National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for metal-based durables agricultural

  1. Durability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WP3 Durability : tasks & leaders T3.6 Work package coordination Gaz de France T3.2 Transmission pipelines; testing of steels TNO T3.1 State of the art Gaz de France T3.3 ...

  2. Agricultural

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utility Resources News & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Agricultural Residential Demand Response Commercial & Industrial Demand...

  3. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    UTC Power Corporation February 14, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information 1 LOW COST, DURABLE SEAL Outline * Project Objective * ...

  4. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  5. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, Paul O.; Kennedy, Cheryl E.; Jorgensen, Gary J.; Shinton, Yvonne D.; Goggin, Rita M.

    1994-01-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

  6. Low Cost, Durable Seal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, George; Parsons, Jason; Friedman, Jake

    2010-12-17

    Seal durability is critical to achieving the 2010 DOE operational life goals for both stationary and transportation PEM fuel cell stacks. The seal material must be chemically and mechanically stable in an environment consisting of aggressive operating temperatures, humidified gases, and acidic membranes. The seal must also be producible at low cost. Currentlyused seal materials do not meet all these requirements. This project developed and demonstrated a high consistency hydrocarbon rubber seal material that was able to meet the DOE technical and cost targets. Significant emphasis was placed on characterization of the material and full scale molding demonstrations.

  7. A Heteroepitaxial Perovskite Metal-Base Transistor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yajima, T.; Hikita, Y.; Hwang, H.Y.; ,

    2011-08-11

    'More than Moore' captures a concept for overcoming limitations in silicon electronics by incorporating new functionalities in the constituent materials. Perovskite oxides are candidates because of their vast array of physical properties in a common structure. They also enable new electronic devices based on strongly-correlated electrons. The field effect transistor and its derivatives have been the principal oxide devices investigated thus far, but another option is available in a different geometry: if the current is perpendicular to the interface, the strong internal electric fields generated at back-to-back heterojunctions can be used for oxide electronics, analogous to bipolar transistors. Here we demonstrate a perovskite heteroepitaxial metal-base transistor operating at room temperature, enabled by interface dipole engineering. Analysis of many devices quantifies the evolution from hot-electron to permeable-base behaviour. This device provides a platform for incorporating the exotic ground states of perovskite oxides, as well as novel electronic phases at their interfaces.

  8. Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) A revolutionary method of building a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for...

  9. PEM fuel cell durability studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borup, Rodney L; Davey, John R; Ofstad, Axel B; Xu, Hui

    2008-01-01

    The durability of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization for stationary and transportation power applications. For transportation applications, the durability target for fuel cell power systems is a 5,000 hour lifespan and able to function over a range of vehicle operating conditions (-40{sup o} to +40{sup o}C). However, durability is difficult to quantify and improve because of the quantity and duration of testing required, and also because the fuel cell stack contains many components, for which the degradation mechanisms, component interactions and effects of operating conditions are not fully understood. These requirements have led to the development of accelerated testing protocols for PEM fuel cells. The need for accelerated testing methodology is exemplified by the times required for standard testing to reach their required targets: automotive 5,000 hrs = {approx} 7 months; stationary systems 40,000 hrs = {approx} 4.6 years. As new materials continue to be developed, the need for relevant accelerated testing increases. In this investigation, we examine the durability of various cell components, examine the effect of transportation operating conditions (potential cycling, variable RH, shut-down/start-up, freeze/thaw) and evaluate durability by accelerated durability protocols. PEM fuel cell durability testing is performed on single cells, with tests being conducted with steady-state conditions and with dynamic conditions using power cycling to simulate a vehicle drive cycle. Component and single-cell characterization during and after testing was conducted to identify changes in material properties and related failure mechanisms. Accelerated-testing experiments were applied to further examine material degradation.

  10. Rational Design of Artificial Metal-Based Enzymes | Center for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rational Design of Artificial Metal-Based Enzymes 17 Mar 2014 Giovanna Ghirlanda is one of ... of Subtask 3 with an objective to design and optimize artificial catalysts for ...

  11. Durable silver coating for mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Thomas, Norman L.

    2000-01-01

    A durable multilayer mirror includes reflective layers of aluminum and silver and has high reflectance over a broad spectral range from ultraviolet to visible to infrared. An adhesion layer of a nickel and/or chromium alloy or nitride is deposited on an aluminum surface, and a thin layer of silver is then deposited on the adhesion layer. The silver layer is protected by a passivation layer of a nickel and/or chromium alloy or nitride and by one or more durability layers made of metal oxides and typically a first layer of metal nitride. The durability layers may include a composite silicon aluminum nitride and an oxinitride transition layer to improve bonding between nitride and oxide layers.

  12. Low Cost Durable Seal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost Durable Seal Low Cost Durable Seal Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. PDF icon 4utc.pdf More Documents & Publications ...

  13. Low Cost, Durable Seal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Cost, Durable Seal Low Cost, Durable Seal This presentation, which focuses on low cost, durable seals, was given by George Roberts of UTC Power at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects. new_fc_roberts_utc.pdf (823.45 KB) More Documents & Publications Improved AST's Based on Real World FCV Data Low Cost Durable Seal Breakout Group 3: Water Management

  14. Compositional threshold for Nuclear Waste Glass Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Farooqi, Rahmatullah; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-04-24

    Within the composition space of glasses, a distinct threshold appears to exist that separates "good" glasses, i.e., those which are sufficiently durable, from "bad" glasses of a low durability. The objective of our research is to clarify the origin of this threshold by exploring the relationship between glass composition, glass structure and chemical durability around the threshold region.

  15. Extremely durable biofouling-resistant metallic surfaces based...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Extremely durable biofouling-resistant metallic surfaces based on electrodeposited nanoporous tungstite films on steel Title: Extremely durable ...

  16. Durability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by 06-Alliat to DOE Hydrogen Pipeline R&D Project Review Meeting held January 5-6, 2005 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  17. Agriculture Sector

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commercial Industrial Federal Agriculture SIS Variable Frequency Drives Irrigation Pump Testing Irrigation Hardware Upgrades LESA Agricultural Marketing Toolkit BPA's...

  18. Durability Improvements Through Degradation Mechanism Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borup, Rodney L.; Mukundan, Rangachary; Spernjak, Dusan; Baker, Andrew M.; Lujan, Roger W.; Langlois, David Alan; Ahluwalia, Rajesh; Papadia, D. D.; Weber, Adam Z.; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Shi, Shouwnen; More, K. L.; Grot, Steve

    2015-08-03

    The durability of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. By investigating cell component degradation modes and defining the fundamental degradation mechanisms of components and component interactions, new materials can be designed to improve durability. To achieve a deeper understanding of PEM fuel cell durability and component degradation mechanisms, we utilize a multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary team with significant experience investigating these phenomena.

  19. Optically transparent and environmentally durable superhydrophobic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nanoparticles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optically transparent and environmentally durable superhydrophobic coating based on functionalized SiO2 nanoparticles ...

  20. Enhanced durability transparent superhydrophobic anti-soiling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Enhanced durability transparent superhydrophobic anti-soiling coatings for CSP applications Authors: Polyzos, Georgios 1 ; Schaeffer, Daniel A 1 ; Smith, Barton Barton ...

  1. DOE Durability Working Group December 2014 Meeting Agenda | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy December 2014 Meeting Agenda DOE Durability Working Group December 2014 Meeting Agenda Agenda for the DOE Durability Working Group Meeting held December 16, 2014, in Lemont, Illinois. DOE Durability Working Group December 2014 Meeting Agenda (33.15 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Durability Working Group May 2015 Meeting Agenda DOE Durability Working Group June 2014 Meeting Agenda DOE Durability Working Group May 2012

  2. DOE Durability Working Group February 2013 Meeting Agenda | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy February 2013 Meeting Agenda DOE Durability Working Group February 2013 Meeting Agenda Meeting agenda from the February 2013 Durability Working Group Meeting sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office. durability_working_group_agenda_feb_2013.pdf (15.04 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Durability Working Group May 2012 Meeting Agenda DOE Durability Working Group December 2014 Meeting Agenda DOE Durability Working Group May 2011

  3. DOE Durability Working Group October 2010 Meeting Minutes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 0 Meeting Minutes DOE Durability Working Group October 2010 Meeting Minutes Minutes of DOE-EERE Durability Working Group Meeting, October 10, 2010, sponsored by the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. durability_working_group_minutes_oct_2010.pdf (35.11 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Durability Working Group May 2011 Meeting Agenda DOE Durability Working Group October 2011 Meeting Notes Durability Improvements Through Degradation Mechanism Studies

  4. DOE Durability Working Group October 2012 Meeting Agenda | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 2 Meeting Agenda DOE Durability Working Group October 2012 Meeting Agenda Meeting agenda from the Fall 2012 Durability Working Group Meeting sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program. durability_working_group_agenda_oct_2012.pdf (16.28 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Durability Working Group October 2010 Meeting Minutes DOE Durability Working Group May 2012 Meeting Agenda DOE Durability Working Group February 2013

  5. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home: Durable Energy Builders, Houston...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Zero Energy Ready Home: Durable Energy Builders, Houston, Texas DOE Zero Energy Ready Home: Durable Energy Builders, Houston, Texas This DOE Zero Energy Ready Home features...

  6. Integration of Advanced Materials and Interfaces for Durable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Materials and Interfaces for Durable Thermoelectric Automobile Exhaust Waste Heat Harvesting Devices Integration of Advanced Materials and Interfaces for Durable ...

  7. Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    clemson.pdf More Documents & Publications Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability Effects of ...

  8. Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability Highly Dispersed Alloy ...

  9. Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lanl.pdf More Documents & Publications Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability Advanced Cathode ...

  10. New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and Cost New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and Cost Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel ...

  11. Highly Dispersed Alloy Catalyst for Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivek S. Murthi , Elise Izzo, Wu Bi, Sandra Guerrero and Lesia Protsailo

    2013-01-08

    Achieving DOE's stated 5000-hr durability goal for light-duty vehicles by 2015 will require MEAs with characteristics that are beyond the current state of the art. Significant effort was placed on developing advanced durable cathode catalysts to arrive at the best possible electrode for high performance and durability, as well as developing manufacturing processes that yield significant cost benefit. Accordingly, the overall goal of this project was to develop and construct advanced MEAs that will improve performance and durability while reducing the cost of PEMFC stacks. The project, led by UTC Power, focused on developing new catalysts/supports and integrating them with existing materials (membranes and gas diffusion layers (GDLs)) using state-of-the-art fabrication methods capable of meeting the durability requirements essential for automotive applications. Specifically, the project work aimed to lower platinum group metals (PGM) loading while increasing performance and durability. Appropriate catalysts and MEA configuration were down-selected that protects the membrane, and the layers were tailored to optimize the movements of reactants and product water through the cell to maximize performance while maintaining durability.

  12. DOE Durability Working Group May 2015 Meeting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Durability Working Group Meeting Thursday, May 28, 2015, 2:00 pm to 6:00 pm Argonne National Laboratory 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL Energy Sciences Building, Building 241, Room A323 2:00 pm Arrive and get settled. (Substantial refreshments available, i.e., not dinner, but enough to get you by until after 6 pm). 2:05 pm Welcome and introductory comments Debbie Myers (Argonne), Rod Borup (LANL), Donna Ho (DOE), Co-chairs of Durability Working Group 2:10 pm Discussion of Durability

  13. DOE Durability Working Group Meeting Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Durability Working Group Meeting Monday, June 16, 2014, 9:00 am to 12:00 pm Washington Marriott Wardman Park 2660 Woodley Road NW Washington, D.C. 8:30 am Continental "breakfast": breakfast breads, coffee, and tea 9:00 am Joint Durability and Catalysis Working Groups Meeting (Delaware A Room) Welcome and introductory comments Debbie Myers (Argonne), Rod Borup (LANL), Donna Ho (DOE), Piotr Zelenay (LANL), and Nancy Garland (DOE) co-chairs of Durability and Catalysis Working Groups

  14. Method of determining glass durability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, Carol Maryanne; Pickett, John Butler; Brown, Kevin George; Edwards, Thomas Barry

    1998-01-01

    A process for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, .DELTA.G.sub.p, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, .DELTA.G.sub.a, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.WA, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, .DELTA.G.sub.a.sup.SB associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, .DELTA.G.sub.f. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log.sub.10 (N C.sub.i (g/L))=a.sub.i +b.sub.i .DELTA.G.sub.f. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained.

  15. Method of determining glass durability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jantzen, C.M.; Pickett, J.B.; Brown, K.G.; Edwards, T.B.

    1998-12-08

    A process is described for determining one or more leachate concentrations of one or more components of a glass composition in an aqueous solution of the glass composition by identifying the components of the glass composition, including associated oxides, determining a preliminary glass dissolution estimator, {Delta}G{sub p}, based upon the free energies of hydration for the component reactant species, determining an accelerated glass dissolution function, {Delta}G{sub a}, based upon the free energy associated with weak acid dissociation, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup WA}, and accelerated matrix dissolution at high pH, {Delta}G{sub a}{sup SB} associated with solution strong base formation, and determining a final hydration free energy, {Delta}G{sub f}. This final hydration free energy is then used to determine leachate concentrations for elements of interest using a regression analysis and the formula log{sub 10}(N C{sub i}(g/L))=a{sub i} + b{sub i}{Delta}G{sub f}. The present invention also includes a method to determine whether a particular glass to be produced will be homogeneous or phase separated. The present invention is also directed to methods of monitoring and controlling processes for making glass using these determinations to modify the feedstock materials until a desired glass durability and homogeneity is obtained. 4 figs.

  16. Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    z To develop a low cost (vs. perfluorosulfonated ionomers), durable membrane. z To develop a membrane capable at 80C at low relative humidity (25-50%). z To develop a ...

  17. DOE Durability Working Group June 2014 Meeting Agenda | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy June 2014 Meeting Agenda DOE Durability Working Group June 2014 Meeting Agenda Agenda for the DOE Durability Working Group Meeting held June 16, 2014, in Washington, D.C., in conjunction with the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting. Durability Working Group June 2014 Meeting Agenda (28.67 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Durability Working Group December 2014 Meeting Agenda DOE Durability Working Group May 2015 Meeting Agend

  18. DOE Durability Working Group October 2011 Meeting Notes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 1 Meeting Notes DOE Durability Working Group October 2011 Meeting Notes Meeting notes from the Fall 2011 Durability Working Group (DWG) Meeting sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program. Notes also include a summary of progress on action items from the Spring 2011 DWG meeting. durability_working_group_minutes_oct_2011.pdf (54.58 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Durability Working Group October 2010 Meeting Minutes DOE Durability Working

  19. Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HIGHLY DISPERSED ALLOY CATHODE CATALYST FOR DURABILITY T. D. Jarvi UTC Power Corporation This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information HIGHLY DISPERSED ALLOY CATALYST Objectives of project Characteristic DOE 2010 Target Pt group metal Total Content 0.50 g/kW rated Pt group metal Total Loading 0.30 mg PGM/cm 2 Durability with cycling <80 o C; >80 o C 5000 h; 2000 h Electrochemical Area Loss < 40 % Mass Activity at 900 mV RHE (IR-Free) 0.44 A/mg Pt

  20. PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY OF THE PSA PEUGEOT CITROEN'S DPF SYSTEM...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY OF THE PSA PEUGEOT CITROEN'S DPF SYSTEM ON A TAXI FLEET IN THE PARIS AREA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY OF THE ...

  1. Effects of Impurities of Fuel Cell Performance and Durability | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy of Fuel Cell Performance and Durability Effects of Impurities of Fuel Cell Performance and Durability This presentation, which focuses on fuel cell performance and durability, was given by Trent Molter of the University of Connecticut at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects. new_fc_molter_uconn.pdf (680.96 KB) More Documents & Publications The Effect of Airborne Contaminants on Fuel Cell Performance & Durability Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance

  2. Minutes from Durability Working Group Kick-off meeting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minutes from Durability Working Group (DWG) Kick-off Meeting 6/9/10 Contaminants Discussion on effect of air and system contaminants on performance and durability, initiated by S. Blanchet (Nuvera) Question of extent of impurity work in six newly-awarded durability projects represented at this meeting. None of the projects are specifically looking at the effect of system and air impurities on long- term performance degradation. New Argonne durability project does include task on effect of

  3. DOE Durability Working Group May 2015 Meeting Agenda | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 Meeting Agenda DOE Durability Working Group May 2015 Meeting Agenda Agenda for the DOE Durability Working Group Meeting held May 28, 2015, in Lemont, Illinois. DOE Durability Working Group May 2015 Meeting Agenda (22.11 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Durability Working Group December 2014 Meeting Agenda DOE Durability Working Group June 2014 Meeting Agenda DOE Durability Working Group May

  4. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  5. (Durability of building materials and components)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, D.J.

    1990-11-27

    The traveler participated in the fourth meeting of RILEM 100-TSL, Techniques for Service Life Prediction,'' and The Fifth International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components.'' In addition, the traveler met with staff members at Taywood Engineering Ltd., Electricite de France, and AEA Technology. The meeting pertained to performance of concrete materials in nuclear power plant structures, time variation of concrete material properties, methods for evaluating concrete structures, and modeling to predict the effects of degradation factors on concrete materials. As many of the concrete structures in general civil engineering applications as well as nuclear power plant applications in Europe are aging, there is increasing emphasis on assessing the durability of these structures. Information was provided of direct application to the Structural Aging Program which would not have been available without these visits. Of equal, or possibly more importance, was the individual contacts established at the organizations visited. Each organization was extremely interested in both the approach and scope of the Structural Aging Program and requested that they be informed of progress. The initial steps were taken to cooperate with several of these researchers and this should help the Structural Aging Program keep abreast of related European activities. In summary, information obtained during this trip will benefit the ongoing Structural Aging Program by informing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) of the extensive European research programs addressing the durability of concrete structures, and also by forming and strengthening acquaintances with counterparts in other countries, thus enhancing the basis for possible international cooperation.

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Metal-Based High Capacity Li-Ion Anodes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Binghamton University-SUNY at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about metal-based high...

  7. Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supporst

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for PEM Fuel Cells | Department of Energy Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supporst for PEM Fuel Cells Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supporst for PEM Fuel Cells Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. 3_pnnl.pdf (21.99 KB) More Documents & Publications Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Fuel Cell Kickoff Meeting Agenda 2015 Pathways

  8. Membrane Durability in PEM Fuel Cells: Chemical Degradation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Durability in PEM Fuel Cells: Chemical Degradation Membrane Durability in PEM Fuel Cells: Chemical Degradation Presentation at the 2008 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held June 9, 2008, in Washington, DC motupally_htmwg_2008.pdf (962.33 KB) More Documents & Publications Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability Fundamental Study of the Mechanical Strength Degradation Mechanisms of PFSA Membranes and MEAs New Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells

  9. Membrane Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive Fuel Cell

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications | Department of Energy Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications Membrane Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications Presented by Tom Greszler of General Motors at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, San Francisco, September 14, 2006. htmwg_greszler.pdf (502.69 KB) More Documents & Publications High Temperature Membrane Working Group, Minutes of Meeting on September 14, 2006 Some durability

  10. Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability This presentation, which focuses on fuel cell performance and durability, was given by James Goodwin of Clemson Univeristy at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects. new_fc_goodwin_clemson.pdf (322.34 KB) More Documents & Publications Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC Biogas Impurities and Cleanup for Fuel Cells Integration of Non-Traditional Membranes

  11. Project Profile: Cleanable and Hardcoat Coatings for Increased Durability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Silvered Polymeric Mirrors | Department of Energy Cleanable and Hardcoat Coatings for Increased Durability of Silvered Polymeric Mirrors Project Profile: Cleanable and Hardcoat Coatings for Increased Durability of Silvered Polymeric Mirrors 3M logo 3M, under the CSP R&D FOA, is developing optical coatings for solar mirrors that are durable, easily maintained, and more cost-effective. Approach Diagram of the most successful coatings identified by the research team based on the mix of

  12. PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY OF THE PSA PEUGEOT CITROEN'S DPF SYSTEM...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY OF THE PSA PEUGEOT CITROEN'S DPF SYSTEM ON A TAXI FLEET IN THE PARIS AREA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PERFORMANCE AND ...

  13. Critical Performance and Durability Parameters of an Integrated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    used to Meet Tier II Emission Standards Critical Performance and Durability Parameters of an Integrated Aftertreatment System used to Meet Tier II Emission Standards Poster ...

  14. Biofuels Impact on DPF Durability | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Biofuel Impacts on Aftertreatment Devices (Agreement ID:26463) Project ID:18519 Biofuels Impact on DPF Durability Vehicle ...

  15. Durable Low Cost Improved Fuel Cell Membranes | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct ...

  16. Membrane Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Membrane Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications Presented by Tom Greszler of General Motors at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group ...

  17. Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supporst for PEM Fuel Cells Fuel Cell Kickoff Meeting Agenda Energy Storage Systems 2012 Peer Review Presentations - ...

  18. Combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability through surface nanoengineering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elliott, Paul R.; Stagon, Stephen P.; Huang, Hanchen; Furrer, David U.; Burlatsky, Sergei F.; Filburn, Thomas P.

    2015-04-08

    This paper reports combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability through the nanoscale engineering of surfaces in the form of nanorod-polymer composites. Specifically, the hydrophobicity derives from nanoscale features of mechanically hard ZnO nanorods and the mechanical durability derives from the composite structure of a hard ZnO nanorod core and soft polymer shell. Experimental characterization correlates the morphology of the nanoengineered surfaces with the combined hydrophobicity and mechanical durability, and reveals the responsible mechanisms. Such surfaces may find use in applications, such as boat hulls, that benefit from hydrophobicity and require mechanical durability.

  19. X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for the Durability Characterization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for the Durability Characterization of Limestone Aggregate Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for...

  20. DOE Durability Working Group February 2013 Meeting Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Durability Working Group (DWG) Meeting Agenda Thursday, February 28, 2013 Crystal City Marriott Crystal City, VA 8:30 am Welcome and introductory comments Debbie Myers ...

  1. CHP Fuel Cell Durability Demonstration - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher J

    2014-07-21

    Plug Power has managed a demonstration project that has tested multiple units of its high-temperature, PEM fuel cell system in micro-combined heat and power (μ-CHP) applications in California. The specific objective of the demonstration project was to substantiate the durability of GenSys Blue, and, thereby, verify its technology and commercial readiness for the marketplace. In the demonstration project, Plug Power, in partnership with the National Fuel Cell Research Center (NFCRC) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI), and Sempra, will execute two major tasks: • Task 1: Internal durability/reliability fleet testing. Six GenSys Blue units will be built and will undergo an internal test regimen to estimate failure rates. This task was modified to include 3 GenSys Blue units installed in a lab at UCI. • Task 2: External customer testing. Combined heat and power units will be installed and tested in real-world residential and/or light commercial end user locations in California.

  2. Hot vibration durability of ceramic preconverters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Locker, R.J.; Schad, M.J.; Sawyer, C.B.

    1995-12-31

    The advent of thermally durable catalyst technologies has created the opportunity to move catalytic converters closer to the engine, providing a potential solution for cold start emissions. Close-coupled positioning exposes the converter to higher exhaust gas temperatures than experienced in underbody applications, permitting earlier catalyst light-off. The proximity of the converter to the engine will result in increased exposure to the vibrational energy created by combustion processes as well as intake and exhaust valve dynamics. This study investigated the thermo-mechanical challenges of mounting a ceramic substrate under severe conditions. In some instances ceramic substrates have been overlooked for application in the more demanding close-coupled environment. It will be shown that ceramic substrates mounted with standard intumescent mats survive under the most severe hot vibration testing conditions in the industry. Hot vibration testing is a very expensive activity. Therefore, testing a statistically significant sample population is not cost effective. Additional testing techniques were employed in this study to quantify hot vibration performance. These tests show promise in predicting hot vibration durability.

  3. Bivalent metal-based MIL-53 analogues: Synthesis, properties and application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yongxin; Liu, Dan; Wang, Cheng

    2015-03-15

    Trivalent metal-based MIL-53 (Al{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}) compounds are interesting metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) with breathing effect and are promising gas sorption materials. Replacing bridging μ{sub 2}-OH group by neutral ligands such as pyridine N-oxide and its derivatives (PNOs), the trivalent metal-based MIL-53 analogous structures could be extended to bivalent metal systems. The introduction of PNOs and bivalent metal elements endows the frameworks with new structural features and physical and chemical properties. This minireview summarizes the recent development of bivalent metal-based MIL-53 analogues (Mn{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}), typically, focusing on the synthetic strategies and potential applications based on our own works and literatures. We present the synthetic strategy to achieve structures evolution from single-ligand-walled to double-ligand-walled channel. Properties and application of these new materials in a wide range of potential areas are discussed including thermal stability, gas adsorption, magnetism and liquid-phase separation. Promising directions of this research field are also highlighted. - Graphical abstract: The recent development of bivalent metal-based MIL-53 analogues (Mn{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}) on their synthetic strategies, properties and potential applications was reviewed. - Highlights: • Structure features of bivalent metal-based MIL-53 analogues are illustrated. • Important properties and application are presented. • Host–guest interactions are main impetus for liquid-phase separation. • Promising directions of bivalent metal-based MIL-53 analogues are highlighted.

  4. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Dudney, Nancy J; Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Armstrong, Beth L

    2013-05-21

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  5. Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Contescu, Cristian I.; Baker, Frederick S.; Armstrong, Beth L.

    2011-09-13

    A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

  6. Outdoor durability of radiation-cured coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holman, R.; Kennedy, R.

    1997-12-31

    Radiation cured coatings are used almost exclusively on products which have little or no exposure to moisture or the weather; inks, furniture varnishes, floor varnishes and coatings for electronic components. However there is considerable interest in being able to use this technology in exterior environments as a substitute for solvent-borne coatings. A 3-year study examining the possible reasons for the poor durability of radiation curable coatings showed that the resistance of the monomers and oligomers to hydrogen abstraction was crucially important, and the water permeability of the cured coating influenced the long-term adhesion performance. The project concluded that with the appropriate combination of curing technology and monomer/oligomer selection, the prospects of UV curable coatings for outdoor exposure are very encouraging.

  7. Durability of waste glass flax fiber reinforced mortar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aly, M.; Hashmi, M. S. J.; Olabi, A. G.; Messeiry, M.

    2011-01-17

    The main concern for natural fibre reinforced mortar composites is the durability of the fibres in the alkaline environment of cement. The composites may undergo a reduction in strength as a result of weakening of the fibres by a combination of alkali attack and fibre mineralisation. In order to enhance the durability of natural fiber reinforced cement composites several approaches have been studied including fiber impregnation, sealing of the matrix pore system and reduction of matrix alkalinity through the use of pozzolanic materials. In this study waste glass powder was used as a pozzolanic additive to improve the durability performance of flax fiber reinforced mortar (FFRM). The durability of the FFRM was studied by determining the effects of ageing in water and exposure to wetting and drying cycles; on the microstructures and flexural behaviour of the composites. The mortar tests demonstrated that the waste glass powder has significant effect on improving the durability of FFRM.

  8. Quantification of ceramic preconverter hot vibration durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Locker, R.J.; Sawyer, C.B.; Schad, M.J.

    1996-09-01

    The hot vibration durability of ceramic preconverters was examined in this study. Two preconverter designs were investigated. A Generation 1 design, utilizing 4,070 g/m{sup 2} intumescent mat, was examined at 900 C/75g. A Generation 2 design, possessing 6,200 g/m{sup 2} intumescent mat and insulated end cones, was evaluated at 1,050 C/75g. Three consecutive Generation 1 samples passed 900 C/75g exposures of 100 hours. Three Generation 2 preconverters tested at 1,050 C/75g similarly passed 100 hour exposures. The residual shear strength of each preconverter tested in hot vibration was measured to quantify durability. Hot push shear evaluations were performed to obtain the residual shear strength. Following 900 C/75g hot vibration exposures, the Generation 1 samples possessed an average residual shear strength of 450 kPa. Generation 2 samples, tested at 1,050 C/75g retained an average mat shear strength of 61 kPa. A minimum calculated shear strength of 15 kPa is required. An alternative thermal aging technique was applied to new sets of Generation 1 and 2 specimens. These samples did not experience mechanical vibration. Results of hot push shear measurements on these components indicated that the residual shear strengths were similar to those obtained for specimens exposed to hot vibration. These results indicated that the thermal conditions were the primary cause of Mat deterioration in hot vibration. The supplemental test methods investigated in this study represent an economical and quantitative alternative to hot vibration testing.

  9. DOE Durability Working Group May 2012 Meeting Agenda | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Meeting Agenda DOE Durability Working Group May 2012 Meeting Agenda Meeting agenda from the Spring 2012 Durability Working Group Meeting sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program. durability_working_group_agenda_may_2012.pdf (19.95 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Durability Working Group October 2011 Meeting Notes DOE Durability Working Group February 2013 Meeting Agenda DOE Durability Working Group October

  10. Function Specific Analysis of the Thermal Durability of Cu-Zeolite...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Function Specific Analysis of the Thermal Durability of Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst Function Specific Analysis of the Thermal Durability of Cu-Zeolite SCR Catalyst Presentation given ...

  11. Fuel Cell Measurements of Performance and Durability of Non-PGM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FUEL CELL MEASUREMENTS OF PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY OF NON-PGM ORR ELECTROCATALYSTS DOE DURABILITY WORKING GROUP 2011 CELL AND ELECTRODES Fuel cell: The surface area of the ...

  12. DOE Durability Working Group December 2014 Meeting Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Durability Working Group Meeting Tuesday, December 16, 2014, 9:00 am to 4:00 pm Argonne National Laboratory Energy Sciences Building, Building 241, Room A323 Lemont, IL 8:45 am Arrive and get settled. 9:00 am Welcome and introductory comments Debbie Myers (Argonne), Rod Borup (LANL), Donna Ho (DOE), Co-chairs of Durability Working Group 9:05 am Summary presentation of durability needs from 2013and 2014 workshops Donna Ho (DOE) Summary of new results and discussion of missing component-level

  13. An empirical modeling approach to high sodium glass durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shine, E.P.; Sadler, A.L.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Empirical mixture models have been developed for chemical durability of high sodium borosilicate glass. The response of boron to a seven-day Product Consistency Test (PCT) was chosen as the measure of durability. The objective of the model development was to support the proposed vitrification of Hanford low-level waste (LLW), the bulk of which is primarily sodium oxide. A full first-order model and a second order model were developed from a database of high-sodium borosilicate glasses. First-order models proved to be satisfactory in a qualitative sense, but root mean squared errors were fairly large for quantitative predictive purposes. The results imply that mechanistic models relating durability to composition should include higher order compositional interactions; a second-order model yielded much improved statistics. The modeling results also suggest that calcium, which is considered a network modifier yet is also regarded as a glass {open_quotes}stiffener{close_quotes}, may improve durability.

  14. Biofuels Impact on DPF Durability | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Peer Evaluation pm040lance2011p.pdf (637.35 KB) More Documents & Publications Biofuels Impact on DPF Durability DPF Performance with Biodiesel Blends Non-Petroleum-Based ...

  15. Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact ... The pt loading was 0.2 and 0.4 mgcm2. Technology Marketing SummaryThe membrane electrode ...

  16. Impact of Biodiesel Metals on the Performance and Durability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metals on the Performance and Durability of DOC and DPF Technologies Impact of Biodiesel ... and the Role of the DOC Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic ...

  17. Durable Zinc Oxide-Based Regenerable Sorbents for Desulfurization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in a Fixed-Bed Reactor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Durable Zinc Oxide-Based Regenerable Sorbents for Desulfurization of Syngas in a Fixed-Bed Reactor You are ...

  18. Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supporst for PEM Fuel Cells Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supporst for PEM Fuel Cells Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE ...

  19. DOE Durability Working Group May 2012 Meeting Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Durability Working Group (DWG) Monday, May 14, 2012, 8:00-10:00 am Gateway Salon I, Crystal Gateway Marriott Crystal City, VA Meeting Agenda 8:00 am Welcome and introductory ...

  20. DOE Durability Working Group May 2011 Meeting Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Durability Working Group Wednesday, May 11, 2011, 7:00-10:00 pm Marriott Crystal Gateway "Salon V" (Ballroom Level) Meeting Agenda 7:00 pm Welcome and introductory comments ...

  1. Performance and durability of PSA Peugeot Citroen's DPF System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DPF System on a Taxi Fleet in the Paris Area Performance and durability of PSA Peugeot Citroen's DPF System on a Taxi Fleet in the Paris Area 2003 DEER Conference ...

  2. Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes This presentation, which focuses on fuel cell membranes, was given by Michel Foure of Arkema at a meeting on new fuel cell projects in February 2007. new_fc_foure_arkema.pdf (168.93 KB) More Documents & Publications Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells High Temperature Membrane Working

  3. Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability This presentation, which focuses on alloy cathode catalysts, was given by T. D. Jarvi of UTC Power at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects. new_fc_jarvi_utc.pdf (576 KB) More Documents & Publications PEM Fuel Cell Technology, Key Research Needs and Approaches (Presentation) PBI-Phosphoric Acid Based Membrane Electrode Assemblies: Status Update Development of

  4. Future Engine Fluids Technologies: Durable, Fuel-Efficient, and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions-Friendly | Department of Energy Engine Fluids Technologies: Durable, Fuel-Efficient, and Emissions-Friendly Future Engine Fluids Technologies: Durable, Fuel-Efficient, and Emissions-Friendly 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005_deer_bardasz.pdf (561.21 KB) More Documents & Publications Controlled Experiments on the Effects of Lubricant/Additive (Low-Ash, Ashless) Characteristics on DPF Degradation Diesel Particulate Filters:

  5. PV Module Intraconnect Thermomechanical Durability Damage Prediction Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Module Intraconnect Thermomechanical Durability Damage Prediction Model PV Module Intraconnect Thermomechanical Durability Damage Prediction Model Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado pvmrw13_ps2_dow_gaston.pdf (1.26 MB) More Documents & Publications FY2015 Status Report: CIRFT Testing of High-Burnup Used Nuclear Fuel Rods from Pressurized Water Reactor and BWR Environments 2014 Propulsion Materials R&D Annual

  6. Critical Performance and Durability Parameters of an Integrated

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aftertreatment System used to Meet Tier II Emission Standards | Department of Energy Critical Performance and Durability Parameters of an Integrated Aftertreatment System used to Meet Tier II Emission Standards Critical Performance and Durability Parameters of an Integrated Aftertreatment System used to Meet Tier II Emission Standards Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by

  7. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials in a PMMA/glass Concentrator Photovoltaic System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, David; Kempe, Michael; Muller, Matthew; Gray, Matthew; Araki, Kenji; Kurtz, Sarah

    2014-04-08

    Durability of Polymeric Polymeric Encapsulation Encapsulation Materials for a PMMA/glass Concentrator Photovoltaic System

  8. The properties of metal-based nanoparticle catalysts will be calculated

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with unprecedented accuracy using massively parallel first-principles calculations. These calculations will provide fundamentally new insights into the electronic structure and b | Argonne Leadership Computing Facility The properties of metal-based nanoparticle catalysts will be calculated with unprecedented accuracy using massively parallel first-principles calculations. These calculations will provide fundamentally new insights into the electronic structure and b PI Name: Jeffrey Greeley

  9. DOE Durability Working Group June 2010 Kick-Off Meeting Minutes |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 0 Kick-Off Meeting Minutes DOE Durability Working Group June 2010 Kick-Off Meeting Minutes Minutes from Durability Working Group June 2010 Kick-off meeting sponsored by DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. durability_working_group_minutes_june_2010.pdf (33.66 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Durability Working Group February 2013 Meeting Agenda Advanced Cathode Catalysts DOE Durability Working Group June 2014

  10. DOE Durability Working Group May 2011 Meeting Agenda | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    May 2011 Meeting Agenda DOE Durability Working Group May 2011 Meeting Agenda Meeting agenda from the Spring 2011 Durability Working Group Meeting sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program. durability_working_group_agenda_may_2011.pdf (24.2 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Durability Working Group October 2010 Meeting Minutes DOE Durability Working Group October 2011 Meeting Notes

  11. Agricultural Bio-Fueled Generation of Electricity and Development of Durable and Efficent NOx Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Rodney

    2007-08-08

    The objective of this project was to define the scope and cost of a technology research and development program that will demonstrate the feasibility of using an off-the-shelf, unmodified, large bore diesel powered generator in a grid-connected application, utilizing various blends of BioDiesel as fuel. Furthermore, the objective of project was to develop an emissions control device that uses a catalytic process and BioDiesel (without the presence of Ammonia or Urea)to reduce NOx and other pollutants present in a reciprocating engine exhaust stream with the goal of redefining the highest emission reduction efficiencies possible for a diesel reciprocating generator. Process: Caterpillar Power Generation adapted an off-the-shelf Diesel Generator to run on BioDiesel and various Petroleum Diesel/BioDiesel blends. EmeraChem developed and installed an exhaust gas cleanup system to reduce NOx, SOx, volatile organics, and particulates. The system design and function was optimized for emissions reduction with results in the 90-95% range;

  12. DURABILITY TESTING OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) WASTE FORMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C

    2006-01-06

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium aqueous radioactive wastes. The addition of clay and a catalyst as co-reactants converts high sodium aqueous low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford and Idaho DOE sites to a granular ''mineralized'' waste form that may be made into a monolith form if necessary. Simulant Hanford and Idaho high sodium wastes were processed in a pilot scale FBSR at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The durability of the FBSR waste form products was tested in order to compare the measured durability to previous FBSR waste form testing on Hanford Envelope C waste forms that were made by THOR Treatment Technologies (TTT) and to compare the FBSR durability to vitreous LAW waste forms, specifically the Hanford low activity waste (LAW) glass known as the Low-activity Reference Material (LRM). The durability of the FBSR waste form is comparable to that of the LRM glass for the test responses studied.

  13. Integrated Design and Rapid Development of Refractory Metal Based Alloys for Fossil Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dogan, O.N.; King, P.E.; Gao, M.C.

    2008-07-01

    One common barrier in the development of new technologies for future energy generating systems is insufficiency of existing materials at high temperatures (>1150oC) and aggressive atmospheres (e.g., steam, oxygen, CO2). To overcome this barrier, integrated design methodology will be applied to the development of refractory metal based alloys. The integrated design utilizes the multi-scale computational methods to design materials for requirements of processing and performance. This report summarizes the integrated design approach to the alloy development and project accomplishments in FY 2008.

  14. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  15. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-11-14

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  16. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-03-06

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  17. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-08-19

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  18. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Baltich, L.K.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-05-18

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  19. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Baltich, L.K.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-08-28

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  20. Pt-Co/C Catalysts: PEMFC Performance and Durability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pt-Co/C Catalysts: PEMFC Performance and Durability Prasanna Mani, Harmeet Chhina, Emily Hopkins and Wendy Lee Slides presented by James Waldecker of Ford to the DOE Catalysis Working Group Meeting on June 16, 2014 Why are we looking at Pt-Co/C catalysts for PEM Fuel Cells even after so many years since the introduction? What trade offs in Pt-Co alloy characteristics can yield better performance and durability than Pt/C? - Pt:Co atomic ratio - Particle size - Metal loading What causes the

  1. DOE-EERE Durability Working Group Meeting Notes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE-EERE Durability Working Group (DWG) Meeting Thursday, October 13, 2011 Boston, MA Meeting Notes D. Myers and R. Borup Meeting Agenda 6:30 pm Welcome and introductory comments Debbie Myers (Argonne) and Rod Borup (Los Alamos) - co-chairs 6:40-7:45 pm Descriptions and summaries of results of modeling efforts in durability projects Dane Morgan, University of Wisconsin-Madison Srikanth Arisetty, ANL Adam Weber, LBNL Shanna Knights, Ballard Sergei Burlatsky, UTC Power Jean St-Pierre, University

  2. Durability-based design criteria for an automotive structural composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corum, J.M.; Battiste, R.L.; Brinkman, C.R.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.; Yahr, G.T.

    1998-11-01

    Before composite structures can be widely used in automotive applications, their long-term durability must be assured. The Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was established by the US Department of Energy to help provide that assurance. The project is closely coordinated with the Automotive Composites Consortium. The experimentally-based, durability-driven design criteria described in this paper are the result of the initial project thrust. The criteria address a single reference composite, which is an SRIM (Structural Reaction Injection Molded) polyurethane, reinforced with continuous strand, swirl-mat E-glass fibers. The durability issues addressed include the effects of cyclic and sustained loadings, temperature, automotive fluid environments, and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and roadway kickups) on strength, stiffness, and deformation. The criteria provide design analysis guidance, a multiaxial strength criterion, time-independent and time-dependent allowable stresses, rules for cyclic loading, and damage tolerance design guidance. Environmental degradation factors and the degrading effects of prior loadings are included. Efforts are currently underway to validate the criteria by application to a second random-glass-fiber composite. Carbon-fiber composites are also being addressed.

  3. Request for Information: Photovoltaic Reliability and Durability Research and Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) – Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) seeks feedback from industry, academia, research laboratories, government agencies, and other stakeholders on issues related to solar photovoltaic (PV) reliability and durability research and development.

  4. Fuel Cell Measurements of Performance and Durability of Non-PGM ORR Electrocatalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fuel cell testing protocol developed by the DOE Durability Working Group in 2011 for measuring performance and durability of non-platinum group metal (PGM) oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts.

  5. Rotating Disk-Electrode Aqueous Electrolyte Accelerated Stress Tests for PGM Electrocatalyst/Support Durability Evaluation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rotating disk-electrode aqueous electrolyte accelerated stress test protocols developed by the DOE Durability Working Group for platinum group metal (PGM) electrocatalyst/support durability evaluation, October 4, 2011.

  6. DOE Durability Working Group June 2010 Kick-Off Meeting Minutes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 Kick-Off Meeting Minutes DOE Durability Working Group June 2010 Kick-Off Meeting Minutes Minutes from Durability Working Group June 2010 Kick-off meeting sponsored by DOE Fuel ...

  7. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-10-01

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

  8. USDA Agricultural Conservation Easement Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) provides financial and technical assistance to help conserve agricultural lands, wetlands, and their related benefits.

  9. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-10-27

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for improving the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hog coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. The reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point in a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor. The durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain its reactivity and other important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Two base case sorbents, spherical pellets and cylindrical extrudes used in related METC sponsored projects, are being used to provide a basis for the comparison of physical characteristics and chemical reactivity.

  10. Method for improving the durability of ion insertion materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Cheong, Hyeonsik M.

    2002-01-01

    The invention provides a method of protecting an ion insertion material from the degradative effects of a liquid or gel-type electrolyte material by disposing a protective, solid ion conducting, electrically insulating, layer between the ion insertion layer and the liquid or gel-type electrolyte material. The invention further provides liquid or gel-type electrochemical cells having improved durability having a pair of electrodes, a pair of ion insertion layers sandwiched between the pair of electrodes, a pair of solid ion conducting layers sandwiched between the ion insertion layers, and a liquid or gel-type electrolyte material disposed between the solid ion conducting layers, where the solid ion conducting layer minimizes or prevents degradation of the faces of the ion insertion materials facing the liquid or gel-type electrolyte material. Electrochemical cells of this invention having increased durability include secondary lithium batteries and electrochromic devices.

  11. Moisture Durability with Vapor-Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-09-01

    Exterior sheathing insulation is an effective strategy in increasing the overall R-value of wall assemblies; other benefits include decreasing the effects of thermal bridging and increasing the moisture durability of the built assembly. Vapor-permeable exterior insulation, such as mineral board or expanded polystyrene foam, are one such product that may be used to achieve these benefits. However, uncertainty exists on the effects of inward driven moisture and the interaction of increased sheathing temperatures on the moisture durability of the edifice. To address these concerns, Building Science Corporation (BSC) conducted a series of hygrothermal models for cities representing a range of different climate zones. This report describes the research project, key research questions, and the procedures utilized to analyse the problems.

  12. High Performance and Durable Low PGM Cathode Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun; Shao, Yuyan; Cheng, Yingwen; Borup, Rodney L.; Rockward, Tommy; Brosha, Eric Lanich

    2015-08-17

    There is a strong need to decrease the amount of Pt electrocatalyst used in fuel cells and increase its durability for transportation application. Conventional strategies include Pt nanocrystals and Pt alloy with well-controlled structures, durable carbon support, non-carbon support, etc. We have developed the so-called “metal-metal oxide-carbon” triple junction concept to stabilize Pt and protect carbon from corrosion. It also improved the activity of Pt. The good performance was not achieved in fuel cell test mainly because of the transport issue due to the use of 2D graphene. In this project, our main goal is to demonstrate the concept in fuel cell device test using 3D porous graphene as support so that the transport issue could be addressed.

  13. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jha, Mahesh C.; Blandon, Antonio E.; Hepworth, Malcolm T.

    1988-01-01

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  14. Hollow Nanoparticles as Active and Durable Catalysts - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Hollow Nanoparticles as Active and Durable Catalysts Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology <p> Performance characteristics of the hollow nanoparticle catalysts for the oxygen-reduction reaction</p> Performance characteristics of the hollow nanoparticle catalysts for the oxygen-reduction reaction Technology Marketing Summary Platinum is an excellent catalyst for many reactions. However, it is also very expensive. The catalytic activity per gram of

  15. DOE-EERE Durability Working Group Meeting, October 10, 2010

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE-EERE Durability Working Group Meeting October 10, 2010 Agenda 6 pm Welcome and introductory comments Debbie Myers (Argonne) and Rod Borup (Los Alamos) - co-chairs 6:15 pm Overview of electrocatalyst and support degradation mechanisms Sarah Ball, Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells 6:45 pm Discussion/presentations by project PIs/representatives (5-10 minutes each) * Overview of electrocatalyst and support degradation aspects of projects * Protocols/testing procedures/diagnostics used to resolve the

  16. Agricultural Marketing Toolkit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Agricultural-Marketing-Toolkit Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Policy & Reporting Expand Policy & Reporting EE Sectors Expand EE Sectors...

  17. Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1996-01-01

    Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

  18. New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and Cost Kick-Off Meeting PolyFuel Friday, August 21, 2009 Philip Cox Vice President, Product Development This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Project Overview and Partners * Two and half years - Target: November 2009 through May 2012 - Project not yet started * Budget - Total: $3,116,971; DOE: $2,493,577 - Year 1 - $ 1,610,241 DOE: $ 322,048 - Year 2 - $ 1,506,730 DOE $

  19. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Kempe, M. D.; Araki, K.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    Polymeric encapsulation materials are typically used in concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) modules to protect the cell from the field environment. Because it is physically located adjacent to the cell, the encapsulation is exposed to a high optical flux, often including light in the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) wavelengths. The durability of encapsulants used in CPV modules is critical to the technology, but is presently not well understood. This work seeks to identify the appropriate material types, field-induced failure mechanisms, and factors of influence (if possible) of polymeric encapsulation. These results will ultimately be weighed against those of future qualification and accelerated life test procedures.

  20. Chemically durable phosphate glasses and a method for their preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Day, D.E.; Wilder, J.A. Jr.

    The chemical durability of alkali phosphate glasses is improved by incorporation of up to 23 weight percent of nitrogen. A typical phosphate glass contains: 10 to 60 mole % of Li/sub 2/O, Na/sub 2/O or K/sub 2/O; 5 to 40 mole % of BaO or CaO; 0 to 1 to 10 mole % of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/; and 40 to 70 mole % of P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. Nitrides, such as AlN, are the favored additives.

  1. Durable silver thin film coating for diffraction gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Britten, Jerald A.; Komashko, Aleksey M.

    2006-05-30

    A durable silver film thin film coated non-planar optical element has been developed to replace Gold as a material for fabricating such devices. Such a coating and resultant optical element has an increased efficiency and is resistant to tarnishing, can be easily stripped and re-deposited without modifying underlying grating structure, improves the throughput and power loading of short pulse compressor designs for ultra-fast laser systems, and can be utilized in variety of optical and spectrophotometric systems, particularly high-end spectrometers that require maximized efficiency.

  2. PEM Fuel Cell Freeze Durability and Cold Start Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, T.; O'Neill, Jonathan

    2008-01-02

    UTC has taken advantage of the unique water management opportunities inherent in micro-porous bipolar-plates to improve the cold-start performance of its polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). Diagnostic experiments were used to determine the limiting factors in micro-porous plate PEFC freeze performance and the causes of any performance decay. Alternative cell materials were evaluated for their freeze performance. Freeze-thaw cycling was also performed to determine micro-porous plate PEFC survivability. Data from these experiments has formed the basis for continuing development of advanced materials capable of supporting DOE's cold-start and durability objectives.

  3. DOE Durability Working Group October 2012 Meeting Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Durability Working Group October 7, 2012 Meeting Agenda Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, HI 8:00 am Welcome and introductory comments Debbie Myers (Argonne), Rod Borup (Los Alamos) - co-chairs Nancy Garland (DOE) 8:10 am Dan Hussey, "Neutron Imaging of Fuel Cells at NIST" 8:35 am Discussion/presentations by project PIs/representatives (5 minutes each)  Overview/summary of major conclusions from projects thus far  Ballard, LANL-Borup, Argonne, LANL-Mukund, NREL, HNEI, 3M

  4. The Effect of Airborne Contaminants on Fuel Cell Performance & Durability |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy The Effect of Airborne Contaminants on Fuel Cell Performance & Durability The Effect of Airborne Contaminants on Fuel Cell Performance & Durability Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 rocheleau_uhawaii_kickoff.pdf (340.84 KB) More Documents & Publications Supporting a Hawaii Hydrogen Economy Effects of Impurities of Fuel Cell Performance and Durability Effect of System and Air Contaminants on

  5. Building a Durable and Energy Efficient Home in Post-Katrina New Orleans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Baker

    2008-07-08

    This report examines designing homes with key sustainability concepts, durability, and energy efficiency that can provide insurance to people in the event of a hurricane.

  6. Fuel Cell Measurements of Performance and Durability of Non-PGM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Measurements of Performance and Durability of Non-PGM ORR Electrocatalysts (60.39 KB) More Documents & Publications Catalysis Working Group Meeting: June 2014 Catalysis ...

  7. State-of-the-art Fuel Cell Voltage Durability Status: 2015 Composite Data Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, Jennfier; Dinh, Huyen; Ainscough, Chris; Saur, Genevieve

    2015-05-01

    This publication includes 14 composite data products (CDPs) produced in 2015 for fuel cell technology status, focusing on state-of-the-art fuel cell voltage durability.

  8. Durable silver mirror with ultra-violet thru far infra-red reflection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D.

    2010-11-23

    A durable highly reflective silver mirror characterized by high reflectance in a broad spectral range of about 300 nm in the UV to the far infrared (.about.10000 nm), as well as exceptional environmental durability. A high absorptivity metal underlayer is used which prevents the formation of a galvanic cell with a silver layer while increasing the reflectance of the silver layer. Environmentally durable overcoat layers are provided to enhance mechanical and chemical durability and protect the silver layer from corrosion and tarnishing, for use in a wide variety of surroundings or climates, including harsh or extreme environments.

  9. The Development and On-Road Performance and Durability of the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Development and On-Road Performance and Durability of the Four-Way Emission Control SCRTTM System 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Johnson Matthey plc, Cummins Inc. ...

  10. Urea SCR Durability Assessment for Tier 2 Light-Duty Truck

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summarizes progress toward development of a durable urea SCR system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 on 3780 lb light truck

  11. Regeneration and Durability of Advanced Zinc Ferrite Sorbent for Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirai, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Nunokawa, M.; Noda, N.

    2002-09-19

    In this study, we investigate the regeneration characteristics, desulfurization performance after regeneration and the durability of zinc ferrite sorbent in the desulfurization/regeneration cycles.

  12. Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1991-06-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems require the development of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents capable of removing hydrogen sulfide from coal gasifier down to very low levels. The objective of this investigation was to identify and demonstrate methods for enhancing the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc ferrite, a leading regenerable sorbent, for fluidized-bed applications. Fluidized sorbent beds offer significant potential in IGCC systems because of their ability to control the highly exothermic regeneration involved. However, fluidized beds require a durable, attrition-resistant sorbent in the 100--300 {mu}m size range. A bench-scale high-temperature, high- pressure (HTHP) fluidized-bed reactor (7.6-cm I.D.) system capable of operating up to 24 atm and 800{degree}C was designed, built and tested. A total of 175 sulfidation-regeneration cycles were carried out using KRW-type coal gas with various zinc ferrite formulations. A number of sorbent manufacturing techniques including spray drying, impregnation, crushing and screening, and granulation were investigated. While fluidizable sorbents prepared by crushing durable pellets and screening had acceptable sulfur capacity, they underwent excessive attrition during multicycle testing. The sorbent formulations prepared by a proprietary technique were found to have excellent attrition resistance and acceptable chemical reactivity during multicycle testing. However, zinc ferrite was found to be limited to 550{degree}C, beyond which excessive sorbent weakening due to chemical transformations, e.g., iron oxide reduction, was observed.

  13. On the Existence of Our Metals-Based Civilization: I. Phase Space Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.D. Macdonald

    2005-06-22

    than are equilibrium thermodynamic diagrams. Thus, KSDs more accurately account for the limits of passivity in highly acidic systems, where acid depassivation occurs, and at high potentials, where transition to the transpassive state may occur in some systems. In any event, phase space analysis of the PDM permits specification of the conditions over which reactive metals will remain passive in contact with aqueous systems and hence of the conditions that must be met for the existence of our metals-based civilization.

  14. Kentucky Department of Agriculture

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the August 7, 2008 quarterly joint Web conference of DOE's Biomass and Clean Cities programs, Wilbur Frye (Office of Consumer & Environmental Protection, Kentucky Department of Agriculture) described Biofuel Quality Testing in Kentucky.

  15. Moisture Durability Assessment of Selected Well-insulated Wall Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B.; Boudreaux, Philip R.; Kehrer, Manfred; Hun, Diana E.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2015-12-01

    This report presents the results from studying the hygrothermal performance of two well-insulated wall assemblies, both complying with and exceeding international building codes (IECC 2015 2014, IRC 2015). The hygrothermal performance of walls is affected by a large number of influential parameters (e.g., outdoor and indoor climates, workmanship, material properties). This study was based on a probabilistic risk assessment in which a number of these influential parameters were simulated with their natural variability. The purpose of this approach was to generate simulation results based on laboratory chamber measurements that represent a variety of performances and thus better mimic realistic conditions. In total, laboratory measurements and 6,000 simulations were completed for five different US climate zones. A mold growth indicator (MGI) was used to estimate the risk of mold which potentially can cause moisture durability problems in the selected wall assemblies. Analyzing the possible impact on the indoor climate due to mold was not part of this study. The following conclusions can be reached from analyzing the simulation results. In a hot-humid climate, a higher R-value increases the importance of the airtightness because interior wall materials are at lower temperatures. In a cold climate, indoor humidity levels increase with increased airtightness. Air leakage must be considered in a hygrothermal risk assessment, since air efficiently brings moisture into buildings from either the interior or exterior environment. The sensitivity analysis of this study identifies mitigation strategies. Again, it is important to remark that MGI is an indicator of mold, not an indicator of indoor air quality and that mold is the most conservative indicator for moisture durability issues.

  16. Durability Testing of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JANTZEN, CAROL M.; PAREIZS, JOHN M.; LORIER, TROY H.; MARRA, JAMES C.

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes but especially aqueous high sodium wastes at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The FBSR technology converts organic compounds to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, converts nitrate/nitrite species to N{sub 2}, and produces a solid residue through reactions with superheated steam, the fluidizing media. If clay is added during processing a ''mineralized'' granular waste form can be produced. The mineral components of the waste form are primarily Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The cage and ring structured minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc{sup 99} and Cs{sup 137} and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals appear to stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Durability testing of the FBSR products was performed using ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The FBSR mineral products (bed and fines) evaluated in this study were found to be two orders of magnitude more durable than the Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass requirement of 2 g/m{sup 2} release of Na{sup +}. The PCT responses for the FBSR samples tested were consistent with results from previous FBSR Hanford LAW product testing. Differences in the response can be explained by the minerals formed and their effects on PCT leachate chemistry.

  17. Effect of glass composition on waste form durability: A critical review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, A.J.G.; Mazer, J.J.; Ebert, W.L.

    1994-11-01

    This report reviews literature concerning the relationship between the composition and durability of silicate glasses, particularly glasses proposed for immobilization of radioactive waste. Standard procedures used to perform durability tests are reviewed. It is shown that tests in which a low-surface area sample is brought into contact with a very large volume of solution provide the most accurate measure of the intrinsic durability of a glass composition, whereas high-surface area/low-solution volume tests are a better measure of the response of a glass to changes in solution chemistry induced by a buildup of glass corrosion products. The structural chemistry of silicate and borosilicate glasses is reviewed to identify those components with the strongest cation-anion bonds. A number of examples are discussed in which two or more cations engage in mutual bonding interactions that result in minima or maxima in the rheologic and thermodynamic properties of the glasses at or near particular optimal compositions. It is shown that in simple glass-forming systems such interactions generally enhance the durability of glasses. Moreover, it is shown that experimental results obtained for simple systems can be used to account for durability rankings of much more complex waste glass compositions. Models that purport to predict the rate of corrosion of glasses in short-term durability tests are evaluated using a database of short-term durability test results for a large set of glass compositions. The predictions of these models correlate with the measured durabilities of the glasses when considered in large groupings, but no model evaluated in this review provides accurate estimates of durability for individual glass compositions. Use of these models in long-term durability models is discussed. 230 refs.

  18. Agricultural Equipment Technology Conference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 20th Agricultural Equipment Technology Conference will be held Feb. 8–10, 2016, in Louisville, Kentucky. The conference will bring together professionals and experts in the agricultural and biological engineering fields. Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Terrestrial Feedstocks Technology Manager Sam Tagore will be in attendance. Mr. Tagore will moderate a technical session titled “Ash Reduction Strategies for Improving Biomass Feedstock Quality.” The session will include presentations by researchers from Idaho National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory supporting BETO, as well as from university and industry.

  19. FC-PAD: Fuel Cell Consortium for Performance and Durability | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy FC-PAD: Fuel Cell Consortium for Performance and Durability FC-PAD: Fuel Cell Consortium for Performance and Durability Illustration of the research consortia model showing a 'National Laboratory Core Team' as the central role with three sub-groups of University &amp; Non-Profit, Industry, and National Lab contributing to the core. The Fuel Cell Consortium for Performance and Durability (FC-PAD) will aid in the understanding of-and lead to significant improvements in-fuel cell

  20. Durable pd-based alloy and hydrogen generation membrane thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benn, Raymond C.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Vanderspurt, Thomas Henry

    2010-02-02

    A durable Pd-based alloy is used for a H.sub.2-selective membrane in a hydrogen generator, as in the fuel processor of a fuel cell plant. The Pd-based alloy includes Cu as a binary element, and further includes "X", where "X" comprises at least one metal from group "M" that is BCC and acts to stabilize the .beta. BCC phase for stability during operating temperatures. The metal from group "M" is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Cr, Nb, Ta, V, Mo, and W, with Nb and Ta being most preferred. "X" may further comprise at least one metal from a group "N" that is non-BCC, preferably FCC, that enhances other properties of the membrane, such as ductility. The metal from group "N" is selected from the group consisting of Ag, Au, Re, Ru, Rh, Y, Ce, Ni, Ir, Pt, Co, La and In. The at. % of Pd in the binary Pd--Cu alloy ranges from about 35 at. % to about 55 at. %, and the at. % of "X" in the higher order alloy, based on said binary alloy, is in the range of about 1 at. % to about 15 at. %. The metals are selected according to a novel process.

  1. Durability of Polymeric Encapsulation Materials for Concentrating Photovoltaic Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Muller, M.; Kempe, M. D.; Araki, K.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-03-01

    Many concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems use a polymeric encapsulant to couple and optical component and/or coverglass to the cell. In that location, the encapsulation improves the transmission of concentrated optical flux through interface(s), while protecting the cell from the environment. The durability of encapsulation materials, however, is not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Therefore, we have initiated a screen test to identify the field-induced failure modes for a variety of popular PV encapsulation materials. An existing CPV module (with no PV cells present) was modified to accommodate encapsulation specimens. The module (where nominal concentration of solar flux is 500x for the domed-Fresnel design) has been mounted on a tracker in Golden, CO (elevation 1.79 km). Initial results are reported here for 18 months cumulative exposure, including the hottest and coldest months of the past year. Characteristics observed at intervals during that time include: visual appearance, direct and hemispherical transmittance, and mass. Degradation may be assessed from subsequent analysis (including yellowness index and cut-on frequency) relative to the ambient conditions present during field exposure. The fluorescence signature observed of all the silicone specimens is examined here, including possible factors of causation -- the platinum catalyst used in the addition cured materials as well as the primer used to promote adhesion to the quartz substrate and superstrate.

  2. Durable Airtightness in Single-Family Dwellings - Field Measurementsand Analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2015-06-01

    Here, durability of the building envelope is important to new homes that are increasingly built with improved levels of airtightness. It is also important to weatherized homes such that energy savings from retrofit measures, such as air sealing, are persistent. This paper presents a comparison of air leakage measurements collected in November 2013 through March 2014, with two sets of prior data collected between 2001-2003 from 17 new homes located near Atlanta, GA, and 17 homes near Boise, ID that were weatherized in 2007- 2008. The purpose of the comparison is to determine if there are changes to the airtightnessmore » of building envelopes over time. The air leakage increased in all but one of the new homes, with a mean increase of about 25%. The weatherized homes also showed an increase in the mean air leakage (12%). A regression analysis was performed to describe the relationship between prior and current measurements in terms of normalized leakage (NL). The best estimate of the ageing factor predicts a 15% increase in NL over ten years. Further analysis using ResDB data (LBNL’s Residential Diagnostic Database) showed the expected changes in air leakage if ageing were modelled. These results imply the need to examine the causes of increased leakage and methods to avoid them. This increase in leakage with time should be accounted for in long-term population-wide energy savings estimates, such as those used in ratings or energy savings programs.« less

  3. New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, James H.; Campbell, Joseph L.; Cox, Philip; Harrington, William J.

    2013-09-16

    Abstract Project Title: New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and Cost The University of North Florida (UNF)--with project partners the University of Florida, Northeastern University, and Johnson Matthey--has recently completed the Department of Energy (DOE) project entitled “New MEA Materials for Improved DMFC Performance, Durability and Cost”. The primary objective of the project was to advance portable fuel cell MEA technology towards the commercial targets as laid out in the DOE R&D roadmap by developing a passive water recovery MEA (membrane electrode assembly). Developers at the University of North Florida identified water management components as an insurmountable barrier to achieving the required system size and weight necessary to achieve the energy density requirements of small portable power applications. UNF developed an innovative “passive water recovery” MEA for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) which provides a path to system simplification and optimization. The passive water recovery MEA incorporates a hydrophobic, porous, barrier layer within the cathode electrode, so that capillary pressure forces the water produced at the cathode through holes in the membrane and back to the anode. By directly transferring the water from the cathode to the anode, the balance of plant is very much simplified and the need for heavy, bulky water recovery components is eliminated. At the heart of the passive water recovery MEA is the UNF DM-1 membrane that utilizes a hydrocarbon structure to optimize performance in a DMFC system. The membrane has inherent performance advantages, such as a low methanol crossover (high overall efficiency), while maintaining a high proton conductivity (good electrochemical efficiency) when compared to perfluorinated sulfonic acid membranes such as Nafion. Critically, the membrane provides an extremely low electro-osmotic drag coefficient of approximately one water molecule per proton (versus the 2-3 for

  4. Superhydrophobic durable coating based on UV-photoreactive silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nahum, T.; Dodiuk, H.; Dotan, A.; Kenig, S.; Lellouche, J. P.

    2015-05-22

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with contact angle (CA) >150 and sliding angle (SA) <10 have been aroused curiosity over the years due to their various applications. Superhydrophobicity can be obtained tailoring the chemistry and the roughness of the surface, mimicking the Lotus flower. Most superhydrophobic surfaces based on secondary bonding lose their roughness in harsh conditions and are unsuitable for practical applications. Photoreactive SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) based on benzophenone (BP) can be a very effective tool for formation of reactive species that function as a molecular bridge by covalent bonding between the NP and any polymer matrix with C-C and C-H bonds. The present work focused on thermoset radiation curing urethane acrylate. Upon UV irradiation reactive excited nπ* triplet benzophenone species are formed and react through hydrogen abstraction to form ketyl radicals which interact with a radicals from the UV irradiated polymer matrix to yield covalent bonding. Roughness was achieved by dipping the substrate in SiO{sub 2}@BPs NPs dispersion followed by irradiation. Fluoroalkylsilane was used to obtain hydrophobic top layer. AFM nano manipulation was used to verify the immobilization of NPs. Evaluation of durability was made using air flow at 300 km/hr. Preliminary results indicate the formation of super hydrophobic surfaces (CA>150 and SA<10) with improved stability.

  5. A New Approach in Urea Dosing to Improve Performance and Durability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Approach in Urea Dosing to Improve Performance and Durability of SCR Systems for the Use in Off-Road Applications to Fulfill Tier 4 Final A New Approach in Urea Dosing to Improve ...

  6. State-of-the-Art Fuel Cell Voltage Durability Status: Spring 2013 Composite Data Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Sprik, S.; Saur, G.; Peters, M.; Post, M.; Ainscough, C.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes composite data products (CDPs) produced in 2013 for state-of-the-art fuel cell voltage durability status.

  7. Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents (Patent) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sulfur tolerant highly durable CO.sub.2 sorbents A sorbent for the capture of carbon dioxide from a gas stream is provided, the sorbent ...

  8. Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Applications | Department of Energy the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications These slides were presented at the 2010 New Fuel Cell Projects Meeting on September 28, 2010. 10_dupont_perry.pdf (204.87 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group 2: MEAs, Components, and Integration Membranes and MEAs

  9. Development of a Durable Low-Temperature Urea-SCR Catalyst for CIDI Engines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Durable Low-Temperature Urea-SCR Catalyst for CIDI Engines Development of a Durable Low-Temperature Urea-SCR Catalyst for CIDI Engines 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Sandia National Laboratories 2004_deer_pena.pdf (298.19 KB) More Documents & Publications Experimental and Modelling Study of the Effect of Diffusional Limitations on the NH3 SCR Activity Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: Innovative SCR Materials and

  10. The Development and On-Road Performance and Durability of the Four-Way

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Control SCRTTM System | Department of Energy The Development and On-Road Performance and Durability of the Four-Way Emission Control SCRTTM System The Development and On-Road Performance and Durability of the Four-Way Emission Control SCRTTM System 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Johnson Matthey plc, Cummins Inc. 2003_deer_walker.pdf (535.28 KB) More Documents & Publications SCRT Technology for Retrofit of Heavy-Duty Diesel Applications Update on Diesel Exhaust Emission

  11. Impact of Biodiesel on the Near-term Performance and Long-term Durability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Advanced Aftertreatment Systems | Department of Energy on the Near-term Performance and Long-term Durability of Advanced Aftertreatment Systems Impact of Biodiesel on the Near-term Performance and Long-term Durability of Advanced Aftertreatment Systems Compare SCR catalyst performance with ULSD and Soy B20 through engine testing deer09_williams.pdf (1.02 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Biofuel Impacts on Aftertreatment Devices

  12. Study on durability for thermal cycle of planar SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, Motoo; Nakata, Kei-ichi; Wakayama, Sin-ichi

    1996-12-31

    TONEN CORPORATION has developed planar type SOFC since 1986. We demonstrated the output of 1.3 kW in 1991 and 5.1 kW in 1995. Simultaneously we have studied how to raise electric efficiency and reliability utilizing hydrogen and propane as fuel. Durability for thermal cycle is one of the most important problems of planar SOFC to make it more practical. The planar type SOFC is made up of separator, zirconia electrolyte and glass sealant. The thermal expansion of these components are expected to be the same value, however, they still possess small differences. In this situation, a thermal cycle causes a thermal stress due to the difference of the cell components and is often followed by a rupture in cell components, therefore, the analysis of the thermal stress should give us much useful information. The thermal cycle process consists of a heating up and cooling down procedure. Zirconia electrolyte is not bonded to the separator under the condition of the initial heating up procedure, and glass sealant becomes soft or melts and glass seals spaces between the zirconia and separator. The glass sealant becomes harder with the cooling down procedure. Moreover, zirconia is tightly bonded with separator below a temperature which is defined as a constraint temperature and thermal stress also occurs. This indicates that the heating up process relaxes the thermal stress and the cooling down increases it. In this paper, we simulated dependence of the stress on the sealing configuration, thermal expansion of sealant and constraint temperature of sealant glass. Furthermore, we presented SOFC electrical properties after a thermal cycle.

  13. Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    To extend the operating temperature range and further improve the durability of fluidizable sorbents, zinc titanate, another leading regenerable sorbent, was selected for development in the later part of this project. A number of zinc titanate formulations were prepared in the 50 to 300 [mu]m range using granulation and spray drying methods. Important sorbent preparation variables investigated included zinc to titanium ratio, binder type, binder amount, and various chemical additives such as cobalt and molybdenum. A number of sorbents selected on the basis of screening tests were subjected to bench-scale testing for 10 cycles at high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) conditions using the reactor system designed and constructed during the base program. This reactor system is capable of operation either as a 2.0 in. or 3.0 in. I.D. bubbling bed and is rated up to 20 atm operation at 871[degrees]C. Bench-scale testing variables included sorbent type, temperature (550 to 750[degrees]C), gas type (KRW or Texaco gasifier gas), steam content of coal gas, and fluidizing gas velocity (6 to 15 cm/s). The sorbents prepared by spray drying showed poor performance in terms of attrition resistance and chemical reactivity. On the other hand, the granulation method proved to be very successful. For example, a highly attrition-resistant zinc titanate formulation, ZT-4, prepared by granulation exhibited virtually no zinc loss and demonstrated a constant high reactivity and sulfur capacity over 10 cycles, i.e., approximately a 60 percent capacity utilization, with Texaco gas at 750[degrees]C, 15 cm/s fluidizing velocity and 15 atm pressure. The commercial potential of the granulation method for zinc titanate manufacture was demonstrated by preparing two 80 lb batches of sorbent with zinc to titanium mol ratios of 0.8 and 1.5.

  14. Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    To extend the operating temperature range and further improve the durability of fluidizable sorbents, zinc titanate, another leading regenerable sorbent, was selected for development in the later part of this project. A number of zinc titanate formulations were prepared in the 50 to 300 {mu}m range using granulation and spray drying methods. Important sorbent preparation variables investigated included zinc to titanium ratio, binder type, binder amount, and various chemical additives such as cobalt and molybdenum. A number of sorbents selected on the basis of screening tests were subjected to bench-scale testing for 10 cycles at high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) conditions using the reactor system designed and constructed during the base program. This reactor system is capable of operation either as a 2.0 in. or 3.0 in. I.D. bubbling bed and is rated up to 20 atm operation at 871{degrees}C. Bench-scale testing variables included sorbent type, temperature (550 to 750{degrees}C), gas type (KRW or Texaco gasifier gas), steam content of coal gas, and fluidizing gas velocity (6 to 15 cm/s). The sorbents prepared by spray drying showed poor performance in terms of attrition resistance and chemical reactivity. On the other hand, the granulation method proved to be very successful. For example, a highly attrition-resistant zinc titanate formulation, ZT-4, prepared by granulation exhibited virtually no zinc loss and demonstrated a constant high reactivity and sulfur capacity over 10 cycles, i.e., approximately a 60 percent capacity utilization, with Texaco gas at 750{degrees}C, 15 cm/s fluidizing velocity and 15 atm pressure. The commercial potential of the granulation method for zinc titanate manufacture was demonstrated by preparing two 80 lb batches of sorbent with zinc to titanium mol ratios of 0.8 and 1.5.

  15. Sustainable Agriculture Network | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture Network Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Sustainable Agriculture Network Name: Sustainable Agriculture Network Website: clima.sanstandards.org References: Sustainable...

  16. NREL Determines Better Testing Methods for Photovoltaic Module Durability (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Research & Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    NREL discoveries will enable manufacturers to produce more robust photovoltaic modules. Over the past decade, some photovoltaic (PV) modules have experienced power losses because of the system voltage stress that modules experience in fielded arrays. This is partly because qualification tests and standards do not adequately evaluate the durability of modules that undergo the long-term effects of high voltage. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) tried various testing methods and stress levels to demonstrate module durability to system voltage potential-induced degradation (PID) mechanisms. The results of these accelerated tests, along with outdoor testing, were used to estimate the acceleration factors needed to more accurately evaluate the durability of modules to system voltage stress. NREL was able to determine stress factors, levels, and methods for testing based on the stresses experienced by modules in the field. These results, in combination with those in the literature, suggest that constant stress with humidity and system voltage is more damaging than stress applied intermittently or with periods of recovery comprising hot and dry conditions or alternating bias in between. NREL has determined some module constructions to be extremely durable to PID. These findings will help the manufacturers of PV materials and components produce more durable products that better satisfy their customers. NREL determined that there is rapid degradation of some PV modules under system voltage stress and evaluated degradation rates in the field to develop more accurate accelerated testing methods. PV module manufacturers will be better able to choose robust materials and durable designs and guarantee sturdier, longer-lasting products. As PV modules become more durable, and thus more efficient over the long term, the risks and the cost of PV power will be reduced.

  17. Measurement of Exterior Foundation Insulation to Assess Durability in Energy-Saving Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehrer, Manfred; Christian, Jeff

    2012-04-01

    The foundation of a house is a sometimes ignored component of the building because of its low visibility. It is increasingly evident, however, that attention to good foundation design and construction significantly benefits the homeowner and the builder by mitigating future problems. Good foundation design and construction practice involves not only insulating to save energy but also providing effective structural design as well as moisture, termite, and radon control techniques as appropriate. Energy efficiency in housing is augmented by use of exterior slab and basement insulation, but high moisture content in the insulation material has led to concerns about its durability. The activity under this task was to extract six different exterior insulation systems that were characterized at installation and have been in the ground for 9 months to 15 years. R-value and moisture content were measured and inspections conducted for evidence of termite intrusion or deterioration. Based on the results, the durability of the various systems has been documented and assessments made of which systems appear to be best practice. Heat flux and temperature measurement data had been archived for some of the exterior insulation tests, thereby providing a unique opportunity to assess energy-saving performance and durability over the long term. The results show that the durability of foundation insulation systems depends on insulation type as well as on foundation type and local boundary conditions, the latter of which may have a marked influence on the durability of energy-saving performance.

  18. Chemical durability of soda-lime-aluminosilicate glass for radioactive waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eppler, F.H.; Yim, M.S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Vitrification has been identified as one of the most viable waste treatment alternatives for nuclear waste disposal. Currently, the most popular glass compositions being selected for vitrification are the borosilicate family of glasses. Another popular type that has been around in glass industry is the soda-lime-silicate variety, which has often been characterized as the least durable and a poor candidate for radioactive waste vitrification. By replacing the boron constituent with a cheaper substitute, such as silica, the cost of vitrification processing can be reduced. At the same time, addition of network intermediates such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to the glass composition increases the environmental durability of the glass. The objective of this study is to examine the ability of the soda-lime-aluminosilicate glass as an alternative vitrification tool for the disposal of radioactive waste and to investigate the sensitivity of product chemical durability to variations in composition.

  19. Durability-Based Design Guide for an Automotive Structural Composite: Part 2. Background Data and Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corum, J.M.; Battiste, R.L.; Brinkman, C.R.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.; Weitsman, Y.J.; Yahr, G.T.

    1998-02-01

    This background report is a companion to the document entitled ''Durability-Based Design Criteria for an Automotive Structural Composite: Part 1. Design Rules'' (ORNL-6930). The rules and the supporting material characterization and modeling efforts described here are the result of a U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Automotive Materials project entitled ''Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures.'' The overall goal of the project is to develop experimentally based, durability-driven design guidelines for automotive structural composites. The project is closely coordinated with the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC). The initial reference material addressed by the rules and this background report was chosen and supplied by ACC. The material is a structural reaction injection-molded isocyanurate (urethane), reinforced with continuous-strand, swirl-mat, E-glass fibers. This report consists of 16 position papers, each summarizing the observations and results of a key area of investigation carried out to provide the basis for the durability-based design guide. The durability issues addressed include the effects of cyclic and sustained loadings, temperature, automotive fluids, vibrations, and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and roadway kickups) on deformation, strength, and stiffness. The position papers cover these durability issues. Topics include (1) tensile, compressive, shear, and flexural properties; (2) creep and creep rupture; (3) cyclic fatigue; (4) the effects of temperature, environment, and prior loadings; (5) a multiaxial strength criterion; (6) impact damage and damage tolerance design; (7) stress concentrations; (8) a damage-based predictive model for time-dependent deformations; (9) confirmatory subscale component tests; and (10) damage development and growth observations.

  20. Chemical durability and degradation mechanisms of HT9 based alloy waste forms with variable Zr content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, L. N.

    2015-10-30

    In Corrosion studies were undertaken on alloy waste forms that can result from advanced electrometallurgical processing techniques to better classify their durability and degradation mechanisms. The waste forms were based on the RAW3-(URe) composition, consisting primarily of HT9 steel and other elemental additions to simulate nuclear fuel reprocessing byproducts. The solution conditions of the corrosion studies were taken from an electrochemical testing protocol, and meant to simulate conditions in a repository. The alloys durability was examined in alkaline and acidic brines.

  1. Stay-Clean and Durable White Elastomeric Roof Coatings | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Stay-Clean and Durable White Elastomeric Roof Coatings Stay-Clean and Durable White Elastomeric Roof Coatings Lead Performer: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory - Berkeley, CA Partner: Dow Chemical - Midland, MI DOE Funding: $570,000 Cost Share: $449,000 Project Term: 10/1/2011 - 9/30/2014 Project Objective This project is developing stay-clean white elastomeric roof coatings (ERCs) with a three-year aged solar reflectance (SR) of at least 0.75 and a service life of 15 years or

  2. Method and apparatus for increasing the durability and yield of thin film photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, James E.; Lasswell, Patrick G.

    1987-01-01

    Thin film photovoltaic cells having a pair of semiconductor layers between an opaque and a transparent electrical contact are manufactured in a method which includes the step of scanning one of the semiconductor layers to determine the location of any possible shorting defect. Upon the detection of such defect, the defect is eliminated to increase the durability and yield of the photovoltaic device.

  3. Oxidation of platinum nickel nanowires to improve durability of oxygen-reducing electrocatalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alia, Shaun M.; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Dameron, Arrelaine; Neyerlin, Kenneth C.; Kocha, Shyam S.; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2016-01-12

    In this study, the impact of heat treating platinum-coated nickel (Pt-Ni) nanowires in oxygen is examined to determine the effect on oxygen reduction (ORR) activity and durability. Pt-Ni nanowires exhibit promising ORR mass activities (3 times greater than Pt nanoparticles, 1.5 times greater than U.S. Department of Energy target) both before and after potential cycling for all but the highest annealing temperatures explored. The annealing of Pt-Ni nanowires in oxygen with increasing temperature is found to reduce surface area and ORR activity in comparison to the untreated material, but also reduces activity losses following durability testing. Following potential cycling, unannealedmore » Pt-Ni nanowires show significant losses in surface area (23%) and specific activity (18%) while Pt-Ni nanowires annealed at 200°C show modest increases in surface area (2%) and specific activity (6%) after potential cycling. Increasing annealing temperatures also show a clear trend of decreasing Ni dissolution rates. While oxygen annealing has shown the ability to improve durability of Pt-Ni nanowires, significant Ni dissolution was observed in all samples and suggests oxide passivation while showing promise for improved durability, when employed by itself is insufficient to prevent all contamination concerns involving Ni dissolution.« less

  4. Extremely durable biofouling-resistant metallic surfaces based on electrodeposited nanoporous tungstite films on steel

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tesler, Alexander B.; Kim, Philseok; Kolle, Stefan; Howell, Caitlin; Ahanotu, Onye; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-10-20

    Formation of unwanted deposits on steels during their interaction with liquids is an inherent problem that often leads to corrosion, biofouling and results in reduction in durability and function. Here we report a new route to form anti-fouling steel surfaces by electrodeposition of nanoporous tungsten oxide (TO) films. TO-modified steels are as mechanically durable as bare steel and highly tolerant to compressive and tensile stresses due to chemical bonding to the substrate and island-like morphology. When inherently superhydrophilic TO coatings are converted to superhydrophobic, they remain non-wetting even after impingement with yttria-stabilized-zirconia particles, or exposure to ultraviolet light and extrememore » temperatures. Upon lubrication, these surfaces display omniphobicity against highly contaminating media retaining hitherto unseen mechanical durability. Furthermore, to illustrate the applicability of such a durable coating in biofouling conditions, we modified naval construction steels and surgical instruments and demonstrated significantly reduced marine algal film adhesion, Escherichia coli attachment and blood staining.« less

  5. Extremely durable biofouling-resistant metallic surfaces based on electrodeposited nanoporous tungstite films on steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tesler, Alexander B.; Kim, Philseok; Kolle, Stefan; Howell, Caitlin; Ahanotu, Onye; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-10-20

    Formation of unwanted deposits on steels during their interaction with liquids is an inherent problem that often leads to corrosion, biofouling and results in reduction in durability and function. Here we report a new route to form anti-fouling steel surfaces by electrodeposition of nanoporous tungsten oxide (TO) films. TO-modified steels are as mechanically durable as bare steel and highly tolerant to compressive and tensile stresses due to chemical bonding to the substrate and island-like morphology. When inherently superhydrophilic TO coatings are converted to superhydrophobic, they remain non-wetting even after impingement with yttria-stabilized-zirconia particles, or exposure to ultraviolet light and extreme temperatures. Upon lubrication, these surfaces display omniphobicity against highly contaminating media retaining hitherto unseen mechanical durability. Furthermore, to illustrate the applicability of such a durable coating in biofouling conditions, we modified naval construction steels and surgical instruments and demonstrated significantly reduced marine algal film adhesion, Escherichia coli attachment and blood staining.

  6. Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siezak, Thomas R.; Gardner, Shea; Torres, Clinton; Vitalis, Elizabeth; Lenhoff, Raymond J.

    2013-01-15

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of agricultural pathogens in a sample. Genomic sequence information from agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay and/or an array assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  7. Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBride, Mary Teresa; Slezak, Thomas Richard; Messenger, Sharon Lee

    2010-09-14

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of seven agricultural pathogens (BPSV; BHV; BVD; FMDV; BTV; SVD; and VESV) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from 7 agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  8. Oregon Department of Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture Jump to: navigation, search Name: Oregon Department of Agriculture Address: 635 Capitol St NE Place: Salem, Oregon Zip: 97301 Phone Number: 503-986-4550 Website:...

  9. Wyoming Department of Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture Jump to: navigation, search Name: Wyoming Department of Agriculture Address: 2219 Carey Avenue Place: Cheyenne, Wyoming Zip: 82002 Phone Number: 307-777-7321 Website:...

  10. Energy Secretary Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce 6.3 million for Biofuels Research Energy Secretary Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce 6.3 million for Biofuels Research July ...

  11. LEDSGP/sector/Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LEDSGPsectorAgriculture < LEDSGP(Redirected from Agriculture Work Space) Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT LEDSGPsectorAFOLU Retrieved from "http:...

  12. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1999-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  13. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1997-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  14. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1999-02-02

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  15. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1997-12-30

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  16. The Corrosion of PEM Fuel Cell Catalyst Supports and Its Implications for Developing Durable Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Yuyan; Wang, Jun; Kou, Rong; Engelhard, Mark H.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong; Lin, Yuehe

    2009-01-03

    Studying the corrosion behavior of catalyst support materials is of great significance for understanding the degradation of PEM fuel cell performance and developing durable catalysts. The oxidation of Vulcan carbon black (the most widely-used catalyst support for PEM fuel cells) was investigated using various electrochemical stressing methods (fixed-potential holding vs. potential step cycling), among which the potential step cycling was considered to mimic more closely the real drive cycle operation of vehicle PEM fuel cells. The oxidation of carbon was accelerated under potential step conditions as compared with the fixed-potential holding condition. Increasing potential step frequency or decreasing the lower potential limit in the potential step can further accelerate the corrosion of carbon. The accelerated corrosion of carbon black was attributed to the cycle of consumption/regeneration of some easily oxidized species. These findings are being employed to develop a test protocol for fast screening durable catalyst support.

  17. New tests for characterizing the durability of a ceramic catalytic converter package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, K.P.; Helfinstine, J.D.; Gulati, S.T.

    1996-09-01

    New test methods were developed to characterize the high temperature durability of intumescent mats that are used to mount ceramic catalyst supports in stainless steel cans. The key attribute of these tests is the use of an electric resistance heating method to maintain a temperature gradient through the thickness of the mat when a cyclic or constant shear stress is applied to the mat interface. These tests are simple to perform and do not require expensive equipment or highly skilled operators. Using these new test methods, the durability of ceramic preconverters mounted with 4,070 gm/m{sup 2} intumescent mat was studied. The results of these tests indicate that a preconverter package with 4070 gm/m{sup 2} intumescent mat can perform satisfactorily in the close-coupled application where temperatures exceed 900 C. The mat performance can be quantified in terms of applied stress and test temperature by utilizing the experimental methods described in the present study.

  18. Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Quasi-Isotropic Carbon-Fiber Automotive Composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corum, J.M.

    2002-04-17

    This report provides recommended durability-based design properties and criteria for a quasi-isotropic carbon-fiber composite for possible automotive structural applications. The composite, which was made by a rapid molding process suitable for high-volume automotive applications, consisted of continuous Thornel T300 fibers (6K tow) in a Baydur 420 IMR urethane matrix. The reinforcement was in the form of four {+-}45{sup o} stitch-bonded mats in the following layup: [0/90{sup o}/{+-}45{sup o}]{sub S}. This material is the second in a progression of three candidate thermoset composites to be characterized and modeled as part of an Oak Ridge National Laboratory project entitled Durability of Carbon-Fiber Composites. The overall goal of the project, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies and is closely coordinated with the industry Automotive Composites Consortium, is to develop durability-driven design data and criteria to assure the long-term integrity of carbon-fiber-based composite systems for large automotive structural components. This document is in two parts. Part I provides the design criteria, and Part 2 provides the underlying experimental data and models. The durability issues addressed include the effects on deformation, strength, and stiffness of cyclic and sustained loads, operating temperature, automotive fluid environments, and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and kickups of roadway debris). Guidance is provided for design analysis, time-dependent allowable stresses, rules for cyclic loadings, and damage tolerance design guidance, including the effects of holes. Chapter 6 provides a brief summary of the design criteria.

  19. Durability and reliability of solar domestic hot water heaters: Survey results. Final report, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramirez-Vargas, R.; Whitfield, K.; Hicks, B.; Wood, B.D.

    1998-03-01

    An unresolved barrier for consumer acceptance of SDWH systems is the perception that they are unreliable and that their service life is significantly less than that claimed by the manufacturers/dealers. A comprehensive survey was developed to identify and define the relevant durability and reliability issues that affect the long term performance of SDWH systems. The survey was directed towards installers and service contractors with significant field experience.

  20. Durability-Based Design Criteria for a Chopped-Glass-Fiber Automotive Structural Composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battiste, R.L.; Corum, J.M.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.

    1999-11-01

    This report provides recommended durability-based design criteria for a chopped-glass-fiber reinforced polymeric composite for automotive structural applications. The criteria closely follow the framework of an earlier criteria document for a continuous-strand-mat (CSM) glass-fiber reference composite. Together these design criteria demonstrate a framework that can be adapted for future random-glass-fiber composites for automotive structural applications.

  1. Durability-Based Design Properties of Reference Crossply Carbon-Fiber Composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corum, J.M.

    2001-04-16

    This report provides recommended durability-based design properties and criteria for a crossply carbon-fiber composite for possible automotive structural applications. Although the composite utilized aerospace-grade carbon-fiber reinforcement, it was made by a rapid-molding process suitable for high-volume automotive use. The material is the first in a planned progression of candidate composites to be characterized as part of an Oak Ridge National Laboratory project entitled Durability of Carbon-Fiber Composites. The overall goal of the project, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies and is closely coordinated with the Advanced Composites Consortium, is to develop durability-driven design data and criteria to assure the long-term integrity of carbon-fiber-based composite systems for automotive structural applications. The composite addressed in this report is a ({+-}45{degree})3S crossply consisting of continuous Thornel T300 fibers in a Baydur 420 IMR urethane matrix. This composite is highly anisotropic with two dominant fiber orientations--0/90{degree} and {+-}45{degree}. Properties and models were developed for both orientations. This document is in two parts. Part 1 provides design data and correlations, while Part 2 provides the underlying experimental data and models. The durability issues addressed include the effects of short-time, cyclic, and sustained loadings; temperature; fluid environments; and low-energy impacts (e.g., tool drops and kickups of roadway debris) on deformation, strength, and stiffness. Guidance for design analysis, time-independent and time-dependent allowable stresses, rules for cyclic loadings, and damage-tolerance design guidance are provided.

  2. Method and apparatus for increasing the durability and yield of thin film photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, J.E.; Lasswell, P.G.

    1987-02-03

    Thin film photovoltaic cells having a pair of semiconductor layers between an opaque and a transparent electrical contact are manufactured in a method which includes the step of scanning one of the semiconductor layers to determine the location of any possible shorting defect. Upon the detection of such defect, the defect is eliminated to increase the durability and yield of the photovoltaic device. 10 figs.

  3. Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Technology (Revised) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Carloni, J. D.; Pankow, J. W.; Gjersing, E. L.; To, B.; Packard, C. E.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology recently gained interest based on its expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems employ Fresnel lenses composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density on the cell. The optical and mechanical durability of these lenses, however, is not well established relative to the desired surface life of 30 years. Our research aims to quantify the expected lifetime of PMMA in key market locations (FL, AZ, and CO).

  4. Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    g y Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications Through the Fundamental Understanding of Membrane and MEA Degradation Pathways DE-EE0003772 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell Project Kick-Off Randal L. Perry E.I. duPont de Nemours September 28 2010 September 28, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information" 2 Overview Timeline (tentative) Start date: Oct 1 2010 Start date: Oct 1,

  5. Method of immobilizing weapons plutonium to provide a durable, disposable waste product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ewing, Rodney C.; Lutze, Werner; Weber, William J.

    1996-01-01

    A method of atomic scale fixation and immobilization of plutonium to provide a durable waste product. Plutonium is provided in the form of either PuO.sub.2 or Pu(NO.sub.3).sub.4 and is mixed with and SiO.sub.2. The resulting mixture is cold pressed and then heated under pressure to form (Zr,Pu)SiO.sub.4 as the waste product.

  6. Volvo Penta 4.3 GL E15 Emissions and Durability Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoubul, G.; Cahoon, M.; Kolb, R.

    2011-10-01

    A new Volvo Penta carbureted 4.3 GL engine underwent emissions and dynamometer durability testing from break-in to expected end of life using an accelerated ICOMIA marine emissions cycle and E15 fuel. Only ethanol content was controlled. All aging used splash-blended E15 fuel. Exhaust emissions, exhaust gas temperature, torque, power, barometric pressure, air temperature, and fuel flow were measured at five intervals using site-blended E15 aging fuel and certification fuel (E0). The durability test cycle showed no noticeable impact on mechanical durability or engine power. Emissions performance degraded beyond the certification limit for this engine family, mostly occurring by 28% of expected life. Such degradation is inconsistent with prior experience. Comparisons showed that E15 resulted in lower CO and HC, but increased NOX, as expected for non-feedback-controlled carbureted engines with increased oxygen in the fuel. Fuel consumption also increased with E15 compared with E0. Throughout testing, poor starting characteristics were exhibited on E15 fuel for hot re-start and cold-start. Cranking time to start and smooth idle was roughly doubled compared with typical E0 operation. The carburetor was factory-set for lean operation to ensure emissions compliance. Test protocols did not include carburetor adjustment to account for increased oxygen in the E15 fuel.

  7. Primer on Durability of Nuclear Power Plant Reinforced Concrete Structures - A Review of Pertinent Factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, Dan J

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a primer on the environmental effects that can affect the durability of nuclear power plant concrete structures. As concrete ages, changes in its properties will occur as a result of continuing microstructural changes (i.e., slow hydration, crystallization of amorphous constituents, and reactions between cement paste and aggregates), as well as environmental influences. These changes do not have to be detrimental to the point that concrete will not be able to meet its performance requirements. Concrete, however, can suffer undesirable changes with time because of improper specifications, a violation of specifications, or adverse performance of its cement paste matrix or aggregate constituents under either physical or chemical attack. Contained in this report is a discussion on concrete durability and the relationship between durability and performance, a review of the historical perspective related to concrete and longevity, a description of the basic materials that comprise reinforced concrete, and information on the environmental factors that can affect the performance of nuclear power plant concrete structures. Commentary is provided on the importance of an aging management program.

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Durability of Diesel Particulate Filters (Agreement ID:10461) Project ID:18519

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about durability of...

  9. Agricultural

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Appendix E.) J. Jennings. ERC Environmental and Energy Services, Co. ERCEPO-49. (190) Empirical Impact Evaluation of the Energy Savings Resulting From BPA's Stage II Irrigation...

  10. Shotcrete durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palermo, G.; Sardinha, V.L.A.; Coutinho, P.T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper defends the use of shotcrete as a permanent structure based on scientific, technological and practical reasons. Special attention is given to the topic of lining design in tunnels and stations excavated in soil by the NATM method.

  11. Building, Testing, and Post Test Analysis of Durability Heat Pipe No.6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MOSS, TIMOTHY A.

    2002-03-01

    The Solar Thermal Program at Sandia supports work developing dish/Stirling systems to convert solar energy into electricity. Heat pipe technology is ideal for transferring the energy of concentrated sunlight from the parabolic dish concentrators to the Stirling engine heat tubes. Heat pipes can absorb the solar energy at non-uniform flux distributions and release this energy to the Stirling engine heater tubes at a very uniform flux distribution thus decoupling the design of the engine heater head from the solar absorber. The most important part of a heat pipe is the wick, which transports the sodium over the heated surface area. Bench scale heat pipes were designed and built to more economically, both in time and money, test different wicks and cleaning procedures. This report covers the building, testing, and post-test analysis of the sixth in a series of bench scale heat pipes. Durability heat pipe No.6 was built and tested to determine the effects of a high temperature bakeout, 950 C, on wick corrosion during long-term operation. Previous tests showed high levels of corrosion with low temperature bakeouts (650-700 C). Durability heat pipe No.5 had a high temperature bakeout and reflux cleaning and showed low levels of wick corrosion after long-term operation. After testing durability heat pipe No.6 for 5,003 hours at an operating temperature of 750 C, it showed low levels of wick corrosion. This test shows a high temperature bakeout alone will significantly reduce wick corrosion without the need for costly and time consuming reflux cleaning.

  12. Electronic Durability of Flexible Transparent Films from Type-Specific Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J; Iyer, S; Bernhardt, A; Huh, JY; Hudson, S; Fagan, J; Hobbie, E.

    2011-12-11

    The coupling between mechanical flexibility and electronic performance is evaluated for thin films of metallic and semiconducting single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) deposited on compliant supports. Percolated networks of type-purified SWCNTs are assembled as thin conducting coatings on elastic polymer substrates, and the sheet resistance is measured as a function of compression and cyclic strain through impedance spectroscopy. The wrinkling topography, microstructure and transparency of the films are independently characterized using optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and optical absorption spectroscopy. Thin films made from metallic SWCNTs show better durability as flexible transparent conductive coatings, which we attribute to a combination of superior mechanical performance and higher interfacial conductivity.

  13. Chemically durable nitrogen containing phosphate glasses useful for sealing to metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Day, Delbert E.; Wilder, Jr., James A.

    1984-01-01

    The chemical durability of alkali phosphate glasses is improved by incorporation of up to 23 weight percent of nitrogen. A typical phosphate glass contains: 10 to 60 mole % of Li.sub.2 O, Na.sub.2 O or K.sub.2 O; 5-40 mole % of BaO or CAO; 0-1 to 10 mole % of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 40-70 mole % of P.sub.2 O.sub.5. Nitrides, such as AlN, are the favored additives.

  14. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study 2014: Durable Energy Builders, Houston, TX

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Durable Energy Builders Houston, TX DOE ZERO ENERGY READY HOME(tm) CASE STUDY The U.S. Department of Energy invites home builders across the country to meet the extraordinary levels of excellence and quality specified in DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program (formerly known as Challenge Home). Every DOE Zero Energy Ready Home starts with ENERGY STAR Certified Homes Version 3.0 for an energy-efficient home built on a solid foundation of building science research. Advanced technologies are designed

  15. Mathias Agricultural Energy Efficiency Grant program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mathias Agriculture Energy Efficiency program offered by the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) provides grants to farms and businesses in agricultural sector to offset 50% of the cost of energ...

  16. Randolph EMC- Agricultural Efficient Lighting Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agricultural members of Randolph EMC (REMC) who upgrade to energy-efficientCFL bulbs in agricultural facilities are eligible for an incentive to help cover the initial cost of installation. The...

  17. Industrial and Agricultural Production Efficiency Program | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    food processing, cold storage, agricultural, greenhouses, irrigation districts, and waterwastewater treatment. Standard prescriptive incentives include lighting, green motor...

  18. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Research Participation Program -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Managed by ORAU Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Research Participation Program Home About USDA ARS About ORISE Current Research Opportunities Site Map Contact ORISE Facebook Twitter Applicants Welcome to the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Research Participation Program The Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Research Participation Program will serve as the next step in the educational and professional development of scientists and engineers interested in agricultural related

  19. ADVANCED COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE DESIGN BASED ON DURABILITY AND DAMAGE TOLERANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galib Abumeri; Frank Abdi

    2012-02-16

    The objective of the program was to demonstrate and verify Certification-by-Analysis (CBA) capability for wind turbine blades made from advanced lightweight composite materials. The approach integrated durability and damage tolerance analysis with robust design and virtual testing capabilities to deliver superior, durable, low weight, low cost, long life, and reliable wind blade design. The GENOA durability and life prediction software suite was be used as the primary simulation tool. First, a micromechanics-based computational approach was used to assess the durability of composite laminates with ply drop features commonly used in wind turbine applications. Ply drops occur in composite joints and closures of wind turbine blades to reduce skin thicknesses along the blade span. They increase localized stress concentration, which may cause premature delamination failure in composite and reduced fatigue service life. Durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) were evaluated utilizing a multi-scale micro-macro progressive failure analysis (PFA) technique. PFA is finite element based and is capable of detecting all stages of material damage including initiation and propagation of delamination. It assesses multiple failure criteria and includes the effects of manufacturing anomalies (i.e., void, fiber waviness). Two different approaches have been used within PFA. The first approach is Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) PFA while the second one is strength-based. Constituent stiffness and strength properties for glass and carbon based material systems were reverse engineered for use in D&DT evaluation of coupons with ply drops under static loading. Lamina and laminate properties calculated using manufacturing and composite architecture details matched closely published test data. Similarly, resin properties were determined for fatigue life calculation. The simulation not only reproduced static strength and fatigue life as observed in the test, it also showed composite

  20. Liquidus temperature and chemical durability of selected glasses to immobilize rare earth oxides waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohd Fadzil, Syazwani Binti; Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.

    2015-06-30

    Pyroprocessing is a reprocessing method for managing and reusing used nuclear fuel (UNF) by dissolving it in an electrorefiner with a molten alkali or alkaline earth chloride salt mixture while avoiding wet reprocessing. Pyroprocessing UNF with a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt releases the fission products from the fuel and generates a variety of metallic and salt-based species, including rare earth (RE) chlorides. If the RE-chlorides are converted to oxides, borosilicate glass is a prime candidate for their immobilization because of its durability and ability to dissolve almost any RE waste component into the matrix at high loadings. Crystallization that occurs in waste glasses as the waste loading increases may complicate glass processing and affect the product quality. This work compares three types of borosilicate glasses in terms of liquidus temperature (TL): the International Simple Glass designed by the International Working Group, sodium borosilicate glass developed by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, and the lanthanide aluminoborosilicate (LABS) glass established in the United States. The LABS glass allows the highest waste loadings (over 50 mass% RE2O3) while possessing an acceptable chemical durability.

  1. Effect of Stainless Steel Can/Glass-Ceramic Interaction Layer on Aqueous Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGlinn, Peter J.; Zhang, Yingjie; Li, Huijun; Payne, Timothy E.

    2007-07-01

    Calcined high-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will eventually be immobilised in a suitable wasteform before disposal. A tailored glass-ceramic wasteform, produced by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) in stainless steel (SS) cans, has been developed at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) as a cost-saving alternative to glass which would improve waste loading and density, and reduce waste volume. We have studied the SS/wasteform interactions under HIPing conditions to understand whether such interactions would have any detrimental effect on long-term wasteform stability. This has been demonstrated by carrying out aqueous durability tests, under near-neutral and alkaline conditions, on the wasteform at the interaction layer, and on the wasteform distal to this reaction edge. Reaction during HIPing resulted in verifiable Cr diffusion from the can wall into the wasteform, yet without any detectable detrimental impact on the HIP can or the aqueous durability of the wasteform. (authors)

  2. Extended Durability Testing of an External Fuel Processor for a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Perna; Anant Upadhyayula; Mark Scotto

    2012-11-05

    Durability testing was performed on an external fuel processor (EFP) for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant. The EFP enables the SOFC to reach high system efficiency (electrical efficiency up to 60%) using pipeline natural gas and eliminates the need for large quantities of bottled gases. LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (LGFCS) is developing natural gas-fired SOFC power plants for stationary power applications. These power plants will greatly benefit the public by reducing the cost of electricity while reducing the amount of gaseous emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides compared to conventional power plants. The EFP uses pipeline natural gas and air to provide all the gas streams required by the SOFC power plant; specifically those needed for start-up, normal operation, and shutdown. It includes a natural gas desulfurizer, a synthesis-gas generator and a start-gas generator. The research in this project demonstrated that the EFP could meet its performance and durability targets. The data generated helped assess the impact of long-term operation on system performance and system hardware. The research also showed the negative impact of ambient weather (both hot and cold conditions) on system operation and performance.

  3. The Network of Excellence 'Knowledge-based Multicomponent Materials for Durable and Safe Performance'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, Arnaldo

    2008-02-15

    The Network of Excellence 'Knowledge-based Multicomponent Materials for Durable and Safe Performance' (KMM-NoE) consists of 36 institutional partners from 10 countries representing leading European research institutes and university departments (25), small and medium enterprises, SMEs (5) and large industry (7) in the field of knowledge-based multicomponent materials (KMM), more specifically in intermetallics, metal-ceramic composites, functionally graded materials and thin layers. The main goal of the KMM-NoE (currently funded by the European Commission) is to mobilise and concentrate the fragmented scientific potential in the KMM field to create a durable and efficient organism capable of developing leading-edge research while spreading the accumulated knowledge outside the Network and enhancing the technological skills of the related industries. The long-term strategic goal of the KMM-NoE is to establish a self-supporting pan-European institution in the field of knowledge-based multicomponent materials--KMM Virtual Institute (KMM-VIN). It will combine industry oriented research with educational and training activities. The KMM Virtual Institute will be founded on three main pillars: KMM European Competence Centre, KMM Integrated Post-Graduate School, KMM Mobility Programme. The KMM-NoE is coordinated by the Institute of Fundamental Technological Research (IPPT) of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

  4. California Department of Food and Agriculture | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture Jump to: navigation, search Logo: California Department of Food and Agriculture Name: California Department of Food and Agriculture Abbreviation: CDFA Address: 1220 N...

  5. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 8, July--September 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-11-14

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  6. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 9, October--December 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-03-06

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  7. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, April--June 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Baltich, L.K.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-08-28

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  8. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 2, January--March 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Baltich, L.K.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-05-18

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  9. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Volume 1, Bench-scale testing and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  10. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 7, April--June 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-08-19

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  11. Durability of Low Platinum Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polevaya, Olga; Blanchet, Scott; Ahluwalia, Rajesh; Borup, Rod; Mukundan, Rangachary

    2014-03-19

    Understanding and improving the durability of cost-competitive fuel cell stacks is imperative to successful deployment of the technology. Stacks will need to operate well beyond today’s state-of-the-art rated power density with very low platinum loading in order to achieve the cost targets set forth by DOE ($15/kW) and ultimately be competitive with incumbent technologies. An accelerated cost-reduction path presented by Nuvera focused on substantially increasing power density to address non-PGM material costs as well as platinum. The study developed a practical understanding of the degradation mechanisms impacting durability of fuel cells with low platinum loading (≤0.2mg/cm2) operating at high power density (≥1.0W/cm2) and worked out approaches for improving the durability of low-loaded, high-power stack designs. Of specific interest is the impact of combining low platinum loading with high power density operation, as this offers the best chance of achieving long-term cost targets. A design-of-experiments approach was utilized to reveal and quantify the sensitivity of durability-critical material properties to high current density at two levels of platinum loading (the more conventional 0.45 mgPt.cm–1 and the much lower 0.2 mgPt.cm–2) across several cell architectures. We studied the relevance of selected component accelerated stress tests (AST) to fuel cell operation in power producing mode. New stress tests (NST) were designed to investigate the sensitivity to the addition of electrical current on the ASTs, along with combined humidity and load cycles and, eventually, relate to the combined city/highway drive cycle. Changes in the cathode electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and average oxygen partial pressure on the catalyst layer with aging under AST and NST protocols were compared based on the number of completed cycles. Studies showed elevated sensitivity of Pt growth to the potential limits and the initial particle size distribution. The ECSA loss

  12. E-Area Vault Concrete Material Property And Vault Durability/Degradation Projection Recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phifer, M. A.

    2014-03-11

    Subsequent to the 2008 E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC 2008), two additional E-Area vault concrete property testing programs have been conducted (Dixon and Phifer 2010 and SIMCO 2011a) and two additional E-Area vault concrete durability modeling projections have been made (Langton 2009 and SIMCO 2012). All the information/data from these reports has been evaluated and consolidated herein by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the request of Solid Waste Management (SWM) to produce E-Area vault concrete hydraulic and physical property data and vault durability/degradation projection recommendations that are adequately justified for use within associated Special Analyses (SAs) and future PA updates. The Low Activity Waste (LAW) and Intermediate Level (IL) Vaults structural degradation predictions produced by Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006, respectively, which were used as the basis for the 2008 ELLWF PA, remain valid based upon the results of the E-Area vault concrete durability simulations reported by Langton 2009 and those reported by SIMCO 2012. Therefore revised structural degradation predictions are not required so long as the mean thickness of the closure cap overlying the vaults is no greater than that assumed within Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006. For the LAW Vault structural degradation prediction (Carey 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as nine feet. For the IL Vault structural degradation prediction (Peregoy 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as eight feet. The mean closure cap thicknesses as described here for both E-Area Vaults will be included as a key input and assumption (I&A) in the next revision to the closure plan for the ELLWF (Phifer et al. 2009). In addition, it has been identified as new input to the PA model to be assessed in the ongoing update to the new PA Information UDQE (Flach 2013). Once the UDQE is approved, the SWM Key I

  13. Global Climate Change and Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released in 2007 significantly increased our confidence about the role that humans play in forcing climate change. There is now a high degree of confidence that the (a) current atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) far exceed those of the pre-industrial era, (b) global increases in CO2 arise mainly from fossil fuel use and land use change while those of CH4 and N2O originate primarily from agricultural activities, and (c) the net effect of human activities since 1750 has led to a warming of the lower layers of the atmosphere, with an increased radiative forcing of 1.6 W m-2. Depending on the scenario of human population growth and global development, mean global temperatures could rise between 1.8 and 4.0 C by the end of the 21st century.

  14. Factors affecting the microstructural stability and durability of thermal barrier coatings fabricated by air plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helminiak, M. A.; Yanar, N. M.; Pettit, F. S.; Taylor, T. A.; Meier, G. H.

    2012-10-01

    The high-temperature behavior of high-purity, low-density (HP-LD) air plasma sprayed (APS) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with NiCoCrAlY bond coats deposited by argon-shrouded plasma spraying is described. The high purity yttria-stabilized zirconia resulted in top coats which are highly resistant to sintering and transformation from the metastable tetragonal phase to the equilibrium mixture of monoclinic and cubic phases. The thermal conductivity of the as-processed TBC is low but increases during high temperature exposure even before densification occurs. The porous topcoat microstructure also resulted in good spallation resistance during thermal cycling. The actual failure mechanisms of the APS coatings were found to depend on topcoat thickness, topcoat density, and the thermal cycle frequency. The failure mechanisms are described and the durability of the HP-LD coatings is compared with that of state-of-the-art electron beam physical vapor deposition TBCs.

  15. Effects of extreme pressure additive chemistry on rolling element bearing surface durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Ryan D.; Nixon, H. P.; Darragh, Craig V.; Howe, Jane Y; Coffey, Dorothy W

    2007-01-01

    Lubricant additives have been known to affect rolling element bearing surface durability for many years. Tapered roller bearings were used in fatigue testing of lubricants formulated with gear oil type additive systems. These systems have sulfur- and phosphoruscontaining compounds used for gear protection as well as bearing lubrication. Several variations of a commercially available base additive formulation were tested having modified sulfur components. The variations represent a range of ''active'' extreme pressure (EP) chemistries. The bearing fatigue test results were compared with respect to EP formulation and test conditions. Inner ring near-surface material in selected test bearings was evaluated on two scales: the micrometer scale using optical metallography and the nanometer scale using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Focused-ion beam (FIB) techniques were used for TEM specimen preparation. Imaging and chemical analysis of the bearing samples revealed near-surface material and tribofilm characteristics. These results are discussed with respect to the relative fatigue lives.

  16. Durable Airtightness in Single-Family Dwellings: Field Measurements and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Wanyu; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2015-06-01

    Durability of the building envelope is important to new homes that are increasingly built with improved levels of airtightness. It is also important to weatherized homes such that energy savings from retrofit measures, such as air sealing, are persistent. This paper presents a comparison of air leakage measurements collected in November 2013 through March 2014, with two sets of prior data collected between 2001-2003 from 17 new homes located near Atlanta, GA, and 17 homes near Boise, ID that were weatherized in 2007-2008. The purpose of the comparison is to determine if there are changes to the airtightness of building envelopes over time. The air leakage increased in all but one of the new homes, with a mean increase of about 25%. A regression analysis was performed to describe the relationship between prior and current measurements in terms of normalized leakage (NL).

  17. Durable Media for Long-Term Preservation of Geological Repository Records

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aoki, K.; Fujii, N.; Kageyama, H.; Yoshimura, K.; Ohuchi, J.; Tsuboya, T.

    2008-07-01

    Durability of selected hard materials as information preserving media has been studied, leading to some promising results. Several engraving experiments on the selected materials confirmed that characters and patterns can be expressed along with shading and gradation. Engraving experiments on durable artificial materials were carried out by applying laser technologies. By selecting appropriate materials and engraving methods, characters and patterns can be expressed along with shading and gradation. These technologies can be applied to not only documentary records but also to markers and monuments. Among the materials, silicon carbide, which has strong resistance against heat wear and chemical impacts, corrosion resistance and wear resistance, showed satisfactory results in terms of accuracy. Thus, it is expected to be a promising material for the long-term record preservation. With respect to the density of characters in written records in the case of dot printing, it was estimated that, with 2-point characters, information totaling 6 to 8 pages of A-4 size can be engraved on a 10 cm x 10 cm plate. When a document that has 500 pages of A4 size paper is engraved on sintered silicon carbide plates, the total volume of recording media is evaluated as follows: - Size of plate: 10 cm x 10 cm; - Size of character to be engraved: 2-points ({approx} 0.7 mm; of readable size by naked eye or using a magnifying glass); - Number of pages of original document to be engraved on a plate: 8; - Number of pages of original document to be engraved on both sides of a plate: 16; - Number of plates needed for a series of document package: 500 / 16 = 32; - The thickness of a plate: 1 mm; - The total thickness of recording media: 32 mm; - Bulk of recording media preserving 500 pages of document: 10 cm x 10 cm x 32 cm. The examination has shown the possibility of long-term preservation of documentation records as a permanent system. A further examination is suggested concerning the

  18. Spray-on anti-soiling coatings that exhibit high transparency and mechanical durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaeffer, Daniel A; Polyzos, Georgios; Smith, Barton; Lee, Dominic F; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskos, Panos G; Hunter, Scott Robert

    2014-01-01

    A superhydrophobic (SH) surface has many characteristics, one of which is its self-cleaning, anti-soiling functionality, that are desirable across various industries. A transparent, self-cleaning surface utilizes the right combination of surface chemistry and roughness that force water droplets to form high water contact angles (CA). This in turn allows droplets to easily roll off and pick up dirt and debris across the surface. In theory this is simple but in practice this can be very difficult as superhydrophobicity and optical transparency are competitive. We have developed a simple, spray-on coating based on functionalized SiO2 nanoparticles that can easily be applied to surfaces whose application requires high transparency including, but not limited to, optical sensors, photovoltaics, sights, and lenses. In addition, these coatings exhibit practical mechanical and environmental durability that allow prolonged use of the coatings in harsh environments.

  19. Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R.; Luecke, J.; Brezny, R.; Geisselmann, A.; Voss, K.; Hallstrom, K.; Leustek, M.; Parsons, J.; Abi-Akar, H.

    2011-06-01

    It is estimated that operating continuously on a B20 fuel containing the current allowable ASTM specification limits for metal impurities in biodiesel could result in a doubling of ash exposure relative to lube-oil derived ash. The purpose of this study was to determine if a fuel containing metals at the ASTM limits could cause adverse impacts on the performance and durability of diesel emission control systems. An accelerated durability test method was developed to determine the potential impact of these biodiesel impurities. The test program included engine testing with multiple DPF substrate types as well as DOC and SCR catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of cordierite, aluminum titanate, or silicon carbide DPFs after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure of a cordierite DPF to 435,000 mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in the thermal shock resistance parameter. It is estimated that the additional ash from 150,000 miles of biodiesel use would also result in a moderate increases in exhaust backpressure for a DPF. A decrease in DOC activity was seen after exposure to 150,000 mile equivalent aging, resulting in higher HC slip and a reduction in NO{sub 2} formation. The metal-zeolite SCR catalyst experienced a slight loss in activity after exposure to 435,000 mile equivalent aging. This catalyst, placed downstream of the DPF, showed a 5% reduction in overall NOx conversion activity over the HDDT test cycle.

  20. Durability of metals from archaeological objects, metal meteorites, and native metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Francis, B.

    1980-01-01

    Metal durability is an important consideration in the multi-barrier nuclear waste storage concept. This study summarizes the ancient metals, the environments, and factors which appear to have contributed to metal longevity. Archaeological and radiochemical dating suggest that human use of metals began in the period 6000 to 7000 BC. Gold is clearly the most durable, but many objects fashioned from silver, copper, bronze, iron, lead, and tin have survived for several thousand years. Dry environments, such as tombs, appear to be optimum for metal preservation, but some metals have survived in shipwrecks for over a thousand years. The metal meteorites are Fe-base alloys with 5 to 60 wt% Ni and minor amounts of Co, I, and S. Some meteoritic masses with ages estimated to be 5,000 to 20,000 years have weathered very little, while other masses from the same meteorites are in advanced stages of weathering. Native metals are natural metallic ores. Approximately five million tonnes were mined from native copper deposits in Michigan. Copper masses from the Michigan deposits were transported by the Pleistocene glaciers. Areas on the copper surfaces which appear to represent glacial abrasion show minimal corrosion. Dry cooling tower technology has demonstrated that in pollution-free moist environments, metals fare better at temperatures above than below the dewpoint. Thus, in moderate temperature regimes, elevated temperatures may be useful rather than detrimental for exposures of metal to air. In liquid environments, relatively complex radiolysis reactions can occur, particularly where multiple species are present. A dry environment largely obviates radiolysis effects.

  1. ORISE: Multiple research appointments available through Agricultural

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Service Postdoctoral Research Program Multiple research appointments available through Agricultural Research Service Postdoctoral Research Program Selected candidates participate in USDA research for one to four years FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE March 26, 2014 FY14-23 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-ORAU and the U.S. Department of Agriculture are currently seeking recent doctoral degree recipients for various appointments in the Agricultural Research Service Postdoctoral Research Program. The ARS is the

  2. The Future of Biofuels an Agricultural Perspective

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Biofuels An Agricultural Perspective Beth J. Calabotta Monsanto Company POPULATION GROWING AT 1.1% EACH YEAR Source: UN Population Division, Monsanto analysis INCOMES GROWING AT 3.5% PER YEAR... $5 BILLION PER DAY Source: IHS Global Insight, Agriculture Division, Monsanto analysis FOOD DEMAND GROWING AT ~1.75% EACH YEAR Source: IHS Global Insights, Agriculture Division, Monsanto analysis WATER DEMAND IS GROWING AT ~2% PER YEAR Source: McKinsey Resource Revolution 2011, Monsanto Analysis ENERGY

  3. Strength and durability properties of core lithologies from coal-bearing Tyonek formation, Cook Inlet region, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odum, J.K.

    1985-04-01

    The Tyonek Formation (late Oligocene to middle Miocene) is a nonmarine unit of sandstone, siltstone, and claystone that contains large quantities of strippable subbituminous coal and lignite. The geotechnical properties, determined by field and laboratory tests on core from the Capps and Chuitna coalfields, dictate the equipment needs for excavation, determination of pit slope angle for mine planning, and durability of excavated spoil to weathering degradation. Point-load strength index tests are rapid and inexpensive field tests approximating the tensile and unconfined compressive strength of rock types. These tests, combined with laboratory uniaxial compression tests, were used to rank the formation lithologies in order of decreasing strength: coal (2670 psi), carbonaceous claystone (835 psi), siltstone (435 psi), claystone (375 psi), and sandstone (145 psi). Except for coal, the lithologies range in hardness from soft soil to soft rock. Laboratory slake durability index tests, which measure the deterioration potential of rock masses as a result of cyclic wetting and drying, were used to rank lithologies in order of decreasing durability: claystone (49%), carbonaceous claystone (46%), siltstone (40%), and sandstone (20%). The cored Tyonek lithologies are noncarbonate, and their strength and durability increase with decreasing grain size and increasing clay-particle content. Compressional wave velocity, combined with point-load data, indicates that most of the rocks could be removed by bull-dozers with ripping blades or by scrapers and shovels. However, coal (with rare exceptions, the strongest lithology tested) would require blasting before removal.

  4. Long-term durability testing of ceramic cross-flow filter. Final report, September 29, 1987--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lippert, T.E.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Bachovchin, D.M.

    1993-08-01

    Long term durability testing of the cross flow filter is described. Two high temperature, high pressure test facilities were built and operated. The facilities were designed to simulate dirty gas environments typical of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) and coal gasification. Details of the design and operation of the test facilities and filter testing results are described.

  5. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    reduce poverty and hunger, improve human health and nutrition, and enhance ecosystem resilience through high-quality international agricultural research, partnershp and...

  6. OTEC- Agricultural Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Oregon Trail Electric Consumers Cooperative (OTEC) offers programs to agricultural customers.  Interested customers should contact a local OTEC office.

  7. Agricultural Lighting and Equipment Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In Vermont, agricultural operations are eligible for prescriptive and customized incentives for equipment proven to help make farms more efficient. Prescriptive rebates are available for lighting...

  8. WINDExchange: Agricultural and Rural Resources and Tools

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Rural Communities Printable Version Bookmark and Share Wind for Homeowners, Farmers, & Businesses Resources & Tools Agricultural and Rural Resources and Tools This page lists...

  9. Farmers Electric Cooperative - Residential/Agricultural Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Residential Agricultural Savings Category Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Geothermal Heat Pumps Water Heaters Lighting Heat Pumps CaulkingWeather-stripping Building Insulation...

  10. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    academia, and the private sector. The 15 Research Centers generate and disseminate knowledge, technologies, and policies for agricultural development through the CGIAR...

  11. The effect of chemical composition on the PCT durability of mixed waste glasses from wastewater treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resce, J.L.; Ragsdale, R.G.; Overcamp, T.J.; Bickford, D.F.; Cicero, C.A.

    1995-01-25

    An experimental program has been designed to examine the chemical durability of glass compositions derived from the vitrification of simulated wastewater treatment sludges. These sludges represent the majority of low-level mixed wastes currently in need of treatment by the US DOE. The major oxides in these model glasses included SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, CaO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In addition, three minor oxides, BaO, NiO, and PbO, were added as hazardous metals. The major oxides were each varied at two levels resulting in 32 experimental glasses. The chemical durability was measured by the 7-Day Product Consistency Test (PCT). The normalized sodium release rates (NRR{sub Na}) of these glasses ranged from 0.01 to 4.99 g/m{sup 2}. The molar ratio of the glass-former to glass-modifier (F/M) was found to have the greatest effect on PCT durability. Glass-formers included SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, while Na{sub 2}O, CaO, BaO, NiO, and PbO were glass-modifiers. As this ratio increased from 0.75 to 2.0, NRR{sub Na} was found to decrease between one and two orders of magnitude. Another important effect on NRR{sub Na} was the Na{sub 2}O/CaO ratio. As this ratio increased from 0.5 to 2.0, NRR{sub Na} increased up to two orders of magnitude for the glasses with the low F/M ratio but almost no effect was observed for the glasses with the high F/M ratio. Increasing the iron oxide content from 2 to 18 mole% was found to decrease NRR{sub Na} one order of magnitude for the glasses with low F/M but iron had little effect on the glasses with the high F/M ratio. The durability also increased when 10 mole percent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was included in low iron oxide glasses but no effect was observed with the high iron glasses. The addition of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} had little effect on durability. The effects of other composition parameters on durability are discussed as well.

  12. Vanadium redox flow battery efficiency and durability studies of sulfonated Diels Alder poly(phenylene)s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Kim, Soowhan; Stains, Ronald; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-07-01

    Sulfonated Diels Alder poly(phenylene) (SDAPP) was examined for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) use. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) was varied from 1.4, 1.6 and 2.0 meq/g in order to tune the proton conductivity and vanadium permeability. Coulombic efficiencies between 92 to 99% were observed, depending on IEC (lower IEC, higher coulombic efficiencies). In all cases the SDAPP displayed comparable energy efficiencies (88 - 90%) to Nafion 117 (88%) at 50mA/cm2. Membrane durability also was dependent on IEC; SDAPP with the highest IEC lasted slightly over 50 cycles while SDAPP with the lowest IEC lasted over 400 cycles and testing was discontinued only due to time constraints. Accelerated vanadium lifetime studies were initialed with SDAPP, by soaking films in a 0.1 M V5+ and 5.0 M total SO4-2 solution. The rate of degradation was also proportional with IEC; the 2 meq/g sample dissolved within 376 hours, the 1.6 meq/g sample dissolved after 860 hours, while the 1.4 meq/g sample broke apart after 1527 hours.

  13. Optical performance and durability of solar reflectors protected by an alumina coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, C.E.; Smilgys, R.V.; Kirkpatrick, D.A.; Ross, J.S.

    1996-07-01

    Solar thermal electric power systems use large solar reflectors to concentrate sunlight to generate electricity. The economic viability of these systems depends on developing a durable, low-cost reflector. The goals for such a reflector are specular reflectance above 90% for at least 10 years under outdoor service conditions and a large-volume manufacturing cost of less than $10.8/m{sup 2} ($1.00/ft{sup 2}). Currently, the best candidate materials for solar reflectors are silver-coated, low-iron glass and silvered polymer films. Polymer reflectors are lighter in weight, offer greater system design flexibility, and have the potential for lower cost than glass reflectors. A promising low-cost reflector consists of a silvered polymer protected by an optically transparent alumina coating. The coating is deposited by an ion-beam-assisted physical vapor deposition (IBAD) technique. Samples of this reflector have maintained high optical performance in accelerated testing at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for more than 3000 hours. Solar reflectors produced using this technique may represent an opportunity to bring solar power generation to reality.

  14. Durability of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Lenses Used in Concentrating Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Gedvilas, L. M.; To, B.; Kennedy, C. E.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2010-08-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology has recently gained interest based on their expected low levelized cost of electricity, high efficiency, and scalability. Many CPV systems use Fresnel lenses made of poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) to obtain a high optical flux density. The optical and mechanical durability of such components, however, are not well established relative to the desired service life of 30 years. Specific reliability issues may include: reduced optical transmittance, discoloration, hazing, surface erosion, embrittlement, crack growth, physical aging, shape setting (warpage), and soiling. The initial results for contemporary lens- and material-specimens aged cumulatively to 6 months are presented. The study here uses an environmental chamber equipped with a xenon-arc lamp to age specimens at least 8x the nominal field rate. A broad range in the affected characteristics (including optical transmittance, yellowness index, mass loss, and contact angle) has been observed to date, depending on the formulation of PMMA used. The most affected specimens are further examined in terms of their visual appearance, surface roughness (examined via atomic force microscopy), and molecular structure (via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy).

  15. Durability of double-shell slurry feed grouts: FY-90 results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1992-12-01

    Plans for disposal of the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank wastes at Hanford include grouting. Grout disposal is the process of mixing low-level liquid waste with cementitious powders and pumping the slurry to near-surface, underground concrete vaults; hydration results in the formation of a solid product that binds/encapsulates the radioactive/hazardous constituents. In this durability program, previous studies have indicated a strong impact from curing temperature/time on strength and leach resistance of DSSF grouts. The current studies were expanded to determine whether these impacts could be attributed to other factors, such as dry blend composition and waste concentration. Major conclusions: grouts from dry blends with 40 wt% limestone had lower strengths; compressive strengths and leach resistance decreased with increased curing temperature/time; leach resistance increased for grouts prepared with dilute DSSF; nitrate leach resistance increased with high slag/cement ratios, dilute DSSF, and low curing temperatures; amount of drainable liquids for grouts using diluted DSSF was lowest when slag content was high; the 2 most significant factors affecting grout properties were the slag/cement ratio and waste dilution (slag-waste reactions appear to dominate the properties of DSSF grouts).

  16. Final Report - Durable Catalysts for Fuel Cell Protection during Transient Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atanasoski, Radoslav; van der Vliet, Dennis; Cullen, David; Atanasoska, Ljiljana

    2015-01-26

    The objective of this project was to develop catalysts that will enable proton exchange membranes (PEM) fuel cell systems to weather the damaging conditions in the fuel cell at voltages beyond the thermodynamic stability of water during the transient periods of start-up/shut-down and fuel starvation. Such catalysts are required to make it possible for the fuel cell to satisfy the 2015 DOE targets for performance and durability. The project addressed a key issue of importance for successful transition of PEM fuel cell technology from development to pre-commercial phase. This issue is the failure of the catalyst and the other thermodynamically unstable membrane electrode assembly (MEA) components during start-up/shut-down and local fuel starvation at the anode, commonly referred to as transient conditions. During these periods the electrodes can reach potentials higher than the usual 1.23V upper limit during normal operation. The most logical way to minimize the damage from such transient events is to minimize the potential seen by the electrodes. At lower positive potentials, increased stability of the catalysts themselves and reduced degradation of the other MEA components is expected.

  17. Impact of Biodiesel Impurities on the Performance and Durability of DOC, DPF and SCR Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; McCormick, R.; Luecke, J.; Brezny, R.; Geisselmann, A.; Voss, K.; Hallstrom, K.; Leustek, M.; Parsons, J.; Abi-Akar, H.

    2011-04-01

    An accelerated durability test method determined the potential impact of biodiesel ash impurities, including engine testing with multiple diesel particulate filter substrate types, as well as diesel oxidation catalyst and selective catalyst reduction catalysts. The results showed no significant degradation in the thermo-mechanical properties of a DPF after exposure to 150,000-mile equivalent biodiesel ash and thermal aging. However, exposure to 435,000-mile equivalent aging resulted in a 69% decrease in thermal shock resistance. A decrease in DOC activity was seen after exposure to 150,000-mile equivalent aging, resulting in higher hydrocarbon slip and a reduction in NO2 formation. The SCR catalyst experienced a slight loss in activity after exposure to 435,000-mile equivalent aging. The SCR catalyst, placed downstream of the DPF and exposed to B20 exhaust suffered a 5% reduction in overall NOx conversion activity over the HDDT test cycle. It is estimated that the additional ash from 150,000 miles of biodiesel use would also result in a moderate increases in exhaust backpressure for a DPF. The results of this study suggest that long-term operation with B20 at the current specification limits for alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities will adversely impact the performance of DOC, DPF and SCR systems.

  18. Palladium–platinum core-shell icosahedra with substantially enhanced activity and durability towards oxygen reduction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Xue; Choi, Sang-Il; Roling, Luke T.; Luo, Ming; Ma, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Chi, Miaofang; Liu, Jingyue; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Herron, Jeffrey A.; et al

    2015-07-02

    Conformal deposition of platinum as ultrathin shells on facet-controlled palladium nanocrystals offers a great opportunity to enhance the catalytic performance while reducing its loading. Here we report such a system based on palladium icosahedra. Owing to lateral confinement imposed by twin boundaries and thus vertical relaxation only, the platinum overlayers evolve into a corrugated structure under compressive strain. For the core-shell nanocrystals with an average of 2.7 platinum overlayers, their specific and platinum mass activities towards oxygen reduction are enhanced by eight- and sevenfold, respectively, relative to a commercial catalyst. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the enhancement can bemore » attributed to the weakened binding of hydroxyl to the compressed platinum surface supported on palladium. After 10,000 testing cycles, the mass activity of the core-shell nanocrystals is still four times higher than the commercial catalyst. Ultimately, these results demonstrate an effective approach to the development of electrocatalysts with greatly enhanced activity and durability.« less

  19. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Quarterly technical progress report 4, July--September 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1987-10-27

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for improving the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hog coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. The reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point in a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor. The durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain its reactivity and other important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and regeneration. Two base case sorbents, spherical pellets and cylindrical extrudes used in related METC sponsored projects, are being used to provide a basis for the comparison of physical characteristics and chemical reactivity.

  20. Impact of process conditions on the density and durability of wheat, oat, canola, and barley straw briquettes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tumuluru, J. S.; Tabil, L. G.; Song, Y.; Iroba, K. L.; Meda, V.

    2014-10-01

    The present study is to understand the impact of process conditions on the quality attributes of wheat oat, barley, and canola straw briquettes. Analysis of variance indicated that briquette moisture content and initial density immediately after compaction and final density after 2 weeks of storage are strong functions of feedstock moisture content and compression pressure, whereas durability rating is influenced by die temperature and feedstock moisture content. Briquettes produced at a low feedstock moisture content of 9 % (w.b.) yielded maximum densities >700 kg/m3 for wheat, oat, canola, and barley straws. Lower feedstock moisture content of <10 % (w.b.) andmore » higher die temperatures >110 °C and compression pressure >10 MPa minimized the briquette moisture content and maximized densities and durability rating based on surface plots observations. Optimal process conditions indicated that a low feedstock moisture content of about 9 % (w.b.), high die temperature of 120–130 °C, medium-to-large hammer mill screen sizes of about 24 to 31.75 mm, and low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa minimized briquette moisture content to <8 % (w.b.) and maximized density to >700 kg/m3. Durability rating >90 % is achievable at higher die temperatures of >123 °C, lower to medium feedstock moisture contents of 9 to 12 % (w.b.), low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa, and large hammer mill screen size of 31.75 mm, except for canola where a lower compression pressure of 7.5 to 8.5 MPa and a smaller hammer mill screen size of 19 mm for oat maximized the durability rating values.« less

  1. Effect of process variables on the density and durability of the pellets made from high moisture corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2014-03-01

    A flat die pellet mill was used to understand the effect of high levels of feedstock moisture content in the range of 28–38% (w.b.), with die rotational speeds of 40–60 Hz, and preheating temperatures of 30–110 °C on the pelleting characteristics of 4.8 mm screen size ground corn stover using an 8 mm pellet die. The physical properties of the pelletised biomass studied are: (a) pellet moisture content, (b) unit, bulk and tapped density, and (c) durability. Pelletisation experiments were conducted based on central composite design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that feedstock moisture content influenced all of the physical properties at P < 0.001. Pellet moisture content decreased with increase in preheating temperature to about 110 °C and decreasing the feedstock moisture content to about 28% (w.b.). Response surface models developed for quality attributes with respect to process variables has adequately described the process with coefficient of determination (R2) values of >0.88. The other pellet quality attributes such as unit, bulk, tapped density, were maximised at feedstock moisture content of 30–33% (w.b.), die speeds of >50 Hz and preheating temperature of >90 °C. In case of durability a medium moisture content of 33–34% (w.b.) and preheating temperatures of >70 °C and higher die speeds >50 Hz resulted in high durable pellets. It can be concluded from the present study that feedstock moisture content, followed by preheating, and die rotational speed are the interacting process variables influencing pellet moisture content, unit, bulk and tapped density and durability.

  2. Impact of process conditions on the density and durability of wheat, oat, canola, and barley straw briquettes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumuluru, J. S.; Tabil, L. G.; Song, Y.; Iroba, K. L.; Meda, V.

    2014-10-01

    The present study is to understand the impact of process conditions on the quality attributes of wheat oat, barley, and canola straw briquettes. Analysis of variance indicated that briquette moisture content and initial density immediately after compaction and final density after 2 weeks of storage are strong functions of feedstock moisture content and compression pressure, whereas durability rating is influenced by die temperature and feedstock moisture content. Briquettes produced at a low feedstock moisture content of 9 % (w.b.) yielded maximum densities >700 kg/m3 for wheat, oat, canola, and barley straws. Lower feedstock moisture content of <10 % (w.b.) and higher die temperatures >110 C and compression pressure >10 MPa minimized the briquette moisture content and maximized densities and durability rating based on surface plots observations. Optimal process conditions indicated that a low feedstock moisture content of about 9 % (w.b.), high die temperature of 120130 C, medium-to-large hammer mill screen sizes of about 24 to 31.75 mm, and low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa minimized briquette moisture content to <8 % (w.b.) and maximized density to >700 kg/m3. Durability rating >90 % is achievable at higher die temperatures of >123 C, lower to medium feedstock moisture contents of 9 to 12 % (w.b.), low to high compression pressures of 7.5 to 12.5 MPa, and large hammer mill screen size of 31.75 mm, except for canola where a lower compression pressure of 7.5 to 8.5 MPa and a smaller hammer mill screen size of 19 mm for oat maximized the durability rating values.

  3. Geothermal Food Processors Agricultural Drying Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Processors is an Agricultural Drying low temperature direct use geothermal facility in Brady Hot Springs E of Fernley, Nevada. This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  4. Renewable Agricultural Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Renewable Agricultural Energy plans to bring five ethanol plants on line by the end of 2009 with a combined annual capacity of at least 1.89bn...

  5. ORISE: Multiple research appointments available through Agricultural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RELEASE March 26, 2014 FY14-23 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-ORAU and the U.S. Department of Agriculture are currently seeking recent doctoral degree recipients for various appointments in...

  6. Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU)- Agricultural Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Delaware Sustainable Energy Utility (DESEU) offers customized loans for agricultural customer as a part of DESEU’s revolving loan program. Program applications are accepted on a rolling basis, and...

  7. Press Conference Call Tomorrow: Agriculture Secretary Vilsack...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to Reduce U.S. Oil Dependence Press Conference Call Tomorrow: Agriculture Secretary Vilsack and Energy Secretary Chu to Discuss Efforts to Reduce U.S. Oil Dependence May 4, ...

  8. Rural Cooperative Geothermal Development Electric & Agriculture |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Rural Cooperative Geothermal Development Electric & Agriculture Rural Cooperative Geothermal Development Electric & Agriculture DOE 2010 Geothermal Program Peer Review; Low Temperature Demonstration Projects low_silveria_rural_electric_coop.pdf (557.69 KB) More Documents & Publications Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Project District Wide Geothermal Heating Conversion Blaine County School District Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low

  9. FGD gypsum's place in American agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, C.

    2007-07-01

    Surface cracks and soil clumps form when saline-sodic, high-clay soil dries out. Treatment with FGD gypsum and irrigation water flowing into these cracks leaches salts until the aggregates swell and the cracks close up. The article describes research projects to develop agricultural uses of FGD gypsum from coal-fired power plants that have been conducted by university researchers and USDA-Agricultural Research Service scientists.

  10. Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agricultural Research and Development Center Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center Place: Wooster, Ohio Zip: OH 44691-4096 Product:...

  11. Applying Innovation System Concept in Agricultural Research for...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Agricultural Research for Development: A learning module AgencyCompany Organization: International Livestock Research Institute Sector: Land Focus Area: Agriculture Topics:...

  12. Creating an Evergreen Agriculture in Africa: for Food Security...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creating an Evergreen Agriculture in Africa: for Food Security and Environmental Resilience Jump to: navigation, search Name Creating an Evergreen Agriculture in Africa: for Food...

  13. USDA Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture Information Network (GAIN) provides timely information on the agricultural economy, products and issues in foreign countries since 1995 that are likely to have an...

  14. Colombia-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colombia-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture Plan Jump to: navigation, search Name Colombia-CDKN-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture Plan Agency...

  15. Colombia-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colombia-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture Plan (Redirected from CDKN-Colombia-The Development of a Climate Compatible Agriculture Plan) Jump to: navigation,...

  16. A Synthesis of Agricultural Policies in Bangladesh | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Agricultural Policies in Bangladesh1 Overview "There is a plethora of policy strategy documents relevant to broad agriculture and rural development in Bangladesh. These...

  17. Agricultural Waste Solutions Inc AWS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Waste Solutions Inc AWS Jump to: navigation, search Name: Agricultural Waste Solutions Inc (AWS) Place: Westlake Village, California Zip: CA 91361 Product: Agricultural Waste...

  18. USDA Agricultural Conservation Easement Program Webinar for Tribes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the American Indian Higher Education Consortium, this webinar will cover details on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) new Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP)...

  19. Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act was developed in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture. ...

  20. Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural ...

  1. Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Software Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Agriculture and Land Use National Greenhouse Gas...

  2. National integrated mitigation planning in agriculture: A review...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National integrated mitigation planning in agriculture: A review paper This review of national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation planning in the agriculture sector has two...

  3. Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Aq...

  4. Royal Agricultural and Horticultural Society of South Australia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agricultural and Horticultural Society of South Australia Jump to: navigation, search Name: Royal Agricultural and Horticultural Society of South Australia Place: South Australia,...

  5. Farming First-Agriculture and the Green Economy | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Farming First-Agriculture and the Green Economy Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Farming First-Agriculture and the Green Economy AgencyCompany...

  6. IISD Climate Change and Agriculture Research | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change and Agriculture Research Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: IISD Climate Change and Agriculture Research AgencyCompany Organization: International...

  7. Chile-Climate Change Mitigation and Agriculture in Latin America...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Agriculture in Latin America and the Caribbean Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Chile-Climate Change Mitigation and Agriculture in Latin America and the Caribbean Name...

  8. Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in Vietnam...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in Vietnam Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Adaptation in...

  9. FAO-Modelling System for Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Modelling System for Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change (MOSAICC) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: FAO-Modelling System for Agricultural Impacts of...

  10. FAO Climate-Smart Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Company Organization: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Sector: Land Focus Area: Agriculture Topics: Policiesdeployment programs Website: www.fao.org...

  11. Hazmat work opens up career options for Adam Sayre, agricultural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Agricultural economics undergraduate works behind the scenes to ensure quality work on ... Adam will be a freshman at New Mexico State University, studying agricultural economics. ...

  12. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMED MINERAL WASTE FORMS: CHARACTERIZATION AND DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Troy Lorier, T; John Pareizs, J; James Marra, J

    2007-03-31

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants with the waste denitrates the aqueous wastes and forms a granular mineral waste form that can subsequently be made into a monolith for disposal if necessary. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The mineralization occurs at moderate temperatures between 650-750 C in the presence of superheated steam. The cage and ring structured feldspathoid minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and Cs-137 and anions such as SO4, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium bearing waste (SBW) in pilot scale facilities at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The results of the SPFT testing and the activation energies for dissolution are discussed in this study.

  13. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMED MINERAL WASTE FORMS: CHARACTERIZATION AND DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Troy Lorier, T; John Pareizs, J; James Marra, J

    2006-12-06

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a potential technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of high sodium low activity wastes (LAW) such as those existing at the Hanford site, at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants with the waste denitrates the aqueous wastes and forms a granular mineral waste form that can subsequently be made into a monolith for disposal if necessary. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage and ring structures and iron bearing spinel minerals. The mineralization occurs at moderate temperatures between 650-750 C in the presence of superheated steam. The cage and ring structured feldspathoid minerals atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and Cs-137 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The spinel minerals stabilize Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous species such as Cr and Ni. Granular mineral waste forms were made from (1) a basic Hanford Envelope A low activity waste (LAW) simulant and (2) an acidic INL simulant commonly referred to as sodium bearing waste (SBW) in pilot scale facilities at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, ID. The FBSR waste forms were characterized and the durability tested via ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency Test), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the Single Pass Flow Through (SPFT) test. The results of the SPFT testing and the activation energies for dissolution are discussed in this study.

  14. Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commodities and Risk Management | Department of Energy Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management By: Howard Gruenspecht, Acting Administrator, Energy Information Administration Subject: Energy Markets and their Implications on Agriculture

  15. Measures of the Effects of Agricultural Practices on Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H; Polasky, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture produces more than just crops. Agricultural practices have environmental impacts that affect a wide range of ecosystem services, including water quality, pollination, nutrient cycling, soil retention, carbon sequestration, and biodiversity conservation. In turn, ecosystem services affect agricultural productivity. Understanding the contribution of various agricultural practices to the range of ecosystem services would help inform choices about the most beneficial agricultural practices. To accomplish this, however, we must overcome a big challenge in measuring the impact of alternative agricultural practices on ecosystem services and of ecosystem services on agricultural production.

  16. Fundamental Studies of the Durability of Materials for Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederick S. Pettit; Gerald H. Meier

    2006-06-30

    Ferritic stainless steels are a leading candidate material for use as an SOFC interconnect, but have the problem of forming volatile chromia species that lead to cathode poisoning. This project has focused both on optimization of ferritic alloys for SOFC applications and evaluating the possibility of using alternative materials. The initial efforts involved studying the oxidation behavior of a variety of chromia-forming ferritic stainless steels in the temperature range 700-900 C in atmospheres relevant to solid oxide fuel cell operation. The alloys exhibited a wide variety of oxidation behavior based on composition. A method for reducing the vaporization is to add alloying elements that lead to the formation of a thermally grown oxide layer over the protective chromia. Several commercial steels form manganese chromate on the surface. This same approach, combined with observations of TiO{sub 2} overlayer formation on the chromia forming, Ni-based superalloy IN 738, has resulted in the development of a series of Fe-22 Cr-X Ti alloys (X=0-4 wt%). Oxidation testing has indicated that this approach results in significant reduction in chromia evaporation. Unfortunately, the Ti also results in accelerated chromia scale growth. Fundamental thermo-mechanical aspects of the durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect alloys have also been investigated. A key failure mechanism for interconnects is the spallation of the chromia scale that forms on the alloy, as it is exposed to fuel cell environments. Indentation testing methods to measure the critical energy release rate (Gc) associated with the spallation of chromia scale/alloy systems have been evaluated. This approach has been used to evaluate the thermomechanical stability of chromia films as a function of oxidation exposure. The oxidation of pure nickel in SOFC environments was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the NiO scaling kinetics and a four-point probe was used to measure

  17. Low Thermal Conductivity, High Durability Thermal Barrier Coatings for IGCC Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, Eric; Gell, Maurice

    2015-01-15

    Advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are crucial to improved energy efficiency in next generation gas turbine engines. The use of traditional topcoat materials, e.g. yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), is limited at elevated temperatures due to (1) the accelerated undesirable phase transformations and (2) corrosive attacks by calcium-magnesium-aluminum-silicate (CMAS) deposits and moisture. The first goal of this project is to use the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray (SPPS) process to further reduce the thermal conductivity of YSZ TBCs by introducing a unique microstructural feature of layered porosity, called inter-pass boundaries (IPBs). Extensive process optimization accompanied with hundreds of spray trials as well as associated SEM cross-section and laser-flash measurements, yielded a thermal conductivity as low as 0.62 Wm⁻¹K⁻¹ in SPPS YSZ TBCs, approximately 50% reduction of APS TBCs; while other engine critical properties, such as cyclic durability, erosion resistance and sintering resistance, were characterized to be equivalent or better than APS baselines. In addition, modifications were introduced to SPPS TBCs so as to enhance their resistance to CMAS under harsh IGCC environments. Several mitigation approaches were explored, including doping the coatings with Al₂O₃ and TiO₂, applying a CMAS infiltration-inhibiting surface layer, and filling topcoat cracks with blocking substances. The efficacy of all these modifications was assessed with a set of novel CMAS-TBC interaction tests, and the moisture resistance was tested in a custom-built high-temperature moisture rig. In the end, the optimal low thermal conductivity TBC system was selected based on all evaluation tests and its processing conditions were documented. The optimal coating consisted on a thick inner layer of YSZ coating made by the SPPS process having a thermal conductivity 50% lower than standard YSZ coatings topped with a high temperature tolerant CMAS resistant gadolinium

  18. West Valley glass product qualification durability studies, FY 1987--1988: Effects of composition, redox state, thermal history, and groundwater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Piepel, G.F.; Mellinger, G.B.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1988-11-01

    The product qualification subtask of the West Valley Support Task (WVST) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provides support for the waste form qualification efforts at West Valley Nuclear Services Co. Testing is being conducted to determine waste form chemical durability in support of these efforts. The effects of composition, ferrous/ferric ratio (redox state), thermal history, and groundwater are being investigated. Glasses were tested using modified Materials Characterization Center (MCC) -3 and MCC-1 test methods. Results obtained in fiscal years (FY) 1987 and 1988 are presented here. 13 refs., 27 figs., 36 tabs.

  19. MINERALIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR): COMPARISONS TO VITREOUS WASTE FORMS, AND PERTINENT DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C

    2008-12-26

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to generate a document for the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that would cover the following topics: (1) A description of the mineral structures produced by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) of Hanford type Low Activity Waste (LAW including LAWR which is LAW melter recycle waste) waste, especially the cage structured minerals and how they are formed. (2) How the cage structured minerals contain some contaminants, while others become part of the mineral structure (Note that all contaminants become part of the mineral structure and this will be described in the subsequent sections of this report). (3) Possible contaminant release mechanisms from the mineral structures. (4) Appropriate analyses to evaluate these release mechanisms. (5) Why the appropriate analyses are comparable to the existing Hanford glass dataset. In order to discuss the mineral structures and how they bond contaminants a brief description of the structures of both mineral (ceramic) and vitreous waste forms will be given to show their similarities. By demonstrating the similarities of mineral and vitreous waste forms on atomic level, the contaminant release mechanisms of the crystalline (mineral) and amorphous (glass) waste forms can be compared. This will then logically lead to the discussion of why many of the analyses used to evaluate vitreous waste forms and glass-ceramics (also known as glass composite materials) are appropriate for determining the release mechanisms of LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms and how the durability data on LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms relate to the durability data for LAW/LAWR glasses. The text will discuss the LAW mineral waste form made by FBSR. The nanoscale mechanism by which the minerals form will be also be described in the text. The appropriate analyses to evaluate contaminant release mechanisms will be discussed, as will the FBSR test results to

  20. U.S. Department of Agriculture | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agriculture U.S. Department of Agriculture U.S. Department of Agriculture The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) works to support the American agricultural economy to strengthen rural communities; to protect and conserve our natural resources; and to provide a safe, sufficient, and nutritious food supply for the American people. The Department's wide range of programs and responsibilities touch the lives of every American every day. Solar resources are available from three offices within

  1. Before the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Before the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Before the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry By: Richard Newell, Administrator Energy Information Administration Subject: Development in Energy Markets and their possible implications on Agriculture Final_Testimony(22).pdf (32.7 KB) More Documents & Publications Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm Commodities and Risk Management Hearing Before the

  2. An Innovative Technique for Evaluating the Integrity and Durability of Wind Turbine Blade Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Ren, Fei

    2010-09-01

    Wind turbine blades are subjected to complex multiaxial stress states during operation. A review of the literature suggests that mixed mode fracture toughness can be significantly less than that of the tensile opening mode (Mode I), implying that fracture failure can occur at a much lower load capacity if the structure is subject to mixed-mode loading. Thus, it will be necessary to identify the mechanisms that might lead to failure in blade materials under mixed-mode loading conditions. Meanwhile, wind turbine blades are typically fabricated from fiber reinforced polymeric materials, e.g. fiber glass composites. Due to the large degree of anisotropy in mechanical properties that is usually associated with laminates, the fracture behavior of these composite materials is likely to be strongly dependent on the loading conditions. This may further strengthen the need to study the effect of mixed-mode loading on the integrity and durability of the wind turbine blade composites. To quantify the fracture behavior of composite structures under mixed mode loading conditions, particularly under combined Mode I (flexural or normal tensile stress) and Mode III (torsional shear stress) loading, a new testing technique is proposed based on the spiral notch torsion test (SNTT). As a 2002 R&D 100 Award winner, SNTT is a novel fracture testing technology. SNTT has many advantages over conventional fracture toughness methods and has been used to determine fracture toughness values on a wide spectrum of materials. The current project is the first attempt to utilize SNTT on polymeric and polymer-based composite materials. It is expected that mixed-mode failure mechanisms of wind turbine blades induced by typical in-service loading conditions, such as delamination, matrix cracking, fiber pull-out and fracture, can be effectively and economically investigated by using this methodology. This project consists of two phases. The Phase I (FY2010) effort includes (1) preparation of testing

  3. United States Department of Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 Mission Statement 2 Vision 3 Strategic Plan Framework 4 Agencies 4.1 Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) 4.2 Agricultural Research Service (ARS) 4.3 Animal and Plant Health...

  4. U.S. Department of Agriculture | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 Mission Statement 2 Vision 3 Strategic Plan Framework 4 Agencies 4.1 Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) 4.2 Agricultural Research Service (ARS) 4.3 Animal and Plant Health...

  5. Development of a Low-Cost, Durable Membrane and Membrane Electrode Assemby for Stationary and Mobile Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel Foure; Gaboury, Scott; Goldbach, Jim; Mountz, David; Yi, Jung

    2008-01-31

    The development of low cost, durable membranes and membranes electrode assemblies (MEAs) remain a critical challenge for the successful introduction of fuel cells into mass markets. It was the goal of the team lead by Arkema, Inc. (formerly Atofina, Inc.) to address these shortages. Thus, this project addresses the following technical barriers from the Fuel Cells section of the Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: (A) Durability (B) Cost Arkema’s approach consisted in using blends of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and proprietary sulfonated polyelectrolytes. The strength and originality of Arkema’s approach lies in the decoupling of ion conductivity from the other requirements. Kynar® (Arkema trade name for PVDF) provides an exceptional combination of properties that make it ideally suited for a membrane matrix. In a first phase, Arkema demonstrated the feasibility of the concept with the M31 membrane generation. After MEA optimization, it was shown that the beginning-of-life (BOL) performance of M31 MEAs was essentially on a par with that of PFSA MEAs at 60ºC under fully humidified conditions. On the other hand, long-term durability studies showed a high decay rate of 45µV/h over a 2100 hr. test. Arkema then designed several families of polyelectrolyte candidates, which, in principle, could not undergo the same failure mechanisms. A new membrane candidate was developed: M41. It offered the same generally good mechanical, ex-situ conductivity and gas barrier properties as M31. In addition, ex-situ accelerated testing suggested a several orders of magnitude improvement in chemical stability. M41 based MEAs showed comparable BOL performance with that of PFSA (80ºC, 100% RH). M41 MEAs were further shown to be able to withstand several hours temperature excursions at 120ºC without apparent damage. Accelerated studies were carried out using the DOE and/or US Fuel Cell Council

  6. Agricultural Monitoring and Evaluation Systems: What can we learn...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Land, Climate Focus Area: Agriculture, Land Use Topics: Implementation, GHG inventory Resource Type: Publications, Lessons learnedbest practices, Case studies...

  7. Investigation of the effects of intense pulsed particle beams on the durability of metal-to-plastic interfaces.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasad, Somuri V.; Renk, Timothy J.; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Petersen, Donald W.; Petersen, Thomas D.; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; McNulty, Donald E.; Engelko, Vladimir

    2005-02-01

    We have investigated the potential for intense particle beam surface modification to improve the mechanical properties of materials commonly used in the human body for contact surfaces in, for example, hip and knee implants. The materials studied include Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE), Ti-6Al-4Al (titanium alloy), and Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Samples in flat form were exposed to both ion and electron beams (UHMWPE), and to ion beam treatment (metals). Post-analysis indicated a degradation in bulk properties of the UHMWPE, except in the case of the lightest ion fluence tested. A surface-alloyed Hf/Ti layer on the Ti-6Al-4V is found to improve surface wear durability, and have favorable biocompatibility. A promising nanolaminate ceramic coating is applied to the Co-Cr-Mo to improve surface hardness.

  8. Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.

    2011-01-10

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

  9. SBIR/STTR FY15 Phase 2 Release 2 Awards Announced—Includes Projects to Increase Fuel Cell Performance and Durability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy has announced the 2015 Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) Phase II Release 2 Awards, including projects focused on fuel cell durability, performance, and efficiency with the ultimate goal of lowering costs.

  10. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2013-03-01

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved

  11. Agriculture, land use, and commercial biomass energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmonds, J.A.; Wise, M.A.; Sands, R.D.; Brown, R.A.; Kheshgi, H.

    1996-06-01

    In this paper we have considered commercial biomass energy in the context of overall agriculture and land-use change. We have described a model of energy, agriculture, and land-use and employed that model to examine the implications of commercial biomass energy or both energy sector and land-use change carbon emissions. In general we find that the introduction of biomass energy has a negative effect on the extent of unmanaged ecosystems. Commercial biomass introduces a major new land use which raises land rental rates, and provides an incentive to bring more land into production, increasing the rate of incursion into unmanaged ecosystems. But while the emergence of a commercial biomass industry may increase land-use change emissions, the overall effect is strongly to reduce total anthropogenic carbon emissions. Further, the higher the rate of commercial biomass energy productivity, the lower net emissions. Higher commercial biomass energy productivity, while leading to higher land-use change emissions, has a far stronger effect on fossil fuel carbon emissions. Highly productive and inexpensive commercial biomass energy technologies appear to have a substantial depressing effect on total anthropogenic carbon emissions, though their introduction raises the rental rate on land, providing incentives for greater rates of deforestation than in the reference case.

  12. Agricultural, industrial and municipal waste management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    It is right that consideration of the environment is of prime importance when agricultural and industrial processes are being developed. This book compiles the papers presented at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers conference. The contents include: The use of wastes for land reclamation and restoration; landfill, an environmentally acceptable method of waste disposal and an economic source of energy; control of leachate from waste disposal landfill sites using bentonite; landfill gas migration from operational landfill sites, monitoring and prevention; monitoring of emissions from hazardous waste incineration; hazardous wastes management in Hong Kong, a summary of a report and recommendations; the techniques and problems of chemical analysis of waste waters and leachate from waste tips; a small scale waste burning combustor; energy recovery from municipal waste by incineration; anaerobic treatment of industrial waste; a review of developments in the acid hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes; reduction of slag deposits by magnesium hydroxide injection; integrated rural energy centres (for agriculture-based economies); resource recovery; straw as a fuel in the UK; the computer as a tool for predicting the financial implications of future municipal waste disposal and recycling projects; solid wastes as a cement kiln fuel; monitoring and control of landfill gas; the utilization of waste derived fuels; the economics of energy recovery from municipal and industrial wastes; the development and construction of a municipal waste reclamation plant by a local authority.

  13. Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Aslam K. Khalil

    2009-07-16

    This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small

  14. Press Conference Call Tomorrow: Agriculture Secretary Vilsack and Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Secretary Chu to Discuss Efforts to Reduce U.S. Oil Dependence | Department of Energy Conference Call Tomorrow: Agriculture Secretary Vilsack and Energy Secretary Chu to Discuss Efforts to Reduce U.S. Oil Dependence Press Conference Call Tomorrow: Agriculture Secretary Vilsack and Energy Secretary Chu to Discuss Efforts to Reduce U.S. Oil Dependence May 4, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON - TOMORROW, May 5, 2011, Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack and Energy Secretary Steven Chu will host a

  15. EERE Success Story-California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel | Department of Energy Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel EERE Success Story-California: Agricultural Residues Produce Renewable Fuel April 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Logos Technologies and EERE partnered with EdeniQ of Visalia, California, to construct a pilot plant that processes 1.2 tons per day of agricultural residues, such as corn stover (leaves and stalks), as well as other California-sourced indigenous, nonfood feedstock sources (wood chips and switchgrass). The

  16. Climate-Smart Agriculture: Policies, Practices and Financing...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    paper outlines a range of practices, approaches and tools aimed at increasing the resilience and productivity of agricultural production systems, while also reducing and...

  17. Identification of Low Emissions Agricultural Pathways and Priorities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pathways and Priorities for Mitigation in Agricultural Landscapes using Integrated Assessment Modeling and Scenarios Jump to: navigation, search Name Identification of Low...

  18. Agriculture and Energy Departments Announce New Investments to...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    to Drive Innovations in Biofuels and Biobased Products Agriculture and Energy Departments Announce New Investments to Drive Innovations in Biofuels and Biobased Products July ...

  19. BT16 Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops Factsheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... forests, municipal solid wastes, urban wood waste, and algae, the report includes an evaluation of biomass supply potentially available through production on agricultural land. ...

  20. Farmers Electric Cooperative- Residential/Agricultural Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Farmers Electric Cooperative offers incentives for its residential and agricultural members to increase the energy efficiency of eligible homes and facilities. In order to receive rebates,...

  1. EERE Success Story-Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    In 2014, the U.S. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture announced that Emerald Biofuels, Fulcrum Energy, and Red Rock Biofuels have been awarded contracts to construct ...

  2. Low Temperature Direct Use Agricultural Drying Geothermal Facilities...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ,"group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":"","text":"AgriculturalDryingLowTemperatureGeothermalFacility" title"Geothermal...

  3. Agricultural Progress in Cameroon, Mali and Ghana: Why it Happened...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Development (IFAD). The purpose was to identify constraints to agricultural growth and poverty reduction that might be eased through better policy, both domestically and...

  4. Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    President Project Title: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock ... Design, fabrication, and demonstration of three types of innovative new harvest and ...

  5. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Health Atlas (GLiPHA) Impact of the Global Forest Industry on Atmospheric Greenhouse Gas National Mitigation Planning in Agriculture: Review and Guidelines National Planning...

  6. Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    previous memorandum on this subject of August 1976. PDF icon AnalysisAgriculturalLands.pdf More Documents & Publications Mini-Guidance Articles from Lessons Learned Quarterly...

  7. Before the Committee on Agriculture Subcommittee on General Farm...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (69.78 KB) More Documents & Publications Before the Senate Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Hearing Before the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee Before ...

  8. LEDSGP/Agriculture Work Space/Tools | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LEDSGPAgriculture Work SpaceTools < LEDSGP(Redirected from Agriculture Work SpaceTools) Jump to: navigation, search Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership...

  9. Climate Change and China's Agricultural Sector: An Overview of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    An Overview of Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation Jump to: navigation, search Name Climate Change and China's Agricultural Sector: An Overview of Impacts, Adaptation and...

  10. Climate, Agriculture and Food Scarcity: A Strategy for Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    A Strategy for Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Climate, Agriculture and Food Scarcity: A Strategy for Change AgencyCompany...

  11. Climate-Smart Agriculture Country Profiles | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    featuredproductscsa-country-profiles Country: Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Grenada, Mexico, Peru Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): Agriculture, country profiles,...

  12. Vendor glass durability study during evaluation of melter system technologies for vitrification of Hanford low-level wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, X.; Kim, D.; Schweiger, M.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The low level radioactive wastes (LLW) separated from the single-shell tanks and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site will be immobilized into glass. A melter system technology testing, and evaluation program is being conducted to identify the demonstration, best overall melter system technology available to vitrify the Hanford LLW streams. The melter technologies being demonstrated use a variety of heating methods to melt the glass, including plasma torch, fossil-fuel-fired cyclone burner, carbon arc and joule-heating. The Phase I testing is a {open_quotes}proof of principle{close_quotes} test to demonstrate that a melter system technology can process a simulated highly alkaline, high nitrate/nitrite content LLW feed and produce a glass product of consistent quality. Target waste oxide loading of LLW simulant was specified to be about 25 wt%. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is providing glass formulation support for this program. The five candidate vendor glasses at 20 wt% Na{sub 2}O level provided by PNL are alumino-borosilicate and aluminosilicate glasses with melting points around 1300{degrees}. Glasses adopted by vendors were tested at PNL to verify the required properties. The testing included durability evaluation through product consistency test, MCC-1 tests, and flow through tests and viscosity measurements.

  13. Spontaneous incorporation of gold in palladium-based ternary nanoparticles makes durable electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Deli; Liu, Sufen; Wang, Jie; Lin, Ruoqian; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Rus, Eric; Silberstein, Katharine E.; Lowe, Michael A.; Lin, Feng; Nordlund, Dennis; et al

    2016-06-23

    Replacing platinum by a less precious metal such as palladium, is highly desirable for lowering the cost of fuel-cell electrocatalysts. However, the instability of palladium in the harsh environment of fuel-cell cathodes renders its commercial future bleak. Here we show that by incorporating trace amounts of gold in palladium-based ternary (Pd6CoCu) nanocatalysts, the durability of the catalysts improves markedly. Using aberration-corrected analytical transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that gold not only galvanically replaces cobalt and copper on the surface, but also penetrates through the Pd–Co–Cu lattice and distributes uniformly within the particles. Themore » uniform incorporation of Au provides a stability boost to the entire host particle, from the surface to the interior. The spontaneous replacement method we have developed is scalable and commercially viable. This work may provide new insight for the large-scale production of non-platinum electrocatalysts for fuel-cell applications.« less

  14. Optical and Durability Evaluation for Silvered Polymeric Mirrors and Reflectors: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number, CRD-08-316

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M.

    2014-08-01

    3M is currently developing silvered polymeric mirror reflectors as low-cost replacements for glass mirrors in concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. This effort is focused on development of reflectors comprising both metallized polymeric mirror films based on improved versions of ECP-305+ or other durable mirror film concepts and appropriate mechanically robust substrates. The objectives for this project are to reduce the system capital and operating costs and to lower the levelized cost of energy for CSP installations. The development of mirror reflectors involves work on both full reflectors and mirror films with and without coatings. Mirror reflectors must meet rigid optical specifications in terms of radius of curvature, slope errors and specularity. Mirror films must demonstrate long-term durability and maintain high reflectivity. 3M would like to augment internal capabilities to validate product performance with methods and tools developed at NREL to address these areas.

  15. Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: Existing homes with vapor open wall assemblies Type: Residential Climate Zones: All PERFORMANCE DATA Insulation Ratio The R-value ratio of exterior to interior insulation (e.g., R-15 exterior insulation on R-11 cavity insulation has a ratio of 0.58). This variable controls sheathing temperature. Vapor Permeable Insulation An insulation with vapor permeance greater than five U.S. perms (e.g., rigid mineral fiber

  16. LDRD final report on synthesis of shape-and size-controlled platinum and platinum alloy nanostructures on carbon with improved durability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelnutt, John Allen; Garcia, Robert M.; Song, Yujiang; Moreno, Andres M.; Stanis, Ronald J.

    2008-10-01

    This project is aimed to gain added durability by supporting ripening-resistant dendritic platinum and/or platinum-based alloy nanostructures on carbon. We have developed a new synthetic approach suitable for directly supporting dendritic nanostructures on VXC-72 carbon black (CB), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The key of the synthesis is to creating a unique supporting/confining reaction environment by incorporating carbon within lipid bilayer relying on a hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction. In order to realize size uniformity control over the supported dendritic nanostructures, a fast photocatalytic seeding method based on tin(IV) porphyrins (SnP) developed at Sandia was applied to the synthesis by using SnP-containing liposomes under tungsten light irradiation. For concept approval, one created dendritic platinum nanostructure supported on CB was fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for durability examination via potential cycling. It appears that carbon supporting is essentially beneficial to an enhanced durability according to our preliminary results.

  17. Fuel alcohol production from agricultural lignocellulosic feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farina, G.E.; Barrier, J.W.; Forsythe, M.L. )

    1988-01-01

    A two-stage, low-temperature, ambient pressure, acid hydrolysis process that utilizes separate unit operations to convert hemicellulose and cellulose in agricultural residues and crops to fermentable sugars is being developed and tested. Based on the results of the bench-scale tests, an acid hydrolysis experimental plant to demonstrate the concepts of low-temperature acid hydrolysis on a much larger scale was built. Plant tests using corn stover have been conducted for more that a year and conversion efficiences have equaled those achieved in the laboratory. Laboratory tests to determine the potential for low-temperature acid hydrolysis of other feedstocks - including red clover, alfalfa, kobe lespedeza, winter rape, and rye grass - are being conducted. Where applicable, process modifications to include extraction before or after hydrolysis also are being studied. This paper describes the experimental plant and process, results obtained in the plant, results of alternative feedstocks testing in the laboratory, and a plan for an integrated system that will produce other fuels, feed, and food from crops grown on marginal land.

  18. Agriculture-related radiation dose calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furr, J.M.; Mayberry, J.J.; Waite, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    Estimates of radiation dose to the public must be made at each stage in the identification and qualification process leading to siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Specifically considering the ingestion pathway, this paper examines questions of reliability and adequacy of dose calculations in relation to five stages of data availability (geologic province, region, area, location, and mass balance) and three methods of calculation (population, population/food production, and food production driven). Calculations were done using the model PABLM with data for the Permian and Palo Duro Basins and the Deaf Smith County area. Extra effort expended in gathering agricultural data at succeeding environmental characterization levels does not appear justified, since dose estimates do not differ greatly; that effort would be better spent determining usage of food types that contribute most to the total dose; and that consumption rate and the air dispersion factor are critical to assessment of radiation dose via the ingestion pathway. 17 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  19. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Opilla, R.; Dale, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-05-01

    A variety of carbohydrate sources can be used as raw material for the production of ethanol. Section 1 is a review of technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. Section 2 is a review of the use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. Section 3 deals with the environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  20. Alcohol production from agricultural and forestry residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, L; Opilla, R; Surles, T

    1980-09-01

    Technologies available for the production of ethanol from whole corn are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on the environmental aspects of the process, including land utilization and possible air and water pollutants. Suggestions are made for technological changes intended to improve the economics of the process as well as to reduce some of the pollution from by-product disposal. Ethanol may be derived from renewable cellulosic substances by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of cellulose to sugar, followed by conventional fermentation and distillation. The use of two agricultural residues - corn stover (field stalks remaining after harvest) and straw from wheat crops - is reviewed as a cellulosic feedstock. Two processes have been evaluated with regard to environmental impact - a two-stage acid process developed by G.T. Tsao of Purdue University and an enzymatic process based on the laboratory findings of C.R. Wilke of the University of California, Berkeley. The environmental residuals expected from the manufacture of methyl and ethyl alcohols from woody biomass are covered. The methanol is produced in a gasification process, whereas ethanol is produced by hydrolysis and fermentation processes similar to those used to derive ethanol from cellulosic materials.

  1. Groundwater and Wastewater Remediation Using Agricultural Oils - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Groundwater and Wastewater Remediation Using Agricultural Oils Savannah River National Laboratory Contact SRNL About This Technology Soybean oil used for groundwater and wastewater remediation Soybean oil used for groundwater and wastewater remediation Technology Marketing Summary Scientists have developed a groundwater treatment technique that employs agricultural oils to stimulate endogenous microbes which accelerates the cleanup. The oils tested include canola oil,

  2. Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production | Department of Energy Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production This abstract from FDC Enterprises discusses the impact and objectives for project that designs equipment improvements to streamline the harvest, staging, and hauling costs

  3. Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production | Department of Energy Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production Abstract: Design and Demonstration of an Advanced Agricultural Feedstock Supply System for Lignocellulosic Bioenergy Production This abstract from FDC Enterprises discusses the impact and objectives for project that designs equipment improvements to streamline the harvest, staging, and

  4. USDA Agricultural Conservation Easement Program Webinar for Tribes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hosted by the American Indian Higher Education Consortium, this webinar will cover details on the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) new Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) established in the 2014 Farm Bill. It will specifically discuss the implications of ACEP for Tribes and tribal owners.

  5. A Landscape Perspective on Sustainability of Agricultural Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Virginia H; Kline, Keith L; Kaffka, Stephen R; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Landscape sustainability of agricultural systems considers effects of farm activities on social, economic, and ecosystem services at local and regional scales. Sustainable agriculture entails: defining sustainability, developing easily measured indicators of sustainability, moving toward integrated agricultural systems, and offering incentives or imposing regulations to affect farmer behavior. A landscape perspective is useful because landscape ecology provides theory and methods for dealing with spatial heterogeneity, scaling, integration, and complexity. To implement agricultural sustainability, we propose adopting a systems perspective, recognizing spatial heterogeneity, addressing the influences of context, and integrating landscape-design principles. Topics that need further attention at local and regional scales include (1) protocols for quantifying material and energy flows; (2) effects of management practices; (3) incentives for enhancing social, economic, and ecosystem services; (4) integrated landscape planning and management; (5) monitoring and assessment; (6) effects of societal demand; and (7) consistent and holistic policies for promoting agricultural sustainability.

  6. An Innovative Technique for Evaluating the Integrity and Durability of Wind Turbine Blade Composites - Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Ren, Fei; Tan, Ting; Mandell, John; Agastra, Pancasatya

    2011-11-01

    To build increasingly larger, lightweight, and robust wind turbine blades for improved power output and cost efficiency, durability of the blade, largely resulting from its structural composites selection and aerodynamic shape design, is of paramount concern. The safe/reliable operation of structural components depends critically on the selection of materials that are resistant to damage and failure in the expected service environment. An effective surveillance program is also necessary to monitor the degradation of the materials in the course of service. Composite materials having high specific strength/stiffness are desirable for the construction of wind turbines. However, most high-strength materials tend to exhibit low fracture toughness. That is why the fracture toughness of the composite materials under consideration for the manufacture of the next generation of wind turbines deserves special attention. In order to achieve the above we have proposed to develop an innovative technology, based on spiral notch torsion test (SNTT) methodology, to effectively investigate the material performance of turbine blade composites. SNTT approach was successfully demonstrated and extended to both epoxy and glass fiber composite materials for wind turbine blades during the performance period. In addition to typical Mode I failure mechanism, the mixed-mode failure mechanism induced by the wind turbine service environments and/or the material mismatch of the composite materials was also effectively investigated using SNTT approach. The SNTT results indicate that the proposed protocol not only provides significant advance in understanding the composite failure mechanism, but also can be readily utilized to assist the development of new turbine blade composites.

  7. Industrial and agricultural process heat information user study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar industrial and agricultural process heat (IAPH) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 10 IAPH groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: IPH Researchers; APH Researchers; Representatives of Manufacturers of Concentrating and Nonconcentrating Collectors; Plant, Industrial, and Agricultural Engineers; Educators; Representatives of State Agricultural Offices; and County Extension Agents.

  8. Missouri Agricultural and Energy Saving Team- A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: Rates listed below are for farmers who signed up for the program by January 1, 2011; however, the Missouri Agricultural and Small Business Development Authority still has some funding...

  9. EERE Success Story-California: Agricultural Residues Produce...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    California, to construct a pilot plant that processes 1.2 tons per day of agricultural residues, such as corn stover (leaves and stalks), as well as other California-source...

  10. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Departments to Invest in Drop-In Biofuel for Military Departments of the Navy, Energy and Agriculture Invest in Construction of Three Biorefineries to Produce Drop-In Biofuel for ...

  11. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-06-01

    The work of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch within the US DOE's Office of Industrial Programs is discussed and reviewed. The Branch is responsible for assisting the food and agricultural sectors of the economy in increasing their energy efficiency by cost sharing with industry the development and demonstration of technologies industry by itself would not develop because of a greater than normal risk factor, but have significant energy conservation benefits. This task is made more difficult by the diversity of agriculture and the food industry. The focus of the program is now on the development and demonstration of energy conservation technology in high energy use industry sectors and agricultural functions (e.g., sugar processing, meat processing, irrigation, and crop drying, high energy use functions common to many sectors of the food industry (e.g., refrigeration, drying, and evaporation), and innovative concepts (e.g., energy integrated farm systems. Specific projects within the program are summarized. (LCL)

  12. National Mitigation Planning in Agriculture: Review and Guidelines...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Simple Website: www.fao.orgdocrep017i3237ei3237e.pdf Language: English This review of national greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation planning in the agriculture sector provides...

  13. Agricultural and Industrial Process-Heat-Market Sector workbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shulman, M. J.; Kannan, N. P.; deJong, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    This workbook summarizes the preliminary data and assumptions of the Agricultural and Industrial Process Heat Market Sector prepared in conjunction with the development of inputs for a National Plan for the Accelerated Commercialization of Solar Energy.

  14. Energy Department Joins Navy and Agriculture Departments to Invest...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Invest in Drop-In Biofuel for Military Energy Department Joins Navy and Agriculture Departments to Invest in Drop-In Biofuel for Military September 25, 2014 - 12:35pm ...

  15. Indoor climate and moisture durability performances of houses with unvented attic roof constructions in a mixed-humid climate.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B.; Boudreaux, Philip R.; Jackson, Roderick K.

    2014-10-01

    A sealed or unvented attic is an energy-efficient envelope component that can reduce the amount of energy a house consumes for space conditioning if the air handler and/or ducts are located in the attic. The attic is typically sealed by using spray foam on the underside of the roof deck and covering the soffit, ridge and gable vents to minimize air leakage from the attic to the outside. This approach can save up to 10% in space-conditioning energy when ducts are located in the attic (DOE 2013). Past research done by ORNL and Florida Solar Energy Center suggests that in more hot, humid climates, an unvented attic could potentially create a more humid, uncomfortable living environment than a vented attic (Colon 2011, Boudreaux, Pallin et al. 2013). Research showed that controlling the higher indoor humidity could reduce the energy savings from the sealed, unvented attic, which in turn would decrease the energy savings payback. Research also showed that the roof assembly (5.5 inches of open-cell foam, 1inch of closed-cell foam, OSB, felt paper, and asphalt shingles) stored moisture, thus acting as a moisture buffer. During the fall and winter, the roof assembly stored moisture and during the spring and summer it released moisture. This phenomenon is not seen in a vented attic, in which the air exchange rate to the outside is greater and, in the winter, helps to dehumidify the attic air. It was also seen that in a vented attic, the direction of water vapor diffusion is on average from the attic to the interior of the house. Air leakage from the attic to the interior also occurs during more of the year in a house with an unvented attic than in one with a vented attic. These discoveries show that the moisture dynamics in a house with an unvented attic are much different from those in a house with a vented attic. This study reports on a series of computer model investigations completed to determine the key variables impacting indoor comfort and the durability of roof

  16. Mexico-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector AgencyCompany Organization United States Department of Agriculture,...

  17. Value-added agriculture offers small agribusinesses additional income

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    potential Value-added agriculture Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Value-added agriculture offers small agribusinesses additional income potential Closing the gap between raw product and end user September 1, 2015 Las Nueve Niñas Winery wine label. Las Nueve Niñas Winery wine label. Contact Community Programs Director Kathy Keith Email Editor Ute Haker Email Instead

  18. ARM - Possible Benefits of Global Warming on Agriculture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ListPossible Benefits of Global Warming on Agriculture Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Possible Benefits of Global Warming on Agriculture Pros and Cons Given the need for caution, it may still be possible to make a few general comments. With more carbon dioxide in the

  19. Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department of Agriculture and the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy and the National Development and Reform Commission of the People's Republic of China on Cooperation in the Development of Biofuels | Department of Energy Between the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Energy and the National Development and Reform Commission of the People's Republic of China on Cooperation in the Development of Biofuels Memorandum of Understanding Between the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Energy and the National Development

  20. Klamath and Lake Counties Agricultural Industrial Park | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Park Klamath and Lake Counties Agricultural Industrial Park Engineered Geothermal Systems, Low Temp, Exploration Demonstration Projects. Project goal: to attract new businesses to Klamath and Lake counties for the purpose of capitalizing on our abundant geothermal resources. egs_riley_klamath_lake.pdf (257.14 KB) More Documents & Publications Klamath and Lake Counties Agricultural Industrial Park; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Purchase and Installation of a

  1. Effects of heat treatment and formulation on the phase composition and chemical durability of the EBR-ll ceramic waste form.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebert, W. E.; Dietz, N. L.; Janney, D. E.

    2006-01-31

    High-level radioactive waste salts generated during the electrometallurgical treatment of spent sodium-bonded nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II will be immobilized in a ceramic waste form (CWF). Tests are being conducted to evaluate the suitability of the CWF for disposal in the planned federal high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. In this report, the results of laboratory tests and analyses conducted to address product consistency and thermal stability issues called out in waste acceptance requirements are presented. The tests measure the impacts of (1) variations in the amounts of salt and binder glass used to make the CWF and (2) heat treatments on the phase composition and chemical durability of the waste form. A series of CWF materials was made to span the ranges of salt and glass contents that could be used during processing: between 5.0 and 15 mass% salt loaded into the zeolite (the nominal salt loading is 10.7%, and the process control range is 10.6 to 11.2 mass%), and between 20 and 30 mass% binder glass mixed with the salt-loaded zeolite (the nominal glass content is 25% and the process control range is 20 to 30 mass%). In another series of tests, samples of two CWF products made with the nominal salt and glass contents were reheated to measure the impact on the phase composition and durability: long-term heat treatments were conducted at 400 and 500 C for durations of 1 week, 4 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year; short-term heat treatments were conducted at 600, 700, 800, and 850 C for durations of 4, 28, 52, and 100 hours. All of the CWF products that were made with different amounts of salt, zeolite, and glass and all of the heat-treated CWF samples were analyzed with powder X-ray diffraction to measure changes in phase compositions and subjected to 7-day product consistency tests to measure changes in the chemical durability. The salt loading had the greatest impact on phase composition and durability. A

  2. Potential GHG mitigation options for agriculture in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erda, Lin; Yue, Li; Hongmin, Dong

    1996-12-31

    Agriculture contributes more or less to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). China`s agriculture accounts for about 5-15% of total emissions for these gases. Land-use changes related to agriculture are not major contributors in China. Mitigation options are available that could result in significant decrease in CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from agricultural systems. If implemented, they are likely to increase crop and animal productivity. Implementation has the potential to decrease CH{sub 4} emissions from rice, ruminants, and animal waste by 4-40%. The key to decreasing N{sub 2}O emissions is improving the efficiency of plant utilization of fertilizer N. This could decrease N{sub 2}O emissions from agriculture by almost 20%. Using animal waste to produce CH{sub 4} for energy and digested manure for fertilizer may at some time be cost effective. Economic analyses of options proposed should show positive economic as well as environmental benefits.

  3. Global analysis of energy prices and agriculture. Staff report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, B.J.; Martinez, S.W.; Otradovsky, M.; Stout, J.V.

    1991-09-01

    A multiregion computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used to assess the longrun effects of higher energy prices on agricultural production, prices, and trade. An increase in the price of energy enters farmers' cost functions through direct energy use and through the indirect influence of energy prices on intermediate inputs, especially fertilizers. The multiregion feature of the model allows us to include the effects of energy price shocks on economies of other regions and to assess price changes in a global context. Because farming is highly energy-intensive, agricultural output falls more than output in the manufacturing and services sectors of each region of the model. Real returns to farmland, a good indicator of farm welfare, falls in each of the four regions. The U.S. land price declines by 3.5 percent, a drop comparable to that resulting from a 20-percent multilateral agricultural policy liberalization in a similar model.

  4. Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Webb, Erin; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

  5. CRC handbook of agricultural energy potential of developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duke, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides background information on the agroenergetic potential of 65 countries and offers summaries of major crops planted, total area planted, yield per hectare, and total production. Total land area is categorized as to agriculture, forest, and woodland, and is discussed with demographic statistics for each country. The potential for agricultural by-products and biomass to contribute to energy availability is explored, with reference to each major crop. Vegetation and/or economic activity, or soil maps are presented for most countries, as are climatic data, with crop yields and residues which are compared with production elsewhere.

  6. Agriculture intensifies soil moisture decline in Northern China

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; Zhuang, Qianlai; Miralles, Diego; Teuling, Adriann; Zhang, Tonglin; An, Pingli; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; He, Di; et al

    2015-07-09

    Northern China is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Agricultural activities have intensified since the 1980s to provide food security to the country. However, this intensification has likely contributed to an increasing scarcity in water resources, which may in turn be endangering food security. Based on in-situ measurements of soil moisture collected in agricultural plots during 1983–2012, we find that topsoil (0–50 cm) volumetric water content during the growing season has declined significantly (p<0.01), with a trend of -0.011 to -0.015 m3 m-3 per decade. Observed discharge declines for the three large river basins are consistentmore » with the effects of agricultural intensification, although other factors (e.g. dam constructions) likely have contributed to these trends. Practices like fertilizer application have favoured biomass growth and increased transpiration rates, thus reducing available soil water. In addition, the rapid proliferation of water-expensive crops (e.g., maize) and the expansion of the area dedicated to food production have also contributed to soil drying. Adoption of alternative agricultural practices that can meet the immediate food demand without compromising future water resources seem critical for the sustainability of the food production system.« less

  7. Agricultural Mixed Waster Biorefinery Using Thermal Conversion Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-08-01

    This Congressionally-mandated project is supporting efforts to develop a demonstration facility that will use the patented Thermal Conversion Process (TCP) to produce fuel, power and chemicals from poultry waste and agricultural wastes such as animal and vegetable grease and wastewater sludge.

  8. Climate change and agriculture: Current methodologies and future directions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenzweig, C.; Hillel, D.

    1996-12-31

    In the last fifteen years a major methodology has been developed for the assessment of the potential impacts of climate change on agricultural production around the world. This methodology consists of coupling dynamic crop growth models, designed to predict plant development and yield as a function of weather, soil, and management input variables, to predictors of climate change for sites within a given region. Such impact studies consist of (1) Definition of area of study and analysis of current climate and agricultural practices; (2) Crop model calibration and evaluation; (3) Development of climate change scenarios from GCMs or historical weather data; (4) Analyses of yield changes under changed climatic conditions; and (5) Development and analysis of adaptation strategies. Crop productivity results of such studies are often used in economic analyses. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the US Country Studies Program endorse this modeling approach for the assessment of climate change effects on agriculture. It is useful for assessment studies to continue in the framework of the approved guidelines, in order to build a more complete understanding of likely effects on agricultural production throughout the world, and for more comprehensive results to be available for integrated assessment studies.

  9. Agriculture intensifies soil moisture decline in Northern China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yaling; Pan, Zhihua; Zhuang, Qianlai; Miralles, Diego; Teuling, Adriann; Zhang, Tonglin; An, Pingli; Dong, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jingting; He, Di; Wang, Liwei; Pan, Xuebiao; Bai, Wei; Niyogi, Dev

    2015-07-09

    Northern China is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Agricultural activities have intensified since the 1980s to provide food security to the country. However, this intensification has likely contributed to an increasing scarcity in water resources, which may in turn be endangering food security. Based on in-situ measurements of soil moisture collected in agricultural plots during 1983–2012, we find that topsoil (0–50 cm) volumetric water content during the growing season has declined significantly (p<0.01), with a trend of -0.011 to -0.015 m3 m-3 per decade. Observed discharge declines for the three large river basins are consistent with the effects of agricultural intensification, although other factors (e.g. dam constructions) likely have contributed to these trends. Practices like fertilizer application have favoured biomass growth and increased transpiration rates, thus reducing available soil water. In addition, the rapid proliferation of water-expensive crops (e.g., maize) and the expansion of the area dedicated to food production have also contributed to soil drying. Adoption of alternative agricultural practices that can meet the immediate food demand without compromising future water resources seem critical for the sustainability of the food production system.

  10. Biogas from agricultural and other wastes: a subject bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shadduck, G.

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography covers the following areas: application of anaerobic digestion to agricultural wastes, biochemistry and microbiology, factors in digester design and performance, digester design and types, digestion of individual materials, biogas use, use of digester effluent, integrated recycling systems, and economics and policy. (MHR)

  11. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  12. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Negri, M. Cristina; Ssegane, H.

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  13. Technical specifications for mechanical recycling of agricultural plastic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briassoulis, D. Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Technical specifications for agricultural plastic wastes (APWs) recycling proposed. • Specifications are the base for best economical and environmental APW valorisation. • Analysis of APW reveals inherent characteristics and constraints of APW streams. • Thorough survey on mechanical recycling processes and industry as it applies to APW. • Specifications for APW recycling tested, adjusted and verified through pilot trials. - Abstract: Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project “LabelAgriWaste” revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process (“Quality I”) and another one for plastic profile production process (“Quality II”). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities

  14. Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Gerald; Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald; Havlik, Petr; Ahammad, Helal; Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; von Lampe, Martin; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Mueller, C.; Popp, Alexander; Robertson, Richard; Robinson, Sherman; Schmid, E.; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2013-12-16

    Agricultural production is sensitive to weather and will thus be directly affected by climate change. Plausible estimates of these climate change impacts require combined use of climate, crop, and economic models. Results from previous studies vary substantially due to differences in models, scenarios, and data. This paper is part of a collective effort to systematically integrate these three types of models. We focus on the economic component of the assessment, investigating how nine global economic models of agriculture represent endogenous responses to seven standardized climate change scenarios produced by two climate and five crop models. These responses include adjustments in yields, area, consumption, and international trade. We apply biophysical shocks derived from the IPCC’s Representative Concentration Pathway that result in end-of-century radiative forcing of 8.5 watts per square meter. The mean biophysical impact on crop yield with no incremental CO2 fertilization is a 17 percent reduction globally by 2050 relative to a scenario with unchanging climate. Endogenous economic responses reduce yield loss to 11 percent, increase area of major crops by 12 percent, and reduce consumption by 2 percent. Agricultural production, cropland area, trade, and prices show the greatest degree of variability in response to climate change, and consumption the lowest. The sources of these differences includes model structure and specification; in particular, model assumptions about ease of land use conversion, intensification, and trade. This study identifies where models disagree on the relative responses to climate shocks and highlights research activities needed to improve the representation of agricultural adaptation responses to climate change.

  15. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The 2015 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting will be held in New Orleans, Louisiana on July 26–29, 2015, and will examine industry trends and innovations, with a focus on the focus on the economic, political and social factors influencing the industry. Bioenergy Technologies Office Director Jonathan Male, Program Manager Alison Goss Eng, and Technology Managers Sam Tagore, Mark Elless, and Steve Thomas will be in attendance.

  16. To the Biorefinery: Delievered Forestland and Agricultural Resources Factsheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Biorefinery: Delivered Forestland and Agricultural Resources It can be challenging and costly to trans- port biomass feedstock supplies from the roadside, or farmgate, to a biorefinery. Given the geographic dispersion and low- bulk density of cellulosic feedstocks, cost- effective scaling of commercial biorefinery operations requires overcoming many challenges. The Biomass Research and Development Board's Feedstock Logistics Interagency Working Group identified four primary barriers related

  17. Klamath and Lake Counties Agricultural Industrial Park; 2010 Geothermal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Park; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Klamath and Lake Counties Agricultural Industrial Park; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review lowtemp_013_riley.pdf (222.49 KB) More Documents & Publications Microseismic Study with LBNL - Monitoring the Effect of Injection of Fluids from the Lake County Pipeline on Seismicity at The Geysers,

  18. World agriculture and climate change: Current modeling issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darwin, R.

    1996-12-31

    Recent studies suggest that although global increases in temperature and changes in precipitation patterns during the next century will affect world agriculture, farmer adaptations are likely to prevent climate change from jeopardizing world food production. The costs and benefits of global climate change, however, are not equally distributed around the world. Agricultural production may increase in high latitude and alpine areas, but decrease in tropical and some other areas. Also, land use changes that accompany climate-induced shifts in cropland and permanent pasture are likely to raise additional social and environmental issues. Despite these advances, some important aspects of climate change have not been adequately simulated in global models. These include the effects that climate-induced changes in water resources are likely to have on agricultural production, the well-documented beneficial effects of higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide on plant growth and water use, and the cooling effects of tropospheric emissions of sulfur dioxide. In addition, past research generally relied on equilibrium climates based on a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Now, however, results from transient climate change experiments are available.

  19. OECD-A Green Growth Strategy for Food and Agriculture | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    OECD-A Green Growth Strategy for Food and Agriculture Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: OECD-A Green Growth Strategy for Food and Agriculture Agency...

  20. Vietnam-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use Topics Adaptation, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS,...

  1. Costa Rica-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use Topics Adaptation, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS,...

  2. Kenya-EC-LEDS in the Agriculture Sector | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector Climate, Land Focus Area Agriculture, Economic Development, Greenhouse Gas, Land Use Topics Adaptation, Implementation, Low emission development planning, -LEDS,...

  3. Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntosh, Jane; Schumacher, Leon

    2014-10-23

    The Missouri Agricultural Energy Saving Team-A Revolutionary Opportunity (MAESTRO) program brought together a team of representatives from government, academia, and private industry to enhance the availability of energy efficiency services for small livestock producers in the State of Missouri. The Missouri Department of Agriculture (MDA) managed the project via a subcontract with the University of Missouri (MU), College of Agriculture Food and Natural Resources, MU Extension, the MU College of Human Environmental Sciences, the MU College of Engineering, and the Missouri Agricultural and Small Business Development Authority (MASBDA). MU teamed with EnSave, Inc, a nationally-recognized expert in agricultural energy efficiency to assist with marketing, outreach, provision of farm energy audits and customer service. MU also teamed with independent home contractors to facilitate energy audits of the farm buildings and homes of these livestock producers. The goals of the project were to: (1) improve the environment by reducing fossil fuel emissions and reducing the total energy used on small animal farms; (2) stimulate the economy of local and regional communities by creating or retaining jobs; and (3) improve the profitability of Missouri livestock producers by reducing their energy expenditures. Historically, Missouri scientists/engineers conducted programs on energy use in agriculture, such as in equipment, grain handling and tillage practices. The MAESTRO program was the first to focus strictly on energy efficiency associated with livestock production systems in Missouri and to investigate the applicability and potential of addressing energy efficiency in animal production from a building efficiency perspective. A. Project Objectives The goal of the MAESTRO program was to strengthen the financial viability and environmental soundness of Missouri's small animal farms by helping them implement energy efficient technologies for the production facility, farm buildings

  4. Naturally occurring radionuclides in agricultural products: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanlon, E.A.

    1994-07-01

    Low levels of naturally occurring radionuclides exist in phosphatic clays, a by-product of phosphatic mining and beneficiation processes. Concerns about these radionuclides entering the human food chain were an immediate research priority before the phosphate clays could be reclaimed for intensive agricultural purposes. Efforts included the assembly of a large body of data from both sons and plants, part of which were produced by the Polk County (Florida) Mined Lands Agricultural Research/Demonstration Project MLAR/DP. Additional detailed studies involving dairy and beef cattle (Bos taurus) were conducted by researchers working with the MLAR/DP. A national symposium was conducted in which data concerning the MLAR/DP work and other research projects also dealing with naturally occurring radionuclides in agriculture could be discussed. The symposium included invited review papers dealing with the identification of radionuclide geological origins, the geochemistry and movement of radionuclides within the environment, mechanisms of plant uptake, entry points into the food chain, and evaluation of dose and risk assessment to the consumer of low levels of radionuclides. The risk to human health of an individual obtaining 0.1 of his or her dietary intake from crops produced on phosphatic clays increased by 1 in 5 x 10{sup 6}/yr above a control individual consuming no food grown on phosphatic clays. Leaf tissues were found to be generally higher than fruit, grain, or root tissues. The natural range in radionuclide content among various food types was greater than the difference in radionuclides content between the same food produced on phosphatic clays vs. natural soils. 19 refs.

  5. Third world applications of pyrolysis of agricultural and forestry wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatom, J.W.; Wellborn, H.W.; Harahap, F.; Sasmojo, S.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an appropriate technology for the conversion of agricultural and wood wastes into fuels in underdeveloped nations is discussed. Low temperature pyrolysis offers a promising means of conversion since the char and oil products are storable and easily transportable. The steady-flow, vertical packed bed, partial oxidation pyrolysis process is described and the appropriate technology pyrolytic converter basic design concept is presented. The current status of program in the US and in Papua New Guinea is described. The operation, test results, and economics of the converter are discussed.

  6. Rodigo 1, northern Italy: A geothermal complex for agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faccini, U.; Magnoni, S.; Sordelli, C. )

    1993-04-01

    The Padana Valley is an area rich in warm waters. At Rodigo, near Mantua, a well drilled by Agip supplied 80 m[sup 3]/h of water at 59[degree]C. A cooperative of farmers, with the aid of the Institute of Applied Physics of the University of Milan, has developed a complex for agricultural uses of these warm waters: greenhouses, plants for cereal and forage drying and tanks for aquaculture, all utilizing geothermal energy. The Institute of Applied Physics has also installed a continuous radon monitoring station which measures the radon level in the geothermal well.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of performance and durability of polymer grouts for subsurface hydraulic/diffusion barriers. Informal report, October 1993--May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiser, J.H.; Milian, L.W.

    1994-05-01

    Contaminated soils, buried waste and leaking underground storage tanks pose a threat to the environment through contaminant transport. One of the options for control of contaminant migration from buried waste sites is the construction of a subsurface barrier. Subsurface barriers increase the performance of waste disposal sites by providing a low permeability layer that can reduce percolation water migration into the waste site, minimize surface transport of contaminants, and reduce migration of volatile species. Also, a barrier can be constructed to envelop the site or plume completely, there by containing the contaminants and the potential leakage. Portland cement grout curtains have been used for barriers around waste sites. However, large castings of hydraulic cements result invariably in cracking due to shrinkage, thermal stresses induced by the hydration reactions, and wet-dry cycling prevalent at and sites. Therefore, improved, low permeability, high integrity materials are under investigation by the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Technology Development, Integrated Demonstrations and Programs. The binders chosen for characterization include: an acrylic, a vinylester styrene, bitumen, a polyester styrene, furfuryl alcohol, and sulfur polymer cement. These materials cover broad ranges of chemical and physical durability, performance, viscosity, and cost. This report details the results of laboratory formulation, testing, and characterization of several innovative polymer grouts. An appendix containing a database of the barrier materials is at the end of this report.

  8. Comparison of ANSI, IEC and CSA standards durability requirements on station-type metal oxide surge arresters for EHV power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamel, A.; St-Jean, G. , 1800 montee Ste-Julie, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S1 )

    1992-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of stresses applied to two actual types of station class surge arresters of the same voltage rating when tested for durability as prescribed by American (ANSI) International (IEC) and Canadian (CSA) standards for 315 kV and 734 kV power systems. The analysis which is made with an experimentally validated arrester model, reveals that the IEC duty cycle test is the most severe of all. In fact it can bring the varistors of an actual station-type arrester to a peak temperature of 129{degrees} C, which leaves a margin of only 46{degrees} C to its thermal stability limit at maximum continuous operating voltage (MCOV). Another actual arrester using lesser V-I-T varistor characteristics but larger varistor volume and better heat transfer from inside to outside the arrester, produces 103{degrees} C which corresponds to a slightly better temperature margin of 49{degrees} C. It is observed that even when using the lower performance V-I-T characteristics of the latter arrester, a thin-wall arrester housing design can improve heat transfer to a point where the margin improves to 101{degrees} C on a hypothetical arrester.

  9. Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Svoboda, John M.; Hess, J. Richard

    2003-07-08

    Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery such as a grain combine. The operation components of a combine that function to harvest the grain have characteristics that are measured by sensors. For example, the combine speed, the fan speed, and the like can be measured. An important sensor is the grain loss sensor, which may be used to quantify the amount of grain expelled out of the combine. The grain loss sensor utilizes the fluorescence properties of the grain kernels and the plant residue to identify when the expelled plant material contains grain kernels. The sensor data, in combination with historical and current data stored in a database, is used to identify optimum operating conditions that will result in increased crop yield. After the optimum operating conditions are identified, an on-board computer can generate control signals that will adjust the operation of the components identified in the optimum operating conditions. The changes result in less grain loss and improved grain yield. Also, because new data is continually generated by the sensor, the system has the ability to continually learn such that the efficiency of the agricultural machinery is continually improved.

  10. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, Daniel; Aghajanzadeh, Arian; McKane, Aimee

    2015-08-01

    Pumping water for agricultural irrigation represents a significant share of California’s annual electricity use and peak demand. It also represents a large source of potential flexibility, as farms possess a form of storage in their wetted soil. By carefully modifying their irrigation schedules, growers can participate in demand response without adverse effects on their crops. This report describes the potential for participation in demand response and automated demand response by agricultural irrigators in California, as well as barriers to widespread participation. The report first describes the magnitude, timing, location, purpose, and manner of energy use in California. Typical on-­farm controls are discussed, as well as common impediments to participation in demand response and automated demand response programs. Case studies of demand response programs in California and across the country are reviewed, and their results along with overall California demand estimates are used to estimate statewide demand response potential. Finally, recommendations are made for future research that can enhance the understanding of demand response potential in this industry.

  11. Agricultural and Environmental Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Rasmuson; K. Rautenstrauch

    2004-09-14

    This analysis is one of 10 technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada (ERMYN) (i.e., the biosphere model). It documents development of agricultural and environmental input parameters for the biosphere model, and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the repository at Yucca Mountain. The ERMYN provides the TSPA with the capability to perform dose assessments. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships between the major activities and their products (the analysis and model reports) that were planned in ''Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes the ERMYN and its input parameters.

  12. Biomass fuel use in agriculture under alternative fuel prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Hillsman, E.L.; Tepel, R.C.

    1984-11-01

    A linear programming model is used to analyze cost-competitiveness of biomass fuels in agricultural applications for the projected year 1990. With all else held constant, the prices of conventional fuels are increased and analytically compared to prices for biomass fuel products across a variety of end uses. Potential penetration of biomass fuels is measured as the share of each conventional fuel for which cost savings could be realized by substituting biomass fuels. This study examines the cost competitiveness of biomass fuels produced on farms, relative to conventional fuels (diesel, gasoline, natural gas, LPG, fuel oil, and electricity), as the prices of conventional fuels change. The study is targeted at the year 1990 and considers only fuel use in the agricultural sector. The method of analysis is to project fuel demands for ten farm operations in the year 1990 and to match these with biomass fuel substitutes from ten feedstock and nine process alternatives. In all, 61 feedstock/process combinations are possible. The matching of fuel demands and biomass fuels occurs in a linear programming model that seeks to meet fuel demands at minimum cost. Two types of biomass fuel facilities are considered, assuming a decentralized fuel distribution system. The first includes on-farm production units such as oil presses, low-Btu gasifiers, biogas digestors and direct combustion units. The second type of facility would be run by a farm co-operative. The primary data describing the biomass technologies are cost per unit output, where costs are calculated as first-year capital charges, plus al l allocable operating expenses, less any by-products of value. All costs assume commercial purchase of equipment. Homemade or makeshift installations are not considered. 1 reference.

  13. Biogenic carbon fluxes from global agricultural production and consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, Julie; West, Tristram O.; Le Page, Yannick LB; Kyle, G. Page; Zhang, Xuesong; Collatz, George; Imhoff, Marc L.

    2015-10-01

    Quantification of biogenic carbon fluxes from agricultural lands is needed to generate comprehensive bottom-up estimates of net carbon exchange for global and regional carbon monitoring. We estimated global agricultural carbon fluxes associated with annual crop net primary production (NPP), harvested biomass, and consumption of biomass by humans and livestock. These estimates were combined for a single estimate of net carbon exchange (NCE) and spatially distributed to 0.05 degree resolution using MODIS satellite land cover data. Global crop NPP in 2011 was estimated at 5.25 ± 0.46 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.05 ± 0.05 Pg C yr-1 was harvested and 0.54 Pg C yr-1 was collected from crop residues for livestock fodder. Total livestock feed intake in 2011 was 2.42 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1, of which 2.31 ± 0.21 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CO2, 0.07 ± 0.01 Pg C yr-1 was emitted as CH4, and 0.04 Pg C yr-1 was contained within milk and egg production. Livestock grazed an estimated 1.27 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, which constituted 52.4% of total feed intake. Global human food intake was 0.57 ± 0.03 Pg C yr-1 in 2011, the majority of which is respired as CO2. Completed global cropland carbon budgets accounted for the ultimate use of ca. 80% of harvested biomass. The spatial distribution of these fluxes may be used for global carbon monitoring, estimation of regional uncertainty, and for use as input to Earth system models.

  14. Biomass Support for the China Renewable Energy Law: Feasibility Report -- Agricultural and Forestry Solid Wastes Power Generation Demonstration, December 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-10-01

    Subcontractor report on feasibility of using agricultural and forestry wastes for power generation in China

  15. U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy Announce Funding for Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research and Development Initiative | Department of Energy Agriculture and Energy Announce Funding for Biomass Research and Development Initiative U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy Announce Funding for Biomass Research and Development Initiative April 15, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, April 15, 2011- To support President Obama's goal of reducing America's oil imports by one-third by 2025, the U.S. Departments of Agriculture (USDA) and Energy (DOE) today jointly announced up to

  16. Agriculture and Energy Departments Announce New Investments to Drive Innovations in Biofuels and Biobased Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy announced a $41 million investment that will drive more efficient biofuels production and feedstock improvements.

  17. Energy and Agriculture Depts. Provide $8.3 Million in Funding for Biofuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research | Department of Energy Agriculture Depts. Provide $8.3 Million in Funding for Biofuels Research Energy and Agriculture Depts. Provide $8.3 Million in Funding for Biofuels Research June 7, 2007 - 1:25pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman and Agriculture Secretary Mike Johanns today announced that the Department of Energy and the Department of Agriculture have jointly selected 11 projects for awards totaling $8.3 million for biobased fuels research that will

  18. Climate Change Mitigation Through Land-Use Measures in the Agriculture...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Forestry Sectors Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Climate Change Mitigation Through Land-Use Measures in the Agriculture and Forestry...

  19. Durability of ACERT Engine Components

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  20. Durability of ACERT Engine Components

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  1. Durability of ACERT Engine Components

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  2. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  3. Convergent bacterial microbiotas in the fungal agricultural systems of insects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Adams, Aaron S.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G.; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Klepzig, Kier D.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2014-11-18

    The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associated with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes.

  4. Convergent bacterial microbiotas in the fungal agricultural systems of insects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Suen, Garret; Biedermann, Peter H. W.; Adams, Aaron S.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Tringe, Susannah G.; Poulsen, Michael; Raffa, Kenneth F.; et al

    2014-11-18

    The ability to cultivate food is an innovation that has produced some of the most successful ecological strategies on the planet. Although most well recognized in humans, where agriculture represents a defining feature of civilization, species of ants, beetles, and termites have also independently evolved symbioses with fungi that they cultivate for food. Despite occurring across divergent insect and fungal lineages, the fungivorous niches of these insects are remarkably similar, indicating convergent evolution toward this successful ecological strategy. Here, we characterize the microbiota of ants, beetles, and termites engaged in nutritional symbioses with fungi to define the bacterial groups associatedmore » with these prominent herbivores and forest pests. Using culture-independent techniques and the in silico reconstruction of 37 composite genomes of dominant community members, we demonstrate that different insect-fungal symbioses that collectively shape ecosystems worldwide have highly similar bacterial microbiotas comprised primarily of the genera Enterobacter, Rahnella, and Pseudomonas. Although these symbioses span three orders of insects and two phyla of fungi, we show that they are associated with bacteria sharing high whole-genome nucleotide identity. Due to the fine-scale correspondence of the bacterial microbiotas of insects engaged in fungal symbioses, our findings indicate that this represents an example of convergence of entire host-microbe complexes.« less

  5. Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in Implementing NEPA (CEQ, 1980)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) memorandum on Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act was developed in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture. It updates and supersedes CEQ's previous memorandum on this subject of August 1976.

  6. Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in Implementing NEPA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) memorandum on Analysis of Impacts on Prime or Unique Agricultural Lands in Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act was developed in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture. It updates and supersedes CEQ's previous memorandum on this subject of August 1976.

  7. Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal for Bioenergy: A Spatially Comprehensive National Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Muth, Jr.; K. M. Bryden; R. G. Nelson

    2013-02-01

    This study provides a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential across the United States. Earlier assessments determining the quantity of agricultural residue that could be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at the regional and national scale faced a number of computational limitations. These limitations included the number of environmental factors, the number of land management scenarios, and the spatial fidelity and spatial extent of the assessment. This study utilizes integrated multi-factor environmental process modeling and high fidelity land use datasets to perform a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainably removable agricultural residues across the conterminous United States. Soil type represents the base spatial unit for this study and is modeled using a national soil survey database at the 10 100 m scale. Current crop rotation practices are identified by processing land cover data available from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer database. Land management and residue removal scenarios are identified for each unique crop rotation and crop management zone. Estimates of county averages and state totals of sustainably available agricultural residues are provided. The results of the assessment show that in 2011 over 150 million metric tons of agricultural residues could have been sustainably removed across the United States. Projecting crop yields and land management practices to 2030, the assessment determines that over 207 million metric tons of agricultural residues will be able to be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at that time.

  8. Sustainable agricultural residue removal for bioenergy: A spatially comprehensive US national assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muth, David J.; Bryden, Kenneth Mark; Nelson, R. G.

    2012-10-06

    This study provides a spatially comprehensive assessment of sustainable agricultural residue removal potential across the United States for bioenergy production. Earlier assessments determining the quantity of agricultural residue that could be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at the regional and national scale faced a number of computational limitations. These limitations included the number of environmental factors, the number of land management scenarios, and the spatial fidelity and spatial extent of the assessment. This study utilizes integrated multi-factor environmental process modeling and high fidelity land use datasets to perform the sustainable agricultural residue removal assessment. Soil type represents the base spatial unit for this study and is modeled using a national soil survey database at the 10100 m scale. Current crop rotation practices are identified by processing land cover data available from the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer database. Land management and residue removal scenarios are identified for each unique crop rotation and crop management zone. Estimates of county averages and state totals of sustainably available agricultural residues are provided. The results of the assessment show that in 2011 over 150 million metric tons of agricultural residues could have been sustainably removed across the United States. Projecting crop yields and land management practices to 2030, the assessment determines that over 207 million metric tons of agricultural residues will be able to be sustainably removed for bioenergy production at that time. This biomass resource has the potential for producing over 68 billion liters of cellulosic biofuels.

  9. The potential of wetlands for mitigating adverse effects of agricultural drainage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, G.S.

    1995-12-01

    Agricultural runoff has been clearly identified as a major contributor to the failure of much of the surface water in the United States to meet designated use objectives. Control of agricultural drainage is very problematic. The agriculture industry strongly resists mandated controls, and warns of potential catastrophic consequences in food shortages should production methods be altered. Yet concern grows over the long and short term impact of a variety of contaminants - particularly sediments, nutrients, and pesticides - released to our waters as part of normal agricultural practices. For quite some time, wetlands have been explored for their potential in treating sewage (from both municipal and private systems) and acid mine drainage. Much less work has been done looking at the potential for wetlands to treat agricultural drainage. yet, wetlands may offer tremendous potential for mitigating problems of agricultural runoff while offering farmers desirable (or at least acceptable) uses of marginal land. This paper has two objectives. First, the opportunities for wetlands to be used as agricultural drainage treatment facilities are described. Processes are identified which trap or degrade pollutants, with particular attention given to long-term environmental fate. Second, an experimental wetlands system recently developed in Northwest Ohio is used as an example of system implementation. Emphasis will be given to how the system was developed to optimize pollutant removal within the physical constraints of the site. Preliminary performance data with respect to water quality changes will also be presented.

  10. Energy Secretary Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce $6.3 million

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Biofuels Research | Department of Energy Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce $6.3 million for Biofuels Research Energy Secretary Chu, Agriculture Secretary Vilsack Announce $6.3 million for Biofuels Research July 22, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, DC - U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu and U.S. Department of Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack announced today the joint selection of awards of up to $6.3 million towards fundamental genomics-enabled research leading

  11. Metal-Based, High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Anodes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  12. Electrically conductive polycrystalline diamond and particulate metal based electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, Greg M.; Wang, Jian

    2005-04-26

    An electrically conducting and dimensionally stable diamond (12, 14) and metal particle (13) electrode produced by electrodepositing the metal on the diamond is described. The electrode is particularly useful in harsh chemical environments and at high current densities and potentials. The electrode is particularly useful for generating hydrogen, and for reducing oxygen and oxidizing methanol in reactions which are of importance in fuel cells.

  13. Development of a Liquid Metal Based Fuel Gas Scrubbing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, B.F.; Swithenbank, J.; Sharifi, V.N.; Warner, N.

    2002-09-20

    The objective of this research project is to perform studies on an analogous room temperature packed bed scrubber operating under non-wetting conditions, providing insight and understanding towards the development of a high temperature packed bed gas scrubber irrigated by molten tin.

  14. 2016 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting will be held in Orlando, Florida, from July 17–20, 2016. The meeting is a forum to expand awareness of current agricultural and biological engineering advances and innovations. Bioenergy Technologies Office Program Manager Alison Goss Eng will be presenting at the meeting, and Director Jonathan Male and Technology Managers Sam Tagore and Mark Elless will be in attendance.

  15. Roadmap for Agriculture Biomass Feedstock Supply in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Richard Hess; Thomas D. Foust; Reed Hoskinson; David Thompson

    2003-11-01

    The Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee established a goal that biomass will supply 5% of the nation’s power, 20% of its transportation fuels, and 25% of its chemicals by 2030. These combined goals are approximately equivalent to 30% of the country’s current petroleum consumption. The benefits of a robust biorefinery industry supplying this amount of domestically produced power, fuels, and products are considerable, including decreased demand for imported oil, revenue to the depressed agricultural industry, and revitalized rural economies. A consistent supply of highquality, low-cost feedstock is vital to achieving this goal. This biomass roadmap defines the research and development (R&D) path to supplying the feedstock needs of the biorefinery and to achieving the important national goals set for biomass. To meet these goals, the biorefinery industry must be more sustainable than the systems it will replace. Sustainability hinges on the economic profitability of all participants, on environmental impact of every step in the process, and on social impact of the product and its production. In early 2003, a series of colloquies were held to define and prioritize the R&D needs for supplying feedstock to the biorefinery in a sustainable manner. These colloquies involved participants and stakeholders in the feedstock supply chain, including growers, transporters, equipment manufacturers, and processors as well as environmental groups and others with a vested interest in ensuring the sustainability of the biorefinery. From this series of colloquies, four high-level strategic goals were set for the feedstock area: • Biomass Availability – By 2030, 1 billion dry tons of lignocellulosic feedstock is needed annually to achieve the power, fuel, and chemical production goals set by the Biomass Research and Development Technology Advisory Production Committee • Sustainability – Production and use of the 1 billion dry tons annually must be

  16. Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marks, Gary; Wilcox, Edmund; Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank

    2013-01-02

    California agricultural irrigation consumes more than ten billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually and has significant potential for contributing to a reduction of stress on the grid through demand response, permanent load shifting, and energy efficiency measures. To understand this potential, a scoping study was initiated for the purpose of determining the associated opportunities, potential, and adoption challenges in California agricultural irrigation. The primary research for this study was conducted in two ways. First, data was gathered and parsed from published sources that shed light on where the best opportunities for load shifting and demand response lie within the agricultural irrigation sector. Secondly, a small limited survey was conducted as informal face-to-face interviews with several different California growers to get an idea of their ability and willingness to participate in permanent load shifting and/or demand response programs. Analysis of the data obtained from published sources and the survey reveal demand response and permanent load shifting opportunities by growing region, irrigation source, irrigation method, grower size, and utility coverage. The study examines some solutions for demand response and permanent load shifting in agricultural irrigation, which include adequate irrigation system capacity, automatic controls, variable frequency drives, and the contribution from energy efficiency measures. The study further examines the potential and challenges for grower acceptance of demand response and permanent load shifting in California agricultural irrigation. As part of the examination, the study considers to what extent permanent load shifting, which is already somewhat accepted within the agricultural sector, mitigates the need or benefit of demand response for agricultural irrigation. Recommendations for further study include studies on how to gain grower acceptance of demand response as well as other related studies such as

  17. Beyond climate-smart agriculture: toward safe operating spaces for global food systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gulledge, Jay; Neufeldt, Heinrich; Jahn, Margaret M; Lezaks, David P; Meinke, Jan H; Scholes, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is considered to be climate-smart when it contributes to increasing food security, adaptation and mitigation in a sustainable way. This new concept now dominates current discussions in agricultural development because of its capacity to unite the agendas of the agriculture, development and climate change communities under one brand. In this opinion piece authored by scientists from a variety of international agricultural and climate research communities, we argue that the concept needs to be evaluated critically because the relationship between the three dimensions is poorly understood, such that practically any improved agricultural practice can be considered climate-smart. This lack of clarity may have contributed to the broad appeal of the concept. From the understanding that we must hold ourselves accountable to demonstrably better meet human needs in the short and long term within foreseeable local and planetary limits, we develop a conceptualization of climate-smart agriculture as agriculture that can be shown to bring us closer to safe operating spaces for agricultural and food systems across spatial and temporal scales. Improvements in the management of agricultural systems that bring us significantly closer to safe operating spaces will require transformations in governance and use of our natural resources, underpinned by enabling political, social and economic conditions beyond incremental changes. Establishing scientifically credible indicators and metrics of long-term safe operating spaces in the context of a changing climate and growing social-ecological challenges is critical to creating the societal demand and political will required to motivate deep transformations. Answering questions on how the needed transformational change can be achieved will require actively setting and testing hypotheses to refine and characterize our concepts of safer spaces for social-ecological systems across scales. This effort will demand prioritizing key

  18. Using landscape typologies to model socioecological systems: Application to agriculture of the United States Gulf Coast

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Preston, Benjamin L.; King, Anthony Wayne; Mei, Rui; Nair, Sujithkumar Surendran

    2016-02-11

    Agricultural enterprises are vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change. Improved understanding of the determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity in agricultural systems is important for projecting and managing future climate risk. At present, three analytical tools dominate methodological approaches to understanding agroecological vulnerability to climate: process-based crop models, empirical crop models, and integrated assessment models. A common weakness of these approaches is their limited treatment of socio-economic conditions and human agency in modeling agroecological processes and outcomes. This study proposes a framework that uses spatial cluster analysis to generate regional socioecological typologies that capture geographic variance inmore » regional agricultural production and enable attribution of that variance to climatic, topographic, edaphic, and socioeconomic components. This framework was applied to historical corn production (1986-2010) in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico region as a testbed. The results demonstrate that regional socioeconomic heterogeneity is an important driving force in human dominated ecosystems, which we hypothesize, is a function of the link between socioeconomic conditions and the adaptive capacity of agricultural systems. Meaningful representation of future agricultural responses to climate variability and change is contingent upon understanding interactions among biophysical conditions, socioeconomic conditions, and human agency their incorporation in predictive models.« less

  19. GCAM 3.0 Agriculture and Land Use: Data Sources and Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Calvin, Katherine V.; Emanuel, William R.; Nathan, Mayda; Zhou, Yuyu

    2011-12-12

    This report presents the data processing methods used in the GCAM 3.0 agriculture and land use component, starting from all source data used, and detailing all calculations and assumptions made in generating the model inputs. The report starts with a brief introduction to modeling of agriculture and land use in GCAM 3.0, and then provides documentation of the data and methods used for generating the base-year dataset and future scenario parameters assumed in the model input files. Specifically, the report addresses primary commodity production, secondary (animal) commodity production, disposition of commodities, land allocation, land carbon contents, and land values.

  20. Overview of fuel alcohol from agricultural crops with emphasis on the Tennessee Valley. Bulletin Y-171

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roetheli, J.C.; Pile, R.S.; Young, H.C.

    1982-02-01

    An overview is presented of the factors and concerns associated with producing fuel alcohol from agricultural crops. Areas covered include: an assessment of energy used in agriculture; a categorization of grain crop production, land suitable for energy crop production, and livestock production in the 201-county TVA region; a summary of technical and economic information on fuel alcohol production; a discussion of acreages required to produce fuel for benchmark farms in the Tennessee Valley and possible erosion impacts; and a discussion of other pertinent advantages and disadvantages of fuel alcohol production from crops.

  1. Energy Department Joins Agriculture and Navy in the Fight for Clean Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation | Department of Energy Joins Agriculture and Navy in the Fight for Clean Energy Transportation Energy Department Joins Agriculture and Navy in the Fight for Clean Energy Transportation October 2, 2014 - 2:50pm Addthis DOE, USDA, and Navy are working with private industry to produce advanced drop-in biofuels that can be used by the Department of Defense and the private transportation sector. | Photo courtesy of U.S. Navy. DOE, USDA, and Navy are working with private industry to

  2. EERE Success Story-Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    $210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military | Department of Energy Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military EERE Success Story-Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military January 30, 2015 - 5:49pm Addthis In 2014, the U.S. Departments of Energy,

  3. Agriculture and Climate Change in Global Scenarios: Why Don't the Models Agree

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Gerald; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Ahammad, Helal; Blanc, Elodie; Calvin, Katherine V.; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; von Lampe, Martin; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; van Meijl, Hans; Mueller, C.; Reilly, J. M.; Robertson, Richard; Sands, Ronald; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Valin, Hugo; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is unique among economic sectors in the nature of impacts from climate change. The production activity that transforms inputs into agricultural outputs makes direct use of weather inputs. Previous studies of the impacts of climate change on agriculture have reported substantial differences in outcomes of key variables such as prices, production, and trade. These divergent outcomes arise from differences in model inputs and model specification. The goal of this paper is to review climate change results and underlying determinants from a model comparison exercise with 10 of the leading global economic models that include significant representation of agriculture. By providing common productivity drivers that include climate change effects, differences in model outcomes are reduced. All models show higher prices in 2050 because of negative productivity shocks from climate change. The magnitude of the price increases, and the adaptation responses, differ significantly across the various models. Substantial differences exist in the structural parameters affecting demand, area, and yield, and should be a topic for future research.

  4. Second biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    This volume provides the proceedings for the Second Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, Environment, Agriculture, and Industry which was held August 21-24, 1995. The volume contains copies of full papers as provided by the researchers. Individual papers were separately indexed and abstracted for the database.

  5. Energy Department Joins Navy and Agriculture Departments to Invest in Drop-In Biofuel for Military

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman joined Tom Vilsack, Secretary of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Secretary Ray Mabus of the U.S. Department of Navy, on September 19, 2014, to announce awards for three commercial-scale biorefinery projects that will help meet the transportation needs of the U.S. military and private sector.

  6. The contribution of future agricultural trends in the US Midwest to global climate change mitigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Allison M.; Kyle, G. Page; Zhang, Xuesong; Bandaru, Varaprasad; West, Tristram O.; Wise, Marshall A.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-01-19

    Land use change is a complex response to changing environmental and socioeconomic systems. Historical drivers of land use change include changes in the natural resource availability of a region, changes in economic conditions for production of certain products and changing policies. Most recently, introduction of policy incentives for biofuel production have influenced land use change in the US Midwest, leading to concerns that bioenergy production systems may compete with food production and land conservation. Here we explore how land use may be impacted by future climate mitigation measures by nesting a high resolution agricultural model (EPIC Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) for the US Midwest within a global integrated assessment model (GCAM Global Change Assessment Model). This approach is designed to provide greater spatial resolution and detailed agricultural practice information by focusing on the climate mitigation potential of agriculture and land use in a specific region, while retaining the global economic context necessary to understand the far ranging effects of climate mitigation targets. We find that until the simulated carbon prices are very high, the US Midwest has a comparative advantage in producing traditional food and feed crops over bioenergy crops. Overall, the model responds to multiple pressures by adopting a mix of future responses. We also find that the GCAM model is capable of simulations at multiple spatial scales and agricultural technology resolution, which provides the capability to examine regional response to global policy and economic conditions in the context of climate mitigation.

  7. The Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (Apex) Model: An Emerging Tool for Landscape and Watershed Environmental Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gassman, Philip W.; Williams, Jimmy R.; Wang, Xiuying; Saleh, Ali; Osei, Edward; Hauck, Larry; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Flowers, Joan

    2010-06-01

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model was developed by the Blacklands Research and Extension Center in Temple, Texas. APEX is a flexible and dynamic tool that is capable of simulating a wide array of management practices, cropping systems, and other land uses across a broad range of agricultural landscapes, including whole farms and small watersheds.

  8. Comparative Analysis for Polluted Agricultural Soils with Arsenic, Lead, and Mercury in Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarto-Ramirez, Mario; Santos-Santos, Elvira; Gavilan-Garcia, Arturo; Castro-Diaz, Jose; Gavilan-Garcia, Irma Cruz; Rosiles, Rene; Suarez, Sara

    2004-03-31

    The use of mercury in Mexico has been associated with the mining industry of Zacatecas. This activity has polluted several areas currently used for agriculture. The main objective of this study was to investigate the heavy metal concentration (Hg, As and Pb) in soil of Guadalupe Zacatecas in order to justify a further environmental risk assessment in the site. A 2X3 km grid was used for the sampling process and 20 soil samples were taken. The analysis was developed using EPA SW 846: 3050B/6010B method for arsenic and metals and EPA SW 846: 7471A for total mercury. It was concluded that there are heavy metals in agricultural soils used for corn and bean farming. For this it is required to make an environmental risk assessment and a bioavailability study in order to determine if there's a risk for heavy metals bioaccumulation in animals or human beings or metal lixiviation to aquifers.

  9. Population array and agricultural data arrays for the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, K.W.; Duffy, S.; Kowalewsky, K.

    1998-07-01

    To quantify or estimate the environmental and radiological impacts from man-made sources of radioactive effluents, certain dose assessment procedures were developed by various government and regulatory agencies. Some of these procedures encourage the use of computer simulations (models) to calculate air dispersion, environmental transport, and subsequent human exposure to radioactivity. Such assessment procedures are frequently used to demonstrate compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Knowledge of the density and distribution of the population surrounding a source is an essential component in assessing the impacts from radioactive effluents. Also, as an aid to calculating the dose to a given population, agricultural data relevant to the dose assessment procedure (or computer model) are often required. This report provides such population and agricultural data for the area surrounding Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  10. Perennial grasses for energy and conservation: Evaluating some ecological agricultural, and economic issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downing, M.; Walsh, M.; McLaughlin, S.

    1995-11-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  11. Kelley Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center conceptual design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longyear, A.B.

    1980-06-01

    The proposed core activity in the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center is a nominal 1200 sow swine raising complex. The swine raising is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled environment facilities that utilize geothermal energy. The complex will include a feedmill for producing the various feed formulae required for the animals from breeding through gestation, farrowing, nursery, growing and finishing. The market animals are shipped live by truck to slaughter in Modesto, California. A complete waste management facility will include manure collection from all raising areas, transport via a water flush sysem to methane (biogas) generators, manure separation, settling ponds and disposition of the surplus agricultural quality water. The design is based upon the best commercial practices in confined swine raising in the US today. The most unique feature of the facility is the utilization of geothermal hot water for space heating and process energy throughout the complex.

  12. OSTIblog Articles in the National Agriculture Library Topic | OSTI, US Dept

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Agriculture Library Topic Eleanor Frierson: A Tribute to the Grande Dame of Government Science Information Partnerships by Dr. Walt Warnick 13 May, 2013 in Personal Perspectives 7446 EFrierson%2872%29.jpg Eleanor Frierson: A Tribute to the Grande Dame of Government Science Information Partnerships Read more about 7446 Eleanor Frierson, who passed away in April 2013, was the grande dame of partnerships to improve public access to

  13. Bioenergy Technologies Office: Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies Agricultural Conservation Committee Meeting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Association of Fish & Wildlife Agencies Agricultural Conservation Committee Meeting March 29, 2013 Kristen Johnson Sustainability Lead Bioenergy Technologies Office U.S. Department of Energy 2 Overview * National priorities and the Renewable Fuel Standard * Overview of the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) - Mission - Key RDD&D Activities * DOE's Billion-Ton Update: National Resource Assessment * DOE's Commitment to Sustainability *

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of Switchgrass Cellulosic Ethanol Production in the Wisconsin and Michigan Agricultural Contexts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinistore, Julie C.; Reinemann, D. J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Cronin, Keith R.; Meier, Paul J.; Runge, Troy M.; Zhang, Xuesong

    2015-04-25

    Spatial variability in yields and greenhouse gas emissions from soils has been identified as a key source of variability in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of agricultural products such as cellulosic ethanol. This study aims to conduct an LCA of cellulosic ethanol production from switchgrass in a way that captures this spatial variability and tests results for sensitivity to using spatially averaged results. The Environment Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was used to calculate switchgrass yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from crop production in southern Wisconsin and Michigan at the watershed scale. These data were combined with cellulosic ethanol production data via ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment methods and region-specific electricity production data into an LCA model of eight ethanol production scenarios. Standard deviations from the spatial mean yields and soil emissions were used to test the sensitivity of net energy ratio, global warming potential intensity, and eutrophication and acidification potential metrics to spatial variability. Substantial variation in the eutrophication potential was also observed when nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from soils were varied. This work illustrates the need for spatially explicit agricultural production data in the LCA of biofuels and other agricultural products.

  15. Long-run effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the US agricultural economy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bryant, Henry L.; Campiche, Jody L.; Richardson, James W.

    2010-03-09

    Renewable energy production has been expanding at a rapid pace. New advances in cellulosic ethanol technologies have the potential to displace the use of petroleum as a transportation fuel, and could have significant effects on both the agricultural economy and the environment. In this letter, the effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the mix of ethanol feedstocks employed and on the US agricultural economy are examined. Results indicate that, as expected, cellulosic ethanol production increases by a substantial amount as conversion technology improves. Corn production increases initially following the introduction of cellulosic technology, because producers enjoy new revenuemore » from sales of corn stover. After cellulosic ethanol production becomes substantially cheaper, however, acres are shifted from corn production to all other agricultural commodities. Essentially, this new technology could facilitate the exploitation of a previously under-employed resource (corn stover), resulting in an improvement in overall welfare. Thus in the most optimistic scenario considered, 68% of US ethanol is derived from cellulosic sources, coarse grain production is reduced by about 2%, and the prices of all food commodities are reduced modestly.« less

  16. A Multi-Factor Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jared Abodeely; David Muth; Paul Adler; Eleanor Campbell; Kenneth Mark Bryden

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated model to evaluate sustainable agricultural residue removal potential considering soil erosion, soil organic carbon, greenhouse gas emission, and long-term yield impacts of residue removal practices. The integrated model couples the environmental process models WEPS, RUSLE2, SCI, and DAYCENT. This study uses the integrated model to investigate the impact of interval removal practices in Boone County, Iowa, US. Residue removal of 4.5 Mg/ha was performed annually, bi-annually, and tri-annually and were compared to no residue removal. The study is performed at the soil type scale using a national soil survey database assuming a continuous corn rotation with reduced tillage. Results are aggregated across soil types to provide county level estimates of soil organic carbon changes and individual soil type soil organic matter content if interval residue removal were implemented. Results show interval residue removal is possible while improving soil organic matter. Implementation of interval removal practices provide greater increases in soil organic matter while still providing substantial residue for bioenergy production.

  17. Using a Decision Support System to Optimize Production of Agricultural Crop Residue Biofeedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed L. Hoskinson; Ronald C. Rope; Raymond K. Fink

    2007-04-01

    For several years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) which determines the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field to produce a crop, based on the existing soil fertility at each site, as well as historic production information and current prices of fertilizers and the forecast market price of the crop at harvest, for growing a crop such as wheat, potatoes, corn, or cotton. In support of the growing interest in agricultural crop residues as a bioenergy feedstock, we have extended the capability of the DSS4Ag to develop a variable-rate fertilizer recipe for the simultaneous economically optimum production of both grain and straw, and have been conducting field research to test this new DSS4Ag. In this paper we report the results of two years of field research testing and enhancing the DSS4Ags ability to economically optimize the fertilization for the simultaneous production of both grain and its straw, where the straw is an agricultural crop residue that can be used as a biofeedstock.

  18. Long-run effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the US agricultural economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, Henry L.; Campiche, Jody L.; Richardson, James W.

    2010-03-09

    Renewable energy production has been expanding at a rapid pace. New advances in cellulosic ethanol technologies have the potential to displace the use of petroleum as a transportation fuel, and could have significant effects on both the agricultural economy and the environment. In this letter, the effects of falling cellulosic ethanol production costs on the mix of ethanol feedstocks employed and on the US agricultural economy are examined. Results indicate that, as expected, cellulosic ethanol production increases by a substantial amount as conversion technology improves. Corn production increases initially following the introduction of cellulosic technology, because producers enjoy new revenue from sales of corn stover. After cellulosic ethanol production becomes substantially cheaper, however, acres are shifted from corn production to all other agricultural commodities. Essentially, this new technology could facilitate the exploitation of a previously under-employed resource (corn stover), resulting in an improvement in overall welfare. Thus in the most optimistic scenario considered, 68% of US ethanol is derived from cellulosic sources, coarse grain production is reduced by about 2%, and the prices of all food commodities are reduced modestly.

  19. Enhanced durability for high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications -- Option 3 program: Development and testing of additional zinc titanate sorbents. Final report, September 1992--May 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayala, R.E.; Chuck, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.`s Polk Power Station. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The objective of this contract is to identify and test sorbent fabrication methods and chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc titanate and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. A parametric study on the use of calcium sulfate additives to zinc titanate was conducted for zinc titanates having a 2:1 and 1.5:1 zinc-to-titanium molar ratio, and they showed a beneficial effect on crush strength of fresh 2:1 zinc titanate sorbents. In addition, a test procedure was developed to screen sorbent formulations based on resistance to spalling and pellet breakage induced by zinc sulfate formation in the presence of sulfur dioxide and excess oxygen conditions.

  20. Meeting the Radiative Forcing Targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways in a World with Agricultural Climate Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyle, G. Page; Mueller, C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

    2014-02-28

    This study assesses how climate impacts on agriculture may change the evolution of the agricultural and energy systems in meeting the end-of-century radiative forcing targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). We build on the recently completed ISI-MIP exercise that has produced global gridded estimates of future crop yields for major agricultural crops using climate model projections of the RCPs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). For this study we use the bias-corrected outputs of the HadGEM2-ES climate model as inputs to the LPJmL crop growth model, and the outputs of LPJmL to modify inputs to the GCAM integrated assessment model. Our results indicate that agricultural climate impacts generally lead to an increase in global cropland, as compared with corresponding emissions scenarios that do not consider climate impacts on agricultural productivity. This is driven mostly by negative impacts on wheat, rice, other grains, and oil crops. Still, including agricultural climate impacts does not significantly increase the costs or change the technological strategies of global, whole-system emissions mitigation. In fact, to meet the most aggressive climate change mitigation target (2.6 W/m2 in 2100), the net mitigation costs are slightly lower when agricultural climate impacts are considered. Key contributing factors to these results are (a) low levels of climate change in the low-forcing scenarios, (b) adaptation to climate impacts, simulated in GCAM through inter-regional shifting in the production of agricultural goods, and (c) positive average climate impacts on bioenergy crop yields.

  1. Modeling the infrastructure dynamics of China -- Water, agriculture, energy, and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conrad, S.H.; Drennen, T.E.; Engi, D.; Harris, D.L.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Thomas, R.P.

    1998-08-01

    A comprehensive critical infrastructure analysis of the People`s Republic of China was performed to address questions about China`s ability to meet its long-term grain requirements and energy needs and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in China likely to result from increased agricultural production and energy use. Four dynamic computer simulation models of China`s infrastructures--water, agriculture, energy and greenhouse gas--were developed to simulate, respectively, the hydrologic budgetary processes, grain production and consumption, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions in China through 2025. The four models were integrated into a state-of-the-art comprehensive critical infrastructure model for all of China. This integrated model simulates diverse flows of commodities, such as water and greenhouse gas, between the separate models to capture the overall dynamics of the integrated system. The model was used to generate projections of China`s available water resources and expected water use for 10 river drainage regions representing 100% of China`s mean annual runoff and comprising 37 major river basins. These projections were used to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in the three end-use sectors--urban, industrial, and agricultural--through the year 2025. Projections of the all-China demand for the three major grains (corn, wheat, and rice), meat, and other (other grains and fruits and vegetables) were also generated. Each geographic region`s share of the all-China grain demand (allocated on the basis of each region`s share of historic grain production) was calculated in order to assess the land and water resources in each region required to meet that demand. Growth in energy use in six historically significant sectors and growth in greenhouse gas loading were projected for all of China.

  2. Determine metrics and set targets for soil quality on agriculture residue and energy crop pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian Bonner; David Muth

    2013-09-01

    There are three objectives for this project: 1) support OBP in meeting MYPP stated performance goals for the Sustainability Platform, 2) develop integrated feedstock production system designs that increase total productivity of the land, decrease delivered feedstock cost to the conversion facilities, and increase environmental performance of the production system, and 3) deliver to the bioenergy community robust datasets and flexible analysis tools for establishing sustainable and viable use of agricultural residues and dedicated energy crops. The key project outcome to date has been the development and deployment of a sustainable agricultural residue removal decision support framework. The modeling framework has been used to produce a revised national assessment of sustainable residue removal potential. The national assessment datasets are being used to update national resource assessment supply curves using POLYSIS. The residue removal modeling framework has also been enhanced to support high fidelity sub-field scale sustainable removal analyses. The framework has been deployed through a web application and a mobile application. The mobile application is being used extensively in the field with industry, research, and USDA NRCS partners to support and validate sustainable residue removal decisions. The results detailed in this report have set targets for increasing soil sustainability by focusing on primary soil quality indicators (total organic carbon and erosion) in two agricultural residue management pathways and a dedicated energy crop pathway. The two residue pathway targets were set to, 1) increase residue removal by 50% while maintaining soil quality, and 2) increase soil quality by 5% as measured by Soil Management Assessment Framework indicators. The energy crop pathway was set to increase soil quality by 10% using these same indicators. To demonstrate the feasibility and impact of each of these targets, seven case studies spanning the US are presented

  3. Assessing the interactions among U.S. climate policy, biomass energy, and agricultural trade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-09-01

    Energy from biomass is potentially an important contributor to U.S. climate change mitigation efforts. However, an important consideration to large-scale implementation of bioenergy is that the production of biomass competes with other uses of land. This includes traditionally economically productive uses, such as agriculture and forest products, as well as storage of carbon in forests and non-commercial lands. In addition, in the future, biomass may be more easily traded, meaning that increased U.S. reliance on bioenergy could come with it greater reliance on imported energy. Several approaches could be implemented to address these issues, including limits on U.S. biomass imports and protection of U.S. and global forests. This paper explores these dimensions of bioenergy’s role in U.S. climate policy and the relationship to these alternative measures for ameliorating the trade and land use consequences of bioenergy. It first demonstrates that widespread use of biomass in the U.S. could lead to imports; and it highlights that the relative stringency of domestic and international carbon mitigation policy will heavily influence the degree to which it is imported. Next, it demonstrates that while limiting biomass imports would prevent any reliance on other countries for this energy supply, it would most likely alter the balance of trade in other agricultural products against which biomass competes; for example, it might turn the U.S. from a corn exporter to a corn importer. Finally, it shows that increasing efforts to protect both U.S. and international forests could also affect the balance of trade in other agricultural products.

  4. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 1. Project summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-12-30

    A summary of the Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project is presented. The design of the greenhouses include transparent double pane glass roof with channels for fluid between the panes, inner pane tinted and double pane extruded acrylic aluminized mylar shade and diffuser. Solar energy technologies provide power for water desalination, for pumping irrigation water, and for cooling and heating the controlled environment space so that crops can grow in arid lands. The project is a joint effort between the United States and Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  5. Storing Carbon in Agricultural Soils to Help Head-Off Global Warming and to Combat Desertification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenberg, Norman J.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.

    2001-12-31

    We know for sure that addition of organic matter to soil increases water-holding capacity, imparts fertility with the addition of nutrients, increases soil aggregation and improves tilth. Depeing on it's type, organic matter contains between 40 and 60% carbon. Using agricultural management practices to increase the amount of organic matter and carbon in soils can be an effective strategy to offset carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere as well as to improve the quality of the soil and slow or prevent desertification.

  6. Regional scale cropland carbon budgets: evaluating a geospatial agricultural modeling system using inventory data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; Sahajpal, Ritvik; West, Tristram O.; Thomson, Allison M.; Xu, Min; Zhao, Kaiguang; LeDuc, Stephen D.; Williams, Jimmy R.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification and clear understanding of regional scale cropland carbon (C) cycling is critical for designing effective policies and management practices that can contribute toward stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, extrapolating site-scale observations to regional scales represents a major challenge confronting the agricultural modeling community. This study introduces a novel geospatial agricultural modeling system (GAMS) exploring the integration of the mechanistic Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model, spatially-resolved data, surveyed management data, and supercomputing functions for cropland C budgets estimates. This modeling system creates spatially-explicit modeling units at a spatial resolution consistent with remotely-sensed crop identification and assigns cropping systems to each of them by geo-referencing surveyed crop management information at the county or state level. A parallel computing algorithm was also developed to facilitate the computationally intensive model runs and output post-processing and visualization. We evaluated GAMS against National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) reported crop yields and inventory estimated county-scale cropland C budgets averaged over 2000–2008. We observed good overall agreement, with spatial correlation of 0.89, 0.90, 0.41, and 0.87, for crop yields, Net Primary Production (NPP), Soil Organic C (SOC) change, and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), respectively. However, we also detected notable differences in the magnitude of NPP and NEE, as well as in the spatial pattern of SOC change. By performing crop-specific annual comparisons, we discuss possible explanations for the discrepancies between GAMS and the inventory method, such as data requirements, representation of agroecosystem processes, completeness and accuracy of crop management data, and accuracy of crop area representation. Based on these analyses, we further discuss strategies to improve GAMS by updating input

  7. Mitigating climate change through managing constructed-microbial communities in agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, Cyd E.; Bever, James D.; Labbe, Jessy; Yang, Xiaohan; Yin, Hengfu

    2015-10-27

    The importance of increasing crop production while reducing resource inputs and land-use change cannot be overstated especially in light of climate change and a human population growth projected to reach nine billion this century. Here, mutualistic plant microbe interactions offer a novel approach to enhance agricultural productivity while reducing environmental costs. In concert with other novel agronomic technologies and management, plant-microbial mutualisms could help increase crop production and reduce yield losses by improving resistance and/or resilience to edaphic, biologic, and climatic variability from both bottom-up and top-down perspectives.

  8. Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  9. Mechanistic Enhancement of SOFC Cathode Durability (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Close Cite: Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for ...

  10. Durable high-density data storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stutz, R.A.; Lamartine, B.C.

    1996-09-01

    This paper will discuss the Focus Ion Beam (FIB) milling process, media life considerations, and methods of reading the micromilled data. The FIB process for data storage provides a new non-magnetic storage method for archiving large amounts of data. The process stores data on robust materials such as steel, silicon, and gold coated silicon. The storage process was developed to provide a method to insure the long term storage life of data. We estimate the useful life of data written on silicon or gold coated silicon to be a few thousand years. The process uses an ion beam to carve material from the surface much like stone cutting. The deeper information is carved into the media the longer the expected life of the information. The process can read information in three formats: (1) binary at densities of 3.5 Gbits/cm{sup 2}, (2) alphanumeric at optical or non-optical density, and (3) graphical at optical and non-optical density. The formats can be mixed on the same media; and thus it is possible to record, in a human readable format, instructions that can be read using an optical microscope. These instructions provide guidance on reading the higher density information.

  11. Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  12. Durability of Metallic Interconnects and Protective Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2009-12-15

    To build up a useful voltage, a number of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrically connected into series in a stack via interconnects, which are placed between adjacent cells. In addition to functioning as a bi-polar electrical connector, the interconnect also acts as a separator plate that separates the fuel at the anode side of one cell from the air at the cathode side on an adjacent cell. During SOFC operation at the high temperatures, the interconnects are thus simultaneously exposed to the oxidizing air at one side and a reducing fuel that can be either hydrogen or hydrocarbon at the other. Besides, they are in contact with adjacent components, such as electrodes or electrical contacts, seals, etc. With steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures into the low or intermediate range 600-850oC, oxidation resistant alloys are often used to construct interconnects. However, the metallic interconnects may degrade via interactions at their interfaces with surrounding environments or adjacent components, potentially affecting the stability and performance of interconnects and the SOFC stacks. Thus protection layers are applied to metallic interconnects that also intend to mitigate or prevent chromium migration into cells and the cell poisoning. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of materials for metallic interconnects, their degradation and coating protection.

  13. Durability of NOx Absorbers | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cleaner Vehicles, Cleaner Fuel & Cleaner Air APBF-DEC Heavy Duty NOx AdsorberDPF Project: Heavy Duty Linehaul Platform Project Update LNT + SCR Aftertreatment for Medium-Heavy ...

  14. Findings of Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett Beauregard

    2010-12-31

    Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine (HICE) technology takes advantage of existing knowledge of combustion engines to provide a means to power passenger vehicle with hydrogen, perhaps as an interim measure while fuel cell technology continues to mature. This project seeks to provide data to determine the reliability of these engines. Data were collected from an engine operated on a dynamometer for 1000 hours of continuous use. Data were also collected from a fleet of eight (8) full-size pickup trucks powered with hydrogen-fueled engines. In this particular application, the data show that HICE technology provided reliable service during the operating period of the project. Analyses of engine components showed little sign of wear or stress except for cylinder head valves and seats. Material analysis showed signs of hydrogen embrittlement in intake valves.

  15. Durable Electrooptic Devices Comprising Ionic Liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Cronin, John P.; Tonazzi, Juan C. L.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark

    2008-11-11

    Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes. Some of the electrolyte solutions color to red when devices employing the solutions are powered, leading to red or neutral electrooptic devices.

  16. Durable electrooptic devices comprising ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Agrawal, Anoop; Cronin; John P.; Tonazzi, Juan C. L.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark

    2009-12-15

    Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes. Some of the electrolyte solutions color to red when devices employing the solutions are powered, leading to red or neutral electrooptic devices.

  17. Some durability considerations for proton exchange membranes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation at the DOE High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Oct. 14, 2010 ... New Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation ...

  18. Durability Improvements Through Degradation Mechanism Studies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon boruplanlkickoff.pdf More Documents & Publications FC-PAD Organization and Activities Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting The Science And Engineering of Duralbe Ultralow ...

  19. Durability Working Group | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... correlating the results of these tests with in situ real-time degradation of fuel cell systems. ... Fuel Cell Tech Team Accelerated Stress Test and Polarization Curve Protocols for PEM ...

  20. Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  1. Durable electrooptic devices comprising ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agrawal, Anoop; Cronin, John P.; Tonazzi, Juan C. L.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2005-11-01

    Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF3SO3-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF3SO2)2N-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF3CF2SO2)2N-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF3SO2)3C-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes.

  2. Durable electrooptic devices comprising ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2006-10-10

    Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes.

  3. Durability of Diesel Engine Particulate Filters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  4. PV Module Intraconnect Thermomechanical Durability Damage Prediction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications FY2015 Status Report: CIRFT Testing of High-Burnup Used Nuclear Fuel Rods from Pressurized Water Reactor and BWR Environments 2014 Propulsion ...

  5. Durability Improvements Through Degradation Mechanism Studies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Modeling * Fundamental degradation mechanisms (LBNL) * Individual degradation models - kineticrate based (ANL) * Integrated comprehensive model (ANL) Characterization Methods to ...

  6. POLYMERIC MIRROR FILMS: DURABILITY IMPROVEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. cspreviewmeeting042413chen.pdf ...

  7. POLYMERIC MIRROR FILMS: DURABILITY IMPROVEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... from 5 to 10 m aperture 3 15.1% LCOE Improvement 0.101 0.119 Nominal LCOE kWh 60% 56% Annual Plant Capacity Factor 18.3% 17.2% Annual Solar-Electric Efficiency 1148 M ...

  8. Durability Improvements Through Degradation Mechanism Studies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 – October 1, 2009

  9. Kelly Hot Spring Geothermal Project: Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center preliminary design. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longyear, A.B.

    1980-08-01

    A Phase 1 Preliminary Design, Construction Planning and Economic Analysis has been conducted for the Kelly Hot Spring Agricultural Center in Modoc County, California. The core activity is a 1360 breeding sow, swine raising complex that utilizes direct heat energy from the Kelly Hot Spring geothermal resource. The swine is to be a totally confined operation for producing premium pork in controlled-environment facilities. The complex contains a feed mill, swine raising buildings and a complete waste management facility that produces methane gas to be delivered to a utility company for the production of electricity. The complex produces 6.7 million pounds of live pork (29,353 animals) shipped to slaughter per year; 105,000 cu. ft. of scrubbed methane per day; and fertilizer. Total effluent is less than 200 gpm of agricultural quality-water with full odor control. The methane production rate made possible with geothermal direct heat is equivalent to at least 400 kw continuous. Sale of the methane on a co-generation basis is being discussed with the utility company. The use of geothermal direct heat energy in the complex displaces nearly 350,000 gallons of fuel oil per year. Generation of the biogas displaces an additional 300,000 gallons of fuel oil per year.

  10. Soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colburn, J.W. Jr.

    1991-07-23

    A real time soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system includes a plurality of ground-engaging tools in association with individual soil sensors which measure soil chemical levels. The system includes the addition of a solvent which rapidly saturates the soil/tool interface to form a conductive solution of chemicals leached from the soil. A multivalent electrode, positioned within a multivalent frame of the ground-engaging tool, applies a voltage or impresses a current between the electrode and the tool frame. A real-time soil chemical sensor and controller senses the electrochemical reaction resulting from the application of the voltage or current to the leachate, measures it by resistivity methods, and compares it against pre-set resistivity levels for substances leached by the solvent. Still greater precision is obtained by calibrating for the secondary current impressed through solvent-less soil. The appropriate concentration is then found and the servo-controlled delivery system applies the appropriate amount of fertilizer or agricultural chemicals substantially in the location from which the soil measurement was taken. 5 figures.

  11. Soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colburn, Jr., John W.

    1991-01-01

    A real time soil chemical sensor and precision agricultural chemical delivery system includes a plurality of ground-engaging tools in association with individual soil sensors which measure soil chemical levels. The system includes the addition of a solvent which rapidly saturates the soil/tool interface to form a conductive solution of chemicals leached from the soil. A multivalent electrode, positioned within a multivalent frame of the ground-engaging tool, applies a voltage or impresses a current between the electrode and the tool frame. A real-time soil chemical sensor and controller senses the electrochemical reaction resulting from the application of the voltage or current to the leachate, measures it by resistivity methods, and compares it against pre-set resistivity levels for substances leached by the solvent. Still greater precision is obtained by calibrating for the secondary current impressed through solvent-less soil. The appropriate concentration is then found and the servo-controlled delivery system applies the appropriate amount of fertilizer or agricultural chemicals substantially in the location from which the soil measurement was taken.

  12. Barley seedling growth in soils amended with fly ash or agricultural lime followed by acidification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renken, R.R.; McCallister, D.L.; Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Marx, D.B.

    2006-05-15

    Calcium-rich coal combustion fly ash can be used as an amendment to neutralize soil acidity because of its oxides and carbonate content, but its aluminum content could inhibit plant growth if soil pH values fall below optimal agronomic levels. This study measured root and shoot growth of an acid-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Kearney') grown in the greenhouse on three naturally acid soils. The soils were either untreated or amended with various liming materials (dry fly ash, wet fly ash, and agricultural lime) at application rates of 0, .5, 1, and 1.5 times the recommended lime requirement, then treated with dilute acid solutions to simulate management-induced acidification. Plant growth indexes were measured at 30 days after planting. Root mass per plant and root length per plant were greater for the limed treatments than in the acidified check. Root growth in the limed treatments did not differ from root growth in the original nonacidified soils. Top mass per plant in all limed soils was either larger than or not different from that in the original nonacidified soils. Based on top mass per plant, no liming material or application rate was clearly superior. Both fly ash and agricultural lime reduced the impact of subsequent acidification on young barley plants. Detrimental effects of aluminum release on plant growth were not observed. Calcium-rich fly ash at agronomic rates is an acceptable acid-neutralizing material with no apparent negative effects.

  13. Economic and environmental impacts of the corn grain ethanol industry on the United States agricultural sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, J.A.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; Menard, R.J.; Hellwinckel, C.M.; West, Tristram O.

    2010-09-10

    This study evaluated the impacts of increased ethanol production from corn starch on agricultural land use and the environment in the United States. The Policy Analysis System simulation model was used to simulate alternative ethanol production scenarios for 2007 through 2016. Results indicate that increased corn ethanol production had a positive effect on net farm income and economic wellbeing of the US agricultural sector. In addition, government payments to farmers were reduced because of higher commodity prices and enhanced net farm income. Results also indicate that if Conservation Reserve Program land was converted to crop production in response to higher demand for ethanol in the simulation, individual farmers planted more land in crops, including corn. With a larger total US land area in crops due to individual farmer cropping choices, total US crop output rose, which decreased crop prices and aggregate net farm income relative to the scenario where increased ethanol production happened without Conservation Reserve Program land. Substantial shifts in land use occurred with corn area expanding throughout the United States, especially in the traditional corn-growing area of the midcontinent region.

  14. Argonne Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Data from Batavia Prairie and Agricultural Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Matamala, Roser [ANL; Jastrow, Julie D.; Lesht, Barry [ANL; Cook, David [ANL; Pekour, Mikhail [ANL; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A. [University of Illinois at Chicago

    Carbon dioxide fluxes and stocks in terrestrial ecosystems are key measurements needed to constrain quantification of regional carbon sinks and sources and the mechanisms controlling them. This information is required to produce a sound carbon budget for North America. This project examines CO2 and energy fluxes from agricultural land and from restored tallgrass prairie to compare their carbon sequestration potentials. The study integrates eddy covariance measurements with biometric measurements of plant and soil carbon stocks for two systems in northeastern Illinois: 1) long-term cultivated land in corn-soybean rotation with conventional tillage, and 2) a 15 year-old restored prairie that represents a long-term application of CRP conversion of cultivated land to native vegetation. The study contributes to the North American Carbon Program (NACP) by providing information on the magnitude and distribution of carbon stocks and the processes that control carbon dynamics in cultivated and CRP-restored land in the Midwest. The prairie site has been functioning since October 2004 and the agricultural site since July 2005. (From http://www.atmos.anl.gov/ FERMI/index.html)

  15. Programs and measures to reduce GHG emissions in agriculture and waste treatment in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mareckova, K.; Bratislava, S.; Kucirek, S.

    1996-12-31

    Slovakia is a UN FCCC Annex I country and is obliged to limit its anthropogenic GHG emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 level. The key greenhouse gas in Slovakia is CO{sub 2} resulting mainly from fuel combustion processes. However the share of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is approximately 20% of the total emissions on GWP basis. These gases are occurring mainly in non-energy sectors. The construction of the non-CO{sub 2} emission scenarios to reduce GHG and the uncertainty in N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emission estimation are discussed focusing on agriculture and waste treatment. The presentation will also include information on emission trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O since 1988. There are already implemented measures reducing GHG emissions in Slovakia, however, not motivated by global warming. A short view of implemented measures with an assessment of their benefit concerning non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions reduction and some proposed mitigation options for agriculture and waste treatment are shown. Expected difficulties connected with preparing scenarios and with implementation of reducing measures are discussed.

  16. Natural succession impeded by smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium) in an abandoned agricultural field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, J.K.

    1997-11-01

    In 1975, an abandoned agricultural field at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) that had been cultivated for more than 38 years, was seeded with smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and intermediate wheatgrass (Agropyron intermedium). Although these species are commonly planted in reclamation and roadside seed mixtures, few studies have documented their impact on the re-establishment of native plant communities. In 1994, species richness, cover, and biomass were sampled in the agricultural field and compared to the surrounding mixed-grass prairie at the Site. The agricultural field contained only 61 plant species (62% native), compared to 143 species (81% native) in the surrounding mixed-grass prairie. Community similarity based on species presence/absence was 0.47 (Sorensen coefficient of similarity). Basal vegetative cover was 11.2% in the agricultural field and 29.1% in the mixed-grass prairie. Smooth brome and intermediate wheatgrass accounted for 93% of the relative foliar cover and 96% of the biomass in the agricultural field. The aggressive nature of these two planted species has impeded the natural succession of the agricultural field to a more native prairie community. Studies of natural succession on abandoned fields and roads in northeastern Colorado have indicated that if left alone, fields would return to their native climax state in approximately 50 years and would be approaching their native state after 20--25 years. Based on the results of this study, this agricultural field may take more than 100 years to return to a native mixed-grass prairie state and it may never achieve a native state without human intervention.

  17. Clusters of antibiotic resistance genes enriched together stay together in swine agriculture

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnson, Timothy A.; Stedtfeld, Robert D.; Wang, Qiong; Cole, James R.; Hashsham, Syed A.; Looft, Torey; Zhu, Yong -Guan; Tiedje, James M.

    2016-04-12

    Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide health risk, but the influence of animal agriculture on the genetic context and enrichment of individual antibiotic resistance alleles remains unclear. Using quantitative PCR followed by amplicon sequencing, we quantified and sequenced 44 genes related to antibiotic resistance, mobile genetic elements, and bacterial phylogeny in microbiomes from U.S. laboratory swine and from swine farms from three Chinese regions. We identified highly abundant resistance clusters: groups of resistance and mobile genetic element alleles that cooccur. For example, the abundance of genes conferring resistance to six classes of antibiotics together with class 1 integrase and the abundancemore » of IS6100-type transposons in three Chinese regions are directly correlated. These resistance cluster genes likely colocalize in microbial genomes in the farms. Resistance cluster alleles were dramatically enriched (up to 1 to 10% as abundant as 16S rRNA) and indicate that multidrug-resistant bacteria are likely the norm rather than an exception in these communities. This enrichment largely occurred independently of phylogenetic composition; thus, resistance clusters are likely present in many bacterial taxa. Furthermore, resistance clusters contain resistance genes that confer resistance to antibiotics independently of their particular use on the farms. Selection for these clusters is likely due to the use of only a subset of the broad range of chemicals to which the clusters confer resistance. The scale of animal agriculture and its wastes, the enrichment and horizontal gene transfer potential of the clusters, and the vicinity of large human populations suggest that managing this resistance reservoir is important for minimizing human risk.Agricultural antibiotic use results in clusters of cooccurring resistance genes that together confer resistance to multiple antibiotics. The use of a single antibiotic could select for an entire suite of resistance

  18. Agricultural production in the United States by county: a compilation of information from the 1974 census of agriculture for use in terrestrial food-chain transport and assessment models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shor, R.W.; Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Terrestrial food-chain models that simulate the transport of environmentally released radionuclides incorporate parameters describing agricultural production and practice. Often a single set of default parameters, such as that listed in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109, is used in lieu of site-specific information. However, the geographical diversity of agricultural practice in the United States suggests the limitations of a single set of default parameters for assessment models. This report documents default parameters with a county-wide resolution based on analysis of the 1974 US Census of Agriculture for use in terrestrial food chain models. Data reported by county, together with state-based information from the US Department of Agriculture, Economic and Statistics Service, provided the basis for estimates of model input parameters. This report also describes these data bases, their limitations, and lists default parameters by county. Vegetable production is described for four categories: leafy vegetables; vegetables and fruits exposed to airborne material; vegetables, fruits, and nuts protected from airborne materials; and grains. Livestock feeds were analyzed in categories of hay, silage, pasture, and grains. Pasture consumption was estimated from cattle and sheep inventories, their feed requirements, and reported quantities of harvested forage. The results were compared with assumed yields of the pasture areas reported. In addition, non-vegetable food production estimates including milk, beef, pork, lamb, poultry, eggs, goat milk, and honey are described. The agricultural parameters and land use information - in all 47 items - are tabulated in four appendices for each of the 3067 counties of the US reported to the Census of Agriculture, excluding those in Hawaii and Alaska.

  19. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 5. Science Applications, Incorporated system requirements definition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report sets forth the system requirements for a Solar Controlled-Environment Agriculture System (SCEAS) Project. In the report a conceptual baseline system description for an engineering test facility is given. This baseline system employs a fluid roof/roof filter in combination with a large storage tank and a ground water heat exchanger in order to provide cooling and heating as needed. Desalination is accomplished by pretreatment followed by reverse osmosis. Energy is provided by means of photovoltaics and wind machines in conjunction with storage batteries. Site and climatic data needed in the design process are given. System performance specifications and integrated system design criteria are set forth. Detailed subsystem design criteria are presented and appropriate references documented.

  20. Supply and demand in energy and agriculture: Emitters of CO{sub 2} and possibilities for global biomass energy strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahamer, G.; Hubergasse, J.

    1996-12-31

    As seen from the perspective of global E3-modelling (= environment-economy-energy), the sectors of energy and of agriculture are double players situated in a field of tension: both exhibit growing emissions--but both also exhibit reduction potentials for CO{sub 2}, if areas are used for growth of biomass energy carriers. On the one hand, meeting food demand requires increasing agricultural land use in some regions, on the other hand in other regions, an important input of fossil fuels buys higher efficiency levels. In the First World, newly set-aside land can be used for biomass energy production. Before envisaging global strategies for CO{sub 2} emission reductions and more specifically for an enhanced use of biomass for energy, the present boundary conditions of the global energy and agricultural systems have to be analyzed. In a second step, a likely future development has to be contrasted with the desirable increase of bioenergy.

  1. Review and analysis of parameters for assessing transport of environmentally released radionuclides through agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baes, C.F. III; Sharp, R.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Shor, R.W.

    1984-09-01

    Most of the default parameters incorporated into the TERRA computer code are documented including a literature review and systematic analysis of element-specific transfer parameters B/sub v/, B/sub r/, F/sub m/, F/sub f/, and K/sub d/. This review and analysis suggests default values which are consistent with the modeling approaches taken in TERRA and may be acceptable for most assessment applications of the computer code. However, particular applications of the code and additional analysis of elemental transport may require alternative default values. Use of the values reported herein in other computer codes simulating terrestrial transport is not advised without careful interpretation of the limitations and scope these analyses. An approach to determination of vegetation-specific interception fractions is also discussed. The limitations of this approach are many, and its use indicates the need for analysis of deposition, interception, and weathering processes. Judgement must be exercised in interpretation of plant surface concentrations generated. Finally, the location-specific agricultural, climatological, and population parameters in the default SITE data base documented. These parameters are intended as alternatives to average values currently used. Indeed, areas in the United States where intensive crop, milk, or beef production occurs will be reflected in the parameter values as will areas where little agricultural activity occurs. However, the original information sources contained some small error and the interpolation and conversion methods used will add more. Parameters used in TERRA not discussed herein are discussed in the companion report to this one - ORNL-5785. In the companion report the models employed in and the coding of TERRA are discussed. These reports together provide documentation of the TERRA code and its use in assessments. 96 references, 78 figures, 21 tables.

  2. Global and regional potential for bioenergy from agricultural and forestry residue biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregg, Jay S.; Smith, Steven J.

    2010-02-11

    As co-products, agricultural and forestry residues represent a potential low cost, low carbon, source for bioenergy. A method is developed method for estimating the maximum sustainable amount of energy potentially available from agricultural and forestry residues by converting crop production statistics into associated residue, while allocating some of this resource to remain on the field to mitigate erosion and maintain soil nutrients. Currently, we estimate that the world produces residue biomass that could be sustainably harvested and converted into over 50 EJ yr-1 of energy. The top three countries where this resource is estimated to be most abundant are currently net energy importers: China, the United States (US), and India. The global potential from residue biomass is estimated to increase to approximately 80-95 EJ yr-1 by mid- to late- century, depending on physical assumptions such as of future crop yields and the amount of residue sustainably harvestable. The future market for biomass residues was simulated using the Object-Oriented Energy, Climate, and Technology Systems Mini Climate Assessment Model (ObjECTS MiniCAM). Utilization of residue biomass as an energy source is projected for the next century under different climate policy scenarios. Total global use of residue biomass is estimated to increase to 70-100 EJ yr-1 by mid- to late- century in a central case, depending on the presence of a climate policy and the economics of harvesting, aggregating, and transporting residue. Much of this potential is in developing regions of the world, including China, Latin America, Southeast Asia, and India.

  3. Evaluation of the potential for agricultural development at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RG Evans; MJ Hattendorf; CT Kincaid

    2000-02-25

    By 2050, when cleanup of the Hanford Site is expected to be completed, large worldwide demands to increase the global production of animalhlish protein, food, and fiber are anticipated, despite advancements in crop breeding, genetic engineering, and other technologies. World population is projected to double to more than 12 billion people, straining already stressed worldwide agricultural resources. The current world surpluses in many commodities will not last when faced with increasing population, decreasing ocean fisheries, and rapid loss of productive lands from soil salivation and erosion. The production of pharmaceuticals from bioengineered plants and animals will undoubtedly add more pressure on the already limited (and declining) arable land base. In addition there will be pressure to produce crops that can help reduce the world's dependence on petroleum and be used for chemical plant feedstock. These external, formidable pressures will necessitate increasing investments in irrigation infi-a-structures in many areas of the world to increase productivity. Intensive greenhouse culture and aqua-culture also will be greatly expanded. There will be large economic and social pressures to expand production in areas such as the Pacific Northwest. Agricultural exports will continue to be important The most likely large areas for expanded irrigation in the Pacific Northwest are the undeveloped East High areas of the Columbia Basin Project and non-restricted areas within the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Both of these are potentially highly productive area: for producing food and export capital. The environmental concerns will be large however, the favorable growing conditions, high-quality (low-salinity) abundant water supplies and minimal problems with salivation of soils make the Pacific Northwest a very desirable region for economically sustainable expansion from a world perspective.

  4. DOE Award No. DE-FC36-03GO13108 NOVEL NON-PRECIOUS METAL CATALYSTS FOR PEMFC: CATALYST SELECTION THROUGH MOLECULAR MODELING AND DURABILITY STUDIES Final Report (September 2003 October 2008)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branko N. Popov

    2009-02-20

    The objective of this project is to develop novel non-precious metal electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and demonstrate the potential of the catalysts to perform at least as good as conventional Pt catalysts currently in use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with a cost at least 50 % less than a target of 0.2 g (Pt loading)/peak kW and with durability > 2,000 h operation with less than 10 % power degradation. A novel nitrogen-modified carbon-based catalyst was obtained by modifying carbon black with nitrogen-containing organic precursor in the absence of transition metal precursor. The catalyst shows the onset potential of approximately 0.76 V (NHE) for ORR and the amount of H2O2 of approximately 3% at 0.5 V (NHE). Furthermore, a carbon composite catalyst was achieved through the high-temperature pyrolysis of the precursors of transition metal (Co and Fe) and nitrogen supported on the nitrogen-modified carbon-based catalyst, followed by chemical post-treatment. This catalyst showed an onset potential for ORR as high as 0.87 V (NHE), and generated less than 1 % of H2O2. The PEM fuel cell exhibited a current density of 2.3 A cm-2 at 0.2 V for a catalyst loading of 6.0 mg cm-2. No significant performance degradation was observed for 480 h continuous operation. The characterization studies indicated that the metal-nitrogen chelate complexes decompose at the temperatures above 800 oC. During the pyrolysis, the transition metals facilitate the incorporation of pyridinic and graphitic nitrogen groups into the carbon matrix, and the carbon surface modified with nitrogen is active for ORR. In order to elucidate the role of transition metal precursor played in the formation of active sites in the non-precious metal catalysts, a novel ruthenium-based chelate (RuNx) catalyst was synthesized by using RuCl3 and propylene diammine as the Ru and N precursors, respectively, followed by high-temperature pyrolysis. This catalyst exhibited comparable

  5. DOE Award No. DE-FC36-03GO13108 NOVEL NON-PRECIOUS METAL CATALYSTS FOR PEMFC: CATALYST SELECTION THROUGH MOLECULAR MODELING AND DURABILITY STUDIES Final Report (September 2003 October 2008)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branko N. Popov

    2009-03-03

    The objective of this project is to develop novel non-precious metal electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and demonstrate the potential of the catalysts to perform at least as good as conventional Pt catalysts currently in use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with a cost at least 50 % less than a target of 0.2 g (Pt loading)/peak kW and with durability > 2,000 h operation with less than 10 % power degradation. A novel nitrogen-modified carbon-based catalyst was obtained by modifying carbon black with nitrogen-containing organic precursor in the absence of transition metal precursor. The catalyst shows the onset potential of approximately 0.76 V (NHE) for ORR and the amount of H2O2 of approximately 3% at 0.5 V (NHE). Furthermore, a carbon composite catalyst was achieved through the high-temperature pyrolysis of the precursors of transition metal (Co and Fe) and nitrogen supported on the nitrogen-modified carbon-based catalyst, followed by chemical post-treatment. This catalyst showed an onset potential for ORR as high as 0.87 V (NHE), and generated less than 1 % of H2O2. The PEM fuel cell exhibited a current density of 2.3 A cm-2 at 0.2 V for a catalyst loading of 6.0 mg cm-2. No significant performance degradation was observed for 480 h continuous operation. The characterization studies indicated that the metal-nitrogen chelate complexes decompose at the temperatures above 800 oC. During the pyrolysis, the transition metals facilitate the incorporation of pyridinic and graphitic nitrogen groups into the carbon matrix, and the carbon surface modified with nitrogen is active for ORR. In order to elucidate the role of transition metal precursor played in the formation of active sites in the non-precious metal catalysts, a novel ruthenium-based chelate (RuNx) catalyst was synthesized by using RuCl3 and propylene diammine as the Ru and N precursors, respectively, followed by high-temperature pyrolysis. This catalyst exhibited comparable

  6. Developing an Integrated Model Framework for the Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Muth, Jr.; Jared Abodeely; Richard Nelson; Douglas McCorkle; Joshua Koch; Kenneth Bryden

    2011-08-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a feedstock for bioenergy production, but removing these residues can have negative impacts on soil health. Models and datasets that can support decisions about sustainable agricultural residue removal are available; however, no tools currently exist capable of simultaneously addressing all environmental factors that can limit availability of residue. The VE-Suite model integration framework has been used to couple a set of environmental process models to support agricultural residue removal decisions. The RUSLE2, WEPS, and Soil Conditioning Index models have been integrated. A disparate set of databases providing the soils, climate, and management practice data required to run these models have also been integrated. The integrated system has been demonstrated for two example cases. First, an assessment using high spatial fidelity crop yield data has been run for a single farm. This analysis shows the significant variance in sustainably accessible residue across a single farm and crop year. A second example is an aggregate assessment of agricultural residues available in the state of Iowa. This implementation of the integrated systems model demonstrates the capability to run a vast range of scenarios required to represent a large geographic region.

  7. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  8. Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danuso, Francesco

    2008-06-18

    A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed. SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Joergensen, 1994) in which systems are modeled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

  9. Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danuso, Francesco

    2008-06-18

    A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed.  SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Jørgensen, 1994) in which systems are modelled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower  management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

  10. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 92-165-2251, Vermont Department of Agriculture, Montpelier, Vermont

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, M.S.; Wilcox, T.G.

    1992-08-01

    On January 8, 1992, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Helath (NIOSH), received a request for a hazard evaluation from Senator Patrick Leahy's office in Montpelier, Vermont. The request was for NIOSH to evaluate the indoor environmental quality at the Vermont Department of Agriculture, due to the prevalence of respiratory and irritative symptoms among employees there following renovations in their building. One worker was advised to leave work due to respiratory illness. On March 5, 1992, NIOSH investigators interviewed workers and collected air samples for 4-phenylcyclohexene (4-PC) and other volatile organic chemicals (VOCs). Air samples were collected in renovated rooms on the first floor, carpeted and uncarpeted rooms on the second floor, and outside. First floor space was converted from laboratories to offices in August of 1991, and included painting, plastering, varnishing, and carpeting. Some second floor areas were carpeted and painted following the first floor work. Medical interviews revealed that five of the 10 workers were currently experiencing symptoms which included, headache (5 employees), excessive fatigue (3), eye irritation (2), throat irritation (2), and nasal congestion (1). The symptomatic workers reported that their symptoms had begun after their move to the first floor.

  11. Agricultural approaches of remediation in the outside of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Nobuaki; Saso, Michitaka; Umeda, Miki; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Amemiya, Kiyoshi

    2013-07-01

    This paper outlines agricultural approaches of remediation activity done in contaminated areas around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. About the decontamination examination of contaminated areas, we have tried the land scale test of a rice field before and after planting by the use of currently recommended methods. Since farmers would carry out the land preparation by themselves, generation of secondary radioactive waste should be as low as possible through the decontamination works. For the radioactive nuclide migration control of rice by wet rice production, several types of decontamination methods such as zeolite addition and potassium fertilization in the soil have been examined. The results are summarized in the 4 following points. 1) Plowing and water discharge are effective for removing radioactive cesium from rice field. 2) Additional potassium fertilization is effective for reducing cesium radioactivity in the product. 3) No significant difference is observed with or without the zeolite addition. 4) Very low transfer factor of cesium from soil to brown rice has been obtained compared with literature values.

  12. WETTABILITY ALTERATION OF CARBONATE ROCK MEDIATED BY BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCED FROM HIGH-STARCH AGRICULTURAL EFFLUENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehdi Salehi; Stephen Johnson; Gregory Bala; Jenn-Tai Liang

    2006-09-01

    Surfactants can be used to alter wettability of reservoir rock, increasing spontaneous imbibition and thus improving oil yields. Commercial synthetic surfactants are often prohibitively expensive and so a crude preparation of the anionic biosurfactant, surfactin, from Bacillus subtilis grown on high-starch industrial and agricultural effluents has been proposed as an economical alternative. To assess the effectiveness of the surfactin, it is compared to commercially available surfactants. In selecting a suitable benchmark surfactant, two metrics are examined: the ability of the surfactants to alter wettability at low concentrations, and the degree to which they are absorbed onto reservoir matrix. We review the literature to survey the adsorption models that have been developed to describe surfactant adsorption in porous media. These models are evaluated using the experimental data from this study. Crushed carbonate rock samples are cleaned and aged in crude oil. The wettability change mediated by dilute solutions of commercial anionic surfactants and surfactin is assessed using a two-phase separation; and surfactant loss due to retention and adsorption the rock is determined.

  13. Energy-conserving perennial agriculture for marginal land in southern Appalachia. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, G.

    1982-01-30

    USDA economists predict the end of surplus farm production in the US within this decade. More and more marginal land will be cropped to provide feed for the growing world population and to produce energy. Much of this potential cropland in Southern Appalachia is poorly suited to annual crops, such as corn. Perennial crops are much better suited to steep, rocky, and wet sites. Research was undertaken on the theoretical potentials of perennial species with high predicted yields of protein, carbohydrates, or oils. Several candidate staple perennial crops for marginal land in Southern Appalachia were identified, and estimates were made of their yields, energy input requirements, and general suitabilities. Cropping systems incorporating honeylocust, persimmon, mulberry, jujube, and beech were compared with corn cropping systems. It appears that these candidate staple perennials show distinct advantages for energy conservation and environmental preservation. Detailed economic analyses must await actual demonstration trials, but preliminary indications for ethanol conversion systems with honeylocust are encouraging. It is suggested that short-term loans to farmers undertaking this new type of agriculture would be appropriate to solve cash-flow problems.

  14. Could crop height affect the wind resource at agriculturally productive wind farm sites?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-07

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. As a result, these considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  15. Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Danuso, Francesco [University of Udine, Italy

    2010-01-08

    A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed.  SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Jørgensen, 1994) in which systems are modelled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower  management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

  16. Evaluating atmospheric CO2 inversions at multiple scales over a highly-inventoried agricultural landscape.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuh, Andrew E.; Lauvaux, Thomas; West, Tristram O.; Denning, A.; Davis, Kenneth J.; Miles, Natasha; Richardson, S. J.; Uliasz, Marek; Lokupitiya, Erandathie; Cooley, Dan; Andrews, Arlyn; Ogle, Stephen

    2013-05-01

    An intensive regional research campaign was conducted by the North American Carbon Program (NACP) in 2005 to study the carbon cycle of the highly productive agricultural regions of the Midwestern United States. Forty-_ve di_erent associated projects were spawned across _ve U.S. agencies over the course of nearly a decade involving hundreds of researchers. The primary objective of the project was to investigate the ability of atmospheric inversion techniques to use highly calibrated CO2 mixing ratio data to estimate CO2 exchange over the major croplands of the U.S. Statistics from densely monitored crop production, consisting primarily corn and soybeans, provided the backbone of a well-studied\\bottom up"flux estimate that was used to evaluate the atmospheric inversion results. Three different inversion systems, representing spatial scales varying from high resolution mesoscale, to continental, to global, coupled to different transport models and optimization techniques were compared to the bottom up" inventory estimates. The mean annual CO2-C sink for 2007 from the inversion systems ranged from 120 TgC to 170 TgC, when viewed across a wide variety of inversion setups, with the best" point estimates ranging from 145 TgC to 155 TgC. Inversion-based mean C sink estimates were generally slightly stronger, but statistically indistinguishable,from the inventory estimate whose mean C sink was 135 TgC. The inversion results showed temporal correlations at seasonal lengths while week to week correlations remained low. Comparisons were made between atmospheric transport yields of the two regional inversion systems, which despite having different influence footprints in space and time due to differences in underlying transport models and external forcings, showed similarity when aggregated in space and time.

  17. Chemical and microbiological hazards associated with recycling of anaerobic digested residue intended for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govasmark, Espen; Staeb, Jessica; Holen, Borge; Hoornstra, Douwe; Nesbakk, Tommy; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2011-12-15

    In the present study, three full-scale biogas plants (BGP) were investigated for the concentration of heavy metals, organic pollutants, pesticides and the pathogenic bacteria Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli in the anaerobically digested residues (ADR). The BGPs mainly utilize source-separated organic wastes and industrial food waste as energy sources and separate the ADR into an ADR-liquid and an ADR-solid fraction by centrifugation at the BGP. According to the Norwegian standard for organic fertilizers, the ADR were classified as quality 1 mainly because of high zinc (132-422 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and copper (23-93 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations, but also because of high cadmium (0.21-0.60 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations in the liquid-ADR. In the screening of organic pollutants, only DEHP (9.7-62.1 mg kg{sup -1}) and {Sigma} PAH 16 (0.2-1.98 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were detected in high concentrations according to international regulations. Of the 250 pesticides analyzed, 11 were detected, but only imazalil (<0.30-5.77 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and thiabendazol (<0.14-0.73 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were frequently detected in the ADR-fiber. Concentrations of imazalil and thiabendazol were highest during the winter months, due to a high consumption of citrus fruits in Norway in this period. Ten percent of the ADR-liquid samples contained cereulide-producing B. cereus, whereas no verotoxigenic E. coli was detected. The authors conclude that the risk of chemical and bacterial contamination of the food chain or the environment from agricultural use of ADR seems low.

  18. Use of clean coal technology by-products as agricultural liming techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stehouwer, R.C.; Sutton, P.; Dick, W.A.

    1995-03-01

    Dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are mixtures of coal fly-ash, anhydrite (CaCO{sub 4}), and unspent lime- or limestone-based sorbent. Dry FGD by-products frequently have neutralizing values greater than 50% CaCO{sub 3} equivalency and thus have potential for neutralizing acidic soils. Owing to the presence of soluble salts and various trace elements, however, soil application of dry FGD by-products may have adverse effects on plant growth and soil quality. The use of a dry FGD by-product as a limestone substitute was investigated in a field study on three acidic agricultural soils (pH 4.6, 4.8, and 5.8) in eastern Ohio. The by-product (60% CaCO{sub 3} equivalency) was applied in September, 1992, at rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the lime requirement of the soils, and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) were planted. Soils were sampled immediately after FGD application and three more times every six months thereafter. Samples were analyzed for pH and water soluble concentrations of 28 elements. Soil pH was increased by all FGD rates in the zone of incorporation (0--10 cm), with the highest rates giving a pH slightly above 7. Within one year pH increases could be detected at depths up to 30 cm. Calcium, Mg, and S increased, and Al, Mn, and Fe decreased with increasing dry FGD application rates. No trace element concentrations were changed by dry FGD application except B which was increased in the zone of incorporation. Dry FGD increased alfalfa yield on all three soils, and had no effect on corn yield. No detrimental effects on soil quality were observed.

  19. Could crop height affect the wind resource at agriculturally productive wind farm sites?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2015-11-07

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length inmore » a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. As a result, these considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.« less

  20. Anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residue: potential for improvement and implementation. Final report, Volume II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jewell, W. J.; Dell'orto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Hayes, T. D.; Leuschner, A. P.; Sherman, D. F.

    1980-04-01

    Earlier studies have shown that although large quantities of agricultural residues are generated on small farms, it was difficult to economically justify use of conventional anaerobic digestion technology, such as used for sewage sludge digestion. A simple, unmixed, earthen-supported structure appeared to be capable of producing significant quantities of biogas at a cost that would make it competitive with many existing fuels. The goal of this study was to define and demonstrate a methane fermentation technology that could be practical and economically feasible on small farms. This study provides the first long term, large scale (reactor volumes of 34 m/sup 3/) parallel testing of the major theory, design, construction, and operation of a low cost approach to animal manure fermentation as compared to the more costly and complex designs. The main objectives were to define the lower limits for successful fermentor operation in terms of mixing, insulation, temperature, feed rate, and management requirements in a cold climate with both pilot scale and full scale fermentors. Over a period of four years, innovative fermentation processes for animal manures were developed from theoretical concept to successful full scale demonstration. Reactors were sized for 50 to 65 dairy animals, or for the one-family dairy size. The results show that a small farm biogas generation system that should be widely applicable and economically feasible was operated successfully for nearly two years. Although this low cost system out-performed the completely mixed unit throughout the study, perhaps the greatest advantage of this approach is its ease of modification, operation, and maintenance.

  1. Stable isotope and groundwater flow dynamics of agricultural irrigation recharge into groundwater resources of the Central Valley, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davisson, M.L.; Criss, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Intensive agricultural irrigation and overdraft of groundwater in the Central Valley of California profoundly affect the regional quality and availability of shallow groundwater resources. In the natural state, the {delta}{sup 18}O values of groundwater were relatively homogeneous (mostly -7.0 {+-} 0.5{per_thousand}), reflecting local meteoric recharge that slowly (1-3m/yr) flowed toward the valley axis. Today, on the west side of the valley, the isotope distribution is dominated by high {sup 18}O enclosures formed by recharge of evaporated irrigation waters, while the east side has bands of low {sup 18}O groundwater indicating induced recharge from rivers draining the Sierra Nevada mountains. Changes in {delta}{sup 18}O values caused by the agricultural recharge strongly correlate with elevated nitrate concentrations (5 to >100 mg/L) that form pervasive, non-point source pollutants. Small, west-side cities dependent solely on groundwater resources have experienced increases of >1.0 mg/L per year of nitrate for 10-30 years. The resultant high nitrates threaten the economical use of the groundwater for domestic purposes, and have forced some well shut-downs. Furthermore, since >80% of modern recharge is now derived from agricultural irrigation, and because modern recharge rates are {approximately}10 times those of the natural state, agricultural land retirement by urbanization will severely curtail the current safe-yields and promote overdraft pumping. Such overdrafting has occurred in the Sacramento metropolitan area for {approximately}40 years, creating cones of depression {approximately}25m deep. Today, groundwater withdrawal in Sacramento is approximately matched by infiltration of low {sup 18}O water (-11.0{per_thousand}) away from the Sacramento and American Rivers, which is estimated to occur at 100-300m/year from the sharp {sup 18}O gradients in our groundwater isotope map.

  2. Agricultural green revolution as a driver of increasing atmospheric CO2 seasonal amplitude

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Ning; Zhao, Fang; Collatz, George; Kalnay, Eugenia; Salawitch, Ross J.; West, Tristram O.; Guanter, Luis

    2014-11-20

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) record displays a prominent seasonal cycle that arises mainly from changes in vegetation growth and the corresponding CO2 uptake during the boreal spring and summer growing seasons and CO2 release during the autumn and winter seasons. The CO2 seasonal amplitude has increased over the past five decades, suggesting an increase in Northern Hemisphere biospheric activity. It has been proposed that vegetation growth may have been stimulated by higher concentrations of CO2 as well as by warming in recent decades, but such mechanisms have been unable to explain the full range and magnitude of the observed increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude. Here we suggest that the intensification of agriculture (the Green Revolution, in which much greater crop yield per unit area was achieved by hybridization, irrigation and fertilization) during the past five decades is a driver of changes in the seasonal characteristics of the global carbon cycle. Our analysis of CO2 data and atmospheric inversions shows a robust 15 per cent long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude from 1961 to 2010, punctuated by large decadal and interannual variations. Using a terrestrial carbon cycle model that takes into account high-yield cultivars, fertilizer use and irrigation, we find that the long-term increase in CO2 seasonal amplitude arises from two major regions: the mid-latitude cropland between 256N and 606N and the high-latitude natural vegetation between 506N and 706 N. The long-term trend of seasonal amplitude increase is 0.311 ± 0.027 percent per year, of which sensitivity experiments attribute 45, 29 and 26 per cent to land-use change, climate variability and change, and increased productivity due to CO2 fertilization, respectively. Vegetation growth was earlier by one to two weeks, as measured by the mid-point of vegetation carbon uptake, and took up 0.5 petagrams more carbon in July, the height of the growing season, during 2001–2010 than in 1961–1970

  3. PON1 status does not influence cholinesterase activity in Egyptian agricultural workers exposed to chlorpyrifos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellison, Corie A.; Crane, Alice L.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Knaak, James B.; Browne, Richard W.; Lein, Pamela J.; Olson, James R.

    2012-12-15

    Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n = 120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) and PON1 192 (P ≤ 0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal. -- Highlights: ► CPF exposure resulted in an increase in TCPy and decreases in BuChE and AChE. ► CPOase activity decreased in subjects with the PON1 55LM and PON1 55 MM genotypes. ► Neither PON1 genotype nor CPOase activity had an effect on BuChE or AChE inhibition.

  4. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture Invest $210 million in Three Commercial Biorefineries to Produce Drop-in Biofuel for the Military

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2014, the U.S. Departments of Energy, Navy, and Agriculture announced that Emerald Biofuels, Fulcrum Energy, and Red Rock Biofuels have been awarded contracts to construct biorefineries capable...

  5. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine

  6. Experimental investigation of the quality characteristics of agricultural plastic wastes regarding their recycling and energy recovery potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briassoulis, D.; Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.; Antiohos, S.K.; Papadi, C.

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definition of parameters characterising agricultural plastic waste (APW) quality. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of samples to determine APW quality for recycling or energy recovery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Majority of APW samples from various countries have very good quality for recycling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upper limit of 50% w/w soil contamination in APW acceptable for energy recovery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chlorine and heavy metals content in APW below the lowest limit for energy recovery. - Abstract: A holistic environmentally sound waste management scheme that transforms agricultural plastic waste (APW) streams into labelled guaranteed quality commodities freely traded in open market has been developed by the European research project LabelAgriWaste. The APW quality is defined by the APW material requirements, translated to technical specifications, for recycling or energy recovery. The present work investigates the characteristics of the APW quality and the key factors affecting it from the introduction of the virgin product to the market to the APW stream reaching the disposer. Samples of APW from different countries were traced from their application to the field through their storage phase and transportation to the final destination. The test results showed that the majority of APW retained their mechanical properties after their use preserving a 'very good quality' for recycling in terms of degradation. The degree of soil contamination concerning the APW recycling and energy recovery potential fluctuates depending on the agricultural plastic category and application. The chlorine and heavy metal content of the tested APW materials was much lower than the maximum acceptable limits for their potential use in cement industries.

  7. Metal-Based, High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Anodes | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Grande Band of Mission Indians Tribal Energy Project Feasibility Study The Land The Land The Land Reservation consists of 1820 acres Historically as low as 120 acres Acquisition of 800+ acres in 1988 Purchase of 900 acres in 1998 The People 700 members today 130 living on Reservation 90% people on Reservation below poverty line Long waiting list of people wanting to live on Reservation Challenges Facing the Tribe Quality, Affordable Housing Decent, Living Wage Jobs Sustainable Growth Upper Tract

  8. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam, J. C.; Stephens, J. C.; Chung, Serena; Brady, M. P.; Evans, R. D.; Kruger, C. E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Liu, M. L.; Stockle, Claudio O.; Vaughan, Joseph K.; Rajagopalan, K.; Harrison, John; Tague, C. L.; Kalyanaraman, Anantharaman; Chen, Yong; Guenther, Alex B.; Leung, F. Y.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Perleberg, A. B.; Yoder, J.; Allen, Elizabeth; Anderson, S.; Chandrasekharan, B.; Malek, K.; Mullis, T.; Miller, C.; Nergui, T.; Poinsatte, J.; Reyes, J.; Zhu, J.; Choate, J. S.; Jiang, X.; Nelson, R.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Yorgey, G. G.; Johnson, Kristen; Chinnayakanhalli, K. J.; Hamlet, A. F.; Nijssen, B.; Walden, Von

    2015-04-01

    As managers of agricultural and natural resources are confronted with uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (land, air, water, economics, etc). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and "usability" of EaSMs. BioEarth is a current research initiative with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region that explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a "bottom-up" approach, upscaling a catchment-scale model to basin and regional scales, as opposed to the "top-down" approach of downscaling global models utilized by most other EaSM efforts. This paper describes the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.

  9. Economic evaluation and conceptual design of optimal agricultural systems for production of food and energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-03-01

    The major technical and economic considerations which determined the scope of the study and the structure of the linear programming (LP) models are discussed. Four models, each representing a typical crop, beef, dairy, or swine farm in conjunction with ethanol facilities are characterized by the same general behavioral and mathematical model structure. Specific activities, constraints, and data for each of the four models are presented. An overview of the model structure is provided in the context of the general scope and background assumptions, and of its LP implementation. Simulated initial conditions and outcomes are reported for typical Illinois farms. Policy implications are discussed as related to agriculture, energy, and inter-industry coordination. (MHR)

  10. Department of Agriculture and Energy Department Announce Up to $8.7 Million through the Interagency Biomass Research and Development Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department Agriculture in collaboration with the Energy Department announced that up to $8.7 million in funding will be made available through the Biomass Research and Development Initiative (BRDI) to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil by supporting the development of bioenergy feedstocks, biofuels, and biobased products.

  11. Departments of the Navy, Energy and Agriculture Invest in Construction of Three Biorefineries to Produce Drop-In Biofuel for Military

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    As part of a 2011 Presidential directive, the Departments of Navy, Energy, and Agriculture announced today that three companies have been awarded contracts to construct and commission biorefineries capable of producing “drop-in” biofuels to meet the transportation needs of the military and private sector.

  12. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diane E. Hoffmann

    2003-09-12

    On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The goal was not to provide answers to any of the

  13. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adam, Jennifer C.; Stephens, Jennie C.; Chung, Serena H.; Brady, Michael P.; Evans, R. David; Kruger, Chad E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Liu, Mingliang; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Vaughan, Joseph K.; et al

    2014-04-24

    Uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (e.g., land, air, water, and economics). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and “usability” of EaSMs. BioEarth is a research initiative currently under development with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region thatmore » explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a bottom-up approach for its land surface model that preserves fine spatial-scale sensitivities and lateral hydrologic connectivity, which makes it unique among many regional EaSMs. Here, we describe the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.« less

  14. BioEarth: Envisioning and developing a new regional earth system model to inform natural and agricultural resource management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam, Jennifer C.; Stephens, Jennie C.; Chung, Serena H.; Brady, Michael P.; Evans, R. David; Kruger, Chad E.; Lamb, Brian K.; Liu, Mingliang; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Vaughan, Joseph K.; Rajagopalan, Kirti; Harrison, John A.; Tague, Christina L.; Kalyanaraman, Ananth; Chen, Yong; Guenther, Alex; Leung, Fok-Yan; Leung, L. Ruby; Perleberg, Andrew B.; Yoder, Jonathan; Allen, Elizabeth; Anderson, Sarah; Chandrasekharan, Bhagyam; Malek, Keyvan; Mullis, Tristan; Miller, Cody; Nergui, Tsengel; Poinsatte, Justin; Reyes, Julian; Zhu, Jun; Choate, Janet S.; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Nelson, Roger; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Yorgey, Georgine G.; Johnson, Kristen; Chinnayakanahalli, Kiran J.; Hamlet, Alan F.; Nijssen, Bart; Walden, Von

    2014-04-24

    Uncertainties in global change impacts, the complexities associated with the interconnected cycling of nitrogen, carbon, and water present daunting management challenges. Existing models provide detailed information on specific sub-systems (e.g., land, air, water, and economics). An increasing awareness of the unintended consequences of management decisions resulting from interconnectedness of these sub-systems, however, necessitates coupled regional earth system models (EaSMs). Decision makers’ needs and priorities can be integrated into the model design and development processes to enhance decision-making relevance and “usability” of EaSMs. BioEarth is a research initiative currently under development with a focus on the U.S. Pacific Northwest region that explores the coupling of multiple stand-alone EaSMs to generate usable information for resource decision-making. Direct engagement between model developers and non-academic stakeholders involved in resource and environmental management decisions throughout the model development process is a critical component of this effort. BioEarth utilizes a bottom-up approach for its land surface model that preserves fine spatial-scale sensitivities and lateral hydrologic connectivity, which makes it unique among many regional EaSMs. Here, we describe the BioEarth initiative and highlights opportunities and challenges associated with coupling multiple stand-alone models to generate usable information for agricultural and natural resource decision-making.

  15. Analysis of the research and development effort in the private sector to reduce energy consumption in irrigated agriculture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, E.A.; Cone, B.W.

    1980-09-01

    Manufacturers of irrigation equipment perform research and development in an effort to improve or maintain their position in a very competitive market. The market forces and conditions that create the intense competition and provide incentive for invention are described. Particular emphasis is placed on the market force of increased energy costs, but the analysis is developed from the perspective that energy is but one of many inputs to agricultural production. The analysis is based upon published literature, patent activity profiles, microeconomic theory, and conversations with many representatives of the irrigation industry. The published literature provides an understanding of the historical development of irrigation technology, a description of the industry's structure, and various data, which were important for the quantitative analyses. The patent activity profiles, obtained from the US Patent Office, provided details of patent activity within the irrigation industry over the past decade. Microeconomic theory was used to estimate industry-wide research and development expenditures on energy-conserving products. The results of these analyses were then compared with the insights gained from conversations with the industry representatives.

  16. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 9. Science Applications, Incorporated Phase 2 - definition study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the effort required to implement the design of the Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Engineering Test Facility, SCEA-ETF. This report is a basic blueprint for the Phase 2 activities which have as a goal the construction of the ETF. These activities have been broken down into five major tasks, namely Project Management; Engineering and Design; Procurement/Fabrication; Construction, Installation and Checkout; and Operation and Maintenance. The type of activities required under each of these tasks are described followed by a detailed work breakdown structure. The Phase 2 project organization is discussed. A 13 month schedule for the total project is also given. Lastly, two appendices discuss cost adjustment factors for an ETF located in the KSA, and an update of the commercial system cost estimate based on preliminary cost quotations for the ETF. The results show a 63% cost increase for the KSA ETF primarily due to higher construction costs and greater well depth. The commercial system cost required an adjustment upwards of 7.7%.

  17. Agricultural Improvement Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Like Minnesota's Stock Loan Program, this is a "participation loan," where loans are made by individual financial institutions working with the RFA. The RFA has a Master Participation Agreement...

  18. Agricultural Energy Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The maximum total amount of loans that can be outstanding to a borrower at any time is $1,355,000. The percent of the project funded by VACC is negotiable. Loans are provided at variable rates, a...

  19. WINDExchange: Agricultural Podcasts

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    agriculturalpodcasts.asp A series of radio interviews on wind energy aimed at a rural stakeholder audience produced by WINDExchange and the National Association of Farm...

  20. Sustainable Agriculture Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Loans are available in amounts of up to $40,000 per farm family, with up to $160,000 ($40,000 per farmer) available for joint projects. The program currently offers a fixed interest rate of 3%...