is, it precedes berkelium and curium off the column in like manner that dysprosium precedes terbium and gadolinium. The experiments so far have revealed only the tripositive oxidation state of eka-dysprosium character and suggest either that higher oxidation states are not stable in aqueous solutions or that the rates of oxidation are slow. The successful identification of so small an amount of an isotope of element 98 was possible only through having made accurate predictions of the chemical and radioactive properties.

Seaborg, G. T.; Thompson, S. G.; Street, K. Jr.; Ghiroso, A.

1950-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

9

Alkali-metal-atom chemisorption onto a metal surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent theoretical and experimental work implies that an alkali-metal atom chemisorbed onto a metal surface can be viewed within a dressed-atom picture, i.e., as an atom whose wave functions are perturbed due to its interaction with the surrounding host lattice. This picture is similar to that used for a noble-gas atom physisorbed onto a metal surface. Such an approach utilizes the calculational method of the coupledHartree-Fock theory, and it is applied in the present work to the chemisorption of a potassium atom onto a semi-infinite Na(001) substrate. Results for the Hartree-Fock ground state of the chemisorbed K atom, its induced dipole moment, and induced splitting of its p-orbital states are calculated at various substrate-adatom separations. It has been found that the induced dipole moment exhibits a maximum in its absolute value as the metal-adatom separation changes; most of the contribution to the dipole moment is due to the 3s- and 4s-electron states, while the pz states have been found to be counterpolarized, i.e., they polarize toward the vacuum side. On the other hand, the calculated dipole moments of the adatom were found to be too small to account for the observed work-function changes during alkali-metal chemisorption on a mteal surface.

A. N. Andriotis

1990-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

THE NEW ELEMENT CALIFORNIUM (ATOMIC NUMBER 98)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

shell, as occurs in rare earth elements at the point ofand homologous rare earth elements in high temperaturethe homologous rare earth elements. (2) Its distinctive high

Thompson, S.G.; Street, K.,Jr.; Ghiorso, A.; Seaborg, G.T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

THE NEW ELEMENT BERKELIUM (ATOMIC NUMBER 97)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of time from rare earth elements and from the actinidea group from the rare earth elements before using the columnpositions of some rare earth elements was obtained and these

Thompson, S.G.; Ghiorso, A.; Seaborg, G.T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

The New Element Americium (Atomic Number 95)  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

Several isotopes of the new element 95 have been produced and their radiations characterized. The chemical properties of this tripositive element are similar to those of the typical tripositive lanthanide rare-earth elements. Element 95 is different from the latter in the degree and rate of formation of certain compounds of the complex ion type, which makes possible the separation of element 95 from the lanthanide rare-earths. The name americium (after the Americas) and the symbol Am are suggested for the element on the basis of its position as the sixth member of the actinide rare-earth series, analogous to europium, Eu, of the lanthanide series.

Seaborg, G.T.; James, R.A.; Morgan, L.O.

1948-01-00T23:59:59.000Z

13

THE NEW ELEMENT CALIFORNIUM (ATOMIC NUMBER 98)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

No, 66) as the names americium (No, curium (No, andthe production of element 98. Americium, the source for theneutron-irradiated americium in which it was produced as a

Thompson, S.G.; Street, K.,Jr.; Ghiorso, A.; Seaborg, G.T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Effects of Atomic Scale Roughness at Metal/insulator Interfaces...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Work Function. Effects of Atomic Scale Roughness at Metalinsulator Interfaces on Metal Work Function. Abstract: We evaluate the performance of different van der Waals (vdW)...

15

Light element opacities of astrophysical interest from ATOMIC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present new calculations of local-thermodynamic-equilibrium (LTE) light element opacities from the Los Alamos ATOMIC code for systems of astrophysical interest. ATOMIC is a multi-purpose code that can generate LTE or non-LTE quantities of interest at various levels of approximation. Our calculations, which include fine-structure detail, represent a systematic improvement over previous Los Alamos opacity calculations using the LEDCOP legacy code. The ATOMIC code uses ab-initio atomic structure data computed from the CATS code, which is based on Cowan's atomic structure codes, and photoionization cross section data computed from the Los Alamos ionization code GIPPER. ATOMIC also incorporates a new equation-of-state (EOS) model based on the chemical picture. ATOMIC incorporates some physics packages from LEDCOP and also includes additional physical processes, such as improved free-free cross sections and additional scattering mechanisms. Our new calculations are made for elements of astrophysical interest and for a wide range of temperatures and densities.

Colgan, J.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Magee, N. H. Jr.; Armstrong, G. S. J.; Abdallah, J. Jr.; Sherrill, M. E. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Fontes, C. J.; Zhang, H. L.; Hakel, P. [Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2013-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

16

Synthesis of a new element with atomic number Z=117  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The discovery of a new chemical element with atomic number Z=117 is reported. The isotopes 293117 and 294117 were produced in fusion reactions between 48Ca and 249Bk. Decay chains involving eleven new nuclei were identified by means of the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator. The measured decay properties show a strong rise of stability for heavier isotopes with Z111, validating the concept of the long sought island of enhanced stability for super-heavy nuclei.

Oganessian, Yuri Ts. [FLNR-JINR, Russia; Abdullin, F. Sh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Bailey, P. D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Benker, D. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Bennett, M. E. [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Dmitriev, S. [FLNR-JINR, Russia; Ezold, Julie G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hamilton, J. H. [Vanderbilt University; Henderson, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Itkis, M. G. [FLNR-JINR, Russia; Lobanov, Yu. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Mezentsev, A. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Moody, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Nelson, S. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Polyakov, A. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Porter, C. E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Ramayya, A. V. [Vanderbilt University; Riley, F. D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Roberto, James B [ORNL; Ryabinin, M. A. [Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad, Russia; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr [ORNL; Sagaidak, R. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Shaughnessy, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Shirokovsky, I. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Stoyer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Subbotin, V. G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Sudowe, R. [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Sukhov, A. M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Tsyganov, Yu. S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Utyonkov, V. [FLNR-JINR, Russia; Voinov, A. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Vostokin, G. K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Wilk, P. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Wear 258 (2005) 17871793 Finite element analysis and experiments of metal/metal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of this simulation. © 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: Wear modeling; Finite element analysis 1 Published by Elsevier B.V. doi:10.1016/j.wear.2004.12.014 #12;1788 N.H. Kim et al. / Wear 258 (2005) 1787Wear 258 (2005) 1787­1793 Finite element analysis and experiments of metal/metal wear

Sawyer, Wallace

18

Carbon nanotube-clamped metal atomic chain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...previous investigations on elementary (Au) (24, 26) and...manipulated by a piezo-electric tube to touch the metal-filled...which is used as the resistance for correction, when...1970 ) Electrical resistance of disordered one-dimensional...Carbon | Anisotropy Electric Conductivity Electrodes...

Dai-Ming Tang; Li-Chang Yin; Feng Li; Chang Liu; Wan-Jing Yu; Peng-Xiang Hou; Bo Wu; Young-Hee Lee; Xiu-Liang Ma; Hui-Ming Cheng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Atomic and electronic structure of simple metal/graphene and complex metal/graphene/metal interfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of simple interfaces (graphene on top of a metallic substrate) and complex interfaces (a single metallic adlayer on a simple graphene/metal system, either on top or between the graphene and metallic substrate) have been studied using density functional theory. Two types of simple interface with strong (Ni/graphene) and weak (Cu/graphene) bonding were considered. In addition to binding energies and interface distances, which are used to quantify the strength of graphene-substrate interactions, the bonding in simple and complex interfaces was analyzed using charge density distributions and bond orders. Substantial enhancement of the metallic substrate/graphene binding was observed in complex interfaces, consisting of a Ni monolayer on top of a simple {Ni or Cu}/graphene interface. The increase of substrate-graphene bonding in such complex interfaces is accompanied by weakening of in-plane C-C bonds in graphene, as quantified by the bond orders. A weak ferrimagnetism in graphene, i.e., unequal magnetic moments ?0.04?B and +0.06?B on the C atoms, is induced by a ferromagnetic Ni substrate. The strength of graphene-substrate interactions is also reflected in simulated scanning tunneling microscopy images.

Lyudmyla Adamska; You Lin; Andrew J. Ross; Matthias Batzill; Ivan I. Oleynik

2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

20

Questions and Answers - What is the difference between atoms and elements?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

an element? Howmany elements are there? an element? How<br>many elements are there? Previous Question (What is an element? How many elements are there?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (What are atoms, elements, compounds and mixtures?) What are atoms, elements,compounds and mixtures? What is the difference between atoms and elements? Get ready for an imperfect analogy. Imagine going to an ice cream store. Let's say that they have 30 different flavors of ice cream. Those are elements, the things that I have available to build my dessert from. The smallest amount of ice cream that the store will sell to me is a scoop. This is an atom. If I want, I can put two or more scoops of ice cream together. This is a molecule. If my molecule has more than one flavor of ice cream, I can call it a compound.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

It's Elemental - The Periodic Table of Elements - Elements Listed by Atomic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic Number Atomic Number 1 Hydrogen H 2 Helium He 3 Lithium Li 4 Beryllium Be 5 Boron B 6 Carbon C 7 Nitrogen N 8 Oxygen O 9 Fluorine F 10 Neon Ne 11 Sodium Na 12 Magnesium Mg 13 Aluminum Al 14 Silicon Si 15 Phosphorus P 16 Sulfur S 17 Chlorine Cl 18 Argon Ar 19 Potassium K 20 Calcium Ca 21 Scandium Sc 22 Titanium Ti 23 Vanadium V 24 Chromium Cr 25 Manganese Mn 26 Iron Fe 27 Cobalt Co 28 Nickel Ni 29 Copper Cu 30 Zinc Zn 31 Gallium Ga 32 Germanium Ge 33 Arsenic As 34 Selenium Se 35 Bromine Br 36 Krypton Kr 37 Rubidium Rb 38 Strontium Sr 39 Yttrium Y 40 Zirconium Zr 41 Niobium Nb 42 Molybdenum Mo 43 Technetium Tc 44 Ruthenium Ru 45 Rhodium Rh 46 Palladium Pd 47 Silver Ag 48 Cadmium Cd 49 Indium In 50 Tin Sn 51 Antimony Sb 52 Tellurium Te 53 Iodine I 54 Xenon Xe 55 Cesium Cs 56 Barium Ba 57 Lanthanum La 58 Cerium Ce

22

Pair interaction of metal atoms on a metal surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pair interactions of tungsten and iridium adatoms on the W {110} plane are studied by measuring two-dimensional pair distributions with two adatoms on a plane. Each distribution contains from 600 to 950 field-ion-microscopy observations. Pair energies over a distance range of ?2.5 to ?50 are derived by comparing the experimentally measured pair distributions with the calculated pair distributions for two noninteracting atoms. It is found that Ir-Ir pair interaction exhibits an attractive region at ?5 and a repulsive region around 8 . If an oscillatory structure exists, its amplitudes decay already to less than ?10 meV beyond 10 . The plane edge seems to repel Ir adatoms with a weak long-range force. The W-Ir interaction at a short range is weaker than the Ir-Ir interaction. However, the interaction extends to larger distances. From ?950 observations at 330 K with two adatoms, we derive a pair energy which exhibits two attractive and two repulsive regions, thus strongly suggesting an oscillatory structure. The pair energies derived beyond 25 are erratic for both Ir-Ir and W-Ir interactions, most probably because of the limited amount of data available. However, this work represents the first time statistically reliable amounts of data have been obtained for two-dimensional pair distributions with only two adatoms on a plane. The nonmonotonic behaviors of adatom-adatom interaction on the smooth W {110} plane are clearly established.

R. Casanova and T. T. Tsong

1980-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

Neutron-capture elements in the very metal-poor star HD122563  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We obtained high resolution, high S/N spectroscopy for the very metal-poor star HD122563 with the Subaru Telescope High Dispersion Spectrograph. Previous studies have shown that this object has excesses of light neutron-capture elements, while its abundances of heavy ones are very low. In our spectrum covering 3070 - 4780 A of this object, 19 neutron-capture elements have been detected, including seven for the first time in this star (Nb, Mo, Ru, Pd, Ag, Pr, and Sm). Upper limits are given for five other elements including Th. The abundance pattern shows a gradually decreasing trend, as a function of atomic number, from Sr to Yb, which is quite different from those in stars with excesses of r-process elements. This abundance pattern of neutron-capture elements provides new strong constraints on the models of nucleosynthesis responsible for the very metal-poor stars with excesses of light neutron-capture elements but without enhancement of heavy ones.

S. Honda; W. Aoki; Y. Ishimaru; S. Wanajo; S. G. Ryan

2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

24

Neutron-capture elements in the very metal-poor star HD88609: another st ar with excesses of light neutron-capture elements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We obtained a high resolution, high signal-to-noise UV-blue spectrum of the extremely metal-poor red giant HD88609 to determine the abundances of heavy elements. Nineteen neutron-capture elements are detected in the spectrum. Our analysis revealed that this object has large excesses of light neutron-capture elements while heavy neutron-capture elements are deficient. The abundance pattern shows a continuously decreasing trend, as a function of atomic number, from Sr to Yb, which is quite different from those in stars with excesses of r-process elements. Such an abundance pattern is very similar to that of HD122563 that was studied by our previous work. The results indicate that the abundance pattern found in the two stars could represent the pattern produced by the nucleosynthesis process that provided light neutron-capture elements in the very early Galaxy.

Satoshi Honda; Wako Aoki; Yuhri Ishimaru; Shinya Wanajo

2007-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

25

Extraction and direct detection of metals in contaminated soils using supercritical fluid extraction - atomic emission spectrometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation describes the determination of metal complexes that are directly extracted from sedimentary material using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) coupled with a microwave induced plasma (MIP) for direct elemental determination. The metal complexes studied are: tris (1,1,1 triofluoro 2,4-pentanediono) Iron (III), Cobalt (II) Acetylacetonate, Copper (II) Acetylacetonate, Zinc (II) Acetylacetonate, and Ni (II) Acetylacetonate. These complexes were spiked directly onto cleaned sea sand. Static extractions were performed using SO-CO{sub 2} modified with 5% methanol. The SFE was interfaced to the MIP by integrating the restrictor into the plasma torch assembly. A 100 W Ar plasma was sustained in a highly efficient TM{sub 010} cavity with the atomic emission signal being viewed in an axial manner. Results of these direct determinations herald the possibility of the extraction and determination of surface bound contaminants in one unified procedure, thereby reducing the risk of sample loss, sample contamination, and sample analysis time.

Lancaster, E.D.; Long, G.L.; Ducatte, G.R. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

26

Analysis of a Material Phase Shifting Element in an Atom Interferometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis of a Material Phase Shifting Element in an Atom Interferometer John D. Perreault of the change in phase and coherence of matter waves as they pass within 25 nm of the grating bar surfaceW) interaction [5] changed the relative intensities of the diffraction orders. More recently the atom wave phase

Cronin, Alex D.

27

Collective spontaneous emission of two atoms near metal nanoparticle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present quantum-mechanical approach for collective spontaneous emission (superradiance) of emitters (as atoms) near metal nanoparticle, when frequencies of transitions of emitters coincide with frequency of localized plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle. Our approach is based on Schrodinger description and it uses wave functions of states of systems. Interactions between emitters and between the nanoparticle and emitters are taken into account. We consider an example of two emitters and show that radiation is occurred through symmetric states of emitters as it is in Dicke model of superradiance. The nanoparticle accelerates collective spontaneous emission similar how it accelerates spontaneous emission of single emitter. Radiation from two emitters near the nanoparticle is faster than the radiation from two separated and non-interacted "nanoparticle+single emitter" systems. Efficiency of superradiance, i.e. the ratio of emitted photons to total number initial excitations in the system, is smaller than 1 d...

Protsenko, Igor

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Understanding Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal Nanoparticles by Correlation with Atomic Resolution Electron Microscopy and Field Evaporation Simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal-dielectric composite materials, specifically metal nanoparticles supported on or embedded in metal oxides, are widely used in catalysis. The accurate optimization of such nanostructures warrants the need for detailed three-dimensional characterization. Atom probe tomography is uniquely capable of generating sub-nanometer structural and compositional data with part-per-million mass sensitivity, but there are reconstruction artifacts for composites containing materials with strongly differing fields of evaporation, as for oxide-supported metal nanoparticles. By correlating atom probe tomography with scanning transmission electron microscopy for Au nanoparticles embedded in an MgO support, deviations from an ideal topography during evaporation are demonstrated directly, and correlated with compositional errors in the reconstructed data. Finite element simulations of the field evaporation process confirm that protruding Au nanoparticles will evolve on the tip surface, and that evaporation field variations lead to an inaccurate assessment of the local composition, effectively lowering the spatial resolution of the final reconstructed dataset. Cross-correlating the experimental data with simulations results in a more detailed understanding of local evaporation aberrations during APT analysis of metal-oxide composites, paving the way towards a more accurate three-dimensional characterization of this technologically important class of materials.

Devaraj, Arun; Colby, Robert J.; Vurpillot, F.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

29

It's Elemental - The Element Potassium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Argon Argon Previous Element (Argon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Calcium) Calcium The Element Potassium [Click for Isotope Data] 19 K Potassium 39.0983 Atomic Number: 19 Atomic Weight: 39.0983 Melting Point: 336.53 K (63.38°C or 146.08°F) Boiling Point: 1032 K (759°C or 1398°F) Density: 0.89 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 1 Group Name: Alkali Metal What's in a name? From the English word potash. Potassium's chemical symbol comes from the Latin word for alkali, kalium. Say what? Potassium is pronounced as poh-TASS-ee-em. History and Uses: Although potassium is the eighth most abundant element on earth and comprises about 2.1% of the earth's crust, it is a very reactive element

30

It's Elemental - The Element Magnesium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sodium Sodium Previous Element (Sodium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Aluminum) Aluminum The Element Magnesium [Click for Isotope Data] 12 Mg Magnesium 24.3050 Atomic Number: 12 Atomic Weight: 24.3050 Melting Point: 923 K (650°C or 1202°F) Boiling Point: 1363 K (1090°C or 1994°F) Density: 1.74 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 3 Group Number: 2 Group Name: Alkaline Earth Metal What's in a name? For Magnesia, a district in the region of Thessaly, Greece. Say what? Magnesium is pronounced as mag-NEE-zhi-em. History and Uses: Although it is the eighth most abundant element in the universe and the seventh most abundant element in the earth's crust, magnesium is never found free in nature. Magnesium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy, an

31

X-ray-edge problem in metals. II. Alkali-metal atoms adsorbed on alkali and other metal surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Outer-core spectra are reported for Cs and Rb adsorbed on clean surfaces of the alkali metals and Mg. In most cases the spectrum at threshold resembles a broadened resonance line close to the energy of the atomic transition, with additional structure on the high-energy side. With increasing electron density of the substrate, the line broadens and disappears into a profile which increases approximately linearly from zero at a red-shifted threshold. In no case does the adsorbate spectrum resemble the sharp edge and overshoot observed for the bulk metal. Above about one monolayer in many cases, a discrete feature occurs on the red wing of the threshold line and grows systematically with coverage into the dominant spectrum of the pure bulk adsorbate at about 5 monolayers. The general behavior is qualitatively consistent with the behavior of alkali-alkali alloys, reported in the paper which immediately precedes this one.

Doon Gibbs; T.-H. Chiu; J. E. Cunningham; C. P. Flynn

1985-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

Hydrogen atom donor compounds as contrast enhancers for black-and-white photothermographic and thermographic elements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrogen atom donor compounds are useful as contrast enhancers when used in combination with (i) hindered phenol developers, and (ii) trityl hydrazide and/or formyl-phenyl hydrazine co-developers, to produce ultra-high contrast black-and-white photothermographic and thermographic elements. The photothermographic and thermographic elements may be used as a photomask in a process where there is a subsequent exposure of an ultraviolet or short wavelength visible radiation-sensitive imageable medium.

Harring, Lori S. (Hudson, WI); Simpson, Sharon M. (Lake Elmo, MN); Sansbury, Francis H. (Sawbridgeworth, GB2)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Method and apparatus for atomization and spraying of molten metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and device for dispersing molten metal into fine particulate spray, the method comprises applying an electric current through the molten metal and simultaneously applying a magnetic field to the molten metal in a plane perpendicular to the electric current, whereby the molten metal is caused to form into droplets at an angle perpendicular to both the electric current and the magnetic field. The device comprises a structure for providing a molten metal, appropriately arranged electrodes for applying an electric current through the molten metal, and a magnet for providing a magnetic field in a plane perpendicular to the electric current. 11 figs.

Hobson, D.O.; Alexeff, I.; Sikka, V.K.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

34

FIA-13-0061 - In the Matter of Hanford Atomic Metals Trades Council |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

1 - In the Matter of Hanford Atomic Metals Trades Council 1 - In the Matter of Hanford Atomic Metals Trades Council FIA-13-0061 - In the Matter of Hanford Atomic Metals Trades Council On November 14, 2013, the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) issued a decision denying an appeal (Appeal) from a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) determination issued by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Richland Operations Office (ROO) . The Hanford Atomic Metals Trades Council (Appellant), sought categories of records concerning communications between DOE employees and DOE-contractor employees at the DOE's Hanford facility regarding collective bargaining, desired changes in wages, terms and conditions of employment, potential strikes, or closures. In its response, ROO withheld portions of a number of documents pursuant to Exemption 4 and

35

FIA-13-0058 - In the Matter of Hanford Atomic Metals Trades Council |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

8 - In the Matter of Hanford Atomic Metals Trades Council 8 - In the Matter of Hanford Atomic Metals Trades Council FIA-13-0058 - In the Matter of Hanford Atomic Metals Trades Council On October 29, 2013, the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) issued a decision denying an appeal (Appeal) from a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) determination issued by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Information Resources (OIR). The Hanford Atomic Metals Trades Council (Appellant), sought categories of records concerning communications between DOE employees and DOE-contractor employees at the DOE's Hanford facility regarding collective bargaining, desired changes in wages, terms and conditions of employment, potential strikes, or closures. In its July 31, 2013, response (Response), OIR identified 33 documents of which it withheld

36

FIA-13-0030 - In the Matter of Hanford Atomic Metals Trades Council |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

0 - In the Matter of Hanford Atomic Metals Trades Council 0 - In the Matter of Hanford Atomic Metals Trades Council FIA-13-0030 - In the Matter of Hanford Atomic Metals Trades Council On June 18, 2013, the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) issued a decision remanding an appeal (Appeal) from a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) determination issued by the Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office (ROO). The Appellant, Hanford Atomic Metals Trade Council, contested the ROO's invocation of Exemption 5 to the redactions it made in the released documents. The released documents contained communications regarding the DOE's contractors' labor negotiations with the Appellant, a union. The OHA reviewed the withheld information and the ROO's justifications for its redactions, and determined that the documents were either not inter- or intra-agency documents or that they did

37

FIA-13-0059 - In the Matter of Hanford Atomic Metals Trades Council |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

9 - In the Matter of Hanford Atomic Metals Trades Council 9 - In the Matter of Hanford Atomic Metals Trades Council FIA-13-0059 - In the Matter of Hanford Atomic Metals Trades Council On November 25, 2013, the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) issued a decision denying an appeal (Appeal) from a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) determination issued by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Richland Operations Office (ROO). The Hanford Atomic Metals Trades Council (Appellant), sought categories of records concerning communications between DOE employees and DOE-contractor employees at the DOE's Hanford facility regarding collective bargaining, desired changes in wages, terms and conditions of employment, potential strikes, or closures. In its response, ROO withheld portions of a number of documents pursuant to Exemption 4 and

38

THE ENERGY SPECTRA OF URANIUM ATOMS SPUTTERED FROM URANIUM METAL AND URANIUM DIOXIDE TARGETS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE ENERGY SPECTRA OF URANIUM ATOMS SPUTTERED FROM URANIUM METAL AND URANIUM DIOXIDE TARGETS Thesis. I have benefitted from conversations with many persons w~ile engaged in this project. I would like

Winfree, Erik

39

It's Elemental - The Element Sodium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Neon Neon Previous Element (Neon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Magnesium) Magnesium The Element Sodium [Click for Isotope Data] 11 Na Sodium 22.98976928 Atomic Number: 11 Atomic Weight: 22.98976928 Melting Point: 370.95 K (97.80°C or 208.04°F) Boiling Point: 1156 K (883°C or 1621°F) Density: 0.97 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 3 Group Number: 1 Group Name: Alkali Metal What's in a name? From the English word soda and from the Medieval Latin word sodanum, which means "headache remedy." Sodium's chemical symbol comes from the Latin word for sodium carbonate, natrium. Say what? Sodium is pronounced as SO-dee-em. History and Uses: Although sodium is the sixth most abundant element on earth and comprises

40

It's Elemental - The Element Francium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radon Radon Previous Element (Radon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Radium) Radium The Element Francium [Click for Isotope Data] 87 Fr Francium 223 Atomic Number: 87 Atomic Weight: 223 Melting Point: 300 K (27°C or 81°F) Boiling Point: Unknown Density: Unknown Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 7 Group Number: 1 Group Name: Alkali Metal Radioactive What's in a name? Named for the country of France. Say what? Francium is pronounced as FRAN-see-em. History and Uses: Francium was discovered by Marguerite Catherine Perey, a French chemist, in 1939 while analyzing actinium's decay sequence. Although considered a natural element, scientists estimate that there is no more than one ounce of francium in the earth's crust at one time. Since there is so little

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Method for quantitative determination and separation of trace amounts of chemical elements in the presence of large quantities of other elements having the same atomic mass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Photoionization via autoionizing atomic levels combined with conventional mass spectroscopy provides a technique for quantitative analysis of trace quantities of chemical elements in the presence of much larger amounts of other elements with substantially the same atomic mass. Ytterbium samples smaller than 10 ng have been detected using an ArF* excimer laser which provides the atomic ions for a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Elemental selectivity of greater than 5:1 with respect to lutetium impurity has been obtained. Autoionization via a single photon process permits greater photon utilization efficiency because of its greater absorption cross section than bound-free transitions, while maintaining sufficient spectroscopic structure to allow significant photoionization selectivity between different atomic species. Separation of atomic species from others of substantially the same atomic mass is also described.

Miller, C.M.; Nogar, N.S.

1982-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

42

High density adsorbed oxygen on Rh,,111... and enhanced routes to metallic oxidation using atomic oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High density adsorbed oxygen on Rh,,111... and enhanced routes to metallic oxidation using atomic oxygen K. D. Gibson, Mark Viste, Errol C. Sanchez, and S. J. Sibener The James Franck Institute; accepted 30 November 1998 Exposure of Rh 111 to atomic oxygen leads to the facile formation of a full

Sibener, Steven

43

It's Elemental - The Element Technetium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Molybdenum Molybdenum Previous Element (Molybdenum) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Ruthenium) Ruthenium The Element Technetium [Click for Isotope Data] 43 Tc Technetium 98 Atomic Number: 43 Atomic Weight: 98 Melting Point: 2430 K (2157°C or 3915°F) Boiling Point: 4538 K (4265°C or 7709°F) Density: 11 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 5 Group Number: 7 Group Name: none Radioactive and Artificially Produced What's in a name? From the Greek word for artificial, technetos. Say what? Technetium is pronounced as tek-NEE-she-em. History and Uses: Technetium was the first artificially produced element. It was isolated by Carlo Perrier and Emilio Segrè in 1937. Technetium was created by bombarding molybdenum atoms with deuterons that had been accelerated by a

44

It's Elemental - The Element Iron  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Manganese Manganese Previous Element (Manganese) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Cobalt) Cobalt The Element Iron [Click for Isotope Data] 26 Fe Iron 55.845 Atomic Number: 26 Atomic Weight: 55.845 Melting Point: 1811 K (1538°C or 2800°F) Boiling Point: 3134 K (2861°C or 5182°F) Density: 7.874 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 8 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Anglo-Saxon word iron. Iron's chemical symbol comes from the Latin word for iron, ferrum. Say what? Iron is pronounced as EYE-ern. History and Uses: Archaeological evidence suggests that people have been using iron for at least 5000 years. Iron is the cheapest and one of the most abundant of all metals, comprising nearly 5.6% of the earth's crust and nearly all of the

45

It's Elemental - The Element Cesium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Xenon Xenon Previous Element (Xenon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Barium) Barium The Element Cesium [Click for Isotope Data] 55 Cs Cesium 132.9054519 Atomic Number: 55 Atomic Weight: 132.9054519 Melting Point: 301.59 K (28.44°C or 83.19°F) Boiling Point: 944 K (671°C or 1240°F) Density: 1.93 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 1 Group Name: Alkali Metal What's in a name? From the Latin word for sky blue, caesius. Say what? Cesium is pronounced as SEE-zee-em. History and Uses: Cesium was discovered by Robert Wilhelm Bunsen and Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, German chemists, in 1860 through the spectroscopic analysis of Durkheim mineral water. They named cesium after the blue lines they observed in its

46

It's Elemental - The Element Barium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cesium Cesium Previous Element (Cesium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Lanthanum) Lanthanum The Element Barium [Click for Isotope Data] 56 Ba Barium 137.327 Atomic Number: 56 Atomic Weight: 137.327 Melting Point: 1000 K (727°C or 1341°F) Boiling Point: 2170 K (1897°C or 3447°F) Density: 3.62 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 2 Group Name: Alkaline Earth Metal What's in a name? From the Greek word for heavy, barys. Say what? Barium is pronounced as BAR-ee-em. History and Uses: Barium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy, an English chemist, in 1808 through the electrolysis of molten baryta (BaO). Barium is never found free in nature since it reacts with oxygen in the air, forming barium oxide

47

It's Elemental - The Element Gold  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Platinum Platinum Previous Element (Platinum) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Mercury) Mercury The Element Gold [Click for Isotope Data] 79 Au Gold 196.966569 Atomic Number: 79 Atomic Weight: 196.966569 Melting Point: 1337.33 K (1064.18°C or 1947.52°F) Boiling Point: 3129 K (2856°C or 5173°F) Density: 19.282 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 11 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Sanskrit word Jval and the Anglo-Saxon word gold. Gold's chemical symbol comes from the the latin word for gold, aurum. Say what? Gold is pronounced as GOLD. History and Uses: An attractive and highly valued metal, gold has been known for at least 5500 years. Gold is sometimes found free in nature but it is usually found

48

Nanohole arrays in metal films as optofluidic elements: progress and potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REVIEW Nanohole arrays in metal films as optofluidic elements: progress and potential David Sinton that impinged on the holes, and orders of magnitude higher than predicted by D. Sinton (&) Department

Brolo, Alexandre G.

49

INTRODUCTION Metals comprise about 75% of the known elements and can  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

quality. Metals have traditionally been classified into categories such as light, heavy, semimetal (i of less than 0.1%. In biochemical and bio- medical research, trace element concentrations in plant

Sparks, Donald L.

50

It's Elemental - The Element Europium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Samarium Samarium Previous Element (Samarium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Gadolinium) Gadolinium The Element Europium [Click for Isotope Data] 63 Eu Europium 151.964 Atomic Number: 63 Atomic Weight: 151.964 Melting Point: 1095 K (822°C or 1512°F) Boiling Point: 1802 K (1529°C or 2784°F) Density: 5.24 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: none Group Name: Lanthanide What's in a name? Named after the continent of Europe. Say what? Europium is pronounced as yoo-RO-pee-em. History and Uses: Europium was discovered by Eugène-Antole Demarçay, a French chemist, in 1896. Demarçay suspected that samples of a recently discovered element, samarium, were contaminated with an unknown element. He was able to produce

51

It's Elemental - The Element Sulfur  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Phosphorus Phosphorus Previous Element (Phosphorus) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Chlorine) Chlorine The Element Sulfur [Click for Isotope Data] 16 S Sulfur 32.065 Atomic Number: 16 Atomic Weight: 32.065 Melting Point: 388.36 K (115.21°C or 239.38°F) Boiling Point: 717.75 K (444.60°C or 832.28°F) Density: 2.067 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 3 Group Number: 16 Group Name: Chalcogen What's in a name? From the Sanskrit word sulvere and the Latin word sulphurium. Say what? Sulfur is pronounced as SUL-fer. History and Uses: Sulfur, the tenth most abundant element in the universe, has been known since ancient times. Sometime around 1777, Antoine Lavoisier convinced the rest of the scientific community that sulfur was an element. Sulfur is a

52

It's Elemental - The Element Hafnium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lutetium Lutetium Previous Element (Lutetium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Tantalum) Tantalum The Element Hafnium [Click for Isotope Data] 72 Hf Hafnium 178.49 Atomic Number: 72 Atomic Weight: 178.49 Melting Point: 2506 K (2233°C or 4051°F) Boiling Point: 4876 K (4603°C or 8317°F) Density: 13.3 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 4 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Latin word for the city of Copenhagen, Hafnia. Say what? Hafnium is pronounced as HAF-neeem. History and Uses: Hafnium was discovered by Dirk Coster, a Danish chemist, and Charles de Hevesy, a Hungarian chemist, in 1923. They used a method known as X-ray spectroscopy to study the arrangement of the outer electrons of atoms in

53

Corrosion resistant amorphous metals and methods of forming corrosion resistant amorphous metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for coating a surface comprises providing a source of amorphous metal, providing ceramic particles, and applying the amorphous metal and the ceramic particles to the surface by a spray. The coating comprises a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains one or more of the following elements in the specified range of composition: yttrium (.gtoreq.1 atomic %), chromium (14 to 18 atomic %), molybdenum (.gtoreq.7 atomic %), tungsten (.gtoreq.1 atomic %), boron (.ltoreq.5 atomic %), or carbon (.gtoreq.4 atomic %).

Farmer, Joseph C.; Wong, Frank M.G.; Haslam, Jeffery J.; Yang, Nancy; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Blue, Craig A.; Graeve, Olivia A.; Bayles, Robert; Perepezko, John H.; Kaufman, Larry; Schoenung, Julie; Ajdelsztajn, Leo

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

It's Elemental - The Element Nitrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Carbon Previous Element (Carbon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Oxygen) Oxygen The Element Nitrogen [Click for Isotope Data] 7 N Nitrogen 14.0067 Atomic Number: 7 Atomic Weight: 14.0067 Melting Point: 63.15 K (-210.00°C or -346.00°F) Boiling Point: 77.36 K (-195.79°C or -320.44°F) Density: 0.0012506 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 15 Group Name: Pnictogen What's in a name? From the Greek words nitron and genes, which together mean "saltpetre forming." Say what? Nitrogen is pronounced as NYE-treh-gen. History and Uses: Nitrogen was discovered by the Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. It is the fifth most abundant element in the universe and makes up

55

It's Elemental - The Element Phosphorus  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Silicon Silicon Previous Element (Silicon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Sulfur) Sulfur The Element Phosphorus [Click for Isotope Data] 15 P Phosphorus 30.973762 Atomic Number: 15 Atomic Weight: 30.973762 Melting Point: 317.30 K (44.15°C or 111.47°F) Boiling Point: 553.65 K (280.5°C or 536.9°F) Density: 1.82 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 3 Group Number: 15 Group Name: Pnictogen What's in a name? From the Greek word for light bearing, phosphoros. Say what? Phosphorus is pronounced as FOS-fer-es. History and Uses: In what is perhaps the most disgusting method of discovering an element, phosphorus was first isolated in 1669 by Hennig Brand, a German physician and alchemist, by boiling, filtering and otherwise processing as many as 60

56

It's Elemental - The Element Cerium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lanthanum Lanthanum Previous Element (Lanthanum) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Praseodymium) Praseodymium The Element Cerium [Click for Isotope Data] 58 Ce Cerium 140.116 Atomic Number: 58 Atomic Weight: 140.116 Melting Point: 1071 K (798°C or 1468°F) Boiling Point: 3697 K (3424°C or 6195°F) Density: 6.770 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: none Group Name: Lanthanide What's in a name? Named for the asteroid Ceres. Say what? Cerium is pronounced as SER-ee-em. History and Uses: Cerium was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius and Wilhelm von Hisinger, Swedish chemists, and independently by Martin Heinrich Klaproth, a German chemist, in 1803. Cerium is the most abundant of the rare earth elements

57

It's Elemental - The Element Indium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cadmium Cadmium Previous Element (Cadmium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Tin) Tin The Element Indium [Click for Isotope Data] 49 In Indium 114.818 Atomic Number: 49 Atomic Weight: 114.818 Melting Point: 429.75 K (156.60°C or 313.88°F) Boiling Point: 2345 K (2072°C or 3762°F) Density: 7.31 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 5 Group Number: 13 Group Name: none What's in a name? Named after the bright indigo line in its spectrum. Say what? Indium is pronounced as IN-dee-em. History and Uses: Indium was discovered by the German chemists Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymus Theodor Richter in 1863. Reich and Richter had been looking for traces of the element thallium in samples of zinc ores. A brilliant indigo line in

58

It's Elemental - The Element Neon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fluorine Fluorine Previous Element (Fluorine) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Sodium) Sodium The Element Neon [Click for Isotope Data] 10 Ne Neon 20.1797 Atomic Number: 10 Atomic Weight: 20.1797 Melting Point: 24.56 K (-248.59°C or -415.46°F) Boiling Point: 27.07 K (-246.08°C or -410.94°F) Density: 0.0008999 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 18 Group Name: Noble Gas What's in a name? From the Greek word for new, neos. Say what? Neon is pronounced as NEE-on. History and Uses: Neon was discovered by Sir William Ramsay, a Scottish chemist, and Morris M. Travers, an English chemist, shortly after their discovery of the element krypton in 1898. Like krypton, neon was discovered through the

59

It's Elemental - The Element Cobalt  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Iron Iron Previous Element (Iron) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Nickel) Nickel The Element Cobalt [Click for Isotope Data] 27 Co Cobalt 58.933195 Atomic Number: 27 Atomic Weight: 58.933195 Melting Point: 1768 K (1495°C or 2723°F) Boiling Point: 3200 K (2927°C or 5301°F) Density: 8.86 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 9 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the German word for goblin or evil spirit, kobald and the Greek word for mine, cobalos. Say what? Cobalt is pronounced as KO-bolt. History and Uses: Cobalt was discovered by Georg Brandt, a Swedish chemist, in 1739. Brandt was attempting to prove that the ability of certain minerals to color glass blue was due to an unknown element and not to bismuth, as was commonly

60

It's Elemental - The Element Bromine  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Selenium Selenium Previous Element (Selenium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Krypton) Krypton The Element Bromine [Click for Isotope Data] 35 Br Bromine 79.904 Atomic Number: 35 Atomic Weight: 79.904 Melting Point: 265.95 K (-7.2°C or 19.0°F) Boiling Point: 331.95 K (58.8°C or 137.8°F) Density: 3.11 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Liquid Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 17 Group Name: Halogen What's in a name? From the Greek word for stench, bromos. Say what? Bromine is pronounced as BRO-meen. History and Uses: The only nonmetallic element that is a liquid at normal room temperatures, bromine was produced by Carl Löwig, a young chemistry student, the summer before starting his freshman year at Heidelberg. When he showed his

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

It's Elemental - The Element Oxygen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Previous Element (Nitrogen) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Fluorine) Fluorine The Element Oxygen [Click for Isotope Data] 8 O Oxygen 15.9994 Atomic Number: 8 Atomic Weight: 15.9994 Melting Point: 54.36 K (-218.79°C or -361.82°F) Boiling Point: 90.20 K (-182.95°C or -297.31°F) Density: 0.001429 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 16 Group Name: Chalcogen What's in a name? From the greek words oxys and genes, which together mean "acid forming." Say what? Oxygen is pronounced as OK-si-jen. History and Uses: Oxygen had been produced by several chemists prior to its discovery in 1774, but they failed to recognize it as a distinct element. Joseph

62

It's Elemental - The Element Manganese  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chromium Chromium Previous Element (Chromium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Iron) Iron The Element Manganese [Click for Isotope Data] 25 Mn Manganese 54.938045 Atomic Number: 25 Atomic Weight: 54.938045 Melting Point: 1519 K (1246°C or 2275°F) Boiling Point: 2334 K (2061°C or 3742°F) Density: 7.3 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 7 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Latin word for magnet, magnes. Say what? Manganese is pronounced as MAN-ge-nees. History and Uses: Proposed to be an element by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1774, manganese was discovered by Johan Gottlieb Gahn, a Swedish chemist, by heating the mineral pyrolusite (MnO2) in the presence of charcoal later that year.

63

It's Elemental - The Element Titanium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Scandium Scandium Previous Element (Scandium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Vanadium) Vanadium The Element Titanium [Click for Isotope Data] 22 Ti Titanium 47.867 Atomic Number: 22 Atomic Weight: 47.867 Melting Point: 1941 K (1668°C or 3034°F) Boiling Point: 3560 K (3287°C or 5949°F) Density: 4.5 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 4 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Greek word Titans, the mythological "first sons of the Earth." Say what? Titanium is pronounced as tie-TAY-nee-em. History and Uses: Titanium was discovered in 1791 by the Reverend William Gregor, an English pastor. Pure titanium was first produced by Matthew A. Hunter, an American metallurgist, in 1910. Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the

64

Atomic polar tensors and acid-base properties of metal-oxide building blocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sensitivity of the atomic polar tensor to compositional substituents is reported for the alkali silicate series. Rotational invariants, effective atomic charge (GAPT) and charge normalized anisotropy and dipole ({alpha}{sub n} and {gamma}{sub n}) are used to characterize the charge distribution and chemical environment of the atomic sites. Comparison of {alpha}{sub n} and {gamma}{sub n} with a series of known Bronsted and Lewis acids and bases suggests that these rotational invariants may act as indicators for metal-oxide site acidities. Basis set and electron correlation particularly affect the determined effective charge, but show minimal effect on {alpha} and {gamma} quantities.

Ferris, K.F.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Atomic polar tensors and acid-base properties of metal-oxide building blocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sensitivity of the atomic polar tensor to compositional substituents is reported for the alkali silicate series. Rotational invariants, effective atomic charge (GAPT) and charge normalized anisotropy and dipole ([alpha][sub n] and [gamma][sub n]) are used to characterize the charge distribution and chemical environment of the atomic sites. Comparison of [alpha][sub n] and [gamma][sub n] with a series of known Bronsted and Lewis acids and bases suggests that these rotational invariants may act as indicators for metal-oxide site acidities. Basis set and electron correlation particularly affect the determined effective charge, but show minimal effect on [alpha] and [gamma] quantities.

Ferris, K.F.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Ionization of Rydberg atoms at metallic surfaces: Influence of stray fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ionization of xenon Rydberg atoms at metallic surfaces is examined. The data show that, when the effects of stray electric 'patch' fields present on the surface are taken into account, ionization is well described by a simple over-the-barrier model. The patch fields are determined from direct measurements of the potential variations across the target surfaces using Kelvin probe force microscopy. Monte Carlo techniques are used to model the atom-surface interaction. The results confirm the important role that patch fields can play during Rydberg atom-surface interactions and suggest that such interactions can provide a sensitive probe of stray fields at surfaces.

Pu, Y.; Neufeld, D. D.; Dunning, F. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Rice Quantum Institute, Rice University MS61, Houston, Texas 77005-1892 (United States)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Metal clusters with exposed and low-coordinate nitride nitrogen atoms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The synthesis and structural characterization of a prototypic series of iron nitride clusters in which the nitrogen atoms are exposed and of low coordination number, namely four and five are described. The term nitride denotes species in which a nitrogen atom is only within bonding distance of metal atoms. The clusters prepared were (Fe/sub 4/N(CO)/sub 12//sup -/), (Fe/sub 5/N(CO)/sub 14//sup -/). The 62-electron four-iron nitrides should have butterfly structures and the 74-electron five-iron nitrides should have square-pyramidal structures. 1 figure.

Tachikawa, M. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); Stein, J.; Muetterties, E.L.; Teller, R.G.; Beno, M.A.; Gebert, E.; Williams, J.M.

1980-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

68

Sensitivity analysis of single-layer graphene resonators using atomic finite element method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic finite element simulation is applied to study the natural frequency and sensitivity of a single-layer graphene-based resonator with CCCC, SSSS, CFCF, SFSF, and CFCF boundary conditions using the commercial code ANSYS. The fundamental frequencies of the graphene sheet are compared with the results of the previous finite element study. In addition, the sensitivity of the resonator is compared with the early work based on nonlocal elasticity theory. The results of the comparison are very good in all considered cases. The sensitivities of the resonator with different boundary conditions are obtained, and the order based on the boundary condition is CCCC > SSSS > CFCF > SFSF > CFFF. The highest sensitivity is obtained when the attached mass is located at the center of the resonator. This is useful for the design of a highly sensitive graphene-based mass sensor.

Lee, Haw-Long; Hsu, Jung-Chang; Lin, Shu-Yu; Chang, Win-Jin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan 71003, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan 71003, Taiwan (China)

2013-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

69

ATOMIC-LEVEL PROPERTIES OF THERMAL BARRIER CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL-CERAMIC INTERFRACES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

engines. These TBC's are comprised of ceramics, with favorably low thermal conductivity, deposited years ago.2 Hence, engineers looked to ceramic materials as a means of providing a thermal barrierChapter 1 ATOMIC-LEVEL PROPERTIES OF THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS : CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL

Carter, Emily A.

70

LIQUID METAL ATOMIZATION USING CLOSE-COUPLED NOZZLES, 2 1 Copyright 2005 by Begell House, Inc.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

particle size control and energy efficiency in this costly powder manufacturing process. INTRODUCTION to more effectively approach the problems of poor particle size control and low energy efficiency, bothLIQUID METAL ATOMIZATION USING CLOSE-COUPLED NOZZLES, 2 1 Copyright © 2005 by Begell House, Inc

Settles, Gary S.

71

Structure of the Alkali-metal-atom-Strontium molecular ions: towards photoassociation and formation of cold molecular ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Structure of the Alkali-metal-atom-Strontium molecular ions: towards photoassociation and formation polarizability, of molecular ions composed of one alkali-metal atom and a Strontium ion are determined and a Strontium ion are discussed, as well as the formation of stable molecular ions. PACS numbers: 31.15.AR,31

72

Heating rates in collisionally opaque alkali-metal atom traps: Role of secondary collisions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Grazing collisions with background gas are the major cause of trap loss and trap heating in atom traps. To first order, these effects do not depend on the trap density. In collisionally opaque trapped atom clouds, however, scattered atoms with an energy E larger than the effective trap depth Eeff, which are destined to escape from the atom cloud, will have a finite probability for a secondary collision. This results in a contribution to the heating rate that depends on the column density ?nl? of the trapped atoms, i.e., the product of density and characteristic size of the trap. For alkali-metal atom traps, secondary collisions are quite important due to the strong long-range interaction with like atoms. We derive a simple analytical expression for the secondary heating rate, showing a dependency proportional to ?nl??Eeff1/2. When extrapolating to a vanishing column density, only primary collisions with the background gas will contribute to the heating rate. This contribution is rather small, due to the weak long-range interaction of the usual background gas species in an ultrahigh-vacuum systemHe, Ne, or Arwith the trapped alkali-metal atoms. We conclude that the transition between trap-loss collisions and heating collisions is determined by a cutoff energy 200??K<~Eeff<~400??K, much smaller than the actual trap depth E in most magnetic traps. Atoms with an energy Eeffmetal atoms Li through Cs as a function of the effective trap depth, the column density of the trap, and the species in the background gas. The predictions of our model are in good agreement with the experimental data of Myatt for heating rates in high-density 87Rb-atom magnetic traps at JILA, including the effect of the rf shield and the composition of the background gas. It is shown that collisions with atoms from the Oort cloud also contribute to the heating rate. For 85Rb the calculated heating rate is below the experimentally observed value at JILA, supporting the idea that inelastic collisions in the trap are the major source of heating.

H. C. W. Beijerinck

2000-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

It's Elemental - The Element Astatine  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Polonium Polonium Previous Element (Polonium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Radon) Radon The Element Astatine [Click for Isotope Data] 85 At Astatine 210 Atomic Number: 85 Atomic Weight: 210 Melting Point: 575 K (302°C or 576°F) Boiling Point: Unknown Density: about 7 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Semi-metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 17 Group Name: Halogen Radioactive What's in a name? From the Greek word for unstable, astatos. Say what? Astatine is pronounced as AS-teh-teen or as AS-teh-ten. History and Uses: Astatine was produced by Dale R. Carson, K.R. MacKenzie and Emilio Segrè by bombarding an isotope of bismuth, bismuth-209, with alpha particles that had been accelerated in a device called a cyclotron. This created

74

It's Elemental - The Element Copper  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nickel Nickel Previous Element (Nickel) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Zinc) Zinc The Element Copper [Click for Isotope Data] 29 Cu Copper 63.546 Atomic Number: 29 Atomic Weight: 63.546 Melting Point: 1357.77 K (1084.62°C or 1984.32°F) Boiling Point: 2835 K (2562°C or 4644°F) Density: 8.933 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 11 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Latin word cuprum, which means "from the island of Cyprus." Say what? Copper is pronounced as KOP-er. History and Uses: Archaeological evidence suggests that people have been using copper for at least 11,000 years. Relatively easy to mine and refine, people discovered methods for extracting copper from its ores at least 7,000 years ago. The

75

It's Elemental - The Element Gadolinium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Europium Europium Previous Element (Europium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Terbium) Terbium The Element Gadolinium [Click for Isotope Data] 64 Gd Gadolinium 157.25 Atomic Number: 64 Atomic Weight: 157.25 Melting Point: 1586 K (1313°C or 2395°F) Boiling Point: 3546 K (3273°C or 5923°F) Density: 7.90 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: none Group Name: Lanthanide What's in a name? Named for the mineral gadolinite which was named after Johan Gadolin, a Finnish chemist. Say what? Gadolinium is pronounced as GAD-oh-LIN-ee-em. History and Uses: Spectroscopic evidence for the existence of gadolinium was first observed by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac in the minerals

76

It's Elemental - The Element Mercury  

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Gold Gold Previous Element (Gold) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Thallium) Thallium The Element Mercury [Click for Isotope Data] 80 Hg Mercury 200.59 Atomic Number: 80 Atomic Weight: 200.59 Melting Point: 234.32 K (-38.83°C or -37.89°F) Boiling Point: 629.88 K (356.73°C or 674.11°F) Density: 13.5336 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Liquid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 12 Group Name: none What's in a name? Named after the planet Mercury. Mercury's chemical symbol comes from the Greek word hydrargyrum, which means "liquid silver." Say what? Mercury is pronounced as MER-kyoo-ree. History and Uses: Mercury was known to the ancient Chinese and Hindus and has been found in 3500 year old Egyptian tombs. Mercury is not usually found free in nature

77

It's Elemental - The Element Boron  

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Beryllium Beryllium Previous Element (Beryllium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Carbon) Carbon The Element Boron [Click for Isotope Data] 5 B Boron 10.811 Atomic Number: 5 Atomic Weight: 10.811 Melting Point: 2348 K (2075°C or 3767°F) Boiling Point: 4273 K (4000°C or 7232°F) Density: 2.37 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Semi-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 13 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Arabic word Buraq and the Persian word Burah, which are both words for the material "borax." Say what? Boron is pronounced as BO-ron. History and Uses: Boron was discovered by Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jaques Thénard, French chemists, and independently by Sir Humphry Davy, an English chemist,

78

It's Elemental - The Element Thorium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Actinium Actinium Previous Element (Actinium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Protactinium) Protactinium The Element Thorium [Click for Isotope Data] 90 Th Thorium 232.03806 Atomic Number: 90 Atomic Weight: 232.03806 Melting Point: 2023 K (1750°C or 3182°F) Boiling Point: 5061 K (4788°C or 8650°F) Density: 11.72 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 7 Group Number: none Group Name: Actinide Radioactive What's in a name? Named for the Scandinavian god of war, Thor. Say what? Thorium is pronounced as THOR-ee-em or as THO-ree-em. History and Uses: Thorium was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, a Swedish chemist, in 1828. He discovered it in a sample of a mineral that was given to him by the Reverend Has Morten Thrane Esmark, who suspected that it contained an

79

It's Elemental - The Element Chromium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Vanadium Vanadium Previous Element (Vanadium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Manganese) Manganese The Element Chromium [Click for Isotope Data] 24 Cr Chromium 51.9961 Atomic Number: 24 Atomic Weight: 51.9961 Melting Point: 2180 K (1907°C or 3465°F) Boiling Point: 2944 K (2671°C or 4840°F) Density: 7.15 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 6 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Greek word for color, chroma. Say what? Chromium is pronounced as KROH-mee-em. History and Uses: Chromium was discovered by Louis-Nicholas Vauquelin while experimenting with a material known as Siberian red lead, also known as the mineral crocoite (PbCrO4), in 1797. He produced chromium oxide (CrO3) by mixing

80

It's Elemental - The Element Molybdenum  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Niobium Niobium Previous Element (Niobium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Technetium) Technetium The Element Molybdenum [Click for Isotope Data] 42 Mo Molybdenum 95.96 Atomic Number: 42 Atomic Weight: 95.96 Melting Point: 2896 K (2623°C or 4753°F) Boiling Point: 4912 K (4639°C or 8382°F) Density: 10.2 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 5 Group Number: 6 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Greek word for lead, molybdos. Say what? Molybdenum is pronounced as meh-LIB-deh-nem. History and Uses: Molybdenum was discovered by Carl Welhelm Scheele, a Swedish chemist, in 1778 in a mineral known as molybdenite (MoS2) which had been confused as a lead compound. Molybdenum was isolated by Peter Jacob Hjelm in 1781. Today,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

It's Elemental - The Element Iridium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Osmium Osmium Previous Element (Osmium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Platinum) Platinum The Element Iridium [Click for Isotope Data] 77 Ir Iridium 192.217 Atomic Number: 77 Atomic Weight: 192.217 Melting Point: 2719 K (2446°C or 4435°F) Boiling Point: 4701 K (4428°C or 8002°F) Density: 22.42 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 9 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Latin word for rainbow, iris. Say what? Iridium is pronounced as i-RID-ee-em. History and Uses: Iridium and osmium were discovered at the same time by the British chemist Smithson Tennant in 1803. Iridium and osmium were identified in the black residue remaining after dissolving platinum ore with aqua regia, a mixture

82

It's Elemental - The Element Platinum  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Iridium Iridium Previous Element (Iridium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Gold) Gold The Element Platinum [Click for Isotope Data] 78 Pt Platinum 195.084 Atomic Number: 78 Atomic Weight: 195.084 Melting Point: 2041.55 K (1768.4°C or 3215.1°F) Boiling Point: 4098 K (3825°C or 6917°F) Density: 21.46 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 10 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Spainsh word for silver, platina. Say what? Platinum is pronounced as PLAT-en-em. History and Uses: Used by the pre-Columbian Indians of South America, platinum wasn't noticed by western scientists until 1735. Platinum can occur free in nature and is sometimes found in deposits of gold-bearing sands, primarily those found in

83

It's Elemental - The Element Arsenic  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Germanium Germanium Previous Element (Germanium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Selenium) Selenium The Element Arsenic [Click for Isotope Data] 33 As Arsenic 74.92160 Atomic Number: 33 Atomic Weight: 74.92160 Melting Point: 1090 K (817°C or 1503°F) Boiling Point: 887 K (614°C or 1137°F) Density: 5.776 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Semi-metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 15 Group Name: Pnictogen What's in a name? From the Latin word arsenicum, the Greek word arsenikon and the Arabic word Az-zernikh. Say what? Arsenic is pronounced as AR-s'n-ik. History and Uses: Although arsenic compounds were mined by the early Chinese, Greek and Egyptian civilizations, it is believed that arsenic itself was first identified by Albertus Magnus, a German alchemist, in 1250. Arsenic occurs

84

It's Elemental - The Element Rhenium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tungsten Tungsten Previous Element (Tungsten) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Osmium) Osmium The Element Rhenium [Click for Isotope Data] 75 Re Rhenium 186.207 Atomic Number: 75 Atomic Weight: 186.207 Melting Point: 3459 K (3186°C or 5767°F) Boiling Point: 5869 K (5596°C or 10105°F) Density: 20.8 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 7 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Latin word for the Rhine River, Rhenus. Say what? Rhenium is pronounced as REE-nee-em. History and Uses: Rhenium was discovered by the German chemists Ida Tacke-Noddack, Walter Noddack and Otto Carl Berg in 1925. They detected rhenium spectroscopically in platinum ores and in the minerals columbite ((Fe, Mn, Mg)(Nb, Ta)2O6),

85

It's Elemental - The Element Osmium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rhenium Rhenium Previous Element (Rhenium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Iridium) Iridium The Element Osmium [Click for Isotope Data] 76 Os Osmium 190.23 Atomic Number: 76 Atomic Weight: 190.23 Melting Point: 3306 K (3033°C or 5491°F) Boiling Point: 5285 K (5012°C or 9054°F) Density: 22.57 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 8 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Greek word for a smell, osme. Say what? Osmium is pronounced as OZ-mee-em. History and Uses: Osmium and iridium were discovered at the same time by the British chemist Smithson Tennant in 1803. Osmium and iridium were identified in the black residue remaining after dissolving platinum ore with aqua regia, a mixture

86

It's Elemental - The Element Antimony  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tin Tin Previous Element (Tin) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Tellurium) Tellurium The Element Antimony [Click for Isotope Data] 51 Sb Antimony 121.760 Atomic Number: 51 Atomic Weight: 121.760 Melting Point: 903.78 K (630.63°C or 1167.13°F) Boiling Point: 1860 K (1587°C or 2889°F) Density: 6.685 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Semi-metal Period Number: 5 Group Number: 15 Group Name: Pnictogen What's in a name? From the Greek words anti and monos, which together mean "not alone." Antimony's chemical symbol comes from its historic name, Stibium. Say what? Antimony is pronounced as AN-the-MOH-nee. History and Uses: Antimony has been known since ancient times. It is sometimes found free in nature, but is usually obtained from the ores stibnite (Sb2S3) and

87

Exploring a Metal-Insulator Transition with Ultracold Atoms in Standing Light Waves?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We suggest the possibility to realize an optical quasicrystal with ultracold atoms in far-detuned, bichromatic standing light waves. If the optical potentials created by the individual light waves have sufficiently different strength, one obtains an atom-optical realization of Harper's model. This model exhibits a metal-insulator transition at a certain value of the site-to-site hopping integral. Since this hopping integral is effectively renormalized by an additional oscillating force, one can switch from the regime of extended states to the regime of localized states by varying the amplitude of that force.

Klaus Drese and Martin Holthaus

1997-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

88

Heavy Element Abundances in Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains from Low-Metallicity AGB Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heavy Element Abundances in Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains from Low-Metallicity AGB Stars Peter explosions. Silicon carbide is the best studied presolar mineral. Based on its isotopic compositions the identified presolar minerals are diamond, silicon carbide (SiC), graphite, silicon nitride (Si3N4), corundum

89

Mapping the Valence States of Transition-Metal Elements Using Energy-Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

spectrum of MnO2 acquired at 200 kV using a Hitachi HF-2000 transmission electron microscope equipped lines observed in electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope (TEMMapping the Valence States of Transition-Metal Elements Using Energy-Filtered Transmission Electron

Wang, Zhong L.

90

An explicit finite element formulation for dynamic strain localization and damage evolution in metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An explicit finite element formulation, used to study the behavior and failure mechanisms of metallic materials under high strain rate loading, is presented. The formulation is based on the assumed-strain approach of Fish and Belytschko [1988], which allows localization bands to be embedded within an element, thereby alleviating mesh sensitivity and reducing the required computational effort. The behavior of the material outside localization bands (and of the virgin material prior to the onset of strain localization) is represented using a Gurson-type coupled plasticity-damage model based on the work of Johnson and Addessio [1988]. Assuming adiabatic conditions, the response of the localization band material is represented by a set of constitutive equations for large elasticviscoplastic deformations in metals at high strain rates and high homologous temperatures (see Brown et al. [1989]). Computational results are compared to experimental data for different metallic alloys to illustrate the advantages of the proposed modeling strategy.

Mourad, Hashem M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, Curt A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Addessio, Francis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

91

Theoretical Analysis of the Adsorption of Late Transition Metal Atoms on the (001) Surface of Early Transition Metal Carbides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of atoms of Groups 9, 10, and 11 with the (001) surface of TiC, ZrC, VC, and {delta}-MoC has been studied by means of periodic density functional calculations using slab models. The calculated values of the adsorption energy are rather large, especially for Groups 9 and 10 elements (E{sub ads} = 3-6 eV), but without clear trends along the series. Nevertheless, the analysis of the interaction at different sites indicates that the adsorbed atoms will be relatively mobile. Many of the admetals are electronically perturbed upon interaction with the carbide surfaces. Co, Ni, Cu, and Rh adatoms get positively or negatively charged, depending on the nature of the carbide substrate. Ir, Pd, Pt, and Au adatoms are always negatively charged. An analysis of the Bader charges for the most stable sites provides strong evidence that the most negative charge on the adatoms corresponds to the interaction with ZrC, followed by TiC. In the case of VC and {delta}-MoC, the charge on the adsorbed atoms may be slightly positive and of the same order for both carbides. The effect of the underlying carbide is large, with ZrC and TiC being predicted as the supports with the largest effect on the electronic structure of the adsorbed atoms with direct implications for the use of these systems in catalysis.

Rodriguez, J.A.; Gmez, T.; Florez, E.; Illas, F.

2010-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

92

Probing the Kondo lattice model with alkaline-earth-metal atoms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study transport properties of alkaline-earth-metal atoms governed by the Kondo lattice Hamiltonian plus a harmonic confining potential, and suggest simple dynamical probes of several different regimes of the phase diagram that can be implemented with current experimental techniques. In particular, we show how Kondo physics at strong coupling, at low density, and in the heavy fermion phase is manifest in the dipole oscillations of the conduction band upon displacement of the trap center.

Michael Foss-Feig; Michael Hermele; Ana Maria Rey

2010-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

93

Atomic Layer Deposition of Uniform Metal Coatings on Highly Porous Aerogel Substrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atomic Layer Deposition of Uniform Metal Coatings on Highly Porous Aerogel Substrates ... Figure 1 Bright-field transmission electron micrographs of the (a) uncoated and (b) W-coated alumina aerogel (6 ALD cycles), and the (c) uncoated and (b) W-coated germania aerogel (6 ALD cycles). ... For the alumina aerogel, the coating consists of crystalline W nanoparticles, ?2 nm in diameter, uniformly deposited on the surfaces of the nanoleaflets (Figure 1b). ...

Theodore F. Baumann; Juergen Biener; Yinmin M. Wang; Sergei O. Kucheyev; Erik J. Nelson; Joe H. Satcher, Jr.; Jeffrey W. Elam; Michael J. Pellin; Alex V. Hamza

2006-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

94

Long-Range Interacting Many-Body Systems with Alkaline-Earth-Metal Atoms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Alkaline-earth-metal atoms can exhibit long-range dipolar interactions, which are generated via the coherent exchange of photons on the P03-D13 transition of the triplet manifold. In the case of bosonic strontium, which we discuss here, this transition has a wavelength of 2.6???m and a dipole moment of 4.03D, and there exists a magic wavelength permitting the creation of optical lattices that are identical for the states P03 and D13. This interaction enables the realization and study of mixtures of hard-core lattice bosons featuring long-range hopping, with tunable disorder and anisotropy. We derive the many-body master equation, investigate the dynamics of excitation transport, and analyze spectroscopic signatures stemming from coherent long-range interactions and collective dissipation. Our results show that lattice gases of alkaline-earth-metal atoms permit the creation of long-lived collective atomic states and constitute a simple and versatile platform for the exploration of many-body systems with long-range interactions. As such, they represent an alternative to current related efforts employing Rydberg gases, atoms with large magnetic moment, or polar molecules.

B. Olmos; D. Yu; Y. Singh; F. Schreck; K. Bongs; I. Lesanovsky

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

95

Structure and chemistry of a metal cluster with a four-coordinate carbide carbon atom  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molecular metal clusters with carbide carbon atoms of low coordination number have been prepared; they are the anionic (HFe/sub 4/C(CO)/sub 12//sup -/) and (Fe/sub 4/C(CO)/sub 12//sup 2 -/) clusters. An x-ray crystallographic analysis of a tetraaminozinc salt of the latter has established a butterfly array of iron atoms with the carbide carbon atom centered above the wings of the Fe/sub 4/ core. Each iron atom was bonded to three peripheral carbonyl ligands. The distances from the carbide carbon to iron were relatively short, particularly those to the apical iron atoms (1.80 A average). Protonation of the anionic carbide clusters reversibly yielded HFe/sub 4/(CH)(CO)/sub 12/, and methylation of the dianion gave (Fe/sub 4/(CC(O)CH/sub 3/)(CO)/sub 12//sup -/). Oxidation of (Fe/sub 4/C(CO)/sub 12//sup 2 -/) yielded the coordinately unsaturated Fe/sub 4/C(CO)/sub 12/ cluster, which was extremely reactive. Hydrogen addition to this iron cluster was rapid below 0/sup 0/C, and a C-H bond was formed in this transformation.

Davis, J.H. (Argonne National Lab., IL); Beno, M.A.; Williams, J.M.; Zimmie, J.A.; Tachikawa, M.; Muetterties, E.L.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Diversity of abundance patterns of neutron-capture elements in very metal-poor stars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observations of Very Metal-Poor stars indicate that there are at least two sites to r-process; weak r-process and main r-process. A question is whether these two are well separated or there exists a variation in the r-process. We present the results of abundance analysis of neutron-capture elements in the two Very Metal-Poor stars HD107752 and HD110184 in the Milky Way halo observed with the Subaru Telescope HDS. The abundance patterns show overabundace at light n-capture elements (e.g. Sr, Y), inferring the element yielding of weak r-process, while heavy neutron-capture elements (e.g. Ba, Eu) are deficient; however, the overabundance of light ones is not as significant as that previously found in stars representing the weak r-process (e.g. HD122563; Honda et al. 2006). Our study show diversity in the abundance patterns from light to heavy neutron-capture elements in VMP stars, suggesting a variation in r-process, which may depend on electron fraction of environment.

Aoki, Misa; Ishimaru, Yuhri [International Christian University 10-2, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Aoki, Wako; Wanajo, Shinya [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

97

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 83, 032902 (2011) Energy shifts of Rydberg atoms due to patch fields near metal surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 83, 032902 (2011) Energy shifts of Rydberg atoms due to patch fields near metal March 2011) The statistical properties of patch electric fields due to a polycrystalline metal surface to the surface and w is the characteristic length scale of the surface patches. For typical thermally evaporated

Martin, James D. D.

98

Vacancies and small vacancy clusters in BCC transition metals : calculation of binding energy, atomic relaxation and electronic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

921 Vacancies and small vacancy clusters in BCC transition metals : calculation of binding energy(E) and gi(03C9), for vacancy-type lattice defects in BCC transition metals : The short-range repulsive energies between neighbouring atomic sites are simulated by a Born-Mayer potential. Binding energies of di-vacancies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

99

Electron beam driven alkali metal atom source for loading a magneto-optical trap in a cryogenic environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a versatile and compact electron beam driven source for alkali metal atoms, which can be implemented in cryostats. With a heat load of less than 10mW, the heat dissipation normalized to the atoms loaded into the magneto-optical Trap (MOT), is about a factor 1000 smaller than for a typical alkali metal dispenser. The measured linear scaling of the MOT loading rate with electron current observed in the experiments, indicates that electron stimulated desorption is the corresponding mechanism to release the atoms.

S. Haslinger; R. Amsuess; Ch. Koller; C. Hufnagel; N. Lippok; J. Majer; J. Verdu; S. Schneider; J. Schmiedmayer

2010-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

100

It's Elemental - The Element Zinc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Copper Copper Previous Element (Copper) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Gallium) Gallium The Element Zinc [Click for Isotope Data] 30 Zn Zinc 65.38 Atomic Number: 30 Atomic Weight: 65.38 Melting Point: 692.68 K (419.53°C or 787.15°F) Boiling Point: 1180 K (907°C or 1665°F) Density: 7.134 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 12 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the German word zink. Say what? Zinc is pronounced as ZINK. History and Uses: Although zinc compounds have been used for at least 2,500 years in the production of brass, zinc wasn't recognized as a distinct element until much later. Metallic zinc was first produced in India sometime in the 1400s by heating the mineral calamine (ZnCO3) with wool. Zinc was rediscovered by

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Metal-Insulator Transition Revisited for Cold Atoms in Non-Abelian Gauge Potentials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the possibility of realizing metal-insulator transitions with ultracold atoms in two-dimensional optical lattices in the presence of artificial gauge potentials. Such transitions have been extensively studied for magnetic fields corresponding to Abelian gauges; they occur when the magnetic flux penetrating the lattice plaquette is an irrational multiple of the magnetic flux quantum. Here we present the first study of these transitions for non-Abelian U(2) gauge fields, which can be realized with atoms with two pairs of degenerate internal states. In contrast to the Abelian case, the spectrum and localization transition in the non-Abelian case is strongly influenced by atomic momenta. In addition to determining the localization boundary, the momentum fragments the spectrum and the minimum energy viewed as a function of momentum exhibits a step structure. Other key characteristics of the non-Abelian case include the absence of localization for certain states and satellite fringes around the Bragg peaks in the momentum distribution and an interesting possibility that the transition can be tuned by the atomic momenta.

Indubala I. Satija; Daniel C. Dakin; Charles W. Clark

2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

102

New Rare Earth Element Abundance Distributions for the Sun and Five r-Process-Rich Very Metal-Poor Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have derived new abundances of the rare-earth elements Pr, Dy, Tm, Yb, and Lu for the solar photosphere and for five very metal-poor, neutron-capture r-process-rich giant stars. The photospheric values for all five elements are in good agreement with meteoritic abundances. For the low metallicity sample, these abundances have been combined with new Ce abundances from a companion paper, and reconsideration of a few other elements in individual stars, to produce internally-consistent Ba, rare-earth, and Hf (56element distributions. These have been used in a critical comparison between stellar and solar r-process abundance mixes.

Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J; Ivans, Inese I; Hartog, Elizabeth A Den

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Preparation of Metal Filter Element for Fail Safety in IGCC Filter Unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal filter elements as the fail safety filter are fabricated by the methods using cold isostatic pressure (compress method) and binder (binder method) to form the filter element and tested in a experimental and bench units. The fail safety filter on the filtration system is mounted additionally in order to intercept the particle leak when the main filter element is broken. So it should have two contrary functions of a high permeability and being plugged easily. The filter element having high porosity and high plugging property was fabricated by the bind method. It has the porosity more than 50%, showed very small pressure drop less than 10mmH2O at the face velocity of 0.15m/s, and plugged within 5 minutes with the inhibition of the particle leak larger than 4 {micro}m. The test result of corrosion tendency in IGCC gas stream at 500 C shows SUS310L material is very reasonable among SUS310, SUS316, Inconel 600, and Hastelloy X.

Choi, J-H.; Ahn, I-S.; Bak, Y-C.; Bae, S-Y.; Ha, S-J.; Jang, H-J.

2002-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

104

Energy shifts of Rydberg atoms due to patch fields near metal surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The statistical properties of patch electric fields due to a polycrystalline metal surface are calculated. The fluctuations in the electric field scale like 1/z{sup 2} when z>>w, where z is the distance to the surface and w is the characteristic length scale of the surface patches. For typical thermally evaporated gold surfaces these field fluctuations are comparable to the image field of an elementary charge, and scale in the same way with distance to the surface. Expressions for calculating the statistics of the inhomogeneous broadening of Rydberg-atom energies due to patch electric fields are presented. Spatial variations in the patch fields over the Rydberg orbit are found to be insignificant.

Carter, J. D.; Martin, J. D. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Structure of the Alkali-metal-atom-Strontium molecular ions: towards photoassociation and formation of cold molecular ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The potential energy curves, permanent and transition dipole moments, and the static dipolar polarizability, of molecular ions composed of one alkali-metal atom and a Strontium ion are determined with a quantum chemistry approach. The molecular ions are treated as effective two-electron systems and are treated using effective core potentials including core polarization, large gaussian basis sets, and full configuration interaction. In the perspective of upcoming experiments aiming at merging cold atom and cold ion traps, possible paths for radiative charge exchange, photoassociation of a cold Lithium or Rubidium atom and a Strontium ion are discussed, as well as the formation of stable molecular ions.

Mireille Aymar; Romain Gurout; Olivier Dulieu

2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

106

Structure of the alkali-metal-atom + strontium molecular ions: Towards photoassociation and formation of cold molecular ions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential energy curves, permanent and transition dipole moments, and the static dipolar polarizability, of molecular ions composed of one alkali-metal atom and a strontium ion are determined with a quantum chemistry approach. The molecular ions are treated as effective two-electron systems and are treated using effective core potentials including core polarization, large gaussian basis sets, and full configuration interaction. In the perspective of upcoming experiments aiming at merging cold atom and cold ion traps, possible paths for radiative charge exchange, photoassociation of a cold lithium or rubidium atom and a strontium ion are discussed, as well as the formation of stable molecular ions.

Aymar, M.; Dulieu, O. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS, UPR3321, Ba circumflex t. 505, Univ Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Guerout, R. [Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, CNRS, ENS, Univ Pierre et Marie Curie case 74, Campus Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

2011-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

107

Structure of the Alkali-metal-atom-Strontium molecular ions: towards photoassociation and formation of cold molecular ions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The potential energy curves, permanent and transition dipole moments, and the static dipolar polarizability, of molecular ions composed of one alkali-metal atom and a Strontium ion are determined with a quantum chemistry approach. The molecular ions are treated as effective two-electron systems and are treated using effective core potentials including core polarization, large gaussian basis sets, and full configuration interaction. In the perspective of upcoming experiments aiming at merging cold atom and cold ion traps, possible paths for radiative charge exchange, photoassociation of a cold Lithium or Rubidium atom and a Strontium ion are discussed, as well as the formation of stable molecular ions.

Aymar, Mireille; Dulieu, Olivier

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

It's Elemental - The Element Chlorine  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sulfur Sulfur Previous Element (Sulfur) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Argon) Argon The Element Chlorine [Click for Isotope Data] 17 Cl Chlorine 35.453 Atomic Number: 17 Atomic Weight: 35.453 Melting Point: 171.65 K (-101.5°C or -150.7°F) Boiling Point: 239.11 K (-34.04°C or -29.27°F) Density: 0.003214 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 3 Group Number: 17 Group Name: Halogen What's in a name? From the Greek word for greenish yellow, chloros. Say what? Chlorine is pronounced as KLOR-een or as KLOR-in. History and Uses: Since it combines directly with nearly every element, chlorine is never found free in nature. Chlorine was first produced by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, a Swedish chemist, when he combined the mineral pyrolusite (MnO2) with

109

It's Elemental - The Element Fluorine  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxygen Oxygen Previous Element (Oxygen) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Neon) Neon The Element Fluorine [Click for Isotope Data] 9 F Fluorine 18.9984032 Atomic Number: 9 Atomic Weight: 18.9984032 Melting Point: 53.53 K (-219.62°C or -363.32°F) Boiling Point: 85.03 K (-188.12°C or -306.62°F) Density: 0.001696 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 17 Group Name: Halogen What's in a name? From the Latin and French words for flow, fluere. Say what? Fluorine is pronounced as FLU-eh-reen or as FLU-eh-rin. History and Uses: Fluorine is the most reactive of all elements and no chemical substance is capable of freeing fluorine from any of its compounds. For this reason, fluorine does not occur free in nature and was extremely difficult for

110

Real-time study of the adiabatic energy loss in an atomic collision with a metal cluster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, microelectronics, and environmental chem- istry. In recent years a lot of interest has arisen in the role of small, it is well known that a dominant source of nuclear energy dissipation is through the excitation process of a hydrogen atom moving towards or on a metal surface. The effect of electronic dissipation

Baer, Roi

111

Preferential Acidic, Alkaline and Neutral Solubility of Metallic Elements In Fly Ash  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Preferential Acidic, Alkaline and Neutral Solubility of Preferential Acidic, Alkaline and Neutral Solubility of Metallic Elements in Fly Ash Ann G. Kim 1 1 ORISE Research Fellow, National Energy Technology Laboratory, US Department of Energy, 626 Cochrans Mill Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 KEYWORDS: Coal Utilization By-Products, leaching, pH ABSTRACT In the US, over 100 million tons of coal utilization by-products (CUB) are generated annually. To determine if exposure of these materials to aqueous fluids poses an environmental threat, researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have conducted extensive leaching tests. Five 1 kg samples of 35 PC fly ashes have been leached with acid, neutral and alkaline solutions at an approximate rate of 130 mL/d for 1 to 3 months. The leachates are

112

Atomic orbital data for elements with atomic numbers 1 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 103  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic orbital energies and radial expectation values are tabulated for the ground state electronic configuration of all elements with Z less than or equal to 103 and for all orbitals having principal quantum numbers n less than or equal to 8. These tables have been developed for use in a model of electronic excitation and ionization that requires orbital data for both the occupied and unoccupied orbitals. The wavefunctions were calculated by the Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater method, with a local exchange potential due to Liberman. This potential has the Coulombic form at large distances from the nucleus, with the result that both the occupied and unoccupied orbitals are bound states. The complete nonlocal exchange expression was used to compute the orbital energies. The results are in good agreement with full Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations for the occupied orbitals. 22 refs., 2 tabs.

Kerley, G.I.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

It's Elemental - The Element Lead  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thallium Thallium Previous Element (Thallium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Bismuth) Bismuth The Element Lead [Click for Isotope Data] 82 Pb Lead 207.2 Atomic Number: 82 Atomic Weight: 207.2 Melting Point: 600.61 K (327.46°C or 621.43°F) Boiling Point: 2022 K (1749°C or 3180°F) Density: 11.342 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 14 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Anglo-Saxon word lead. Lead's chemical symbol comes from the Latin word for waterworks, plumbum. Say what? Lead is pronounced as LED. History and Uses: Lead has been known since ancient times. It is sometimes found free in nature, but is usually obtained from the ores galena (PbS), anglesite (PbSO4), cerussite (PbCO3) and minum (Pb3O4). Although lead makes up only

114

It's Elemental - The Element Iodine  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tellurium Tellurium Previous Element (Tellurium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Xenon) Xenon The Element Iodine [Click for Isotope Data] 53 I Iodine 126.90447 Atomic Number: 53 Atomic Weight: 126.90447 Melting Point: 386.85 K (113.7°C or 236.7°F) Boiling Point: 457.55 K (184.4°C or 364.0°F) Density: 4.93 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 5 Group Number: 17 Group Name: Halogen What's in a name? From the Greek word for violet, iodes. Say what? Iodine is pronounced as EYE-eh-dine or as EYE-eh-din. History and Uses: Iodine was discovered by the French chemist Barnard Courtois in 1811. Courtois was extracting sodium and potassium compounds from seaweed ash. Once these compounds were removed, he added sulfuric acid (H2SO4) to

115

SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE & AFTER IRRADIATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements. The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprising two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with ''green'' (fresh) fuel and one with spent fuel. Both the green and spent fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k{sub eff} = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, 3 green fuel and 4 spent fuel loading configurations were considered to serve as benchmark models. However, shortcomings in experimental data failed to meet the high standards for a benchmark problem. Nevertheless, the data provided by these subcritical measurements can supply useful information to analysts evaluating spent fuel subcriticality. The original purpose of the subcritical measurements was to validate computer model predictions that spent N Reactor fuel of a particular, typical exposure (2740 MWd/t) had a critical mass equal to twice that of unexposed fuel of the same type. The motivation for performing this work was driven by the need to increase spent fuel storage limits. These subcritical measurements confirmed the computer model predictions.

SCHWINKENDORF, K.N.

2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

116

Trace element content in tea brewed in traditional metallic and stainless steel teapots  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The migration of metals in tea brewed in metallic teapots was investigated. The teapots were obtained from North Africa stores in ... prepare the tea. Tea brewed in metallic teapots was compared to tea brewed in ...

D. Petit; W. El Houari; K. Jacobs; W. Baeyens

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Mitigating Voltage Fade in Cathode Materials by Improving the Atomic Level Uniformity of Elemental Distribution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Li-rich and Mn-rich (LMR) layered structured materials are very promising cathodes for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. However, their fundamental structure and voltage fading mechanisms are far from being well understood. Here we report the first evidence on the reduced voltage and energy fade of LMR cathode by improving the atomic level spatial distribution of the chemical species. LMR cathode (Li[Li0.2Ni0.2M0.6]O2) prepared by co-precipitation and sol-gel methods are dominated by R-3m phase and show significant Ni-segregation at the surface of the particles. They exhibit large voltage-fade and fast capacity degradation. In contrast, LMR cathode prepared by hydrothermal assisted method is dominated by C2/m phase and minimal Ni-segregation. It also demonstrates much smaller voltage-fade and excellent capacity retention. The fundamental correlation between the atomic level spatial distribution of the chemical species and the functional stability of the materials found in this work also guide the design of other functional materials with enhanced stabilities.

Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Genc, Arda; Xiao, Jie; Xu, Pinghong; Chen, Xilin; Zhu, Zihua; Zhao, Wenbo; Pullan, Lee; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

118

SUB-LEU-METAL-THERM-001 SUBCRITICAL MEASUREMENTS OF LOW ENRICHED TUBULAR URANIUM METAL FUEL ELEMENTS BEFORE & AFTER IRRADIATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the shutdown of the Hanford PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant) reprocessing plant in the 1970s, adequate storage capacity for spent Hanford N Reactor fuel elements in the K and N Reactor pools became a concern. To maximize space utilization in the pools, accounting for fuel burnup was considered. Fuel that had experienced a neutron environment in a reactor is known as spent, exposed, or irradiated fuel. In contrast fuel that has not yet been placed in a reactor is known as green, unexposed, or unirradiated fuel. Calculations indicated that at typical fuel exposures for N Reactor, the spent-fuel critical mass would be twice the critical mass for green fuel. A decision was reached to test the calculational result with a definitive experiment. If the results proved positive, storage capacity could be increased and N Reactor operation could be prolonged. An experiment to be conducted in the N Reactor spent-fuel storage pool was designed and assembled (References 1 and 2) and the services of the Battelle Northwest Laboratories (BNWL) (now Pacific Northwest National Laboratory [PNNL]) critical mass laboratory were procured for the measurements (Reference 3). The experiments were performed in April 1975 in the Hanford N Reactor fuel storage pool. The fuel elements were MKIA fuel assemblies, comprised of two concentric tubes of low-enriched metallic uranium. Two separate sets of measurements were performed: one with unirradiated fuel and one with irradiated fuel. Both the unirradiated and irradiated fuel, were measured in the same geometry. The spent-fuel MKIA assemblies had an average burnup of 2865 MWd (megawatt days)/t. A constraint was imposed restricting the measurements to a subcritical limit of k{sub eff} = 0.97. Subcritical count rate data was obtained with pulsed-neutron and approach-to-critical measurements. Ten (10) configurations with green fuel and nine (9) configurations with spent fuel are described and evaluated. Of these, three (3) green fuel and four (4) spent fuel loading configurations were considered to serve as benchmark models. However, shortcomings in experimental data, such as the uncertainty in fuel exposure impact on reactivity and the pulse neutron data evaluation methodology, failed to meet the high standards for a benchmark problem. Nevertheless, the data provided by these subcritical measurements supply useful information to analysts evaluating spent fuel subcriticality. The original purpose of the subcritical measurements was to validate computer model predictions that spent N Reactor fuel of a particular, typical exposure (2740 MWd/t) had a critical mass equal to twice that of unexposed fuel of the same type. The motivation for performing this work was driven by the need to increase spent fuel storage limits. These subcritical measurements confirmed the computer model predictions.

TOFFER, H.

2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

119

Ground state of the polar alkali-metal-atom-strontium molecules: Potential energy curve and permanent dipole moment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we investigate the structure of the polar alkali-metal-atom-strontium diatomic molecules as possible candidates for the realization of samples of ultracold polar molecular species not yet investigated experimentally. Using a quantum chemistry approach based on effective core potentials and core polarization potentials, we model these systems as effective three-valence-electron systems, allowing for calculation of electronic properties with full configuration interaction. The potential curve and the permanent dipole moment of the {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +} ground state are determined as functions of the internuclear distance for LiSr, NaSr, KSr, RbSr, and CsSr molecules. These molecules are found to exhibit a significant permanent dipole moment, though smaller than those of the alkali-metal-atom-Rb molecules.

Guerout, R. [Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, CNRS, ENS, Univ Pierre et Marie Curie case 74, Campus Jussieu, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Aymar, M.; Dulieu, O. [Laboratoire Aime Cotton, CNRS, UPR3321, Bat. 505, Univ Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

Collision cross sections and equilibrium fractions of ions and atoms in metal vapor targets. Project progress report, June 1, 1979-May 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to measure atomic collision cross sections and equilibrium fractions of ions and atoms in metal vapor targets. The goal is to obtain experimental information on atomic collision processes relevant to the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. In particular, in connection with the development of double charge exchange D/sup -/ ion sources, we are measuring D/sup -/ formation cross sections in alkaline-earth metal vapor targets. During the period covered in this report we have measured electron transfer cross sections for 3-40 keV D/sup +/ ions and D/sup 0/ atoms in collision with calcium vapor.

Morgan, T J

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Screened Coulomb interactions in metallic alloys. ??II.?Screening beyond the single-site and atomic-sphere approximations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A quantitative description of the configurational part of the total energy of metallic alloys with substantial atomic size difference cannot be achieved in the atomic-sphere approximation: It needs to be corrected at least for the multipole-moment interactions in the Madelung part of the one-electron potential and energy. In the case of a random alloy such interactions can be accounted for only by lifting the atomic-sphere and single-site approximations, in order to include the polarization due to local environment effects. Nevertheless, a simple parametrization of the screened Coulomb interactions for the ordinary single-site methods, including the generalized perturbation method, is still possible. We obtained such a parametrization for bulk and surface NiPt alloys, which allows one to obtain quantitatively accurate effective interactions in this system.

A. V. Ruban; S. I. Simak; P. A. Korzhavyi; H. L. Skriver

2002-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

122

Heavy Element Abundances in Presolar Silicon Carbide Grains from Low-Metallicity AGB Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Primitive meteorites contain small amounts of presolar minerals that formed in the winds of evolved stars or in the ejecta of stellar explosions. Silicon carbide is the best studied presolar mineral. Based on its isotopic compositions it was divided into distinct populations that have different origins: Most abundant are the mainstream grains which are believed to come from 1.5-3 Msun AGB stars of roughly solar metallicitiy. The rare Y and Z grains are likely to come from 1.5-3 Msun AGB stars as well, but with subsolar metallicities (0.3-0.5x solar). Here we report on C and Si isotope and trace element (Zr, Ba) studies of individual, submicrometer-sized SiC grains. The most striking results are: (1) Zr and Ba concentrations are higher in Y and Z grains than in mainstream grains, with enrichments relative to Si and solar of up to 70x (Zr) and 170x (Ba), respectively. (2) For the Y and Z grains there is a positive correlation between Ba concentrations and amount of s-process Si. This correlation is well explain...

Hoppe, P; Vollmer, C; Groener, E; Heck, P R; Gallino, R; Amari, S; 10.1071/AS08033

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Determination of metals in heavy oil residues by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method is proposed for the sample preparation of heavy oil residues characterized by viscosity of more than 700 mm2/sec at 100C to study their elemental composition. It is shown that a wide range of elements c...

T. A. Maryutina; N. S. Musina

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Surface Reactivity of Copper Precursors for Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) on Metal Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions by using ainside an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber equipped with X-rayand under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) condition, hence atomically

MA, QIANG

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Theoretical Analysis of the Adsorption of Late Transition-Metal Atoms on the (001) Surface of Early Transition-Metal Carbides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of atoms of Groups 9, 10, and 11 with the (001) surface of TiC, ZrC, VC, and {delta}-MoC has been studied by means of periodic density functional calculations using slab models. The calculated values of the adsorption energy are rather large, especially for Groups 9 and 10 elements (E{sub ads} = 3-6 eV), but without clear trends along the series. Nevertheless, the analysis of the interaction at different sites indicates that the adsorbed atoms will be relatively mobile. Many of the admetals are electronically perturbed upon interaction with the carbide surfaces. Co, Ni, Cu, and Rh adatoms get positively or negatively charged, depending on the nature of the carbide substrate. Ir, Pd, Pt, and Au adatoms are always negatively charged. An analysis of the Bader charges for the most stable sites provides strong evidence that the most negative charge on the adatoms corresponds to the interaction with ZrC, followed by TiC. In the case of VC and {delta}-MoC, the charge on the adsorbed atoms may be slightly positive and of the same order for both carbides. The effect of the underlying carbide is large, with ZrC and TiC being predicted as the supports with the largest effect on the electronic structure of the adsorbed atoms with direct implications for the use of these systems in catalysis.

Gomez, T.; Florez, E; Rodriguez, J; Illas, F

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Impact broadening, shifting, and asymmetry of the D1 and D2 lines of alkali-metal atoms colliding with noble-gas atoms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Anderson Talman theory of spectral line broadening is used together with potential energy curves calculated at the spin-orbit multi-reference configuration interaction level to compute broadening, shifting, and asymmetry coefficients of the D1 and D2 lines of alkali-metal atoms M, as they collide with noble gas atoms N, where M=K, Rb, and Cs, and N=He, Ne, and Ar. Our calculated coefficients are compared to experimental results for a variety of temperatures. In all cases general agreement is observed for the broadening coefficients, while significant disagreement is observed for the shifting coefficients. We also compare our K+He broadening and shifting results with fully quantum-mechanical calculations that employ the Baranger theory of collisional line broadening, and we compare our results with other semiclassical calculations. As with the comparison to experiment, closer agreement is observed for the broadening coefficients while the shifting coefficients exhibit significant disagreement. We use the natural variation between the difference potentials of the nine M+N pairs to explore the relationship between potential and line shape as determined by Anderson-Talman theory and develop a picture for the mechanism that underlies the general agreement between theoretical and experimental results on the broadening coefficient and the general disagreement on shifting coefficients.

L Blank and David E. Weeks

2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

127

Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Atomic Crystals as Stable Interfacial Layer for Improvement of Lithium Metal Anode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nitride, graphene Lithium ion batteries have been a great success as the power source for portable boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene directly on Cu metal current collectors. Lithium ions were able battery chemistry such as Si anodes,3,4 Li-S, and Li- air.5 Li metal anode has the highest specific

Cui, Yi

128

Compositions of corrosion-resistant Fe-based amorphous metals suitable for producing thermal spray coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of coating a surface comprising providing a source of amorphous metal that contains manganese (1 to 3 atomic %), yttrium (0.1 to 10 atomic %), and silicon (0.3 to 3.1 atomic %) in the range of composition given in parentheses; and that contains the following elements in the specified range of composition given in parentheses: chromium (15 to 20 atomic %), molybdenum (2 to 15 atomic %), tungsten (1 to 3 atomic %), boron (5 to 16 atomic %), carbon (3 to 16 atomic %), and the balance iron; and applying said amorphous metal to the surface by a spray.

Farmer, Joseph C; Wong, Frank M.G.; Haslam, Jeffery J; Ji, Xiaoyan; Day, Sumner D; Blue, Craig A; Rivard, John D.K.; Aprigliano, Louis F; Kohler, Leslie K; Bayles, Robert; Lemieux, Edward J; Yang, Nancy; Perepezko, John H; Kaufman, Larry; Heuer, Arthur; Lavernia, Enrique J

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

129

Compositions of corrosion-resistant Fe-based amorphous metals suitable for producing thermal spray coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of coating a surface comprising providing a source of amorphous metal that contains manganese (1 to 3 atomic %), yttrium (0.1 to 10 atomic %), and silicon (0.3 to 3.1 atomic %) in the range of composition given in parentheses; and that contains the following elements in the specified range of composition given in parentheses: chromium (15 to 20 atomic %), molybdenum (2 to 15 atomic %), tungsten (1 to 3 atomic %), boron (5 to 16 atomic %), carbon (3 to 16 atomic %), and the balance iron; and applying said amorphous metal to the surface by a spray.

Farmer, Joseph C.; Wong, Frank M. G.; Haslam, Jeffery J.; Ji, Xiaoyan (Jane); Day, Sumner D.; Blue, Craig A.; Rivard, John D. K.; Aprigliano, Louis F.; Kohler, Leslie K.; Bayles, Robert; Lemieux, Edward J.; Yang, Nancy; Perepezko, John H.; Kaufman, Larry; Heuer, Arthur; Lavernia, Enrique J.

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

130

Preconcentration of Heavy Metals in Urine and Quantification by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry...inductively coupled plasma spectrometer (se- quential plasma Model 40, Perkin Elmer...employed a 40.78 MHz radiofrequency source...dried in a dust-free atmosphere. Methods was no interference......

M. Lpez-Artguez; A. Camen; M. Repetto

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Surface structures from low energy electron diffraction: Atoms, small molecules and an ordered ice film on metal surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigated the surface bonding of various adsorbates (0, S, C{sub 2}H{sub 3} and NO) along with the resulting relaxation of the Pt(111) surface using low energy electron diffiraction (LEED). LEED experiments have been performed on these ordered overlayers along with theoretical structural analysis using automated tensor LEED (ATLEED). The resulting surface structures of these ordered overlayers exhibit similar adsorbate-induced relaxations. In all cases the adsorbate occupies the fcc hollow site and induces an approximately 0.1 A buckling of the metal surface. The three metal atoms directly bonded to the adsorbate are ``pulled`` out of the surface and the metal atom that is not bound to the adsorbate is `pushed`` inward. In order to understand the reliability of such details, we have carried out a comprehensive study of various non-structural parameters used in a LEED computation. We also studied the adsorption of water on the Pt(lll) surface. We ordered an ultra thin ice film on this surface. The film`s surface is found to be the (0001) face of hexagonal ice. This surface is apparently terminated by a full-bilayer, in which the uppermost water molecules have large vibrational amplitudes even at temperatures as low as 90 K. We examined two other metal surfaces besides Pt(111): Ni(111) and Fe(lll). On Ni(111), we have studied the surface under a high coverage of NO. On both Ni(111) and Pt(111) NO molecules occupy the hollow sites and the N-0 bond distances are practically identical. The challenging sample preparation of an Fe(111) surface has been investigated and a successful procedure has been obtained. The small interlayer spacing found on Fe(111) required special treatment in the LEED calculations. A new ATLEED program has been developed to handle this surface.

Materer, N.F.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Clustering of metal atoms in organic media. 9. High-activity Ni/MgO catalysts prepared by metal vapor methods. Surface area and particle size effects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A metal vapor method was employed to prepare highly dispersed Ni metal catalysts (solvated metal atom dispersed = SMAD catalyst) supported on MgO. Compared with conventional Ni/MgO compositions, the SMAD catalysts showed much greater activities for all reactions studied (hydrogenolysis of methylcyclopentane, MCP; hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis of toluene, TOL; methanation of carbon monoxide, CO; dehydration of isopropyl alcohol, IPA). These high activities for the SMAD catalysts are attributed to the high surface area of Ni on MgO and the high percentage of this Ni in a zero-valent state (reduction degree). Conventional methods for preparing Ni/MgO catalysts did not yield nearly such favorable surface areas or reduction degrees. Nickel particle size effects were observed during hydrogenolysis studies of MCP and hydrogenation studies of TOL. These phenomena are explained by assuming the size of an active Ni particle to be largest for hydrogenolysis of MCP > hydrogenation of TOL > methanation of CO approx. = dehydrogenation of IPA. 8 figures, 2 tables.

Matsuo, K.; Klabunde, K.J.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Determination of Wear Metals in Marine Lubricating Oils by Microwave Digestion and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?The difficulties associated with the development of a microwave-assisted acid digestion of lubricating oils in determination of wear metals are presented. The interest of this sample treatment lies in its bas...

Celestino Sanz-Segundo; Mara P. Hernndez-Artiga

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

The Emergence of Nonbulk Properties in Supported Metal Clusters: Negative Thermal Expansion and Atomic Disorder in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that are critical to the growth of the American economy.1-3 Prominent examples of processes in which supported metal catalysts play an indispensable role include petroleum refining,2,3 environmental remediation (e

Frenkel, Anatoly

135

Accelerating solidification process simulation for large-sized system of liquid metal atoms using GPU with CUDA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molecular dynamics simulation is a powerful tool to simulate and analyze complex physical processes and phenomena at atomic characteristic for predicting the natural time-evolution of a system of atoms. Precise simulation of physical processes has strong requirements both in the simulation size and computing timescale. Therefore, finding available computing resources is crucial to accelerate computation. However, a tremendous computational resource (GPGPU) are recently being utilized for general purpose computing due to its high performance of floating-point arithmetic operation, wide memory bandwidth and enhanced programmability. As for the most time-consuming component in MD simulation calculation during the case of studying liquid metal solidification processes, this paper presents a fine-grained spatial decomposition method to accelerate the computation of update of neighbor lists and interaction force calculation by take advantage of modern graphics processors units (GPU), enlarging the scale of the simulation system to a simulation system involving 10?000?000 atoms. In addition, a number of evaluations and tests, ranging from executions on different precision enabled-CUDA versions, over various types of GPU (NVIDIA 480GTX, 580GTX and M2050) to CPU clusters with different number of CPU cores are discussed. The experimental results demonstrate that GPU-based calculations are typically 9?11 times faster than the corresponding sequential execution and approximately 1.5?2 times faster than 16 CPU cores clusters implementations. On the basis of the simulated results, the comparisons between the theoretical results and the experimental ones are executed, and the good agreement between the two and more complete and larger cluster structures in the actual macroscopic materials are observed. Moreover, different nucleation and evolution mechanism of nano-clusters and nano-crystals formed in the processes of metal solidification is observed with large-sized system.

Jie, Liang [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China)] [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China); Li, KenLi, E-mail: lkl@hnu.edu.cn [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China) [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China); National Supercomputing Center in Changsha, 410082 (China); Shi, Lin [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China)] [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China); Liu, RangSu [School of Physics and Micro Electronic, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China)] [School of Physics and Micro Electronic, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China); Mei, Jing [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China)] [School of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changshang, 410082 (China)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

Ag and Au atoms intercalated in bilayer heterostructures of transition metal dichalcogenides and graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The diffusive motion of metal nanoparticles Au and Ag on monolayer and between bilayer heterostructures of transition metal dichalcogenides and graphene are investigated in the framework of density functional theory. We found that the minimum energy barriers for diffusion and the possibility of cluster formation depend strongly on both the type of nanoparticle and the type of monolayers and bilayers. Moreover, the tendency to form clusters of Ag and Au can be tuned by creating various bilayers. Tunability of the diffusion characteristics of adatoms in van der Waals heterostructures holds promise for controllable growth of nanostructures.

Iyikanat, F., E-mail: fadiliyikanat@iyte.edu.tr; Senger, R. T. [Department of Physics, Izmir Institute of Technology, 35430 Izmir (Turkey); Sahin, H., E-mail: hasan.sahin@uantwerpen.be; Peeters, F. M. [Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, 2610 Antwerp (Belgium)

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Neutron-capture elements in the metal-poor globular cluster M15  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on observations of six giants in the globular cluster M15 (NGC 7078) using the Subaru Telescope to measure neutron-capture elemental abundances. Our abundance analyses based on high-quality blue spectra confirm the star-to-star scatter in the abundances of heavy neutron-capture elements (e.g., Eu), and no significant s-process contribution to them, as was found in previous studies. We have found, for the first time, that there are anti-correlations between the abundance ratios of light to heavy neutron-capture elements ([Y/Eu] and [Zr/Eu]) and heavy ones (e.g., Eu). This indicates that light neutron-capture elements in these stars cannot be explained by only a single r-process. Another process that has significantly contributed to the light neutron-capture elements is required to have occurred in M15. Our results suggest a complicated enrichment history for M15 and its progenitor.

Kaori Otsuki; Satoshi Honda; Wako Aoki; Toshitaka Kajino; Grant J. Mathews

2006-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

138

Diffraction of swift atoms after grazing scattering from metal surfaces: N/Ag(111) system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diffraction patterns produced by grazing scattering of fast N atoms from a Ag(111) surface are investigated by employing the surface eikonal approximation. This method is a distorted-wave theory that takes into account the coherent addition of contributions coming from different projectile paths. In the model the projectile-surface potential is obtained from an accurate density-functional theory calculation. The dependence of the scattered projectile spectra on impact energy and incidence channel is analyzed, and possible incident direction and energy range for the observation of the interference patterns are predicted. In addition, it is found that as a result of the high reactivity of N atoms, asymmetries of the surface potential might be detected through their effects on diffraction patterns.

Gravielle, M. S. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA) and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bocan, G. A. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, S.C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Diez Muino, R. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC) and Centro de Fisica de Materiales CSIC-UPV/EHU, San Sebastian (Spain)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

Laser Desorption/Ionization of Transition Metal Atoms and Oxides from Solid Argon Lester Andrews,*, Andreas Rohrbacher, Christopher M. Laperle, and Robert E. Continetti  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, approximately 10% of the gas sample condensed on the 10K copper plate. For ablation a focused (10 cm f of the laser-ablated metal atoms and O2 in excess argon during condensation at 10 K, have been laser desorbed spectrometry. Adding the C6H5Br chromophore to the Ar/O2 gas mixture also enhanced the metal and oxide ion

Continetti, Robert E.

140

Multiplicative Sets of Atoms.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??It is possible for an element to have both an atom factorization and a factorization that will always contain a reducible element. This leads us (more)

Rand, Ashley Nicole

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Initiation of atomic layer deposition of metal oxides on polymer substrates by water plasma pretreatment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The role of surface hydroxyl content in atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide (AO) on polymers is demonstrated by performing an atomic layer deposition of AO onto a variety of polymer types, before and after pretreatment in a plasma struck in water vapor. The treatment and deposition reactions are performed in situ in a high vacuum chamber that is interfaced to an x-ray photoelectron spectrometer to prevent adventitious exposure to atmospheric contaminants. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to follow the surface chemistries of the polymers, including theformation of surface hydroxyls and subsequent growth of AO by ALD. Using dimethyl aluminum isopropoxide and water as reactants, ALD is obtained for water-plasma-treated poly(styrene) (PS), poly(propylene) (PP), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN). For PS, PP, and PEN, initial growth rates of AO on the native (untreated) polymers are at least an order of magnitude lower than on the same polymer surface following the plasma treatment. By contrast, native PVA is shown to initiate ALD of AO as a result of the presence of intrinsic surface hydroxyls that are derived from the repeat unit of this polymer.

Steven Brandt, E.; Grace, Jeremy M. [Eastman Kodak Company, 1999 Lake Avenue, Rochester, New York 14650-2022 (United States)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

A nanohole in a thin metal film as an efficient nonlinear optical element  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nonlinear optical properties of single nanoholes and nanoslits fabricated in gold and aluminum nanofilms are studied by third harmonic generation (THG). It is shown that the extremely high third-order optical susceptibility of aluminum and the presence of strong plasmon resonance of a single nanohole in an aluminum film make possible an efficient nanolocalized radiation source at the third harmonic frequency. The THG efficiency for a single nanohole in a thin metal film can be close to unity for an exciting laser radiation intensity on the order of 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}.

Konstantinova, T. V.; Melent'ev, P. N.; Afanas'ev, A. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Spectroscopy (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Spectroscopy (Russian Federation); Kuzin, A. A.; Starikov, P. A.; Baturin, A. S. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)] [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Tausenev, A. V.; Konyashchenko, A. V. [OOO Avesta-proekt (Russian Federation)] [OOO Avesta-proekt (Russian Federation); Balykin, V. I., E-mail: balykin@isan.tyroitsk.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Spectroscopy (Russian Federation)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films T. J. Richardsona@lbl.gov Abstract Mixed metal thin films containing magnesium and a first-row transition element exhibit very large and coordination of the magnesium and transition metal atoms during hydrogen absorption were studied using dynamic

144

The Effect of Compound Structure on the Elemental Responses in Gas Chromatography-Microwave Induced Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Since microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry...pro totype Model SG-2 atmospheric pressure GC-MIP which...The flow of the He plasma supporting gas was maintained...output frequency: 2450 30 MHz output power: 0-200...by J&D Instruments Plasma discharge tube length......

Huang Yieru; Ou Qingyu; Yu Weile

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Thin Ni silicide formation by low temperature-induced metal atom reaction with ion implanted amorphous silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have extended our recent work on buried silicide formation by Ni diffusion into a buried amorphous silicon layer to the case where silicide formation is at lower temperatures on silicon substrates which have been preamorphized. The reaction of metal atoms from a 12 nm Ni film evaporated on top of a 65 nm thick surface amorphous layer formed by 35 keV Si{sup +} ion implantation has been investigated at temperature {le}400C. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) with channeling, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM), x-ray diffraction and four-point-probe measurements were used to determine structure, interfacial morphology, composition and resistivity of the silicide films. It has been found that an increased rate of silicidation occurs for amorphous silicon with respect to crystalline areas permitting a selective control of the silicon area to be contacted during silicide growth. Vacuum furnace annealing at 360C for 8 hours followed by an additional step at 400C for one hour produces a continuos NiSi{sub 2} layer with a resistivity 44 {mu}{Omega} cm.

Erokhin, Yu.N.; Pramanick, S.; Hong, F.; Rozgonyi, G.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Patnaik, B.K. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

146

Electronic Structure of the Heaviest Elements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

well known grou~ 14 rare earth elements of atomic numbersproposed for the rare earth elements because these 14

Seaborg, G.T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Atomic Transport/ Dense Metallic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.S. DOE - NETL Hy9 Corporation Argonne National Laboratory Worcester Polytechnic Institue Shell International Exploration & Production University of Colorado Power & Energy NETL Lawrence Livermore

148

Thematic Questions about Chemical Elements Nature of the chemical elements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Be Atomic No. 1 2 3 4 Isotopes 1,2,3 3,4 6,7 9,10 Name Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Symbol B C N O Atomic No Environment Element Synthesis: Exploration of Chemical Fundamentals Element Synthesis and Isotopes · Elemental Abundance and Isotopes · distribution of elements in the universe · factors that define elemental

Polly, David

149

Infrared Spectra of M-?2-C2H2, HMC?CH, and HMC?CH Prepared in Reactions of Laser-Ablated Group 3 Metal Atoms with Acetylene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The major HMC?CH and M-?2-C2H2 products are observed in the matrix infrared spectra from reactions of laser-ablated group 3 metal atoms with acetylene, while the vinylidene product is not detected. These results reveal that coordination of group 3 metal ...

Han-Gook Cho; Lester Andrews

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

150

Investigation for the puzzling abundance pattern of the neutron-capture elements in the ultra metal-poor star: CS 30322-023  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The s-enhanced and very metal-poor star CS 30322-023 shows a puzzling abundance pattern of the neutron-capture elements, i.e. several neutron-capture elements such as Ba, Pb etc. show enhancement, but other neutron-capture elements such as Sr, Eu etc. exhibit deficient with respect to iron. The study to this sample star could make people gain a better understanding of s- and r-process nucleosynthesis at low metallicity. Using a parametric model, we find that the abundance pattern of the neutron-capture elements could be best explained by a star that was polluted by an AGB star and the CS 30322-023 binary system formed in a molecular cloud which had never been polluted by r-process material. The lack of r-process material also indicates that the AGB companion cannot have undergone a type-1.5 supernova, and thus must have had an initial mass below 4.0M$_\\odot$, while the strong N overabundance and the absence of a strong C overabundance indicate that the companion's initial mass was larger than 2.0M$_\\odot$. The smaller s-process component coefficient of this star illustrates that there is less accreted material of this star from the AGB companion, and the sample star should be formed in the binary system with larger initial orbital separation where the accretion-induced collapse (AIC) mechanism can not work.

W. Y. Cui; B. Zhang; K. Ma; L. Zhang

2007-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

151

Behaviour of zirconium, niobium, yttrium and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare-metal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Behaviour of zirconium, niobium, yttrium and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare and the heavy rare earth elements in the world. Much of the potentially economic mineralization was concentrated of Science Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada February 2010

152

Reading Comprehension - Atomic History  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic History Atomic History A Greek philosopher named Democritus said that all atoms are small, hard particles. He thought that atoms were made of a single material formed into different shapes and sizes. The word " _________ element compound mixture atom " is derived from the Greek word "atomos" which means "not able to be divided." In 1803, John Dalton, a school teacher, proposed his atomic theory. Dalton's theory states that elements (substances composed of only one type of _________ molecules ions atom ) combine in certain proportions to form _________ compounds atoms mixtures elements . In 1897, a British scientist named J. J. Thomson experimented with a cathode-ray tube which had a positively charged plate. The plate attracted negatively charged particles that we now call _________ protons neutrons

153

Coming up with platinum substitutes may be elemental  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coming up with platinum substitutes may be elemental Coming up with platinum substitutes may be elemental Community Connections: Our link to Northern New Mexico Communities Latest Issue:Dec. 2013 - Jan. 2014 All Issues » submit Coming up with platinum substitutes may be elemental Lab researchers are working with an abundant element to take their place: cobalt. February 1, 2013 dummy image Read our archives. Contacts Editor Linda Anderman Email Community Programs Office Kurt Steinhaus Email Initial findings by a Los Alamos team indicate that if a cobalt atom is captured within a complex molecule, it can mimic the reactivity of platinum group metals. Platinum and some related precious metals (palladium, iridium, rhodium and ruthenium) are frequently used as chemical catalysts and for countless laboratory processes. As rare metals, they are also expensive. To ensure

154

The structures and dynamics of atomic and molecular adsorbates on metal surfaces by scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies of surface structure and dynamics of atoms and molecules on metal surfaces are presented. My research has focused on understanding the nature of adsorbate-adsorbate and adsorbate-substrate interactions through surface studies of coverage dependency and coadsorption using both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). The effect of adsorbate coverage on the surface structures of sulfur on Pt(111) and Rh(111) was examined. On Pt(111), sulfur forms p(2x2) at 0.25 ML of sulfur, which transforms into a more compressed ({radical}3x{radical}3)R30{degrees} at 0.33 ML. On both structures, it was found that sulfur adsorbs only in fcc sites. When the coverage of sulfur exceeds 0.33 ML, it formed more complex c({radical}3x7)rect structure with 3 sulfur atoms per unit cell. In this structure, two different adsorption sites for sulfur atoms were observed - two on fcc sites and one on hcp site within the unit cell.

Yoon, Hyungsuk Alexander

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

The Chemical Composition of Carbon-Rich, Very Metal-Poor Stars: A New Class of Mildly Carbon-Rich Objects Without Excess of Neutron-Capture Elements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on an analysis of the chemical composition of five carbon-rich, very metal-poor stars based on high-resolution spectra. One star, CS22948-027, exhibits very large overabundances of carbon, nitrogen, and the neutron-capture elements, as found in the previous study of Hill et al.. This result may be interpreted as a consequence of mass transfer from a binary companion that previously evolved through the asymptotic giant branch stage. By way of contrast, the other four stars we investigate exhibit no overabundances of barium ([Ba/Fe]carbon and/or nitrogen ([C+N]+1). We have been unable to determine accurate carbon and nitrogen abundances for the remaining star (CS30312-100). These stars are rather similar to the carbon-rich, neutron-capture-element-poor star CS22957-027 discussed previously by Norris et al., though the carbon overabundance in this object is significantly larger ([C/Fe]=+2.2). Our results imply that these carbon-rich objects with ``normal'' neutron-capture element abundances are not rare among very metal-deficient stars. One possible process to explain this phenomenon is as a result of helium shell flashes near the base of the AGB in very low-metallicity, low-mass (M~carbon enhancements reported herein ([C/Fe]+1) are similar to those reported in the famous r-process-enhanced star CS22892-052. We discuss the possibility that the same process might be responsible for this similarity, as well as the implication that a completely independent phenomenon was responsible for the large r-process enhancement in CS22892-052.

Wako Aoki; John E. Norris; Sean G. Ryan; Timothy C. Beers; Hiroyasu Ando

2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

Transition metal atoms pathways on rutile TiO{sub 2} (110) surface: Distribution of Ti{sup 3+} states and evidence of enhanced peripheral charge accumulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Charge transfer between metal nanoparticles and the supported TiO{sub 2} surface is primarily important for catalytic applications as it greatly affects the catalytic activity and the thermal stability of the deposited nanoparticles on the surface. Herein, systematic spin-polarized density functional and HSE06 calculations are performed to evaluate the adsorption, diffusion, and charge state of several transition metal monomers on both stoichiometric and reduced rutile TiO{sub 2} (110) surface. Although the presence of oxygen vacancy (O{sub v}) increases the binding of Au, Pt and Pd on the surface, it weakens the interaction thus enhancing the diffusion for Fe, Co, Ni, Ag, and Cu adatoms on the surface. For pristine reduced surface, only a small portion (around 5%) of the excess electrons occupy the topmost surface, which are mainly delocalized at the second nearest and third nearest fivefold coordinated Ti (Ti{sub 5c}) atoms. Excess electrons populating at the Ti{sub 5c} atoms on the basal plane can be transferred to strongly electronegative adsorbates like Au and Pt thus enabling a moderate adsorption at this site, whereas no stable adsorption is found for other less electronegative transition metal adatoms (Ag, Cu, Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd) on the reduced surface and for all the adatoms on stoichiometric surface. This result clarifies the origin of the experimental observation of the adsorption of O{sub 2} and CO molecules at Ti{sub 5c} sites in connection with charge transfer. In addition, the spatial redistribution of the excess electrons around the O{sub v} upon the adsorption of the monomers is thoroughly examined. Our finding of an accumulation of excess electrons at the Ti{sub 5c} sites around the monomers explains the critical role of the perimeter interface of the deposited nanoparticles in promoting the adsorption and activation of reactants observed in experiments.

Cai Yongqing; Bai Zhaoqiang; Chintalapati, Sandhya; Feng Yuanping [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Zeng Qingfeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

2013-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

157

Atomic layer deposition of Hf{sub x}Al{sub y}C{sub z} as a work function material in metal gate MOS devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As advanced silicon semiconductor devices are transitioning from planar to 3D structures, new materials and processes are needed to control the device characteristics. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Hf{sub x}Al{sub y}C{sub z} films using hafnium chloride and trimethylaluminum precursors was combined with postdeposition anneals and ALD liners to control the device characteristics in high-k metal-gate devices. Combinatorial process methods and technologies were employed for rapid electrical and materials characterization of various materials stacks. The effective work function in metaloxidesemiconductor capacitor devices with the Hf{sub x}Al{sub y}C{sub z} layer coupled with an ALD HfO{sub 2} dielectric was quantified to be mid-gap at ?4.6?eV. Thus, Hf{sub x}Al{sub y}C{sub z} is a promising metal gate work function material that allows for the tuning of device threshold voltages (V{sub th}) for anticipated multi-V{sub th} integrated circuit devices.

Lee, Albert, E-mail: alee@intermolecular.com; Fuchigami, Nobi; Pisharoty, Divya; Hong, Zhendong; Haywood, Ed; Joshi, Amol; Mujumdar, Salil; Bodke, Ashish; Karlsson, Olov [Intermolecular, 3011 North First Street, San Jose, California 95134 (United States); Kim, Hoon; Choi, Kisik [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Technology Research Group, 257 Fuller Road, Albany, New York 12309 (United States); Besser, Paul [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, 1050 East Arques, Sunnyvale, California 94085 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

Element-specific structure of materials with intrinsic disorder by high-energy resonant x-ray diffraction and differential atomic pair-distribution functions: A study of PtPd nanosized catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrate how high-energy resonant x-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential atomic-pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis can be used to characterize the atomic ordering in materials of limited structural coherence with both excellent spatial resolution and element specificity. First we prove that this experimental approach is feasible by probing the K-absorption edge of Au(?81?keV) atoms in chemically ordered and disordered bulk Cu3Au alloys. The resulting Au-differential PDFs show very clearly the different ways Au atoms are known to occupy the sites of otherwise identical cubic lattices of those materials. Next we apply it to a more complex material: PtPd alloy and core-shell nanosized (?24?nm) particles by probing the K-absorption edge of Pt(?78?keV). The resulting Pt-differential atomic PDFs reveal how exactly the atomic ordering of catalytically active Pt atoms is affected by the nanoparticles design, thus providing a firm structural basis for understanding their properties. The work is a step forward in expanding the limits of applicability of nontraditional XRD to the rapidly growing field of materials of unusual structural complexity.

V. Petkov and S. D. Shastri

2010-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

159

DOI: 10.1002/chem.200702012 Properties of Alkali Metal Atoms Deposited on a MgO Surface: A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, such as in tungsten bronzes, this may turn a wide-gap insulating oxide into a material with metallic conductivity, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) on the surface of MgO powders and thin films has been stud- ied by means of EPR. These reductions in the hfccs are due to polarization effects and are not connected to ionization of the alkali

Gao, Hongjun

160

Atomizing nozzle and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

High pressure atomizing nozzle includes a high pressure gas manifold having a divergent expansion chamber between a gas inlet and arcuate manifold segment to minimize standing shock wave patterns in the manifold and thereby improve filling of the manifold with high pressure gas for improved melt atomization. The atomizing nozzle is especially useful in atomizing rare earth-transition metal alloys to form fine powder particles wherein a majority of the powder particles exhibit particle sizes having near-optimum magnetic properties.

Anderson, I.E.; Figliola, R.S.; Molnar, H.M.

1993-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Microalloying of transition metal silicides by mechanical activation and field-activated reaction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Alloys of transition metal suicides that contain one or more alloying elements are fabricated by a two-stage process involving mechanical activation as the first stage and densification and field-activated reaction as the second stage. Mechanical activation, preferably performed by high-energy planetary milling, results in the incorporation of atoms of the alloying element(s) into the crystal lattice of the transition metal, while the densification and field-activated reaction, preferably performed by spark plasma sintering, result in the formation of the alloyed transition metal silicide. Among the many advantages of the process are its ability to accommodate materials that are incompatible in other alloying methods.

Munir, Zuhair A. (Davis, CA); Woolman, Joseph N. (Davis, CA); Petrovic, John J. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

162

Atomic Diffusion in the Uranium-50wt% Zirconium Nuclear Fuel System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atomic diffusion phenomena were examined in a metal-alloy nuclear fuel system composed of ?-phase U-50wt%Zr fuel in contact with either Zr-10wt%Gd or Zr-10wt%Er. Each alloy was fabricated from elemental feed material via melt-casting, and diffusion...

Eichel, Daniel

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

163

Line patterning of (Sr,Ba)Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} crystals in borate glasses by transition metal atom heat processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Some NiO-doped Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3},La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SrO-BaO-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glasses giving the formation of strontium barium niobate Sr{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} (SBN) crystals with a tetragonal tungsten-bronze structure through conventional crystallization in an electric furnace have been developed, and SBN crystal lines have been patterned on the glass surface by heat-assisted (250-300 deg. C) laser irradiation and scanning of continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser (wavelength: 1064 nm). The surface morphology and the quality of SBN crystal lines are examined from measurements of confocal scanning laser micrographs and polarized micro-Raman scattering spectra. The surface morphology of SBN crystal lines changes from periodic bump structures to homogeneous structures, depending on laser scanning conditions. It is suggested that the line patterned at the laser irradiation condition of laser power P=1 W and of laser scanning speed S=1 {mu}m/s in 2NiO-4La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-16SrO-16BaO-32Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-30B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass has a possibility of the orientation of SBN crystals along the laser scanning direction. The present study demonstrates that the transition metal atom heat processing (i.e., a combination of cw Nd:YAG laser and Ni{sup 2+} ions) is a novel technique for spatially selected crystallization of SBN crystals in glass. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the polarization optical (a) and confocal scanning laser (b) micrographs for the sample obtained by heat-assisted (300 deg. C) Nd:YAG laser irradiation with a laser power of P=1 W and laser scanning speed of S=1 {mu}m/s in Glass C. The figure demonstrates that the transition metal atom heat processing (i.e., a combination of cw Nd:YAG laser and Ni{sup 2+} ions) is a novel technique for spatially selected crystallization of SBN crystals in glass.

Sato, M.; Honma, T.; Benino, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Komatsu, T. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)], E-mail: komatsu@mst.nagaokaut.ac.jp

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

164

Pressure-induced phase transformations in alkali-metal hydrides calculated using an improved linear-muffin-tin-orbitalatomic-sphere-approximation energy scheme  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A scheme for the calculation of total energies from first principles is described which is intermediate between the popular linear muffin-tin-orbital method in the atomic-sphere approximation (LMTO-ASA) and an exact full-potential treatment. The local-density total energy is evaluated accurately for the output charge density from the ASA potential. This method is applied to the study of static structural properties and the pressure-induced phase transformation from B1 (NaCl-structure) to B2 (CsCl-structure) phases for the partially ionic alkaki-metal hydrides NaH and KH and the alkali halide NaCl. Good agreement with experimental transition pressures and volumes is obtained. The series NaH, KH, and NaCl shows the observed strong cation and weak anion dependence. Charge densities and band structures are given at zero and high pressure. Calculated energy-volume curves for LiH show no transition up to 1 Mbar, in agreement with experimental data.

C. O. Rodriguez and M. Methfessel

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Measurement of the Spin-Orbit Perturbation in the P-State Continuum of Heavy Alkali-Metal Atoms: K, Rb, and Cs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The spin-orbit interaction for the P-state continuum of heavy alkali metals was investigated in a photoionization experiment using spin-polarized alkali atoms and circularly polarized light. From the asymmetry in ion-counting rates corresponding to the two photon helicities, Fano's spin-orbit perturbation parameter x was determined over a range of several hundred angstroms for K, Rb, and Cs. The spin-orbit perturbation was found to increase from K to Rb to Cs as expected, and the nonlinear behavior of x as a function of the photon energy E was demonstrated for K. Knowledge of x(E) was used to establish accurate values for the position of the Cooper minimum and to estimate the magnitude of the cross section at the minimum. In addition, the x(E) data for Cs were used to gain information about the spin polarization of photoelectrons in a Fano-type polarized electron source. Finally, extrapolation of x(E) for cesium into the discrete spectrum indicated the existence of a pole in the function ?(E) which corresponds to the doublet line-strength ratio ?(EnP)=S(nP32)S(nP12) at the discrete energies EnP. According to our extrapolation, the pole lies in the region of n=10to15, in agreement with the early spectroscopic work of Sambursky (1928) and Beutell (1939), whose measurements were discounted by later investigators.

G. Baum; M. S. Lubell; W. Raith

1972-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Uncertainty Measurement for Trace Element Analysis of Uranium and Plutonium Samples by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The measurement uncertainty estimatino associated with trace element analysis of impurities in U and Pu was evaluated using the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty Measurement (GUM). I this evalution the uncertainty sources were identified and standard uncertainties for the components were categorized as either Type A or B. The combined standard uncertainty was calculated and a coverage factor k = 2 was applied to obtain the expanded uncertainty, U. The ICP-AES and ICP-MS methods used were deveoped for the multi-element analysis of U and Pu samples. A typical analytical run consists of standards, process blanks, samples, matrix spiked samples, post digestion spiked samples and independent calibration verification standards. The uncertainty estimation was performed on U and Pu samples that have been analyzed previously as part of the U and Pu Sample Exchange Programs. Control chart results and data from the U and Pu metal exchange programs were combined with the GUM into a concentration dependent estimate of the expanded uncertainty. Comparison of trace element uncertainties obtained using this model was compared to those obtained for trace element results as part of the Exchange programs. This process was completed for all trace elements that were determined to be above the detection limit for the U and Pu samples.

Gallimore, David L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

167

Microwave Plasma Monitoring System For Real-Time Elemental Analysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

air for the presence of minor amounts of elements, particularly transition metals, rare earth elements, actinides, and alkali and alkaline earth elements. The invention apparatus...

168

Questions and Answers - What is an element? How many elements are there?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

An example of indirect evidenceused to study atoms? An example of indirect evidence<br>used to study atoms? Previous Question (An example of indirect evidence used to study atoms?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (What is the difference between atoms and elements?) What is the difference betweenatoms and elements? What is an element? How many elements are there? An element is a substance that is made entirely from one type of atom. For example, the element hydrogen is made from atoms containing a single proton and a single electron. If you change the number of protons an atom has, you change the type of element it is. If you had very, very good eyes and could look at the atoms in a sample of hydrogen, you would notice that most of the hydrogen atoms would have no neutrons, some of them would have one neutron and a few of them would have

169

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic physics methods Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

element method in multiscale computation with applications to carbon nanotubes Summary: -dimensional atomic chain. ATOMIC-SCALE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD IN... PHYSICAL REVIEW B 72,...

170

Josephson junction element  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sandwich-type josephson junction element wherein a counter electrode is made of a mo-re alloy which contains 10-90 atomic-% of re. The josephson junction element has a high operating temperature, and any deterioration thereof attributed to a thermal cycle is not noted.

Kawabe, U.; Tarutani, Y.; Yamada, H.

1982-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

171

Shape-selective catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch chemistry : atomic layer deposition of active catalytic metals. Activity report : January 1, 2005 - September 30, 2005.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is carrying out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (FT) chemistry - specifically, the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to needing high activity, it is desirable that the catalysts have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. The broad goal is to produce diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. Originally the goal was to prepare shape-selective catalysts that would limit the formation of long-chain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected 'cage.' Such catalysts were prepared with silica-containing fractal cages. The activity was essentially the same as that of catalysts without the cages. We are currently awaiting follow-up experiments to determine the attrition strength of these catalysts. A second experimental stage was undertaken to prepare and evaluate active FT catalysts formed by atomic-layer deposition [ALD] of active components on supported membranes and particulate supports. The concept was that of depositing active metals (i.e. ruthenium, iron or cobalt) upon membranes with well defined flow channels of small diameter and length such that the catalytic activity and product molecular weight distribution could be controlled. In order to rapidly evaluate the catalytic membranes, the ALD coating processes were performed in an 'exploratory mode' in which ALD procedures from the literature appropriate for coating flat surfaces were applied to the high surface area membranes. Consequently, the Fe and Ru loadings in the membranes were likely to be smaller than those expected for complete monolayer coverage. In addition, there was likely to be significant variation in the Fe and Ru loading among the membranes due to difficulties in nucleating these materials on the aluminum oxide surfaces. The first series of experiments using coated membranes demonstrated that the technology needed further improvement. Specifically, observed catalytic FT activity was low. This low activity appeared to be due to: (1) low available surface area, (2) atomic deposition techniques that needed improvements, and (3) insufficient preconditioning of the catalyst surface prior to FT testing. Therefore, experimentation was expanded to the use of particulate silica supports having defined channels and reasonably high surface area. This later experimentation will be discussed in the next progress report. Subsequently, we plan to evaluate membranes after the ALD techniques are improved with a careful study to control and quantify the Fe and Ru loadings. The preconditioning of these surfaces will also be further developed. (A number of improvements have been made with particulate supports; they will be discussed in the subsequent report.) In support of the above, there was an opportunity to undertake a short study of cobalt/promoter/support interaction using the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne. Five catalysts and a reference cobalt oxide were characterized during a temperature programmed EXAFS/XANES experimental study with the combined effort of Argonne and the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) of the University of Kentucky. This project was completed, and it resulted in an extensive understanding of the preconditioning step of reducing Co-containing FT catalysts. A copy of the resulting manuscript has been submitted and accepted for publication. A similar project was undertaken with iron-containing FT catalysts; the data is currently being studied.

Cronauer, D. C. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

172

Improved graphite furnace atomizer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A graphite furnace atomizer for use in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy is described wherein the heating elements are affixed near the optical path and away from the point of sample deposition, so that when the sample is volatilized the spectroscopic temperature at the optical path is at least that of the volatilization temperature, whereby analyteconcomitant complex formation is advantageously reduced. The atomizer may be elongated along its axis to increase the distance between the optical path and the sample deposition point. Also, the atomizer may be elongated along the axis of the optical path, whereby its analytical sensitivity is greatly increased.

Siemer, D.D.

1983-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

173

Extensive Interstitial Solid Solutions of Metals in Metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new type of metallic solid solution has been prepared in which <~12.5 at.% of comparatively small metal atoms (Cu) fill interstitial sites in a host metal composed of larger atoms (Y). At higher solute concentrations, both interstitial and substitutional sites are occupied. These solid solutions are metastable; they were formed by ultrarapid quenching from the liquid.

B. C. Giessen; R. Ray; S. H. Hahn

1971-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Atomic magnetometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which uses a pump light beam at a D1 or D2 transition of an alkali metal vapor to magnetically polarize the vapor in a heated cell, and a probe light beam at a different D2 or D1 transition to sense the magnetic field via a polarization rotation of the probe light beam. The pump and probe light beams are both directed along substantially the same optical path through an optical waveplate and through the heated cell to an optical filter which blocks the pump light beam while transmitting the probe light beam to one or more photodetectors which generate electrical signals to sense the magnetic field. The optical waveplate functions as a quarter waveplate to circularly polarize the pump light beam, and as a half waveplate to maintain the probe light beam linearly polarized.

Schwindt, Peter (Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, Cort N. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

175

Calculations of atomic sputtering and displacement cross-sections in solid elements by electrons with energies from threshold to 1. 5 MV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of knock-on collisions of relativistic electrons with nuclei and details of the numerical evaluation of differential, recoil, and total Mott cross-sections are reviewed and discussed. The effects of electron beam induced displacement and sputtering, in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) environment, on microanalysis are analyzed with particular emphasis placed on the removal of material by knock-on sputtering. The mass loss predicted due to transmission knock-on sputtering is significant for many elements under conditions frequently encountered in microanalysis. Total Mott cross-sections are tabulated for all naturally occurring solid elements up to Z = 92 at displacement energies of one, two, four, and five times the sublimation energy and for accelerating voltages accessible in the transmission electron microscope. Fortran source code listings for the calculation of the differential Mott cross-section as a function of electron scattering angle (dMottCS), as a function of nuclear recoil angle (RECOIL), and the total Mott cross-section (TOTCS) are included. 48 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

Bradley, C.R.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Method for preparing metal powder, device for preparing metal powder, method for processing spent nuclear fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing metal powder is provided the comprising supplying a molten bath containing a reducing agent, contacting a metal oxide with the molten bath for a time and at a temperature sufficient to reduce the metal in the metal oxide to elemental metal and produce free oxygen; and isolating the elemental metal from the molten bath.

Park, Jong-Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

177

Stability diagrams for fourfold coordination of polyvalent metal ions in molten mixtures of halide salts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The stability of local fourfold coordination for divalent and trivalent metal ions in liquid mixtures of polyvalent metal halides and alkali halides is classified by means of structural coordinates obtained from properties of the elements. In parallel with earlier classifications of compound crystal structures and molecular shapes, the elemental properties are taken from first-principles calculations of valence electron orbitals in atoms, in the form of (i) the nodal radii of Andreoni, Baldereschi and Guizzetti or (ii) the pseudopotential radii or Zunger and Cohen. As a third alternative a classification based on Pettifor's phenomenological chemical scale of the elements is also considered. The alternative structural classification schemes that are developed from these elemental properties are generally successfully in distinguishing molten mixtures in which the available experimental evidence indicates long-lived fourfold coordination of polyvalent metal ions. In addition, Pettifor's chemical scale scheme is useful in sorting out finer details of local coordination in the liquid state. 3 figs., 71 refs.

Akdeniz, Z. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy) Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics); Tosi, M.P. (Trieste Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

The discovery of plutonium reorganized the periodic table and aided the discovery of new elements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The modern Periodic Table derives principally from the work of the great Russian scientist Dimitri Mendeleev, who in 1869 enunciated a 'periodic law' that the properties of the elements are a periodic function of their atomic weights, and arranged the 65 known elements in a 'periodic table'. Fundamentally, every column in the main body of the Periodic Table is a grouping of elements that display similar chemical and physical behavior. Similar properties are therefore exhibited by elements with widely different mass. Chemical periodicity is central to the study of chemistry, and no other generalization comes close to its ability to systematize and rationalize known chemical facts. With the development of atomic theory, and an understanding of the electronic structure of atoms, chemical periodicity and the periodic table now find their natural explanation in the electronic structure of atoms. Moving from left to right along any row, the elements are arranged sequentially according to nuclear charge (the atomic number). Electrons counter balance that nuclear charge, hence each successive element has one more electron in its configuration. The electron configuration, or distribution of electrons among atomic orbitals, may be determined by application of the Pauli principle (paired spin in the same orbital) and the aufbau principle (which outlines the order of filling of electrons into shells of orbitals - s, p, d, f, etc.) such that in a given atom, no two electrons may have all four quantum numbers identical. In 1939, only three elements were known to be heavier than actinium: thorium, protactinium, and uranium. All three exhibited variable oxidation states and a complex chemistry. Thorium, protactinium and uranium were assumed to be d-transition metals and were placed in the Periodic Table under hafnium, tantalum, and tungsten, respectively. By 1940, McMillan and Abelson bombarded uranium atoms with slow neutrons and successfully identified atoms of element 93, which they named neptunium after the planet Neptune. This rapidly set the stage for the discovery of the next succeeding element, plutonium (Seaborg, McMillan, Kennedy, and Wahl, 1940), named after the next planet away from the Sun, Pluto. The newly discovered elements were presumed to fit comfortably in the Periodic Table under rhenium and osmium, respectively. However, subsequent tracer chemical experiments showed that neptunium and plutonium were closer in their chemical properties to uranium than their presumed homologues, rhenium and osmium. Spectroscopic evidence also indicated that the new elements were not typical transition elements, but had f-electrons in their valence shell. Thus, several researchers, including McMillan and Wahl, and Zachariasen at Los Alamos, suggested that these elements might be part of a second inner-transition series in which the 5f-electron subshell was being filled. It was not clear, however, where the new series would begin. McMillian had proposed a 'uraninide series' that started with neptunium, but attempts to isolate elements with atomic numbers 95 and 96 based on assumed similarities to uranium were unsuccessful. Both Wahl and Zacharias en had proposed a thoride series that started with protactinium. In 1944, Seaborg proposed that the series started with thorium, and that all of the elements heavier than actinium constituted an 'actinide' series similar to the lanthanides. Because the 5f-shell began filling in the same relative position as the 4f-shell, the electronic configuration of elements in the two series would be similar. Guided by the hypothesis that elements 95 and 96 were homologues of europium and gadolinium, new experiments were designed and the elements were uniquely synthesized and separated from all others. The new elements were subsequently named americium and curium. Seaborg's 'Actinide Concept' thus played a major role in the discovery of the transplutonium elements. It provided the framework that supported synthesis, isolation, and identification of the succeeding actinide elements berkelium through lawrenci

Clark, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Chemical characterization of element 112  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... directly comparing the adsorption characteristics of 283112 to that of mercury and the noble gas radon, we find that element 112 is very volatile and, unlike ... , we find that element 112 is very volatile and, unlike radon, reveals a metallic interaction with the gold surface. These adsorption characteristics establish element 112 ...

R. Eichler; N. V. Aksenov; A. V. Belozerov; G. A. Bozhikov; V. I. Chepigin; S. N. Dmitriev; R. Dressler; H. W. Gggeler; V. A. Gorshkov; F. Haenssler; M. G. Itkis; A. Laube; V. Ya. Lebedev; O. N. Malyshev; Yu. Ts. Oganessian; O. V. Petrushkin; D. Piguet; P. Rasmussen; S. V. Shishkin; A. V. Shutov; A. I. Svirikhin; E. E. Tereshatov; G. K. Vostokin; M. Wegrzecki; A. V. Yeremin

2007-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

180

Bohr's model: Extreme atoms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... by bombarding atoms with accelerated protons, then slow them down by passing them through metallic foil, cool them with cold electrons and trap them with electromagnetic fields. A similar trap ... Curiosity and national pride undoubtedly have a role, with politicians and scientists both looking to stamp their country's name into a new box on the periodic table. But each ...

Richard Van Noorden

2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Promotion of atomic hydrogen recombination as an alternative to electron trapping for the role of metals in the photocatalytic production of H2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...interest in finding more economical alternatives. Based...semihemispherical electron energy analyzer and a 120-element...Photocatalytic water treatment: Solar energy applications . Sol Energy...Nanostructure architectures for solar energy conversion . J Phys Chem...

Ji Bong Joo; Robert Dillon; Ilkeun Lee; Yadong Yin; Christopher J. Bardeen; Francisco Zaera

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Structure, electronic and magnetic properties of hexagonal boron nitride sheets doped by 5d transition metal atoms: First-principles calculations and molecular orbital analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A first-principles calculation based on density functional theory is carried out to reveal the geometry, electronic structures and magnetic properties of hexagonal boron nitride sheets (h-BNSs) doped by 5d transitional mental atoms (Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au and Hg) at boron-site (B5d) and nitrogen-site (N5d). Results of pure h-BNS, h-BNS with B vacancy (VB) and N vacancy (VN) are also given for comparison. It is shown that all the h-BNSs doped with 5d atoms possess a \\{C3v\\} local symmetry except for \\{NLu\\} and \\{NHg\\} which have a clear deviation. For the same 5d dopant, the binding energy of \\{B5d\\} is larger than that of N5d, which indicates the substitution of a 5d atom for B is preferred. The total densities of states are presented, where impurity energy levels exist. Besides, the total magnetic moments (TMMs) change regularly with the increment of the 5d atomic number. Theoretical analyses by molecular orbital under \\{C3v\\} symmetry explain the impurity energy levels and TMMs.

Zhaofu Zhang; Zhaohui Geng; Danyun Cai; Tongxi Pan; Yixin Chen; Liyuan Dong; Tiege Zhou

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C4, supplment au n" 4, Tome 40, avril 1979, page C4-130 Calculated atomic volumes of the actinide metals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. It is possible to account for the localization of the 5f electrons taking place in americium. In recent years to americium that a stable spin-polarized state is found. In fact the f-state in americium is found to be fully the localized f^-state in americium and the corres- ponding calculated atomic volume agree quite well

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

184

Resistive hydrogen sensing element  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods are described for providing a hydrogen sensing element with a more robust exposed metallization by application of a discontinuous or porous overlay to hold the metallization firmly on the substrate. An apparatus includes: a substantially inert, electrically-insulating substrate; a first Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and completely covered by a substantially hydrogen-impermeable layer so as to form a reference resistor on the substrate; a second Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and at least a partially accessible to a gas to be tested, so as to form a hydrogen-sensing resistor; a protective structure disposed upon at least a portion of the second Pd containing metallization and at least a portion of the substrate to improve the attachment of the second Pd containing metallization to the substrate while allowing the gas to contact said the second Pd containing metallization; and a resistance bridge circuit coupled to both the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The circuit determines the difference in electrical resistance between the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The hydrogen concentration in the gas may be determined. The systems and methods provide advantages because adhesion is improved without adversely effecting measurement speed or sensitivity.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Exploration of R2XM2 (R=Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, rare earth; X=main group element; M=transition metal, Si, Ge): Structural Motifs, the novel Compound Gd2AlGe2 and Analysis of the U3Si2 and Zr3Al2 Structure Types  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the process of exploring and understanding the influence of crystal structure on the system of compounds with the composition Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} several new compounds were synthesized with different crystal structures, but similar structural features. In Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4}, the main feature of interest is the magnetocaloric effect (MCE), which allows the material to be useful in magnetic refrigeration applications. The MCE is based on the magnetic interactions of the Gd atoms in the crystal structure, which varies with x (the amount of Si in the compound). The crystal structure of Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} can be thought of as being formed from two 3{sup 2}434 nets of Gd atoms, with additional Gd atoms in the cubic voids and Si/Ge atoms in the trigonal prismatic voids. Attempts were made to substitute nonmagnetic atoms for magnetic Gd using In, Mg and Al. Gd{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} and Gd{sub 2}InGe{sub 2} both possess the same 3{sup 2}434 nets of Gd atoms as Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4}, but these nets are connected differently, forming the Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2} crystal structure. A search of the literature revealed that compounds with the composition R{sub 2}XM{sub 2} (R=Sc, Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, rare earth; X=main group element; M=transition metal, Si, Ge) crystallize in one of four crystal structures: the Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2}, Zr{sub 3}Al{sub 2}, Mn{sub 2}AlB{sub 2} and W{sub 2}CoB{sub 2} crystal structures. These crystal structures are described, and the relationships between them are highlighted. Gd{sub 2}AlGe{sub 2} forms an entirely new crystal structure, and the details of its synthesis and characterization are given. Electronic structure calculations are performed to understand the nature of bonding in this compound and how electrons can be accounted for. A series of electronic structure calculations were performed on models with the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} and Zr{sub 3}Al{sub 2} structures, using Zr and A1 as the building blocks. The starting point for these models was the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} structure, and models were created to simulate the transition from the idealized U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} structure to the distorted Zr{sub 3}Al{sub 2} structure. Analysis of the band structures of the models has shown that the transition from the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} structure to the Zr{sub 3}Al{sub 2} structure lifts degeneracies along the {Lambda} {yields} Z direction, indicating a Peierls-type mechanism for the displacement occurring in the positions of the Zr atoms.

Sean William McWhorter

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Dissolution of inert gas in a metal alloy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A metal powder is produced by inert gas atomization processes. The atomizon process is regulated to provide a preselected level of inert gas alloyed in the metal.

Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Korth, Gary E. (Blackfoot, ID); Wright, Richard N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Clark, Denis E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Loop, Richard B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Effects of alloying elements on the strength and cooling rate sensitivity of ultra-low carbon alloy steel weld metals. Technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of weld cooling rate on the strength of autogenous GTAW deposited weld metal. The basic weld metal composition was based on a low carbon bainite metallurgical system. The weld metal yield strength goal was 130 ksi, needed to surpass the current HY-13O weld metal requirements. Vacuum Induction Melted (VIM) heats of steel were produced and processed into 3/4` thickness plates. The autogenous gas tungsten arc welds (GTAW) on the parent steel plates were produced under two different heat input conditions. Tensile specimens were produced from the weldments; specimens from certain heats were subjected to gleeble thermal simulations of multi-pass welding conditions using the Gleeble 1500. All specimens were then evaluated for yield and ultimate tensile strength. From the data presented, it was found that the experimental compositions studied were less sensitive to cooling rate than current HY-130 welding consumables. The compositions tested approached the target yield strength of 130 ksi, but further work is necessary in this area.

Vassilaros, M.G.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The same atomization effect seen in a fuel injector is being applied to titanium metal resulting in fine titanium powders that are less than half the width of a human hair. Titanium melts above 3,000F and is highly corrosive therefore requiring specialized containers. The liquid titanium is poured through an Ames Laboratory - USDOE patented tube which is intended to increase the energy efficiency of the atomization process, which has the ability to dramatically decrease the cost of fine titanium powders. This novel process could open markets for green manufacturing of titanium components from jet engines to biomedical implants.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Hadronic Atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We review the theory of hadronic atoms in QCD+QED. The non-relativistic effective Lagrangian approach, used to describe this type of bound states, is illustrated with the case of pi+pi- atoms. In addition, we discuss the evaluation of isospin-breaking corrections to hadronic atom observables by invoking chiral perturbation theory.

J. Gasser; V. E. Lyubovitskij; A. Rusetsky

2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

190

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic clusters Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Brenner potential, the clustering process starting from 500 isolated carbon atoms in gas phase... clustering process with addition of 1 % of metal atoms was compared with the...

191

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic clusters rb12 Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Brenner potential, the clustering process starting from 500 isolated carbon atoms in gas phase... clustering process with addition of 1 % of metal atoms was compared with the...

192

Model for verification of measurement results in electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a practical application of a phenomenological model for physicochemical atomization processes in determining heavy metal content by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparison of the a...

V. Yu. Ilyashenko; Yu. V. Rogulsky; A. N. Kulik

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Neural induced embryoid bodies present high levels of metals detected by x-ray microfluorescence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molecular mechanisms driving neural differentiation in human embryonic stem cells are not completely elucidated, specially, the role of atomic elements within this process. In this work, we described the distribution of trace elements in those stem cells growing as embryoid bodies by using synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence (SR-XRF). Naive and neural induced embryoid bodies derived from embryonic stem cells were irradiated with a spatial resolution of 20 {mu}m to make elemental maps and qualitative chemical analyses. We consistently detected metallic elements content raise on neural induced embryoid bodies, mimicking characteristic brain development. The use of SR-XRF reveals that human embryoid bodies exhibit self-organization at the atomic level, which is enhanced during neurogenesis triggered in vitro.

Stelling, Mariana P.; Cardoso, Simone C.; Paulsen, Bruna S.; Rehen, Stevens K. [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas, 373 (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos, 14, 21941 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Carlos Chagas, 373 (Brazil)

2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

194

THE NEW ELEMENT BERKELIUM (ATOMIC NUMBER 97)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Albert Ghiorso, and Glenn T. Seaborg April 26, 1950 'ThisAlbert Ghiorso, and Glenn T. Seaborg Radiation Laboratory

Thompson, S.G.; Ghiorso, A.; Seaborg, G.T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

THE NEW ELEMENT BERKELIUM (ATOMIC NUMBER 97)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the bombardment of the americium samples of Professor J.the helium-ion bombardment of americium. This isotope decaysit must be produced 0 Americium is very difficult and curium

Thompson, S.G.; Ghiorso, A.; Seaborg, G.T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 86, 053401 (2012) Electric-field sensing near the surface microstructure of an atom chip using cold Rydberg atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of an atom chip using cold Rydberg atoms J. D. Carter, O. Cherry, and J. D. D. Martin Department of Physics fields near the heterogeneous metal-dielectric surface of an atom chip were measured using cold atoms. The atomic sensitivity to electric fields was enhanced by exciting the atoms to Rydberg states that are 108

Le Roy, Robert J.

197

Simultaneous mobilization of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds from soil with a nonionic surfactant and [S,S]-EDDS in admixture: Metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study evaluated the efficacy of soil washing with a nonionic surfactant (Brij98) in combination with a complexing reagent (ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid, [S,S]-EDDS) for the simultaneous mobilization of macro- and trace elements (MTEs) and PAH compounds from a field-contaminated soil. Soil fractionation studies indicated that an appreciable fraction of the Al, Ca, Cu, Fe and Mn was associated with the residual fraction but that much of the other trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn) might be susceptible to soil washing. Ultrasonically aided mixing of the field contaminated soil with Brij98 and a sparing quantity (2mmol) of [S,S]-EDDS, simultaneously mobilized virtually all of the benzo[?]pyrene {B(a)P} and chrysene (CRY) and appreciable quantities of the trace elements (Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) burdens. The recovery of both \\{PAHs\\} and trace elements were increased from the soil organic matter (SOM)-rich soil. This report concerns the fate of \\{MTEs\\} during soil washing. Multiple ultra-sonically aided washes (five or nine) with the same dosage of reagents mobilized virtually all of \\{PAHs\\} and decreased the levels of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn to comply with recommended maxima. By contrast, the levels of As and Cu remained excessive after the treatments.

Yuexiang Wen; William D. Marshall

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Tuning From Half-Metallic to Semiconducting Behavior in SiC Nanoribbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Half-metallic nanoscale conductors, highly sought after for spintronic applications, are usually realized through metal elements, chemical doping, or external electric fields. By means of local and hybrid density functional theory calculations, we identify pristine zigzag silicon carbide nanoribbons (zSiC-NRs) with bare edges as a metal-free monolayered material that exhibits intrinsic half-metallic behavior without chemical doping or external electric field. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the half-metallicity is robust at room temperature. We also demonstrate that edge termination with O and S atoms transforms the zSiC-NRs into a full metal or a semiconducting material, respectively, due to the presence of O dimerization only on the Si edge and of S trimerization on both Si and C edges, the latter being driven by an unusual Peierls-like distortion along the functionalizing S atoms. The rich electronic properties displayed by zSiC-NRs may open new perspectives for spintronic applications using layered, metal-free, and light atom material.

Lopez-Benzanilla, Alejandro [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Kent, Paul R [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

L{sub g}?=?100?nm In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As quantum well metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with atomic layer deposited beryllium oxide as interfacial layer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we have fabricated nanometer-scale channel length quantum-well (QW) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) incorporating beryllium oxide (BeO) as an interfacial layer. BeO has high thermal stability, excellent electrical insulating characteristics, and a large band-gap, which make it an attractive candidate for use as a gate dielectric in making MOSFETs. BeO can also act as a good diffusion barrier to oxygen owing to its small atomic bonding length. In this work, we have fabricated In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As MOS capacitors with BeO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and compared their electrical characteristics. As interface passivation layer, BeO/HfO{sub 2} bilayer gate stack presented effective oxide thickness less 1 nm. Furthermore, we have demonstrated In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As QW MOSFETs with a BeO/HfO{sub 2} dielectric, showing a sub-threshold slope of 100?mV/dec, and a transconductance (g{sub m,max}) of 1.1 mS/?m, while displaying low values of gate leakage current. These results highlight the potential of atomic layer deposited BeO for use as a gate dielectric or interface passivation layer for IIIV MOSFETs at the 7?nm technology node and/or beyond.

Koh, D., E-mail: dh.koh@utexas.edu, E-mail: Taewoo.Kim@sematech.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); SEMATECH, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Kwon, H. M. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T.-W., E-mail: dh.koh@utexas.edu, E-mail: Taewoo.Kim@sematech.org; Veksler, D.; Gilmer, D.; Kirsch, P. D. [SEMATECH, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Kim, D.-H. [SEMATECH, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Hudnall, Todd W. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas, 78666 (United States); Bielawski, Christopher W. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Maszara, W. [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Santa Clara, California 95054 (United States); Banerjee, S. K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

200

Ultra-sensitive bolometers for atomic hydrogen detection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two different types of bolometers have been developed to be used for spin-polarized atomic hydrogen detection. One of them uses a thin Cu shell as the absorber and a doped Ge chip as the thermometer element. The other uses a silver film as the absorber and a superconductor-insulator-normal metal junction to measure the temperature rise of the electrons in the absorber. These bolometers have a calculated noise equivalent power of {approximately} 10{sup -15} WHz{sup -1/2}and {approximately} 10{sup -17} WHz{sup -1/2}, respectively, and can detect down to {approximately} 6 x 10{sup 3} and 800 particles, respectively, at an operating temperature of 100 mK. If these detectors perform as predicted, the minimum number of detectable hydrogen atoms will be improved by several orders of magnitude.

Bonalde, I.J.; Brill, T.M.; Nahum, M.; Silvera, I.F. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Metallic glass composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A metallic glass alloy that is either iron-based or nickel-based or based on a mixture of iron and nickel, containing lesser amounts of elements selected from the group boron, silicon carbon and phosphorous to which is added an amount of a ductility enhancing element selected from the group cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium sufficient to increase ductility of the metallic glass upon annealing.

Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Koch, Carl C. (Raleigh, NC)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

The Electrical Resistance of Metals.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrical Resistance of Eighteen Elements.The paper contains a brief summary of an extensive series of measurements which are to be published in detail elsewhere made to determine the effect of pressures up to 12000 kg. per sq. cm. and of temperatures from 0 to 275 C. on the resistance of lithium, sodium, potassium, gallium, bismuth, mercury, calcium, strontium, magnesium, titanium, zirconium, arsenic, tungsten, lanthannum, neodymium, carbon (amorphous and graphitic), silicon, and black phosphorus. The data for tungsten and magnesium are improvements on data previously published; the data for the other substances are new. The first six of these elements were studied in both the liquid and the solid states. The pressure coefficients of solid calcium, solid strontium, and both solid and liquid lithium are positive; the coefficient of bismuth is positive in the solid state, but negative in the liquid.Modified Electron Theory of Metallic Conduction.A previous theoretical discussion of measurements of the effect of pressure on resistance suggested most strongly that in metallic conduction the electrons pass through the substance of the atoms, and that the mechanism by which resistance is produced is intimately connected with the amplitude of atomic vibration. This view is here given quantitative form. The classical expression for conductivity, ?=(e22m)(nlv), is retained; the number of free electrons is supposed to remain constant, their velocity is taken to be that of a gas particle of the same mass and temperature, and their mean free path is supposed to be many times the distance between atomic centers. The variations of path are then computed in terms of the variations of amplitude, and thus the variations of resistance are obtained and checked with experimental results. It is shown that the theory in this form explains Ohm's law, gives the correct temperature coefficient and the most important part of the pressure coefficient, avoids the difficulty of the classical theory with reference to specific heats, indicates a vanishing resistance at low temperatures, leaving open the possibility of super-conductivity, and retains the classical expression for the Wiedemann-Franz ratio. Besides these quantitative checks, the theory is shown to be entirely consistent qualitatively with all the new data; in fact, many of these new results, particularly the effect of pressure and temperature on the relative resistance of solid and liquid, seem to demand uniquely this conception of metallic conduction.

P. W. Bridgman

1921-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Gas Atomization of Stainless Steel - Slow Motion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stainless steel liquid atomized by supersonic argon gas into a spray of droplets at ~1800C. Atomization of metal requires high pressure gas and specialized chambers for cooling and collecting the powders without contamination. The critical step for morphological control is the impingement of the gas on the melt stream. The video is a black and white high speed video of a liquid metal stream being atomized by high pressure gas. This material was atomized at the Ames Laboratory's Materials Preparation Center http://www.mpc.ameslab.gov

None

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Semiclassical atom  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Semiclassical quantization is incorporated into the average potential approach to atomic physics. The stationary energy functional is shown to be the sum of the Thomas-Fermi functional and a mainly oscillatory part. The latter turns out to be a small correction for sufficiently large atomic numbers, allowing perturbative treatment. Further, a detailed study of semiclassical spectra, with emphasis on energy degeneracy, is performed.

Berthold-Georg Englert and Julian Schwinger

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Transition Metal Ions in the Gas Phase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For several years we have been studying the chemistry of atomic transition metal ions with simple organic molecules. This research was ... examining the consequences of oxidation and reduction of transition metal...

Douglas P. Ridge

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Nuclear fusion in muonic molecules and in deuterated metals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Study of the fusion reactions between hydrogen isotopes in muonic molecules is the first example of the accurate accounting of the nucleus charge screening by a muon in the fusion process. At LUNA installation the measurements of astrophysical reaction cross sections were extended down to collision energies of a few keV. The screening by atomic electrons of the target became substantial. The possibility to look over screening from unbound electrons is given by metal-hydrides used as targets in dd reaction measurements. The classical Debye screening in plasma, applied to quasi-free electrons in metal, provides an explanation of unexpectedly large screening potentials found for some metals in the research through the Periodic table of elements.

L. N. Bogdanova

2008-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

207

Solid-Liquid and Solid-Solid Transformations in the Rare-Earth Metals at High Pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fusion behavior and solid-solid transformations in the rare-earth metals have been investigated at pressures in the range 6-65 kbar. The phase diagrams are presented for La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, and Tb. The initial melting slopes of Dy to Lu have been obtained. Since most of the rare-earth (R.E.) metals melt from a bcc structure, they offer a series for comparison. When the initial melting slope is plotted against atomic number they fall into groups according to their valency; the typically divalent metals Eu and Yb in one, and the typically trivalent metals La, Gd, and Lu in another. Samarium and the metals from Tb to Tm have melting slopes which are intermediate between those of the typically divalent and trivalent metals. It is suggested that these metals assume a partial divalent character in the liquid state and possibly also in the bcc phase. This suggestion derives support from the fact that the gaseous neutral atoms of the R.E. elements, with the exception of La, Gd, and Lu, have no 5d electron and are therefore divalent. Cerium exhibits a unique fusion behavior and its negative melting slope has been attributed to the tetravalency (4f?5d electron promotion) of the atoms in the liquid. For the very small melting slope of Pr, it is suggested that the atoms in the liquid have partial tetravalent character due to 4f?5d electron promotion. Comparisons with alkali metals are made and it is deduced that the R.E. metals are quite compressible at high temperatures. Pressure induced transformations in the rare-earth metals are in the sequence hcp?Sm-type?double hcp?fcc. A plausible mechanism based on the variation of ca ratio with pressure is discussed for hcp?Sm-type transformation.

A. Jayaraman

1965-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

208

Parent--daughter system: D Number of daughter atoms, today  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- t ) + # , - #12;) . Parent--daughter system: D = N0 ­N D ­ Number of daughter atoms, today N ­ Number of parent atoms, today N0 ­ Number of parent atoms, initially present N0 = D + N, hence: D + N = Net , or D = N et as atoms are transferred from the liquid melt to the solid crystal. Some of the elements incorporated

Siebel, Wolfgang

209

The Origin of the Elements  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The world around us is made of atoms. Did you ever wonder where these atoms came from? How was the gold in our jewelry, the carbon in our bodies, and the iron in our cars made? In this lecture, we will trace the origin of a gold atom from the Big Bang to the present day, and beyond. You will learn how the elements were forged in the nuclear furnaces inside stars, and how, when they die, these massive stars spread the elements into space. You will learn about the origin of the building blocks of matter in the Big Bang, and we will speculate on the future of the atoms around us today.

Murphy, Edward

2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

210

Anticipating the atom: popular perceptions of atomic power before Hiroshima  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to spontaneously generate light and heat. s Theory chased research after the turn of the century. Rutherford and his partner Frederick Soddy, in Montreal in 1902, noticed that the heaviest radioactive elements were slowly changing into lighter elements, throwing... the Atlantic. More importantly, in 1908, the final chapter of Frederick Soddy's The Jnterpretati on of Radium, a collection of six free popular lectures given at the University of Glasgow, speculated on the possibility of controlling the rate of atomic...

d'Emal, Jacques-Andre Christian

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

211

Electronic transport in atomically thin layered materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electronic transport in atomically thin layered materials has been a burgeoning field of study since the discovery of isolated single layer graphene in 2004. Graphene, a semi-metal, has a unique gapless Dirac-like band ...

Baugher, Britton William Herbert

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Observation of Metal-insulator and Metal-Metal Transitions in Hydrogen Iodide under Pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen iodide has been studied up to pressures of 70 GPa at low temperatures in a diamondanvil cell. Electrical-conductivity and optical measurements have been used to observe pressure-induced phase transitions which are interpreted as follows: First a metal-insulator transition takes place in the molecular solid; with increased pressure a metal-metal molecular-to-atomic transition occurs. An additional transition due to intrinsic impurities has been observed. Implications for metallic hydrogen are discussed.

J. van Straaten and Isaac F. Silvera

1986-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

213

AnnaFrebel! metal-poorstars!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-process element pattern!! #12;AnnaFrebel! metal-poorstars! New oscillator strengths of rare earth elements!! · Sneden, Lawler et al. 2009: New Rare Earth Element Abundance Distributions for the Sun and Five r-Process-Rich, Metal-Poor Stars, and Rare Earth Lab Data Summary · Lawler, Sneden et al. 2008: Improved Laboratory

214

Redistribution of alloying elements in Zircaloy-2 after in-reactor exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An atom probe tomography study of the microstructure of a Zircaloy-2 material subjected to 9 annual cycles of BWR exposure has been conducted. Upon dissolution of secondary phase particles, Fe and Cr are seen to reprecipitate in large numbers of clusters and particles of 15nm sizes throughout the Zr metal matrix. Fe and Sn were observed to segregate to ring-shaped features in the metal that are interpreted to be -component vacancy loops. This implies that these two elements play a major role in the irradiation growth phenomenon in Zr alloys, which is believed to be caused by the formation of -loops. Similarly to autoclave-corroded Zr alloys, the formation of a sub-oxide layer of approximate composition ZrO was observed. On the other hand, no oxygen saturated metal phase was detected underneath the oxide scale.

G. Sundell; M. Thuvander; P. Tejland; M. Dahlbck; L. Hallstadius; H.-O. Andrn

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric trace element Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: 6 2.0 Sources and Deposition of Trace Metals Trace elements enter the atmosphere via both natural... 5 Chapter 2: Sources and Deposition of Trace Metals...

216

Heavy Element Synthesis Reactions W. Loveland Oregon State University  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

heavy element synthesis reactions and heavy element properties * Hot (E*35-60 MeV) and Cold (E*15 MeV) fusion reactions * Multi-nucleon transfer reactions * Fission * Atomic...

217

Atom Interferometry  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton?s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

Mark Kasevich

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

218

X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF TRANSITION METAL-MAGNESIUM HYDRIDE FILMS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films T. J. Richardson a, *, B. Farangis a , J. L. Slack a , P. Nachimuthu b , R. Pereira b , N. Tamura b , and M. Rubin a a Environmental Energy Technologies Division, b Advanced Light Source, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, California 94720, USA *Corresponding author, E-mail address: tjrichardson@lbl.gov Abstract Mixed metal thin films containing magnesium and a first-row transition element exhibit very large changes in both reflectance and transmittance on exposure to hydrogen gas. Changes in electronic structure and coordination of the magnesium and transition metal atoms during hydrogen absorption were studied using dynamic in situ transmission mode X-ray absorption

219

Nucleosynthesis: Stellar and Solar Abundances and Atomic Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abundance observations indicate the presence of often surprisingly large amounts of neutron capture (i.e., s- and r-process) elements in old Galactic halo and globular cluster stars. These observations provide insight into the nature of the earliest generations of stars in the Galaxy -- the progenitors of the halo stars -- responsible for neutron-capture synthesis. Comparisons of abundance trends can be used to understand the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and the nature of heavy element nucleosynthesis. In addition age determinations, based upon long-lived radioactive nuclei abundances, can now be obtained. These stellar abundance determinations depend critically upon atomic data. Improved laboratory transition probabilities have been recently obtained for a number of elements. These new gf values have been used to greatly refine the abundances of neutron-capture elemental abundances in the solar photosphere and in very metal-poor Galactic halo stars. The newly determined stellar abundances are surprisingly consistent with a (relative) Solar System r-process pattern, and are also consistent with abundance predictions expected from such neutron-capture nucleosynthesis.

John J. Cowan; James E. Lawler; Christopher Sneden; E. A. Den Hartog; Jason Collier

2006-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

220

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal picrates Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

layers of alkali metals. 1. Introduction Optical... and Cu 6 by Chen et al. The adsorption of alkali atoms on transition metals is of great importance... . Secondharmonic...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Channel cracks in atomic-layer and molecular-layer deposited multilayer thin film coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal oxide thin film coatings produced by atomic layer deposition have been shown to be an effective permeation barrier. The primary failure mode of such coatings under tensile loads is the propagation of channel cracks that penetrate vertically into the coating films. Recently, multi-layer structures that combine the metal oxide material with relatively soft polymeric layers produced by molecular layer deposition have been proposed to create composite thin films with desired properties, including potentially enhanced resistance to fracture. In this paper, we study the effects of layer geometry and material properties on the critical strain for channel crack propagation in the multi-layer composite films. Using finite element simulations and a thin-film fracture mechanics formalism, we show that if the fracture energy of the polymeric layer is lower than that of the metal oxide layer, the channel crack tends to penetrate through the entire composite film, and dividing the metal oxide and polymeric materials into thinner layers leads to a smaller critical strain. However, if the fracture energy of the polymeric material is high so that cracks only run through the metal oxide layers, more layers can result in a larger critical strain. For intermediate fracture energy of the polymer material, we developed a design map that identifies the optimal structure for given fracture energies and thicknesses of the metal oxide and polymeric layers. These results can facilitate the design of mechanically robust permeation barriers, an important component for the development of flexible electronics.

Long, Rong, E-mail: rlongmech@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Dunn, Martin L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

222

Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Fleischhauer, Grier (Midlothian, VA); German, Randall M. (State College, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Memristor using a transition metal nitride insulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus is disclosed in which at least one resistive switching element is interposed between at least a first and a second conducting electrode element. The resistive switching element comprises a metal oxynitride. A method for making such a resistive switching element is also disclosed.

Stevens, James E; Marinella, Matthew; Lohn, Andrew John

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

224

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline-earth metal ions Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

. Noble metals 12;18 C.3. Alkaline earth metalsC.3. Alkaline earth metals 12;19 Elements: Ca, Sr, Ba (Be... . Alkaline earth metalsC.3. Alkaline ... Source: del Barco,...

225

Atom Probe Tomography | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atom Probe Tomography Atom Probe Tomography The LEAP 4000 XHR local electrode atom probe tomography instrument enabled the first-ever comprehensive and accurate 3-D chemical...

226

Element Crossword Puzzles  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Crossword Puzzles Crossword Puzzles Welcome to It's Elemental - Element Crossword Puzzles! Use the clues provided to solve each crossword puzzle. To place letters on the puzzle, first select the clue you are answering from the pull-down menu and then enter your answer in the text box. Press the 'return' key on your keyboard when you are done. Correct letters will be green while incorrect letters will be red. Good luck and have fun! If you are reading this, your browser is NOT running JavaScript. JavaScript MUST be enabled for this section of our site to work. Once you have turned JavaScript on, reload this page and this warning will go away. Puzzle 1 - It's a Gas! Puzzle 2 - Easy Symbols Puzzle 3 - Strange Symbols Puzzle 4 - Known to the Ancients Puzzle 5 - The Alkali Metals

227

Composite oxygen ion transport element  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Besecker, Charles J. (Batavia, IL); Chen, Hancun (Williamsville, NY); Robinson, Earil T. (Mentor, OH)

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

228

Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene Triple Junction Points. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene...

229

Higher-order adaptive finite-element methods for KohnSham density functional theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an efficient computational approach to perform real-space electronic structure calculations using an adaptive higher-order finite-element discretization of KohnSham density-functional theory (DFT). To this end, we develop an a priori mesh-adaption technique to construct a close to optimal finite-element discretization of the problem. We further propose an efficient solution strategy for solving the discrete eigenvalue problem by using spectral finite-elements in conjunction with GaussLobatto quadrature, and a Chebyshev acceleration technique for computing the occupied eigenspace. The proposed approach has been observed to provide a staggering 100200-fold computational advantage over the solution of a generalized eigenvalue problem. Using the proposed solution procedure, we investigate the computational efficiency afforded by higher-order finite-element discretizations of the KohnSham DFT problem. Our studies suggest that staggering computational savingsof the order of 1000-foldrelative to linear finite-elements can be realized, for both all-electron and local pseudopotential calculations, by using higher-order finite-element discretizations. On all the benchmark systems studied, we observe diminishing returns in computational savings beyond the sixth-order for accuracies commensurate with chemical accuracy, suggesting that the hexic spectral-element may be an optimal choice for the finite-element discretization of the KohnSham DFT problem. A comparative study of the computational efficiency of the proposed higher-order finite-element discretizations suggests that the performance of finite-element basis is competing with the plane-wave discretization for non-periodic local pseudopotential calculations, and compares to the Gaussian basis for all-electron calculations to within an order of magnitude. Further, we demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach to compute the electronic structure of a metallic system containing 1688 atoms using modest computational resources, and good scalability of the present implementation up to 192 processors.

Motamarri, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Nowak, M.R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Leiter, K.; Knap, J. [U.S. Army Research Labs, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD 21001 (United States)] [U.S. Army Research Labs, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD 21001 (United States); Gavini, V., E-mail: vikramg@umich.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

230

Formation of zirconium metallic glass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Bulk metallic glasses are commonly produced by the rapid cooling of liquid alloys. They have emerged over ... a novel class of materials, with attractive properties and technological promise. The bulk metallic glasses so far produced contain three or more component elements. These complex compositions are necessary ...

Jianzhong Zhang; Yusheng Zhao

2004-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

231

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Westinghouse Atomic Power Div - PA 16  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Power Div - PA Power Div - PA 16 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: WESTINGHOUSE ATOMIC POWER DIV. (PA.16 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Route 30 (Forrest Hills) , Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania PA.16-1 Evaluation Year: 1985 PA.16-1 Site Operations: Processed uranium metal for research and development and pilot-scale production of uranium oxide fuel elements. Prepared uranium metal for Enrico Fermi's Stagg Field experiment. PA.16-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Radiation levels below criteria PA.16-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium PA.16-1 Radiological Survey(s): Yes PA.16-3 Site Status: Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP

232

Metal Aminoboranes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Metal Aminoboranes Metal Aminoboranes Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. June 25, 2013 Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit. U.S. Patent No.: 7,713,506 (DOE S-112,798)

233

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films Title X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-50574 Year of Publication 2002 Authors Richardson, Thomas J., Baker Farangis, Jonathan L. Slack, Ponnusamy Nachimuthu, Rupert C. C. Perera, Nobumichi Tamura, and Michael D. Rubin Journal Journal of Alloys and Compounds Volume 356-357 Start Page 204 Pagination 204-207 Date Published 08/2003 Keywords A. hydrogen storage materials, NEXAFS, thin film s; C. EXAFS, x-ray diffraction Abstract Mixed metal thin films containing magnesium and a first-row transition element exhibit very large changes in both reflectance and transmittance on exposure to hydrogen gas. Changes in electronic structure and coordination of the magnesium and transition metal atoms during hydrogen absorption were studied using dynamic in situ transmission mode X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Mg K-edge and Ni, Co, and Ti L-edge spectra reflect both reversible and irreversible changes in the metal environments. A significant shift in the nickel L absorption edge shows it to be an active participant in hydride formation. The effect on cobalt and titanium is much less dramatic, suggesting that these metals act primarily as catalysts for formation of magnesium hydride.

234

Programmatic Elements  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The Guide provides acceptable methods of meeting the requirements of DOE O 151.1C for programmatic elements that sustain the emergency management program and maintain the readiness of the program to respond to an emergency. Cancels DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 5-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 5-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 5-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 5-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 7-1, and DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 7-3.

2007-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

235

Arc plasma generator of atomic driver for steady-state negative ion source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper reviews the results of development of steady-state arc-discharge plasma generator with directly heated LaB{sub 6} cathode. This arc-discharge plasma generator produces a plasma jet which is to be converted into an atomic one after recombination on a metallic plate. The plate is electrically biased relative to the plasma in order to control the atom energies. Such an intensive jet of hydrogen atoms can be used in negative ion sources for effective production of negative ions on a cesiated surface of plasma grid. All elements of the plasma generator have an augmented water cooling to operate in long pulse mode or in steady state. The thermo-mechanical stresses and deformations of the most critical elements of the plasma generator were determined by simulations. Magnetic field inside the discharge chamber was optimized to reduce the local power loads. The first tests of the steady-state arc plasma generator prototype have performed in long-pulse mode.

Ivanov, A. A.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Davydenko, V. I. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation) [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ivanov, I. A.; Kolmogorov, V. V.; Listopad, A. A., E-mail: a.a.listopad@inp.nsk.su; Mishagin, V. V.; Shulzhenko, G. I. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)] [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Putvinsky, S. V.; Smirnov, A. [Tri Alpha Energy Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)] [Tri Alpha Energy Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

Sensing mode atomic force microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An atomic force microscope utilizes a pulse release system and improved method of operation to minimize contact forces between a probe tip affixed to a flexible cantilever and a specimen being measured. The pulse release system includes a magnetic particle affixed proximate the probe tip and an electromagnetic coil. When energized, the electromagnetic coil generates a magnetic field which applies a driving force on the magnetic particle sufficient to overcome adhesive forces exhibited between the probe tip and specimen. The atomic force microscope includes two independently displaceable piezo elements operable along a Z-axis. A controller drives the first Z-axis piezo element to provide a controlled approach between the probe tip and specimen up to a point of contact between the probe tip and specimen. The controller then drives the first Z-axis piezo element to withdraw the cantilever from the specimen. The controller also activates the pulse release system which drives the probe tip away from the specimen during withdrawal. Following withdrawal, the controller adjusts the height of the second Z-axis piezo element to maintain a substantially constant approach distance between successive samples.

Hough, Paul V. C. (Port Jefferson, NY); Wang, Chengpu (Upton, NY)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic-scale contact potential Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization ; Renewable Energy 6 Detection of Heavy Metal Ions Based on Quantum Point Contacts Summary: separated by atomic scale gaps. By...

238

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic level binding Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Theory to Examine the Electronic Properties of Transition Metal Doped Carbon Nanotubes Summary: to examine doped CNTs on an atomic, fundamental level. Specifically, the...

239

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic chain ordering Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and properties... vibration-mode energies . . . . . . 25 3 Formation and properties of metal-oxygen atomic ... Source: van Ruitenbeek, J. M. - Leiden Institute of Physics,...

240

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic ions Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Name Summary: of an unknown metal ion in a biomolecule Atomic absorption spectroscopy or ICP spectroscopy (b) the presence... ion will form a...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

E-Print Network 3.0 - atoms ions electrons Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Name Summary: of an unknown metal ion in a biomolecule Atomic absorption spectroscopy or ICP spectroscopy (b) the presence... ion will form a...

242

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic spectroscopy programacion Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Name Summary: of an unknown metal ion in a biomolecule Atomic absorption spectroscopy or ICP spectroscopy (b) the presence... coordinated to...

243

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic spectroscopy sympsoium Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Name Summary: of an unknown metal ion in a biomolecule Atomic absorption spectroscopy or ICP spectroscopy (b) the presence... coordinated to...

244

Atomic trigger shatters mystery of how glass deforms | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic trigger shatters mystery of how glass deforms Bond switching underpins warping of strong metallic glasses Joint Institute for Neutron Sciences Director Takeshi Egami, left,...

245

E-Print Network 3.0 - apfim atom probe Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

au n'll, Tome 49, novembre 1988 ATOM PROBE... of nanometers in two transition metal-metalloid amorphous alloys have been investigated by means ... Source: Ecole...

246

E-Print Network 3.0 - apfim atom-probe field Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

au n'll, Tome 49, novembre 1988 ATOM PROBE... of nanometers in two transition metal-metalloid amorphous alloys have been ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de...

247

Response Elements  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The Guide provides acceptable methods for meeting the requirement of DOE O 151.1C for response elements that respond or contribute to response as needed in an emergency. Cancels DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-5, and DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-6.

2007-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

248

Measuring atomic properties with an atom interferometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two experiments are presented which measure atomic properties using an atom interferometer. The interferometer splits the sodium de Broglie wave into two paths, one of which travels through an interaction region. The paths ...

Roberts, Tony David, 1972-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Manhattan Project: Exploring the Atom, 1919-1932  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Ernest Rutherford (and James Chadwick, on the far right) EXPLORING THE ATOM Ernest Rutherford (and James Chadwick, on the far right) EXPLORING THE ATOM (1919-1932) Events > Atomic Discoveries, 1890s-1939 A Miniature Solar System, 1890s-1919 Exploring the Atom, 1919-1932 Atomic Bombardment, 1932-1938 The Discovery of Fission, 1938-1939 Fission Comes to America, 1939 The road to the atomic bomb began in earnest in 1919 with the first artificial transmutation of an element. The New Zealander Ernest Rutherford, working in the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University in England, changed several atoms of nitrogen into oxygen. The final addition to the atomic "miniature solar system" first proposed by Niels Bohr came in 1932 when James Chadwick, Rutherford's colleague at Cambridge, identified the third and final basic particle of the atom: the neutron.

250

Constituting Atoms of a $?$ Algebra via Its Generator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To constitute atoms of a $\\sigma$ algebra is not a easy task due to the large number of its elements. However, determining them via generators seems a feasible and simple way since most $\\sigma$ algebras are generated by their smaller proper subsets. Precisely, under some conditions each atom of a $\\sigma$ algebra equals the intersection of the elements containing a point of the atom in the generator. In this paper, a very weak sufficient condition for determining atoms by the generator is presented. The condition, though not being a necessary one, is shown to be almost the weakest one in the sense that it can hardly be improved.

Jinshan Zhang

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic energy society Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic-scale finite element method in multiscale computation with applications to carbon nanotubes Summary: of minimal energy. For a system of N atoms, the total energy in the...

252

E-Print Network 3.0 - atomic energy review Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic-scale finite element method in multiscale computation with applications to carbon nanotubes Summary: of minimal energy. For a system of N atoms, the total energy in the...

253

Trace metal fronts in European shelf waters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... dissolved Cd, Cu, and Mn values reported there5. The metal analyses were made by flameless atomic absorption spec-trometry using the pre-concentration methods described elsewhere6'7. Detection limits ...

K. Kremling

1983-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

254

Atom probe field-ion microscopy investigation of nickel base superalloy welds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microstructure development and elemental partitioning between {gamma} and {gamma}{prime} were measured in PWA-1480 electron beam welds and CMSX-4 pulsed-laser welds. In PWA-1480 EB welds, eutectic {gamma}{prime} phases were observed along the dendritic boundaries. The elemental partitioning between {gamma} and {gamma}{prime} was found to be similar to that in PWA-1480 base metal. In CMSX-4 pulsed laser welds, negligible eutectic {gamma}{prime} was observed. In addition, fine and irregularly shaped {gamma}{prime} precipitates were observed. The elemental partitioning between {gamma} and {gamma}{prime} was found to be different from that measured in the base metal. Large concentration gradients were observed in the {gamma} phase. The {gamma}{prime} precipitation kinetics in CM247DS alloy was measured using dilatometry and showed differences with different cooling rates. The microstructural investigations showed that at large undercoolings the number density of {gamma}{prime} precipitates increased and led to a finer size. This supports the microstructure development observations in PWA-1480 and CMSX-4 welds. Thermodynamic and kinetic calculations for the Ni-Al-Cr alloy system showed that as the cooling rate increases, the {gamma}{prime} growth leads to large concentration gradients in the {gamma} phase. The calculations agree with the atom probe results from PWA-1480 and CMSX-4 welds.

Babu, S.S.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.; Miller, M.K.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Questions and Answers - How do I make a model of an atom?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

What is an atom? Whatare atoms made of? What is an atom? What<br>are atoms made of? Previous Question (What is an atom? What are atoms made of?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (An example of indirect evidence used to study atoms?) An example of indirect evidenceused to study atoms? How do I make a model of an atom? Do you need to make a model or a drawing of an atom for science class? If so, follow these instructions to learn where all of the atom's pieces go. Step 1 - Gather Information Before you can build your model, you will need to know how many protons, neutrons and electrons your atom has. If you do not already know how to use the Periodic Table of Elements to find this information, read the 'How many protons, electrons and neutrons are in an atom of...?' page to learn how.

256

E-Print Network 3.0 - atom blocking model Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Elements 12;Conceptual Model of an Atom (a) Idealized diagram (b... , solid Earth material that has formed by geologic processes. Minerals are the building blocks of rocks... ,...

257

Analytical electron microscopy of rapidly solidified metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Examples of the need to characterize rapidly solidified metals on submicron scale are given for centrifugally atomized steel powder and electrohydrodynamically atomized submicron spheres. Materials studied include Fe-40wt% Ni, 304 SS, Fe-20at.%Co, and pure V.

Kelly, T.F.; Holzman, L.M.; Shin, K.; Kim, Y.W.; Bae, J.C.; Flinn, J.E.; Camus, P.P.; Melmed, A.J.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

258

Manhattan Project: Atomic Bombardment, 1932-1938  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Solvay Physics Conference, Brussels, October 1933 ATOMIC BOMBARDMENT Solvay Physics Conference, Brussels, October 1933 ATOMIC BOMBARDMENT (1932-1938) Events > Atomic Discoveries, 1890s-1939 A Miniature Solar System, 1890s-1919 Exploring the Atom, 1919-1932 Atomic Bombardment, 1932-1938 The Discovery of Fission, 1938-1939 Fission Comes to America, 1939 M. Stanley Livingston and Ernest O. Lawrence in front of a 27-inch cyclotron, Rad Lab, University of California, Berkeley, 1934. In the 1930s, scientists learned a tremendous amount about the structure of the atom by bombarding it with sub-atomic particles. Ernest O. Lawrence's cyclotron, the Cockroft-Walton machine, and the Van de Graaff generator, developed by Robert J. Van de Graaff at Princeton University, were particle accelerators designed to bombard the nuclei of various elements to disintegrate atoms. Attempts of the early 1930s to split atoms, however, required huge amounts of energy because the first accelerators used proton beams and alpha particles as sources of energy. Since protons and alpha particles are positively charged, they Albert Einstein met substantial resistance from the positively charged target nucleus when they attempted to penetrate atoms. Even high-speed protons and alpha particles scored direct hits on a nucleus only approximately once in a million tries. Most simply passed by the target nucleus. Not surprisingly, Ernest Rutherford, Albert Einstein (right), and Niels Bohr regarded particle bombardment as useful in furthering knowledge of nuclear physics but believed it unlikely to meet public expectations of harnessing the power of the atom for practical purposes anytime in the near future. In a 1933 interview, Rutherford called such expectations "moonshine." Einstein compared particle bombardment with shooting in the dark at scarce birds, while Bohr, the Danish Nobel laureate, agreed that the chances of taming atomic energy were remote.

259

Chemical Detection of Artificial Transmutation of Elements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... neutrons. These were produced near the centre of the spherical vessel by the decay of radon, mixed with beryllium, and were slowed down by the hydrogen atoms of the ester ... the metal flask. In a first experiment, by the decay of 450 mC. of radon, sufficient helium was produced for a spectroscopic observation. During a second experiment, lasting ...

F. A. PANETH; H. LOLEIT

1935-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

260

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal alkaline Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with alkali-metals 9, loi, alkaline earth metals l,18 and some of other rare-earth elements 19, 20 have... alkali metals were doped into C60 solids 9 and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Metal inks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

262

APPROXIMATE HARTREE TYPE WAVE FUNCTIONS AND MATRIX ELEMENTS FOR...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

APPROXIMATE HARTREE TYPE WAVE FUNCTIONS AND MATRIX ELEMENTS FOR THE K AND L SHELLS OF ATOMS AND IONS Re-direct Destination: Temp Data Fields Meyerott, R.E. Temp Data Storage 3:...

263

Radiation Induced Nanocrystal Formation in Metallic Glasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The irradiation of metallic glasses to induce nanocrystallization was studied in two metallic glass compositions, Cu50Zr45Ti5 and Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5. Atomic mobility was described using a model based on localized excess free volume due to displace...

Carter, Jesse

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

264

The Modified Embedded Atom Method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent modifications have been made to generalize the Embedded Atom Method (EAM) to describe bonding in diverse materials. By including angular dependence of the electron density in an empirical way, the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) has been able to reproduce the basic energetic and structural properties of 45 elements. This method is ideally suited for examining the interfacial behavior of dissimilar materials. This paper explains in detail the derivation of the method, shows how the parameters of the MEAM are determined directly from experiment or first principles calculations, and examines the quality of the reproduction of the database. Materials with fcc, bcc, hcp, and diamond cubic crystal structure are discussed. A few simple examples of the application of the MEAM to surfaces and interfaces are presented. Calculations of pullout of a SiC fiber in a diamond matrix as a function of applied stress show non-uniform deformation of the fiber.

Baskes, M.I.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Neutral atom traps.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes progress in designing a neutral atom trap capable of trapping sub millikelvin atom in a magnetic trap and shuttling the atoms across the atom chip from a collection area to an optical cavity. The numerical simulation and atom chip design are discussed. Also, discussed are preliminary calculations of quantum noise sources in Kerr nonlinear optics measurements based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These types of measurements may be important for quantum nondemolition measurements at the few photon limit.

Pack, Michael Vern

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

An enriched 40 K source for fermionic atom studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto metal surfaces in the chamber may be controlled to some extent with temperature. Heating the source will increase the vapor pressure above that occurs inside the vacuum chamber. The metal is released, or evaporated, simply by Ohmic heating

Jin, Deborah

267

Present and Future Computing needs in Atomic Physics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in Atomic Physics in Atomic Physics John Ludlow, Connor Ballance, Stuart Loch, Teck-Ghee Lee, Mitch Pindzola Auburn University Science Goals * To calculate atomic and molecular collision processes of relevance to controlled fusion energy * Processes include electron-impact excitation and ionization of atoms and their ions, dielectronic recombination of ions and heavy particle impact excitation, ionization and charge transfer with atoms and ions * Ensure collisional data are interfaced with plasma modelling codes (ADAS, TRANSP) * We are presently focused on light elements like H, He, Li, Be, B, C, Ne * In the next 3-5 years we shall look at heavier fusion related elements such as Xe, Mo, W ADAS * The fundamental atomic data is processed through the ADAS suite of codes to give generalized collisional-

268

Metal Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metal oxides are the class of materials having the widest application in gas sensors. This chapter presents information related to the application of various metal oxides in gas sensors designed on different p...

Ghenadii Korotcenkov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Predicted scanning tunneling microscopy images of carbon nanotubes with atomic vacancies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Predicted scanning tunneling microscopy images of carbon nanotubes with atomic vacancies Arkady V STM images of both metallic and semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes with atomic vacancies predict that vacancies should result in the formation of hillock-like features in STM images of metallic

Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

270

RECENT WORK WITH THE TRANSURANIUM ELEMENTS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...out materials from the first test thermonuclear explosion, the "Mike" shot which...chemical investigations were completed. Thermonuclear explosions do offer good possibilities...elements in 94 96 98 W 102 104 106 108 110 thermonuclear explosions is an ATOMIC NUMBER interesting...

Glenn T. Seaborg

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

X-Ray Identification of Element 104  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The daughter x-ray identification technique has been applied to the identification of element 104. The characteristic K-series x rays from the ?-decay daughter isotope, nobelium (Z=102), have been observed in coincidence with ? particles from the decay of 4.5-sec 104257, thus providing an unequivocal determination of the parent atomic number, Z=104.

C. E. Bemis; Jr.; R. J. Silva; D. C. Hensley; O. L. Keller; Jr.; J. R. Tarrant; L. D. Hunt; P. F. Dittner; R. L. Hahn; C. D. Goodman

1973-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

272

Silicone metalization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

273

Questions and Answers - How many neutrons can you add to an atom without it  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Is it possible for an element to emitmore than one kind of radiation? Is it possible for an element to emit<br>more than one kind of radiation? Previous Question (Is it possible for an element to emit more than one kind of radiation?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (Are nitrogen, arsenic, and tantalum radioactive?) Are nitrogen, arsenic, andtantalum radioactive? How many neutrons can you add to an atom without it getting unbalanced? The number of neutrons that an atom can carry is dependent on what it is. Some will become unstable with only one extra or one less neutron while others can hold or lose many extra. It varies from atom to atom and also within atoms. Take a look at a Periodic Table. The atomic number is the number of protons in that atom. If you change the number of protons the atom becomes

274

AtomicNuclear Properties  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

HTML_PAGES HTML_PAGES This AtomicNuclearProperties page is under intermittent development. Suggestions and comments are welcome. Please report errors. Chemical elements: For entries in red, a pull-down menu permits selection of the physical state. Cryogenic liquid densties are at the boiling point at 1 atm. 0n 1Ps 1H 2He 3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne 11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar 19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr 37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe 55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn 87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rf 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112 113 114 115 116 mt 118

275

7 -ATOMIC PROCESSES Atomic processes can be  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 7 - ATOMIC PROCESSES Atomic processes can be: 1. Scattering 2. Absorption/Thermal Emission scattering, although the results won't change much when this condition is relaxed. Absorption/Thermal Emission Free-free (continuum) ("Bremsstrahlung") Emission/Absorption #12;2 Bound-Bound & Bound

Sitko, Michael L.

276

7 -ATOMIC PROCESSES Atomic processes can be  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 7 - ATOMIC PROCESSES Atomic processes can be: 1. Scattering 2. Absorption/Thermal Emission scattering, although the results won't change much when this condition is relaxed. #12;2 Absorption/Thermal Emission Free-free (continuum) ("Bremsstrahlung") Emission/Absorption Bound-Bound & Bound-Free Processes

Sitko, Michael L.

277

Zeros in (inverse) bremsstrahlung matrix elements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss the possibility of zeros in the nonrelativistic radiative continuum-continuum matrix element for electron-atom (inverse) bremsstrahlung. As demonstrated earlier for upward transitions from bound states, the occurrence of different signs for the free-free matrix element in limiting cases, plus the requirement of continuity, implies the existence of zeros. Using knowledge of the sign of the dipole matrix element in the soft- and hard-photon limits with one continuum electron energy held fixed, we show that zeros can occur in the s-p matrix element. We discuss the connection of our results to elastic scattering and to Ramsauer-Townsend minima. We consider the observability of zeros in this (s-p) matrix element manifested as minima in the cross sections.

C. David Shaffer; R. H. Pratt; Sung Dahm Oh

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Diamagnetic muon yields of metal acetylacetonates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diamagnetic muon yields /PD.../ in various metal acetylacetonates were measured at room temperature by the muon spin rotation technique. We have found a...D between complexes of typical elements and those of tran...

M. K. Kubo; Y. Sakai; T. Tominaga

1989-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

279

The Universe Adventure - Atoms  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Matter and Atoms Matter and Atoms Richard Feynman "If, in some cataclysm, all of scientific knowledge were to be destroyed, and only one sentence passed on to the next generations of creatures, what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that...all things are made of atoms." -Richard P. Feynman, winner of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Physics All is atoms Matter is made of atoms, and atoms are comprised of protons, neutrons, and electrons. Everything in the Universe is made of matter. Though matter exists in many different forms, each form is made out of the same basic constituents: small particles called atoms. Atoms themselves are made of smaller particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. Protons and neutrons are composed of even smaller particles called quarks.

280

Theory of bonding of transition metals to nontransition metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a theory of the chemical bond in compounds consisting of both transition metals and nontransition metals. Chemical trends in the bonding properties are established by directly comparing the total energies of a large number of such compounds with the total energies of their constituents. These chemical trends are analyzed in terms of the s-, p-, and d-like state densities of the compounds and the constituents. Rather different types of bonding are shown to result when the atomic s and p levels of the nontransition metal lie above, below, and near the energy of the transition-metal d level. The heat of compound formation is shown to result from a competition between two simple physical effects: (1) the weakening of the transition-metal bonds by the lattice dilatation required for the accommodation of the nontransition metal, and (2) the increased bonding which results from the occupation of the bonding members of the hybrid states formed from the interaction between the transition-metal d states and the s-p states on the nontransition metal. Our theoretical values for the heats of formation of these compounds are generally similar to those given by Miedema's empirical formula. Distinctive aspects of the variation of the heat of formation with the number of valence electrons reveal, however, that the microscopic picture on which the empirical formula is based is quite different from that given by our self-consistent energy-band theory.

C. D. Gelatt; Jr.; A. R. Williams; V. L. Moruzzi

1983-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Element 74, the Wolfram Versus Tungsten Controversy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two and a quarter centuries ago, a heavy mineral ore was found which was thought to contain a new chemical element called heavy stone (or tungsten in Swedish). A few years later, the metal was separated from its oxide and the new element (Z=74) was called wolfram. Over the years since that time, both the names wolfram and tungsten were attached to this element in various countries. Sixty years ago, IUPAC chose wolfram as the official name for the element. A few years later, under pressure from the press in the USA, the alternative name tungsten was also allowed by IUPAC. Now the original, official name 'wolfram' has been deleted by IUPAC as one of the two alternate names for the element. The history of this controversy is described here.

Holden,N.E.

2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

282

Metallization of Fluid Hydrogen 3.1 Introduction to Metallic Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 3 Metallization of Fluid Hydrogen 3.1 Introduction to Metallic Hydrogen 3.1.1 Some background on dense hydrogen Hydrogen, out of it the Universe evolved, every atom and leaf, marine iguana and apricot­smelling chanterelle. But my, my, what alchemy: nondescript H 2 --Diane Ackerman 1 -- Hydrogen

Louis, Ard

283

Method for the continuous processing of hermetic fiber optic components and the resultant fiber optic-to-metal components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hermetic fiber optic-to-metal components and method for making hermetic fiber optic-to-metal components by assembling and fixturing elements comprising a metal shell, a glass preform, and a metal-coated fiber optic into desired relative positions and then sealing said fixtured elements preferably using a continuous heating process. The resultant hermetic fiber optic-to-metal components exhibit high hermeticity and durability despite the large differences in thermal coefficients of expansion among the various elements.

Kramer, Daniel P. (Centerville, OH)

1994-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

284

Magnetism at the surface of transition-metal alloys  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study magnetic properties of transition-metal atoms at the surface of transition-metal alloys. Using two simple models for the local environment dependence of the magnetic moment of transition-metal atoms in transition-metal alloys, we determine the magnetic moments in the first few atomic layers parallel to the surface for various alloy compositions. Results are presented for Ni in Cu-Ni alloys. Results for different surface directions are given. Segregation and short-range order are taken into account. One finds that the magnetic properties at the surface of the alloys are strongly affected by surface segregation. Furthermore, in view of our results one expects changes in the magnetic behavior of transition-metal alloys due to chemisorption. We expect that surface studies are a reasonable tool to study the dependence of magnetic moments on local atomic environment.

J. L. Morn-Lpez; F. Brouers; K. H. Bennemann

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

favour of atoms must be interpreted as evi-dence for their inner complexity. The pres-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

favour of atoms must be interpreted as evi- dence for their inner complexity. The pres- ence of absorption and plasma spectra alone suggests that atoms must contain vibrating elements. Another problem presented by atomic theory concerns the possibility of extending the concepts of our

Rose, William I.

286

Atomic Energy Commission : Atomic Power at Shippingport - 1958 Educational Film  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States Atomic Energy Commission & Westinghouse Electric Company take us on a tour of an atomic power station.

None

2013-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

287

Metal enrichment in bauxites by deposition of chemically mature aeolian dust  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... is determined by X-ray fluorescence and other metals investigated were determined by flame or flameless atomic absorption spec-troscopy.

George H Brimhall; Christopher J. Lewis; Jay J. Ague; William E. Dietrich; Joachim Hampel; Tim Teague; Peter Rix

1988-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

288

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous metal chloride Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Economics Collection: Materials Science ; Chemistry 2 Changes in Solvation of Metal Ions with Temperature: Atomic-level Interactions between Solvent and Solute Summary:...

289

Project Profile: Thermochemical Heat Storage for CSP Based on Multivalent Metal Oxides  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

General Atomics (GA), under the Thermal Storage FOA, is developing a high-density thermochemical heat storage system based on solid metal oxides.

290

Metal-insulator transition in expanded alkali-metal fluids and alkali-metalrare-gas films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have developed a theoretical model for expanded alkali metals and alkali-metalrare-gas films that is based on a physically realistic picture of the atomic-scale structure of these materials. It emphasizes the disorder in the systems, in particular the random atomic coordination number. Using this model we have calculated the density- and the energy-dependent conductivity as a function of the mean alkali-metal atomic coordination number. Although the theory contains only two parameters, both of which are fixed by the properties of pure materials at normal temperatures, we have been able to explain results measured over a temprature range from 4.2 to >2000 K in a variety of different alkali-metal systems. Conductivity and magnetic-susceptibility measurements, in particular, have been considered in some detail. In addition, the theory provides insight into the nature and location of the metal-insulator transition, the nature of the critical point for the alkali metals, and the thermal instability of the alkali-metalrare-gas films.

Judy R. Franz

1984-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

Metallic species in atmospheric particulate matter in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this work, we quantified the total, water-soluble and insoluble fractions of 12 metallic species (Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb and Mn) present in total suspended particulates (TSP) in an urban area with heavy traffic (about 80 000 vehicles/day) of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Canary Islands). Experimental measurements were made from July to December 2003 on a total of 42 samples (7 per month). Particulate matter (TSP) was collected in fiber filters and high volume samplers. PM10 levels were estimated assuming the PM10 fraction is about 70% of all TSP. Total fractions was determined gravimetrically. Water-soluble fraction was extracted by sonication. Concentrations of metallic elements were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Temporal changes in the concentrations of the target elements were examined and a multivariate approach used to identify the primary sources for each species. Mean value for TSP is 71.92?g/m3. The water-soluble fraction consisted mainly of Na, Ca, Mg, and K. The insoluble fraction contained higher concentrations of all elements than the soluble except Na. In the water-soluble fraction, Na, K, Ca and Mg were found to come mainly from natural sources; Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu from anthropogenic sources.

J. Lpez Cancio; A. Vera Castellano; M. Chaar Hernndez; R. Garca Bethencourt; E. Macas Ortega

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Magnetism of nanosized metallic particles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The magnetism of a small cluster of magnetic atoms at finite temperatures is numerically investigated. The evolution of the system towards thermal equilibrium is studied, and the possibility of occurrence of vortexlike excitations in the arrangement of the magnetic moments within the cluster is pointed out. The magnetization curve as a function of temperature, of a small magnetic particle, suggests that magnetic clusters in granular metals are not saturated even at room temperature. The relevance of the present results to the understanding of the magnetic behavior of granular metals is discussed.

P. Vargas; J. dAlbuquerque e Castro; D. Altbir

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Nucleation from a Catalytic Metal Cluster under  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was placed in a rigid carbon nanotube. By supplying carbon atoms to the metal-carbide, nucleation process carbon atoms on the metal-carbide cluster surface lifts of and the cap can be recognized together. The distance between the inner and outer nanotubes is determined by the layered structure of the metal-carbide

Maruyama, Shigeo

294

Amorphous metal formulations and structured coatings for corrosion and wear resistance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for coating a surface comprising providing a source of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements and applying the amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements to the surface by a spray. Also a coating comprising a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements. An apparatus for producing a corrosion-resistant amorphous-metal coating on a structure comprises a deposition chamber, a deposition source in the deposition chamber that produces a deposition spray, the deposition source containing a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements, and a system that directs the deposition spray onto the structure.

Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

295

Amorphous metal formulations and structured coatings for corrosion and wear resistance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for coating a surface comprising providing a source of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements and applying the amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements to the surface by a spray. Also a coating comprising a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements. An apparatus for producing a corrosion-resistant amorphous-metal coating on a structure comprises a deposition chamber, a deposition source in the deposition chamber that produces a deposition spray, the deposition source containing a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements, and a system that directs the deposition spray onto the structure.

Farmer, Joseph C.

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

ATOMS PEACE WAR Eisenhower  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ATOMS ATOMS PEACE WAR Eisenhower and the Atomic Energy Commission Richard G. Hewlett and lack M. Roll With a Foreword by Richard S. Kirkendall and an Essay on Sources by Roger M. Anders University of California Press Berkeley Los Angeles London Published 1989 by the University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California University of California Press, Ltd. London, England Prepared by the Atomic Energy Commission; work made for hire. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hewlett, Richard G. Atoms for peace and war, 1953-1961. (California studies in the history of science) Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Nuclear energy-United States-History. 2. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission-History. 3. Eisenhower, Dwight D. (Dwight David), 1890-1969.

297

Metal oxide films on metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Enrichment of trace elements in rare-metal bearing pegmatites of the muscovite class: Examples from the Jasper, Thomaston-Barnesville, Troup and Cherokee-Pickens districts in Georgia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pegmatites from four important mining districts in Georgia: the Cherokee-Pickens district (mica and beryl), the Thomaston-Barnesville (mica), Troup (beryl), and Jasper County (feldspar) districts, generally contain quartz, muscovite, K-feldspar and oligoclase and can be included in the muscovite class of pegmatites. No source intrusions are known for any of these pegmatite districts. The Thomaston-Barnesville district covers about 2,000 km[sup 2] compared to the < 100 km[sup 2] of the other three districts and includes 3--4 times as many pegmatites as each of the other districts. The more highly fractionated pegmatites represent 42 to 48 % of the total number of pegmatites sampled in each district except for the Thomaston-Barnesville district in which only 7 % are more highly fractionated. Muscovites from the more highly fractionated pegmatites in these districts contain mean trace element values of 1,118--1,732 ppm Rb, 1,867--3,083 ppm F, 91--278 ppm Li, 7.7-31 ppm Be, 122--147 ppm Ga, 122--315 ppm Nb, and 137--254 ppm Zn. These pegmatites have mean Ba/Rb and Rb/K[sub 2]O ratios of 0.01--0.21 and 129--177 ppm. Mean Ba is 19--234 ppm. Mean trace element values of muscovites from the least fractionated pegmatites are 381--675 ppm Rb, 748--1,622 ppm F, 33--221 ppm Li, 4:8--20.6 ppm Be, 56--80 ppm Ga, 32--152 ppm Nb, and 59--113 ppm Zn. These pegmatites have mean Ba/Rb and Rb/K[sub 2]O ratios of 0.44--2.83 and 39--76. Mean Ba is 218--857 ppm. In each district, the more highly fractionated pegmatites contain beryl or are in the vicinity of beryl-bearing pegmatites.

Cocker, M.D. (Georgia Geologic Survey, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

Gordon, John Howard

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

300

Accelerated guided atomic pulse  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The deleterious effects of dispersion on a propagating coherent atomic pulse, along the axis of a traveling-wave laser beam, can be ameliorated by the nonlinear self-interacting force due to dipole-dipole coupling between atoms. We show that a wide atomic pulse with a particular profile can retain its shape during propagation and, moreover, the momentum of the pulse increases due to photon absorption. For the wide soliton case, we demonstrate analytically that the self-interacting atomic force scales inversely with the third power of the pulse width.

S. Dyrting; Weiping Zhang; B. C. Sanders

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Atomic Collapse Observed  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Scientists Observe Atomic Collapse State Quantum Mechanics Prediction Confirmed in Graphene Using NERSC's Hopper April 26, 2013 | Tags: Hopper, Materials Science Contact: Linda...

302

Atom Nano-Optics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nanolocalized light fields composed of photon dots and photon holes are being used to control the motion of atoms on a nanometer spatial scale.

Balykin, Victor; Klimov, Vasilii; Letokhov, Vladilen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Neutrino Spectroscopy with Atoms and Molecules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We give a comprehensive account of our proposed experimental method of using atoms or molecules in order to measure parameters of neutrinos still undetermined; the absolute mass scale, the mass hierarchy pattern (normal or inverted), the neutrino mass type (Majorana or Dirac), and the CP violating phases including Majorana phases. There are advantages of atomic targets, due to the closeness of available atomic energies to anticipated neutrino masses, over nuclear target experiments. Disadvantage of using atomic targets, the smallness of rates, is overcome by the macro-coherent amplification mechanism. The atomic or molecular process we use is a cooperative deexcitation of a collective body of atoms in a metastable level |e> emitting a neutrino pair and a photon; |e> -> |g> + gamma + nu_i nu_j where nu_i's are neutrino mass eigenstates. The macro-coherence is developed by trigger laser irradiation. We discuss aspects of the macro-coherence development by setting up the master equation for the target quantum state and propagating electric field. With a choice of heavy target atom or molecule such as Xe or I_2 that has a large M1 x E1 matrix element between |e> and |g>, we show that one can determine three neutrino masses along with the mass hierarchy pattern by measuring the photon spectral shape. If one uses a target of available energy of a fraction of 1 eV, Majorana CP phases may be determined. Our master equation, when applied to E1 x E1 transition such as pH_2 vibrational transition Xv=1 -> 0, can describe explosive PSR events in which most of the energy stored in |e> is released within a few nanoseconds. The present paper is intended to be self-contained explaining some details related theoretical works in the past, and further reports new simulations and our ongoing experimental efforts of the project to realize the neutrino mass spectroscopy using atoms/molecules.

Atsushi Fukumi; Susumu Kuma; Yuki Miyamoto; Kyo Nakajima; Itsuo Nakano; Hajime Nanjo; Chiaki Ohae; Noboru Sasao; Minoru Tanaka; Takashi Taniguchi; Satoshi Uetake; Tomonari Wakabayashi; Takuya Yamaguchi; Akihiro Yoshimi; Motohiko Yoshimura

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

304

Measurement and finite element analysis of temperature distribution in arc welding process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This presentation describes both the experimental measurement and finite element analysis used to study the temperature distribution during a metal inert gas (MIG) welding process, including the cooling down period. Welding was carried out on ... Keywords: FEA, MIG welding, arc welding, cracking, finite element analysis, metal inert gas welding, residual stress, simulation, temperature distribution, weldment temperature

C. K. Lee; J. Candy; C. P. H. Tan

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Chapter 4 - Recycling Rare Metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The industrial system now utilizes many more elements, especially rare metals, than was the case even a half century ago. Most are not mined for themselves but are obtained as by-products or hitchhikers of the more familiar industrial metals, such as iron, aluminum, copper, nickel, and zinc. This imposes a limit on the production of by-product metals. But in some cases, demand may increase much faster than new supply. This suggests a need for recycling. But the uses of these metals are often in products, such as cell phones, that are mass-produced but where the amount in each individual product is very small. Some uses are also inherently dissipative. This makes recycling very difficult in principle. It constitutes a serious challenge for the future economy. Prices will rise.

Robert U. Ayres; Gara Villalba Mndez; Laura Talens Peir

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Atomic Structure Calculations from the Los Alamos Atomic Physics Codes  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The well known Hartree-Fock method of R.D. Cowan, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, is used for the atomic structure calculations. Electron impact excitation cross sections are calculated using either the distorted wave approximation (DWA) or the first order many body theory (FOMBT). Electron impact ionization cross sections can be calculated using the scaled hydrogenic method developed by Sampson and co-workers, the binary encounter method or the distorted wave method. Photoionization cross sections and, where appropriate, autoionizations are also calculated. Original manuals for the atomic structure code, the collisional excitation code, and the ionization code, are available from this website. Using the specialized interface, you will be able to define the ionization stage of an element and pick the initial and final configurations. You will be led through a series of web pages ending with a display of results in the form of cross sections, collision strengths or rates coefficients. Results are available in tabular and graphic form.

Cowan, R. D.

307

Metal Toxicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Problems posed to plants by metal toxicity in the soils of the world are basically of two kinds. The first kind are of natural origin. These arise either as a consequence of the nature of the parent material f...

T. McNeilly

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Mechanisms of transition-metal gettering in silicon  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The atomic process, kinetics, and equilibrium thermodynamics underlying the gettering of transition-metal impurities in Si are reviewed from a mechanistic perspective. Methods for mathematical modeling of gettering are reviewed and illustrated. Needs for further research are discussed.

MYERS JR.,SAMUEL M.; SEIBT,M.; SCHROTER,W.

2000-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

310

Porphyrins and metal complexes thereof having haloalkyl side chains  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Transition metal complexes of meso-haloalkylporphyrins, wherein the haloalkyl groups contain 2 to 8 carbon atoms have been found to be highly effective catalysts for oxidation of alkanes and for the decomposition of hydroperoxides. 7 figs.

Wijesekera, T.; Lyons, J.E.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Bhinde, M.V.

1997-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

311

Atomistic mechanisms of cyclic hardening in metallic glass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecular dynamics with an embedded-atom method potential is used to simulate the nanoindentation of Cu[subscript 63.5]Zr[subscript 36.5] metallic glasses. In particular, the effects of cyclic loading within the nominal ...

Deng, Chuang

312

Porphyrins and metal complexes thereof having haloalkyl side chains  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Transition metal complexes of meso-haloalkylporphyrins, wherein the haloalkyl groups contain 2 to 8 carbon atoms have been found to be highly effective catalysts for oxidation of alkanes and for the decomposition of hydroperoxides.

Wijesekera, Tilak (Glen Mills, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Bhinde, Manoj V. (Boothwyn, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Magnesium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sodium Sodium Previous Element (Sodium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Aluminum) Aluminum Isotopes of the Element Magnesium [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 24 78.99% STABLE 25 10.00% STABLE 26 11.01% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 19 4.0 picoseconds Double Proton Emission 100.00% 20 90.8 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission ~ 27.00% 21 122 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission 32.60% Electron Capture with delayed Alpha Decay < 0.50%

314

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Chlorine  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sulfur Sulfur Previous Element (Sulfur) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Argon) Argon Isotopes of the Element Chlorine [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 35 75.76% STABLE 37 24.24% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 28 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 29 < 20 nanoseconds Proton Emission No Data Available 30 < 30 nanoseconds Proton Emission No Data Available 31 150 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission 0.70% 32 298 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00%

315

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Potassium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Argon Argon Previous Element (Argon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Calcium) Calcium Isotopes of the Element Potassium [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 39 93.2581% STABLE 40 0.0117% 1.248×10+9 years 41 6.7302% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 32 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 33 < 25 nanoseconds Proton Emission No Data Available 34 < 25 nanoseconds Proton Emission No Data Available 35 178 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission 0.37% 36 342 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00%

316

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Phosphorus  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Silicon Silicon Previous Element (Silicon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Sulfur) Sulfur Isotopes of the Element Phosphorus [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 31 100% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 24 No Data Available Electron Capture (suspected) No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 25 < 30 nanoseconds Proton Emission 100.00% 26 43.7 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission No Data Available 27 260 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with

317

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Francium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radon Radon Previous Element (Radon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Radium) Radium Isotopes of the Element Francium [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Francium has no naturally occurring isotopes. Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 199 12 milliseconds Alpha Decay > 0.00% Electron Capture No Data Available 200 49 milliseconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 201 62 milliseconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 201m 19 milliseconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 202 0.30 seconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 202m 0.29 seconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 203 0.55 seconds Alpha Decay <= 100.00% 204 1.8 seconds Alpha Decay 92.00%

318

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Oxygen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Previous Element (Nitrogen) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Fluorine) Fluorine Isotopes of the Element Oxygen [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 16 99.757% STABLE 17 0.038% STABLE 18 0.205% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 12 1.139×10-21 seconds Proton Emission No Data Available 13 8.58 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission 100.00% 14 70.620 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 15 122.24 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 16 STABLE - - 17 STABLE - - 18 STABLE - - 19 26.88 seconds Beta-minus Decay 100.00%

319

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Gallium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Zinc Zinc Previous Element (Zinc) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Germanium) Germanium Isotopes of the Element Gallium [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 69 60.108% STABLE 71 39.892% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 56 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 57 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 58 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 59 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 60 70 milliseconds Electron Capture 98.40%

320

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Sodium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Neon Neon Previous Element (Neon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Magnesium) Magnesium Isotopes of the Element Sodium [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 23 100% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 18 1.3×10-21 seconds Proton Emission 100.00% 19 < 40 nanoseconds Proton Emission No Data Available 20 447.9 milliseconds Electron Capture with delayed Alpha Decay 20.05% Electron Capture 100.00% 21 22.49 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 22 2.6027 years Electron Capture 100.00% 23 STABLE - - 24 14.997 hours Beta-minus Decay 100.00%

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Neon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fluorine Fluorine Previous Element (Fluorine) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Sodium) Sodium Isotopes of the Element Neon [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 20 90.48% STABLE 21 0.27% STABLE 22 9.25% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 16 9×10-21 seconds Double Proton Emission 100.00% 17 109.2 milliseconds Electron Capture with delayed Alpha Decay No Data Available Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission 100.00% 18 1.6670 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 19 17.22 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 20 STABLE - -

322

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Copper  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nickel Nickel Previous Element (Nickel) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Zinc) Zinc Isotopes of the Element Copper [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 63 69.15% STABLE 65 30.85% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 52 No Data Available Proton Emission No Data Available 53 < 300 nanoseconds Electron Capture No Data Available Proton Emission No Data Available 54 < 75 nanoseconds Proton Emission No Data Available 55 27 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission 15.0% 56 93 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00%

323

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Boron  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Beryllium Beryllium Previous Element (Beryllium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Carbon) Carbon Isotopes of the Element Boron [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 10 19.9% STABLE 11 80.1% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 6 No Data Available Double Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 7 3.255×10-22 seconds Proton Emission No Data Available Alpha Decay No Data Available 8 770 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Alpha Decay 100.00% 9 8.439×10-19 seconds Proton Emission 100.00% Double Alpha Decay 100.00%

324

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Tungsten  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tantalum Tantalum Previous Element (Tantalum) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Rhenium) Rhenium Isotopes of the Element Tungsten [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 180 0.12% >= 6.6×10+17 years 182 26.50% STABLE 183 14.31% > 1.3×10+19 years 184 30.64% STABLE 186 28.43% > 2.3×10+19 years Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 157 275 milliseconds Electron Capture No Data Available 158 1.25 milliseconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 158m 0.143 milliseconds Isomeric Transition No Data Available Alpha Decay No Data Available 159 7.3 milliseconds Alpha Decay ~ 99.90%

325

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Radon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Astatine Astatine Previous Element (Astatine) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Francium) Francium Isotopes of the Element Radon [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Radon has no naturally occurring isotopes. Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 193 1.15 milliseconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 194 0.78 milliseconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 195 6 milliseconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 195m 5 milliseconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 196 4.4 milliseconds Alpha Decay 99.90% Electron Capture ~ 0.10% 197 53 milliseconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 197m 25 milliseconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 198 65 milliseconds Alpha Decay No Data Available

326

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Carbon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Boron Boron Previous Element (Boron) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Nitrogen) Nitrogen Isotopes of the Element Carbon [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 12 98.93% STABLE 13 1.07% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 8 1.981×10-21 seconds Proton Emission 100.00% Alpha Decay No Data Available 9 126.5 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission 61.60% Electron Capture with delayed Alpha Decay 38.40% 10 19.308 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 11 20.334 minutes Electron Capture 100.00% 12 STABLE - -

327

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Rhenium  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tungsten Tungsten Previous Element (Tungsten) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Osmium) Osmium Isotopes of the Element Rhenium [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 185 37.40% STABLE 187 62.60% 4.33×10+10 years Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 159 No Data Available No Data Available No Data Available 160 0.82 milliseconds Proton Emission 91.00% Alpha Decay 9.00% 161 0.44 milliseconds Proton Emission 100.00% Alpha Decay <= 1.40% 161m 14.7 milliseconds Alpha Decay 93.00% Proton Emission 7.00% 162 107 milliseconds Alpha Decay 94.00% Electron Capture 6.00%

328

Dendritic metal nanostructures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dendritic metal nanostructures made using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Song, Yujiang (Albuquerque, NM); Pereira, Eulalia F. (Vila Nova de Gaia, PT); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA)

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

329

Improved Neutron-Capture Element Abundances in Planetary N. C. SterlingA,I  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improved Neutron-Capture Element Abundances in Planetary Nebulae N. C. SterlingA,I , H. L of neutron(n)-capture elements that cannot be detected in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. However Approximately half of the neutron(n)-capture elements (atomic number Z > 30) in the Universe are created by slow

Royer, Dana

330

Atoms for Peace Awards  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Technology, is to be chairman of the Organization and Planning Committee of Atoms for Peace Awards. In addition to Dr. Killian, the Committee will include Dr. Detlev W. ... and Dr. Alan Waterman, director of the National Science Foundation. The Atoms for Peace Awards, it will be recalled, were established last summer as a memorial to Henry Ford ...

1955-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

331

Hirshfeld atom refinement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The new automated iterative Hirshfeld atom refinement method is explained and validated through comparison of structural models of Gly-L-Ala obtained from synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction data at 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Structural parameters involving hydrogen atoms are determined with comparable precision from both experiments and agree mostly to within two combined standard uncertainties.

Capelli, S.C.

2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

332

Metal-insulator transition in dilute alkali-metal systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The metal-insulator transition is studied for dilute systems of alkali metals. Using a spin-split self-consistent band-structure approach, we find the transition density, a strikingly enhanced magnetic susceptibility, and the electron effective mass. The critical density nc is found to be given by the simple relation rsc=r0+2.8. Here rsc=[3(4?nc)]13 and r0 is the model potential radius which is roughly the radius of the neutral atom. The Mott criterion of nc13aB?0.25 (where aB is the appropriate Bohr orbit) is found to be inadequate for describing these systems. The predicted effective mass and magnetic susceptibility enhancements are largest for Li and become systematically smaller for the heavier alkalis. We compare our results for the transition density with two sets of experiments, namely the gas-liquid critical density and the metal-insulator transition for codeposited thick films of alkali-metal and rare-gas atoms. Good agreement is found in both cases.

J. H. Rose

1981-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Atomic dark matter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose that dark matter is dominantly comprised of atomic bound states. We build a simple model and map the parameter space that results in the early universe formation of hydrogen-like dark atoms. We find that atomic dark matter has interesting implications for cosmology as well as direct detection: Weak-scale dark atoms can accommodate hyperfine splittings of order 100 keV, consistent with the inelastic dark matter interpretation of the DAMA data while naturally evading direct detection bounds. Moreover, protohalo formation can be suppressed below M{sub proto} ? 10{sup 3}10{sup 6}M{sub s}un for weak scale dark matter due to Ion-Radiation and Ion-Atom interactions in the dark sector.

Kaplan, David E.; Krnjaic, Gordan Z.; Rehermann, Keith R.; Wells, Christopher M., E-mail: dkaplan@pha.jhu.edu, E-mail: gordan@pha.jhu.edu, E-mail: keith@pha.jhu.edu, E-mail: cwells13@pha.jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

335

Metal-based reactive nanomaterials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent developments in materials processing and characterization resulted in the discovery of a new type of reactive materials containing nanoscaled metal components. The well-known high oxidation energies of metallic fuels can now be released very rapidly because of the very high reactive interface areas in such metal-based reactive nanomaterials. Consequently, these materials are currently being examined for an entire range of applications in energetic formulations inappropriate for conventional, micron-sized metal fuels having relatively low reaction rates. New application areas, such as reactive structural materials, are also being explored. Research remains active in manufacturing and characterization of metal-based reactive nanomaterials including elemental metal nanopowders and various nanocomposite material systems. Because of the nanometer scale of the individual particles, or phase domains, and because of the very high enthalpy of reaction between components of the nanocomposite materials, the final phase compositions, morphology, and thermodynamic properties of the reactive nanocomposite materials may be different from those of their micron-scaled counterparts. Ignition mechanisms in such materials can be governed by heterogeneous reactions that are insignificant for materials with less developed reactive interface areas. New combustion regimes are being observed that are affected by very short ignition delays combined with very high metal combustion temperatures. Current progress in this rapidly growing research area is reviewed and some potential directions for the future research are discussed.

Edward L. Dreizin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

Perkins, John (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David (Evergreen, CO); Taylor, Matthew (Golden, CO); Neuman, George A. (Holland, MI); Luten, Henry A. (Holland, MI); Forgette, Jeffrey A. (Hudsonville, MI); Anderson, John S. (Holland, MI)

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

337

Jefferson Lab Science Series - The Origin of the Elements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

You Already Know This Physics! You Already Know This Physics! Previous Video (You Already Know This Physics!) Science Series Video Archive Next Video (Guesstimating the Environment) Guesstimating the Environment The Origin of the Elements Dr. Edward Murphy - University of Virginia, Department of Astronomy November 13, 2012 The world around us is made of atoms. Did you ever wonder where these atoms came from? How was the gold in our jewelry, the carbon in our bodies, and the iron in our cars made? In this lecture, we will trace the origin of a gold atom from the Big Bang to the present day, and beyond. You will learn how the elements were forged in the nuclear furnaces inside stars, and how, when they die, these massive stars spread the elements into space. You will learn about the origin of the building blocks of matter in the Big Bang,

338

Parity-Nonconserving Optical Rotation in Atomic Lead  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The search for parity nonconservation in heavy elements has been extended to the 1.28-?m P03?P13 magnetic dipole transition in atomic lead. The experimental result, R=Im(E1M1)=(-9.92.5)10-8, agrees, within the present uncertainties in experiment and atomic theory, with the prediction, R=-1310-8, derived from the Weinberg-Salam-Glashow theory of weak neutral-current interactions.

T. P. Emmons; J. M. Reeves; E. N. Fortson

1983-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

339

THE ROLE OF ACTIVE ELEMENTS AND OXIDE DISPERSIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF OXIDATION-RESISTANT ALLOYS AND COATINGS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was not confined to rare earth element additions. In fact,o-ca1led "rare-earth effect," Y being the particular elementrare earth metals as a melt deoxidant to Nichrome (Ni-20% Cr) he~ting elements

Allam, I.M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations Energy Frontier  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations DOE Logo Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations DOE Logo Focus Areas Reaction Mechanisms Controlled Active Metals Materials Synthesis Search Argonne ... Search Argonne Home > Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations > IACT Home IACT News IACT Partners IACT Staff IACT Awards Publications & Presentations Jobs at IACT Energy Frontier Research Centers at Argonne Strategic Alliances Research Facilities & Tools Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations - an Energy Frontier Research Center The Institute for Atom-Efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT) employs a multidisciplinary approach to address key catalytic conversions that could improve the efficiency of producing fuels from biomass. IACT focuses on advancing the science of catalysis for the efficient conversion of energy resources into usable forms. IACT's goal is to find ways to achieve control and efficiency of chemical conversions comparable to those in nature.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Scattering and absorption of ultracold atoms by nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate theoretically how cold atoms, including Bose-Einstein condensates, are scattered from, or absorbed by nanotubes with a view to analysing recent experiments. In particular we consider the role of potential strength, quantum reflection, atomic interactions and tube vibrations on atom loss rates. Lifshitz theory calculations deliver a significantly stronger scattering potential than that found in experiment and we discuss possible reasons for this. We find that the scattering potential for dielectric tubes can be calculated to a good approximation using a modified pairwise summation approach, which is efficient and easily extendable to arbitrary geometries. Quantum reflection of atoms from a nanotube may become a significant factor at low temperatures, especially for non-metallic tubes. Interatomic interactions are shown to increase the rate at which atoms are lost to the nanotube and lead to non-trivial dynamics. Thermal nanotube vibrations do not significantly increase loss rates or reduce condensate fractions, but lower frequency oscillations can dramatically heat the cloud.

B. Jetter; J. Mrkle; P. Schneeweiss; M. Gierling; S. Scheel; A. Gnther; J. Fortgh; T. E. Judd

2012-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

342

High power x-ray welding of metal-matrix composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for joining metal-matrix composites (MMCs) by using high power x-rays as a volumetric heat source is provided. The method involves directing an x-ray to the weld line between two adjacent MMCs materials to create an irradiated region or melt zone. The x-rays have a power density greater than about 10.sup.4 watts/cm.sup.2 and provide the volumetric heat required to join the MMC materials. Importantly, the reinforcing material of the metal-matrix composites remains uniformly distributed in the melt zone, and the strength of the MMCs are not diminished. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys. In an alternate embodiment, high power x-rays are used to provide the volumetric heat required to weld metal elements, including metal elements comprised of metal alloys.

Rosenberg, Richard A. (Naperville, IL); Goeppner, George A. (Orland Park, IL); Noonan, John R. (Naperville, IL); Farrell, William J. (Flossmoor, IL); Ma, Qing (Westmont, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Quantum degenerate mixtures of strontium and rubidium atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on the realization of quantum degenerate gas mixtures of the alkaline-earth element strontium with the alkali element rubidium. A key ingredient of our scheme is sympathetic cooling of Rb by Sr atoms that are continuously laser cooled on a narrow linewidth transition. This versatile technique allows us to produce ultracold gas mixtures with a phase-space density of up to 0.06 for both elements. By further evaporative cooling we create double Bose-Einstein condensates of 87Rb with either 88Sr or 84Sr, reaching more than 10^5 condensed atoms per element for the 84Sr-87Rb mixture. These quantum gas mixtures constitute an important step towards the production of a quantum gas of polar, open-shell RbSr molecules.

Pasquiou, Benjamin; Tzanova, Slava; Stellmer, Simon; Szczepkowski, Jacek; Parigger, Mark; Grimm, Rudolf; Schreck, Florian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Trace metal concentration and fish size: Variation among fish species in a Mediterranean river  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

29 April 2014 Accepted 12 May 2014 Keywords: Bioaccumulation Heavy metals Llobregat River species in an Iberian river with moderate metal pollution. Al, Fe and Zn were the most abundant metals trace elements (Bervoets and Blust, 2003; Noël et al., 2013). Heavy metals in fish represent a potential

García-Berthou, Emili

345

Electrical properties of thin-film structures formed by pulsed laser deposition of Au, Ag, Cu, Pd, Pt, W, Zr metals on n-6H-SiC crystal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diode structures with ideality factors of 1.28-2.14 and potential barriers from 0.58 to 0.62 eV on the semiconductor side were formed by pulsed laser deposition of Au, Ag, Cu, Pd, Pt, W, and Zr metal films on n-6H-SiC crystal without epitaxial layer preparation. A high density of surface acceptor and donor states was formed at the metal-semiconductor interface during deposition of the laser-induced atomic flux, which violated the correlation between the potential barrier height and metal work function. The barrier heights determined from characteristic currents and capacitance measurements were in quite good agreement. For the used low-resistance semiconductor and contact elements, the sizes of majority carrier (electron) depletion regions were determined as 26-60 nm.

Romanov, R. I.; Zuev, V. V.; Fominskii, V. Yu., E-mail: vyfominskij@mephi.ru; Demin, M. V.; Grigoriev, V. V. [MEPhI National Research Nuclear University (Russian Federation)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

346

Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000 F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics. 5 figs.

Heubeck, N.B.

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

347

Metal resistance sequences and transgenic plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present invention provides nucleic acid sequences encoding a metal ion resistance protein, which are expressible in plant cells. The metal resistance protein provides for the enzymatic reduction of metal ions including but not limited to divalent Cu, divalent mercury, trivalent gold, divalent cadmium, lead ions and monovalent silver ions. Transgenic plants which express these coding sequences exhibit increased resistance to metal ions in the environment as compared with plants which have not been so genetically modified. Transgenic plants with improved resistance to organometals including alkylmercury compounds, among others, are provided by the further inclusion of plant-expressible organometal lyase coding sequences, as specifically exemplified by the plant-expressible merB coding sequence. Furthermore, these transgenic plants which have been genetically modified to express the metal resistance coding sequences of the present invention can participate in the bioremediation of metal contamination via the enzymatic reduction of metal ions. Transgenic plants resistant to organometals can further mediate remediation of organic metal compounds, for example, alkylmetal compounds including but not limited to methyl mercury, methyl lead compounds, methyl cadmium and methyl arsenic compounds, in the environment by causing the freeing of mercuric or other metal ions and the reduction of the ionic mercury or other metal ions to the less toxic elemental mercury or other metals.

Meagher, Richard Brian (Athens, GA); Summers, Anne O. (Athens, GA); Rugh, Clayton L. (Athens, GA)

1999-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

348

general_atomics.cdr  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

former former General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was constructed in 1959 and operated until 1991. The site encompassed approximately 7,400 square feet of laboratory and remote operations cells. Licensed operations at the facility included receipt, handling, and shipment of radioactive materials; remote handling, examination, and storage of previously irradiated nuclear fuel materials; pilot-scale tritium extraction operations; and development, fabrication, and inspection of uranium oxide-beryllium oxide fuel materials. General Atomics performed most of the work for the federal government. The General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was located in a 60-acre complex 13 miles northwest of downtown San Diego, 1 mile inland from the Pacific Ocean, and approximately 300 feet above sea level. The General Atomics site is in the center of Torrey Mesa Science Center, a 304-acre industrial

349

Uncertainties on Atomic Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Selected papers from IAEA-NFRI Technical Meeting on Data Evaluation for Atomic, Molecular and Plasma-Material Interaction Processes in Fusion, September 4-7, 2012, Daejeon, Republic of Korea

C. P. Ballance; S. D. Loch; A. R. Foster; R. K. Smith; M. C. Witthoeft; T. R. Kallman

350

Relativistic Atomic Structure Calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This review surveys methods for computing the electronic structures of atoms based on the use of relativistic quantum mechanics. The main mathematical formulas are presented with some account of the underlying...

Ian P. Grant

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

general_atomics.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

300 feet above sea level. The General Atomics site is in the center of Torrey Mesa Science Center, a 304-acre industrial park. No ground water wells are at or near the Hot Cell...

352

The Harnessed Atom | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Atom The Harnessed Atom The Harnessed Atom The Harnessed Atom is a new middle school science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) curriculum extension that focuses on...

353

Optical imaging of Rydberg atoms .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??We present an experiment exploring electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in Rydberg atoms in order to observe optical nonlinearities at the single photon level. ??Rb atoms (more)

Mazurenko, Anton

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Rydberg Atoms for Quantum Information.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??I examine interactions between ensembles of cold Rydberg atoms, and between Rydberg atoms and an intense, optical standing wave. Because of their strong electrostatic interactions, (more)

Younge, Kelly Cooper

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Optical atomic magnetometer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optical atomic magnetometers is provided operating on the principles of nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. An atomic vapor is optically pumped using linearly polarized modulated light. The vapor is then probed using a non-modulated linearly polarized light beam. The resulting modulation in polarization angle of the probe light is detected and used in a feedback loop to induce self-oscillation at the resonant frequency.

Budker, Dmitry; Higbie, James; Corsini, Eric P

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

356

Finite element analysis of a crack tip in silicate glass: No evidence for a plastic zone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recently, the claim was made that cracks in silicate glasses propagate by the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of cavities at crack tips, which is the same way as in metals but at a much smaller scale. This hypothesis for crack growth is based in part on the measurement of surface displacements near the tip of an emerging crack, which is the point at which a crack front intersects the side surface of the specimen. Surface displacements measured by atomic force microscopy were less than theoretically predicted. The difference between the theoretical and experimental displacements was attributed to a plastic zone surrounding the tip of the moving crack. In this paper, we show that the theoretical analysis used earlier was based on an incorrect assumption about the functional dependence of the displacement with distance from the crack tip. We use a full three-dimensional finite element analysis combined with an asymptotic solution of the crack geometry to obtain a solution to the surface displacement problem. We show that the calculated displacements are fully consistent with those experimentally measured by using an atomic force microscope. No divergence from elastic behavior is observed. Our results support the view that crack propagation in glass is entirely brittle. No evidence for plasticity at the crack tips is obtained.

T. Fett, G. Rizzi, D. Creek, S. Wagner, J. P. Guin, J. M. Lpez-Cepero, and S. M. Wiederhorn

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

357

An Atomistic View on Fundamental Transport Processes on Metal Surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this lecture I present an introduction to the time-resolved observation of atomic transport processes on metal surfaces using scanning tunneling microscopy video sequences. The experimental data is analyzed using scaling law concepts known from statistical thermodynamics. I will present studies from metal surfaces in vacuum as well as in electrolyte.

Giesen, Margret [Forschungzentrum Juelich, Institute for Bio- and Nanosystems IBN 4, D 52425 Juelich (Germany)

2007-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

358

Atomic mass compilation 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic mass reflects the total binding energy of all nucleons in an atomic nucleus. Compilations and evaluations of atomic masses and derived quantities, such as neutron or proton separation energies, are indispensable tools for research and applications. In the last decade, the field has evolved rapidly after the advent of new production and measuring techniques for stable and unstable nuclei resulting in substantial ameliorations concerning the body of data and their precision. Here, we present a compilation of atomic masses comprising the data from the evaluation of 2003 as well as the results of new measurements performed. The relevant literature in refereed journals and reports as far as available, was scanned for the period beginning 2003 up to and including April 2012. Overall, 5750 new data points have been collected. Recommended values for the relative atomic masses have been derived and a comparison with the 2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation has been performed. This work has been carried out in collaboration with and as a contribution to the European Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Network of Evaluations.

Pfeiffer, B., E-mail: bpfeiffe@uni-mainz.de [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitt Gieen, Gieen (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fr Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Venkataramaniah, K. [Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthinilayam (India)] [Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthinilayam (India); Czok, U. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitt Gieen, Gieen (Germany)] [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitt Gieen, Gieen (Germany); Scheidenberger, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fr Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany) [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fr Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitt Gieen, Gieen (Germany)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

359

Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption Print Tuning of the Metal-Insulator Transition via Alkali Adsorption Print Turning a material from an insulator to a metal, or vice versa, by light irradiation, exposure to electric or magnetic fields, or applying small changes in temperature, pressure, or doping-such intriguing control of a material's electronic properties is possible by exploiting strongly interacting or "correlated" electrons. Now a team of researchers from the University of Kiel in Germany and the ALS has found a novel, surprising way to continuously transform a layered metallic transition-metal compound, TaS2, into an insulator. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), they have demonstrated that adsorption of alkali atoms onto this material's surface gradually makes it more insulating, although in general, alkali adsorption should lead to more metallic behavior, as alkali atoms easily give away their loosely bound outermost electron.

360

Composite metal membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

Peachey, Nathaniel M. (Espanola, NM); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Ronny C. (Los Alamos, NM); Birdsell, Stephan A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Composite metal membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

362

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Nitrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Carbon Previous Element (Carbon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Oxygen) Oxygen Isotopes of the Element Nitrogen [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 14 99.636% STABLE 15 0.364% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 10 No Data Available Proton Emission 100.00% 11 5.49×10-22 seconds Proton Emission 100.00% 12 11.000 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% 13 9.965 minutes Electron Capture 100.00% 14 STABLE - - 15 STABLE - - 16 7.13 seconds Beta-minus Decay 100.00% Beta-minus Decay with delayed Alpha Decay 1.2×10-3 % 17 4.173 seconds Beta-minus Decay 100.00%

363

Reactive cluster model of metallic glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Though discovered more than a half century ago metallic glasses remain a scientific enigma. Unlike crystalline metals, characterized by short, medium, and long-range order, in metallic glasses short and medium-range order persist, though long-range order is absent. This fact has prompted research to develop structural descriptions of metallic glasses. Among these are cluster-based models that attribute amorphous structure to the existence of clusters that are incommensurate with crystalline periodicity. Not addressed, however, are the chemical factors stabilizing these clusters and promoting their interconnections. We have found that glass formers are characterized by a rich cluster chemistry that above the glass transformation temperature promotes exchange as well as static and vibronic sharing of atoms between clusters. The vibronic mechanism induces correlated motions between neighboring clusters and we hypothesize that the distance over which these motions are correlated mediates metallic glass stability and influences critical cooling rates.

Jones, Travis E. [Molecular Theory Group, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States) [Molecular Theory Group, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Miorelli, Jonathan; Eberhart, Mark E. [Molecular Theory Group, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)] [Molecular Theory Group, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

364

Automation of organic elemental analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Automation of organic elemental analysis ... Describes the development and design of an apparatus for automated organic elemental analysis. ...

Velmer B. Fish

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Peaceful Uses of the Atom and Atoms for Peace  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Peaceful Uses of the Atom Peaceful Uses of the Atom Fermi and Atoms for Peace · Understanding the Atom · Seaborg · Teller Atoms for Peace Atoms for Peace + 50 - Conference, October 22, 2003 Celebrating the 50th anniversary of President Eisenhower's "Atoms for Peace" speech to the UN General Assembly Atoms for Peace (video 12:00 Minutes) Atoms for Peace Address given by Dwight D. Eisenhower before the General Assembly of the United Nations, New York City, December 8, 1953 Documents: Atomic Power in Space: A History A history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States from the mid-1950s through 1982; interplanetary space exploration successes and achievements have been made possible by this technology. Establishing Site X: Letter, Arthur H. Compton to Enrico Fermi, September 14, 1942

366

Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Iowa Powder Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. America's Next Top Energy Innovator Challenge 6067 likes Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. Ames Laboratory Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. (IPAT) aims to become a leading domestic titanium powder producer allowing for a paradigm shift in the cost of titanium powders for metal injection molding (MIM) feedstock. Decreasing this cost will create vast opportunities for aerospace, military, biomedical, and consumer applications. Titanium and its fabrication by MIM can become one of the United States' most advanced processing technologies and help jump-start many corresponding manufacturing sectors, spurring job creation and economic growth throughout the United States. Titanium is viewed as one of the most strategic metals of our future. Its

367

Adhesion, Lubrication, and Wear on the Atomic Scale James B. Adams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adhesion, Lubrication, and Wear on the Atomic Scale James B. Adams Dept. of Chemical and Materials, lubrication and wear) of tribology on the atomic Scale with a focus on our group's work on Aluminum. Adhesion to control friction and wear in bulk metal processes, lubricant boundary additives are added to bind

Adams, James B

368

Proceedings of transuranium elements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The identification of the first synthetic elements was established by chemical evidence. Conclusive proof of the synthesis of the first artificial element, technetium, was published in 1937 by Perrier and Segre. An essential aspect of their achievement was the prediction of the chemical properties of element 43, which had been missing from the periodic table and which was expected to have properties similar to those of manganese and rhenium. The discovery of other artificial elements, astatine and francium, was facilitated in 1939-1940 by the prediction of their chemical properties. A little more than 50 years ago, in the spring of 1940, Edwin McMillan and Philip Abelson synthesized element 93, neptunium, and confirmed its uniqueness by chemical means. On August 30, 1940, Glenn Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, and the late Joseph Kennedy began their neutron irradiations of uranium nitrate hexahydrate. A few months later they synthesized element 94, later named plutonium, by observing the alpha particles emitted from uranium oxide targets that had been bombarded with deuterons. Shortly thereafter they proved that is was the second transuranium element by establishing its unique oxidation-reduction behavior. The symposium honored the scientists and engineers whose vision and dedication led to the discovery of the transuranium elements and to the understanding of the influence of 5f electrons on their electronic structure and bonding. This volume represents a record of papers presented at the symposium.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Radiation Efficiency of Water-Window Cherenkov Sources Using Atomic Shell Resonances  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We developed simple theory of Cherenkov radiation at atomic resonances in the X-ray water window for L-shells in 5 trans-oxigen elements and proposed K-shell resonance in liquid...

Kaplan, Alexander E; Shkolnikov, Peter L

370

Lesson 3- Atoms and Isotopes  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Youve probably heard people refer to nuclear energy as atomic energy. Why? Nuclear energy is the energy that is stored in the bonds of atoms, inside the nucleus. Nuclear power plants are designed to capture this energy as heat and convert it to electricity. This lesson looks closely at what atoms are and how atoms store energy.

371

Educational Multiwavelength Atomic Emission Spectrometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

atomic absorption is the capability for simultaneous multielement analysis. It can be used colleges had acquired atomic absorption instruments by the year 1990.[2] In contrast, atomic emission with the acetylene-air flame source taken from an existing atomic absorption instrument. Two spectrometer units

Nazarenko, Alexander

372

Spectroscopic Studies of O-Vacancy Defects in Transition Metal Oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dielectrics comprised of nano-crystalline HfO{sub 2} in gate stacks with thin SiO{sub 2}/SiON interfacial transition regions display significant asymmetries with respect to trapping of Si substrate injected holes and electrons. Based on spectroscopic studies, and guided by ab initio theory, electron and hole traps in HfO{sub 2} and other transition metal elemental oxides are assigned to O-atom divacancies clustered at internal grain boundaries of nano-crystalline films. Engineering solutions in which grain boundary defects are suppressed include: (i) ultra-thin, <2 nm, HfO{sub 2} fims, (ii) chemically phase separated high HfO2 content silicate films, and (iii) non-crystalline Zr/Hf Si oxynitride films.

Lucovsky, G.; Luning, J.; Fleming, L.B.; Ulrich, M.D.; Rowe, J.E.; Seo, H.; Lee, S.; Lysaght, P.; Bersuker, G.

2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

373

Questions and Answers - How many atoms would it take to create a ton?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

there in the world? there in the world? Previous Question (How many atoms are there in the world?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (Could you please explain density?) Could you please explain density? How many atoms would it take to create a ton? There's a lot more to this question than first appears. There are many types of atoms and each of them has its own mass, so the answer varies depending on which atom you are talking about. Since even a tiny bit of matter has many atoms, it has become customary to use the unit "mole" to signify a standard number of atoms, namely, it is Avogadro's number which (almost) equals 6*1023, or 600,000 billion billon. If you look up the periodic table of elements, one of the numbers usually listed is the atomic mass which is the mass (in grams) of one mole of those atoms. Let's use

374

Tricking Iron into Acting like a Rare-earth Element | The Ames...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tricking Iron into Acting like a Rare-earth Element By slipping iron between two nitrogen atoms in a lithium matrix, researchers are able to trick iron into having magnetic...

375

general_atomics.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

former General former General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was constructed in 1959 and operated until 1991. The site encompassed approximately 7,400 square feet of laboratory and remote operations cells. Licensed operations at the facility included receipt, handling, and shipment of radioactive materials; remote handling, examination, and storage of previously irradiated nuclear fuel materials; pilot-scale tritium extraction operations; and development, fabrication, and inspection of uranium oxide-beryllium oxide fuel materials. General Atomics performed most of the work for the federal government. The General Atomics Hot Cell Facility was located in a 60-acre complex 13 miles northwest of downtown San Diego, 1 mile inland from the Pacific Ocean, and approximately 300 feet above sea level.

376

Magneto-Optical Trapping of Holmium Atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate sub-Doppler laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping of the rare earth element Holmium. Atoms are loaded from an atomic beam source and captured in six-beam $\\sigma_+ - \\sigma_-$ molasses using a strong $J=15/2 \\leftrightarrow J=17/2$ cycling transition at $\\lambda=410.5 \\rm nm$. Due to the small difference in hyperfine splittings and Land\\'e $g$-factors in the lower and upper levels of the cooling transition the MOT is self-repumped without additional repump light, and deep sub-Doppler cooling is achieved with the magnetic trap turned on. We measure the leakage out of the cycling transition to metastable states and find a branching ratio $\\sim 10^{-5}$ which is adequate for state resolved measurements on hyperfine encoded qubits.

J. Miao; J. Hostetter; G. Stratis; M. Saffman

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

377

Electrical characteristics and thermal stability of HfO{sub 2} metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors fabricated on clean reconstructed GaSb surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HfO{sub 2}/GaSb interfaces fabricated by high-vacuum HfO{sub 2} deposition on clean reconstructed GaSb surfaces were examined to explore a thermally stable GaSb metal-oxide-semiconductor structure with low interface-state density (D{sub it}). Interface Sb-O bonds were electrically and thermally unstable, and post-metallization annealing at temperatures higher than 200?C was required to stabilize the HfO{sub 2}/GaSb interfaces. However, the annealing led to large D{sub it} in the upper-half band gap. We propose that the decomposition products that are associated with elemental Sb atoms act as interface states, since a clear correlation between the D{sub it} and the Sb coverage on the initial GaSb surfaces was observed.

Miyata, Noriyuki, E-mail: nori.miyata@aist.go.jp; Mori, Takahiro; Yasuda, Tetsuji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Ohtake, Akihiro [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Ichikawa, Masakazu [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

378

Single atom identification by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, single, isolated impurity atoms of silicon and platinum in monolayer and multilayer graphene are identified. Simultaneously acquired electron energy loss spectra confirm the elemental identification. Contamination difficulties are overcome by employing near-UHV sample conditions. Signal intensities agree within a factor of two with standardless estimates.

Lovejoy, T. C.; Dellby, N.; Krivanek, O. L. [Nion, 1102 8th St., Kirkland, Washington 98033 (United States); Ramasse, Q. M. [SuperSTEM Laboratory, STFC Daresbury, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Falke, M.; Kaeppel, A.; Terborg, R. [Bruker Nano GmbH, Schwarzschildstr. 12, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Zan, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

379

Atomic Josephson vortices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that Josephson vortices in a quasi-one-dimensional atomic Bose Josephson junction can be controllably manipulated by imposing a difference of chemical potentials on the atomic Bose-Einstein condensate waveguides forming the junction. This effect, which has its origin in the Berry phase structure of a vortex, turns out to be very robust in the whole range of the parameters where such vortices can exist. We also propose that a Josephson vortex can be created by the phase imprinting technique and can be identified by a specific tangential feature in the interference picture produced by expanding clouds released from the waveguides.

Kaurov, V. M.; Kuklov, A. B. [Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, CUNY, Staten Island, New York 10314 (United States)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

380

Atomic Force Microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Introducing Metal Atoms to Organic Solar Cell Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

... Advantage! · Light weight! · Flexible! · Printable Disadvantage! · Low power conversion efficiency (PCE)! For Improvement of PCE! Long wavelength absorption! High mobility! Efficient charge separation ó Light h+ e­ #12. et al. Nat. Commun. 2013, 4, 1446. Power conversion efficiency (PCE): 9.2% Ph O OMe Ph O OMe S Hexyl

Katsumoto, Shingo

382

Shaking the bonds: Atomic vibrations drive insulator to metal...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

phase stability for more than 50 years. When heated to just above room temperature, the material undergoes an abrupt transformation from an electrical insulator to a conducting...

383

Atomic Calligraphy: The Direct Writing of Nanoscale Structures using MEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) based method for the resist free patterning of nano-structures. Using a focused ion beam (FIB) to customize larger MEMS machines, we fabricate apertures as small as 50 nm on plates that can be moved with nanometer precision over an area greater than 20x20 {\\mu}m^2. Depositing thermally evaporated gold atoms though the apertures while moving the plate results in the deposition of nanoscale metal patterns. Adding a shutter only microns above the aperture, enables high speed control of not only where but also when atoms are deposited. Using a shutter, different sized apertures can be selectively opened and closed for nano-structure fabrication with features ranging from nano- to micrometers in scale. The ability to evaporate materials with high precision, and thereby fabricate circuits and structures in situ, enables new kinds of experiments based on the interactions of a small number of atoms and eventually even single atoms.

Matthias Imboden; Han Han; Jackson Chang; Flavio Pardo; Cristian A. Bolle; Evan Lowell; David J. Bishop

2013-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

384

Metallic glass composition. [That does not embrittle upon annealing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This patent pertains to a metallic glass alloy that is either iron-based or nickel-based or based on a mixture of iron and nickel, containing lesser amounts of elements selected from the group boron, silicon, carbon and phosphorous to which is added an amount of a ductility-enhancing element selected from the group cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium sufficient to increase ductility of the metallic glass upon annealing.

Kroeger, D.M.; Koch, C.C.

1984-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

385

KINETIC CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION OF METALLIC IRON AND IMPLICATIONS FOR METALLIC IRON DUST FORMATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metallic iron is one of the most abundant condensing materials in systems of solar abundance. Because metallic iron is responsible for the continuum opacity of dust particles, it has a large contribution to the thermal structure of circumstellar environments and hence to dust evolution itself. In order to understand the formation processes of metallic iron in circumstellar environments, condensation and evaporation kinetics of metallic iron were studied experimentally. Metallic iron condenses at the maximum rate with the condensation coefficient (a parameter ranging from 0 to 1 to represent kinetic hindrance for surface reaction) of unity under high supersaturation conditions, and evaporates nearly ideally (evaporation coefficient of unity) in vacuum. On the other hand, evaporation of metallic iron takes place with more kinetic hindrance in the presence of metallic iron vapor. It is also found that metallic iron atoms nucleate heterogeneously on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Metallic iron does not necessarily condense homogeneously in circumstellar environments, but might condense through heterogeneous nucleation on pre-existing dust. Metallic iron formation proceeds with little kinetic hindrance for highly unequilibrated conditions, but the effects of kinetic hindrance may appear for evaporation and condensation occurring near equilibrium with a timescale of months to years in protoplanetary disks.

Tachibana, Shogo; Nagahara, Hiroko; Ozawa, Kazuhito; Ikeda, Youhei; Nomura, Ryuichi; Tatsumi, Keisuke; Joh, Yui, E-mail: tachi@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

386

Atomic Scientists Brief Congress  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Topics covered included underground explosions to produce energy, chemicals, or petroleum; advanced reactors capable of producing chemicals; atomic power for space propulsion; direct conversion of heat energy to electricity; and controlled thermonuclear reactions. ... (For details on controlled fusion research see page 46.) ...

1960-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

387

Atomic Power in Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

NUCLEAR ENERGY will provide most of the power requirements in Japan by the end of this century. So predicts Charles H. Weaver, vice president in charge of atomic power activities for Westinghouse Electric.Addressing the Conference on Peaceful Uses of ...

1957-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

388

Magnetism and Atomic Structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the information with regard to the atom has been obtained by studying spectra; chemistry, magnetism, X-ray scattering, etc., play only a subsidiary part. We must admit, ... for fresh sources of information. Much may be said in support of the opinion that magnetism will open a new way by which to approach the study of the structure of ...

P. KAPITZA

1927-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

389

Element 103, Lawrencium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... formed on February 14 by bombarding 3 (Jigm. of californium (element 98) with boron-10 or boron-11 nuclei in a heavy-ion linear accelerator at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory ...

1961-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

390

Visualizing Brain Metals in Health and Disease  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Visualizing Brain Metals in Health and Visualizing Brain Metals in Health and Disease figure 1 Fig. 1. Rapid-scanning x-ray fluorescence mapping ex perimental setup. Synchrotron x-rays at 11 keV passed through a 50 µm aperture (Ap). The beam intensity was monitored with a N2-filled ion chamber (I0). The brain slice was mounted vertically on a motorized stage (St) at 45° to the incident x-ray beam and raster scanned in the beam. A 13-element Ge detector (Ge) was positioned at a 90° angle to the beam. We all require iron, copper and zinc for normal brain function but metal metabolism becomes dysregulated in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Metals accumulate in Alzheimer's dementia and Parkinson's disease and are deficient in Menkes disease. Whether excess metals appear as a cause or a

391

Surface atomic structure of c(22)-Si on Cu(110)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The technological importance of Schottky barriers has led to many experiments of metal-on-semiconductor systems. Here we present an example of the inverse case by depositing a semiconductor on a metal, studying the very early stages of the metal-semiconductor interface formation. We show that 0.5 monolayers of Si on Cu(110) form an ordered c(22) overlayer and resolve its geometrical structure. Using full-hemispherical x-ray photoelectron diffraction, we find that Si atoms form an almost coplanar layer, replacing one out of two Cu surface atoms.

J. A. Martn-Gago; R. Fasel; J. Hayoz; R. G. Agostino; D. Naumovic-acute; P. Aebi; L. Schlapbach

1997-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

Building a metal-responsive promoter with synthetic regulatory elements.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...function of MREs, we inserted a synthetic DNA fragment containing the sequence...function of MREs, we inserted a synthetic DNA fragment containing the sequence...function of MREs, we inserted a synthetic DNA fragment containing the sequence...

P F Searle; G W Stuart; R D Palmiter

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Blank optimization in sheet metal forming using finite element simulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The present study aims to determine the optimum blank shape design for the deep drawing of arbitrary shaped cups with a uniform trimming allowance at the flange i.e. cups without ears. This earing defect is caused by planar anisotropy in the sheet...

Goel, Amit

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

394

Rotordynamic evaluation of hybrid damper seals with metal mesh elements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

photograph of the test rig is shown in Figure 7. It consists of live main components: 1. the seal housing, 2. thc rotor, 3. the bearing support 4. the air turbine drive and 5. the electric motor, IIs , l& Figure 7t Photograph of the Rotating Test Rig... photograph of the test rig is shown in Figure 7. It consists of live main components: 1. the seal housing, 2. thc rotor, 3. the bearing support 4. the air turbine drive and 5. the electric motor, IIs , l& Figure 7t Photograph of the Rotating Test Rig...

Bhamidipati, Laxmi Narasimha Kameswara Sarma

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

395

Mechanochemical processing for metals and metal alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A set of processes for preparing metal powders, including metal alloy powders, by ambient temperature reduction of a reducible metal compound by a reactive metal or metal hydride through mechanochemical processing. The reduction process includes milling reactants to induce and complete the reduction reaction. The preferred reducing agents include magnesium and calcium hydride powders. A process of pre-milling magnesium as a reducing agent to increase the activity of the magnesium has been established as one part of the invention.

Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Prisbrey, Keith (Moscow, ID)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

THE COORDINATION CHEMISTRY OF METAL SURFACES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In coordinately unsaturated molecular metal complexes, carbon-hydrogen bonds of the peripheral ligands may, if the stereochemistry allows, closely approach a metal center so as to develop a three-center two-electron bond between the carbon, the hydrogen, and the metal atoms, C-H-M. In some instances, the interaction .is followed by a scission of the C-H bond whereby the metal is effectively oxidized and discrete M-H and M-C {sigma} bonds are forrned. This class of metal-hydrogen-carbon interactions and reactions is shown to be a common phenomenon in metal surface chemistry. Ultra high vacuum studies of nickel and platinum with simple organic molecules like olefins, and arenes are described. These surface chemistry studies were done as a function of surface crystallography and surface composition. The discussion is largely limited to the chemistry of methyl isocyanide, acetonitrile, benzene and toluene. Molecular orbital calculations are presented that support the experimental identification of the importance of C-H-M metal bonding for metal surfaces.

Muetterties, Earl L.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

High Rydberg Atoms: Newcomers to the Atomic Physics Scene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...HYDROGEN ATOM, NUCLEAR FUSION 5 : 41 ( 1965 ). BAYFIELD...HIGHLY-EXCITED KR ATOMS BY HF AND HCL MOLECULES, BULLETIN...USING A CW TUNABLE DYE LASER, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS...such diverse fields as laser development, laser isotopeseparation, energy...

Ronald F. Stebbings

1976-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

398

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Westinghouse Atomic Power Development  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic Power Atomic Power Development Plant - PA 04 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: WESTINGHOUSE ATOMIC POWER DEVELOPMENT PLANT (PA.04 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: East Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania PA.04-1 Evaluation Year: 1985 PA.04-2 Site Operations: Research and development on uranium oxide fuel elements in the 1940s. PA.04-3 PA.04-5 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Radiation levels below criteria PA.04-1 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium, Zirconium PA.04-3 PA.04-4 Radiological Survey(s): Yes PA.04-1 Site Status: Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP PA.04-5 Also see Documents Related to WESTINGHOUSE ATOMIC POWER DEVELOPMENT PLANT

399

Scaling in the correlation energies of atomic ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We show through numerical investigations that the ground-state correlation energies of atomic ions follow an unexpectedly simple scaling relation, Ec?Z4/3fc(Z/N), where N is the number of electrons, Z is the atomic number, and fc is a universal function, for which an analytic expression with a one-parameter fit can be provided. The relation agrees well with several sets of correlation energies obtained from different methods for atomic ions with N=2,...,18 and Z=2,...,28. Moreover, our relation gives a good agreement with neutral atoms up to N?90. Our main result is readily applicable to estimating correlation energies of heavy elements, for which there are no available data in the literature. The simplicity of the relation may also have implications in the development of correlation functionals within density-functional theory.

A. Odriazola; A. Gonzlez; E. Rsnen

2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

400

Ecosystem element cycling Introduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be responsible for well over 50% of the "wet mass" of organisms. The "dry mass" of living organisms, which is composed of other molecules, is often referred to as biomass. There are four basic types of molecules carbon atoms, and energy is released as carbohydrates and fats are transformed to carbon dioxide

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

The Periodic Table of Elements C  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atomic Number Chemical Symbol Atomic Weight Chemical Name = Solid at room temperature = Liquid at room temperature = Gas at room temperature = Radioactive = Artificially Made KEY METALS NON-METALS 12.011 http://education.jlab.org/ Last revised on April 3, 2013 [294] H Li Na K Be Mg Ca Sc Ti Rb Cs Fr Sr Y Ba Ra Zr Hf Rf V Nb Ta Db Cr Mo W Sg Mn Tc Re Bh Fe Ru Os Hs Co Rh Ir Mt Ni Pd Pt Ds Cu Ag Au Rg Zn Cd Hg Cn Ga In Tl Uut Ge Sn Pb Fl As Sb Bi Uup Se Te Po Lv Br I At Uus Kr Xe Rn Uuo La Ac Ce Th Pr Pa Nd U Pm Np Sm Pu Eu Am Gd Cm Tb Bk Dy Cf Ho Es Er Fm Tm Md Yb Yb No Lu Lr B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne He Ar HYDROGEN LITHIUM SODIUM POTASSIUM BERYLLIUM MAGNESIUM CALCIUM SCANDIUM TITANIUM RUBIDIUM CESIUM FRANCIUM STRONTIUM YTTRIUM BARIUM RADIUM ZIRCONIUM HAFNIUM RUTHERFORDIUM VANADIUM NIOBIUM TANTALUM DUBNIUM CHROMIUM MOLYBDENUM TUNGSTEN SEABORGIUM MANGANESE TECHNETIUM RHENIUM BOHRIUM IRON RUTHENIUM OSMIUM HASSIUM

402

The Periodic Table of Elements C  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

.011 .011 Atomic Number Chemical Symbol Atomic Weight Chemical Name = Solid at room temperature = Liquid at room temperature = Gas at room temperature = Radioactive = Artificially Made KEY METALS NON-METALS http://education.jlab.org/ Last revised on April 3, 2013 [294] H Li Na K Be Mg Ca Sc Ti Rb Cs Fr Sr Y Ba Ra Zr Hf Rf V Nb Ta Db Cr Mo W Sg Mn Tc Re Bh Fe Ru Os Hs Co Rh Ir Mt Ni Pd Pt Ds Cu Ag Au Rg Zn Cd Hg Cn Ga In Tl Uut Ge Sn Pb Fl As Sb Bi Uup Se Te Po Lv Br I At Uus Kr Xe Rn Uuo La Ac Ce Th Pr Pa Nd U Pm Np Sm Pu Eu Am Gd Cm Tb Bk Dy Cf Ho Es Er Fm Tm Md Yb Yb No Lu Lr B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne He Ar HYDROGEN LITHIUM SODIUM POTASSIUM BERYLLIUM MAGNESIUM CALCIUM SCANDIUM TITANIUM RUBIDIUM CESIUM FRANCIUM STRONTIUM YTTRIUM BARIUM RADIUM ZIRCONIUM HAFNIUM RUTHERFORDIUM VANADIUM NIOBIUM TANTALUM DUBNIUM CHROMIUM MOLYBDENUM TUNGSTEN SEABORGIUM MANGANESE TECHNETIUM RHENIUM BOHRIUM IRON RUTHENIUM OSMIUM HASSIUM COBALT

403

Optical imaging of Rydberg atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an experiment exploring electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in Rydberg atoms in order to observe optical nonlinearities at the single photon level. ??Rb atoms are trapped and cooled using a magneto-optical ...

Mazurenko, Anton

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Seaborg Predicts Bright Atomic Future  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Seaborg Predicts Bright Atomic Future ... To explore both the immediate and long-term ramifications of the cutbacks, C&EN talked to the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg . ...

1964-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

405

E-Print Network 3.0 - actinide elements volume Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

no 5-6, Tome 33, Mai-Juin 1972,page C3-57 RELATIVISTIC ELECTRONIC BAND STRUCTURE OF THE HEAVY METALS Summary: and properties of the actinide elements before discussing the band...

406

Metallic glass alloys of Zr, Ti, Cu and Ni  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

At least quaternary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise titanium from 19 to 41 atomic percent, an early transition metal (ETM) from 4 to 21 atomic percent and copper plus a late transition metal (LTM) from 49 to 64 atomic percent. The ETM comprises zirconium and/or hafnium. The LTM comprises cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is further constrained such that the product of the copper plus LTM times the atomic proportion of LTM relative to the copper is from 2 to 14. The atomic percentage of ETM is less than 10 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as high as 41, and may be as large as 21 when the atomic percentage of titanium is as low as 24. Furthermore, when the total of copper and LTM are low, the amount of LTM present must be further limited. Another group of glass forming alloys has the formula (ETM.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x).sub.a Cu.sub.b (Ni.sub.1-y Co.sub.y).sub.c wherein x is from 0.1 to 0.3, y.cndot.c is from 0 to 18, a is from 47 to 67, b is from 8 to 42, and c is from 4 to 37. This definition of the alloys has additional constraints on the range of copper content, b.

Lin, Xianghong (Pasadena, CA); Peker, Atakan (Pasadena, CA); Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Sandia National Laboratories: CSP: ELEMENTS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

CSP: ELEMENTS Sandia Researchers Win CSP:ELEMENTS Funding Award On June 4, 2014, in Advanced Materials Laboratory, Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Energy Storage, Facilities,...

408

Questions and Answers - What are the components of an atom? How much does  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Can you crush atoms? Can you crush atoms? Previous Question (Can you crush atoms?) Questions and Answers Main Index Next Question (Atoms without neutrons?) Atoms without neutrons? What are the components of an atom? How much does each atom weigh? The answer to both your questions are tucked away in one of coolest charts anyone has ever thought up. Around 100 years ago this very organized sort of guy named Dimitri Ivanovich Mendeleyev put the names and properties of all the chemicals he knew onto cards. He then tried arranging them in a way that made sense in a sort of Chemist's game of Solitaire. The resulting chart, called The Periodic Table of Elements, has contributed probably more than anything else to our understanding of matter. When you begin studying the Periodic table in school, pay close attention. There is a tremendous

409

Chemical Tuning of Metal-Semiconductor Interfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report a study of the Schottky barrier for Pb films grown on Si surfaces terminated by various metals (Ag, In, Au, and Pb) to explore the atomic-scale physics of the interface barrier and a means to control the barrier height. Electronic confinement by the Schottky barrier results in quantum well states in the Pb films, which are measured by angle-resolved photoemission. The barrier height is determined from the atomic-layer-resolved energy levels and the line widths. A calculation based on the known interface chemistry and the electronegativity yields predicted barrier heights in good agreement with the experiment.

D. A. Ricci; T. Miller; T.-C. Chiang

2004-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

410

Elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

411

Appendix G: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix G: Radiation #12;#12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

412

Appendix A: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix A: Radiation #12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

413

Recent Progress in ultracold atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Einstein What is Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC)? #12;300 K to 1 mK 109 atoms 1 mK to 1 mK 108 106 atoms How to make a BEC: Cool atoms at ultra low temperature Laser beams Fluorescence Laser cooling (Doppler

Baltisberger, Jay H.

414

Supersonic Bare Metal Cluster Beams. Final Report  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

A major portion of the project involved elucidating the relation between reactivity and the electronic structure of transition-metal (TM) clusters of 2--200 atoms, which required the construction and continuous development of two principal apparati; the Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) apparatus, and Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS). Together, these machines have enabled the most detailed probing of the structure and chemical reactivity of TM clusters. Clusters of all the transition metals were included in these studies. Fundamental aspects in chemisorption, reactivity, and heterogeneous catalysis have also become better understood as a result of these experiments for important classes of systems such as H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} adsorbed onto clusters of many of the metals listed above. In particular, a correlation was found between reactivity of H{sub 2} with Fe, Co, and Ni clusters and differences between the cluster IP and EA. As recounted in a previous technical report, the DOE`s role in the initial discovery of fullerenes at Rice was central, and from the start investigations were made into metal atoms trapped in the fullerenes cage. More recently, the authors have discovered that 2--4 atoms of La, Y, or Sc can be produced by laser vaporization of composite graphite/metal-oxide disks. This work was largely motivated by the prospects of using such endohedral TM metals for their catalytic activity without the well-known difficulties of effective support media and lack of control over particle size. Thus, while it will certainly be important to discover ways to efficiently scale up production (e.g., the solar generation method explored with DOE support), the efforts have concentrated more on characterization, purification, and manipulation of doped fullerenes. For the past two years, much of the group`s effort has involved the production, purification, and characterization of carbon nanotubes.

Smalley, R. E.

1997-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

415

VARIOUS APPLICATIONS OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

APPLICATIONS OF ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPYthe Zeeman effect to atomic absorption spectroscopy has beenthe Zeeman effect on atomic absorption spectrometry has been

Koizumi, Hideaki

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Rare Earth Elements:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...aegirine, magnetite and hematite; and (3) a massive central iron oxide facies containing 3 wt% REE2O3 (Chao et al. 1992...for several bivalent metal ions and cerium(III) with the acetylacetonate ion. Journal of Physical Chemistry 59: 235-237 Lehmann...

Anthony E. Williams-Jones; Artashes A. Migdisov; Iain M. Samson

417

Study of atomic spectral lines in a magnetic field with use of a nanocell with the thickness L = ?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose a technique which we call L = ? Zeeman technique (LZT) for investigation of the transitions between the Zeeman sublevels of the hfs structure of alkali metal atoms in external magnetic fields. The te...

T. S. Varzhapetyan; G. T. Hakhumyan

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Method for the continuous processing of hermetic fiber optic components and the resultant fiber optic-to-metal components  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hermetic fiber optic-to-metal components and method for making hermetic fiber optic-to-metal components by assembling and fixturing elements comprising a metal shell, a glass preform, and a metal-coated fiber optic into desired relative positions and then sealing said fixtured elements preferably using a continuous heating process is disclosed. The resultant hermetic fiber optic-to-metal components exhibit high hermeticity and durability despite the large differences in thermal coefficients of expansion among the various elements. 3 figs.

Kramer, D.P.

1994-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

419

Metal-phosphate binders  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

420

Alkali-metal-halogen charge-exchange collisions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An approximate quasiclassical treatment is presented for calculating the cross sections for charge transfer from a neutral alkali-metal atom colliding with a halogen atom (chlorine or fluorine). The electron is treated by the time-dependent perturbation in the two-state approximation. The two states are the ground (or the first-excited) state of alkali-metal atom and the ground state of the halogen negative ion. Charge-transfer cross sections are calculated as a function of relative velocity (v) of collision between v=0.01and5 a.u. Qualitative features of these cross sections are compared with an earlier work on alkali-metal-oxygen collisions. An asymptotic formula at low velocities of collision v?0 is obtained, which compares with the earlier formula obtained by Bates. At higher velocities cross sections are found to vary as 1v2, as in the Born approximation.

D. Arora; J. E. Turner; P. G. Khubchandani

1976-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Rare Earth Elements:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...were also extracted as by-products of uranium mining from conglomerates at Elliot Lake...toxic waste lakes, acrid air, and high cancer rates in the Bayan Obo area. The environmental...Major and trace element composition of the depleted MORB mantle (DMM). Earth and Planetary...

Anton R. Chakhmouradian; Frances Wall

422

Etalon-induced Baseline Drift And Correction In Atom Flux Sensors Based On Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atom flux sensors based on atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy are of significant interest in thin film growth as they can provide unobtrusive, element specific, real-time flux sensing and control. The ultimate sensitivity and performance of the sensors are strongly affected by the long-term and short term baseline drift. Here we demonstrate that an etalon effect resulting from temperature changes in optical viewport housings is a major source of signal instability which has not been previously considered or corrected by existing methods. We show that small temperature variations in the fused silica viewports can introduce intensity modulations of up to 1.5%, which in turn significantly deteriorate AA sensor performance. This undesirable effect can be at least partially eliminated by reducing the size of the beam and tilting the incident light beam off the viewport normal.

Du, Yingge; Chambers, Scott A.

2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

423

Heavy Metal Tolerance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Delphine Pages1,2,3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heavy Metal Tolerance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Delphine Pages1,2,3 , Jerome Rose4 , Sandrine, this bacterium tolerates high levels (0.1 to 50 mM) of various toxic metals, such as Cd, Pb, Co, Zn, Hg, Ag mechanisms to overcome metal toxicity, reduction of oxyanions to non-toxic elemental ions and detoxification

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

424

Copper-induced oxidative stress in three-spined stickleback : relationship with hepatic metal levels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contamination of aquatic ecosystems by heavy metals. Among them, copper is a widespread pollutant found, 1999). Although this metal is a required element, high concentrations appear to be toxic to freshwater1 Copper-induced oxidative stress in three-spined stickleback : relationship with hepatic metal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

425

Optimization of metal dispersion in doped graphitic materials for hydrogen storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The noncovalent hydrogen binding on transition-metal atoms dispersed on carbon clusters and graphene is studied with the use of the pseudopotential density-functional method. It is found that the presence of acceptorlike states in the absorbents is essential for enhancing the metal adsorption strength and for increasing the number of hydrogen molecules attached to the metal atoms. Particular configurations of boron substitutional doping are found to be very efficient for providing such states and thus enhancing storage capacity. Optimal doping conditions are suggested based on our calculations for the binding energy and ratio between metal and hydrogen molecules.

Gyubong Kim; Seung-Hoon Jhi; Noejung Park; Steven G. Louie; Marvin L. Cohen

2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

426

Metal Hydrides - Science Needs  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Storage Grand Challenge Pre-Solicitation Meeting, June 19, 2003 1 Metal Hydrides - Science Needs TRADITIONAL METALLIC HYDRIDES: 1.5 to 2 wt.% H. Well studied. COMPLEX...

427

Probing metal solidification nondestructively  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Probing metal solidification nondestructively This is the first time that high-energy protons have been used to nondestructively image a large metal sample during melting and...

428

Probing metal solidification nondestructively  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Probing metal solidification nondestructively This is the first time that high-energy protons have been used to nondestructively image a large metal sample during melting...

429

Carbide and carbonitride surface treatment method for refractory metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A carbide and carbonitride surface treatment method for refractory metals is provided, in steps including, heating a part formed of boron, chromium, hafnium, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, titanium, tungsten or zirconium, or alloys thereof, in an evacuated chamber and then introducing reaction gases including nitrogen and hydrogen, either in elemental or water vapor form, which react with a source of elemental carbon to form carbon-containing gaseous reactants which then react with the metal part to form the desired surface layer. Apparatus for practicing the method is also provided, in the form of a carbide and carbonitride surface treatment system including a reaction chamber, a source of elemental carbon, a heating subassembly and a source of reaction gases. Alternative methods of providing the elemental carbon and the reaction gases are provided, as well as methods of supporting the metal part, evacuating the chamber with a vacuum subassembly and heating all of the components to the desired temperature. 5 figs.

Meyer, G.A.; Schildbach, M.A.

1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

430

Magnetism in Transition Metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An attempt is made to distinguish "band-type magnetization" from "alignment-type magnetization" on the basis of whether the local moments associated with the Wannier functions on the atom sites are "induced" or "permanent." In general, the local moment is partially induced and partially permanent, and a criterion is suggested: A local moment is defined to be of the permanent variety if in the presence of magnetic forces (supposed characteristic of the crystal in a given circumstance) tending to produce a moment in one sense (z^, say) of a direction, it can maintain itself (perhaps altered in magnitude, however) in the opposite sense (-z^), as well as in z^. The internal mechanisms tending to produce permanent moments are simplified to just the Hcorr of Anderson, and the external inducing mechanism are the Heisenberg interaction and a magnetic field, Hspin, say. If Hcorr dominates Hspin, then it is shown that a local moment can maintain itself to the polarizing tendencies (whence an alignment type of magnetization calculation is appropriate), but if Hspin dominates Hcorr, then the local moment has only one sense possible in this environment (and a band type of calculation is appropriate). It is suggested that this distinction is relevant to transition metals.

M. Bailyn

1965-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

431

Adhesion, Atomic Structure, and Bonding at theAdhesion, Atomic Structure, and Bonding at the ----AlAl22OO33(0001)/Al(111) Interface:(0001)/Al(111) Interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adhesion, Atomic Structure, and Bonding at theAdhesion, Atomic Structure, and Bonding at the ----AlAl22OO33(0001)/Al(111) Interface:(0001)/Al(111) Interface: A First Principles StudyA First Principles--ceramic interfaces are ubiquitous in many industrial applications: ­ Microelectronics ­ Al and other metals

Adams, James B

432

K Series X-Ray Wavelengths in Rare Earth Elements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The K-series x-rays in ten rare earth elements have been studied with a two-meter-radius bent-quartz-crystal spectrograph. The 3.7-Mev proton beam of the A-48 accelerator (UCRL, Livermore) was used to produce the atomic excitations. The wavelengths obtained for the K?1, K?2, K?3, and K?1 lines are compared with previous wavelength measurements. Two weaker transitions, K?5 and KOIIOIII, were also observed and the energies are compared with energies obtained from tables of known atomic energy levels.

E. L. Chupp, J. W. M. Du Mond, F. J. Gordon, R. C. Jopson, and Hans Mark

1958-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Wednesday, 29 May 2013 00:00 Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

434

On neutron numbers and atomic masses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On neutron numbers and atomic masses ... Assigning neutron numbers, correct neutron numbers, and atomic masses and nucleon numbers. ...

R. Heyrovsk

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Effect of atomic scale plasticity on hydrogen diffusion in iron: Quantum mechanically informed and on-the-fly kinetic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

viewpoints, is futile. Among several mechanisms proposed for hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of metals, hydrogenEffect of atomic scale plasticity on hydrogen diffusion in iron: Quantum mechanically informed-assisted diffusion and trapping of hydrogen by crystalline defects in iron. Given an embedded atom (EAM) potential

Ortiz, Michael

436

Practical scheme for a light-induced gauge field in an atomic Bose gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose a scheme to generate an Abelian gauge field in an atomic gas using two crossed laser beams. If the internal atomic state follows adiabatically the eigenstates of the atom-laser interaction, Berrys phase gives rise to a vector potential that can nucleate vortices in a Bose gas. The present scheme operates even for a large detuning with respect to the atomic resonance, making it applicable to alkali-metal atoms without significant heating due to spontaneous emission. We test the validity of the adiabatic approximation by integrating the set of coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations associated with the various internal atomic states, and we show that the steady state of the interacting gas indeed exhibits a vortex lattice, as expected from the adiabatic gauge field.

Kenneth J. Gnter, Marc Cheneau, Tarik Yefsah, Steffen P. Rath, and Jean Dalibard

2009-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

437

Ab initio modeling of the two-dimensional energy landscape of screw dislocations in bcc transition metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A density functional theory (DFT) study of the 1/2?111? screw dislocation was performed in the following body-centered cubic transition metals: V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, and Fe. The energies of the easy, hard, and split core configurations, as well as the pathways between them, were investigated and used to generate the two-dimensional (2D) Peierls potential, i.e. the energy landscape seen by the dislocation as a function of its position in the (111) plane. In all investigated elements, the nondegenerate easy core is the minimum energy configuration, while the split core configuration, centered in the immediate vicinity of a ?111? atomic column, has a high energy near or above that of the hard core. This unexpected result yields 2D Peierls potentials very different from the usually assumed landscapes. The 2D Peierls potential in Fe differs from the other transition metals, with a monkey saddle instead of a local maximum located at the hard core. An estimation of the Peierls stress from the shape of the Peierls barrier is presented in all investigated metals. A strong group dependence of the core energy is also evidenced, related to the position of the Fermi level with respect to the minimum of the pseudogap of the electronic density of states.

L. Dezerald; Lisa Ventelon; E. Clouet; C. Denoual; D. Rodney; F. Willaime

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

438

Fabrication of superconducting metal-oxide textiles by heating impregnated polymeric material in a weakly oxidizing atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for producing crystalline fibers, textiles or shapes comprised of YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]x] where x varies from about 0 to about 0.4, said process comprising: (a) impregnating a preformed organic polymeric material with three metal compounds to provide metal elements in said material in substantially the atomic ratio occurring in said YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]x]; (b) heating said impregnated material in a weakly oxidizing atmosphere containing from about 0.05% to about 2% oxygen by volume to a temperature sufficiently high to at least partially pyrolize and oxidize said organic material and at least partially oxidize said metal compounds substantially without ignition of said organic material and without formation of a molten phase or reaching a decomposition temperature of said YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]x]; and (c) cooling the resulting material in at least a moderately oxidizing atmosphere to room temperature so as to obtain said fibers, textiles or shapes.

Van den Sype, J.S.

1993-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

439

Alkane oxidation with porphyrins and metal complexes thereof having haloalkyl side chains  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Transition metal complexes of meso-haloalkylporphyrins are disclosed, wherein the haloalkyl groups contain 2 to 8 carbon atoms have been found to be highly effective catalysts for oxidation of alkanes and for the decomposition of hydroperoxides. 7 figs.

Wijesekera, T.; Lyons, J.E.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Bhinde, M.V.

1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

440

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of Metal Clusters Supported on Graphene and Silica Thin Film  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The understanding of nucleation and growth of metals on a planar support at the atomic level is critical for both surface science research and heterogeneous catalysis studies. In this dissertation, two planar substrates, including graphene and ultra...

Zhou, Zihao

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal iodogallates Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the usual case of an alkali metal reservoir... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at...

442

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal astatides Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the usual case of an alkali metal reservoir... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at...

443

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metals Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the usual case of an alkali metal reservoir... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at...

444

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal 2-aminonicotinates Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the usual case of an alkali metal reservoir... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at...

445

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal thermal-to-electric Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the usual case of an alkali metal reservoir... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at...

446

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal perrhenate Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the usual case of an alkali metal reservoir... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at...

447

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal diphenylamide Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the usual case of an alkali metal reservoir... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at...

448

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metals analiz Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the usual case of an alkali metal reservoir... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at...

449

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal isotopes Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the usual case of an alkali metal reservoir... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at...

450

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metals sintez Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to the usual case of an alkali metal reservoir... to the vacuum pumps or due to adsorption of the alkali atoms onto ... Source: Jin, Deborah - JILA, University of Colorado at...

451

Alkane oxidation with porphyrins and metal complexes thereof having haloalkyl side chains  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Transition metal complexes of meso-haloalkylporphyrins, wherein the haloalkyl groups contain 2 to 8 carbon atoms have been found to be highly effective catalysts for oxidation of alkanes and for the decomposition of hydroperoxides.

Wijesekera, Tilak (Glen Mills, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Bhinde, Manoj V. (Boothwyn, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Microbial acidification and pH effects on trace element release from sewage sludge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microbial acidification and pH effects on trace element release from sewage sludge Shabnam Qureshia; Trace metals; Mobilization; Land application 1. Introduction Trace elements in land-applied wastewater sludge (sewage biosolids) are potentially phyto- or zoo-toxic if present in sufficient concentration

Walter, M.Todd

453

Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed. 2 figs.

Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Byers, C.H.

1992-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

456

Atomic Energy Commission Takes Over Responsibility for all Atomic...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Takes Over Responsibility for all Atomic Energy Programs | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile...

457

Are There Any Stars Lacking Neutron-Capture Elements? Evidence from Strontium and Barium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The cosmic dispersion in the abundances of the heavy elements strontium and barium in halo stars is well known. Strontium and barium are detected in most cool, metal-poor giants, but are these elements always detectable? To identify stars that could be considered probable candidates for lacking these elements, I examine the stellar abundance data available in the literature for 1148 field stars and 226 stars in dwarf galaxies, 776 of which have metallicities lower than [Fe/H]Strontium or barium have been detected in all field, globular cluster, and dwarf galaxy environments studied. All upper limits are consistent with the lowest detected ratios of [Sr/H] and [Ba/H]. The frequent appearance of these elements raises the intriguing prospect that at least one kind of neutron-capture reaction operates as often as the nucleosynthesis mechanisms that produce lighter elements, like magnesium, calcium, or iron, although the yields of heavy elements may be more variable.

Roederer, Ian U

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Impact of graphene coating on the atom-plate interaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using the recently proposed quantum electrodynamical formalism, we calculate the Casimir-Polder free energies and forces between the ground state atoms of Rb, Na, Cs and He${}^{\\ast}$ and the plates made of Au, Si, sapphire and fused silica coated with a graphene sheet. It is shown that the graphene coating has no effect on the Casimir-Polder interaction for metallic plates, but influences significantly for plates made of dielectric materials. The influence of graphene coating increases with decreasing static dielectric permittivity of the plate material and the characteristic frequency of an atomic dynamic polarizability. Simple analytic expressions for the classical limit of the Casimir-Polder free energy and force between an atom and a graphene-coated plate are obtained. From the comparison with the results of numerical computations, the application region of these expressions is determined.

G. L. Klimchitskaya; V. M. Mostepanenko

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

459

245H. Dreysse et al.: Calculation of Interactions Between Adsorbates on Transition Metal Surfaces Calculation of Interactions Between Adsorbates on Transition Metal Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

245H. Dreysse et al.: Calculation of Interactions Between Adsorbates on Transition Metal Surfaces ------------- Calculation of Interactions Between Adsorbates on Transition Metal Surfaces H. Dreysse*), D. Tomanek, and K. H the interaction W n (i) between n adsorbed atoms of type A in a geometrical arrangement i (given

460

Heavy metal biosensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions and methods are provided for detection of certain heavy metals using bacterial whole cell biosensors.

Hillson, Nathan J; Shapiro, Lucille; Hu, Ping; Andersen, Gary L

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Ionization of Group II A Elements in the Direct Current Plasma: Effects of Ionization Potential on Emission Profiles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Studies of background corrected ion and atom emission profiles of the group IIA elements in the two-electrode direct current plasma show great variation in both vertical and...

Williams, Ronald R; Coleman, Geoffrey N

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Magnetic trap for thulium atoms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the first time ultra-cold thulium atoms were trapped in a magnetic quadrupole trap with a small field gradient (20 Gs cm{sup -1}). The atoms were loaded from a cloud containing 4x10{sup 5} atoms that were preliminarily cooled in a magneto-optical trap to the sub-Doppler temperature of 80 {mu}K. As many as 4x10{sup 4} atoms were trapped in the magnetic trap at the temperature of 40 {mu}K. By the character of trap population decay the lifetime of atoms was determined (0.5 s) and an upper estimate was obtained for the rate constant of inelastic binary collisions for spin-polarised thulium atoms in the ground state (g{sub in} < 10{sup -11}cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}). (magnetic traps)

Sukachev, D D; Sokolov, A V; Chebakov, K A; Akimov, A V; Kolachevskii, N N; Sorokin, Vadim N [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

463

Laser vaporization clusters from metal loaded graphite used for SWNT generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, these metal-carbon clusters were proved to be very reactive. 40 60 80 100 Number of Carbon Atoms Intensity of Carbon Atoms Intensity(arbitrary) (a) Positive (b) Negative Fig2. Enlargement of C70 to C73 C74 C76 C72, The Univ. of Tokyo In order to study the generation mechanism of SWNTs, we have studied metal-carbon binary

Maruyama, Shigeo

464

Fine Structure of the Hydrogen Atom. Part I  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fine structure of the hydrogen atom is studied by a microwave method. A beam of atoms in the metastable 2S122 state is produced by bombarding atomic hydrogen. The metastable atoms are detected when they fall on a metal surface and eject electrons. If the metastable atoms are subjected to radiofrequency power of the proper frequency, they undergo transitions to the non-metastable states 2P122 and 2P322 and decay to the ground state 1S122 in which they are not detected. In this way it is determined that contrary to the predictions of the Dirac theory, the 2S122 state does not have the same energy as the 2P122 state, but lies higher by an amount corresponding to a frequency of about 1000 Mc/sec. Within the accuracy of the measurements, the separation of the 2P122 and 2P322 levels is in agreement with the Dirac theory. No differences in either level shift or doublet separation were observed between hydrogen and deuterium. These results were obtained with the first working apparatus. Much more accurate measurements will be reported in subsequent papers as well as a detailed comparison with the quantum electrodynamic explanation of the level shift by Bethe.Among the topics discussed in connection with this work are (1) spectroscopic observations of the H? line, (2) early attempts to use microwaves to study the hydrogen fine structure, (3) existence of metastable hydrogen atoms, their properties and methods for their production and detection, (4) estimates of yield and r-f power requirements, (5) Zeeman and hyperfine structure effects, (6) quenching of metastable hydrogen atoms by electric and motional electric fields, (7) production of a polarized beam of metastable hydrogen atoms.

Willis E. Lamb; Jr. and Robert C. Retherford

1950-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

465

Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Element One, Inc. Element One, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 191524 likes Element One, based in Boulder, Colorado, has created the only available coatings that change color when detecting hydrogen and other hazardous gas leaks, either reversibly or non-reversibly, to provide both current and historical information about leaks. Element One's patented gas indicators and sensors use catalyzed thin films or nanoparticles of a transition metal oxide to create very low cost sensors for use in industrial and consumer environments, greatly reducing the potential for undetected leaks and their cost and safety implications. This technology is also being integrated for use in refineries, industry gas and fuel cells systems and was developed using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

466

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

467

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

468

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

469

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

470

Elemental composition in sealed plutoniumberyllium neutron sources  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Five sealed plutoniumberyllium (PuBe) neutron sources from various manufacturers were disassembled. Destructive chemical analyses for recovered PuBe materials were conducted for disposition purposes. A dissolution method for PuBe alloys was developed for quantitative plutonium (Pu) and beryllium (Be) assay. Quantitation of Be and trace elements was performed using plasma based spectroscopic instruments, namely inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Pu assay was accomplished by an electrochemical method. Variations in trace elemental contents among the five PuBe sources are discussed.

N. Xu; K. Kuhn; D. Gallimore; A. Martinez; M. Schappert; D. Montoya; E. Lujan; K. Garduno; L. Tandon

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using a metal hydride.

Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using, a metal hydride.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

473

Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using a metal hydride.

Kronberg, J.W.

1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

474

ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

' ' ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION Frank K. Pittman, Director, bivisioa of Waste &&gement and s- portation, Headquarters j CONTAMItUTED RX-AEC-OWNED OR LEASED FACILITIES' This memorandum responds to your TWX certain information on the above subject. the documentation necessary to answer your available due to the records disposal vailing at the time of release or From records that are available and from disc&ions with most familiar with the transfer operations, &have the current radiological conditibn of transferred property is adequate under present standards. The following tabulations follow the format suggested in your TWX and are grouped to an operations or contract r+ponsibility. A,I Ex-AEC Storage Sites - I r:/ National Stockpile Site '(NSS) and OperatEonal

475

Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (Bettis) is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and has been operated under Government contract by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation since 1949. The Bettis Site in West Mifflin, Pennsylvania conducts research and development work on improved nuclear propulsion plants for US Navy warships and is the headquarters for all of the Laboratory's operations. For many years, environmental monitoring has been performed to demonstrate that the Bettis Site is being operated in accordance with environmental standards. While the annual report describes monitoring practices and results, it does not describe the nature and environmental aspects of work and facilities at the Bettis Site nor give a historical perspective of Bettis' operations. The purpose of this report is to provide this information as well as background information, such as the geologic and hydrologic nature of the Bettis Site, pertinent to understanding the environmental aspects of Bettis operations. Waste management practices are also described.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Rydberg Atoms in Ponderomotive Potentials.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this thesis, we examine the ponderomotive interaction between an applied optical field and a highly excited Rydberg electron. An atom in a Rydberg state (more)

Knuffman, Brenton J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Absorption properties of identical atoms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emission rates and other optical properties of multi-particle systems in collective and entangled states differ from those in product ones. We show the existence of similar effects in the absorption probabilities for (anti)symmetrized states of two identical atoms. The effects strongly depend on the overlapping between the atoms and differ for bosons and fermions. We propose a viable experimental verification of these ideas. -- Highlights: The absorption rates of a pair of identical atoms in product and (anti)symmetrized states are different. The modifications of the optical properties are essentially determined by the overlapping between the atoms. The absorption properties differ, in some cases, for bosons and fermions.

Sancho, Pedro, E-mail: psanchos@aemet.es

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

478

EMSL - atomic-resolution imaging  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

atomic-resolution-imaging en Molecular Hydrogen Formation from Proximal Glycol Pairs on TiO2(110). http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsmolecular-hydrogen-formation-proxima...

479

Magnetism and Atomic Structure. I  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

3 January 1921 research-article Magnetism and Atomic Structure. I A. E. Oxley The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access...

1921-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Atom bouncers have it taped  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... University have repeatedly bounced rubidium atoms from magnetic tape of the kind used to record audio signals1. In later experiments, they obtained better results with floppy disks.

Wayne M. Itano

1995-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metallic element atomic" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Pyrometallurgical processes for recovery of actinide elements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A metallic fuel alloy, nominally U-20-Pu-lOZr, is the key element of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle. Metallic fuel permits the use of an innovative, simple pyrometallurgical process, known as pyroprocessing, (the subject of this report), which features fused salt electrorefining of the spent fuel. Electrorefining separates the actinide elements from fission products, without producing a separate stream of plutonium. The plutonium-bearing product is contaminated with higher actinides and with a minor amount of rare earth fission products, making it diversion resistant while still suitable as a fuel material in the fast spectrum of the IFR core. The engineering-scale demonstration of this process will be conducted in the refurbished EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility, which has entered the start-up phase. An additional pyrometallurgical process is under development for extracting transuranic (TRU) elements from Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel in a form suitable for use as a feed to the IFR fuel cycle. Four candidate extraction processes have been investigated and shown to be chemically feasible. The main steps in each process are oxide reduction with calcium or lithium, regeneration of the reductant and recycle of the salt, and separation of the TRU product from the bulk uranium. Two processes, referred to as the lithium and salt transport (calcium reductant) processes, have been selected for engineering-scale demonstration, which is expected to start in late 1993. An integral part of pyroprocessing development is the treatment and packaging of high-level waste materials arising from the operations, along with the qualification of these waste forms for disposal in a geologic repository.

Battles, J.E.; Laidler, J.J.; McPheeters, C.C.; Miller, W.E.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Note: An ion source for alkali metal implantation beneath graphene and hexagonal boron nitride monolayers on transition metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The construction of an alkali-metal ion source is presented. It allows the acceleration of rubidium ions to an energy that enables the penetration through monolayers of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. Rb atoms are sublimated from an alkali-metal dispenser. The ionization is obtained by surface ionization and desorption from a hot high work function surface. The ion current is easily controlled by the temperature of ionizer. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy measurements confirm ion implantation.

Lima, L. H. de [Instituto de Fsica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil)] [Instituto de Fsica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Cun, H. Y.; Hemmi, A.; Klin, T.; Greber, T. [Physik-Institut, Universitt Zrich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zrich (Switzerland)] [Physik-Institut, Universitt Zrich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zrich (Switzerland)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

483

Equation of state of metallic helium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effective ion-ion interaction, free energy, pressure, and electric resistance of metallic liquid helium have been calculated in wide density and temperature ranges using perturbation theory in the electron-ion interaction potential. In the case of conduction electrons, the exchange interaction has been taken into account in the random-phase approximation and correlations have been taken into account in the local-field approximation. The solid-sphere model has been used for the nuclear subsystem. The diameter of these spheres is the only parameter of this theory. The diameter and density of the system at which the transition of helium from the singly ionized to doubly ionized state occurs have been estimated by analyzing the pair effective interaction between helium atoms. The case of doubly ionized helium atoms has been considered. Terms up to the third order of perturbation theory have been taken into account in the numerical calculations. The contribution of the third-order term is significant in all cases. The electric resistance and its temperature dependence for metallic helium are characteristic of simple divalent metals in the liquid state. The thermodynamic parameters-temperature and pressure densities-are within the ranges characteristic of the central regions of giant planets. This makes it possible to assume the existence of helium in the metallic state within the solar system.

Shvets, V. T., E-mail: tarval@breezein.net [Odessa State Academy of Refrigeration (Ukraine)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

484

Determination of lead in gasoline by atomic absorption spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A procedure has been developed for the direct determination of lead in gasoline by atomic absorption spectroscopy. This procedure is rapid, does not require expensive equipment, is remarkably free from interference by other trace elements present, and allows considerable variation in the sulfur and nitrogen content of the gasoline. It compares favorably with other existing procedures for this determination, such as X-ray fluorescence, wet chemical methods, and flame photometry.

J.W. Robinson

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula given in the patent where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula 1 is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula 1 and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

Erbil, A.

1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z