Sample records for metallic copper nanoparticles

  1. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    , hyperaccumulating plants extract metals from soils and concentrate excess amounts in harvestable parts/L copper in their drinking water (1, 2), while some freshwater animals and plants experience acute toxic

  2. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene Triple Junction Points. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene...

  3. Inkjet printed electronics using copper nanoparticle ink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jin Sung; Kim, Hak Sung; Ryu, Jongeun; Thomas Hahn, H.; Jang, Seonhee; Joung, Jae Woo

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    providing printed electronics using copper nanoparticles.0049-3 Inkjet printed electronics using copper nanoparticleand quality of the printed electronics. In this paper, we

  4. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.New MexicoFinancingProofWorkingEnergyGoForestFormation of Metallic

  5. Divalent metal nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeVries, Gretchen Anne

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal nanoparticles hold promise for many scientific and technological applications, such as chemical and biological sensors, vehicles for drug delivery, and subdiffraction limit waveguides. To fabricate such devices, a ...

  6. Synthesis metal nanoparticle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunge, Scott D.; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2005-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for providing an anhydrous route for the synthesis of amine capped coinage-metal (copper, silver, and gold) nanoparticles (NPs) using the coinage-metal mesityl (mesityl=C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3 -2,4,6) derivatives. In this method, a solution of (Cu(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5, (Ag(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.4, or (Au(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5 is dissolved in a coordinating solvent, such as a primary, secondary, or tertiary amine; primary, secondary, or tertiary phosphine, or alkyl thiol, to produce a mesityl precursor solution. This solution is subsequently injected into an organic solvent that is heated to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. After washing with an organic solvent, such as an alcohol (including methanol, ethanol, propanol, and higher molecular-weight alcohols), oxide free coinage NP are prepared that could be extracted with a solvent, such as an aromatic solvent (including, for example, toluene, benzene, and pyridine) or an alkane (including, for example, pentane, hexane, and heptane). Characterization by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the NPs were approximately 9.2.+-.2.3 nm in size for Cu.degree., (no surface oxide present), approximately 8.5.+-.1.1 nm Ag.degree. spheres, and approximately 8-80 nm for Au.degree..

  7. Molecular responses of mouse macrophages to copper and copper oxide nanoparticles inferred from proteomic analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    enhanced cell vulnerability to copper-based nanoparticles but not to copper ion. Furthermore, functional1 Molecular responses of mouse macrophages to copper and copper oxide nanoparticles inferred from, Service de Chimie Inorganique et Biologique, Laboratoire Lésions des Acides Nucléiques (LAN), Grenoble 5

  8. Evaluation of monolayer protected metal nanoparticle technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Diana J

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Self assembling nanostructured nanoparticles represent a new class of synthesized materials with unique functionality. Such monolayer protected metal nanoparticles are capable of resisting protein adsorption, and if utilized ...

  9. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  10. Electronic Relaxation Dynamics in Coupled Metal Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    of hot electrons for photoelectrochemical processes, including solar energy conversion or organic wasteElectronic Relaxation Dynamics in Coupled Metal Nanoparticles Mark J. Feldstein, Christine D

  11. Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Mendoza, Daniel (Santa Fe, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone into metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and into the cooler plasma afterglow where it oxidizes, cools and condenses to form solid metal oxide nanoparticles.

  12. Ultrashort laser ablation of bulk copper targets: Dynamics and size distribution of the generated nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsakiris, N.; Gill-Comeau, M.; Lewis, L. J. [Département de Physique et Regroupement Québécois sur les Matériaux de Pointe (RQMP), Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Anoop, K. K.; Ausanio, G.; Bruzzese, R.; Amoruso, S., E-mail: amoruso@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II and CNR-SPIN, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the role of laser pulse fluence on expansion dynamics and size distribution of the nanoparticles produced by irradiating a metallic target with an ultrashort laser pulse in a vacuum, an issue for which contrasting indications are present in the literature. To this end, we have carried out a combined theoretical and experimental analysis of laser ablation of a bulk copper target with ?50 fs, 800?nm pulses, in an interval of laser fluencies going from few to several times the ablation threshold. On one side, molecular dynamics simulations, with two-temperature model, describe the decomposition of the material through the analysis of the evolution of thermodynamic trajectories in the material phase diagram, and allow estimating the size distribution of the generated nano-aggregates. On the other side, atomic force microscopy of less than one layer nanoparticles deposits on witness plates, and fast imaging of the nanoparticles broadband optical emission provide the corresponding experimental characterization. Both experimental and numerical findings agree on a size distribution characterized by a significant fraction (?90%) of small nanoparticles, and a residual part (?10%) spanning over a rather large size interval, evidencing a weak dependence of the nanoparticles sizes on the laser pulse fluence. Numerical and experimental findings show a good degree of consistency, thus suggesting that modeling can realistically support the search for experimental methods leading to an improved control over the generation of nanoparticles by ultrashort laser ablation.

  13. Enhanced thermal conductivity and viscosity of copper nanoparticles in ethylene glycol nanofluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enhanced thermal conductivity and viscosity of copper nanoparticles in ethylene glycol nanofluid J conductivity and viscosity of copper nanoparticles in ethylene glycol. The nanofluid was prepared calculations suggest that this nanofluid would not be beneficial as a coolant in heat exchangers without

  14. Metal-doped semiconductor nanoparticles and methods of synthesis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Chen, Gang (Carlisle, MA); Poudel, Bed (West Newton, MA); Kumar, Shankar (Newton, MA); Wang, Wenzhong (Beijing, CN); Dresselhaus, Mildred (Arlington, MA)

    2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to binary or higher order semiconductor nanoparticles doped with a metallic element, and thermoelectric compositions incorporating such nanoparticles. In one aspect, the present invention provides a thermoelectric composition comprising a plurality of nanoparticles each of which includes an alloy matrix formed of a Group IV element and Group VI element and a metallic dopant distributed within the matrix.

  15. Heteroepitaxial Self Assembling Noble Metal Nanoparticles in Monocrystalline Silicon 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Michael S.

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Embedding metal nanoparticles in crystalline silicon possesses numerous possible applications to fabricate optoelectronic switches, increase efficiency of radiation detectors, decrease the thickness of monocrystalline silicon solar panels...

  16. Process for removing copper in a recoverable form from solid scrap metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartman, Alan D. (Albany, OR); Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); White, Jack C. (Albany, OR)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing copper in a recoverable form from a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix is disclosed. The process begins by placing a copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix into a reactor vessel. The atmosphere within the reactor vessel is purged with an inert gas or oxidizing while the reactor vessel is heated in the area of the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix to raise the temperature within the reactor vessel to a selected elevated temperature. Air is introduced into the reactor vessel and thereafter hydrogen chloride is introduced into the reactor vessel to obtain a desired air-hydrogen chloride mix. The air-hydrogen chloride mix is operable to form an oxidizing and chloridizing atmosphere which provides a protective oxide coating on the surface of the solid ferrous scrap metal in the mix and simultaneously oxidizes/chloridizes the copper in the mix to convert the copper to a copper monochloride gas for transport away from the solid ferrous scrap metal. After the copper is completely removed from the copper/solid ferrous scrap metal mix, the flows of air and hydrogen chloride are stopped and the copper monochloride gas is collected for conversion to a recoverable copper species.

  17. Stability and Aggregation of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Natural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardinale, Bradley J.

    dispersed three different metal oxide nanoparticles (TiO2, ZnO and CeO2) in samples taken from eight,river,andgroundwater,andmeasuredtheirelectrophoretic mobility, state of aggregation, and rate of sedimentation.g., sunscreens, paints, coatings, catalysts). A simplified con- ceptual model of a typical nanoparticle life

  18. Coupling discrete metal nanoparticles to photonic crystal surface resonant modes and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Brian

    Coupling discrete metal nanoparticles to photonic crystal surface resonant modes and application nanoparticles to the resonant mode of a photonic crystal surface has been demonstrated as a means for obtaining of the photonic crystal can couple to plasmon resonances of the metal nanoparticles. Because metal nanoparticles

  19. Synthesis and deposition of metal nanoparticles by gas condensation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maicu, Marina, E-mail: marina.maicu@fep.fraunhofer.de; Glöß, Daniel; Frach, Peter [Fraunhofer Institut für Elektronenstrahl und Plasmatechnik, FEP, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Schmittgens, Ralph; Gerlach, Gerald [Institut für Festkörperelektronik, IFE, TU Dresden, Helmholtz Straße 18, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Hecker, Dominic [Fraunhofer Institut für Elektronenstrahl und Plasmatechnik, FEP, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden, Germany and Institut für Festkörperelektronik, IFE, TU Dresden, Helmholtz Straße 18, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the synthesis of Pt and Ag nanoparticles by means of the inert gas phase condensation of sputtered atomic vapor is presented. The process parameters (power, sputtering time, and gas flow) were varied in order to study the relationship between deposition conditions and properties of the nanoparticles such as their quantity, size, and size distribution. Moreover, the gas phase condensation process can be combined with a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition procedure in order to deposit nanocomposite coatings consisting of metallic nanoparticles embedded in a thin film matrix material. Selected examples of application of the generated nanoparticles and nanocomposites are discussed.

  20. Controlled Nanoparticle Metal Phosphates (Metal = Al, Fe, Ce, and Sr) Coatings on LiCoO2 Cathode Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Controlled Nanoparticle Metal Phosphates (Metal = Al, Fe, Ce, and Sr) Coatings on LiCoO2 Cathode and annealing temperature are used for MPO4 nanoparticle coatings M = Al, Fe, Ce, and SrH on a LiCoO2 cathode, the extent of the coating coverage is influenced by the nanoparticle size or morphology. Nanoparticles AlPO4

  1. Viscosity of copper oxide nanoparticles dispersed in ethylene glycol and water mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Namburu, Praveen K.; Kulkarni, Devdatta P.; Das, Debendra K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, P.O. Box 755905, Fairbanks, AK 99775-5905 (United States); Misra, Debasmita [Department of Mining and Geological Engineering, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, P.O. Box 755905, Fairbanks, AK 99775-5905 (United States)

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofluids are new kinds of fluids engineered by dispersing nanoparticles in base fluids. This paper presents an experimental investigation of rheological properties of copper oxide nanoparticles suspended in 60:40 (by weight) ethylene glycol and water mixture. Nanofluids of particle volume percentage ranging from 0% to 6.12% were tested. The experiments were carried over temperatures ranging from -35 C to 50 C to demonstrate their applicability in cold regions. For the particle volume concentrations tested, nanofluids exhibited Newtonian behavior. An experimental correlation was developed based on the data, which relates viscosity with particle volume percent and the nanofluid temperature. (author)

  2. Anomalously increased effective thermal conductivities of ethylene glycol-based nanofluids containing copper nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastman, J. A.; Choi, S. U. S.; Li, S.; Yu, W.; Thompson, L. J.

    2001-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that a ''nanofluid'' consisting of copper nanometer-sized particles dispersed in ethylene glycol has a much higher effective thermal conductivity than either pure ethylene glycol or ethylene glycol containing the same volume fraction of dispersed oxide nanoparticles. The effective thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol is shown to be increased by up to 40% for a nanofluid consisting of ethylene glycol containing approximately 0.3 vol% Cu nanoparticles of mean diameter <10 nm. The results are anomalous based on previous theoretical calculations that had predicted a strong effect of particle shape on effective nanofluid thermal conductivity, but no effect of either particle size or particle thermal conductivity.

  3. 888Metal and silicate particles including nanoparticles are present in electronic cigarette cartomizer fluid and aserosol. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talbot, Prue

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal and Silicate Particles Including Nanoparticles Areiron, nickel, aluminum, and silicate and nanoparticles (,100The presence of metal and silicate particles in cartomizer

  4. Precipitation of heterogeneous nanostructures: Metal nanoparticles and dielectric nanocrystallites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masai, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Takumi [Department of Applied Physics, Tohoku University, 6-6-05, Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Tokuda, Yomei; Yoko, Toshinobu [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasyo, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Heterogeneous precipitation of nanocrystallites of metallic Bi and anatase was observed in CaO-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} glass-ceramics. Addition of AlN reduced the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} to Bi metal nanoparticles, which were uniformly dispersed in the glass. After heat-treatment of the Bi-precipitated glass around the glass transition temperature, nanocrystalline anatase precipitated out without aggregation of the Bi metal particles. It was found that the anatase nanocrystal size was affected by the distance between a nanocrystal and a precipitated Bi nanoparticle. The glass-ceramic produced is a functional material containing a random dispersion of different types of nanoparticles with different dielectric constants.

  5. Metal nanoparticles as a conductive catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coker, Eric N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal nanocluster composite material for use as a conductive catalyst. The metal nanocluster composite material has metal nanoclusters on a carbon substrate formed within a porous zeolitic material, forming stable metal nanoclusters with a size distribution between 0.6-10 nm and, more particularly, nanoclusters with a size distribution in a range as low as 0.6-0.9 nm.

  6. Metal-Insulating-Semi-Incorporation of Silicon Nanoparticles into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates under grant number DMR-1063150, Renewable Energy Materials Research Science and Engineering Center under grant number DMR-0820518 and the Department of Energy SunMetal-Insulating-Semi- Conductor Incorporation of Silicon Nanoparticles into Silicon Based Solar

  7. Modeling of pattern dependencies in the fabrication of multilevel copper metallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Hong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multilevel copper metallization for Ultra-Large-Scale-Integrated (ULSI) circuits is a critical technology needed to meet performance requirements for advanced interconnect technologies with sub-micron dimensions. It is ...

  8. Thermal contact conductance of metallic coated superconductor/copper interfaces at cryogenic temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ochterbeck, Jay Matthew

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THERMAL CONTACT CONDUCTANCE OF METALLIC COATED SUPERCONDUCTOR/COPPER INTERFACES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES A Thesis by JAY MATTHEW OCHTERBECK Submitted to the 0%ce of Graduate Studies of Texas AJrM IJniversity in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THERMAL CONTACT CONDUCTANCE OF METALLIC COATED SUPERCONDUCTOR/COPPER INTERFACES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES A Thesis JA'r '(IATTHEW OCHTERBECK Approved...

  9. Thermal contact conductance of metallic coated superconductor/copper interfaces at cryogenic temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ochterbeck, Jay Matthew

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THERMAL CONTACT CONDUCTANCE OF METALLIC COATED SUPERCONDUCTOR/COPPER INTERFACES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES A Thesis by JAY MATTHEW OCHTERBECK Submitted to the 0%ce of Graduate Studies of Texas AJrM IJniversity in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THERMAL CONTACT CONDUCTANCE OF METALLIC COATED SUPERCONDUCTOR/COPPER INTERFACES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES A Thesis JA'r '(IATTHEW OCHTERBECK Approved...

  10. Selective Electrocatalytic Activity of Ligand Stabilized Copper Oxide Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kauffman, Douglas R.; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Kail, Brian W; Matranga, Christopher

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ligand stabilization can influence the surface chemistry of Cu oxide nanoparticles (NPs) and provide unique product distributions for electrocatalytic methanol (MeOH) oxidation and CO{sub 2} reduction reactions. Oleic acid (OA) stabilized Cu{sub 2}O and CuO NPs promote the MeOH oxidation reaction with 88% and 99.97% selective HCOH formation, respectively. Alternatively, CO{sub 2} is the only reaction product detected for bulk Cu oxides and Cu oxide NPs with no ligands or weakly interacting ligands. We also demonstrate that OA stabilized Cu oxide NPs can reduce CO{sub 2} into CO with a {approx}1.7-fold increase in CO/H{sub 2} production ratios compared to bulk Cu oxides. The OA stabilized Cu oxide NPs also show 7.6 and 9.1-fold increases in CO/H{sub 2} production ratios compared to weakly stabilized and non-stabilized Cu oxide NPs, respectively. Our data illustrates that the presence and type of surface ligand can substantially influence the catalytic product selectivity of Cu oxide NPs.

  11. Low resistance barrier layer for isolating, adhering, and passivating copper metal in semiconductor fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weihs, Timothy P. (Baltimore, MD); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palto Alto, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cubic or metastable cubic refractory metal carbides act as barrier layers to isolate, adhere, and passivate copper in semiconductor fabrication. One or more barrier layers of the metal carbide are deposited in conjunction with copper metallizations to form a multilayer characterized by a cubic crystal structure with a strong (100) texture. Suitable barrier layer materials include refractory transition metal carbides such as vanadium carbide (VC), niobium carbide (NbC), tantalum carbide (TaC), chromium carbide (Cr.sub.3 C.sub.2), tungsten carbide (WC), and molybdenum carbide (MoC).

  12. Fabrication of metallic microstructures by micromolding nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M. (Livermore, CA); Winter, Michael R. (Goleta, CA); Domeier, Linda A. (Danville, CA); Allan, Shawn M. (Henrietta, NY); Skala, Dawn M. (Fremont, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for fabricating metallic microstructures, i.e., microcomponents of micron or submicron dimensions. A molding composition is prepared containing an optional binder and nanometer size (1 to 1000 nm in diameter) metallic particles. A mold, such as a lithographically patterned mold, preferably a LIGA or a negative photoresist mold, is filled with the molding composition and compressed. The resulting microstructures are then removed from the mold and the resulting metallic microstructures so provided are then sintered.

  13. Metal and dielectric nanoparticle scattering for improved optical absorption in photovoltaic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    photocurrent response and photovoltaic power conversion efficiency, elucidate the origins of the ob- servedMetal and dielectric nanoparticle scattering for improved optical absorption in photovoltaic scattering by Au and silica nanoparticles placed atop silicon photovoltaic devices on absorption

  14. Stabilization of Metal Nanoparticles in Cubic Mesostructured...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of regenerable metal-based adsorbents which can remove sulfur impurities from warm syngas stream down to less than 60 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) is described. This same...

  15. Copper-silver-titanium filler metal for direct brazing of structural ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of joining ceramics and metals to themselves and to one another is described using a brazing filler metal consisting essentially of 35 to 50 atomic percent copper, 15 to 50 atomic percent silver and 10 to 45 atomic percent titanium. This method produces strong joints that can withstand high service temperatures and oxidizing environments.

  16. Copper-silver-titanium-tin filler metal for direct brazing of structural ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of joining ceramics and metals to themselves and to one another at about 800.degree. C. is described using a brazing filler metal consisting essentially of 35 to 50 at. % copper, 40 to 50 at. % silver, 1 to 15 at. % titanium, and 2 to 8 at. % tin. This method produces strong joints that can withstand high service temperatures and oxidizing environments.

  17. Ferroplasmons: Intense Localized Surface Plasmons in Metal-Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachan, Ritesh [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Malasi, Abhinav [ORNL; Ge, Jingxuan [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; Yadavali, Sagar P [ORNL; Gangopadhyay, Anup [Washington University, St. Louis; Krishna, Dr. Hare [Washington University, St. Louis; Garcia, Hernando [Southern Illinois University; Duscher, Gerd J M [ORNL; Kalyanaraman, Ramki [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interaction of photons with matter at length scales far below their wavelengths has given rise to many novel phenomena, including localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). However, LSPR with narrow bandwidth (BW) is observed only in a select few noble metals, and ferromagnets are not among them. Here, we report the discovery of LSPR in ferromagnetic Co and CoFe alloy (8% Fe) in contact with Ag in the form of bimetallic nanoparticles prepared by pulsed laser dewetting. These plasmons in metal-erromagnetic nanostructures, or ferroplasmons (FP) for short, are in the visible spectrum with comparable intensity and BW to those of the LSPRs from the Ag regions. This finding was enabled by electron energy-loss mapping across individual nanoparticles in a monochromated scanning transmission electron microscope. The appearance of the FP is likely due to plasmonic interaction between the contacting Ag and Co nanoparticles. Since there is no previous evidence for materials that simultaneously show ferromagnetism and such intense LSPRs, this discovery may lead to the design of improved plasmonic materials and applications. It also demonstrates that materials with interesting plasmonic properties can be synthesized using bimetallic nanostructures in contact with each other.

  18. Systematic Approach to Compare the Inflammatory Response of Liver Cell Culture Systems Exposed to Silver, Copper, and Nickel Nanoparticles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Nivedita

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    hepatotoxicity concerns, the inflammatory response of hepatocytes after exposure to metal colloids was assessed. Four ~30-nm-sized metal colloids, including silver (nano-Ag), copper (nano-Cu) and nickel (nano-Ni) were examined in an effort to understand...

  19. SEPARATION OF COPPER FROM METALS IN AN ALLOY BY LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    /L. Extraction. The extraction procedure is the same for the sample, standards and blank (water between sample extractions with water. The chloroform extracts at this point will normally be cloudySEPARATION OF COPPER FROM METALS IN AN ALLOY BY LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION Background Reading: Harris

  20. Direct Metal Transfer Between Periplasmic Proteins Identifies a Bacterial Copper Chaperone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagai, I.; Rensing, C.; Blackburn, N.; McEvoy, M.M.

    2009-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition metals require exquisite handling within cells to ensure that cells are not harmed by an excess of free metal species. In Gram-negative bacteria, copper is required in only small amounts in the periplasm, not in the cytoplasm, so a key aspect of protection under excess metal conditions is to export copper from the periplasm. Additional protection could be conferred by a periplasmic chaperone to limit the free metal species prior to export. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we have demonstrated that two periplasmic proteins, CusF and CusB, of the Escherichia coli Cu(I)/Ag(I) efflux system undergo a metal-dependent interaction. Through the development of a novel X-ray absorption spectroscopy approach using selenomethionine labeling to distinguish the metal sites of the two proteins, we have demonstrated transfer of Cu(I) occurs between CusF and CusB. The interaction between these proteins is highly specific, as a homologue of CusF with a 51% identical sequence and a similar affinity for metal, did not function in metal transfer. These experiments establish a metallochaperone activity for CusF in the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria, serving to protect the periplasm from metal-mediated damage.

  1. Multiple percolation tunneling staircase in metal-semiconductor nanoparticle composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukherjee, Rupam; Huang, Zhi-Feng; Nadgorny, Boris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiple percolation transitions are observed in a binary system of RuO{sub 2}-CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} metal-semiconductor nanoparticle composites near percolation thresholds. Apart from a classical percolation transition, associated with the appearance of a continuous conductance path through RuO{sub 2} metal oxide nanoparticles, at least two additional tunneling percolation transitions are detected in this composite system. Such behavior is consistent with the recently emerged picture of a quantum conductivity staircase, which predicts several percolation tunneling thresholds in a system with a hierarchy of local tunneling conductance, due to various degrees of proximity of adjacent conducting particles distributed in an insulating matrix. Here, we investigate a different type of percolation tunneling staircase, associated with a more complex conductive and insulating particle microstructure of two types of non-spherical constituents. As tunneling is strongly temperature dependent, we use variable temperature measurements to emphasize the hierarchical nature of consecutive tunneling transitions. The critical exponents corresponding to specific tunneling percolation thresholds are found to be nonuniversal and temperature dependent.

  2. Synthesis of Thermal Interface Materials Made of Metal Decorated Carbon Nanotubes and Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okoth, Marion Odul

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    -Methly-2-Pyrrolidone (NMP). The metals used for this experiment were copper (Cu), tin (Sn), and nickel (Ni). The metal nanoparticles were seeded using functionalized MWCNTs as templates. Once seeded, the nanotubes and polymer composites were made...

  3. Which resonances in small metallic nanoparticles are plasmonic?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emily Townsend; Garnett W Bryant

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We use time-dependent density functional theory to examine the character of various resonances corresponding to peaks in the optical response of small metallic nanoparticles. Each resonance has both "sloshing" and "inversion" character. The sloshing mode is an oscillation in the occupation of the shells nearest the Fermi energy, transferring charge back and forth from below the Fermi level to above it. It results in oscillation in charge density near the surface of the particle. Inversions monotonically move charge from occupied to unoccupied states, and result in oscillation in charge density in the core of the particle. We also discuss the dependence of the optical response on the size of the simulation grid, noting that the character of resonances appears stable with respect to changes in simulation size, even though the details of the spectrum change. This makes a reliable characterization possible. We consider what characteristics are important in deciding that a resonance is plasmonic.

  4. Stable Metal Isotopes Reveal Copper Accumulation and Loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and metalloids into food webs (3-5). The protocols for deter- mining trace metal dynamics quantify unidirectional unidirectional fluxes. However, complicated logistics, handling, and waste issues limit the useofradioisotopestolaboratoriesthathavetrainedhandlers and can maintain permits. In addition to health hazards associated with radioactivity, the lack

  5. Electromagnetic absorption mechanisms in metal nanospheres: Bulk and surface effects in radiofrequency-terahertz heating of nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanson, George

    in radiofrequency-terahertz heating of nanoparticles G. W. Hanson,1,a) R. C. Monreal,2 and S. P. Apell3 1 Department on the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by metallic nanoparticles in the radio and far infrared frequency by which nonmagnetic metallic nanoparticles can absorb low frequency radiation, including both classical

  6. Surfactant Organic Molecules Restore Magnetism in Metal-Oxide Nanoparticle Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    acid and the nanoparticles would prevent further oxidation to Fe2O3, which could be detrimental functional calculations, we establish the key role of the nonmagnetic organic acid cappiSurfactant Organic Molecules Restore Magnetism in Metal-Oxide Nanoparticle Surfaces Juan Salafranca

  7. DNA-Mediated Control of Metal Nanoparticle Shape: One-Pot Synthesis and Cellular Uptake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    DNA-Mediated Control of Metal Nanoparticle Shape: One-Pot Synthesis and Cellular Uptake of Highly, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 ABSTRACT The effects of different DNA that in the absence of DNA, 30-mer poly A or poly C induces formation of the flower-shaped gold nanoparticle (Au

  8. High-Efficiency 6?? Multicrystalline Black Solar Cells Based on Metal-Nanoparticle-Assisted Chemical Etching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, W. Chuck

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) photovoltaic (PV) solar cells with nanoscale surface texturing by metal-nanoparticle-assisted etching are proposed to achieve high power efficiency. The investigation of average nanorod ...

  9. Dendrimer-encapsulated metal nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and applications to catalysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Yanhui

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The research in this dissertation examines the chemistry and applications of dendrimers in homogeneous catalysis. We examined interactions between dendrimers and charged probe molecules, prepared dendrimer-encapsulated metal nanoparticles...

  10. Single Particle Spectroscopy Study of Metal-Film-Induced Tuning of Silver Nanoparticle Plasmon Resonances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kik, Pieter

    coupling between the nanoparticle and the metal film. When the thickness of a thin silica spacer layer and can localize visible radiation to subwavelength dimensions and thus control light-matter interactions

  11. A model for the latent heat of melting in free standing metal nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, Jeong-Heon; Deinert, Mark R., E-mail: mdeinert@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78715 (United States)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoparticles of many metals are known to exhibit scale dependent latent heats of melting. Analytical models for this phenomenon have so far failed to completely capture the observed phenomena. Here we present a thermodynamic analysis for the melting of metal nanoparticles in terms of their internal energy and a scale dependent surface tension proposed by Tolman. The resulting model predicts the scale dependence of the latent heat of melting and is confirmed using published data for tin and aluminum.

  12. Preparation of transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified with (CO) polymers synthesized by RAFT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCormick, III, Charles L. (Hattiesburg, MS); Lowe, Andrew B. (Hattiesburg, MS); Sumerlin, Brent S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2006-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A new, facile, general one-phase method of generating thiol-functionalized transition metal nanoparticles and surface modified by (co)polymers synthesized by the RAFT method is described. The method includes the steps of forming a (co)polymer in aqueous solution using the RAFT methodology, forming a collidal transition metal precursor solution from an appropriate transition metal; adding the metal precursor solution or surface to the (co)polymer solution, adding a reducing agent into the solution to reduce the metal colloid in situ to produce the stabilized nanoparticles or surface, and isolating the stabilized nanoparticles or surface in a manner such that aggregation is minimized. The functionalized surfaces generated using these methods can further undergo planar surface modifications, such as fuctionalization with a variety of different chemical groups, expanding their utility and application.

  13. Preparation of transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified with (CO)polymers synthesized by RAFT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCormick, III., Charles L.; Lowe, Andrew B.; Sumerlin, Brent S.

    2006-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A new, facile, general one-phase method of generating thio-functionalized transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified by (co)polymers synthesized by the RAFT method is described. The method includes the stops of forming a (co)polymer in aqueous solution using the RAFT methodology, forming a colloidal transition metal precursor solution from an appropriate transition metal; adding the metal precursor solution or surface to the (co)polymer solution, adding a reducing agent into the solution to reduce the metal colloid in situ to produce the stabilized nanoparticles or surface, and isolating the stabilized nanoparticles or surface in a manner such that aggregation is minimized. The functionalized surfaces generated using these methods can further undergo planar surface modifications, such as functionalization with a variety of different chemical groups, expanding their utility and application.

  14. Preparation of transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified with (co)polymers synthesized by RAFT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCormick, III, Charles L. (Hattiesburg, MS); Lowe, Andrew B. (Hattiesburg, MS); Sumerlin, Brent S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A new, facile, general one-phase method of generating thiol-functionalized transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified by (co)polymers synthesized by the RAFT method is described. The method includes the steps of forming a (co)polymer in aqueous solution using the RAFT methodology, forming a colloidal transition metal precursor solution from an appropriate transition metal; adding the metal precursor solution or surface to the (co)polymer solution, adding a reducing agent into the solution to reduce the metal colloid in situ to produce the stabilized nanoparticles or surface, and isolating the stabilized nanoparticles or surface in a manner such that aggregation is minimized. The functionalized surfaces generated using these methods can further undergo planar surface modifications, such as functionalization with a variety of different chemical groups, expanding their utility and application.

  15. hal-00252040,version1-12Feb2008 Near-field induction heating of metallic nanoparticles due to infrared magnetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    hal-00252040,version1-12Feb2008 Near-field induction heating of metallic nanoparticles due to infrared magnetic dipole contribution Pierre-Olivier Chapuis, Marine Laroche, Sebastian Volz, and Jean.ecp.fr We revisit the electromagnetic heat transfer between a metallic nanoparticle and a metallic semi

  16. Surface chemistry : a non-negligible parameter in determining optical properties of small colloidal metal nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Y.; Gray, S. K.; Peng, S. (Center for Nanoscale Materials)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface chemistry can become pronounced in determining the optical properties of colloidal metal nanoparticles as the nanoparticles become so small (diameters <20 nm) that the surface atoms, which can undergo chemical interactions with the environment, represent a significant fraction of the total number of atoms although this effect is often ignored. For instance, formation of chemical bonds between surface atoms of small metal nanoparticles and capping molecules that help stabilize the nanoparticles can reduce the density of conduction band electrons in the surface layer of metal atoms. This reduced electron density consequently influences the frequency-dependent dielectric constant of the metal atoms in the surface layer and, for sufficiently high surface to volume ratios, the overall surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption spectrum. The important role of surface chemistry is highlighted here by carefully analyzing the classical Mie theory and a multi-layer model is presented to produce more accurate predictions by considering the chemically reduced density of conduction band electrons in the outer shell of metal atoms in nanoparticles. Calculated absorption spectra of small Ag nanoparticles quantitatively agree with the experimental results for our monodispersed Ag nanoparticles synthesized via a well-defined chemical reduction process, revealing an exceptional size-dependence of absorption peak positions: the peaks first blue-shift followed by a turnover and a dramatic red-shift as the particle size decreases. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between surface chemistry and optical properties is beneficial to exploit new applications of small colloidal metal nanoparticles, such as colorimetric sensing, electrochromic devices, and surface enhanced spectroscopies.

  17. Surface Plasmon Polariton Assisted Optical Switching in Noble Metal Nanoparticle Systems: A Sub-Band Gap Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhara, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a proposed book chapter surface plasmon polariton assisted optical switching in noble metal nanoparticle systems is discussed in the sub-band gap formalism.

  18. Novel application of the CORAL software to model cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles to bacteria Escherichia coli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gini, Giuseppina

    Novel application of the CORAL software to model cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles 39217, USA h i g h l i g h t s " The CORAL software for the building up of QSPR/QSAR models is suggested. " The CORAL model for cytotoxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles is demonstrated. " The model is a mathematical

  19. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

  20. Structure-function relationships in dendrimer-encapsulated metal nanoparticles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Orla Mary

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis, characterization and structure-function relationships of mono- and bimetallic dendrimerencapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) are described. Control over the factors influencing the structure of bimetallic DENs has been attained for Pd...

  1. Oxhide ingots, copper production, and the mediterranean trade in copper and other metals in the bronze age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Michael Rice

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    in ancient times. Although the volume of these slag heaps has been estimated at four million tons, virtually all of the slag deposits in the mining areas appear to date to well after the Bronze Age. 18 While more evidence for Middle and Late Cypriot copper... copper oxhide ingots.......... 105 16 Limestone oxhide ingot mold from Ras Ibn Hani, Syria ............. 106 17 Reconstruction of a Late Bronze Age slag-tapping furnace from Kition, based on archaeological remains...

  2. Silica coated magnetite nanoparticles for removal of heavy metal ions from polluted waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dash, Monika

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic removal of Hg2+ and other heavy metal ions like Cd2+, Pb2+ etc. using silica coated magnetite particles from polluted waters is a current topic of active research to provide efficient water recycling and long term high quality water. The technique used to study the bonding characteristics of such kind of nanoparticles with the heavy metal ions is a very sensitive hyperfine specroscopy technique called the perturbed angular correlation technique (PAC).

  3. Carrier transfer from InAs quantum dots to ErAs metal nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haughn, C. R.; Chen, E. Y.; Zide, J. M. O.; Doty, M. F., E-mail: doty@udel.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Steenbergen, E. H.; Bissell, L. J.; Eyink, K. G. [AFRL/RXAN, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Erbium arsenide (ErAs) is a semi-metallic material that self-assembles into nanoparticles when grown in GaAs via molecular beam epitaxy. We use steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence to examine the mechanism of carrier transfer between indium arsenide (InAs) quantum dots and ErAs nanoparticles in a GaAs host. We probe the electronic structure of the ErAs metal nanoparticles (MNPs) and the optoelectronic properties of the nanocomposite and show that the carrier transfer rates are independent of pump intensity. This result suggests that the ErAs MNPs have a continuous density of states and effectively act as traps. The absence of a temperature dependence tells us that carrier transfer from the InAs quantum dots to ErAs MNPs is not phonon assisted. We show that the measured photoluminescence decay rates are consistent with a carrier tunneling model.

  4. The fate of metal (Fe) during diesel combustion: Morphology, chemistry, and formation pathways of nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Art [NIOSH/Spokane Research Lab, Spokane, WA 99208 (United States); Ahlstrand, Gib [College of Biological Sciences, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Kittelson, David [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Zachariah, Michael [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an investigation in which we used iron-doped diesel fuel to generate metal-bearing diesel particles and a subsequent analysis of the particles using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). For this study, DPM was generated by a 1.5-L diesel engine and the fuel was doped with ferrocene to enhance the level of iron in the system. The exhaust particles were collected on TEM grids and analyzed using the Philips CM12 TEM/EDS instrument. Results show that when the iron-to-carbon (soot) ratio (Fe/C) in the engine is low, the exhaust particles have morphologies similar to those for the undoped case, but at a threshold Fe/C value of 0.013 (for this engine), homogeneously nucleated metallic nanoparticles are formed and begin agglomerating. The number and size of these nanoparticles increase with level of doping. Metal-bearing particles that span a wider size range are also formed. Agglomeration of metallic and carbon particles is observed in two distinct modes: attachment of iron primary particles (5-10 nm in diameter) to carbon agglomerates, and coagulation of iron agglomerates (20-200 nm in diameter) with carbon agglomerates. Results of this work imply that as new engine technologies reduce soot levels in the engine and/or levels of trace metals in the fuel are increased, the generation of metallic nanoparticles may ensue, creating a potential health concern. (author)

  5. Mercury Removal from Aqueous Systems Using Commercial and Laboratory Prepared Metal Oxide Nanoparticles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Ishan

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Five commercial metal oxide nanoparticles (CuO, SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2 and Al2O3) have been individually screened for mercury removal in a batch reactor under bicarbonate buffered and non-buffered aqueous solutions (DI water). ...

  6. Ultrastrong Optical Binding of Metallic Nanoparticles Vassili Demergis and Ernst-Ludwig Florin*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    Ultrastrong Optical Binding of Metallic Nanoparticles Vassili Demergis and Ernst-Ludwig Florin the optical binding force, which has been assumed to be weak compared to the optical gradient and scattering forces. We show that trapping by the optical binding force can be over 20 times stronger than

  7. Examining metal nanoparticle surface chemistry using hollow-core, photonic-crystal, fiber-assisted SERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the enhancement of the local electromagnetic field of metal NPs due to excitation of localized surface plasmons [1 to monitor minute amounts of sur- face ligands on gold nanoparticles used as an SERS substrate. The SERS--mercaptopoly(ethylene glycol) on the surface of gold nanorods as an exemplary system, we show the feasibility of using HCPCF

  8. Monomer-Capped Tin Metal Nanoparticles for Anode Materials in Lithium Secondary Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Monomer-Capped Tin Metal Nanoparticles for Anode Materials in Lithium Secondary Batteries Mijung Graphite can store 372 mAh/g corresponding to LiC6, and tin can store 970 mAh/g corresponding to Li4.4Sn close to graphite. The reason for failure is believed to be the inhomogeneous volume expansion

  9. Heteroepitaxial Self Assembling Noble Metal Nanoparticles in Monocrystalline Silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Michael S.

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    , such as measuring X-rays emitted by U-235, by selecting materials that have high absorption related to electron energy level transitions at selected energies. For instance, it might be possible to make depleted uranium nanoparticles in silicon, which could have...

  10. Cadmium, copper, and lead in soils and garden produce near a metal smelter at Flin Flon, Manitoba

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pip, E. (Univ. of Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada))

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Towns in the vicinity of base metal smelters are subject to contamination from atmospheric fallout containing heavy metals. Many smelters have been in operation for decades, and have resulted in substantial accumulation of metals in the surrounding soils. Metal contamination of edible vegetation near mines and smelters has been the source of health concerns in a number of countries. One smelter that has operated for more than half a century is located at Flin Flon, Manitoba. Many Flin Flon residents utilize home vegetable gardens year after year. However little is known regarding heavy metal contamination of locally grown garden produce. Since food can contribute as much as 90% of total body uptake of metals it is important to identify any sources which may account for the disproportionate share. The objective of the present study was to examine concentrations of cadmium, copper and lead in soils and garden produce in the vicinity of the Flin Flon smelter.

  11. Evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of hydrated metal oxide nanoparticles by INS techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Elinor [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University] [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Ross, Dr. Nancy [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University] [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Parker, Stewart F. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (ISIS)] [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (ISIS); Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution we will present a detailed methodology for the elucidation of the following aspects of the thermodynamic properties of hydrated metal oxide nanoparticles from high-resolution, low-temperature inelastic neutron scattering (INS) data: (i) the isochoric heat capacity and entropy of the hydration layers both chemi- and physisorbed to the particle surface; (ii) the magnetic contribution to the heat capacity of the nanoparticles. This will include the calculation of the vibrational density of states (VDOS) from the raw INS spectra, and the subsequent extraction of the thermodynamic data from the VDOS. This technique will be described in terms of a worked example namely, cobalt oxide (Co3O4 and CoO). To complement this evaluation of the physical properties of metal oxide nanoparticle systems, we will emphasise the importance of high-resolution, high-energy INS for the determination of the structure and dynamics of the water species, namely molecular (H2O) and dissociated water (OH, hydroxyl), confined to the oxide surfaces. For this component of the chapter we will focus on INS investigations of hydrated isostructural rutile (a-TiO2) and cassiterite (SnO2) nanoparticles. We will complete this discussion of nanoparticle analysis by including an appraisal of the INS instrumentation employed in such studies with particular focus on TOSCA [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), U.K.] and the newly developed spectrometer SEQUOIA [SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), U.S.A].

  12. asymmetric metal nanoparticle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??This thesis mainly consists of two parts, the synthesis of several kinds of technologically interesting crystalline metal oxide...

  13. agcu metallic nanoparticles: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??This thesis mainly consists of two parts, the synthesis of several kinds of technologically interesting crystalline metal oxide...

  14. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovations Technology available for licensing: novel nanometer-sized metal oxide semiconductors that allow targeting, initiating and control of in vitro and in vivo chemical...

  15. Acoustic modes in metallic nanoparticles: Atomistic versus elasticity modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Combe, Nicolas; Saviot, Lucien [CNRS, CEMES (Centre d'Elaboration des Materiaux et d'Etudes Structurales), BP 94347, 29 Rue J. Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse, France and Universite de Toulouse, UPS, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Institut Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR 5209 CNRS - Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Avenue A. Savary, BP 47870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The validity of the linear elasticity theory is examined at the nanometer scale by investigating the vibrational properties of silver and gold nanoparticles whose diameters range from about 1.5-4 nm. Comparing the vibration modes calculated by elasticity theory and atomistic simulation based on the embedded-atom method, we first show that the anisotropy of the stiffness tensor in elastic calculation is essential to ensure a good agreement between elastic and atomistic models. Second, we illustrate the reduction in the number of vibration modes due to the diminution of the number of atoms when reducing the nanoparticles size. Finally, we exhibit a breakdown of the frequency-spectra scaling of the vibration modes and attribute it to surface effects. Some critical sizes under which such effects are expected, depending on the material and the considered vibration modes, are given.

  16. Final Report: Sintered CZTS Nanoparticle Solar Cells on Metal Foil; July 26, 2011 - July 25, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leidholm, C.; Hotz, C.; Breeze, A.; Sunderland, C.; Ki, W.; Zehnder, D.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report covering 12 months of this subcontract for research on high-efficiency copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS)-based thin-film solar cells on flexible metal foil. Each of the first three quarters of the subcontract has been detailed in quarterly reports. In this final report highlights of the first three quarters will be provided and details will be given of the final quarter of the subcontract.

  17. Molecular Surface Chemistry by Metal Single Crystals and Nanoparticles from Vacuum to High Pressure.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

    2008-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Model systems for studying molecular surface chemistry have evolved from single crystal surfaces at low pressure to colloidal nanoparticles at high pressure. Low pressure surface structure studies of platinum single crystals using molecular beam surface scattering and low energy electron diffraction techniques probe the unique activity of defects, steps and kinks at the surface for dissociation reactions (H-H, C-H, C-C, O{double_bond}O bonds). High-pressure investigations of platinum single crystals using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy have revealed the presence and the nature of reaction intermediates. High pressure scanning tunneling microscopy of platinum single crystal surfaces showed adsorbate mobility during a catalytic reaction. Nanoparticle systems are used to determine the role of metal-oxide interfaces, site blocking and the role of surface structures in reactive surface chemistry. The size, shape and composition of nanoparticles play important roles in determining reaction activity and selectivity.

  18. Absorption and Scattering Microscopy of Single Metal Nanoparticles.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for sub-wavelength optical devices [2­5], for nonlinear optics [6­ 8], for optical data storage [9 in the immediate vicinity of metallic nanostructures, demand a spatial resolution beyond the optical diffrac- tion

  19. Monodisperse metal nanoparticle catalysts on silica mesoporous supports: synthesis, characterizations, and catalytic reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of high performance catalyst achieving near 100% product selectivity at maximum activity is one of the most important goals in the modern catalytic science research. To this end, the preparation of model catalysts whose catalytic performances can be predicted in a systematic and rational manner is of significant importance, which thereby allows understanding of the molecular ingredients affecting the catalytic performances. We have designed novel 3-dimensional (3D) high surface area model catalysts by the integration of colloidal metal nanoparticles and mesoporous silica supports. Monodisperse colloidal metal NPs with controllable size and shape were synthesized using dendrimers, polymers, or surfactants as the surface stabilizers. The size of Pt, and Rh nanoparticles can be varied from sub 1 nm to 15 nm, while the shape of Pt can be controlled to cube, cuboctahedron, and octahedron. The 3D model catalysts were generated by the incorporation of metal nanoparticles into the pores of mesoporous silica supports via two methods: capillary inclusion (CI) and nanoparticle encapsulation (NE). The former method relies on the sonication-induced inclusion of metal nanoparticles into the pores of mesoporous silica, whereas the latter is performed by the encapsulation of metal nanoparticles during the hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous silica. The 3D model catalysts were comprehensively characterized by a variety of physical and chemical methods. These catalysts were found to show structure sensitivity in hydrocarbon conversion reactions. The Pt NPs supported on mesoporous SBA-15 silica (Pt/SBA-15) displayed significant particle size sensitivity in ethane hydrogenolysis over the size range of 1-7 nm. The Pt/SBA-15 catalysts also exhibited particle size dependent product selectivity in cyclohexene hydrogenation, crotonaldehyde hydrogenation, and pyrrole hydrogenation. The Rh loaded SBA-15 silica catalyst showed structure sensitivity in CO oxidation reaction. In addition, Pt-mesoporous silica core-shell structured NPs (Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2}) were prepared, where the individual Pt NP is encapsulated by the mesoporous silica layer. The Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2} catalysts showed promising catalytic activity in high temperature CO oxidation. The design of catalytic structures with tunable parameters by rational synthetic methods presents a major advance in the field of catalyst synthesis, which would lead to uncover the structure-function relationships in heterogeneous catalytic reactions.

  20. The Synthesis of Novel Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles with Applications Towards Catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMurdo, Meredith Joanne

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    modified with samples of MCo 2 O 4 nanoparticles swept fromtheir properties. 19 Recently, MCo 2 O 4 (M = Cu, Mn, Ni)Synthesis and characterization of MCo 2 O 4 (M = Co, Cu, Ni)

  1. Metal enhanced fluorescence in rare earth doped plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derom, S; Pillonnet, A; Benamara, O; Jurdyc, A M; Girard, C; Francs, G Colas des

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically and numerically investigate metal enhanced fluorescence of plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles doped with rare earth (RE) ions. Particle shape and size are engineered to maximize the average enhancement factor (AEF) of the overall doped shell. We show that the highest enhancement (11 in the visible and 7 in the near-infrared) are achieved by tuning either the dipolar or quadrupolar particle resonance to the rare earth ions excitation wavelength. Additionally, the calculated AEFs are compared to experimental data reported in the literature, obtained in similar conditions (plasmon mediated enhancement) or when a metal-RE energy transfer mechanism is involved.

  2. Synthesis of Functionalized Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles from a Common Precursor and their Application as Heavy Metal and Actinide Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Marvin G.; Warner, Cynthia L.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Davidson, Joseph D.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Nash, Michael A.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2009-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the use of a simple and versatile technique to generate a series of ligand stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles containing different ? functionalities with specificities toward heavy metals and actinides at the periphery of the stabilizing ligand shell from a common, easy to synthesize precursor nanoparticle. The resulting nanoparticles are designed to contain affinity ligands that make them excellent sorbent materials for a variety of heavy metals from contaminated aqueous systems such as river water and ground water as well as actinides from clinical samples such as blood and urine. Functionalized superparamagnetic nanoparticles make ideal reagents for extraction of heavy metal and actinide contaminants from environmental and clinical samples since they are easily removed from the media once bound to the contaminant by simply applying a magnetic field. In addition, these engineered nanomaterials have an inherently high active surface area (often > 100 m2/g) making them ideal sorbent materials for these types of applications

  3. Application of metallic nanoparticle suspensions in advanced cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; Choi, S.U.S.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In the development of energy-efficient heat transfer fluids that are required in many cooling applications, low thermal conductivity is a primary limitation. However, it is well known that at room temperature, metals in solid form have orders-of-magnitude higher thermal conductivities than those of fluids. Therefore, the thermal conductivities of fluids that contain suspended solid metallic particles are expected to be significantly enhanced over those of conventional heat transfer fluids. In fact, numerous theoretical and experimental studies of the effective thermal conductivity of dispersions that contain solid particles have been conducted since Maxwell`s theoretical was published more than 100 years ago. However, all of the studies on thermal conductivity of suspensions have been confined to millimeter- or micrometer-sized particles.

  4. Linker-Induced Anomalous Emission of Organic-Molecule Conjugated Metal-Oxide Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turkowski, Volodymyr; Babu, Suresh; Le, Duy; Kumar, Amit; Haldar, Manas K.; Wagh, Anil V.; Hu, Zhongjian; Karakoti, Ajay S.; Gesquiere, Andre J.; Law, Benedict; Mallik, Sanku; Rahman, Talat S.; Leuenberger, Michael N.; Seal, Sudipta

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor nanoparticles conjugated with organic- and dye-molecules to yield high efficiency visible photoluminescence (PL) hold great potential for many future technological applications. We show that folic acid (FA)-conjugated to nanosize TiO2 and CeO2 particles demonstrates a dramatic increase of photoemission intensity at wavelengths between 500 and 700 nm when derivatized using aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTMS) as spacer-linker molecules between the metal oxide and FA. Using density-functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations we demonstrate that the strong increase of the PL can be explained by electronic transitions between the titania surface oxygen vacancy (OV) states and the low-energy excited states of the FA/APTMS molecule anchored onto the surface oxygen bridge sites in close proximity to the OVs. We suggest this scenario to be a universal feature for a wide class of metal oxide nanoparticles, including nanoceria, possessing a similar band gap (3 eV) and with a large surface-vacancy-related density of electronic states. We demonstrate that the molecule-nanoparticle linker can play a crucial role in tuning the electronic and optical properties of nanosystems by bringing optically active parts of the molecule and of the surface close to each other.

  5. Supercapacitors Based on Metal Electrodes Prepared from Nanoparticle Mixtures at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakanishi, Hideyuki [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Grzybowski, Bartosz A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Films comprising Au and Ag nanoparticles are transformed into porous metal electrodes by desorption of weak organic ligands followed by wet chemical etching of silver. Thus prepared electrodes provide the basis for supercapacitors whose specific capacitances approach 70 F/g. Cyclic voltammetry measurement yield “rectangular” I?V curves even at high scan rates, indicating that the supercapacitors have low internal resistance. Owing to this property, the supercapacitors have a high power density ?12 kW/kg, comparable with that of the state-of-the-art carbon-based devices. The entire assembly protocol does not require high-temperature processing or the use of organic binders.

  6. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1987-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  7. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, M.; Sinha, S.N.

    1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  8. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blander, Milton (12833 S. 82nd Ct., Palos Park, IL 60464); Sinha, Shome N. (5748 Drexel, 2A, Chicago, IL 60637)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  9. Simultaneous deposition of Ni nanoparticles and wires on a tubular halloysite template: A novel metallized ceramic microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu Yubin [Institute of Solid State Physics, China Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China) and Luoyang Ship Material Research Institute, Luoyang 471039 (China)]. E-mail: ffyybb725@vip.sina.com; Zhang Lide [Institute of Solid State Physics, China Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Tubular halloysite can be used as a template to fabricate a novel metallized ceramic microstructure through electroless plating. Reduction of Pd ions by methanol is conducted to initiate Ni plating. There is a simultaneous deposition of Ni nanoparticles on the outer surface and discontinuous wires in the lumen site of the halloysite template obtained. The different deposition could be caused by the different composition distribution of ferric oxide impurity in the wall due to the isomorphic substitution during the formation of halloysite template. Its magnetic property is mainly attributed to the Ni nanoparticles, not the wires. The metallized ceramic microstructure has the potential to be utilized as a novel magnetic material.

  10. Strengthening porous metal skeletons by metal deposition from a nanoparticle dispersion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crane, Nathan B., 1974-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The accuracy of solid freeform fabrication processes such as three-dimensional printing (3DP) and selective laser sintering (SLS) must be improved for them to achieve wide application in direct production of metal parts. ...

  11. Design of Optical Metamaterial Mirror with Metallic Nanoparticles for Broadband Light Absorption in Graphene Optoelectronic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seungwoo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A general metallic mirror (i.e., a flat metallic surface) has been a popular optical component that can contribute broadband light absorption to thin-film optoelectronic devices; nonetheless, such electric mirror with a reversal of reflection phase inevitably causes the problem of minimized electric field near at the mirror surface (maximized electric field at one quarter of wavelength from mirror). This problem becomes more elucidated, when the deep-subwavelength-scaled two-dimensional (2D) material (e.g., graphene and molybdenum disulfide) is implemented into optoelectronic device as an active channel layer. The purpose of this work was to conceive the idea for using a charge storage layer (spherical Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), embedded into dielectric matrix) of the floating-gate graphene photodetector as a magnetic mirror, which allows the device to harness the increase in broadband light absorption. In particular, we systematically examined whether the versatile assembly of spherical AuNP monolayer within ...

  12. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    resistant, although it is not known why. A team from the CNRS and Universit Joseph Fourier in Grenoble in collaboration with researchers at the University of Illinois at...

  13. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget(DANCE) Target 1Annual Electricity

  14. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget(DANCE) Target 1Annual ElectricityFormation of

  15. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget(DANCE) Target 1Annual ElectricityFormation

  16. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget(DANCE) Target 1Annual

  17. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.New MexicoFinancingProofWorkingEnergyGoForest ProductsForm4)

  18. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.New MexicoFinancingProofWorkingEnergyGoForest

  19. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.New MexicoFinancingProofWorkingEnergyGoForestFormation of

  20. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil-Root Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.New MexicoFinancingProofWorkingEnergyGoForestFormation ofFormation

  1. Surface effects and phase stability in metal oxides nanoparticles under visible irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricci, Pier Carlo, E-mail: carlo.ricci@dsf.unica.it; Carbonaro, C. M., E-mail: carlo.ricci@dsf.unica.it; Corpino, R., E-mail: carlo.ricci@dsf.unica.it; Chiriu, D., E-mail: carlo.ricci@dsf.unica.it; Stagi, L., E-mail: carlo.ricci@dsf.unica.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Cagliari, S.P. Monserrato-Sestu Km 0,700, 09042 Monserrato (Canada) (Italy)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The light induced phase transformation between stable phases of metal oxides nanoparticles is analyzed. The surrounding atmosphere as well as the defect density at the surface play a fundamental role. It has been found that in oxygen poor chamber atmosphere the phase transformation is favored, while the phase transition cannot be achieved if the defects at the surface are properly passivated. The phase transition is activated by intragap irradiation, able to activate the F- center at the surface connected to oxygen vacancies, and promoting the activation of the surface and the nucleation of neighboring crystallites. The phase transition was studied in Titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) and in Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}): Maghemite is subjected to a phase transformation to ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (hematite), Anatase nanoparticles converts to Rutile. The general mechanism of the phase transition and, more in general, the possibility to optically control the surface activity of metal oxides is discussed.

  2. Electronically conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and films for optical sensing applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R.; Wang, Congjun; Andio, Mark A

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a method of detecting a change in a chemical composition by contacting a conducting oxide material with a monitored stream, illuminating the conducting oxide material with incident light, collecting exiting light, monitoring an optical signal based on a comparison of the incident light and the exiting light, and detecting a shift in the optical signal. The conducting metal oxide has a carrier concentration of at least 10.sup.17/cm.sup.3, a bandgap of at least 2 eV, and an electronic conductivity of at least 10.sup.-1 S/cm, where parameters are specified at the gas stream temperature. The optical response of the conducting oxide materials is proposed to result from the high carrier concentration and electronic conductivity of the conducting metal oxide, and the resulting impact of changing gas atmospheres on that relatively high carrier concentration and electronic conductivity. These changes in effective carrier densities and electronic conductivity of conducting metal oxide films and nanoparticles are postulated to be responsible for the change in measured optical absorption associated with free carriers. Exemplary conducting metal oxides include but are not limited to Al-doped ZnO, Sn-doped In.sub.2O.sub.3, Nb-doped TiO.sub.2, and F-doped SnO.sub.2.

  3. Plasmonic transparent conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and films for optical sensing applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R; Wang, Congjun; Andio, Mark A

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a method of detecting a change in a chemical composition by contacting a doped oxide material with a monitored stream, illuminating the doped oxide material with incident light, collecting exiting light, monitoring an optical signal based on a comparison of the incident light and the exiting light, and detecting a shift in the optical signal. The doped metal oxide has a carrier concentration of at least 10.sup.18/cm.sup.3, a bandgap of at least 2 eV, and an electronic conductivity of at least 10.sup.1 S/cm, where parameters are specified at a temperature of 25.degree. C. The optical response of the doped oxide materials results from the high carrier concentration of the doped metal oxide, and the resulting impact of changing gas atmospheres on that relatively high carrier concentration. These changes in effective carrier densities of conducting metal oxide nanoparticles are postulated to be responsible for the change in measured optical absorption associated with free carriers. Exemplary doped metal oxides include but are not limited to Al-doped ZnO, Sn-doped In.sub.2O.sub.3, Nb-doped TiO.sub.2, and F-doped SnO.sub.2.

  4. Melting-Induced Enhancement of the Second-Harmonic Generation from Metal Nanoparticles A. M. Malvezzi,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in a SiOx matrix, with femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm. A remarkable melting-induced enhancementMelting-Induced Enhancement of the Second-Harmonic Generation from Metal Nanoparticles A. M [3]. While consid- erable efforts have been mainly focused on selection of new materials

  5. Transition Metal Dopants Essential for Producing Ferromagnetism...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Dopants Essential for Producing Ferromagnetism in Metal Oxide Nanoparticles. Transition Metal Dopants Essential for Producing Ferromagnetism in Metal Oxide Nanoparticles....

  6. Deproto-metallation using mixed lithium-zinc and lithium-copper bases and computed CH acidity of 2-substituted quinolines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Deproto-metallation using mixed lithium-zinc and lithium-copper bases and computed CH acidity of 2 corresponding iodo derivatives or 2-chlorophenyl ketones using the lithium-zinc or the lithium using the lithium-zinc base. With 3-pyridyl, 2-furyl and 2-thienyl substituents, the reaction took place

  7. Subsurface Synthesis and Characterization of Ag Nanoparticles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoparticles Embedded in MgO. Abstract: Metal nanoparticles exhibit localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) which is very sensitive to the size and shape of the nanoparticle...

  8. Resonant coupling between localized plasmons and anisotropic molecular coatings in ellipsoidal metal nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ambjornsson, T; Kall, M; Mukhopadhyay, G; Ambjornsson, Tobias; Kall, Mikael; Mukhopadhyay, Gautam

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analytic theory for the optical properties of ellipsoidal plasmonic particles covered by anisotropic molecular layers. The theory is applied to the case of a prolate spheroid covered by chromophores oriented parallel and perpendicular to the metal surface. For the case that the molecular layer resonance frequency is close to being degenerate with one of the particle plasmon resonances strong hybridization between the two resonances occur. Approximate analytic expressions for the hybridized resonance frequencies, their extinction cross section peak heights and widths are derived. The strength of the molecular - plasmon interaction is found to be strongly dependent on molecular orientation and suggest that this sensitivity could be the basis for novel nanoparticle based bio/chemo-sensing applications.

  9. Strongly modified four-wave mixing in a coupled semiconductor quantum dot-metal nanoparticle system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paspalakis, Emmanuel, E-mail: paspalak@upatras.gr [Materials Science Department, School of Natural Sciences, University of Patras, 265 04 Patras (Greece); Evangelou, Sofia [Materials Science Department, School of Natural Sciences, University of Patras, 265 04 Patras (Greece); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Kosionis, Spyridon G.; Terzis, Andreas F. [Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences, University of Patras, 265 04 Patras (Greece)

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the four-wave mixing effect in a coupled semiconductor quantum dot-spherical metal nanoparticle structure. Depending on the values of the pump field intensity and frequency, we find that there is a critical distance that changes the form of the spectrum. Above this distance, the four-wave mixing spectrum shows an ordinary three-peaked form and the effect of controlling its magnitude by changing the interparticle distance can be obtained. Below this critical distance, the four-wave mixing spectrum becomes single-peaked; and as the interparticle distance decreases, the spectrum is strongly suppressed. The behavior of the system is explained using the effective Rabi frequency that creates plasmonic metaresonances in the hybrid structure. In addition, the behavior of the effective Rabi frequency is explained via an analytical solution of the density matrix equations.

  10. Investigation of the ligand shells of homo-ligand and mixed-ligand monolayer protected metal nanoparticles : a scanning tunneling microscopy study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Alicia M

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monolayer Protected Metal Nanoparticles have recently found widespread use in and are the focus of intensive study in many areas of scientific research ranging from biology to physics to medicine. Consisting of a nanoscale, ...

  11. Nanoparticles as Reactive Precursors: Synthesis of Alloys, Intermetallic Compounds, and Multi-Metal Oxides Through Low-Temperature Annealing and Conversion Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, John C.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    of metal salts in an aqueous solution and stabilized by PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone), were mixed into nanoparticle composites in stoichometric proportions. The composite mixtures were then annealed at relatively low temperatures to form alloy...

  12. Double-strand DNA-templated formation of copper nanoparticles as fluorescent probe for label free nuclease enzyme detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Weihong

    cleavage activity. Thus, a label-free strategy for sensitive detection of nuclease has been developed B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction As promising substitutes for organic dyes and quantum dots epithelial cervical cancer cells (HeLa cells) using fluorescent gold nanoparticles which emitted a stable

  13. Tuning of the electro-mechanical behavior of the cellular carbon nanotube structures with nanoparticle dispersions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gowda, Prarthana; Misra, Abha, E-mail: abha@isu.iisc.ernet.in [Departments of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka (India)] [Departments of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka (India); Ramamurty, Upadrasta [Departments of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka (India) [Departments of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka (India); Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanical and electrical characteristics of cellular network of the carbon nanotubes (CNT) impregnated with metallic and nonmetallic nanoparticles were examined simultaneously by employing the nanoindentation technique. Experimental results show that the nanoparticle dispersion not only enhances the mechanical strength of the cellular CNT by two orders of magnitude but also imparts variable nonlinear electrical characteristics; the latter depends on the contact resistance between nanoparticles and CNT, which is shown to depend on the applied load while indentation. Impregnation with silver nanoparticles enhances the electrical conductance, the dispersion with copper oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles reduces the conductance of CNT network. In all cases, a power law behavior with suppression in the differential conductivity at zero bias was noted, indicating electron tunneling through the channels formed at the CNT-nanoparticle interfaces. These results open avenues for designing cellular CNT foams with desired electro-mechanical properties and coupling.

  14. Systematic Approach to Compare the Inflammatory Response of Liver Cell Culture Systems Exposed to Silver, Copper, and Nickel Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Nivedita

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Although nano-sized metal colloids are used in industrial and medicinal applications, little is known about the potential liver toxicity of these materials after occupational or intentional exposures. To begin to resolve some outstanding...

  15. High-throughput metal nanoparticle catalysis by pulsed laser ablation Selim Senkan a,*, Michael Kahn a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    of propylene. In less than a day, over 40 different catalytic materials of nanoparticles supported on g-Al2O3 oxidation products of propylene with one-pass yields of about 13% at 275 8C. # 2006 Published by Elsevier B of propylene oxide from propylene, hydrogen and oxygen [5]. On the other hand, larger Au nanoparticles result

  16. Uniformly Embedded Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Forests as Pseudocapacitor Electrodes for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    applications. A vacuum-assisted, in situ electrodeposition process has been used to achieve the three-dimensional functionalization of CNT forests with inserted nickel nanoparticles as pseudocapacitor electrodes. Experimental CNT forest samples, and the oxidized nickel nanoparticle/CNT supercapacitor retained 94.2% of its

  17. Converting Homogeneous to Heterogeneous in Electrophilic Catalysis using Monodisperse Metal Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witham, Cole A.; Huang, Wenyu; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Kuhn, John N.; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Toste, F. Dean

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuing goal in catalysis is the transformation of processes from homogeneous to heterogeneous. To this end, nanoparticles represent a new frontier in heterogeneous catalysis, where this conversion is supplemented by the ability to obtain new or divergent reactivity and selectivity. We report a novel method for applying heterogeneous catalysts to known homogeneous catalytic reactions through the design and synthesis of electrophilic platinum nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are selectively oxidized by the hypervalent iodine species PhICl{sub 2}, and catalyze a range of {pi}-bond activation reactions previously only homogeneously catalyzed. Multiple experimental methods are utilized to unambiguously verify the heterogeneity of the catalytic process. The discovery of treatments for nanoparticles that induce the desired homogeneous catalytic activity should lead to the further development of reactions previously inaccessible in heterogeneous catalysis. Furthermore, our size and capping agent study revealed that Pt PAMAM dendrimer-capped nanoparticles demonstrate superior activity and recyclability compared to larger, polymer-capped analogues.

  18. Probing bismuth ferrite nanoparticles by hard x-ray photoemission: Anomalous occurrence of metallic bismuth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Smita; Rajendra, Ranguwar; Ballav, Nirmalya; Kulkarni, Sulabha, E-mail: s.kulkarni@iiserpune.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411008 (India); Sarkar, Indranil [DESY Photon Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Shirolkar, Mandar M. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Jeng, U-Ser; Yeh, Yi-Qi [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101, Hsin-Ann Road, Science Park, Hsinchu 3007-6, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (?75?nm and ?155?nm) synthesized by a chemical method, using soft X-ray (1253.6?eV) and hard X-ray (3500, 5500, and 7500?eV) photoelectron spectroscopy. This provided an evidence for the variation of chemical state of bismuth in crystalline, phase pure nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis using Mg K? (1253.6?eV) source showed that iron and bismuth were present in both Fe{sup 3+} and Bi{sup 3+} valence states as expected for bismuth ferrite. However, hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the bismuth ferrite nanoparticles using variable photon energies unexpectedly showed the presence of Bi{sup 0} valence state below the surface region, indicating that bismuth ferrite nanoparticles are chemically inhomogeneous in the radial direction. Consistently, small-angle X-ray scattering reveals a core-shell structure for these radial inhomogeneous nanoparticles.

  19. Effect of a copper filler metal on the microstructure and mechanical properties of electron beam welded titanium-stainless steel joint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ting, E-mail: fgwangting@163.com [Key Laboratory of Special Welding in Shandong Province, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai, 264209 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Special Welding in Shandong Province, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai, 264209 (China); Zhang, Binggang, E-mail: zhang_bg@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Feng, Jicai, E-mail: fengjc@hit.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Special Welding in Shandong Province, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai, 264209 (China) [Key Laboratory of Special Welding in Shandong Province, Harbin Institute of Technology at Weihai, Weihai, 264209 (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Tang, Qi, E-mail: tangqi@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Cracking in an electron beam weld of titanium to stainless steel occurred during the cooling process because of internal thermal stress. Using a copper filler metal, a crack free joint was obtained, which had a tensile strength of 310 MPa. To determine the reasons for cracking in the Ti/Fe joint and the function of the copper filler metal on the improvement of the cracking resistance of the Ti/Cu/Fe joint, the microstructures of the joints were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The cracking susceptibilities of the joints were evaluated with microhardness tests on the cross-sections. In addition, microindentation tests were used to compare the brittleness of the intermetallics in the welds. The results showed that the Ti/Fe joint was characterized by continuously distributed brittle intermetallics such as TiFe and TiFe(Cr){sub 2} with high hardness ({approx} 1200 HV). For the Ti/Cu/Fe joint, most of the weld consisted of a soft solid solution of copper with dispersed TiFe intermetallics. The transition region between the weld and the titanium alloy was made up of a relatively soft Ti-Cu intermetallic layer with a lower hardness ({approx} 500 HV). The formation of soft phases reduced the cracking susceptibility of the joint. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron beam welded Ti/Fe joint cracked for the brittleness and residual stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron beam welded Ti/Cu/Fe joint with tensile strength of 310 MPa was obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu diluted Ti and Fe contents in weld and separated the TiFe{sub 2} into individual blocks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interfacial hard Ti-Fe compounds were replaced by soft Ti-Cu compounds in the weld. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A large amount of solid solution of copper formed in the weld.

  20. De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strasser, Peter (Houston, TX); Koh, Shirlaine (Houston, TX); Mani, Prasanna (Houston, TX); Ratndeep, Srivastava (Houston, TX)

    2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

  1. Understanding Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal Nanoparticles by Correlation with Atomic Resolution Electron Microscopy and Field Evaporation Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devaraj, Arun; Colby, Robert J.; Vurpillot, F.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-dielectric composite materials, specifically metal nanoparticles supported on or embedded in metal oxides, are widely used in catalysis. The accurate optimization of such nanostructures warrants the need for detailed three-dimensional characterization. Atom probe tomography is uniquely capable of generating sub-nanometer structural and compositional data with part-per-million mass sensitivity, but there are reconstruction artifacts for composites containing materials with strongly differing fields of evaporation, as for oxide-supported metal nanoparticles. By correlating atom probe tomography with scanning transmission electron microscopy for Au nanoparticles embedded in an MgO support, deviations from an ideal topography during evaporation are demonstrated directly, and correlated with compositional errors in the reconstructed data. Finite element simulations of the field evaporation process confirm that protruding Au nanoparticles will evolve on the tip surface, and that evaporation field variations lead to an inaccurate assessment of the local composition, effectively lowering the spatial resolution of the final reconstructed dataset. Cross-correlating the experimental data with simulations results in a more detailed understanding of local evaporation aberrations during APT analysis of metal-oxide composites, paving the way towards a more accurate three-dimensional characterization of this technologically important class of materials.

  2. Mössbauer study of metallic iron and iron oxide nanoparticles having environmental purifying ability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubuki, Shiro, E-mail: kubuki@tmu.ac.jp; Watanabe, Yuka, E-mail: kubuki@tmu.ac.jp; Akiyama, Kazuhiko, E-mail: kubuki@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Risti?, Mira; Krehula, Stjepko [Division of Materials Chemistry, Ru?er Boškovi? Institute, P. O. Box 180, Zagreb 10002 (Croatia); Homonnay, Zoltán; Kuzmann, Ern? [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, P.O. Box 32, 1512 Budapest (Hungary); Nishida, Tetsuaki [Department of Biological and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Humanity-Oriented Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 11-6 Kayanomori, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8555 (Japan)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A relationship between local structure and methylene blue (MB) decomposing ability of nanoparticles (NPs) of metallic iron (Fe{sup 0}) and maghemite (??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was investigated by {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and UV-visible light absorption spectroscopy. ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs were successfully prepared by mixing (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Fe(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}?6H{sub 2}O (Mohr's salt) and (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}?3H{sub 2}O aqueous solution at 30 °C for 1 h, while those of Fe{sup 0} were obtained by the reduction of Mohr's salt with NaBH{sub 4}. From the Scherrer's equation, the smallest crystallite sizes of ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs and Fe{sup 0} NPs were determined to be 9.7 and 1.5 nm, respectively. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrum of ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs consists of a relaxed sextet with isomer shift (?) of 0.33{sub ±0.01} mm s{sup ?1}, internal magnetic field (H{sub int}) of 25.8{sub ±0.5} T, and linewidth (?) of 0.62{sub ±0.04} mm s{sup ?1}. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrum of Fe{sup 0} NP is mainly composed of a sextet having ?, ?, and H{sub int} of 0.00{sub ±0.01} mm s{sup ?1} 0.45{sub ±0.01} mm s{sup ?1}, and 22.8{sub ±0.1} T, respectively. A bleaching test of the mixture of Fe{sup 0} and ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs (3:7 ratio, 100 mg) in MB aqueous solution (20 mL) for 6 h showed a remarkable decrease of MB concentration with the first-order rate constant (k{sub MB}) of 6.7 × 10{sup ?1} h{sup ?1}. This value is larger than that obtained for the bleaching test using bulk Fe{sup 0}+??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (3:7) mixture (k{sub MB}?=?6.5×10{sup ?3}h{sup ?1}). These results prove that MB decomposing ability is enhanced by the NPs mixture of Fe{sub 0} and ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  3. Colloid Science of Metal Nanoparticle Catalysts in 2D and 3D Structures. Challenges of Nucleation, Growth, Composition, Particle Shape, Size Control and their Influence on Activity and Selectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

    2008-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent breakthroughs in synthesis in nanosciences have achieved control of size and shapes of nanoparticles that are relevant for catalyst design. In this article, we review the advance of synthesis of nanoparticles, fabrication of two and three dimensional model catalyst system, characterization, and studies of activity and selectivity. The ability to synthesize monodispersed platinum and rhodium nanoparticles in the 1-10 nm range permitted us to study the influence of composition, structure, and dynamic properties of monodispersed metal nanoparticle on chemical reactivity and selectivity. We review the importance of size and shape of nanoparticles to determine the reaction selectivity in multi-path reactions. The influence of metal-support interaction has been studied by probing the hot electron flows through the metal-oxide interface in catalytic nanodiodes. Novel designs of nanoparticle catalytic systems are discussed.

  4. Process Of Bonding Copper And Tungsten

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slattery, Kevin T. (St. Charles, MO); Driemeyer, Daniel E. (Manchester, MO); Davis, John W. (Ballwin, MO)

    2000-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for bonding a copper substrate to a tungsten substrate by providing a thin metallic adhesion promoting film bonded to a tungsten substrate and a functionally graded material (FGM) interlayer bonding the thin metallic adhesion promoting film to the copper substrate. The FGM interlayer is formed by sintering a stack of individual copper and tungsten powder blend layers having progressively higher copper content/tungsten content, by volume, ratio values in successive powder blend layers in a lineal direction extending from the tungsten substrate towards the copper substrate. The resulting copper to tungsten joint well accommodates the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials.

  5. Metallic nanoparticles grown in the core of femtosecond laser micromachined waveguides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almeida, J. M. P.; Ferreira, P. H. D.; Mendonça, C. R., E-mail: crmendon@ifsc.usp.br [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo—USP, CP 369, São Carlos, Sao Paulo 13560-970 Brazil (Brazil); Manzani, D.; Napoli, M.; Ribeiro, S. J. L. [Institute of Chemistry—São Paulo State University—UNESP, CP 355, Araraquara, Sao Paulo 14801-970 (Brazil)

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    3D-waveguides containing silver nanoparticles have been fabricated in tungsten lead–pyrophosphate glass by femtosecond laser micromachining. Nucleation and growth of nanoparticles occur in a single step process when high repetition rate laser (MHz) is employed, while an additional annealing is required for the irradiation using kHz laser system. The presence of nanoparticles locally changes the refractive index, and, therefore, the elliptical structures produced by direct laser writing were able to guide light. By increasing the pulse energy applied during the micromachining, the waveguide size increased from 2 to 30??m, while their propagation loss decrease from 1.4 to 0.5?dB/mm at 632.8?nm.

  6. Interfacial Velocity-Dependent Plasmon Damping in Colloidal Metallic Nanoparticles Technology and Applications Center, Newport Corporation, 1791 Deere AVenue, IrVine, California 926006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Interfacial Velocity-Dependent Plasmon Damping in Colloidal Metallic Nanoparticles R. ZadoyanVine, California 92697 ReceiVed: February 26, 2007; In Final Form: May 9, 2007 Modulation of the surface plasmon) of the resonance - while is modulated by the strain amplitude, the plasmon- damping rate is modulated

  7. Detecting Hazardous Gas Analytes Using Porous Silicon Sensors Coated with Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Eddie Goude, University of Florida Georgia Tech SURF 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Detecting Hazardous Gas Analytes Using Porous Silicon Sensors Coated with Metal Oxide Nanoparticles oxide coatings and the Hard-Soft Acid-Base concept. This sensor is proposed to be a new, nanotechnology for this experiment, p-type and n-type. The wafers were first coated with silicon carbide and then etched with a mask

  8. Controlled, Defect-Guided, Metal-Nanoparticle Incorporation onto MoS2 via Chemical and Microwave Routes: Electrical, Thermal, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, Vikas

    show that MoS2 can be applied effectively in sensing,6,7 energy harvesting,8 and photoelectronicControlled, Defect-Guided, Metal-Nanoparticle Incorporation onto MoS2 via Chemical and Microwave via both diffusion limited aggregation and instantaneous reaction arresting (using microwaves

  9. Enhancing H[subscript 2] Uptake by 'Close-Packing' Alignment of Open Copper Sites in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xi-Sen; Ma, Shengqian; Forster, Paul M.; Yuan, Daqiang; Eckert, Juergen; López, Joseph J.; Murphy, Brandon J.; Parise, John B.; Zhou, Hong-Cai (TAM); (SBU); (UCSB)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Inspired by close-packing of spheres, to strengthen the framework-H{sub 2} interaction in MOFs (metal-organic frameworks), a strategy is devised to increase the number of nearest neighboring open metal sites ofe ach H{sub 2}-hosting cage, and to align the open metal sites toward the H{sub 2} molecules. Two MOF polymorphs were made, one exhibiting a record high hydrogen uptake of 3.0 wt% at 1 bar and 77 k.

  10. Electrospun carbon nanofiber electrodes decorated with palladium metal nanoparticles : fabrication and characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurpiewski, John Paul

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method was investigated to produce a novel oxygen reduction electrode comprised of carbon nanofibers for use in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells and metal-air batteries. The process involved electrospinning ...

  11. Enhanced Electrocatalytic Properties of Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides Sheets by Spontaneous Gold Nanoparticle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jiaxing

    electrocatalytic performance toward hydrogen evolution reactions. SECTION: Energy Conversion and Storage; Energy and enhanced properties for areas such as energy storage and catalysis.4-11 Several strategies have been compounds have rich redox chemistry, however, they themselves could directly react with metal precursors

  12. Process Of Bonding Copper And Tungsten

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slattery, Kevin T. (St. Charles, MO); Driemeyer, Daniel E. (Manchester, MO)

    1999-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for bonding a copper substrate to a tungsten substrate by providing a thin metallic adhesion promoting film bonded to a tungsten substrate and a functionally graded material (FGM) interlayer bonding the thin metallic adhesion promoting film to the copper substrate. The FGM interlayer is formed by thermal plasma spraying mixtures of copper powder and tungsten powder in a varied blending ratio such that the blending ratio of the copper powder and the tungsten powder that is fed to a plasma torch is intermittently adjusted to provide progressively higher copper content/tungsten content, by volume, ratio values in the interlayer in a lineal direction extending from the tungsten substrate towards the copper substrate. The resulting copper to tungsten joint well accommodates the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials.

  13. Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

  14. UV Direct-Writing of Metals on Polyimide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Jack Hoyd-Gigg; Mccarthy, Aongus; Suyal, Himanshu; Prior, Kevin; Hand, Duncan P

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conductive micro-patterned copper tracks were fabricated by UV direct-writing of a nanoparticle silver seed layer followed by selective electroless copper deposition. Silver ions were first incorporated into a hydrolyzed polyimide surface layer by wet chemical treatment. A photoreactive polymer coating, methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG) was coated on top of the substrate prior to UV irradiation. Electrons released through the interaction between the MPEG molecules and UV photons allowed the reduction of the silver ions across the MPEG/doped polyimide interface. The resultant silver seed layer has a cluster morphology which is suitable for the initiation of electroless plating. Initial results showed that the deposited copper tracks were in good agreement with the track width on the photomask and laser direct-writing can also fabricate smaller line width metal tracks with good accuracy. The facile fabrication presented here can be carried out in air, at atmospheric pressure, and on contoured surfaces.

  15. Alloy nanoparticle synthesis using ionizing radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nenoff, Tina M. (Sandia Park, NM); Powers, Dana A. (Albuquerque, NM); Zhang, Zhenyuan (Durham, NC)

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming stable nanoparticles comprising substantially uniform alloys of metals. A high dose of ionizing radiation is used to generate high concentrations of solvated electrons and optionally radical reducing species that rapidly reduce a mixture of metal ion source species to form alloy nanoparticles. The method can make uniform alloy nanoparticles from normally immiscible metals by overcoming the thermodynamic limitations that would preferentially produce core-shell nanoparticles.

  16. Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Systems with Thiol Functionalized...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy Metals from Aqueous Systems with Thiol Functionalized Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles. Removal of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Systems with Thiol Functionalized...

  17. Thermally stable nanoparticles on supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roldan Cuenya, Beatriz; Naitabdi, Ahmed R.; Behafarid, Farzad

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An inverse micelle-based method for forming nanoparticles on supports includes dissolving a polymeric material in a solvent to provide a micelle solution. A nanoparticle source is dissolved in the micelle solution. A plurality of micelles having a nanoparticle in their core and an outer polymeric coating layer are formed in the micelle solution. The micelles are applied to a support. The polymeric coating layer is then removed from the micelles to expose the nanoparticles. A supported catalyst includes a nanocrystalline powder, thin film, or single crystal support. Metal nanoparticles having a median size from 0.5 nm to 25 nm, a size distribution having a standard deviation .ltoreq.0.1 of their median size are on or embedded in the support. The plurality of metal nanoparticles are dispersed and in a periodic arrangement. The metal nanoparticles maintain their periodic arrangement and size distribution following heat treatments of at least 1,000.degree. C.

  18. Use of the Extraordinary Infrared Transmission of Metallic Subwavelength Arrays To Study the Catalyzed Reaction of Methanol to Formaldehyde on Copper Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    scattered out of an incident beam. Commercial nickel mesh has been coated with copper to reduce the hole of IR photons by surface molecular species. Very uniform electrodeposits of copper are applied to the finest commercially available, biperiodic nickel mesh in order to narrow the transmission resonances

  19. Fabrication of transparent ceramics using nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherepy, Nerine J; Tillotson, Thomas M; Kuntz, Joshua D; Payne, Stephen A

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of fabrication of a transparent ceramic using nanoparticles synthesized via organic acid complexation-combustion includes providing metal salts, dissolving said metal salts to produce an aqueous salt solution, adding an organic chelating agent to produce a complexed-metal sol, heating said complexed-metal sol to produce a gel, drying said gel to produce a powder, combusting said powder to produce nano-particles, calcining said nano-particles to produce oxide nano-particles, forming said oxide nano-particles into a green body, and sintering said green body to produce the transparent ceramic.

  20. Nanoscale Growth Twins in Sputtered Copper Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderoglu, Osman

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    deposition rate. Analytical studies together with experimental evidence show that nanotwins can improve the strength-to-resistivity ratio significantly in copper. In general, nanocrystalline metals suffer from low ductility. To study plastic deformation via...

  1. Initiation of electroless nickel plating on copper, palladium-activated copper, gold, and platinum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flis, J.; Duquette, D.J.

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic activity of copper, palladium-activated copper, gold, and platinum for electro-oxidation of hypophosphite and electroless nickel plating was investigated in an ammoniacal solution of pH 8.8 at 50/sup 0/C by potential measurements and linear sweep voltammetry from -0.3 to -0.92V vs. SCE. Early stages of nickel plating on copper-palladium substrates were studied by scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with EDAX. It was found that palladium-activated copper and gold were catalytically active in the entire range of potentials examined; copper was active below -0.6 platinum was not active at all. Small amounts of electrolytically deposited nickel considerably increased the electro-oxidation rate of hypophosphite on copper, gold, and palladium. TEM examinations showed that activation of copper in a PdCl/sub 2//HCl solution resulted in the deposition of palladium in the form of separate patches. Electroless nickel deposition on copper substrates with separate palladium spots took place on copper and palladium independently of each other. The deposition on palladium was faster than that on copper. It was concluded that the activation of copper substrates around palladium spots occurred solely through a spontaneous potential shift, induced by electro-oxidation of hypophosphite on the palladium spots. It was suggested that small amounts of one metal synergistically enhanced the catalytic activity of the other metals.

  2. Perovskite Sr0.95Ce0.05CoO3d loaded with copper nanoparticles as a bifunctional catalyst for lithium-air batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for lithium-air batteries Wei Yang,ab Jason Salim,c Shuai Li,ab Chunwen Sun,*ab Liquan Chen,ab John B could be used in a metal/air battery or a PEM fuel cell as an efficient and stable bifunctional catalyst electrolyte. More challenging is the requirement for the Li/air rechargeable battery, viz. an inexpensive

  3. Electroless copper plating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McHenry, M.R.

    1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An optimized electroless copper plating technique is described suitable for plating electroless copper upon ceramics. 12 figs.

  4. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  5. Photoinduced Formation of Zinc Nanoparticles by UV Laser Irradiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    metallic Zn nanoparticles growing on the exposed surface of the crystal. Higher fluence laser exposure generates accumulated surface metal just outside of the irradiated spot. We...

  6. Effect of a heavy metal on ecto- and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: The physiology, ultrastructure, and ecology of copper stress and tolerance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruhn, C.M.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first chapter examines the enzyme tyrosinase in several ectomycorrhizal fungi and shows that its activity is altered in these fungi in response to copper. Polyamines are also examined, and it is shown that their levels are altered in some ectomycorrhizal fungi due to copper stress but not in others. The second chapter uses transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that copper is bound to the hyphae of ectomycorrhizal fungi grown on solid media, but the location of the binding varies between fungal species. In vitro copper tolerances of a number of ectomycorrhizal species are compared and differences in tolerance are evident between species and between different isolates of the same species. In the third chapter, four ectomycorrhizal fungi and one nonmycorrhizal fungus are evaluated for their ability to improve the growth of Japanese Red Pine under conditions of copper stress. Improvement of pine seedling growth is not correlated with in vitro copper tolerance of the fungus, but is related to the degree of compatibility between host and fungus. Despite differences in in vitro tolerance between three isolates of the same species, there are no differences in the effect of the isolates on the tree host under conditions of copper stress. Ectomycorrhizal fungi were also inoculated in pairs on pine seedlings and the competitive abilities of the fungi are compared under stressed and nonstressed conditions. The fourth chapter discusses the results of inoculation of pine with a nonhost fungus which stimulates dichotomous branching of the root system. The compound responsible for the branching is demonstrated to be indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a plant growth hormone. The final two chapters deal with endomycorrhizal fungi.

  7. Conditions for precipitation of copper phases in DWPF waste glass. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, R.F.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility precipitate hydrolysis process requires the use of copper formate as a catalyst. The expected absorbed radiation doses to the salt precipitate require higher levels of copper formate which increase the potential for the precipitation of metallic copper containing phases in the DWPF Melter. The conditions required to avoid the precipitation of copper phases are described in this report.

  8. Analytical modeling of localized surface plasmon resonance in heterostructure copper sulfide nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, Andrew H.; Ha, Don-Hyung; Robinson, Richard D., E-mail: rdr82@cornell.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Ding, Xiaoyue [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in semiconductor nanocrystals is a relatively new field of investigation that promises greater tunability of plasmonic properties compared to metal nanoparticles. A novel process by which the LSPR in semiconductor nanocrystals can be altered is through heterostructure formation arising from solution-based cation exchange. Herein, we describe the development of an analytical model of LSPR in heterostructure copper sulfide-zinc sulfide nanocrystals synthesized via a cation exchange reaction between copper sulfide (Cu{sub 1.81}S) nanocrystals and Zn ions. The cation exchange reaction produces dual-interface, heterostructure nanocrystals in which the geometry of the copper sulfide phase can be tuned from a sphere to a thin disk separating symmetrically-grown sulfide (ZnS) grains. Drude model electronic conduction and Mie-Gans theory are applied to describe how the LSPR wavelength changes during cation exchange, taking into account the morphology evolution and changes to the local permittivity. The results of the modeling indicate that the presence of the ZnS grains has a significant effect on the out-of-plane LSPR mode. By comparing the results of the model to previous studies on solid-solid phase transformations of copper sulfide in these nanocrystals during cation exchange, we show that the carrier concentration is independent of the copper vacancy concentration dictated by its atomic phase. The evolution of the effective carrier concentration calculated from the model suggests that the out-of-plane resonance mode is dominant. The classical model was compared to a simplified quantum mechanical model which suggested that quantum mechanical effects become significant when the characteristic size is less than ?8 nm. Overall, we find that the analytical models are not accurate for these heterostructured semiconductor nanocrystals, indicating the need for new model development for this emerging field.

  9. Thin films of metal oxide nanoparticles deposited on substrates find applications in various technologies such as sensors, heterogeneous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    oven, which restrict the choice of substrates (metal, glass) and can negatively affects their performances (stress induction, oxidation, substrate warping). VALUE PROPOSITION This novel process offers key+ hours in traditional ovens (including ramp up & down) Delivers equal or superior optoelectronic

  10. Drinking Water Problems: Copper 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    High levels of copper in drinking water can cause health problems. This publication explains the effects of copper in water and methods of removing it. 4 pp....

  11. Drinking Water Problems: Copper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    High levels of copper in drinking water can cause health problems. This publication explains the effects of copper in water and methods of removing it. 4 pp....

  12. Electrochromism in copper oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, T.J.; Slack, J.L.; Rubin, M.D.

    2000-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Transparent thin films of copper(I) oxide prepared on conductive SnO2:F glass substrates by anodic oxidation of sputtered copper films or by direct electrodeposition of Cu2O transformed reversibly to opaque metallic copper films when reduced in alkaline electrolyte. In addition, the same Cu2O films transform reversibly to black copper(II) oxide when cycled at more anodic potentials. Copper oxide-to-copper switching covered a large dynamic range, from 85% and 10% photopic transmittance, with a coloration efficiency of about 32 cm2/C. Gradual deterioration of the switching range occurred over 20 to 100 cycles. This is tentatively ascribed to coarsening of the film and contact degradation caused by the 65% volume change on conversion of Cu to Cu2O. Switching between the two copper oxides (which have similar volumes) was more stable and more efficient (CE = 60 cm2/C), but covered a smaller transmittance range (60% to 44% T). Due to their large electrochemical storage capacity and tolerance for alkaline electrolytes, these cathodically coloring films may be useful as counter electrodes for anodically coloring electrode films such as nickel oxide or metal hydrides.

  13. Electron beam skull melting and refining of secondary copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bychkov, Y.; Ladokhin, S. [Donetskvtortsvetmet, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron Beam Melting is the most efficient technology for metals and alloys refining. For secondary metals processing the Electron Beam Skull Melting (EBSM) with the electromagnetic stirring (EMS) of melt in the crucible was shown to be the most appropriate. The copper produced by EBSM with EMS possesses higher density and electric conductivity in comparison with other refining methods. The details for high power electrical machines were cast of the copper waste refined by EBSM technology.

  14. Stability of stainless-steel nanoparticle and water mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, You Young; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.; Suh, Dong-Woo

    2014-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    of such mixtures, especially for heavy metallic particles. For 0.017 wt% stainless steel-distilled water nanoparticle-fluid, the thermal conductivity increases by 8.3 % at the optimal stability condition of pH 11. Keywords: Stainless steel, Nanofluid, Stability... of larger particle density related to metallic particles, metallic nanoparticle-fluids have been studied much less than oxides or nanotube dispersions. An important characteristic of a nanoparticle-fluid mixture or nanofluid is its stability with respect...

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - acidic transition metals Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    liquids, chlorates, nitrites, sulfur, finely... hypochlorite, all oxidizing agents Carbon tetrachloride Sodium Chlorates Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals... , copper,...

  16. Surface-Mediated Formation of Plutonium Nanoparticles | U.S....

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    represents a new heterogeneous pathway for immobilizing metal nanoparticles at mineral-water interfaces that can be significant in separating and isolating this type of element in...

  17. amorphous silica nanoparticles: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    arrays of metal nanoparticles hold great promise for many applications.1 The successful synthesis Kim, Sehun 6 PHYSICAL REVIEW B 89, 144303 (2014) Thermal conductivity...

  18. In Situ Observation of Directed Nanoparticle Aggregation During the Synthesis of Ordered Nanoporous Metal in Soft Templates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parent, Lucas R.; Robinson, David B.; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Hartnett, Ryan J.; Abellan, Patricia; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.; Arslan, Ilke

    2014-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The prevalent approach to developing new nanomaterials is a trial-and-error process of iteratively altering synthesis procedures and then characterizing the resulting nanostructures. This is fundamentally limited in that the growth processes that occur during synthesis can be inferred only from the final synthetic structure. Directly observing real-time nanomaterial growth provides unprecedented insight into the relationship between synthesis conditions and product evolution and facilitates a mechanistic approach to nanomaterial development. Here, we use in situ liquid-stage scanning transmission electron microscopy to observe the growth of mesoporous palladium in a solvated block copolymer (BCP) template under various synthesis conditions, and we ultimately determined a refined synthesis procedure that yields extended structures with ordered pores. We found that after sufficient drying time of the casting solvent (tetrahydrofuran, THF), the BCP assembles into a rigid, cylindrical micelle array with a high degree of short-range order but poor long-range order. Upon slowing the THF evaporation rate using a solvent-vapor anneal step, the long-range order was greatly improved. The electron beam induces nucleation of small particles in the aqueous phase around the micelles. The small particles then flocculate and grow into denser structures that surround, but do not overgrow, the micelles, forming an ordered mesoporous structure. The microscope observations revealed that pore disorder can be addressed prior to metal reduction and is not invariably induced by the Pd growth process itself, allowing for more rapid optimization of the synthetic method.

  19. Effects of copper deposition on boiler waterside surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wangerin, M.C.; Rondum, K.D. [Ashland Chemical Co., Boonton, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The relative importance of metal oxide corrosion products in waterside deposits, as opposed to traditional scale-forming constituents, is discussed, and the sources of copper and copper oxide boiler deposits are reviewed. Also reviewed are explanations of some of the problems associated with the presence of deposits and especially, copper-containing deposits. These include those due to a reduction in heat transfer and tube metal overheating, as well as various corrosion mechanisms. Case histories, which illustrate certain deleterious mechanisms due to the presence of such deposition, are also presented.

  20. Copper-tantalum alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA)

    1986-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

  1. Method for forming thermally stable nanoparticles on supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roldan Cuenya, Beatriz; Naitabdi, Ahmed R.; Behafarid, Farzad

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An inverse micelle-based method for forming nanoparticles on supports includes dissolving a polymeric material in a solvent to provide a micelle solution. A nanoparticle source is dissolved in the micelle solution. A plurality of micelles having a nanoparticle in their core and an outer polymeric coating layer are formed in the micelle solution. The micelles are applied to a support. The polymeric coating layer is then removed from the micelles to expose the nanoparticles. A supported catalyst includes a nanocrystalline powder, thin film, or single crystal support. Metal nanoparticles having a median size from 0.5 nm to 25 nm, a size distribution having a standard deviation .ltoreq.0.1 of their median size are on or embedded in the support. The plurality of metal nanoparticles are dispersed and in a periodic arrangement. The metal nanoparticles maintain their periodic arrangement and size distribution following heat treatments of at least 1,000.degree. C.

  2. Dynamics of femtosecond laser produced tungsten nanoparticle plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harilal, S. S.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Farid, N. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States) [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); School of Physics and Optical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Kozhevin, V. M. [Ioffe Physics Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)] [Ioffe Physics Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the expansion features of femtosecond laser generated tungsten nanoparticle plumes in vacuum. Fast gated images showed distinct two components expansion features, viz., plasma and nanoparticle plumes, separated by time of appearance. The persistence of plasma and nanoparticle plumes are ?500 ns and ?100 ?s, respectively, and propagating with velocities differed by 25 times. The estimated temperature of the nanoparticles showed a decreasing trend with increasing time and space. Compared to low-Z materials (e.g., Si), ultrafast laser ablation of high-Z materials like W provides significantly higher nanoparticle yield. A comparison between the nanoparticle plumes generated by W and Si is also discussed along with other metals.

  3. Nanoporus Silicate Frameworks Nanoporous Copper Silicates with One-Dimen-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiqu

    Nanoporus Silicate Frameworks Nanoporous Copper Silicates with One-Dimen- sional 12-Ring Channel, and their potential use as components in advanced nanocomposites.[1­4] Nanoporous transition-metal silicates for the synthesis of transition-metal-silicate open-framework and microporous compounds that uses a common building

  4. Novel strategies for ultrahigh specific activity targeted nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Dong

    2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed novel strategies optimized for preparing high specific activity radiolabeled nanoparticles, targeting nuclear imaging of low abundance biomarkers. Several compounds have been labeled with F-18 and Cu-64 for radiolabeling of SCK-nanoparticles via Copper(I) catalyzed or copper-free alkyne-azide cyclolization. Novel strategies have been developed to achieve ultrahigh specific activity with administrable amount of dose for human study using copper-free chemistry. Ligands for carbonic anhydrase 12 (CA12), a low abundance extracellular biomarker for the responsiveness of breast cancer to endocrine therapie, have been labeled with F-18 and Cu-64, and one of them has been evaluated in animal models. The results of this project will lead to major improvements in the use of nanoparticles in nuclear imaging and will significantly advance their potential for detecting low abundance biomarkers of medical importance.

  5. High adherence copper plating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nignardot, Henry (Tesuque, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing an aluminum or steel substrate for electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to the substrate.

  6. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

    1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  7. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Price, Geoffrey L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Kanazirev, Vladislav (Sofia, BG)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  8. Method to prepare nanoparticles on porous mediums

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vieth, Gabriel M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Dudney, Nancy J. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to prepare porous medium decorated with nanoparticles involves contacting a suspension of nanoparticles in an ionic liquid with a porous medium such that the particles diffuse into the pores of the medium followed by heating the resulting composition to a temperature equal to or greater than the thermal decomposition temperature of the ionic liquid resulting in the removal of the liquid portion of the suspension. The nanoparticles can be a metal, an alloy, or a metal compound. The resulting compositions can be used as catalysts, sensors, or separators.

  9. Ordered porous mesostructured materials from nanoparticle-block copolymer self-assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Scott; Wiesner, Ulrich; DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides mesostructured materials and methods of preparing mesostructured materials including metal-rich mesostructured nanoparticle-block copolymer hybrids, porous metal-nonmetal nanocomposite mesostructures, and ordered metal mesostructures with uniform pores. The nanoparticles can be metal, metal alloy, metal mixture, intermetallic, metal-carbon, metal-ceramic, semiconductor-carbon, semiconductor-ceramic, insulator-carbon or insulator-ceramic nanoparticles, or combinations thereof. A block copolymer/ligand-stabilized nanoparticle solution is cast, resulting in the formation of a metal-rich (or semiconductor-rich or insulator-rich) mesostructured nanoparticle-block copolymer hybrid. The hybrid is heated to an elevated temperature, resulting in the formation of an ordered porous nanocomposite mesostructure. A nonmetal component (e.g., carbon or ceramic) is then removed to produce an ordered mesostructure with ordered and large uniform pores.

  10. Critical heat flux enhancement via surface modification using colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles (Nanofluids)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Bao H. (Bao Hoai)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofluids are engineered colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles (1-100nm) in common fluids (water, refrigerants, or ethanol...). Materials used for nanoparticles include chemically stable metals (e.g., gold, silver, ...

  11. Application of copper vapour lasers for controlling activity of uranium isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barmina, E V; Sukhov, I A; Lepekhin, N M; Priseko, Yu S; Filippov, V G; Simakin, Aleksandr V; Shafeev, Georgii A

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Beryllium nanoparticles are generated upon ablation of a beryllium target in water by a copper vapour laser. The average size of single crystalline nanoparticles is 12 nm. Ablation of a beryllium target in aqueous solutions of uranyl chloride leads to a significant (up to 50 %) decrease in the gamma activity of radionuclides of the uranium-238 and uranium-235 series. Data on the recovery of the gamma activity of these nuclides to new steady-state values after laser irradiation are obtained. The possibility of application of copper vapour lasers for radioactive waste deactivation is discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  12. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

  13. Kinetic method for the determination of iridium in copper and copper-nickel alloys and in industrial solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilova, F.I.; Fedotova, I.A.; Ustinova, N.V.

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article discusses the kinetic determination of iridium in copper and copper-nickel alloys, in ores and ore processing products containing down to 10/sup -8/%, and in waste solutions down to 0.01 mg/liter. The procedure for the kinetic determination of iridium based on the oxidation of mercury(I) and cerium(IV) is described. The applications of the schemes presented allows one to widen significantly the range of products to be analyzed, to determine iridium at a concentration of 10/sup -8/% in the presence of copper and noble metals, and to shorten the time required for the analysis.

  14. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D&D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D&D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness of separating out radioactive contamination, the copper cable was coated with a surrogate contaminant. The demonstration took place at the Bonneville County Technology Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

  15. Laser ablated copper plasmas in liquid and gas ambient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Thareja, Raj K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)] [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of copper ablated plasma plumes generated using laser ablation of copper targets in both liquid (de-ionized water) and gas (air) ambients is reported. Using time and space resolved visible emission spectroscopy (450-650 nm), the plasma plumes parameters are investigated. The electron density (n{sub e}) determined using Stark broadening of the Cu I (3d{sup 10}4d{sup 1} {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-3d{sup 10}4p{sup 1} {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} at 521.8 nm) line is estimated and compared for both plasma plumes. The electron temperature (T{sub e}) was estimated using the relative line emission intensities of the neutral copper transitions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectral analysis of the ablated copper surface indicated abundance of spherical nanoparticles in liquid while those in air are amalgamates of irregular shapes. The nanoparticles suspended in the confining liquid form aggregates and exhibit a surface plasmon resonance at ?590 nm.

  16. Metal Nitride Diffusion Barriers for Copper Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Araujo, Roy A.

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    nanocrystalline TiN film enhances grain boundary sliding and grain boundary diffusion related creep phenomena, and the ductility of the coatings is also improved. On the other hand, compositional designed TiN based alloys, such as cubic-phase Ti1-xAlxN thin... Nitrides ...................... 26 2.3 Composition and Structures of TiN, TaN and HfN ................. 33 2.4 Nitride Formation, Electronegativity, Atomic Radius and Bonding...

  17. Metal Nitride Diffusion Barriers for Copper Interconnects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Araujo, Roy A.

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    -NaCl) thin films were grown on Si(001) using an ultra-thin TiN (B1-NaCl) seed layer which was as thin as 1 nm. The TiN/TaN stacks were deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD), with the TiN thickness systematically reduced from 15 to 1 nm...

  18. Metal deposition using seed layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  19. Precision Nanoparticles

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    John Hemminger

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A revolutionary technology that efficiently produces nanoparticles in uniform and prescribed sizes (1-100 nanometers) using supercritical fluids. INL researcher Robert Fox was joined by Idaho State University researchers Rene Rodriquez and Joshua Pak in d

  20. Precision Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Hemminger

    2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A revolutionary technology that efficiently produces nanoparticles in uniform and prescribed sizes (1-100 nanometers) using supercritical fluids. INL researcher Robert Fox was joined by Idaho State University researchers Rene Rodriquez and Joshua Pak in d

  1. Laser Assisted Nanomanufacturing with Solution Processed Nanoparticles for Low-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Heng

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fig. 1. 1 Flexible electronics and flexible solar cells. Inof metal oxide based electronics on heat sensitive flexibleNanoparticles for Low-cost Electronics and Photovoltaics by

  2. Monodisperse Platinum and Rhodium Nanoparticles as Model Heterogeneous Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coble, Inger M

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Model heterogeneous catalysts have been synthesized and studied to better understand how the surface structure of noble metal nanoparticles affects catalytic performance. In this project, monodisperse rhodium and platinum nanoparticles of controlled size and shape have been synthesized by solution phase polyol reduction, stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Model catalysts have been developed using these nanoparticles by two methods: synthesis of mesoporous silica (SBA-15) in the presence of nanoparticles (nanoparticle encapsulation, NE) to form a composite of metal nanoparticles supported on SBA-15 and by deposition of the particles onto a silicon wafer using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayer deposition. The particle shapes were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM) and the sizes were determined by TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and in the case of NE samples, room temperature H2 and CO adsorption isotherms. Catalytic studies were carried out in homebuilt gas-phase reactors. For the nanoparticles supported on SBA-15, the catalysts are in powder form and were studied using the homebuilt systems as plug-flow reactors. In the case of nanoparticles deposited on silicon wafers, the same systems were operated as batch reactors. This dissertation has focused on the synthesis, characterization, and reaction studies of model noble metal heterogeneous catalysts. Careful control of particle size and shape has been accomplished though solution phase synthesis of Pt and Rh nanoparticles in order to elucidate further structure-reactivity relationships in noble metal catalysis.

  3. Modeling Elution Histories of Copper and Lead from Contaminated Soil Treated by Poly,,amidoamine... Dendrimers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    Modeling Elution Histories of Copper and Lead from Contaminated Soil Treated by Poly soil treated by poly amidoamine dendrimers. In the model, the metal sorption sites of the soil were

  4. Nanoparticles as Reactive Precursors: Synthesis of Alloys, Intermetallic Compounds, and Multi-Metal Oxides Through Low-Temperature Annealing and Conversion Chemistry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, John C.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Alloys, intermetallic compounds and multi-metal oxides are generally made by traditional solid-state methods that often require melting or grinding/pressing powders followed by high temperature annealing (> 1000 degrees ...

  5. Mixed oxide nanoparticles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Phelps, Tommy J. (Knoxville, TN); Zhang, Chuanlun (Columbia, MO); Roh, Yul (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for producing mixed oxide nanoparticulates are disclosed. Selected thermophilic bacteria cultured with suitable reducible metals in the presence of an electron donor may be cultured under conditions that reduce at least one metal to form a doped crystal or mixed oxide composition. The bacteria will form nanoparticles outside the cell, allowing easy recovery. Selection of metals depends on the redox potentials of the reducing agents added to the culture. Typically hydrogen or glucose are used as electron donors.

  6. Wick for metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

  7. The Reaction Specificity of Nanoparticles in Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, Donald R.

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron-based metallic and oxide nanoparticles have been shown to have enhanced reactivity towards a variety of chemical species, including chlorinated hydrocarbons and reducible oxyanions, which frequently contaminate ground water at DOE and other government and industrial sites. Possibly of greater importance is the ability of these nanoparticles to select specific reaction pathways, potentially facilitating the formation of the most environmentally acceptable reaction products.

  8. Precision micro drilling with copper vapor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, J.J.; Martinez, M.W.; Warner, B.E.; Dragon, E.P.; Huete, G.; Solarski, M.E.

    1994-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have developed a copper vapor laser based micro machining system using advanced beam quality control and precision wavefront tilting technologies. Micro drilling has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratio up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled on a variety of metals with good quality. For precision trepanned holes, the hole-to-hole size variation is typically within 1% of its diameter. Hole entrance and exit are both well defined with dimension error less than a few microns. Materialography of sectioned holes shows little (sub-micron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone with surface roughness within 1--2 microns.

  9. Coated metal articles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boller, Ernest R. (Van Buren Township, IN); Eubank, Lowell D. (Wilmington, DE)

    2004-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  10. Coated Metal Articles and Method of Making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boller, Ernest R.; Eubank, Lowell D.

    2004-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  11. Fabrication and characterization of silver- and copper-coated Nylon 6 forcespun nanofibers by thermal evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihut, Dorina M., E-mail: dorinamm@yahoo.com; Lozano, Karen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas Pan American, 1201 W University Drive, Edinburg, Texas 78539 (United States); Foltz, Heinrich [Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Texas Pan American, 1201 W University Drive, Edinburg, Texas 78539 (United States)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silver and copper nanoparticles were deposited as thin films onto substrates consisting of Nylon 6 nanofibers manufactured using forcespinning{sup ®} equipment. Different rotational speeds were used to obtain continuous nanofibers of various diameters arranged as nonwoven mats. The Nylon 6 nanofibers were collected as successive layers on frames, and a high-vacuum thermal evaporation method was used to deposit the silver and copper thin films on the nanofibers. The structures were investigated using scanning electron microscopy–scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and electrical resistance measurements. The results indicate that evaporated silver and copper nanoparticles were successfully deposited on Nylon 6 nanofibers as thin films that adhered well to the polymer substrate while the native morphology of the nanofibers were preserved, and electrically conductive nanostructures were achieved.

  12. Copper deposition on TiO{sub 2} from copper(II)hexafluoroacetylacetonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, David G.; Mulley, James S.; Bennett, Roger A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Reading, Reading RG66AD (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have studied the adsorption of Cu{sup II}(hfac){sub 2} on the surface of a model oxide system, TiO{sub 2}(110), and probed the molecular stability with respect to thermal cycling, using atomic scale imaging by scanning tunneling microscopy supported by x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. They find that at 473 K, the adsorbed metal-organic molecules begin to dissociate and release Cu atoms which aggregate and form Cu nanoparticles. These Cu nanoparticles ripen over time and the size (height) distribution develops into a bimodal distribution. Unlike other organometallic systems, which show a bimodal distribution due to enhanced nucleation or growth at surface step edges, the nanoparticles do not preferentially form at steps. The reduced mobility of the Cu islands may be related to the co-adsorbed ligands that remain in very small clusters on the surface.

  13. Ordered mesoporous silica nanoparticles with and without embedded iron oxide nanoparticles: structure evolution during synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Sol M.

    - functional nanocomposites, in which properties of individual components are combined to create new features with metals and metal oxides results in hybrid mesoporous silica nanoparticles with combi- nations of properties. Such hybrids could be used in applications, such as drug delivery, MRI and catalysis.3

  14. Metal Model Mimics Metalloenzymes | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Physics in a Copper-Iridium Compound A Key Target for Diabetes Drugs Molten Metal Solidifies into a New Kind of Glass Organic Polymers Show Sunny Potential A New Family of...

  15. ENS'07 Paris, France, 3-4 December 2007 ELECTROCATALYTICAL MAGNETOBIOSENSING BASED ON GOLD NANOPARTICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    NANOPARTICLES Alfredo de la Escosura Muñiz1 , Marisa Maltez da Costa1,2 , M. Teresa Castañeda Briones 1. Interest in catalysis induced by metal nanoparticles (NPs) is increasing dramatically in the last years and semiconductor nanoparticles as labels for different biorecognition and biosensing processes has received wide

  16. Further reduction of efficiency droop effect by adding a lower-index dielectric interlayer in a surface plasmon coupled blue light-emitting diode with surface metal nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Chun-Han; Su, Chia-Ying; Chen, Chung-Hui; Yao, Yu-Feng; Shih, Pei-Ying; Chen, Horng-Shyang; Hsieh, Chieh; Kiang, Yean-Woei, E-mail: ywkiang@ntu.edu.tw; Yang, C. C., E-mail: ccycc@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Yang [Department of Energy and Refrigerating Air-Conditioning Engineering, Tung Nan University, 152 Beishen Road, Section 3, New Taipei City, 22202 Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Further reduction of the efficiency droop effect and further enhancements of internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and output intensity of a surface plasmon coupled, blue-emitting light-emitting diode (LED) by inserting a dielectric interlayer (DI) of a lower refractive index between p-GaN and surface Ag nanoparticles are demonstrated. The insertion of a DI leads to a blue shift of the localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance spectrum and increases the LSP coupling strength at the quantum well emitting wavelength in the blue range. With SiO{sub 2} as the DI, a thinner DI leads to a stronger LSP coupling effect, when compared with the case of a thicker DI. By using GaZnO, which is a dielectric in the optical range and a good conductor under direct-current operation, as the DI, the LSP coupling results in the highest IQE, highest LED output intensity, and weakest droop effect.

  17. Copper transfer and influence on a marine food chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edding, M.; Tala, F. [Universidad Catolica del Norte, Coquimbo (Chile)] [Universidad Catolica del Norte, Coquimbo (Chile)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Copper is an essential element, required for normal growth by all plants and animals; and a regular constituent in the environment (Lewis and Cave 1982; Lewis 1994). This heavy metal is an essential micronutrient that at higher concentrations can be deleterious to algae and other aquatic biota (Chang and Sibley 1993). Copper toxicity to algae depends upon the individual species, their physiological and environmental conditions, and the chemical forms of metal in the medium (Sunda and Gullard 1976). When copper is accumulated by phytoplankton it can be transferred and may produce toxic effects on zooplankton (Wikfors and Ukeles 1982). Different species of microalgae present different capacities of resistance to copper. Cyanophyceae pre-cultured in a Cu-enriched medium (635 {mu}gCu{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1}) showed an EC{sub 50} that could reach 318 {mu}gCu{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} for Plectonema radiosum and 339 {mu}gCu{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} in Phormidium sp. (Takamura et al. 1990). Scenedesmus, Selenastrum and Chlorella were reported able to accumulate copper and other metal ions with an efficiency of 67-98% (Brady et al. 1994). Also, Dunaliella resisted concentrations form 0.38 mgCu{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} (D. minuta) up to 50.8 mgCu{center_dot}L{sup {minus}1} (D. acidophila), depending on the pH of the medium (Grimmler et al. 1991). One the microalgae are copper-enriched, the copper that is part of the cell can be transferred to the surrounding water and to its predator producing uncertain effects. This study observed the effect of copper on the growth of Dunaliella tertiolecta and Isochrysis galbana that are currently used as food for hatchery-grown scallop larvae (Argopecten purpuratus). We observed the path of copper form the water column into the microalgal cell and the effect of copper-enriched food on the scallop larvae. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. High adherence copper plating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nignardot, H.

    1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing the surface of an aluminum or steel substrate for the electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to either substrate.

  19. High adherence copper plating process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mignardot, H.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing an aluminum or steel substrate for electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to the substrate.

  20. The Supramolecular NanoMaterials Group From Nano-Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Supramolecular NanoMaterials Group From Nano-Particles to Nano-Polymers Francesco Stellacci Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MIT frstella@mit.edu #12;S u N M a G The Supramolecular NanoMaterials Group Supramolecular Materials Science Monolayer Protected Metal Nanoparticles Functionalized Carbon

  1. Light scattering by an array of electric and magnetic nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Floreano, Dario

    Light scattering by an array of electric and magnetic nanoparticles Braulio García-Cámara1, 2@unican.es Abstract: Light scattering by an array of alternating electric and magnetic nanoparticles is analyzed, "Polarization sensitive silicon photodiodes using nanostructured metallic grids," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94

  2. Filtration for Metals Removal from Stormwater Runoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    Waste ­ Peat-Sand Mix ­ Kudzu ­ Peanut Hull Pellets MetalsMetals Copper,Cadmium, Chromium, Zinc, Lead CAPACITIES FOR COPPER #12;2 Capacity of Media for Zn 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 TP 207*Com post Kudzu-Sand M ix Cotton W aste Sand gZn/kgmedia 14 16 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Compost Kudzu PeanutHulls St

  3. Electron Holography Image Simulation of Nanoparticles K. Keimpema,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electron Holography Image Simulation of Nanoparticles K. Keimpema,1, H. De Raedt,1, and J) metallic wire or quartz fiber coated with gold or platinum, is used to recombine the specimen beam

  4. Nanosensors based on functionalized nanoparticles and surface enhanced raman scattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Talley, Chad E. (Brentwood, CA); Huser, Thomas R. (Livermore, CA); Hollars, Christopher W. (Brentwood, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA); Satcher, Jr., Joe H. (Patterson, CA); Hart, Bradley R. (Brentwood, CA); Laurence, Ted A. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a vibrational spectroscopic technique that utilizes metal surfaces to provide enhanced signals of several orders of magnitude. When molecules of interest are attached to designed metal nanoparticles, a SERS signal is attainable with single molecule detection limits. This provides an ultrasensitive means of detecting the presence of molecules. By using selective chemistries, metal nanoparticles can be functionalized to provide a unique signal upon analyte binding. Moreover, by using measurement techniques, such as, ratiometric received SERS spectra, such metal nanoparticles can be used to monitor dynamic processes in addition to static binding events. Accordingly, such nanoparticles can be used as nanosensors for a wide range of chemicals in fluid, gaseous and solid form, environmental sensors for pH, ion concentration, temperature, etc., and biological sensors for proteins, DNA, RNA, etc.

  5. Precursors for formation of copper selenide, indium selenide, copper indium diselenide, and/or copper indium gallium diselenide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Van Hest, Maikel; Ginley, David S

    2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid-based precursors for formation of Copper Selenide, Indium Selenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and/or copper Indium Galium Diselenide include copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent. These liquid-based precursors can be deposited in liquid form onto substrates and treated by rapid thermal processing to form crystalline copper selenide and indium selenide films.

  6. JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 13, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2004 791 Electroplated Metal Microstructures Embedded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of multiwafer, MEMS devices. [1276] Index Terms--Copper, encapsulation, micromachining, nickel alloys, permalloy metallization of electroplated materials in polymer micromolds [9]. Electrodeposition has proven

  7. A Multinuclear Copper(I) Cluster Forms the Dimerization Interface in Copper-Loaded Human Copper Chaperone for Superoxide Dismutase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stasser, J.P.; Siluvai, G.S.; Barry, A.N.; Blackburn, N.J.

    2009-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Copper binding and X-ray aborption spectroscopy studies are reported on untagged human CCS (hCCS; CCS = copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase) isolated using an intein self-cleaving vector and on single and double Cys to Ala mutants of the hCCS MTCQSC and CSC motifs of domains 1 (D1) and 3 (D3), respectively. The results on the wild-type protein confirmed earlier findings on the CCS-MBP (maltose binding protein) constructs, namely, that Cu(I) coordinates to the CXC motif, forming a cluster at the interface of two D3 polypeptides. In contrast to the single Cys to Ser mutations of the CCS-MBP protein (Stasser, J. P., Eisses, J. F., Barry, A. N., Kaplan, J. H., and Blackburn, N. J. (2005) Biochemistry 44, 3143-3152), single Cys to Ala mutations in D3 were sufficient to eliminate cluster formation and significantly reduce CCS activity. Analysis of the intensity of the Cu-Cu cluster interaction in C244A, C246A, and C244/246A variants suggested that the nuclearity of the cluster was greater than 2 and was most consistent with a Cu4S6 adamantane-type species. The relationship among cluster formation, oligomerization, and metal loading was evaluated. The results support a model in which Cu(I) binding converts the apo dimer with a D2-D2 interface to a new dimer connected by cluster formation at two D3 CSC motifs. The predominance of dimer over tetramer in the cluster-containing species strongly suggests that the D2 dimer interface remains open and available for sequestering an SOD1 monomer. This work implicates the copper cluster in the reactive form and adds detail to the cluster nuclearity and how copper loading affects the oligomerization states and reactivity of CCS for its partner SOD1.

  8. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  9. INTRACELLULAR COPPER ACCUMULATION ENHANCES THE GROWTH OF KINEOCOCCUS RADIOTOLERANS DURING CHRONIC IRRADIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagwell, C; Charles Milliken, C

    2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The actinobacteria Kineococcus radiotolerans is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, desiccation, and oxidative stress; though the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore a possible linkage between the uptake of transition metals and extreme resistance to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress. The effects of 6 different divalent cationic metals on growth were examined in the absence of ionizing radiation. None of the metals tested were stimulatory, though cobalt was inhibitory to growth. In contrast, copper supplementation dramatically increased cell growth during chronic irradiation. K. radiotolerans exhibited specific uptake and intracellular accumulation of copper compared to only a weak response to both iron and manganese supplementation. Copper accumulation sensitized cells to hydrogen peroxide. Acute irradiation induced DNA damage was similar between the copper-loaded culture as the age-synchronized no copper control culture, though low molecular weight DNA was more persistent during post-irradiation recovery in the Cu-loaded culture. Still, the estimated times for genome restoration differed by only 1 hr between treatments. While we cannot discount the possibility that copper fulfills an unexpectedly important biochemical role in a radioactive environment; K. radiotolerans has a high capacity for intracellular copper sequestration, and presumably efficiently coordinated oxidative stress defenses and detoxification systems, which confers cross-protection from the damaging affects ionizing radiation.

  10. The structure and properties of graphene supported on gold nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osváth, Zoltán; Kertész, Krisztián; Molnár, György; Vértesy, Gábor; Zámbó, Dániel; Hwang, Chanyong; Biró, László P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene covered metal nanoparticles constitute a novel type of hybrid materials, which provide a unique platform to study plasmonic effects, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and metal-graphene interactions at the nanoscale. Such a hybrid material is fabricated by transferring graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition onto closely spaced gold nanoparticles produced on a silica wafer. The morphology and physical properties of nanoparticle-supported graphene is investigated by atomic force microscopy, optical reflectance spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/STS), and confocal Raman spectroscopy. This study shows that the graphene Raman peaks are enhanced by a factor which depends on the excitation wavelength, in accordance with the surface plasmon resonance of the gold nanoparticles, and also on the graphene-nanoparticle distance which is tuned by annealing at moderate temperatures. The observed SERS activity is correlated to the nanoscale corrugation of graphene. STM and...

  11. METALLIC AND HYBRID NANOSTRUCTURES: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murph, S.

    2012-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This book chapter presents an overview of research conducted in our laboratory on preparation, optical and physico-chemical properties of metallic and nanohybrid materials. Metallic nanoparticles, particularly gold, silver, platinum or a combination of those are the main focus of this review manuscript. These metallic nanoparticles were further functionalized and used as templates for creation of complex and ordered nanomaterials with tailored and tunable structural, optical, catalytic and surface properties. Controlling the surface chemistry on/off metallic nanoparticles allows production of advanced nanoarchitectures. This includes coupled or encapsulated core-shell geometries, nano-peapods, solid or hollow, monometallic/bimetallic, hybrid nanoparticles. Rational assemblies of these nanostructures into one-, two- and tridimensional nano-architectures is described and analyzed. Their sensing, environmental and energy related applications are reviewed.

  12. (Data in thousand metric tons of copper content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Domestic mine production in 2006 rose to more than 1.2 million tons and was

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mexico, Nevada, and Montana--accounted for 99% of domestic production; copper was also recovered at mines, and miscellaneous consumers. Copper and copper alloy products were used in building construction, 49%; electric, and metal exchanges 1,030 657 134 66 115 Employment, mine and mill, thousandse 7.0 6.8 7.0 7.0 7.2 Net

  13. Effects of Eutrophication on Concentrations and Speciation of Copper, Zinc, and Lead in West Falmouth Harbor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Effects of Eutrophication on Concentrations and Speciation of Copper, Zinc, and Lead in West anoxic conditions and high carbon content favor relatively stable forms of heavy metals, eutrophication suggest that conditions associated with eutrophication do increase heavy metal retention in West Falmouth

  14. Observation of coupled plasmon-polariton modes in Au nanoparticle chain waveguides of different lengths: Estimation of waveguide loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    Observation of coupled plasmon-polariton modes in Au nanoparticle chain waveguides of different corresponding to longitudinal (L) and transverse (T) plasmon-polariton modes of Au nanoparticle chains. Far noble metal nanoparticles.1 Energy transport in these plasmon waveguides relies on near-field coupling

  15. Surface-initiated polymerization from TiO2 nanoparticle surfaces through a biomimetic initiator: A new route toward

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surface-initiated polymerization from TiO2 nanoparticle surfaces through a biomimetic initiator radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) gave rise to PMMA polymer shell layers tethered to TiO2 nanoparticle functionalized metal oxide nanoparticles that may be useful for construction of functional polymer nanocomposites

  16. Thermal behavior of localized surface plasmon resonance of Au/TiO2 core/shell nanoparticle arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal behavior of localized surface plasmon resonance of Au/TiO2 core/shell nanoparticle arrays/shell nanoparticle arrays. Thermal annealing is carried out in three different routes, i.e., pre-TiO2 annealing, post various metallic nanostructures, core/shell nanoparticles exhibit high LSPR tunability and ap- plicability

  17. Metal articles having ultrafine particles dispersed therein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, G.B.; Nadkarni, R.A.

    1992-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a metal article of manufacture. It comprises: a metal selected from the group consisting of copper, silver, gold, lead, tin, nickel, zinc, cobalt, antimony, bismuth, iron, cadmium, chromium, germanium, gallium, selenium, tellurium, mercury, tungsten arsenic, manganese, iridium, indium, ruthenium, rhenium, rhodium, molybdenum, palladium, osmium and platinum; and a plurality of ultrafine particles.

  18. Metallic Inks for Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-370

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Hest, M.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the statement of work for National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as a subcontractor for Applied Nanotech, Inc. (ANI) for the Phase II SBIR contract with the Department of Energy to build silicon solar cells using non-contact printed, nanoparticle-based metallic inks. The conductive inks are based upon ANI's proprietary method for nanoparticle dispersion. The primary inks under development are aluminum for silicon solar cell back plane contacts and copper for top interdigitated contacts. The current direction of silicon solar cell technology is to use thinner silicon wafers. The reduction in wafer thickness reduces overall material usage and can increase efficiency. These thin silicon wafers are often very brittle and normal methods used for conductive feed line application, such as screen-printing, are detrimental. The Phase II program will be focused on materials development for metallic inks that can be applied to a silicon solar cell using non-contact methods. Uniform BSF (Back Surface Field) formation will be obtained by optimizing ink formulation and curing conditions to improve cell efficiency.

  19. Gallium nanoparticles grow where light is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. F. MacDonald; W. S. Brocklesby; V. I. Emelyanov; V. A. Fedotov; S. Pochon; K. J. Ross; G. Stevens; N. I. Zheludev

    2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of metallic nanoparticles has a long tradition in linear and nonlinear optics [1], with current emphasis on the ultrafast dynamics, size, shape and collective effects in their optical response [2-6]. Nanoparticles also represent the ultimate confined geometry:high surface-to-volume ratios lead to local field enhancements and a range of dramatic modifications of the material's properties and phase diagram [7-9]. Confined gallium has become a subject of special interest as the light-induced structural phase transition recently observed in gallium films [10, 11] has allowed for the demonstration of all-optical switching devices that operate at low laser power [12]. Spontaneous self-assembly has been the main approach to the preparation of nanoparticles (for a review see 13). Here we report that light can dramatically influence the nanoparticle self-assembly process: illumination of a substrate exposed to a beam of gallium atoms results in the formation of nanoparticles with a relatively narrow size distribution. Very low light intensities, below the threshold for thermally-induced evaporation, exert considerable control over nanoparticle formation through non-thermal atomic desorption induced by electronic excitation.

  20. How and why electrostatic charge of combustible nanoparticles can radically change the mechanism and rate of their oxidation in humid atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meshcheryakov, Oleg

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrostatically charged aerosol nanoparticles strongly attract surrounding polar gas molecules due to a charge-dipole interaction. In humid air, the substantial electrostatic attraction and acceleration of surrounding water vapour molecules towards charged combustible nanoparticles cause intense electrostatic hydration and preferential oxidation of these nanoparticles by accelerated water vapor molecules rather than non-polar oxygen molecules. In particular, electrostatic acceleration, acquired by surrounding water vapour molecules at a distance of their mean free path from the minimally charged iron metal nanoparticle can increase an oxidative activity of these polar molecules with respect to the nanoparticle by a factor of one million. Intense electrostatic hydration of charged metal nanoparticles converts the nanoparticle's oxide based shells into the hydroxide based electrolyte shells, transforming these nanoparticles into metal/air core-shell nanobatteries, periodically short-circuited by intra-particl...

  1. Synthesis of silver particles on copper substrates using ethanol-based solution for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Li, E-mail: CL2009@cqu.edu.cn; Zhang, Zuojun; Chen, Gang; Zhou, Hui [Defense Key Disciplines Lab of Novel Micro-nano Devices and System Technology, and Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)] [Defense Key Disciplines Lab of Novel Micro-nano Devices and System Technology, and Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Lai, Chunhong [Defense Key Disciplines Lab of Novel Micro-nano Devices and System Technology, and Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China) [Defense Key Disciplines Lab of Novel Micro-nano Devices and System Technology, and Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Information, China West Normal University, NanChong 637002 (China)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The displacement reaction of AgNO{sub 3} and copper metal is an effective and economical way to fabricate Ag-Cu surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. Aqueous solutions of AgNO{sub 3} are usually used for substrate preparation. In this work, a new method for Ag-Cu SERS substrate preparation is proposed, which uses an ethanol solution rather than an aqueous AgNO{sub 3} solution. Analysis of the surface morphologies of sample substrates by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) showed that the silver nanoparticles prepared by this new method were more regular than those prepared in the traditional aqueous solution. The SERS spectra of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) adsorbed on these Ag-Cu substrates were then investigated and compared. It was found that the Ag-Cu substrates prepared by this method provide significant improvements in Raman signal sensitivity and large-area uniformity. The enhancement factor of this new substrate is about 330 times higher than that prepared using an aqueous AgNO{sub 3} solution under identical experimental conditions. It was also found that 70% of the original sensitivity of the substrate remains after 15 days of exposure to air.

  2. Size and Shape of Rhenium Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, N. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Mickelson, G. E.; Greenlay, N.; Bare, Simon R. [UOP LLC, Des Plaines, IL, 60016 (United States); Kelly, S. D. [EXAFS Analysis, Bolingbrook, IL 60440 (United States); Vila, F. D.; Kas, J.; Rehr, J. J. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the results from a detailed XAFS characterization of supported rhenium nanoparticles are presented. The Re nanoparticles are formed by the reduction of dispersed supported rhenium oxide in the presence of moist hydrogen. The shape of the wet--reduced Re clusters is determined by comparing the EXAFS spectra of Re-metal to the Re-wet-reduced clusters to 6 A. A decrease in the signal from the 4th and 7th Re shells is an indication of sheet-like rather than spherical-like particles.

  3. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology, possibly one under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID), will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in January 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here. A second sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL in August 2011 for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are also reported here.

  4. Electroless plating of graphite with copper and nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caturla, F.; Molina, F.; Molina-Sabio, M.; Rodriguez-Reinoso, F. [Univ. de Alicante (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Inorganica; Esteban, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Decommissioning in the European Union of gas-cooled nuclear reactors using graphite as the moderator will generate a large amount of irradiated graphite as waste. Graphite is a radioactive waste of relatively low activity and consequently the options considered for the management of the waste may include: (i) incineration, (ii) ocean bed disposal, (iii) deep geological disposal, and (iv) shallow land burial. In case the last is the selected mode, an appropriate conditioning procedure is necessary before final disposal, by covering the graphite with a material avoiding or reducing the emission of radionuclides to its surrounding. This work analyses the possibility of conditioning graphite pieces (with a large proportion of pores of different sizes up to 100 {micro}m) with a metal coating of copper or nickel produced by electroless plating, with the aim of completely isolating the graphite from its surrounding. Electroless plating with copper results in a very large proportion of pores filled or covered, but a fraction of the pores remain in the graphite, which decreases with increasing thickness of metal deposit. Furthermore, the copper plating is permeable to liquids and consequently the graphite does not become completely isolated from the surrounding. The percentage of porosity filled or covered by nickel deposits is similar to copper, but they are not permeable to liquids, at least when the thickness is relatively high, and consequently the access of the liquids to the graphite is rather limited. However, when electroless plating with copper is followed by nickel deposition the graphite becomes isolated from the exterior.

  5. Multilayered and complex nanoparticle architectures through plasma synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wakeland, Stephen [UNM MECH.ENG.; Cui, Yuehua [UNM MECH.ENG.; Knapp, Angela [TOYOTA USA; Richard, Monique [TOYOTA USA; Luhrs, Claudia [UNM MECH.ENG.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the Aerosol Through Plasma (ATP) method in conjunction with simple chemical techniques a variety of complex and novel nanoparticle architectures were created. A TP was used to make metal-core/carbon shell nanoparticles (ca. 50 nm diameter) of SnlCarbon and AI/Carbon. These have, respectively, potential for application as battery anode (for hybrid and electric vehicles) and high energy fuel In one example of post processing, the Sn-core/carbon-shell material is treated in acidic solution and yields a true nano-sized hollow carbon shell. These shells have potential application as catalyst supports, gas storage, a neutral buoyancy material for applications as varied as proppants, and slow release capsules for pharmaceutical or agricultural applications. A different set of post-A-T-P processes were used to make three layer nanoparticles with a metal core, graphite inner shell and ceramic outer shell. This method extends the range of achievable nanoparticles architectures, hence enabling new applications.

  6. acid modification copper: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determination of Copper in Copper Alloys Chemistry Websites Summary: at the anode from a solution with a high nitrate ion concentration; copper is only partially deposited on the...

  7. Majorana Electroformed Copper Mechanical Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overman, Nicole R.; Overman, Cory T.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Edwards, Danny J.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize ultra high purity electroformed copper for a variety of detector components and shielding. A preliminary mechanical evaluation was performed on the Majorana prototype electroformed copper material. Several samples were removed from a variety of positions on the mandrel. Tensile testing, optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy, and hardness testing were conducted to evaluate mechanical response. Analyses carried out on the Majorana prototype copper to this point show consistent mechanical response from a variety of test locations. Evaluation shows the copper meets or exceeds the design specifications.

  8. Simple Chemical Routes for Changing Composition or Morphology in Metal Chalcogenide Nanomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wark, Stacey Elaine

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal chalcogenide nanomaterials are interesting due to their size dependent properties and potential use in numerous types of devices or applications. The synthetic methods of binary phase metal chalcogenide nanoparticles are well established...

  9. Simple Chemical Routes for Changing Composition or Morphology in Metal Chalcogenide Nanomaterials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wark, Stacey Elaine

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal chalcogenide nanomaterials are interesting due to their size dependent properties and potential use in numerous types of devices or applications. The synthetic methods of binary phase metal chalcogenide nanoparticles are well established...

  10. Formation of copper-indium-selenide and/or copper-indium-gallium-selenide films from indium selenide and copper selenide precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Miedaner, Alexander (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Maikel (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Nekuda, Jennifer A. (Lakewood, CO)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid-based indium selenide and copper selenide precursors, including copper-organoselenides, particulate copper selenide suspensions, copper selenide ethylene diamine in liquid solvent, nanoparticulate indium selenide suspensions, and indium selenide ethylene diamine coordination compounds in solvent, are used to form crystalline copper-indium-selenide, and/or copper indium gallium selenide films (66) on substrates (52).

  11. Photogalvanic Effect in Plasmonic Non-Centrosymmetric Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V; Evlyukhin, Andrey B; Protsenko, Igor E; Lavrinenko, Andrei V; Uskov, Alexander V

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoelectric properties of metamaterials containing asymmetrically shaped, similarly oriented metallic nanoparticles embedded in a homogeneous semiconductor matrix are theoretically studied. Due to the asymmetric shape of the nanoparticle boundary, photoelectron emission acquires a preferred direction, resulting in a photocurrent flow in that direction when nanoparticles are uniformly illuminated by a homogeneous plane wave. This effect is the direct analogy of the photogalvanic effect known to exist in media with certain asymmetries in their crystal structure, such as lithium niobate or quartz. Termed the plasmonic bulk photovoltaic (or photogalvanic) effect, the reported phenomenon is valuable for characterizing photoemission and photoconductive properties of plasmonic nanostructures, and can find many uses for photodetection and photovoltaic applications.

  12. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube.

  13. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, E.R.; Alger, T.W.

    1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube. 5 figs.

  14. Template Synthesis of Hollow Sb Nanoparticles as a High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Jaephil

    Template Synthesis of Hollow Sb Nanoparticles as a High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Material­14 the use of metal and carbon composites,15­20 and the introduction of nano- sized metals,21­25 have been reported. Studies involving hollow lithium reactive metal, however, have yet to be reported, although

  15. An investigation of the mechanical and physical properties of copper-silver alloys and the use of these alloys in Pre-Columbian America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Shannon L., S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In both the Andean zone of South America and in Mesoamerica, copper-silver alloys were important in the production of thin, silver-colored sheet metal artifacts. This thesis examines the mechanical and physical properties ...

  16. NID Copper Sample Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Zhu, Zihua

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current focal point of the nuclear physics program at PNNL is the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, and the follow-on Tonne-Scale experiment, a large array of ultra-low background high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge, designed to search for zero-neutrino double-beta decay (0???). This experiment requires the use of germanium isotopically enriched in 76Ge. The DEMONSTRATOR will utilize 76Ge from Russia, but for the Tonne-Scale experiment it is hoped that an alternate technology under development at Nonlinear Ion Dynamics (NID) will be a viable, US-based, lower-cost source of separated material. Samples of separated material from NID require analysis to determine the isotopic distribution and impurities. The MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is a DOE and NSF funded project with a major science impact. DOE is funding NID through an SBIR grant for development of their separation technology for application to the Tonne-Scale experiment. The Environmental Molecular Sciences facility (EMSL), a DOE user facility at PNNL, has the required mass spectroscopy instruments for making these isotopic measurements that are essential to the quality assurance for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR and for the development of the future separation technology required for the Tonne-Scale experiment. A sample of isotopically separated copper was provided by NID to PNNL for isotopic analysis as a test of the NID technology. The results of that analysis are reported here.

  17. Core-Shell Assisted Bimetallic Assembly of Pt and Ru Nanoparticles by DNA Hybridization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jim Yang

    We have discovered that the current protocols to assemble Au nanoparticles based on DNA hybridization do not work well with the small metal nanoparticles (e.g. 5 nm Au, 3.6 nm Pt and 3.2 nm Ru particles). Further investigations ...

  18. CocoreAushell nanoparticles: evolution of magnetic properties in the displacement reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Kannan M.

    magnetic refrigeration,4 bio-processing,5 medical diagnosis6 and con- trolled drug delivery.7 The latterCocoreAushell nanoparticles: evolution of magnetic properties in the displacement reaction Saikat for the gold metal deposition on its surface. Hysteretic magnetic properties of nanoparticles depend critically

  19. Preparation of nanoporous metal foam from high nitrogen transition metal complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tappan, Bryce C.; Huynh, My Hang V.; Hiskey, Michael A.; Son, Steven F.; Oschwald, David M.; Chavez, David E.; Naud, Darren L.

    2006-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoporous metal foams are prepared by ignition of high nitrogen transition metal complexes. The ammonium salts of iron(III) tris[bi(tetrazolato)-amine], cobalt(III) tris(bi(tetrazolato)amine), and high nitrogen compounds of copper and silver were prepared as loose powders, pressed into pellets and wafers, and ignited under an inert atmosphere to form nanoporous metal foam monoliths having very high surface area and very low density.

  20. Optical Frequency Mixing at Coupled Gold Nanoparticles Matthias Danckwerts and Lukas Novotny*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novotny, Lukas

    redistribution imposed by the formation of a conductive bridge. The 4-wave mixing signal provides such as nanoparticle aggregates [6], metal- semiconductor hybrid structures [7], and for particle syn- thesis

  1. Laboratory-Scale Burning and Characterizing of Composite Solid Propellant for Studying Novel Nanoparticle Synthesis Methods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Tyler Winston

    2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines the effects of nanoparticle, metal-oxide additives on the burning rate of composite solid propellants. Recent advancements in chemical synthesis techniques have allowed for the production of improved solid rocket propellant nano...

  2. Control of oligonucleotide conformation on nanoparticle surfaces for nanoscale heat transfer study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Sunho, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal nanoparticles can be used as antennae covalently linked to biomolecules. External alternating magnetic field can turn on and off the biological activity of the molecules due to induction heating from the particles ...

  3. Surface Oxidation and Dissolution of Metal Nanocatalysts in Acid Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callejas-Tovar, Juan

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    to study the degradation and dealloying in nanocatalysts. The results on the degradation of Pt nanoparticles under different potential regimes demonstrate that the dissolution depends on the potential path to which the nanocatalyst is exposed. Metal atoms...

  4. EFFECTIVENESS OF COPPER AND BRONZE FOR ZINC CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P. S.

    2012-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the efficacy of using copper and bronze sheet and screen under high vacuum conditions to capture zinc vapor. The experiments were conducted in a parametric manner using a fixed zinc vaporization temperature (350°C) but varying the filter temperature from ambient to 550°C. Consistent with previous work, metallic zinc was deposited at low temperatures, but the deposit was non?adherent. At an intermediate temperature range (350?450°C), the deposit formed an alloy with both copper and bronze materials. At higher temperatures (> 500°C) the zinc did not deposit on the surfaces likely due to its high vapor pressure. Additional testing to optimize the zinc 'getter' chemistry and surface condition is warranted.

  5. Preparation Of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Films For Solar Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO), Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO)

    1998-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

  6. METAL NANOPARTICLES FUNCTIONALIZED WITH METAL-LIGAND COVALENT BONDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Xiongwu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Pelizzetti, E. ( 1989) Photocatalysis : fundamentals andPhotoelectrochemistry, photocatalysis, and photoreactors:Phase 9.1 Introduction Photocatalysis of a chemical reaction

  7. Copper doped polycrystalline silicon solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lovelace, Alan M. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space (La Canada, CA); Koliwad, Krishna M. (La Canada, CA); Daud, Taher (La Crescenta, CA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic cells having improved performance are fabricated from polycrystalline silicon containing copper segregated at the grain boundaries.

  8. Chronic Copper Poisoning in Sheep.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boughton, I. B. (Ivan Bertrand); Hardy, W. T. (William Tyree)

    1934-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    urine, loss of ap- petite, and weakness. Once the symptoms appear, the discase runs a rapid course and terminates fatally in the great majority of cases. Probably many sheep suffer from a subclinical type of the disease which is manifested... the urine a few days after feedin of the copper salt was discontinued but small amounts of copper oxid continued to be excreted daily with the feces for weeks or months. They *All cooper analyses reported in this paper were made in the laboratory...

  9. Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA)

    1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys are prepared by a consumable electrode method in which the electrode consists of a copper matrix with embedded strips of refractory molybdenum or tungsten. The electrode is progressively melted at its lower end with a superatmospheric inert gas pressure maintained around the liquifying electrode. The inert gas pressure is sufficiently above the vapor pressure of copper at the liquidus temperature of the alloy being formed to suppress boiling of liquid copper.

  10. Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.A.; Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.

    1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Molybdenum-copper and tungsten-copper alloys are prepared by a consumable electrode method in which the electrode consists of a copper matrix with embedded strips of refractory molybdenum or tungsten. The electrode is progressively melted at its lower end with a superatmospheric inert gas pressure maintained around the liquefying electrode. The inert gas pressure is sufficiently above the vapor pressure of copper at the liquidus temperature of the alloy being formed to suppress boiling of liquid copper. 6 figs.

  11. Copper vs. Copper at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (2005)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Brookhaven Lab - Fulvia Pilat

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    To investigate a new form of matter not seen since the Big Bang, scientists are using a new experimental probe: collisions between two beams of copper ions. The use of intermediate size nuclei is expected to result in intermediate energy density - not as

  12. Size-dependent structure of silver nanoparticles under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koski, Kristie Jo

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Silver noble metal nanoparticles that are<10 nm often possess multiply twinned grains allowing them to adopt shapes and atomic structures not observed in bulk materials. The properties exhibited by particles with multiply twinned polycrystalline structures are often far different from those of single-crystalline particles and from the bulk. I will present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles<10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. Results for nanoparticles in the intermediate size range of 5 to 10 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. I propose a mechanism for this transitiion that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. Results for nanoparticles of 3.9 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent orthorhombic distortion. This distortion is interpreted in the context of idealized decahedral particles. In addition, given these size-dependent measurements of silver nanoparticle compression with pressure, we have constructed a pressure calibration curve. Encapsulating these silver nanoparticles in hollow metal oxide nanospheres then allows us to measure the pressure inside a nanoshell using x-ray diffraction. We demonstrate the measurement of pressure gradients across nanoshells and show that these nanoshells have maximum resolved shear strengths on the order of 500 MPa to IGPa.

  13. Method and apparatus for dissociating metals from metal compounds extracted into supercritical fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Hunt, Fred H. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Workington, GB); Lin, Yuehe (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for dissociating metal-ligand complexes in a supercritical fluid by treating the metal-ligand complex with heat and/or reducing or oxidizing agents is described. Once the metal-ligand complex is dissociated, the resulting metal and/or metal oxide form fine particles of substantially uniform size. In preferred embodiments, the solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the ligand is a .beta.-diketone such as hexafluoroacetylacetone or dibutyldiacetate. In other preferred embodiments, the metals in the metal-ligand complex are copper, silver, gold, tungsten, titanium, tantalum, tin, or mixtures thereof. In preferred embodiments, the reducing agent is hydrogen. The method provides an efficient process for dissociating metal-ligand complexes and produces easily-collected metal particles free from hydrocarbon solvent impurities. The ligand and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated to provide an economic, efficient process.

  14. Removal of field and embedded metal by spin spray etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Contolini, R.J.; Mayer, S.T.; Tarte, L.A.

    1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of removing both the field metal, such as copper, and a metal, such as copper, embedded into a dielectric or substrate at substantially the same rate by dripping or spraying a suitable metal etchant onto a spinning wafer to etch the metal evenly on the entire surface of the wafer. By this process the field metal is etched away completely while etching of the metal inside patterned features in the dielectric at the same or a lesser rate. This process is dependent on the type of chemical etchant used, the concentration and the temperature of the solution, and also the rate of spin speed of the wafer during the etching. The process substantially reduces the metal removal time compared to mechanical polishing, for example, and can be carried out using significantly less expensive equipment. 6 figs.

  15. A novel plating process for microencapsulating metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, H.H.; Vyas, B.; Zahurak, S.M.; Kammlott, G.W. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One approach to increasing the lifetime of the metal hydride electrode has been the use of conventional electroless plating to produce a coating of copper or nickel on the surface of the metal hydride powders. In this paper, a novel method for microencapsulating the active electrode powders is presented. This new plating technique takes advantage of the reducing power of hydrogen already stored inside the metal hydride to plate a variety of metals onto metal hydride materials. This method greatly simplifies electroless plating for these powders, eliminating the need for stabilizers and additives typically required for conventional electroless plating solutions. Metals that can be electrolessly plated with stored hydrogen have been identified based on thermodynamic considerations. Experimentally, micrometers thick coatings of copper, silver, and nickel have been plated on several metal hydrides.

  16. Comparative analysis of the secondary electron yield from carbon nanoparticles and pure water medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verkhovtsev, Alexey; de Vera, Pablo; Surdutovich, Eugene; Guatelli, Susanna; Korol, Andrei V; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Solov'yov, Andrey V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of secondary electrons generated by carbon nanoparticles and pure water medium irradiated by fast protons is studied by means of model approaches and Monte Carlo simulations. It is demonstrated that due to a prominent collective response to an external field, the nanoparticles embedded in the medium enhance the yield of low-energy electrons. The maximal enhancement is observed for electrons in the energy range where plasmons, which are excited in the nanoparticles, play the dominant role. Electron yield from a solid carbon nanoparticle composed of fullerite, a crystalline form of C60 fullerene, is demonstrated to be several times higher than that from liquid water. Decay of plasmon excitations in carbon-based nanosystems thus represents a mechanism of increase of the low-energy electron yield, similar to the case of sensitizing metal nanoparticles. This observation gives a hint for investigation of novel types of sensitizers to be composed of metallic and organic parts.

  17. Distribution of copper, silver and gold during thermal treatment with brominated flame retardants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleszek, Sylwia, E-mail: sylwia_oleszek@yahoo.com [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1,1 Katahira, 2-Chome, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 M. Sklodowska-Curie St., 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Grabda, Mariusz, E-mail: mariusz@mail.tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1,1 Katahira, 2-Chome, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 M. Sklodowska-Curie St., 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Shibata, Etsuro, E-mail: etsuro@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1,1 Katahira, 2-Chome, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi, E-mail: ntakashi@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1,1 Katahira, 2-Chome, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Copper, silver and gold during thermal treatment with brominated flame retardants. • Distribution of copper, silver and gold during thermal processing. • Thermodynamic considerations of the bromination reactions. - Abstract: The growing consumption of electric and electronic equipment results in creating an increasing amount of electronic waste. The most economically and environmentally advantageous methods for the treatment and recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) are the thermal techniques such as direct combustion, co-combustion with plastic wastes, pyrolysis and gasification. Nowadays, this kind of waste is mainly thermally treated in incinerators (e.g. rotary kilns) to decompose the plastics present, and to concentrate metals in bottom ash. The concentrated metals (e.g. copper, precious metals) can be supplied as a secondary raw material to metal smelters, while the pyrolysis of plastics allows the recovery of fuel gases, volatilising agents and, eventually, energy. Indeed, WEEE, such as a printed circuit boards (PCBs) usually contains brominated flame retardants (BFRs). From these materials, hydrobromic acid (HBr) is formed as a product of their thermal decomposition. In the present work, the bromination was studied of copper, silver and gold by HBr, originating from BFRs, such as Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and Tetrabromobisphenol A-Tetrabromobisophenol A diglycidyl ether (TTDE) polymer; possible volatilization of the bromides formed was monitored using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a laboratory-scale furnace for treating samples of metals and BFRs under an inert atmosphere and at a wide range of temperatures. The results obtained indicate that up to about 50% of copper and silver can evolve from sample residues in the form of volatile CuBr and AgBr above 600 and 1000 °C, respectively. The reactions occur in the molten resin phase simultaneously with the decomposition of the brominated resin. Gold is resistant to HBr and remains unchanged in the residue.

  18. Metallic Carbon Nanotubes and Ag Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brus, Louis E

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this DOE solar energy research was to understand how visible light interacts with matter, and how to make electric excitations evolve into separated electrons and holes in photovoltaic cells, especially in nanoparticles and nanowires. Our specific experiments focused on A) understanding plasmon enhanced spectroscopy and charge-transfer (metal-to-molecule) photochemistry on the surface of metallic particles and B) the spectroscopy and photochemistry of carbon nanotubes and graphene. I also worked closely with R. Friesner on theoretical studies of photo-excited electrons near surfaces of titanium dioxide nanoparticles; this process is relevant to the Gratzel photovoltaic cell.

  19. Laser photodeposition of refractory metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solanki, R.; Boyer, P.K.; Mahan, J.E.; Collins, G.J.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the deposition of the refractory metals chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten through the laser-induced gas-phase photolysis of their respective hexacarbonyls. A copper, hollow cathode laser was used at ultraviolet wavelengths matched to peaks in the absorption spectra of the carbonyl molecules. Localized room-temperature metal deposition was achieved by focusing the beam into a cell containing the carbonyl gas and helium as a buffer. No major differences were noted for deposition on a polished silicon wafer, a thermally oxidized silicon wafer, and a quartz flat.

  20. Numerical simulation of copper ablation by ultrashort laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, PengJi; Li, YuHong

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a modified self-consistent one-dimensional hydrodynamic lagrangian fluid code, laser ablation of solid copper by ultrashort laser pulses in vacuum was simulated to study fundamental mechanisms and to provide a guide for drilling periodic microholes or microgratings on the metal surface. The simulated laser ablation threshold is a approximate constancy in femtosecond regime and increases as the square root of pulse duration in picosecond regime. The ablation depth as a function of pulse duration shows four different regimes and a minimum for a pulse duration of ~ 12ps for various laser fluences. The influence of laser-induced plasma shielding on ablation depth is also studied.

  1. Identification of copper-copper and copper-hydrogen complexes in silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarykin, N. A., E-mail: NAY@iptm.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology (Russian Federation); Weber, J. [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The centers formed in silicon as a result of interaction between the substitutional copper impurity (Cu{sub s}) and interstitial copper (Cu{sub i}) or hydrogen (H) atoms, which are mobile at room temperature, are investigated in this study using the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) technique. It is shown that a well-known photoluminescence center, which includes four copper atoms, is formed from Cu{sub s} via the subsequent addition of Cu{sub i}. Both intermediate complexes (Cu{sub s}-Cu{sub i} and Cu{sub s}-2Cu{sub i}) are identified by their deep levels in the lower half of the band gap. It is found that Cu{sub s} atoms form complexes with one, two, and three hydrogen atoms, with Cu{sub s}-H and Cu{sub s}-2H being electrically active. It is noted that the addition of either hydrogen or copper has a similar effect on the deep-level structure of Cu{sub s}.

  2. Determination of labile copper, cobalt, and chromium in textile mill wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crain, J.S.; Essling, A.M.; Kiely, J.T. [and others

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Copper, chromium, and cobalt species present in filtered wastewater effluent were separated by cation exchange and reverse phase chromatography. Three sample fractions were obtained: one containing metal cations (i.e., trivalent Cr, divalent Cu, and divalent Co), one containing organic species (including metallized dyes), and one containing other unretained species. The metal content of each fraction was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The sum of the corrected data was compared to the metal content of a filtered effluent aliquot digested totally with fuming sulfuric acid. Other aliquots of the filtered effluent were spiked with the metals of interest and digested to confirm chemical yield and accuracy. Method detection limits were consistently below 20 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cu, 30 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Co, and 10 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cr. Spike recoveries for undifferentiated Cu and Cr were statistically indistinguishable from unity; although Co spike recoveries were slightly low ({approximately}95%), its chemical yield was 98%. Copper retention on the sodium sulfonate cation exchange resin was closely correlated with the [EDTA]/[Cu] ratio, suggesting that metals retained upon the cation exchange column were assignable to labile metal species; however, mass balances for all three elements, though reasonable ({approximately}90%), were significantly different from unity. Mechanical factors may have contributed to the material loss, but other data suggest that some metal species reacted irreversibly with the reverse phase column. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Structural Dependence of Grain Boundary Resistance in Copper Nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Tae Hwan [ORNL; Zhang, Xiaoguang [ORNL; Nicholson, Don M [ORNL; Radhakrishnan, Bala [ORNL; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam [ORNL; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen [ORNL; Kulkarni, Nagraj S [ORNL; Kenik, Edward A [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Li, An-Ping [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current choice of the interconnect metal in integrated circuits is copper due to its higher electrical conductivity and improved electromigration reliability in comparison with aluminum. However, with reducing feature sizes, the resistance of copper interconnects (lines) increases dramatically. Greater resistance will result in higher energy use, more heat generation, more failure due to electromigration, and slower switching speeds. To keep pace with the projected planar transistor density, the first challenge is to identify the dominant factors that contribute to the high interconnect resistance. Here we directly measure individual grain boundary (GB) resistances in copper nanowires with a one-to-one correspondence to the GB structure. The specific resistivities of particular GBs are measured using four-probe scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to establish a direct link between GB structure and the resistance. High-angle random GBs contribute to a specific resistivity of about 25 10-12 cm2 for each boundary, while coincidence boundaries are significantly less-resistive than random boundaries. Thus, replacing random boundaries with coincidence ones would be a route to suppress the GB impact to the resistivity of polycrystalline conductors. Acknowledgement: The research was supported by the Division of Scientific User Facilities, U. S. Department of Energy.

  4. Water treatment process and system for metals removal using Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauter, Paula A. W. (Livermore, CA); Krauter, Gordon W. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and a system for removal of metals from ground water or from soil by bioreducing or bioaccumulating the metals using metal tolerant microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tolerant to the metals, able to bioreduce the metals to the less toxic state and to accumulate them. The process and the system is useful for removal or substantial reduction of levels of chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, nickel, calcium, strontium, mercury and copper in water.

  5. Sol–gel synthesis of SnO{sub 2}–MgO nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity towards methylene blue degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayal, Nisha; Jeevanandam, P., E-mail: jeevafcy@iitr.ernet.in

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A simple sol–gel method for the synthesis of SnO{sub 2}–MgO nanoparticles is reported. • Band gap of SnO{sub 2} can be tuned by varying the magnesium content in SnO{sub 2}–MgO. • SnO{sub 2}–MgO shows good photocatalytic activity towards degradation of methylene blue. - Abstract: SnO{sub 2}–MgO mixed metal oxide nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol–gel method. The nanoparticles were characterized by power X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The XRD results indicate the formation of mixed metal oxide nanoparticles and also a decrease of SnO{sub 2} crystallite size in the mixed metal oxide nanoparticles with increasing magnesium oxide content. The reflectance spectroscopy results show a blue shift of the band gap of SnO{sub 2} in the mixed metal oxide nanoparticles. The photocatalytic activity of the SnO{sub 2}–MgO nanoparticles was tested using the photodegradation of aqueous methylene blue in the presence of sunlight. The results indicate that the mixed metal oxide nanoparticles possess higher efficiency for the photodegradation of methylene blue compared to pure SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  6. Transport of metal salts by zwitterionic ligands; simple but highly efficient salicylaldoxime extractants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, S.; Tasker, Peter; White, Fraser J; Henderson, D.K.; Galbraith, S.G.; Davidson, J.E.; Forgan, Ross Stewart

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Attaching dialkylaminomethyl arms to commercial phenolic oxime copper extractants yields reagents which transport base metal salts very efficiently by forming neutral 1 : 1 or 1 : 2 complexes with zwitterionic forms of the ligands....

  7. Investigation of the Fundamental Reliability Unit for Cu Dual-Damascene Metallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gan, C.L.

    An investigation has been carried out to determine the fundamental reliability unit of copper dual-damascene metallization. Electromigration experiments have been carried out on straight via-to-via interconnects in the ...

  8. Magnetic properties of carbon-coated, ferromagnetic nanoparticles produced by a carbon-arc method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McHenry, Michael E.

    Magnetic properties of carbon-coated, ferromagnetic nanoparticles produced by a carbon-arc method E to generate carbon-coated transition metal (TM) and TM-carbide nanocrystallites. The magnetic nanocrystallites report here on the synthesis and separation of carbon-coated ferromagnetic transition metal (TM) and TM

  9. Encapsulated Nanoparticle Synthesis and Characterization for Improved Storage Fluids: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G. C.; Pradhan, S.; Kang, J.; Curtis, C.; Blake, D.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoparticles are typically composed of 50--500 atoms and exhibit properties that are significantly different from the properties of larger, macroscale particles that have the same composition. The addition of these particles to traditional fluids may improve the fluids' thermophysical properties. As an example, the addition of a nanoparticle or set of nanoparticles to a storage fluid may double its heat capacity. This increase in heat capacity would allow a sensible thermal energy storage system to store the same amount of thermal energy in half the amount of storage fluid. The benefit is lower costs for the storage fluid and the storage tanks, resulting in lower-cost electricity. The goal of this long-term research is to create a new class of fluids that enable concentrating solar power plants to operate with greater efficiency and lower electricity costs. Initial research on this topic developed molecular dynamic models that predicted the energy states and transition temperatures for these particles. Recent research has extended the modeling work, along with initiating the synthesis and characterization of bare metal nanoparticles and metal nanoparticles that are encapsulated with inert silica coatings. These particles possess properties that make them excellent candidates for enhancing the heat capacity of storage fluids.

  10. Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride). Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen...

  11. Copper-Catalyzed Oxytrifluoromethylation of Unactivated Alkenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Rong

    A mild, versatile, and convenient method for the efficient oxytrifluoromethylation of unactivated alkenes based on a copper-catalyzed oxidative difunctionalization strategy has been developed. This methodology provides ...

  12. The Copper Creek Clovis Point from Hells Canyon, Northeastern Oregon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Kenneth C.; Root, Matthew J.; Hughes, Richard E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008) | pp. 75-84 The Copper Creek Clovis Point from HellsSnake River to the Copper Creek point discovery location.5 cm Figure 4. The Copper Creek Clovis point (tick marks

  13. Nanostructured metal foams: synthesis and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luther, Erik P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tappan, Bryce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mueller, Alex [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mihaila, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Volz, Heather [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cardenas, Andreas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Papin, Pallas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veauthier, Jackie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Marius [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication of monolithic metallic nanoporous materials is difficult using conventional methodology. Here they report a relatively simple method of synthesizing monolithic, ultralow density, nanostructured metal foams utilizing self-propagating combustion synthesis of novel metal complexes containing high nitrogen energetic ligands. Nanostructured metal foams are formed in a post flame-front dynamic assembly with densities as low as 0.011 g/cc and surface areas as high as 270 m{sup 2}/g. They have produced metal foams via this method of titanium, iron, cobalt, nickel, zirconium, copper, palladium, silver, hafnium, platinum and gold. Microstructural features vary as a function of composition and process parameters. Applications for the metal foams are discussed including hydrogen absorption in palladium foams. A model for the sorption kinetics of hydrogen in the foams is presented.

  14. Nanoparticle toxicity testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: GridTruck PlatooningJefferson7593EnergyNanoparticleNanoparticle

  15. Copper- and silver-zirconia aerogels: Preparation, structural properties and catalytic behavior in methanol synthesis from carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koeppel, R.A.; Stoecker, C.; Baiker, A. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland). Lab. of Technical Chemistry] [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland). Lab. of Technical Chemistry

    1998-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Copper- and silver-zirconia aerogels containing 10 at% IB metal were prepared from tetra-n-butoxy zirconium(IV) and IB metal acetates using the solution sol-gel method and ensuring high-temperature (HT) and low-temperature (LT) supercritical drying, respectively. The influence of preparation parameters and calcination on the structural and catalytic properties of the aerogels for the synthesis of methanol from carbon dioxide and hydrogen was investigated. After calcination in air at 573 K, the catalysts had BET surface areas in the range of 100--143 m{sup 2}/g (Cu/ZrO{sub 2}) and 77--125 m{sup 2}/g (Ag/ZrO{sub 2}), respectively. Due to the reductive alcoholic atmosphere during high-temperature supercritical drying, metallic copper and silver existed in all raw HT-aerogels. The mean size of the copper crystallites wa/s 30 nm. The silver crystallite size for the HT-aerogel prepared with nitric acid was 10 nm, whereas for samples prepared with acetic acid it was 5--7 nm. Calcination in air at 573 K led to the formation of highly dispersed amorphous copper oxide and silver. Comparing the catalytic behavior of the calcined copper-zirconia aerogels with corresponding xerogels prepared by coprecipitation revealed highest activity for the LT-aerogel, whereas the HT-aerogels were least active. In contrast, similar catalytic behavior was observed for the differently dried silver-zirconia samples. Generally, CO{sub 2}-conversion of the copper-zirconia samples. Generally, CO{sub 2}-conversion of the copper-zirconia aerogels was markedly higher than that of the corresponding silver-zirconia aerogels, whereas methanol selectivity was similar.

  16. Metal aminoboranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya; Shrestha, Roshan P.

    2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH2BH3)n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

  17. Enhanced Quantum Efficiency From Hybrid Cesium Halide/Copper...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Efficiency From Hybrid Cesium HalideCopper Photocathode. Enhanced Quantum Efficiency From Hybrid Cesium HalideCopper Photocathode. Abstract: The quantum efficiency of Cu...

  18. Cleaning and passivation of copper surfaces to remove surface radioactivity and prevent oxide formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoppe, Eric W.; Seifert, Allen; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bachelor, Paula P.; Day, Anthony R.; Edwards, Danny J.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Litke, Kevin E.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Schulte, Shannon M.; Smart, John E.; Warren, Glen A.

    2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    High-purity copper is an attractive material for constructing ultra-low-background radiation measurement devices. Many low-background experiments using high-purity copper have indicated surface contamination emerges as the dominant background. Radon daughters plate out on exposed surfaces, leaving a residual 210Pb background that is difficult to avoid. Dust is also a problem; even under cleanroom conditions, the amount of U and Th deposited on surfaces can represent the largest remaining background. To control these backgrounds, a copper cleaning chemistry has been developed. Designed to replace an effective, but overly aggressive concentrated nitric acid etch, this peroxide-based solution allows for a more controlled cleaning of surfaces. The acidified hydrogen peroxide solution will generally target the Cu+/Cu2+ species which are the predominant surface participants, leaving the bulk of copper metal intact. This preserves the critical tolerances of parts and eliminates significant waste disposal issues. Accompanying passivation chemistry has also been developed that protects copper surfaces from oxidation. Using a high-activity polonium surface spike, the most difficult-to-remove daughter isotope of radon, the performance of these methods are quantified. © 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved

  19. Reversibleirreversible plasticity transition in twinned copper nanopillars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    Reversible­irreversible plasticity transition in twinned copper nanopillars J.A. Brown, N 31 October 2009 Abstract Through computer simulations, we show that plasticity in twinned copper nanopillar under compression, plastic deformation can be totally reversed when rR is in the range 0:5 6 rR 6

  20. Sputtered Molybdenum Bilayer Back Contact for Copper Indium Diselenide-Based Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scofield, John H.

    of the CIS or CIGS solar cell structure (not to scale). In these investigations, however, the metal layers-Film Solar Cells John H. Scofield1, A. Duda, and D. Albin National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole-of-the-art polycrystalline copper indium gallium diselenide solar cells with good results. Thin Solid Films, 260 (1), pp. 26

  1. Direct hierarchical assembly of nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Ting; Zhao, Yue; Thorkelsson, Kari

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides hierarchical assemblies of a block copolymer, a bifunctional linking compound and a nanoparticle. The block copolymers form one micro-domain and the nanoparticles another micro-domain.

  2. Automated Morphology Analysis of Nanoparticles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Chiwoo

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The functional properties of nanoparticles highly depend on the surface morphology of the particles, so precise measurements of a particle's morphology enable reliable characterizing of the nanoparticle's properties. Obtaining the measurements...

  3. Parameters affecting the fate of metals in various soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Covar, Andrew Prescott

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parameters Affecting the Fate of Metals in Various Soils. (December 1975) Andrew Prescott Covar, B. S. , University of Texas at E1 Paso Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Calvin Woods In this study, the fate of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc... DETERMINATION OF WATER SOLUBLE, EXCHANGEABLE, ORGANIC BOUND, AND MINERAL ASSOCIATED METALS ? SPLIT I I PAGE 18 19 3 CADMIUM UPTAKE BY SOIL TYPE 4 COPPER UPTAKE BY SOIL TYPE 5 LEAD UPTAKE BY SOIL TYPE 6 NICKEL UPTAKE BY SOIL TYPE 7 ZINC UPTAKE BY SOIL...

  4. Microfabrication of freestanding metal structures released from graphite substrates.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarova, O. V.; Tang, C.-M.; Mancini, D. C.; Moldovan, N.; Divan, R.; Ryding, D. G.; Lee, R. H.

    2002-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A sacrificial layer is usually used to release electroformed microstructures. Because of the chemistry applied to the sacrificial layer, only a limited number of metals can be used for electroforming. A novel method to fabricate freestanding electroformed copper structures is presented. A graphite substrate allows the release of the metal part, by abrasive removal of the graphite after electroforming. Results on fabrication of high-aspect-ratio freestanding copper grids are presented; these can be used as x-ray collimator in medical imaging to reduce scattered radiation. This process has potential application to the fabrication of injection molds and microparts on pick-and-place carriers for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

  5. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Xianghong (Pasadena, CA); Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  6. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  7. Metalization of lipid vesicles via electroless plating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrar, W.T.; O'Brien, D.F.; Warshawsky, A.; Voycheck, C.L.

    1988-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The encapsulation of metallic particles and metallic oxides within lipid vesicles has recently been of interest for applications such as catalysis, water splitting, and magnetic control of spin coupling. In this communication the authors introduce the concept and practice of the deposition of metal on vesicles by using electroless plating techniques. Coordination of low valent transition metals to organic functional groups on the surface of the bilayer membrane provides a means of binding metal atoms to vesicles. Chemical reduction produced zero valent atoms which serve as sites for further metal deposition by the chemical reduction techniques of electroless plating. Specifically, this procedure involved the binding of a small amount of tetrachloropalladate to the vesicle bilayer, reduction of the palladium(II) to palladium(0), followed by the deposition of much larger amounts of metal from an electroless plating solution. Electroless plating solutions were used for the deposition of palladium, nickel, cobalt, or copper metal onto the catalytic palladium centers. Since the metallic particles were associated with the vesicles, colloids were formed that were stable in water for much longer periods than the control metal particles formed in water alone. If the vesicles were composed in part of unsaturated lipids, with the olefinic groups on the hydrocarbon chains, the initial evidence suggests the transition metal was directed into the bilayer, rather than staying on the surface.

  8. Hydrogen dissociation catalyzed by carbon coated nickel nanoparticles: experiment and theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yermakov, A Ye; Uimin, M A; Lokteva, E S; Erokhin, A V; Schegoleva, N N

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on combination of experimental measurements and first-principles calculations we report a novel carbon-based catalytic material and describe significant acceleration of the hydrogenation of magnesium at room temperature in presence of nickel nanoparticles wrapped in multilayer graphene. Increase of the rate of magnesium hydrogenation in contrast to the mix of graphite and nickel nanoparticles evidences intrinsic catalytic properties of explored nanocomposites. Results of simulations demonstrate that the doping from metal substrate and the presence of Stone-Wales defects turn multilayer graphene from chemically inert to chemically active mode. The role of the size of nanoparticles and temperature are also discussed.

  9. Tunable carbon nanotube-tungsten carbide nanoparticles heterostructures by vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Min; Guo, Hongyan; Ge, Changchun [Institute of Special Ceramics and Powder Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing (China); Institute of Powder Metallurgy and Advanced Ceramics, Southwest Jiaotong University, 111, 1st Section, Northern 2nd Ring Road, Chengdu (China); Yan, Qingzhi, E-mail: qzyan@ustb.edu.cn; Lang, Shaoting [Institute of Special Ceramics and Powder Metallurgy, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing (China)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple, versatile route for the synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT)-tungsten carbide nanoparticles heterostructures was set up via vapor deposition process. For the first time, amorphous CNTs (?-CNTs) were used to immobilized tungsten carbide nanoparticles. By adjusting the synthesis and annealing temperature, ?-CNTs/amorphous tungsten carbide, ?-CNTs/W{sub 2}C, and CNTs/W{sub 2}C/WC heterostructures were prepared. This approach provides an efficient method to attach other metal carbides and other nanoparticles to carbon nanotubes with tunable properties.

  10. Effects of trace metals on diatom export products from the euphotic zone and significance for biogeochemical cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richter, Daniel J.

    metal are also reported (Cu from Coale and Bruland, 1988;Zn from Bruland, 1989; Cd from Lane et al. , 2008). Free52:843–855. Buck, K. N. and Bruland, K. W. (2005). Copper

  11. Metals Production Requirements for Rapid Photovoltaics Deployment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavlak, Goksin; Jaffe, Robert L; Trancik, Jessika E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    If global photovoltaics (PV) deployment grows rapidly, the required input materials need to be supplied at an increasing rate. In this paper, we quantify the effect of PV deployment levels on the scale of metals production. For example, we find that if cadmium telluride {copper indium gallium diselenide} PV accounts for more than 3% {10%} of electricity generation by 2030, the required growth rates for the production of indium and tellurium would exceed historically-observed production growth rates for a large set of metals. In contrast, even if crystalline silicon PV supplies all electricity in 2030, the required silicon production growth rate would fall within the historical range. More generally, this paper highlights possible constraints to the rate of scaling up metals production for some PV technologies, and outlines an approach to assessing projected metals growth requirements against an ensemble of past growth rates from across the metals production sector. The framework developed in this paper may be...

  12. Microbially-mediated method for synthesis of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, Tommy J.; Lauf, Robert J.; Moon, Ji Won; Rondinone, Adam J.; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad Edward; Madden, Andrew Stephen; Li, Yiliang; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Rawn, Claudia Jeanette

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a method for producing non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, the method comprising: (a) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbially-mediated formation of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprises i) anaerobic microbes, ii) a culture medium suitable for sustaining said anaerobic microbes, iii) a metal component comprising at least one type of metal ion, iv) a non-metal component containing at least one non-metal selected from the group consisting of S, Se, Te, and As, and v) one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said anaerobic microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said anaerobic microbes; and (b) isolating said non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, which contain at least one of said metal ions and at least one of said non-metals. The invention is also directed to non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticle compositions produced as above and having distinctive properties.

  13. PEGylated Inorganic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karakoti, Ajay S.; Das, Soumya; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Seal, Sudipta

    2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Application of inorganic nanoparticles in diagnosis and therapy has become a critical component in targeted treatment of diseases. The surface modification of inorganic oxides is important for providing diversity in size, shape, solubility, long term stability and attachment of selective functional groups. PEGylation of surfaces is a key strategic approach for providing stealth characteristics to nanomaterials otherwise identified as foreign materials by human body. The current review describes the role of surface modification of oxides by polyethylene glycol (PEG) in providing versatile characteristics to inorganic oxide nanoparticles with a focus on their biomedical applications. The role of PEG as structure directing agent in synthesis of oxides is also captured in this short review.

  14. Thermodynamic aspects of dehydrogenation reactions on noble metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svane, K. L., E-mail: ksvane@inano.au.dk; Hammer, B., E-mail: hammer@phys.au.dk [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University (Denmark)

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The reaction free energy for dehydrogenation of phenol, aniline, thiophenol, benzoic acid, and 1,4-benzenediol on the close packed copper, silver, and gold surfaces has been studied by density functional theory calculations. Dehydrogenation of thiophenol is found to be favourable on all three surfaces while aniline does not dehydrogenate on any of them. For phenol, benzenediol and benzoic acid dehydrogenation is favourable on copper and silver only, following the general trend of an increasing reaction free energy when going form gold to silver to copper. This trend can be correlated with the changes in bond lengths within the molecule upon dehydrogenation. While copper is able to replace hydrogen, leaving small changes in the bond lengths of the aromatic ring, the metal-molecule bond is weaker for silver and gold, resulting in a partial loss of aromaticity. This difference in bond strength leads to pronounced differences in adsorption geometries upon multiple dehydrogenations.

  15. Direct Assembly of Hydrophobic Nanoparticles to Multifunctional Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Zhenda [University of California, Riverside; Yin, Yadong [University of California, Riverside; Chi, Miaofang [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a general process that allows convenient production of multifunctional composite particles by direct self-assembly of hydrophobic nanoparticles on host nanostructures containing high-density surface thiol groups. Hydrophobic nanoparticles of various compositions and combinations can be directly assembled onto the host surface through the strong coordination interactions between metal cations and thiol groups. The resulting structures can be further conveniently overcoated with a layer of normal silica to stabilize the assemblies and render them highly dispersible in water for biomedical applications. As the entire fabrication process does not involve complicated surface modification procedures, the hydrophobic ligands on the nanoparticles are not disturbed significantly so that they retain their original properties such as highly efficient luminescence. Many complex composite nanostructures with tailored functions can be efficiently produced by using this versatile approach. For example, multifunctional nonspherical nanostructures can be efficiently produced by using mercapto-silica coated nano-objects of arbitrary shapes as hosts for immobilizing functional nanoparticles. Multilayer structures can also be achieved by repeating the mercapto-silica coating and nanoparticle immobilization processes. Such assembly approach will provide the research community a highly versatile, configurable, scalable, and reproducible process for the preparation of various multifunctional structures.

  16. Metal inks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

  17. Irradiation embrittlement modelling of Linde 80 weld metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McElroy, R.J. [AEA Technology, Didcot (United Kingdom). Harwell Lab.; Lowe, A.L. Jr. [Lowe Associates, Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Linde 80 weld metals are characterized by a narrow range of chemical compositions, except for copper content, which varies from 0.2--0.42 wt%. The surveillance database for Linde 80 weld metals constitutes a unique and large database on a single class of material for evaluating embrittlement models and property correlations used in the assessment of RPV embrittlement. The main purpose of the present study has been to obtain a simple two component barrier hardening model form which best describes the behavior of Linde 80 weld metal. To this end, the UK Magnox Embrittlement Model, often referred to as the Fisher Model, has been used and the key parameters, such as activation energies, dislocation densities and damage cross sections, were used as fitting parameters. Good agreement was found between model predictions and the surveillance yield strength data following optimization of model parameters. Applying the latter optimized form produced equally good prediction of HSSI results at a significantly higher damage rate demonstrating the rate effect inherent in the irradiation enhanced copper precipitation process. The best agreement was obtained assuming a matrix copper content of about 0.23 wt% which is consistent with recent solubility data for Linde 80 welds. For these materials an insensitivity to bulk copper content was demonstrated even though this varied from 0.21--0.42 wt%. Additionally, the parameters optimized for high copper welds provided a good prediction for low-copper materials indicating that the matrix hardening component was correctly specified. The low matrix hardening and predicted completion of copper precipitation by doses of about 1 {times} 10{sup 19} ncm{sup {minus}2} support the notion of embrittlement saturation at high doses.

  18. Influence of Cobalt Nanoparticles' Incorporation on the Magnetic Properties of the Nickel Nanofibers: Cobalt-Doped Nickel Nanofibers Prepared by Electrospinning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Bongsoo

    , magnetic refrigeration systems, and contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging carriers for drugsInfluence of Cobalt Nanoparticles' Incorporation on the Magnetic Properties of the Nickel, 2009 Among the common ferromagnetic metals, cobalt has distinct magnetic properties, so incorporation

  19. Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulations of Polycrystalline Copper Electrodeposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treeratanaphitak, Tanyakarn; Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-fidelity kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation method (T. Treeratanaphitak, M. Pritzker, N. M. Abukhdeir, Electrochim. Acta 121 (2014) 407--414) using the semi-empirical multi-body embedded-atom method (EAM) potential has been extended to model polycrystalline metal electrodeposition. The presented KMC-EAM method enables true three-dimensional atomistic simulations of electrodeposition over experimentally relevant timescales. Simulations using KMC-EAM are performed over a range of overpotentials to predict the effect on deposit texture evolution. Results show strong agreement with past experimental results both with respect to deposition rates on various copper surfaces and roughness-time power law behaviour. It is found that roughness scales with time $\\propto t^\\beta$ where $\\beta=0.62 \\pm 0.12$, which is in good agreement with past experimental results. Furthermore, the simulations provide insights into sub-surface deposit morphologies which are not directly accessible from experimental measurements.

  20. SUBTHRESHOLD DISPLACEMENT DAMAGE IN COPPER-ALUMINUM ALLOYS DURING ELECTRON IRRADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drosd, R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DAMAGE IN COPPER-ALUMINUM ALLOYS DURING ELECTRON IRRADIATIONDAMAGE IN COPPER-ALUMINUM ALLOYS DURING ELECTRON IRRADIATIONby irradiating copper-aluminum alloys at high tempera­ tures

  1. A molecular dynamics study of void initiation and growth in monocrystalline and nanocrystalline copper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traiviratana, Sirirat

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of copper and copper- aluminum alloys. Int. J. ImpactVoid growth in 6061-aluminum alloy under triaxial stressand copper-zinc alloys containing aluminum particles ii.

  2. Electrolytic remediation of chromated copper arsenate wastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern, Heather A. G. (Heather Ann Ganung)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has proven to be exceptionally effective in protecting wood from rot and infestation, its toxic nature has led to the problem of disposal of CCA-treated lumber and remediation of waters ...

  3. Involvement of purinergic system in inflammation and toxicity induced by copper in zebrafish larvae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leite, Carlos Eduardo, E-mail: carlos.leite@pucrs.br [Instituto de Toxicologia e Farmacologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina: Ciências Médicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90035-003 (Brazil); Maboni, Lucas de Oliveira [Instituto de Toxicologia e Farmacologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Faculdade de Biociências, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Cruz, Fernanda Fernandes [Instituto de Toxicologia e Farmacologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Faculdade de Farmácia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, CEP 90619-900 (Brazil); Rosemberg, Denis Broock [Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências Ambientais, Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó, Chapecó, CEP 89809-000 (Brazil); and others

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) is increasing as an intermediate preclinical model, to prioritize drug candidates for mammalian testing. As the immune system of the zebrafish is quite similar to that of mammals, models of inflammation are being developed for the screening of new drugs. The characterization of these models is crucial for studies that seek for mechanisms of action and specific pharmacological targets. It is well known that copper is a metal that induces damage and cell migration to hair cells of lateral line of zebrafish. Extracellular nucleotides/nucleosides, as ATP and adenosine (ADO), act as endogenous signaling molecules during tissue damage by exerting effects on inflammatory and immune responses. The present study aimed to characterize the inflammatory status, and to investigate the involvement of the purinergic system in copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. Fishes of 7 days post-fertilization were exposed to 10 ?M of copper for a period of 24 h. The grade of oxidative stress, inflammatory status, copper uptake, the activity and the gene expression of the enzymes responsible for controlling the levels of nucleotides and adenosine were evaluated. Due to the copper accumulation in zebrafish larvae tissues, the damage and oxidative stress were exacerbated over time, resulting in an inflammatory process involving IL-1?, TNF-?, COX-2 and PGE{sub 2}. Within the purinergic system, the mechanisms that control the ADO levels were the most involved, mainly the reactions performed by the isoenzyme ADA 2. In conclusion, our data shed new lights on the mechanisms related to copper-induced inflammation in zebrafish larvae. - Graphical abstract: This scheme provides a chronological proposition for the biochemical events induced by copper in zebrafish larvae. The dashed line shows the absorption of copper over the exposure time. After 1 h of exposure to copper, the release of PGE{sub 2} occurs, followed by an increase of MPO (as a consequence of neutrophil migration), increased expression of genes involved in inflammatory events (IL-1? and TNF-?) and, reduction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 at 4 h. At 24 h, the copper concentration is found highly increased, what is coincident with oxidative stress. Regarding the purinergic system, it is possible to observe an inhibition of ecto-5?-NT and ADA, with the consequent increase of AMP and ADA, respectively, at 24 h. The expression of enzyme-related genes shows a decrease in the expression of ecto-5?-NT and variable expressions of ADA subfamily enzymes. - Highlights: • Copper led to increased oxidative stress, and decreased the antioxidants' defenses. • Copper induced time-related changes of IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-10 and PGE{sub 2} levels. • ADA activity controls the levels of adenosine in copper-induced inflammation. • ADA 2 is the main ADA subfamily involved. • The purinergic system seems to be involved in the resolution of inflammation.

  4. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  5. Distribution of copper, nickel, and cadmium in the surface waters of the North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, E.A.; Huested, S.S.; Jones, S.P.

    1981-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrations of copper, nickel, and cadmium have been determined for about 250 surface water samples. Nonupwelling open-ocean concentrations of these metals are Cu, 0.5-1.4 nmol/kg: Ni, 1-2 nmol/kg; and Cd, less than 10 pmol/kg. In the equatorial Pacific upwelling zone, concentrations of Ni (3 nmol/kg) and Cd (80 pmol/kg) are higher than in the open ocean, but Cu (0.9 nmol/kg) is not significantly enriched. Metal concentrations are higher in cool, nutrient-rich eastern boundary currents: Cu, 1.5 nmol/kg: Ni, 3.5 nmol/kg and Cd, 30-50 pmol/kg. Copper is distinctly higher in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Panama (3--4 nmol/kg) and also higher in the shelf waters north of the Gulf Stream (2.5 nmol/kg): these copper enrichments may be caused by copper remobilized from mildly reducing shelf sediments and maintained by a coastal nutrient trap. In the open ocean, events of high-Cu water (1.5--3.5 nmol/kg) are seen on scales up to 60 km; presumably, these are due to the advection of coastal water into the ocean interior. The lowest copper concentrations in the North Pacific central gyre (0.5 nmol/kg: (Bruland, 1980) are lower than in the Sargasso Sea (1.3 nmol/kg), while for nickel the lowest concentrations are 2 nmol/kg in both the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Nickel and cadmium, while generally correlated with the nutrients in surface waters, show distinct regional changes in their element-nutrient correlations. The residual concentrations of trace metals in the surface waters of the ocean can be explained if biological discrimination against trace metals relative to phosphorus increases as productivity decreases.

  6. Nanoparticles and atherosclerosis : resolving the paradox 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftis, Jennifer

    2013-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    -derived nanoparticles results in increases in platelet-monocyte aggregation and thrombus formation in healthy volunteers. These combustion derived nanoparticles share structural similarities with engineered nanoparticles designed for intravascular infusion. This raises...

  7. Surface alloying of immiscible metals induced by surface state shift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Che, Jingguang

    , and topography; Silver; Gold; Copper; Tungsten; Molybdenum 1. Introduction Surface alloying has been a subjectSurface alloying of immiscible metals induced by surface state shift X.K. Shu, P. Jiang, J.G. Che) surface to form the substitutional surface alloys, despite the fact that they do not like to form alloy

  8. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size Distribution and Growth Rate. Direct Observation of Aggregative Nanoparticle Growth: Kinetic Modeling of the Size...

  9. Characterization of uraninite nanoparticles produced by Shewanella...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    uraninite nanoparticles produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 . Characterization of uraninite nanoparticles produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 . Abstract: The reduction of...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Novel Nanoparticle Production Method...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tiesCapabilitiesNovel Nanoparticle Production Method Could Lead to Better Lights, Lenses, Solar Cells Novel Nanoparticle Production Method Could Lead to Better Lights, Lenses,...

  11. (Non) formation of methanol by direct hydrogenation of formate on copper catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yong; Mims, Charles A.; Disselkamp, Robert S.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF; Campbell, C. T.

    2010-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have attempted to hydrogenate adsorbed formate species on copper catalysts to probe the importance of this postulated mechanistic step in methanol synthesis. Surface formate coverages up to 0.25 were produced at temperatures between 413K and 453K on supported (Cu/SiO2) copper and unsupported copper catalysts. The adlayers were produced by various methods including (1) steady state catalytic conditions in CO2-H2 (3:1, 6 bar) atmospheres, and (2) by exposure of the catalysts to formic acid. As reported in earlier work, the catalytic surface at steady state contains bidentate formate species with coverages up to saturation levels of ~ 0.25 at the low temperatures of this study. The reactivity of these formate adlayers was investigated at relevant reaction temperatures in atmospheres containing up to 6 bar H2 partial pressure by simultaneous mass spectrometry (MS) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy measurements. The yield of methanol during the attempted hydrogenation (“titration”) of these adlayers was insignificant (<0.2 mol % of the formate adlayer) even in dry hydrogen partial pressures up to 6 bar. Hydrogen titration of formate species produced from formic acid also failed to produce significant quantities of methanol, and attempted titration in gases consisting of CO-hydrogen mixtures or dry CO2 were also unproductive. The formate decomposition kinetics, measured by IR, were also unaffected by these changes in the gas composition. Similar experiments on unsupported copper also failed to show any methanol. From these results, we conclude that methanol synthesis on copper cannot result from the direct hydrogenation of (bidentate) formate species in simple steps involving adsorbed H species alone. Furthermore, experiments performed on both supported (Cu/SiO2) and unsupported copper catalysts gave similar results implying that the methanol synthesis reaction mechanism only involves metal surface chemistry. Pre-exposure of the bidentate formate adlayer to oxidation by O2 or N2O produces a change to a monodentate configuration. Attempted titration of this monodentate formate/O coadsorbed layer in dry hydrogen produces significant quantities of methanol, although decomposition of formate to carbon dioxide and hydrogen remains the dominant reaction pathway. Simultaneous production of water is also observed during this titration as the copper surface is re-reduced. These results indicate that co-adsorbates related to surface oxygen or water-derived species may be critical to methanol production on copper, perhaps assisting in the hydrogenation of adsorbed formate to adsorbed methoxyl.

  12. TECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF NANOPARTICLESOF NANOPARTICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandini, Giulio

    TECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF NANOPARTICLESOF NANOPARTICLES Monica Distaso #12;Optical transitions the reaction temperature, a surfactant coating layer around the NCs remains tightly bound to their surface

  13. anisotropic nanoparticles synthesis characterization: Topics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Battery Anode Material Chemistry Websites Summary: Template Synthesis of Hollow Sb Nanoparticles as a High-Performance Lithium Battery Anode Material the graphite...

  14. Synergetic effects of mixed copper-iron oxides oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean energy production from fuels. CLC produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}-streams without a significant energy penalty. Development of efficient oxygen carriers is essential to successfully operate a CLC system. Copper and iron oxides are promising candidates for CLC. Copper oxide possesses high reactivity but it has issues with particle agglomeration due to its low melting point. Even though iron oxide is an inexpensive oxygen carrier it has a slower reactivity. In this study, mixed metal oxide carriers containing iron and copper oxides were evaluated for coal and methane CLC. The components of CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were optimized to obtain good reactivity while maintaining physical and chemical stability during cyclic reactions for methane-CLC and solid-fuel CLC. Compared with single metal oxygen carriers, the optimized Cu–Fe mixed oxide oxygen carriers demonstrated high reaction rate, better combustion conversion, greater oxygen usage and improved physical stability. Thermodynamic calculations, XRD, TGA, flow reactor studies and TPR experiments suggested that there is a strong interaction between CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contributing to a synergistic effect during CLC reactions. The amount of oxygen release of the mixed oxide carrier in the absence of a fuel was similar to that of the single metal oxides. However, in the presence of fuels, the oxygen consumption and the reaction profiles of the mixed oxide carriers were significantly better than that of the single metal oxides. The nature of the fuel not only influenced the reactivity, but also the final reduction status of the oxygen carriers during chemical looping combustion. Cu oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced metallic copper with both coal and methane. Fe oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced Fe metal with methane but it was reduced to only FeO with coal. Possible mechanisms of how the presence of CuO enhances the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are discussed.

  15. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colfoque Cl, supplkrnent au no 4, Tome 38, Auril 1977, page Cl-333 METAL-OXIDES COMPOSITES FOR BaFe,,Ol PERMANENT MAGNETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the possibility of producing composites of Ba ferrite with various metals such as cobalt, nickel, iron, copper of a CO deposit with preferential orientation obtained by chemical reduction and electrodeposition. 2. CO

  16. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jeong Y.; Aliaga, Cesar; Renzas, J. Russell; Lee, Hyunjoo; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the catalytic activity of colloid platinum nanoparticles synthesized with different organic capping layers. On the molecular scale, the porous organic layers have open spaces that permit the reactant and product molecules to reach the metal surface. We carried out CO oxidation on several platinum nanoparticle systems capped with various organic molecules to investigate the role of the capping agent on catalytic activity. Platinum colloid nanoparticles with four types of capping layer have been used: TTAB (Tetradecyltrimethylammonium Bromide), HDA (hexadecylamine), HDT (hexadecylthiol), and PVP (poly(vinylpyrrolidone)). The reactivity of the Pt nanoparticles varied by 30%, with higher activity on TTAB coated nanoparticles and lower activity on HDT, while the activation energy remained between 27-28 kcal/mol. In separate experiments, the organic capping layers were partially removed using ultraviolet light-ozone generation techniques, which resulted in increased catalytic activity due to the removal of some of the organic layers. These results indicate that the nature of chemical bonding between organic capping layers and nanoparticle surfaces plays a role in determining the catalytic activity of platinum colloid nanoparticles for carbon monoxide oxidation.

  17. Size Characterization of Colloidal Platinum Nanoparticles by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navin, Jason K.; Grass, Michael E.; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Marsh, Anderson L.

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been utilized to characterize colloidal platinum nanoparticles synthesized in the 1-4 nm size range. The nanoparticles were prepared via a solution-based method in which the size could be controlled by varying reaction conditions, such as the alcohol used as the reductant. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone), or PVP, (MW = 29,000 g/mol) was employed as a capping agent to stabilize the synthesized nanoparticles in solution. A model for determining the size of the metallic nanoparticle core from MALDI-TOF mass spectra has been developed and verified through correlation with particle sizes from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. In this model it was assumed that 1.85 nm nanoparticles are capped by one PVP chain, which was verified through experiments performed with capped and uncapped nanoparticles. Larger nanoparticles are capped by either two (2.60 and 2.94 nm) or three (3.69 nm) PVP chains. These findings clearly indicate the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS as a technique for fully characterizing nanoscale materials in order to elucidate structure-property relationships.

  18. Formation of selenide, sulfide or mixed selenide-sulfide films on metal or metal coated substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eser, Erten; Fields, Shannon

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and composition for preventing cracking in composite structures comprising a metal coated substrate and a selenide, sulfide or mixed selenide sulfide film. Specifically, cracking is prevented in the coating of molybdenum coated substrates upon which a copper, indium-gallium diselenide (CIGS) film is deposited. Cracking is inhibited by adding a Se passivating amount of oxygen to the Mo and limiting the amount of Se deposited on the Mo coating.

  19. Distribution of blood lead, blood cadmium, urinary cadmium, and urinary arsenic levels in employees of a copper smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Weber, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Nicholson, W.J.; Campbell, C.; Malkin, J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cross-sectional medical examination of a copper smelter work force included determination of blood lead (Pb-B), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), blood cadmium (Cd-B), urinary cadmium (Cd-U), and urinary arsenic (As-U), since it was known that such metal impurities were present in the copper concentrate. A total of 776 copper smelter employees (680 active and 96 retirees and ex-employees) were examined. Another 144 men, never employed in the smelter, but who had worked in copper mines (and sometimes in gold mines) were also examined. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, Cd-B, and As-U were significantly higher in active copper smelter employees than in retirees or miners, indicating exposure and absorption in the copper smelter. Significant correlations between Pb-B and Cd-B, and Cd-U and As-U were present, confirming the common source of absorption. Although there was evidence for an increased lead absorption, this was very moderate, with practically no Pb-B levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl. A marked effect of smoking on blood cadmium levels was present; nevertheless, for all smoking categories Cd-B levels were significantly higher in active employees, indicating the independent contribution of exposure to cadmium in the smelter. Cd-U did not exceed 10 ..mu..g/g creatinine, the generally accepted critical level for the kidney, but was higher than 2 ..mu..g/g cretinine, a level very rarely exceeded in the general population, in a sizable proportion of those examined. The highest Cd-U levels were found in retired copper smelter employees; age might have been a contributing factor, besides a longer duration of exposure in the smelter.

  20. Effect of the composition of polypyrrole substrate on the electrodeposition of copper and nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepel, M.; Chen, Y.M.; Stephenson, R. [State Univ. of New York, Potsdam, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrodeposition of copper and nickel on a variety of substrates including conductive polymer films with two different compositions has been studied. The enhancement of the copper and nickel electrodeposition rate was observed for composite polypyrrole films with cation-exchange properties in comparison to undoped polypyrrole films with anion-exchange properties. Significant enhancement of the nickel electrodeposition rate on both types of conductive polymer vs. the bare gold electrode was also found. An explanation of these effects is presented. An electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) with 10 MHz AT-cut piezoelectrodes was used in this study. Use of the EQCM technique allowed for simultaneous monitoring of voltamperometric and resonance frequency vs. potential or time characteristics. The thickness of electropolymerized polypyrrole films as well as the amounts of electrodeposited metals were controlled by monitoring the EQCM resonant frequency. The nucleation density has been determined from scanning electron microscope experiments.

  1. Anisotropy enhancement of the Casimir-Polder force between a nanoparticle and graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svend-Age Biehs; Girish S. Agarwal

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the analytical expressions for the thermal Casimir-Polder energy and force between a spheroidal nanoparticle above a semi-infinite material and a graphene covered interface. We analyze in detail the Casimir-Polder force between a gold nanoparticle and a single sheet of pristine graphene focusing on the impact of anisotropy. We show that the effect of anisotropy, i.e. the shape and orientation of the spheroidal nanoparticle, has a much larger influence on the force than the tunability of graphene. The effect of tuning and anisotropy both add up such that we observe a force which is between 20-50% of that in the ideal metal case which is much larger than the results found for the Casimir force between a metal halfspace and a layer of graphene.

  2. Anisotropy enhancement of the Casimir-Polder force between a nanoparticle and graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svend-Age Biehs; Girish S. Agarwal

    2015-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the analytical expressions for the thermal Casimir-Polder energy and force between a spheroidal nanoparticle above a semi-infinite material and a graphene covered interface. We analyze in detail the Casimir-Polder force between a gold nanoparticle and a single sheet of pristine graphene focusing on the impact of anisotropy. We show that the effect of anisotropy, i.e. the shape and orientation of the spheroidal nanoparticle, has a much larger influence on the force than the tunability of graphene. The effect of tuning and anisotropy both add up such that we observe a force which is between 20-50% of that in the ideal metal case which is much larger than the results found for the Casimir force between a metal halfspace and a layer of graphene.

  3. Isotope effects in methanol synthesis and the reactivity of copper...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Isotope effects in methanol synthesis and the reactivity of copper formates on a CuSiO2 catalyst. Isotope effects in methanol synthesis and the reactivity of copper formates on a...

  4. MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ARCHIVES COPPER COUNTRY HISTORICAL COLLECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MICHIGAN TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY ARCHIVES AND COPPER COUNTRY HISTORICAL COLLECTION GENEALOGICAL & Copper Country Historical Collection J. Robert Van Pelt Library Michigan Technological University local high schools and Michigan Technological University, centennial books, and local history titles

  5. ORNL researchers make strides toward a copper oxide solar cell...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    researchers make strides toward a copper oxide solar cell (hi-res image) Amit Goyal and his team of research scientists are using copper oxide to redesign the face of solar power....

  6. Nanoparticle-based etching of silicon surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branz, Howard (Boulder, CO); Duda, Anna (Denver, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Yost, Vernon (Littleton, CO); Meier, Daniel (Atlanta, GA); Ward, James S. (Golden, CO)

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method (300) of texturing silicon surfaces (116) such to reduce reflectivity of a silicon wafer (110) for use in solar cells. The method (300) includes filling (330, 340) a vessel (122) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface 116) of a wafer or substrate (112). The etching solution (124) is made up of a catalytic nanomaterial (140) and an oxidant-etchant solution (146). The catalytic nanomaterial (140) may include gold or silver nanoparticles or noble metal nanoparticles, each of which may be a colloidal solution. The oxidant-etchant solution (146) includes an etching agent (142), such as hydrofluoric acid, and an oxidizing agent (144), such as hydrogen peroxide. Etching (350) is performed for a period of time including agitating or stirring the etching solution (124). The etch time may be selected such that the etched silicon surface (116) has a reflectivity of less than about 15 percent such as 1 to 10 percent in a 350 to 1000 nanometer wavelength range.

  7. Geothermal energy for copper dump leaching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the possibility of using geothermal energy to heat a sulfuric acid leaching solution for the purpose of faster and more efficient copper recovery from copper-containing minerals. Experimental studies reported in the literature have shown that this technique can be economically feasible for the extraction of copper from low-grade dump ores. Its main advantage appears to be the considerable reduction in long-term leaching periods; it could also be less expensive than other conventional processing operations if an economical geothermal resource were provided. However, this process has some pitfalls which might restrict the extent of geothermal energy use. Nevertheless, the process is still technologically sound, especially if groundwaters are used directly in the leaching operation.

  8. Synthesis of gold nano-particles in a microfluidic platform for water quality monitoring applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Datta, Sayak

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device for in-situ synthesis of gold nano-particles was developed. The long term goal is to develop a portable hand-held diagnostic platform for monitoring water quality (e.g., detecting metal ion pollutants...

  9. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501918 Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Beaded with ZnO Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Ji

    , many types of metal and semiconductor nanoparticles, such as Au,[4] Ag,[5] Pt,[6] SnO2,[7] TiO2,[11] and improved optical limiting from Au- and Ag-coated CNTs[15] have been demonstrated

  10. Fluorescent Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Candea, George

    Fluorescent Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications V.M.Dao, Dr. G. Coullerez, Dr. L, the main goal was to synthesize and to characterize novel fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles. These nanoparticles (NPs) involve superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), a fluorescently-labeled polymer

  11. Intense pulsed light sintering of copper nanoink for printed electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hak-Sung; Dhage, Sanjay R.; Shim, Dong-Eun; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    triazine) epoxy composite, polyimide ?lm (Kapton, Dupont),copper nanoink on: (a) polyimide ?lm; (b) glass ?ber BT (

  12. Metal-assisted hydrogen storage on Pt-decorated single-walled carbon nanohorns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David B.

    to a future hydrogen economy is the lack of suitable on-board hydrogen storage media, which urgently requiresMetal-assisted hydrogen storage on Pt-decorated single-walled carbon nanohorns Yun Liu a,b,*, Craig dissociation of hydrogen molecules by metal nanoparticles and spillover of atomic hydrogen onto various

  13. Characterizations of severely deformed and annealed copper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haouaoui, Mohammed

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . 63 24. 90 min isochronal recrystallization curve for copper 101 given 2A/R+2A ECAE passes at room temperature. . . . . 64 25. 90 min isochronal recrystallization curve for copper 101 given 2C/R*2C ECAE passes at room temperature . . . 65 FIGURE... plane). The initial texture is 2C*2C/R. . . . . 93 48. Pole fiytres for Cu 101 given two ECAE passes via route C (Flow plane). The initial texture is 4A/R. 94 49. Pole figures for Cu 101 given four ECAE passes via route A after recrystaliization...

  14. Frequency Scaling from Copper to SC Niobium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Elia, A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The linac of HIE-ISOLDE Project is based on two gap independently phased Quarter Wave Resonators (QWRs). The cavities are made in bulk Copper and subsequently Niobium sputtered. The working frequency in superconducting mode of operation is 101.28MHz at 4.5K. The purpose of this paper is to properly evaluate the scaled frequency of the Copper cavity at room temperature in air, in order to guide all the necessary steps in the production phase before going to the cryostat.

  15. 6,000 years of copper smelting : Center for the Study of Copper Smelting in Ancient Societies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Marc J. (Marc Jonathan), 1969-

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1959 professor of archeology Beno Rothenberg began investigating the production of copper in the Sinai desert and Aravah region of southern Israel. He discovered over 650 previously unknown ancient copper mining and ...

  16. The thermodynamic properties of hydrated -Al2O3 nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Elinor [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University] [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Huang, Baiyu [Brigham Young University, Provo] [Brigham Young University, Provo; Parker, Stewart F. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (ISIS)] [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (ISIS); Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL] [ORNL; Ross, Dr. Nancy [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University] [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Woodfield, Brian [Brigham Young University, Provo] [Brigham Young University, Provo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we report a combined calorimetric and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) study of hydrated -Al2O3 ( -alumina) nanoparticles. These complementary techniques have enabled a comprehensive evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of this technological and industrially important metal oxide to be achieved. The isobaric heat capacity (Cp) data presented herein provide further critical insights into the much-debated chemical composition of -alumina nanoparticles. Furthermore, the isochoric heat capacity (Cv) of the surface water, which is so essential to the stability of all metal-oxides at the nanoscale, has been extracted from the high-resolution INS data and differs significantly from that of ice Ih due to the dominating influence of strong surface-water interactions. This study also encompassed the analysis of four -alumina samples with differing pore diameters [4.5 (1), 13.8 (2), 17.9 (3), and 27.2 nm (4)], and the results obtained allow us to unambiguously conclude that the water content and pore size have no influence on the thermodynamic behaviour of hydrated -alumina nanoparticles.

  17. CHEMISTRY OF SO2 AND DESOX PROCESSES ON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RODRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    On bulk stoichiometric oxides, SO{sub 2} mainly reacts with the O centers to form SO{sub 3} or SO{sub 4} species that decompose at elevated temperatures. Adsorption on the metal cations occurs below 300 K and does not lead to cleavage of the S-O bonds. In bulk oxides, the occupied cation bands are too stable for effective bonding interactions with the LUMO of SO{sub 2}. The effects of quantum confinement on the electronic properties of oxide nanoparticles and the structural defects that usually accompany these systems in general favor the bonding and dissociation of SO{sub 2}. Thus, nanoparticles of MgO, CaO, SrO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CeO{sub 2} are all more efficient for sequestering SO{sub 2} than the corresponding bulk oxides. Structural imperfections in pure or metal-doped ceria nanoparticles accelerate the reduction of SO{sub 2} by CO by facilitating the formation and migration of O vacancies in the oxide surface.

  18. Tantalum-copper alloy and method for making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, F.A.; Gibson, E.D.; Verhoeven, J.D.

    1984-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

  19. Tantalum-copper alloy and method for making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, F.A.; Verhoeven, J.D.; Gibson, E.D.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

  20. PATTERNAND PROCESS DEPENDENCIES IN COPPER DAMASCENE CHEMICAL MECHANICAL POLISHING PROCESSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boning, Duane S.

    of the die and wafer, leading to dishing of copper and erosion of oxide. Dishing is defined as the vertical. This is illustrated in Fig. 1 [1]. Copper dishing and oxide erosion lead to considerable surface non present experimental data that shows the dependence of copper dishing and oxide ero­ sion on pitch

  1. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santella, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding east nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and east in copper chill molds.

  2. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.

  3. Modeling pore corrosion in normally open gold- plated copper connectors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Moffat, Harry K.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Enos, David George; Serna, Lysle M.; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study is to model the electrical response of gold plated copper electrical contacts exposed to a mixed flowing gas stream consisting of air containing 10 ppb H{sub 2}S at 30 C and a relative humidity of 70%. This environment accelerates the attack normally observed in a light industrial environment (essentially a simplified version of the Battelle Class 2 environment). Corrosion rates were quantified by measuring the corrosion site density, size distribution, and the macroscopic electrical resistance of the aged surface as a function of exposure time. A pore corrosion numerical model was used to predict both the growth of copper sulfide corrosion product which blooms through defects in the gold layer and the resulting electrical contact resistance of the aged surface. Assumptions about the distribution of defects in the noble metal plating and the mechanism for how corrosion blooms affect electrical contact resistance were needed to complete the numerical model. Comparisons are made to the experimentally observed number density of corrosion sites, the size distribution of corrosion product blooms, and the cumulative probability distribution of the electrical contact resistance. Experimentally, the bloom site density increases as a function of time, whereas the bloom size distribution remains relatively independent of time. These two effects are included in the numerical model by adding a corrosion initiation probability proportional to the surface area along with a probability for bloom-growth extinction proportional to the corrosion product bloom volume. The cumulative probability distribution of electrical resistance becomes skewed as exposure time increases. While the electrical contact resistance increases as a function of time for a fraction of the bloom population, the median value remains relatively unchanged. In order to model this behavior, the resistance calculated for large blooms has been weighted more heavily.

  4. Fracture and Fatigue Behavior at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures of Alumina Bonded with Copper/Niobium/Copper Interlayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    Fracture and Fatigue Behavior at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures of Alumina Bonded with Copper/Niobium-phase bonded using copper/niobium/copper interlayers have been investigated at both room and elevated, with failure primarily at the alumina/niobium interfaces. At room temperature, cyclic fatigue-crack propagation

  5. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  6. Alternative Anode Reaction for Copper Electrowinning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a project funded by the Department of Energy, with additional funding from Bechtel National, to develop a copper electrowinning process with lower costs and lower emissions than the current process. This new process also includes more energy efficient production by using catalytic-surfaced anodes and a different electrochemical couple in the electrolyte, providing an alternative oxidation reaction that requires up to 50% less energy than is currently required to electrowin the same quantity of copper. This alternative anode reaction, which oxidizes ferric ions to ferrous, with subsequent reduction back to ferric using sulfur dioxide, was demonstrated to be technically and operationally feasible. However, pure sulfur dioxide was determined to be prohibitively expensive and use of a sulfur burner, producing 12% SO{sub 2}, was deemed a viable alternative. This alternate, sulfur-burning process requires a sulfur burner, waste heat boiler, quench tower, and reaction towers. The electrolyte containing absorbed SO{sub 2} passes through activated carbon to regenerate the ferrous ion. Because this reaction produces sulfuric acid, excess acid removal by ion exchange is necessary and produces a low concentration acid suitable for leaching oxide copper minerals. If sulfide minerals are to be leached or the acid unneeded on site, hydrogen was demonstrated to be a potential reductant. Preliminary economics indicate that the process would only be viable if significant credits could be realized for electrical power produced by the sulfur burner and for acid if used for leaching of oxidized copper minerals on site.

  7. A Mathematical model of copper corrosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrizio Clarelli; Barbara De Filippo; Roberto Natalini

    2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A new partial differential model for monitoring and detecting copper corrosion products (mainly brochantite and cuprite) is proposed to provide predictive tools suitable for describing the evolution of damage induced on bronze specimens by sulfur dioxide (SO_2) pollution. This model is characterized by the movement of a double free boundary. Numerical simulations show a nice agreement with experimental result.

  8. A Mathematical model of copper corrosion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarelli, Fabrizio; Natalini, Roberto

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new partial differential model for monitoring and detecting copper corrosion products (mainly brochantite and cuprite) is proposed to provide predictive tools suitable for describing the evolution of damage induced on bronze specimens by sulfur dioxide (SO_2) pollution. This model is characterized by the movement of a double free boundary. Numerical simulations show a nice agreement with experimental result.

  9. Fluidized bed electrowinning of copper. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the study were to: design and construct a 10,000- amp fluidized bed electrowinning cell for the recovery of copper from acidic sulfate solutions; demonstrate the technical feasibility of continuous particle recirculation from the electrowinning cell with the ultimate goal of continuous particle removal; and measure cell efficiency as a function of operating conditions.

  10. Direct production of nanostructured copper-nickel (Cu-Ni) alloy particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apaydin, Ramazan Oguzhan; Ebin, Burcak; Gurmen, Sebahattin [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Eng., 34469 Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Copper-Nickel (CuNi) nanostructured alloy particles were produced by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis and Hydrogen Reduction Method (USP-HR) from high purity copper and nickel nitrate aqueous solutions. The effect of the precursor solution in the range of 0.1 and 0.5 mol/L on the morphology and crystallite size of CuNi nanoparticles were investigated under 2 h running time, 700 °C operating temperature and 0.5 L/min H{sub 2} flow rate. Particle size, morphology, composition and crystallite structure were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Particle characterization studies show that nanostructured alloy particles have cubic crystal structure and they are in submicron size range with spherical morphology. The crystallite sizes of the particles calculated with Scherrer formula are 40 and 34 nm and average particles sizes observed from the SEM images are 300 and 510 nm for each experiment respectively.

  11. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  12. Metals 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, S.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Slaughter, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Boensch, F.D. [6025 Oak Hill Lane, Centerville, OH (United States); Claus, R.O.; de Vries, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This strategic planning exercise identified and characterized new and emerging advanced metallic technologies in the context of the drastic changes in global politics and decreasing fiscal resources. In consideration of a hierarchy of technology thrusts stated by various Department of Defense (DOD) spokesmen, and the need to find new and creative ways to acquire and organize programs within an evolving Wright Laboratory, five major candidate programs identified are: C-17 Flap, Transport Fuselage, Mach 5 Aircraft, 4.Fighter Structures, and 5. Missile Structures. These results were formed by extensive discussion with selected major contractors and other experts, and a survey of advanced metallic structure materials. Candidate structural applications with detailed metal structure descriptions bracket a wide variety of uses which warrant consideration for the suggested programs. An analysis on implementing smart skins and structures concepts is given from a metal structures perspective.

  13. Dendritic metal nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Song, Yujiang (Albuquerque, NM); Pereira, Eulalia F. (Vila Nova de Gaia, PT); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA)

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dendritic metal nanostructures made using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

  14. Plasmonic Field Enhancement of Individual Nanoparticles by Correlated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Field Enhancement of Individual Nanoparticles by Correlated Scanning and Photoemission Electron Microscopy. Plasmonic Field Enhancement of Individual Nanoparticles by Correlated...

  15. Surface engineered nanoparticles for improved surface enhanced Raman scattering applications and method for preparing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Talin, Albert Alec (Livermore, CA)

    2009-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing metal nanoparticles that when associated with an analyte material will generate an amplified SERS spectrum when the analyte material is illuminated by a light source and a spectrum is recorded. The method for preparing the metal nanoparticles comprises the steps of (i) forming a water-in-oil microemulsion comprising a bulk oil phase, a dilute water phase, and one or more surfactants, wherein the water phase comprises a transition metal ion; (ii) adding an aqueous solution comprising a mild reducing agent to the water-in-oil microemulsion; (iii) stirring the water-in-oil microemulsion and aqueous solution to initiate a reduction reaction resulting in the formation of a fine precipitate dispersed in the water-in-oil microemulsion; and (iv) separating the precipitate from the water-in-oil microemulsion.

  16. Studies on the optimization of deformation processed metal metal matrix composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, T.W.

    1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology for the production of deformation processed metal metal matrix composites from hyper-eutectic copper-chromium alloys was developed. This methodology was derived from a basic study of the precipitation phenomena in these alloys encompassing evaluation of microstructural, electrical, and mechanical properties. The methodology developed produces material with a superior combination of electrical and mechanical properties compared to those presently available in commercial alloys. New and novel alloying procedures were investigated to extend the range of production methods available for these material. These studies focused on the use of High Pressure Gas Atomization and the development of new containment technologies for the liquid alloy. This allowed the production of alloys with a much more refined starting microstructure and lower contamination than available by other methods. The knowledge gained in the previous studies was used to develop two completely new families of deformation processed metal metal matrix composites. These composites are based on immissible alloys with yttrium and magnesium matrices and refractory metal reinforcement. This work extends the physical property range available in deformation processed metal metal matrix composites. Additionally, it also represents new ways to apply these metals in engineering applications.

  17. Behavior of Aqueous Electrolytes in Steam Cycles - The Final Report on the Solubility and Volatility of copper(I) and Copper(II) Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, Donald [ORNL; Benezeth, Pascale [Laboratoire des Mecanismes et Transferts en Geologie, Toulouse, France; Simonson, J Michael {Mike} [ORNL

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements were completed on the solubility of cupric and cuprous oxides in liquid water and steam at controlled pH conditions from 25 to 400 C (77 to 752 F). The results of this study have been combined with those reported from this laboratory in two previous EPRI reports to provide a complete description of the solubility of these oxides and the speciation of copper dissolved in liquid water and steam as a function of oxidation state, temperature, pH, and in the case of steam, pressure. These constitute the first set of reliable data for cuprous oxide solubility over this range of conditions. For the more intensively studied CuO case, agreement was found between our results and those of previous studies of its solubility in steam, whereas only partial agreement was evident for its solubility in liquid water. For both oxides this disagreement often amounted to orders of magnitude. The solubility of cuprous oxide is somewhat lower than that of CuO at ambient conditions, except as very high pH. However, by 350 C (662 F), Cu{sub 2}O is the more soluble phase. At 100 C (212 F) and above, the logarithm of the solubility of both phases decreases linearly with increasing pH to a minimum value then sharply increases linearly with pH. In other words, above 100 C the solubility of both oxides become highly pH dependent. In fact at constant pH during startup, very high copper concentrations can be reached in the boiler water, more than an order of magnitude above those at ambient or operating temperatures. The enhancing effect of added ammonia on the solubility of both oxides is most significant at low temperatures and is much greater for cuprous oxide. Consequently, the mobility of copper is affected significantly under AVT startup conditions. The oxidation of copper metal and presumably cuprous oxide by addition of air-saturated makeup water can lead to much higher copper concentrations than equilibrium with cupric oxide would allow, but the presence of both copper metal and cuprous oxide provides an effective scavenger for oxygen, even at room temperature, with copper levels consistent with those in equilibrium with cuprous oxide. The solubilities of Cu{sub 2}O and CuO in steam are quite similar and are virtually temperature independent at the 1 to 2 ppb level, respectively, although at supercritical conditions, both solubilities increase with increasing pressure and temperature. The species that partition to the vapor are believed to be the neutrally charged molecules, Cu(OH){sup 0} and Cu(OH){sub 2}{sup 0}, for the reduced and oxidized forms, respectively, and their concentrations in the vapor are therefore independent of the pH of the liquid water phase from which they originate.

  18. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticle analyte sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yantasee, Wassana; Warner, Maryin G; Warner, Cynthia L; Addleman, Raymond S; Fryxell, Glen E; Timchalk, Charles; Toloczko, Mychailo B

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for simply and efficiently determining quantities of a preselected material in a particular solution by the placement of at least one superparamagnetic nanoparticle having a specified functionalized organic material connected thereto into a particular sample solution, wherein preselected analytes attach to the functionalized organic groups, these superparamagnetic nanoparticles are then collected at a collection site and analyzed for the presence of a particular analyte.

  19. RF Breakdown of Metallic Surfaces in Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BastaniNejad, M.; Elmustafa, A.A.; /Old Dominion U.; Yonehara, K.; Chung, M.; Jansson, A.; Hu, M.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; /Fermilab; Alsharo'a, M.; Neubauer, M.; Sah, R.; /Muons Inc., Batavia

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In earlier reports, microscopic images of the surfaces of metallic electrodes used in high-pressure gas-filled 805 MHz RF cavity experiments were used to investigate the mechanism of RF breakdown of tungsten, molybdenum, and beryllium electrode surfaces. Plots of remnants were consistent with the breakdown events being due to field emission, due to the quantum mechanical tunnelling of electrons through a barrier as described by Fowler and Nordheim. In the work described here, these studies have been extended to include tin, aluminium, and copper. Contamination of the surfaces, discovered after the experiments concluded, have cast some doubt on the proper qualities to assign to the metallic surfaces. However, two significant results are noted. First, the maximum stable RF gradient of contaminated copper electrodes is higher than for a clean surface. Second, the addition of as little as 0.01% of SF6 to the hydrogen gas increased the maximum stable gradient, which implies that models of RF breakdown in hydrogen gas will be important to the study of metallic breakdown.

  20. Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as aluminum, titanium, tantalum or stainless steel. The comosition comprises tin and zinc; germanium as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of copper and antimony; and a grit, such as silicon carbide. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the germanium penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The germanium comprises less than aproximatley 10% by weight of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above approximately 300.degree. C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

  1. Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as aluminum, titanium, tantalum or stainless steel is disclosed. The composition comprises tin and zinc; germanium as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of copper and antimony; and a grit, such as silicon carbide. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the germanium penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The germanium comprises less than approximately 10% by weight of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above approximately 300 C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

  2. Leaching of metals from ores. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the extraction of metals from ores by leaching. Topics include leaching of metals from ore heaps, mine tailings, smelter wastes, and sea nodules. Metals covered include gold, uranium, copper, nickel, silver, manganese, and cobalt. Bacterio-electric, biological-acid, and hydrogen peroxide leaching are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Ceramic-metal composite article and joining method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Shinhoo (Wayland, MA); Selverian, John H. (Burlington, MA); Kim, Hans J. (Concord, MA); Dunn, Edmund M. (Lexington, MA); Kim, Kyung S. (Barrington, RI)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic-metal article including a ceramic rod, a metal rod, and a braze joining the ceramic and metal rods at a braze area of a coaxial bore in the metal rod. The bore gradually decreases in diameter, having an inward seat area sized for close sliding fit about the ceramic, a larger brazing area near the joint end, and a void area intermediate the braze and seat areas. The ceramic is seated without brazing in the bore seat area. The side wall between the brazing area and the metal outer surface is about 0.030-0.080 inch. The braze includes an inner braze layer, an outer braze layer, and an interlayer about 0.030-0.090 inch thick. A shoulder between the brazing and void areas supports the interlayer during bonding while preventing bonding between the void area and the ceramic member, leaving a void space between the void area and the ceramic member. A venting orifice extends generally radially through the metal member from the outer surface to the void space. The braze layers are palladium, platinum, gold, silver, copper, nickel, indium, chromium, molybdenum, niobium, iron, aluminum, or alloys thereof. Preferred is a gold-palladium-nickel brazing alloy. The interlayer is nickel, molybdenum, copper, tantalum, tungsten, niobium, aluminum, cobalt, iron, or an alloy thereof.

  4. Ceramic-metal composite article and joining method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, S.; Selverian, J.H.; Kim, H.J.; Dunn, E.M.; Kim, K.S.

    1992-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic-metal article including a ceramic rod, a metal rod, and a braze joining the ceramic and metal rods at a braze area of a coaxial bore in the metal rod is described. The bore gradually decreases in diameter, having an inward seat area sized for close sliding fit about the ceramic, a larger brazing area near the joint end, and a void area intermediate the braze and seat areas. The ceramic is seated without brazing in the bore seat area. The side wall between the brazing area and the metal outer surface is about 0.030-0.080 inch. The braze includes an inner braze layer, an outer braze layer, and an interlayer about 0.030-0.090 inch thick. A shoulder between the brazing and void areas supports the interlayer during bonding while preventing bonding between the void area and the ceramic member, leaving a void space between the void area and the ceramic member. A venting orifice extends generally radially through the metal member from the outer surface to the void space. The braze layers are palladium, platinum, gold, silver, copper, nickel, indium, chromium, molybdenum, niobium, iron, aluminum, or alloys thereof. Preferred is a gold-palladium-nickel brazing alloy. The interlayer is nickel, molybdenum, copper, tantalum, tungsten, niobium, aluminum, cobalt, iron, or an alloy thereof. 4 figs.

  5. World copper smelter sulfur balance-1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Towle, S.W. (Bureau of Mines, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1989, the US Bureau of Mines initiated a contract to gather engineering, operating, and environmental cost data for 1988 for 30 major foreign primary copper smelters in market economy countries. Data were collected for 29 of the designated smelters together with information on applicable environmental regulations. Materials balance data obtained were used with available data for the eight US smelters to determine the approximate extent of copper smelter sulfur emission control in 1988. A broad characterization of the status of sulfur emission control regulation was made. The 37 US and foreign smelters represented roughly 73.2% of world and 89.3% of market economy primary copper production in 1988. The 29 non-US smelters attained 55.3% control of their input sulfur in 1988. Combined with the 90.4% control of US smelters, an aggregate 63.4% sulfur control existed. Roughly 1,951,100 mt of sulfur was emitted from the 37 market economy smelters in 1988. Identifiable SO[sub 2] control regulations covered 72.4% of the 29 foreign smelters, representing 65.5% of smelting capacity. Including US smelters, 78.4% of the major market economy smelters were regulated, representing 73.1% of smelting capacity. Significant changes since 1988 that may increase sulfur emission control are noted.

  6. Metal Hydrides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMay 18-19,DepartmentEnergyMetalMetal

  7. POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Targeted polymeric nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    , IMS Room 20 A variety of organic and inorganic materials have been utilized to generate nanoparticles drugs for combination therapy. The surface engineering of these nanoparticles may yield them "stealth

  8. In situ Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticle Embedded Free Standing Multifunctional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    ) for light emitting diodes[5] and iron-poly(methyl methacrylate) for electromagnetic appli- cations.[9] Gao could be used for a number of applications such as for catalysis, optical and biomedical devices and gas in applications that include microfluidic channels, lubricants, defoaming agents, gas separation membranes

  9. Gold Nanoparticle-Based Sensing of "Spectroscopically Silent" Heavy Metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to ultrasen- sitive detection has been described by Alivisatos and co- workers.2 They retain the fluorescence

  10. Optical Properties and Biological Applications of Electromagnetically Coupled Metal Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheikholeslami, Sassan Nathan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. Siu, Agarwal, H. , Alivisatos, A. P. , & Liphardt, J. (B. M. , Liphardt, J. , & Alivisatos, A. P. (2005) Nat.C. , Craik, C. S. , & Alivisatos, A. P. (2009) Proc. Natl.

  11. Selective metal ion-capturing by striped nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Eun Seon

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanomaterials have attracted lots of attention due to their tremendous potential in extensive fields, ranging from biology, physics, and chemistry to electronics, and also already proven their superior functionality to ...

  12. Structure-function relationships in dendrimer-encapsulated metal nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Orla Mary

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    of TiO2-supported Pd, Au and PdAu nanocomposites from DEN precursors is shown to be a viable route for the synthesis of catalytically active, reasonably monodisperse heterogeneous catalysts. Using the dendrimer-templating synthesis, tight control over...

  13. Bacterial Production of Mixed Metal Oxide Nanoparticles - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperationalAugustDecade5-F,INITIAL JohnE P T EProduction

  14. Delivery Vehicles for Zerovalent Metal Nanoparticles in Soil and Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is injected through wells to develop cracks in impermeable and over-consolidated sediments. The dispersion columns packed with model soils from different regions of the USDA soil textural triangle with calculations based on the Tufenkji-Elimelech model (Environ Sci. Technol. 2004, 38, 529). It can be concluded

  15. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Pave the Way for Medical Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from aRod EggertMercuryAdvanced MaterialsPortal-

  16. High Variability of the Metal Content of Tree Growth Rings as Measured by Synchrotron Micro X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin,R.; Naftel, S.; Macfie, S.; Jones, K.; Feng, H.; Trembley, C.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synchrotron radiation analysis was used to investigate the metal content of tree rings collected from paper birch, Betula papyrifera Marsh, on transects downwind from two metal smelters (nickel and copper). Individual trees reflected changes in ring metal content with time, which may be presumed to represent changes in local metal bioavailability. However, between-tree variations were large and no statistically significant differences in metal content as a function of time were found within or between sites. Although concentrations of both total and exchangeable copper and nickel in the soil increased with proximity to the respective smelter, this pattern was reflected only in the nickel content of rings near the nickel smelter; copper content did not vary with distance from either smelter. The sites did differ with respect to lead, manganese and zinc content of the rings, which may be related to pH. In conclusion, the variability between trees at each site suggests that dendroanalysis is a poor method for evaluating metal exposure at a large (site) scale. Tree ring metal content may be used to evaluate the metal uptake by individual trees but metal mobility in the stem makes it difficult to establish a reliable chronology.

  17. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing...

  18. An investigation of bulk nanocrystalline copper fabricated via severe plastic deformation and nanoparticle consolidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haouaoui, Mohammed

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafine grained (UFG) and nanocrystalline materials have attracted considerable interest because of their unique mechanical properties as compared with coarse grained conventional materials. The fabrication of relatively large amounts...

  19. Consolidation of copper and aluminum micro and nanoparticles via equal channel angular extrusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchins, Cathleen Ruth

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafine grained (UFG), and nanocrystalline (nc) materials are of interest because of the high strength, compared with coarse grained counterparts. Several current methods to fabricate UFG and nc materials result in samples too small for practical...

  20. Consolidation of copper and aluminum micro and nanoparticles via equal channel angular extrusion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchins, Cathleen Ruth

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ) to produce relatively large consolidates of UFG and nc materials. ECAE has been used to consolidate micro and nanocrystalline powders. The behavior of consolidated pure Cu and aluminum alloys in the nano and micron size were explored. The effects...

  1. Short Communication Application of bare gold nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miksik, Ivan

    Short Communication Application of bare gold nanoparticles in open-tubular CEC separations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and peptides In this study, bare gold nanoparticles (GNPs) immobilized in the sol capillary wall and improving their resolution. Keywords: CE / Gold nanoparticles / Peptides / Polyaromatic

  2. MODELING OF ALUMINUM NANOPARTICLE FORMATION R. Schefflan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING OF ALUMINUM NANOPARTICLE FORMATION R. Schefflan D. Kalyon S. Kovenklioglu Stevens Picatinny Arsenal's process for making alumina coated nanoparticles of aluminum involves the conversion of gaseous aluminum, in the presence of helium carrier gas, to solid nanoparticles and their subsequent

  3. Gravity-free hydraulic jumps and metal femtocups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rama Govindarajan; Manikandan Mathur; Ratul DasGupta; N. R. Selvi; Neena Susan John; G. U. Kulkarni

    2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydraulic jumps created by gravity are seen every day in the kitchen sink. We show that at small scales a circular hydraulic jump can be created in the absence of gravity, by surface tension. The theory is motivated by our experimental finding of a height discontinuity in spreading submicron molten metal droplets created by pulsed-laser ablation. By careful control of initial conditions, we show that this leads to solid femtolitre cups of gold, silver, copper, niobium and tin.

  4. Copper Toxicity in the San Francisco Bay-Delta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buck, Kristen N.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A. R. Flegal, and K. W. Bruland. 2007. A review of totalBuck, K. N. , and K. W. Bruland. 2005. Copper speciation in

  5. Method of imaging the heart using copper-64 citrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crook, James E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of imaging the heart to provide a distinct image using positron emission tomography comprises administering copper-64 citrate and a compatible carrier.

  6. An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    from Electric Utilities - October 2010 An Updated Assessement of Copper Wire Thefts from Electric Utilities - October 2010 The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of...

  7. Intense pulsed light sintering of copper nanoink for printed electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hak-Sung; Dhage, Sanjay R.; Shim, Dong-Eun; Hahn, H. Thomas

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    copper nanoink for printed electronics Hak-Sung Kim · Sanjay1 Introduction Printed electronics techniques such as inkjetcomponents of printed electronics are conducting lines and ?

  8. Dendrimer-Encapsulated Ruthenium Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Lithium-O2 Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Kovarik, Libor; Bowden, Mark E.; Li, Shari; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dendrimer-encapsulated ruthenium nanoparticles (DEN-Ru) have been used as catalysts in lithium-O2 batteries for the first time. Results obtained from UV-vis spectroscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show that the nanoparticles synthesized by the dendrimer template method are ruthenium oxide instead of metallic ruthenium reported earlier by other groups. The DEN-Ru significantly improve the cycling stability of lithium (Li)-O2 batteries with carbon black electrodes and decrease the charging potential even at low catalyst loading. The monodispersity, porosity and large number of surface functionalities of the dendrimer template prevent the aggregation of the ruthenium nanoparticles making their entire surface area available for catalysis. The potential of using DEN-Ru as stand-alone cathode materials for Li-O2 batteries is also explored.

  9. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL); von Winbush, Samuel (Huntington, NY)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500.degree. C., electrolysis at a voltage not more negative than about -1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  10. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, V.A.; von Winbush, S.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500/degree/C, electrolysis at a voltage not more negative that about /minus/1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  11. One-Step Synthesis of FePt Nanoparticles with Tunable Size Min Chen,, J. P. Liu, and Shouheng Sun*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J. Ping

    One-Step Synthesis of FePt Nanoparticles with Tunable Size Min Chen,, J. P. Liu, and Shouheng SunPt is coated over the seeds. Although size distribution of the particles prepared from all these methods can of the stabilizers and metal precursors, heating rate, heating temperature, and heating duration. Further, core

  12. Ag and Au atoms intercalated in bilayer heterostructures of transition metal dichalcogenides and graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iyikanat, F., E-mail: fadiliyikanat@iyte.edu.tr; Senger, R. T. [Department of Physics, Izmir Institute of Technology, 35430 Izmir (Turkey); Sahin, H., E-mail: hasan.sahin@uantwerpen.be; Peeters, F. M. [Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, 2610 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The diffusive motion of metal nanoparticles Au and Ag on monolayer and between bilayer heterostructures of transition metal dichalcogenides and graphene are investigated in the framework of density functional theory. We found that the minimum energy barriers for diffusion and the possibility of cluster formation depend strongly on both the type of nanoparticle and the type of monolayers and bilayers. Moreover, the tendency to form clusters of Ag and Au can be tuned by creating various bilayers. Tunability of the diffusion characteristics of adatoms in van der Waals heterostructures holds promise for controllable growth of nanostructures.

  13. 1/f noise in semiconductor and metal nanocrystal solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Heng, E-mail: leophy@gmail.com; Lhuillier, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.lhuillier@espci.fr; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe [James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, 929 E 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical 1/f noise is measured in thin films of CdSe, CdSe/CdS, ZnO, HgTe quantum dots and Au nanocrystals. The 1/f noise, normalized per nanoparticle, shows no systematic dependence on the nanoparticle material and the coupling material. However, over 10 orders of magnitude, it correlates well with the nearest neighbor conductance suggesting some universal magnitude of the 1/f noise in these granular conductors. In the hopping regime, the main mechanism of 1/f noise is determined to be mobility fluctuated. In the metallic regime obtained with gold nanoparticle films, the noise drops to a similar level as bulk gold films and with a similar temperature dependence.

  14. Effects of mining on fine sediment quality; a comparison with regional metal background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Effects of mining on fine sediment quality; a comparison with regional metal background University Date March 2, 2011 #12;2 Abstract The impact of an abandoned hydraulic gold mine and an open cast copper-gold mine on the quality of fine-grained sediment (

  15. THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire Tae-In Jeon,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire Tae-In Jeon,a Jiangquan Zhang, and D an experimental and theoretical study of THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single copper wire. THz pulses increasing interest on the guided wave propagation of THz pulses, and much effort and progress on THz

  16. hal-00137243,version1-19Mar2007 High shock release in ultrafast laser irradiated metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    hal-00137243,version1-19Mar2007 High shock release in ultrafast laser irradiated metals: Scenario matter exposed to subpicosecond near infrared pulsed laser radiation. We point out to the role of strong of material exceeding the specific energy required for melting is reported for copper and aluminum

  17. Sparing and Salvaging Metals in Chloroplasts Crysten E. Blaby-Haas and Sabeeha S. Merchant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koehler, Carla

    INTRODUCTION Of the essential inorganic minerals, the micronutri- ents (manganese, iron, copper, and zinc) have observations of metal nutrition. It was not until the early to mid-1800s with the popularization of the mineral on the donor side of each photosystem II (PSII) monomer unit in the dimer catalyzes the extraction of electrons

  18. Evaluation of Novel Ceria-Supported Metal Oxides As Oxygen Carriers for Chemical-Looping Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    for copper-based materials, and at 950 °C for iron- and manganese-based materials. Methane or syngas (50% COEvaluation of Novel Ceria-Supported Metal Oxides As Oxygen Carriers for Chemical-Looping Combustion of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goteborg, Sweden

  19. Interfacial plasticity governs strain rate sensitivity and ductility in nanostructured metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suresh, Subra

    Interfacial plasticity governs strain rate sensitivity and ductility in nanostructured metals Ting-controlling mechanisms of plastic flow. We attribute the relatively high ductility of nano- twinned copper to the hardening of twin boundaries as they gradually lose coherency during plastic deformation. These find- ings

  20. Reductive precipitation of metals photosensitized by tin and antimony porphyrins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A.; Gong, Weiliang; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Lutze, Werner

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for reducing metals using a tin or antimony porphyrin by forming an aqueous solution of a tin or antimony porphyrin, an electron donor, such as ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid, triethylamine, triethanolamine, and sodium nitrite, and at least one metal compound selected from a uranium-containing compound, a mercury-containing compound, a copper-containing compound, a lead-containing compound, a gold-containing compound, a silver-containing compound, and a platinum-containing compound through irradiating the aqueous solution with light.

  1. Pollution prevention and waste minimization in metal finishing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stimetz, C.J.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was done to identify pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunities in the general plating department and the printed circuit board processing department. Recommendations for certain recycle and recovery technologies were mad in order to reduce usage of acids and the volume of heavy metal sludge that is formed at the industrial Wastewater Pretreatment Facility (IWPF). Some of these technologies discussed were acid purification, electrowinning, and ion exchange. Specific technologies are prescribed for specific processes. Those plating processes where the metals can be recovered are copper, nickel, gold, cadmium, tin, lead, and rhodium.

  2. Scintillation of rare earth doped fluoride nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsohn, L. G.; McPherson, C. L.; Sprinkle, K. B.; Ballato, J. [Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Yukihara, E. G. [Physics Department, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078-3072 (United States); DeVol, T. A. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634-0905 (United States)

    2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The scintillation response of rare earth (RE) doped core/undoped (multi-)shell fluoride nanoparticles was investigated under x-ray and alpha particle irradiation. A significant enhancement of the scintillation response was observed with increasing shells due: (i) to the passivation of surface quenching defects together with the activation of the REs on the surface of the core nanoparticle after the growth of a shell, and (ii) to the increase of the volume of the nanoparticles. These results are expected to reflect a general aspect of the scintillation process in nanoparticles, and to impact radiation sensing technologies that make use of nanoparticles.

  3. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Schulz, R.L.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300--800 C to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000--1,550 C at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification. 2 figs.

  4. Method for recovering metals from waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (North Augusta, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Schulz, Rebecca L. (Gainesville, FL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for recovering metals from metals-containing wastes, and vitrifying the remainder of the wastes for disposal. Metals-containing wastes such as circuit boards, cathode ray tubes, vacuum tubes, transistors and so forth, are broken up and placed in a suitable container. The container is heated by microwaves to a first temperature in the range of approximately 300-800.degree. C. to combust organic materials in the waste, then heated further to a second temperature in the range of approximately 1,000-1,550.degree. C. at which temperature glass formers present in the waste will cause it to melt and vitrify. Low-melting-point metals such as tin and aluminum can be recovered after organics combustion is substantially complete. Metals with higher melting points, such as gold, silver and copper, can be recovered from the solidified product or separated from the waste at their respective melting points. Network former-containing materials can be added at the start of the process to assist vitrification.

  5. Attenuation of external Bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhaliwal, A.S.; Powar, M.S.; Singh, M. (Punjabi Univ., Physics Dept., Patiala 147002 (IN))

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper attenuation of bremsstrahlung from {sup 147}Pm and {sup 170}Tm beta emitters has been studied in aluminum, copper, tin, and lead metallic absorbers. Bremsstrahlung spectra and mass attenuation coefficients for monoenergetic gamma rays are used to calculate theoretical attenuation curves. Magnetic deflection and beta stopping techniques are used to measure the integral bremsstrahlung intensities above 30 keV in different target thicknesses. Comparison of measured and calculated attenuation curves shows a good agreement for various absorbers, thus providing a test of this technique, which may be useful in understanding bremsstrahlung intensity buildup and in the design of optimum shielding for bremsstrahlung sources. It is found that the absorption of bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers does not obey an exponential law and that absorbers act as energy filters.

  6. DNA-guided nanoparticle assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gang, Oleg; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Maye, Mathew; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In some embodiments, DNA-capped nanoparticles are used to define a degree of crystalline order in assemblies thereof. In some embodiments, thermodynamically reversible and stable body-centered cubic (bcc) structures, with particles occupying <.about.10% of the unit cell, are formed. Designs and pathways amenable to the crystallization of particle assemblies are identified. In some embodiments, a plasmonic crystal is provided. In some aspects, a method for controlling the properties of particle assemblages is provided. In some embodiments a catalyst is formed from nanoparticles linked by nucleic acid sequences and forming an open crystal structure with catalytically active agents attached to the crystal on its surface or in interstices.

  7. Multiple metals predict prolactin and thyrotropin (TSH) levels in men

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 6635 SPH Tower, 109 S. Observatory St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Rossano, Mary G. [Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)] [Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Protas, Bridget [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Daly, Douglas [Grand Rapids Fertility and IVF, Grand Rapids, MI (United States)] [Grand Rapids Fertility and IVF, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Paneth, Nigel [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Wirth, Julia J. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States) [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Exposure to a number of metals can affect neuroendocrine and thyroid signaling, which can result in adverse effects on development, behavior, metabolism, reproduction, and other functions. The present study assessed the relationship between metal concentrations in blood and serum prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, markers of dopaminergic, and thyroid function, respectively, among men participating in a study of environmental influences on male reproductive health. Blood samples from 219 men were analyzed for concentrations of 11 metals and serum levels of PRL and TSH. In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, BMI and smoking, PRL was inversely associated with arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc, but positively associated with chromium. Several of these associations (Cd, Pb, Mo) are consistent with limited studies in humans or animals, and a number of the relationships (Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo) remained when additionally considering multiple metals in the model. Lead and copper were associated with non-monotonic decrease in TSH, while arsenic was associated with a dose-dependent increase in TSH. For arsenic these findings were consistent with recent experimental studies where arsenic inhibited enzymes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling. More research is needed for a better understanding of the role of metals in neuroendocrine and thyroid function and related health implications.

  8. Copper accumulation and lipid oxidation precede inflammation and myelin lesions in N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate peripheral myelinopathy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viquez, Olga M.; Valentine, Holly L.; Amarnath, Kalyani [Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Ave. S., Nashville, TN 37232-2561 (United States); Milatovic, Dejan [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Ave. S., Nashville, TN 37232-2561 (United States); Valentine, William M. [Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Ave. S., Nashville, TN 37232-2561 (United States); Center in Molecular Toxicology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Ave. S., Nashville, TN 37232-2561 (United States); Center for Molecular Neuroscience, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1161 21st Ave. S., Nashville, TN 37232-2561 (United States)], E-mail: bill.valentine@vanderbilt.edu

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Dithiocarbamates have a wide spectrum of applications in industry, agriculture and medicine with new applications being actively investigated. One adverse effect of dithiocarbamates is the neurotoxicity observed in humans and experimental animals. Results from previous studies have suggested that dithiocarbamates elevate copper and promote lipid oxidation within myelin membranes. In the current study, copper levels, lipid oxidation, protein oxidative damage and markers of inflammation were monitored as a function of N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDC) exposure duration in an established model for DEDC-mediated myelinopathy in the rat. Intra-abdominal administration of DEDC was performed using osmotic pumps for periods of 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Metals in brain, liver and tibial nerve were measured using ICP-MS and lipid oxidation assessed through HPLC measurement of malondialdehyde in tibial nerve, and GC/MS measurement of F{sub 2} isoprostanes in sciatic nerve. Protein oxidative injury of sciatic nerve proteins was evaluated through quantification of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts using immunoassay, and inflammation monitored by quantifying levels of IgGs and activated macrophages using immunoassay and immunohistochemistry methods, respectively. Changes in these parameters were then correlated to the onset of structural lesions, determined by light and electron microscopy, to delineate the temporal relationship of copper accumulation and oxidative stress in peripheral nerve to the onset of myelin lesions. The data provide evidence that DEDC mediates lipid oxidation and elevation of total copper in peripheral nerve well before myelin lesions or activated macrophages are evident. This relationship is consistent with copper-mediated oxidative stress contributing to the myelinopathy.

  9. Copper vapor laser acoustic thermometry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galkowski, Joseph J. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A copper vapor laser (CVL) acoustic thermometry system is disclosed. The invention couples an acoustic pulse a predetermined distance into a laser tube by means of a transducer and an alumina rod such that an echo pulse is returned along the alumina rod to the point of entry. The time differential between the point of entry of the acoustic pulse into the laser tube and the exit of the echo pulse is related to the temperature at the predetermined distance within the laser tube. This information is processed and can provide an accurate indication of the average temperature within the laser tube.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, and application of surface-functionalized ordered mesoporous nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Po-Wen

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dissertation begins with Chapter 1, which is a general introduction of the fundamental synthesis of mesoporous silica materials, the selective functionlization of mesoporous silica materials, and the synthesis of nanostructured porous materials via nanocasting. In Chapter 2, the thermo-responsive polymer coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) was synthesized via surface-initated polymerization and exhibited unique partition activities in a biphasic solution with the thermally induced change. In Chapter 3, the monodispersed spherical MSN with different mesoporous structure (MCM-48) was developed and employed as a template for the synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCN) via nanocasting. MCN was demonstrated for the delivery of membrane impermeable chemical agents inside the cells. The cellular uptake efficiency and biocompabtibility of MCN with human cervical cancer cells were also investigated. In addition to the biocompabtibility of MCN, MCN was demonstrated to support Rh-Mn nanoparticles for catalytic reaction in Chapter 4. Owing to the unique mesoporosity, Rh-Mn nanoparticles can be well distributed inside the mesoporous structure and exhibited interesting catalytic performance on CO hydrogenation. In Chapter 5, the synthesis route of the aforementioned MCM-48 MSN was discussed and investigated in details and other metal oxide nanoparticles were also developed via nanocasting by using MCM-48 MSN as a template. At last, there is a general conclusion summarized in Chapter 6.

  11. Concomitant Microbial Generation of Palladium Nanoparticles and Hydrogen To Immobilize Chromate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidambaram, D.; Hennebel, T; Taghavi, S; Mast, J; Boon, N; Verstraete, W; Van Der Lelie, D; Fitts, J

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic properties of various metal nanoparticles have led to their use in environmental remediation. Our aim is to develop and apply an efficient bioremediation method based on in situ biosynthesis of bio-Pd nanoparticles and hydrogen. C. pasteurianum BC1 was used to reduce Pd(II) ions to form Pd nanoparticles (bio-Pd) that primarily precipitated on the cell wall and in the cytoplasm. C. pasteurianum BC1 cells, loaded with bio-Pd nanoparticle in the presence of glucose, were subsequently used to fermentatively produce hydrogen and to effectively catalyze the removal of soluble Cr(VI) via reductive transformation to insoluble Cr(III) species. Batch and aquifer microcosm experiments using C. pasteurianum BC1 cells loaded with bio-Pd showed efficient reductive Cr(VI) removal, while in control experiments with killed or viable but Pd-free bacterial cultures no reductive Cr(VI) removal was observed. Our results suggest a novel process where the in situ microbial production of hydrogen is directly coupled to the catalytic bio-Pd mediated reduction of chromate. This process offers significant advantages over the current groundwater treatment technologies that rely on introducing preformed catalytic nanoparticles into groundwater treatment zones and the costly addition of molecular hydrogen to above ground pump and treat systems.

  12. Metallomics of two microorganisms relevant to heavy metal bioremediation reveal fundamental differences in metal assimilation and utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lancaster, Andrew [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Menon, Angeli [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Scott, Israel [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Poole, Farris [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Vaccaro, Brian [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Thorgersen, Michael P [ORNL] [ORNL; Geller, Jil [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hazen, Terry C [ORNL] [ORNL; Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL] [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL] [ORNL; Adams, Michael W. W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although as many as half of all proteins are thought to require a metal cofactor, the metalloproteomes of microorganisms remain relatively unexplored. Microorganisms from different environments are likely to vary greatly in the metals that they assimilate, not just among the metals with well-characterized roles but also those lacking any known function. Herein we investigated the metal utilization of two microorganisms that were isolated from very similar environments and are of interest because of potential roles in the immobilization of heavy metals, such as uranium and chromium. The metals assimilated and their concentrations in the cytoplasm of Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain Hildenborough (DvH) and Enterobacter cloacae strain Hanford (EcH) varied dramatically, with a larger number of metals present in Enterobacter. For example, a total of 9 and 19 metals were assimilated into their cytoplasmic fractions, respectively, and DvH did not assimilate significant amounts of zinc or copper whereas EcH assimilated both. However, bioinformatic analysis of their genome sequences revealed a comparable number of predicted metalloproteins, 813 in DvH and 953 in EcH. These allowed some rationalization of the types of metal assimilated in some cases (Fe, Cu, Mo, W, V) but not in others (Zn, Nd, Ce, Pr, Dy, Hf and Th). It was also shown that U binds an unknown soluble protein in EcH but this incorporation was the result of extracellular U binding to cytoplasmic components after cell lysis.

  13. Heavy metal concentration in bay sediments of Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukue, Masaharu; Kato, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Takaaki [Tokai Univ., Shimizu (Japan); Yamasaki, Shoichi [Aoki Marine Ltd., Fukushima, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Because industry discharge wastes into the sea, marine sediments can be contaminated with various kinds of hazardous and toxic substances. This study discusses how the degree of pollution of heavy metals affects the marine sediments from Osaka Bay and Tokyo Bay. In this study, the concentrations of various metals, such as manganese, iron, aluminum, titanium, vanadium, copper, phosphorus, etc., were measured from sediment samples obtained from different sites in the bays. However, the results had to be corrected because background concentrations for each metal differ with site location and grain size characteristics. The large difference between background and individual concentrations at various soil depths indicates that the surface layers of the seabed are significantly polluted with some species of heavy metal and other elements.

  14. Positive electrode current collector for liquid metal cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimotake, Hiroshi (Hinsdale, IL); Bartholme, Louis G. (Joliet, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  15. Positive-electrode current collector for liquid-metal cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimotake, H.; Bartholme, L.G.

    1982-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  16. Etching of Copper Coated Mylar Tubes With CF-4 Gas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ecklund, Karl M.; Hartman, Keith W.; Hebert, Michael J.; Wojcicki, Stanley G.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using 5 mm diameter copper coated mylar straw tubes at a potential of 2.30 KV relative to a concentric 20 (mu)m diameter gold-plated tungsten anode, it has been observed that with very low flow rates of CF4-based gases the conductive copper cathode material may be removed entirely from the mylar surface.

  17. Tungsten-yttria carbide coating for conveying copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothman, Albert J. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for providing a carbided-tungsten-yttria coating on the interior surface of a copper vapor laser. The surface serves as a wick for the condensation of liquid copper to return the condensate to the interior of the laser for revolatilization.

  18. COPPER--2000 23.1 By Daniel L. Edelstein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    lightbulb and initial development of electric power distribution infrastructure late in the 19th century Copper in the 20th Century At the beginning of the 20th century, following patenting of the electric, the United States was experiencing a prolonged period of expansion in copper use for electrical generation

  19. Transport properties of zigzag graphene nanoribbon decorated with copper clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berahman, M.; Sheikhi, M. H., E-mail: msheikhi@shirazu.ac.ir [School of Electrical and Computer Eng, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanotechnology Research Institute, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Using non-equilibrium green function with density functional theory, the present study investigates the transport properties of decorated zigzag graphene nanoribbon with a copper cluster. We have represented the decoration of zigzag graphene nanoribbon with single copper atom and cluster containing two and three copper atoms. In all the cases, copper atoms tend to occupy the edge state. In addition, we have shown that copper can alter the current-voltage characteristic of zigzag graphene nanoribbon and create new fluctuations and negative differential resistance. These alternations are made due to discontinuity in the combination of orbitals along the graphene nanoribbon. Decoration alters these discontinuities and creates more visible fluctuations. However, in low bias voltages, the changes are similar in all the cases. The study demonstrates that in the decorated zigzag graphene nanoribbon, the edge states are the main states for transporting electron from one electrode to another.

  20. Zinc ferrite nanoparticles as MRI contrast agentsw Carlos Ba rcena,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jinming

    Zinc ferrite nanoparticles as MRI contrast agentsw Carlos Ba´ rcena,a Amandeep K. Sra,a Girija S, a series of spinel-structured ferrites, MFe2O4 (M = Mn2+ , Fe2+ , Co2+ , Ni2+ ), were reported as novel MRI.e., Mn2+ occupies both A and B sites), whereas the other metal ferrites have an inverse spinel structure

  1. Method for the rapid synthesis of large quantities of metal oxide nanowires at low temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar (Louisville, KY); Vaddiraju, Sreeram (Mountain View, CA); Mozetic, Miran (Ljubljan, SI); Cvelbar, Uros (Idrija, SI)

    2009-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the rapid synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles at low temperatures and methods which facilitate the fabrication of long metal oxide nanowires. The method is based on treatment of metals with oxygen plasma. Using oxygen plasma at low temperatures allows for rapid growth unlike other synthesis methods where nanomaterials take a long time to grow. Density of neutral oxygen atoms in plasma is a controlling factor for the yield of nanowires. The oxygen atom density window differs for different materials. By selecting the optimal oxygen atom density for various materials the yield can be maximized for nanowire synthesis of the metal.

  2. Breakthrough: Fighting Cancer with Nanoparticles

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Rozhkova, Elena

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne nanoscientist Elena Rozhkova is studying ways to enlist nanoparticles to treat brain cancer. This nano-bio technology may eventually provide an alternative form of therapy that targets only cancer cells and does not affect normal living tissue. Read more at http://1.usa.gov/JAXh7Q.

  3. Breakthrough: Fighting Cancer with Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozhkova, Elena

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne nanoscientist Elena Rozhkova is studying ways to enlist nanoparticles to treat brain cancer. This nano-bio technology may eventually provide an alternative form of therapy that targets only cancer cells and does not affect normal living tissue. Read more at http://1.usa.gov/JAXh7Q.

  4. Tribological Properties of Ionic Liquids Lubricants Containing Nanoparticles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Wei

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    O_(2) nanoparticles, and shown that functionalized SiO_(2) nanoparticles led to improved colloidal stability. Friction force profiles, friction coefficients, viscosity behavior, wear behavior of these mixtures at various nanoparticles concentrations...

  5. Nanofluidic preconcentration and detection of nanoparticles Anirban Mitra,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novotny, Lukas

    Nanofluidic preconcentration and detection of nanoparticles Anirban Mitra,1 Filipp Ignatovich,2 nanofluidic scheme for preconcentration and subsequent detection of nanoparticle samples within a continuous characteriza- tion of nanoparticle and virus samples, several nanofluidic flow-through schemes have been

  6. Thermal conductivity studies of metal dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes in water and ethylene glycol based nanofluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, Neetu; Ramaprabhu, S. [Department of Physics, Alternative Energy and Nanotechnology Laboratory (AENL), Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre (NFMTC), Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High thermal conducting metal nanoparticles have been dispersed on the multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) outer surface. Structural and morphological characterizations of metal dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using x-ray diffraction analysis, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Nanofluids have been synthesized using metal-MWNTs in de-ionized water (DI water) and ethylene glycol (EG) base fluids. It has been observed that nanofluids maintain the same sequence of thermal conductivity as that of metal nanoparticles Ag-MWNTs>Au-MWNTs>Pd-MWNTs. A maximum enhancement of 37.3% and 11.3% in thermal conductivity has been obtained in Ag-MWNTs nanofluid with DI water and EG as base fluids, respectively, at a volume fraction of 0.03%. Temperature dependence study also shows enhancement of thermal conductivity with temperature.

  7. Rare earth oxide fluoride nanoparticles and hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Hoffmann, Markus M. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2001-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  8. Rare Earth Oxide Fluoride Nanoparticles And Hydrothermal Method For Forming Nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Hoffmann, Markus M. (Richland, WA)

    2003-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrothermal method for forming nanoparticles of a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine has been discovered. Nanoparticles comprising a rare earth element, oxygen and fluorine are also described. These nanoparticles can exhibit excellent refractory properties as well as remarkable stability in hydrothermal conditions. The nanoparticles can exhibit excellent properties for numerous applications including fiber reinforcement of ceramic composites, catalyst supports, and corrosion resistant coatings for high-temperature aqueous solutions.

  9. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  10. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  11. Liquid-liquid interfacial nanoparticle assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Emrick, Todd S. (South Deerfield, MA); Russell, Thomas P. (Amherst, MA); Dinsmore, Anthony (Amherst, MA); Skaff, Habib (Amherst, MA); Lin, Yao (Amherst, MA)

    2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-assembly of nanoparticles at the interface between two fluids, and methods to control such self-assembly process, e.g., the surface density of particles assembling at the interface; to utilize the assembled nanoparticles and their ligands in fabrication of capsules, where the elastic properties of the capsules can be varied from soft to tough; to develop capsules with well-defined porosities for ultimate use as delivery systems; and to develop chemistries whereby multiple ligands or ligands with multiple functionalities can be attached to the nanoparticles to promote the interfacial segregation and assembly of the nanoparticles. Certain embodiments use cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanoparticles, since the photoluminescence of the particles provides a convenient means by which the spatial location and organization of the particles can be probed. However, the systems and methodologies presented here are general and can, with suitable modification of the chemistries, be adapted to any type of nanoparticle.

  12. Fabricating solar cells with silicon nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loscutoff, Paul; Molesa, Steve; Kim, Taeseok

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser contact process is employed to form contact holes to emitters of a solar cell. Doped silicon nanoparticles are formed over a substrate of the solar cell. The surface of individual or clusters of silicon nanoparticles is coated with a nanoparticle passivation film. Contact holes to emitters of the solar cell are formed by impinging a laser beam on the passivated silicon nanoparticles. For example, the laser contact process may be a laser ablation process. In that case, the emitters may be formed by diffusing dopants from the silicon nanoparticles prior to forming the contact holes to the emitters. As another example, the laser contact process may be a laser melting process whereby portions of the silicon nanoparticles are melted to form the emitters and contact holes to the emitters.

  13. Surface Plasmon-Driven Water Reduction: Gold Nanoparticle Size...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasmon-Driven Water Reduction: Gold Nanoparticle Size Matters. Surface Plasmon-Driven Water Reduction: Gold Nanoparticle Size Matters. Abstract: Water reduction under two visible...

  14. Preparation of Polymer-Coated Functionalized Ferrimagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Shi

    A simple chemical method to synthesize PMAA coated maghemite nanoparticles is described. Monomer methacrylic acid molecules were absorbed onto the synthesized ferrimagnetic nanoparticles followed by polymerization. The ...

  15. Multi-component Nanoparticle Based Lubricant Additive to Improve...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanoparticle Based Lubricant Additive to Improve Efficiency and Durability in Engines Multi-component Nanoparticle Based Lubricant Additive to Improve Efficiency and...

  16. Photoluminescence Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles. Photoluminescence Properties of Alkaline-Earth Oxide Nanoparticles. Abstract: Previous experiments have demonstrated that...

  17. Morphology and Oxide Shell Structure of Iron Nanoparticles Grown...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxide Shell Structure of Iron Nanoparticles Grown by Sputter-Gas-Aggregation. Morphology and Oxide Shell Structure of Iron Nanoparticles Grown by Sputter-Gas-Aggregation. Abstract:...

  18. Synthesis of Lutetium Phosphate/Apoferritin Core-Shell Nanoparticles...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lutetium PhosphateApoferritin Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Potential Applications in Radioimmunoimaging and Synthesis of Lutetium PhosphateApoferritin Core-Shell Nanoparticles...

  19. Green approach for self-assembly of platinum nanoparticles into...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Green approach for self-assembly of platinum nanoparticles into nanowires in aqueous glucose solutions. Green approach for self-assembly of platinum nanoparticles into nanowires in...

  20. Bioreduction of hematite nanoparticles by the dissimilatory iron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nanoparticles by the dissimilatory iron reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Bioreduction of hematite nanoparticles by the dissimilatory iron reducing bacterium...

  1. Graphene decorated with PtAu alloy nanoparticles: facile synthesis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nanoparticles: facile synthesis and promising application for formic acid oxidation. Graphene decorated with PtAu alloy nanoparticles: facile synthesis and promising application...

  2. Measurement of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic stripper for comparison with Europe's PMP protocol Measurement of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic...

  3. Biocompatible core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for cancer treatment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biocompatible core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for cancer treatment. Biocompatible core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for cancer treatment. Abstract: Non-toxic magnetic...

  4. Dendrimer-Encapsulated Ruthenium Nanoparticles as Catalysts for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dendrimer-Encapsulated Ruthenium Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Lithium-O2 Batteries. Dendrimer-Encapsulated Ruthenium Nanoparticles as Catalysts for Lithium-O2 Batteries....

  5. A new method for measuring the viscosity of nanoparticles | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A new method for measuring the viscosity of nanoparticles A new method for measuring the viscosity of nanoparticles Released: March 31, 2013 First direct determination of the...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: Titanium-di-oxide nanoparticles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Titanium-di-oxide nanoparticles Novel Nanoparticle Production Method Could Lead to Better Lights, Lenses, Solar Cells On July 1, 2014, in Capabilities, CINT, Energy, Energy...

  7. Watermelon-like iron nanoparticles: Cr doping effect on magnetism...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Watermelon-like iron nanoparticles: Cr doping effect on magnetism and magnetization interaction reversal. Watermelon-like iron nanoparticles: Cr doping effect on magnetism and...

  8. Carbon nanotubes decorated with Pt nanoparticles via electrostatic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pt nanoparticles via electrostatic self-assembly: a highly active oxygen reduction Carbon nanotubes decorated with Pt nanoparticles via electrostatic self-assembly: a highly...

  9. Fluorescent Multiblock ?-Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for In Vivo Tumor Targeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Eilaf

    Highly fluorescent multiblock conjugated polymer nanoparticles with folic acid surface ligands are highly effective for bioimaging and in vivo tumor targeting. The targeted nanoparticles were preferentially localized in ...

  10. Aerosol fabrication methods for monodisperse nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Xingmao; Brinker, C Jeffrey

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods for forming monodisperse particles. In one embodiment, the monodisperse particles can be formed by first spraying a nanoparticle-containing dispersion into aerosol droplets and then heating the aerosol droplets in the presence of a shell precursor to form core-shell particles. By removing either the shell layer or the nanoparticle core of the core-shell particles, monodisperse nanoparticles can be formed.

  11. Metal-Organic Heat Carrier Nanofluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrail, B. Peter; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Nune, Satish K.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Dang, Liem X.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofluids, dispersions of metal or oxide nanoparticles in a base working fluid, are being intensively studied due to improvements they offer in thermal properties of the working fluid. However, these benefits have been erratically demonstrated and proven impacts on thermal conductivity are modest and well described from long-established effective medium theory. In this paper, we describe a new class of metal-organic heat carrier (MOHC) nanofluid that offers potential for a larger performance boost in thermal vapor-liquid compression cycles. MOHCs are nanophase porous coordination solids designed to reversibly uptake the working fluid molecules in which the MOHCs are suspended. Additional heat can be extracted in a heat exchanger or solar collector from the endothermic enthalpy of desorption, which is then released as the nanofluid transits through a power generating device such as a turboexpander. Calculations for an R123 MOHC nanofluid indicated potential for up to 15% increase in power output. Capillary tube experiments show that liquid-vapor transitions occur without nanoparticle deposition on the tube walls provided entrance Reynolds number exceeds approximately 100.

  12. Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goretta, K.C.; Kullberg, M.L.

    1993-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal ZrO[sub 2] particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x] (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K[sub IC]). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y[sub 2]BaCuO[sub 5] (211) on the ZrO[sub 2] particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO[sub 2] coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K[sub IC] of 4.5 MPa(m)[sup 0.5].

  13. Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Kullberg, Marc L. (Lisle, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal Zro.sub.2 particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K.sub.IC). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y.sub.2 BaCuO.sub.5 (211) on the ZrO.sub.2 particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO.sub.2 coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K.sub.IC of 4.5 MPa(m).sup.0.5.

  14. Ternary Self-Assembly of Ordered Metal Oxide Graphene Nanocomposites for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    Ternary Self-Assembly of Ordered Metal Oxide Graphene Nanocomposites for Electrochemical Energy-assembled nanostructures, but success has been lim- ited to two-phase organic/inorganic hybrid materials, nanoparticles, or polymer-based nanocomposites.4,5,16,17 Recently, a range of nanoscale building blocks, including carbon

  15. With Nanoparticles, Slower May Be Better

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    molecular structures. And thanks to their promise of tunability, nanoparticle-based composites are also of great commercial interest for applications ranging from medicine and...

  16. Structure, chemistry, and properties of mineral nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waychunas, G.A.; Zhang, H.; Gilbert, B.

    2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoparticle properties can depart markedly from their bulk analog materials, including large differences in chemical reactivity, molecular and electronic structure, and mechanical behavior. The greatest changes are expected at the smallest sizes, e.g. 10 nm and below, where surface effects are expected to dominate bonding, shape and energy considerations. The precise chemistry at nanoparticle interfaces can have a profound effect on structure, phase transformations, strain, and reactivity. Certain phases may exist only as nanoparticles, requiring transformations in chemistry, stoichiometry and structure with evolution to larger sizes. In general, mineralogical nanoparticles have been little studied.

  17. Cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, I-Ju

    2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation mainly focuses on the investigation of the cellular membrane trafficking of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. We are interested in the study of endocytosis and exocytosis behaviors of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with desired surface functionality. The relationship between mesoporous silica nanoparticles and membrane trafficking of cells, either cancerous cells or normal cells was examined. Since mesoporous silica nanoparticles were applied in many drug delivery cases, the endocytotic efficiency of mesoporous silica nanoparticles needs to be investigated in more details in order to design the cellular drug delivery system in the controlled way. It is well known that cells can engulf some molecules outside of the cells through a receptor-ligand associated endocytosis. We are interested to determine if those biomolecules binding to cell surface receptors can be utilized on mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to improve the uptake efficiency or govern the mechanism of endocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) is a small peptide recognized by cell integrin receptors and it was reported that avidin internalization was highly promoted by tumor lectin. Both RGD and avidin were linked to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials to investigate the effect of receptor-associated biomolecule on cellular endocytosis efficiency. The effect of ligand types, ligand conformation and ligand density were discussed in Chapter 2 and 3. Furthermore, the exocytosis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles is very attractive for biological applications. The cellular protein sequestration study of mesoporous silica nanoparticles was examined for further information of the intracellular pathway of endocytosed mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials. The surface functionality of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials demonstrated selectivity among the materials and cancer and normal cell lines. We aimed to determine the specific organelle that mesoporous silica nanoparticles could approach via the identification of harvested proteins from exocytosis process. Based on the study of endo- and exocytosis behavior of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials, we can design smarter drug delivery vehicles for cancer therapy that can be effectively controlled. The destination, uptake efficiency and the cellular distribution of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials can be programmable. As a result, release mechanism and release rate of drug delivery systems can be a well-controlled process. The deep investigation of an endo- and exocytosis study of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials promotes the development of drug delivery applications.

  18. Silica Supported Ceria Nanoparticles: A Hybrid Nanostructure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The surface chemical and vibrational spectroscopy analysis revealed cerium–silicate (Ce-O-Si) covalent bond linkage between silica and cerium oxide nanoparticles. The...

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: nanoparticle production method

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News & Events, Photovoltaic, Research & Capabilities, Solar, Solid-State Lighting Titanium-dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles show great promise as fillers to tune the refractive...

  20. Heat Transfer Fluids Containing Nanoparticles | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Containing Nanoparticles Technology available for licensing: A stable, nonreactive nanofluid that exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties with only a minimal increase in...

  1. Structure, chemistry, and properties of mineral nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waychunas, G.A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    true for nanoparticle goethite and hematite, where bulkcrystals, would have goethite stoichiometry. In effect,Figure 4, submicron sized goethite particles show a pattern

  2. Laser induced plasma on copper target, a non-equilibrium model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oumeziane, Amina Ait, E-mail: a.aitoumeziane@gmail.com; Liani, Bachir [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Abou Beker Blekaid University, Tlemcen (Algeria)] [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Abou Beker Blekaid University, Tlemcen (Algeria); Parisse, Jean-Denis [IUSTI UMR CNRS 7343, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (France)] [IUSTI UMR CNRS 7343, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (France)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work is to present a comprehensive numerical model for the UV laser ablation of metal targets, it focuses mainly on the prediction of laser induced plasma thresholds, the effect of the laser-plasma interaction, and the importance of the electronic non-equilibrium in the laser induced plume and its expansion in the background gas. This paper describes a set of numerical models for laser-matter interaction between 193-248 and 355?nm lasers and a copper target. Along with the thermal effects inside the material resulting from the irradiation of the latter with the pulsed laser, the laser-evaporated matter interaction and the plasma formation are thoroughly modelled. In the laser induced plume, the electronic nonequilibrium and the laser beam absorption have been investigated. Our calculations of the plasmas ignition thresholds on copper targets have been validated and compared to experimental as well as theoretical results. Comparison with experiment data indicates that our results are in good agreement with those reported in the literature. Furthermore, the inclusion of electronic non-equilibrium in our work indicated that this important process must be included in models of laser ablation and plasma plume formation.

  3. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  4. Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Haw (Moraga, CA); Cang, Hu (Berkeley, CA); Xu, Cangshan (Berkeley, CA); Wong, Chung M. (San Gabriel, CA)

    2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

  5. Cr(VI) reduction in aqueous solutions by using copper smelter slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiyak, B.; Oezer, A.; Altundogan, H.S.; Erdem, M.; Tuemen, F. (Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey))

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of Copper Smelter Slag (CSS) to reduce Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions has been investigated. The extent of reduction if dependent on the amounts of acid and reductant, contact time, Cr(VI) concentration, temperature of the solution and particle size of CSS. The amount of acid is the most important variable affecting the reduction process. When twice the amount of acid required with respect to Cr(VI) was used, Cr(VI) in 100 ml solution (100 mg/l) was completely reduced in a contact period less than 5 min by a 10 g/l dosage of CSS. Reduction efficiency increased with increase in temperature of solution, showing that the process is endothermic. Reduced chromium, and iron and other metals dissolved from CSS were effectively precipitated by using NaOH or calcinated carbonation sludge from sugar plant.

  6. Cr(VI) reduction in aqueous solutions by using copper smelter slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiyak, B.; Oezer, A.; Altundogan, H.S.; Erdem, M.; Tuemen, F. [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey)] [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of Copper Smelter Slag (CSS) to reduce Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions has been investigated. The extent of reduction if dependent on the amounts of acid and reductant, contact time, Cr(VI) concentration, temperature of the solution and particle size of CSS. The amount of acid is the most important variable affecting the reduction process. When twice the amount of acid required with respect to Cr(VI) was used, Cr(VI) in 100 ml solution (100 mg/l) was completely reduced in a contact period less than 5 min by a 10 g/l dosage of CSS. Reduction efficiency increased with increase in temperature of solution, showing that the process is endothermic. Reduced chromium, and iron and other metals dissolved from CSS were effectively precipitated by using NaOH or calcinated carbonation sludge from sugar plant.

  7. Applications of Self-assembly for Molecular Electronics, Plasmon Coupling, and Ion Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Yang-Hsiang

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation focused on the applications of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) technique for the investigation of molecule based electronics, plasmon coupling between CdSe quantum dots and metal nanoparticles (MNPs), and copper ion detection...

  8. Characterization of Transport and Solidification in the Metal Recycling Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. A. Ebadian; R. C. Xin; Z. F. Dong

    1997-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The characterization of the transport and solidification of metal in the melting and casting processes is significant for the optimization of the radioactively contaminated metal recycling and refining processes. . In this research project, the transport process in the melting and solidification of metal was numerically predicted, and the microstructure and radionuclide distribution have been characterized by scanning electron microscope/electron diffractive X-ray (SEWEDX) analysis using cesium chloride (CSC1) as the radionuclide surrogate. In the melting and solidification process, a resistance furnace whose heating and cooling rates are program- controlled in the helium atmosphere was used. The characterization procedures included weighing, melting and solidification, weighing after solidification, sample preparation, and SEM/EDX analysis. This analytical methodology can be used to characterize metal recycling and refining products in order to evaluate the performance of the recycling process. The data obtained provide much valuable information that is necessary for the enhancement of radioactive contaminated metal decontamination and recycling technologies. The numerical method for the prediction of the melting and solidification process can be implemented in the control and monitoring system-of the melting and casting process in radioactive contaminated metal recycling. The use of radionuclide surrogates instead of real radionuclides enables the research to be performed without causing harmfid effects on people or the community. This characterization process has been conducted at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University since October 1995. Tests have been conducted on aluminum (Al) and copper (Cu) using cesium chloride (CSCI) as a radionuclide surrogate, and information regarding the radionuclide transfer and distribution in melting and solidification process has been obtained. The numerical simulation of the solidification of molten metal has been very successful for aluminium; however, a stability problem in the simulation of iron/steel solidification poses a challenge. Thus, additional development is needed to simulate the radionuclide transfer and distribution behaviors in the melting and casting processes. This project was initially based on a two-year plan. However, due to technical and financial difficulties, the project ended in FY96. The work which has been accomplished in the first year includes the characterization of radionuclide transfer and distribution in the melting-solidification process and the numerical simulation of metal solidification. The Argon-arc melting method was tested for the melting of copper and steel materials. Five tests were performed to characterize the transfer and distribution of radionuclides in the aluminiurn and copper melting/solidification process using CSC1 as radionuclide surrogates. The numerical simulation of molten aluminium and steel solidification process was performed. Different boundary conditions were applied in the simulations.

  9. Metal Hydrides - Science Needs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with traditions in metal hydride research Metal and Ceramic Sciences Condensed Matter Physics Materials Chemistry Chemical and Biological Sciences Located on campus of Tier...

  10. Improved mass transport efficiency in copper solvent extraction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Ross John

    2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis considers methods which can be employed to increase the mass of copper transferred into and out of the organic phase during the load and strip stages of commercial solvent extraction processes. Conventional ...

  11. Copper Aluminate as a potential material for high temperature...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper Aluminate as a potential material for high temperature thermoelectric power generation Home Author: D. T. Morelli, E. D. Case, B. D. Hall, S. Wang Year: 2008 Abstract: URL:...

  12. Continuous Flow Coupling and Decarboxylation Reactions Promoted by Copper Tubing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yun

    A convenient and efficient flow method for Ullmann condensations, Sonogashira couplings, and decarboxylation reactions using a commercially available copper tube flow reactor (CTFR) is described. The heated CTFR effects ...

  13. Nucleic acid based fluorescent sensor for copper detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

    2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A nucleic acid enzyme responsive to copper, comprising an oligonucleotide comprising a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:1, wherein the nucleic acid enzyme is not self-cleaving.

  14. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  15. Direct femtosecond laser ablation of copper with an optical vortex beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anoop, K. K.; Rubano, A.; Marrucci, L.; Bruzzese, R.; Amoruso, S., E-mail: amoruso@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN, UOS Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Fittipaldi, R.; Vecchione, A. [CNR-SPIN, UOS Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Wang, X.; Paparo, D. [CNR-SPIN, UOS Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser surface structuring of copper is induced by laser ablation with a femtosecond optical vortex beam generated via spin-to-orbital conversion of the angular momentum of light by using a q-plate. The variation of the produced surface structures is studied as a function of the number of pulses, N, and laser fluence, F. After the first laser pulse (N?=?1), the irradiated surface presents an annular region characterized by a corrugated morphology made by a rather complex network of nanometer-scale ridges, wrinkles, pores, and cavities. Increasing the number of pulses (2?nanoparticles produced during laser ablation. At large number of pulses (200??1000) and a deep crater is formed. The nanostructure variation with the laser fluence, F, also evidences an interesting dependence, with a coarsening of the structure morphology as F increases. Our experimental findings demonstrate that direct femtosecond laser ablation with optical vortex beams produces interesting patterns not achievable by the more standard beams with a Gaussian intensity profile. They also suggest that appropriate tuning of the experimental conditions (F, N) can allow generating micro- and/or nano-structured surface for any specific application.

  16. Controlling Graphene Ultrafast Hot Carrier Response from Metal-like to Semiconductor-like by Electrostatic Gating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alex

    with dry nitrogen during the measurement. Sample preparation We grow single layer graphene on copper foil1 Controlling Graphene Ultrafast Hot Carrier Response from Metal-like to Semiconductor electro-optic sampling.2 The focused THz beam at our graphene sample has a diameter of 1 mm. For optical

  17. Adsorption of small aromatic molecules on the ,,111... surfaces of noble metals: A density functional theory study with semiempirical corrections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    Adsorption of small aromatic molecules on the ,,111... surfaces of noble metals: A density 10 May 2010; published online 10 June 2010 The adsorption of benzene, thiophene, and pyridine on the 111 surface of gold and copper have been studied using density functional theory DFT . Adsorption

  18. A three-dimensional porous metal-organic framework constructed from two-dimensional sheets via interdigitation exhibiting dynamic features.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, S.; Sun, D.; Forster, P. M.; Yuan, D.; Zhuang, W.; Chen, Y. S.; Parise, J. B.; Zhou, H. C. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Texas A& M Univ.); (Univ. of Chicago); (Stony Brook Univ.)

    2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-dimensional porous metal-organic framework (PCN-18) was constructed through interdigitating two-dimensional grid sheets composed of 4,4{prime}-(anthracene-9,10-diyl)dibenzoate and copper paddlewheel secondary building units, and its dynamic features were evidenced by gas sorption isotherms.

  19. Measurement of the Young's modulus and internal friction of single crystal and polycrystalline copper, and copper-graphite composites as a function of temperature and orientation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wickstrom, Steven Norman

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MEASUREMENT OF THE YOUNG'S MODULUS AND INTERNAL FRICTION OF SINGLE CRYSTAL AND POLYCRYSTALLINE COPPER, AND COPPER- GRAPHITE COMPOSITES AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE AND ORIENTATION A Thesis by S teven Norman Wicks trom Submitted... AND POLYCRYSTALLINE COPPER, AND COPPER- GRAPHITE COMPOSITES AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE AND ORIENTATION A Thesis by Steven Norman Wickstrom Approved as to style and content by: A(J ~a Alan Wolfenden (Chairman of Committee) Don E. Bray (Member) Donald G...

  20. Metal Speciation in Landfill Leachates with a Focus on the Influence of Organic Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F Claret; C Tournassat; C Crouzet; E Gaucher; T Schäfer; G Braibant; D Guyonnet

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study characterizes the heavy-metal content in leachates collected from eight landfills in France. In order to identify heavy metal occurrence in the different size fractions of leachates, a cascade filtration protocol was applied directly in the field, under a nitrogen gas atmosphere to avoid metal oxidation. The results of analyses performed on the leachates suggest that most of the metals are concentrated in the <30 kDa fraction, while lead, copper and cadmium show an association with larger particles. Initial speciation calculations, without considering metal association with organic matter, suggest that leachate concentrations in lead, copper, nickel and zinc are super-saturated with respect to sulphur phases. Speciation calculations that account for metal complexation with organic matter, considered as fulvic acids based on C1(s) NEXAFS spectroscopy, show that this mechanism is not sufficient to explain such deviation from equilibrium conditions. It is therefore hypothesized that the deviation results also from the influence of biological activity on the kinetics of mineral phase precipitation and dissolution, thus providing a dynamic system. The results of chemical analyses of sampled fluids are compared with speciation calculations and some implications for the assessment of metal mobility and natural attenuation in a context of landfill risk assessment are discussed.

  1. Microstructural and optical studies on sonochemically synthesized Cu doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahu, Dojalisa, E-mail: dojalisa.sahu@gmail.com; Panda, Nihar Ranjan, E-mail: dojalisa.sahu@gmail.com; Panda, A. K. [Sambalpur University, Jyoti Vihar, Burla -768019, Odisha (India); Acharya, B. S. [C.V. Raman College of Engineering, Bhubaneswar-752054, Odisha (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Copper doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by sonochemical method varying the concentration of the impurity. Systematic investigations like X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were carried out to understand the microstructural properties. The average particle sizes and all the crystallographic parameters were calculated from XRD results. This shows the formation of wurtzite phase of ZnO with average size of the particles as 53 nm and an increase of particle size with dopant concentration was also been observed. UV absorption and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra revealed the absorption at wavelength < 370 nm with a remarkable red shift of absorption band and a linear decrease of transmittance with increase in doping concentrations respectively.

  2. Retsch PM400 ball mill Nanoparticle preparation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Scott L.

    the presence of a low binding energy boride species (CexBy) XPS Catalyst Coated, Unoxidized Boron NanoparticlesRetsch PM400 ball mill pump Nanoparticle preparation Ball Milling Method Physically grind micron are coated with various ligands/capping agents to promote suspension in a variety of fuels and/or to protect

  3. Gold Nanoparticle Silica Nanopeapods Vu Thanh Cong,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sehun

    Gold Nanoparticle Silica Nanopeapods Vu Thanh Cong,, Erdene-Ochir Ganbold,§ Joyanta K. Saha gold nanoparticle (AuNP) silica nanotube peapod (SNTP) was fabricated by self-assembly. The geometrical-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of bifunctional aromatic linker p-mercaptobenzoic acid (p-MBA)-coated

  4. Nanofabricated upconversion nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nanofabricated upconversion nanoparticles for photodynamic therapy Baris Ungun,1 Robert K. Prud for the production of three-layer Composite Nanoparticles (CNPs) in the size range 100-300 nm with an up- converting phosphor interior, a coating of porphyrin photosensitizer, and a biocompatible PEG outer layer to prevent

  5. Natural nanoparticle structure, properties and reactivity from X-ray studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waychunas, Glenn A.

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic analogs of naturally occurring nanoparticles have been studied by a range of X-ray techniques to determine their structure and chemistry, and relate these to their novel chemical properties and physical behavior. ZnS nanoparticles, formed in large concentrations naturally bymicrobial action, have an interesting core-shell structure with a highly distorted and strained outer layer. The strain propagates through the particles and produces unusual stiffness but can be relieved by changing the nature of the surface ligand binding. Weaker bound ligands allow high surface distortion, but strongly bound ligands relax this structure and reduce the overall strain. Only small amounts of ligand exchange causes transformations from the strained to the relaxed state. Most remarkably, minor point contacts between strained nanoparticles also relax the strain. Fe oxyhydroxide nanoparticles appear to go through structural transformations dependent on their size and formation conditions, and display a crystallographically oriented form of aggregation at the nanoscale that alters growth kinetics. At least one Fe oxyhydroxide mineral may only be stable on the nanoscale, and nonstoichiometry observed on the hematite surface suggests that for this phase and possibly other natural metal oxides, chemistry may be size dependent. Numerous questions exist on nanominerals formed in acid mine drainage sites and by reactions at interfaces.

  6. Nanoparticle Assembly DOI: 10.1002/anie.201006231

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kokkoli, Efie

    Nanoparticle Assembly DOI: 10.1002/anie.201006231 Silica-Nanoparticle Coatings by Adsorption from Lysine­Silica- Nanoparticle Sols on Inorganic and Biological Surfaces** Nicole Atchison, Wei Fan, Damien, Efrosini Kokkoli,* and Michael Tsapatsis* Silica nanoparticles have been used in applications including

  7. Microfluidic Reactors for the Controlled Synthesis of Monodisperse Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erdem, Emine Yegan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fast way compared to other fabrication techniques. Iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis was demonstrated using this reactor

  8. Wetting and energetics in nanoparticle etching of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sujit S. Datta

    2010-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten metallic nanoparticles have recently been used to construct graphene nanostructures with crystallographic edges. The mechanism by which this happens, however, remains unclear. Here, we present a simple model that explains how a droplet can etch graphene. Two factors possibly contribute to this process: a difference between the equilibrium wettability of graphene and the substrate that supports it, or the large surface energy associated with the graphene edge. We calculate the etching velocities due to either of these factors and make testable predictions for evaluating the significance of each in graphene etching. This model is general and can be applied to other materials systems as well. As an example, we show how our model can be used to extend a current theory of droplet motion on binary semiconductor surfaces.

  9. Metal speciation in landfill leachates with a focus on the influence of organic matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claret, Francis, E-mail: f.claret@brgm.fr [BRGM, 3 avenue C. Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans (France); Tournassat, Christophe; Crouzet, Catherine; Gaucher, Eric C. [BRGM, 3 avenue C. Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans (France); Schaefer, Thorsten [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE), P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Freie Universitaet Berlin, Institute of Geological Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Hydrogeology Group, D-12249 Berlin (Germany); Braibant, Gilles; Guyonnet, Dominique [BRGM, 3 avenue C. Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans (France)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > This study characterises the heavy-metal content in leachates collected from eight landfills in France. > Most of the metals are concentrated in the <30 kDa fraction, while Pb, Cu and Cd are associated with larger particles. > Metal complexation with OM is not sufficient to explain apparent supersaturation of metals with sulphide minerals. - Abstract: This study characterises the heavy-metal content in leachates collected from eight landfills in France. In order to identify heavy metal occurrence in the different size fractions of leachates, a cascade filtration protocol was applied directly in the field, under a nitrogen gas atmosphere to avoid metal oxidation. The results of analyses performed on the leachates suggest that most of the metals are concentrated in the <30 kDa fraction, while lead, copper and cadmium show an association with larger particles. Initial speciation calculations, without considering metal association with organic matter, suggest that leachate concentrations in lead, copper, nickel and zinc are super-saturated with respect to sulphur phases. Speciation calculations that account for metal complexation with organic matter, considered as fulvic acids based on C1(s) NEXAFS spectroscopy, show that this mechanism is not sufficient to explain such deviation from equilibrium conditions. It is therefore hypothesized that the deviation results also from the influence of biological activity on the kinetics of mineral phase precipitation and dissolution, thus providing a dynamic system. The results of chemical analyses of sampled fluids are compared with speciation calculations and some implications for the assessment of metal mobility and natural attenuation in a context of landfill risk assessment are discussed.

  10. Heavy metal biosensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillson, Nathan J; Shapiro, Lucille; Hu, Ping; Andersen, Gary L

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions and methods are provided for detection of certain heavy metals using bacterial whole cell biosensors.

  11. Control of nanoparticle size, reactivity and magnetic properties during the bioproduction of magnetite by Geobacter sulfurreducens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrne, J. M.; Telling, N. D.; Coker, V. S.; Pattrick, R. A. D.; Laan, G. van der; Arenholz, E.; Tuna, F.; Lloyd, J. R.

    2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The bioproduction of nano-scale magnetite by Fe(III)-reducing bacteria offers a potentially tunable, environmentally benign route to magnetic nanoparticle synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to control the size of magnetite nanoparticles produced by Geobacter sulfurreducens, by adjusting the total biomass introduced at the start of the process. The particles have a narrow size distribution and can be controlled within the range of 10-50 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that controlled production of a number of different biominerals is possible via this method including goethite, magnetite and siderite, but their formation is strongly dependent upon the rate of Fe(III) reduction and total concentration and rate of Fe(II) produced by the bacteria during the reduction process. Relative cation distributions within the structure of the nanoparticles has been investigated by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and indicates the presence of a highly reduced surface layer which is not observed when magnetite is produced through abiotic methods. The enhanced Fe(II)-rich surface, combined with small particle size, has important environmental applications such as in the reductive bioremediation of organics, radionuclides and metals. In the case of Cr(VI), as a model high-valence toxic metal, optimised biogenic magnetite is able to reduce and sequester the toxic hexavalent chromium very efficiently in the less harmful trivalent form.

  12. The thermodynamic properties of hydrated ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Elinor C.; Ross, Nancy L. [Department of Geosciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)] [Department of Geosciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Huang, Baiyu; Woodfield, Brian F. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602 (United States); Parker, Stewart F. [ISIS Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)] [ISIS Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Kolesnikov, Alexander I. [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)] [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we report a combined calorimetric and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) study of hydrated ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (?-alumina) nanoparticles. These complementary techniques have enabled a comprehensive evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of this technological and industrially important metal oxide to be achieved. The isobaric heat capacity (C{sub p}) data presented herein provide further critical insights into the much-debated chemical composition of ?-alumina nanoparticles. Furthermore, the isochoric heat capacity (C{sub v}) of the surface water, which is so essential to the stability of all metal-oxides at the nanoscale, has been extracted from the high-resolution INS data and differs significantly from that of ice?Ih due to the dominating influence of strong surface-water interactions. This study also encompassed the analysis of four ?-alumina samples with differing pore diameters [4.5 (1), 13.8 (2), 17.9 (3), and 27.2 nm (4)], and the results obtained allow us to unambiguously conclude that the water content and pore size have no influence on the thermodynamic behaviour of hydrated ?-alumina nanoparticles.

  13. Fly ash enhanced metal removal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nonavinakere, S. [Plexus Scientific Corp., Annapolis, MD (United States); Reed, B.E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fly ashes from local thermal power plants in the removal of cadmium, nickel, chromium, lead, and copper from aqueous waste streams. Physical and chemical characteristics of fly ashes were determined, batch isotherm studies were conducted. A practical application of using fly ash in treating spent electroless nickel (EN) plating baths by modified conventional precipitation or solid enhanced metal removal process (SEMR) was investigated. In addition to nickel the EN baths also contains completing agents such as ammonium citrate and succinic acid reducing agents such as phosphate and hypophosphite. SEMR experiments were conducted at different pHs, fly ash type and concentrations, and settling times.

  14. De novo design and spectroscopic characterization of Cu(II)-binding peptides based upon the blue copper protein plastocyanin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugherty, Roxanne Gail

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    those spectroscopic properties. Most blue copper proteins are similar to either plastocyanin or azurin, the best characterized of the blue copper proteins. All blue copper proteins contain a coordination site where Cu(II) is bound in a trigonal plane...

  15. Microsoft Word - nanoparticles.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE625Data ShowC - PatentJuly 2004 Nanoparticles:

  16. LIFE CYCLE INVENTORY ANALYSIS IN THE PRODUCTION OF METALS USED IN PHOTOVOLTAICS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FTHENAKIS,V.M.; KIM, H.C.; WANG, W.

    2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Material flows and emissions in all the stages of production of zinc, copper, aluminum, cadmium, indium, germanium, gallium, selenium, tellurium, and molybdenum were investigated. These metals are used selectively in the manufacture of solar cells, and emission and energy factors in their production are used in the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of photovoltaics. Significant changes have occurred in the production and associated emissions for these metals over the last 10 years, which are not described in the LCA databases. Furthermore, emission and energy factors for several of the by-products of the base metal production were lacking. This report aims in updating the life-cycle inventories associated with the production of the base metals (Zn, Cu, Al, Mo) and in defining the emission and energy allocations for the minor metals (Cd, In, Ge, Se, Te and Ga) used in photovoltaics.

  17. Metal accumulation in terrestrial pulmonates at a lead/zinc smelter site in Arnoldstein, Austria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabitsch, W.B. [Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)] [Univ. of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently,the suitability of terrestrial gastropods was reviewed as quantitative indicator organisms for environmental metal pollution. The peculiar metal accumulation capabilities in molluscs have been known in detail for decades, but {open_quotes}only few data are available for terrestrial pulmonates{close_quotes}. Furthermore, data are restricted to only a few species, and despite similarities in metabolic pathways, species-specific properties in metal-budget strategies exist. Information concerning the potential range of metal burden in these animals form the field are, therefore, of ecophysical relevance. Snails satisfy a basic demand as quantitative indicators of the bioavailable fraction of terrestrial metal pollution. In this study concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper and zinc were measured in tissues of 4 species of snails collected in the vicinity of a lead/zinc smelter with a long history of pollution. 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for biomedical and catalytical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiaoxing

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mesoporous silica materials, discovered in 1992 by the Mobile Oil Corporation, have received considerable attention in the chemical industry due to their superior textual properties such as high surface area, large pore volume, tunable pore diameter, and narrow pore size distribution. Among those materials, MCM-41, referred to Mobile Composition of Matter NO. 41, contains honeycomb liked porous structure that is the most common mesoporous molecular sieve studied. Applications of MCM-41 type mesoporous silica material in biomedical field as well as catalytical field have been developed and discussed in this thesis. The unique features of mesoporous silica nanoparticles were utilized for the design of delivery system for multiple biomolecules as described in chapter 2. We loaded luciferin into the hexagonal channels of MSN and capped the pore ends with gold nanoparticles to prevent premature release. Luciferase was adsorbed onto the outer surface of the MSN. Both the MSN and the gold nanoparticles were protected by poly-ethylene glycol to minimize nonspecific interaction of luciferase and keep it from denaturating. Controlled release of luciferin was triggered within the cells and the enzymatic reaction was detected by a luminometer. Further developments by varying enzyme/substrate pairs may provide opportunities to control cell behavior and manipulate intracellular reactions. MSN was also served as a noble metal catalyst support due to its large surface area and its stability with active metals. We prepared MSN with pore diameter of 10 nm (LP10-MSN) which can facilitate mass transfer. And we successfully synthesized an organo silane, 2,2'-Bipyridine-amide-triethoxylsilane (Bpy-amide-TES). Then we were able to functionalize LP10-MSN with bipyridinyl group by both post-grafting method and co-condensation method. Future research of this material would be platinum complexation. This Pt (II) complex catalyst has been reported for a C-H bond activation reaction as an alternative of the traditional Friedel-Crafts reaction. And we will compare the turnover numbers of MSN supported material with homogenous catalyst to evaluate the catalytical efficiency of our material.

  19. Characterization and light-induced dynamics of alkanethiol-capped gold nanoparticles supracrystals by small-angle ultrafast electron diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mancini, Giulia Fulvia; Pennacchio, Francesco; Reguera, Javier; Stellacci, Francesco; Carbone, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) are promising candidates for applications from electronics to medicine. Their metallic core provides some key properties, e.g. magnetization, plasmonic response or conductivity, with the ligand molecules providing others like solubility, assembly or interaction with biomolecules. Even more properties can be engineered when these NPs are used as building blocks to form supracrystals. The formation of these supracrystals depends upon a complex interplay between many forces, some stemming from the core, some from the ligand. At present, there is no known approach to characterize the local order of ligand molecules in such complex supracrystals or their dynamics, with a spatial resolution ranging from the NPs cores and their ligands, to the larger scale domains arrangement. Here, we develop a methodology based on small-angle ultrafast electron diffraction to characterize different two-dimensional supracrystals of alkanethiol-coated gold nanoparticles with femtosecond time, sub-nanometer ...

  20. Solid-phase materials for chelating metal ions and methods of making and using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K.; Wey, John E.; Peterson, Eric S.

    2003-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid material for recovering metal ions from aqueous streams, and methods of making and using the solid material, are disclosed. The solid material is made by covalently bonding a chelating agent to a silica-based solid, or in-situ condensing ceramic precursors along with the chelating agent to accomplish the covalent bonding. The chelating agent preferably comprises a oxime type chelating head, preferably a salicylaldoxime-type molecule, with an organic tail covalently bonded to the head. The hydrocarbon tail includes a carbon-carbon double bond, which is instrumental in the step of covalently bonding the tail to the silica-based solid or the in-situ condensation. The invented solid material may be contacted directly with aqueous streams containing metal ions, and is selective to ions such as copper (II) even in the presence of such ions as iron (III) and other materials that are present in earthen materials. The solid material with high selectivity to copper may be used to recover copper from mining and plating industry streams, to replace the costly and toxic solvent extraction steps of conventional copper processing.