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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen K-edge Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Theory . Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using...

2

SUPPORTED DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR OXYGEN SEPARATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mixed-conducting membranes have the ability to conduct oxygen with perfect selectivity at elevated temperatures, which makes them an extremely attractive alternative for oxygen separation and membrane reactor applications. The ability to reliably fabricate these membranes in thin or thick films would enable solid-state divisional limitations to be minimized, thus providing higher oxygen flux. Based on that motivation, the overall objective for this project is to develop and demonstrate a strategy for the fabrication of supported Wick film ceramic mixed conducting membranes, and improve the understanding of the fundamental issues associated with reliable fabrication of these membranes. The project has focused on the mixed-conducting ceramic composition SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} because of its superior permeability and stability in reducing atmospheres. The fabrication strategy employed involves the deposition of SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} thick films onto porous supports of the same composition. In the second year of this project, we completed characterization of the sintering and phase behavior of the porous SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} supports, leading to a standard support fabrication methodology. Using a doctor blade method, pastes made from aerosol-derived SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} powder dispersed with polyethylene glycol were applied to the supports, and the sintering behavior of the thick film membranes was examined in air and nitrogen atmospheres. It has been demonstrated that the desired crystalline phase content can be produced in the membranes, and that the material in the membrane layer can be highly densified without densifying the underlying support. However, considerable cracking and opening of the film occurred when films densified to a high extent. The addition of MgO into the SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} supports was shown to inhibit support sintering so that temperatures up to 1300 C, where significant liquid formation occurs, could be used for film sintering. This successfully reduced cracking, however the films retained open porosity. The investigation of this concept will be continued in the final year of the project. Investigation of a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method for defect mending in dense membranes was also initiated. An appropriate metal organic precursor (iron tetramethylheptanedionate) was identified whose deposition can be controlled by access to oxygen at temperatures in the 280-300 C range. Initial experiments have deposited iron oxide, but only on the membrane surface; thus refinement of this method will continue.

Timothy L. Ward

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

3

Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid mixed-conducting electrolytes in the series La{sub l-x}A{sub x}Co{sub l-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} (A = Sr,Ca,Ba) are potentially useful as passive membranes to separate high purity oxygen from air and as cathodes in fuel cells. All of the compositions studied exhibited very high electrical conductivities. At lower temperatures, conductivities increased with increasing temperature, characterized by activation energies of 0.05 to 0.16 eV that are consistent with a small polaron (localized electronic carrier) conduction mechanism. At higher temperatures, electronic conductivities tended to decrease with increasing temperature, which is attributed to decreased electronic carrier populations associated with lattice oxygen loss. Oxygen ion conductivities were higher than that of yttria stabilized zirconia and increased with the cobalt content and also increased with the extent of divalent A-site substitution. Thermogravimetric studies were conducted to establish the extent of oxygen vacancy formation as a function of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and composition. These vacancy populations strongly depend on the extent of A-site substitution. Passive oxygen permeation rates were established for each of the compositions as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure gradient. For 2.5 mm thick membranes in an oxygen vs nitrogen partial pressure gradient, oxygen fluxes at 900 C ranged from approximately 0.3 sccm/cm{sup 2} for compositions high in iron and with low amounts of strontium A-site substitution to approximately 0.8 sccm/cm{sup 2} for compositions high in cobalt and strontium. A-site substitution with calcium instead of strontium resulted in substantially lower fluxes.

Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Pederson, L.R.; Weber, W.J.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Nanoscale Phase Separation, Cation Ordering, and Surface Oxygen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Separation, Cation Ordering, and Surface Oxygen Chemistry in Pristine Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 for Li-Ion Batteries. Nanoscale Phase Separation, Cation Ordering, and Surface Oxygen...

5

High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference...

6

Separation Membrane Development (Separation Using Encapsulated Metal Hydride)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Separation Membrane Development (Separation Using Encapsulated Metal Hydride) L. Kit Heung Savannah: The first is to produce a sol-gel encapsulated metal hydride packing material that will a) absorbs hydrogen may be that hydrogen must come from multiple sources. These sources will include renewable (solar

7

Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs.

Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs. 3 figs.

Cassano, A.A.

1985-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

9

Metal volatilization and separation during incineration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has reported that metals can account for almost all of the identified risks from a thermal treatment process. Fundamental research leading to better understanding of their behavior and improved control of their emissions is greatly needed. This paper reports studies on metal volatilization and separation during incineration. Metal volatilization studies were carried out in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, the dynamic volatilization characteristics of various metals during the combustion of metal-containing wood pellets were investigated in a high-temperature electric furnace. In addition to uncontrolled volatilization, the potential of employing chemical additives to bind metals and prevent them from volatilizing during combustion was also investigated. The second experiment involved the investigation of metal volatilization characteristics during the thermal treatment of metal-contaminated clay in a fluidized bed unit. The metal species tested in both experiments were compounds of lead and cadmium. Metal capture/separation studies were also carried out in two separate experiments. The first involved the use of sorbents in the combustion chamber to capture metals during the fluidized bed incineration of metal-containing wood pellets. The second experiments, however, employed sorbents to absorb metal vapors in a fluidized-bed waste-heat boiler. The objective of both the experiments is to characterize the metal absorption efficiency associated with the processes.

Ho, T.C.; Chu, H.W.; Hopper, J.R. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Encapsulated Metal Hydride for Hydrogen Separation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

concentration feed stock, not for low concentration ­ Hydrogen economy will need hydrogen recovery from lowEncapsulated Metal Hydride for Hydrogen Separation (Formerly Separation Membrane Development) DOE Hydrogen Program 2003 Merit Review and Peer Evaluation L. Kit Heung, Jim Congdon Savannah River Technology

11

Oxygen-induced magnetic properties and metallic behavior of a...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxygen-induced magnetic properties and metallic behavior of a BN sheet. Oxygen-induced magnetic properties and metallic behavior of a BN sheet. Abstract: In this paper, ab initio...

12

Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM); Cornelius, Christopher J. (Blackburg, VA)

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

13

Novel Metallic Membranes for Hydrogen Separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To reduce dependence on oil and emission of greenhouse gases, hydrogen is favored as an energy carrier for the near future. Hydrogen can be converted to electrical energy utilizing fuel cells and turbines. One way to produce hydrogen is to gasify coal which is abundant in the U.S. The coal gasification produces syngas from which hydrogen is then separated. Designing metallic alloys for hydrogen separation membranes which will work in a syngas environment poses significant challenges. In this presentation, a review of technical targets, metallic membrane development activities at NETL and challenges that are facing the development of new technologies will be given.

Dogan, Omer

2011-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

14

CRADA Final Report: Ionically Conductive Membranes Oxygen Separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in a collaborative effort with Praxair Corporation developed a bench-top oxygen separation unit capable of producing ultra-high purity oxygen from air. The device is based on thin-film electrolyte technology developed at LBNL as part of a solid oxide fuel cell program. The two teams first demonstrated the concept using planar ceramic disks followed by the development of tubular ceramic structures for the bench-top unit. The highly successful CRADA met all technical milestones on time and on budget. Due to the success of this program the industrial partner and the team at LBNL submitted a grant proposal for further development of the unit to the Advanced Technology Program administered by the National Institute of Standar~s. This proposal was selected for funding, and now the two teams are developing a precommercial oxygen separation unit under a 3-year, $6 million dollar program.

Visco, Steven J.

2001-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

15

Metal oxide membranes for gas separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for formation of a microporous ceramic membrane onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane having mean pore sizes less than 30 Angstroms and useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or gas separation. 4 figs.

Anderson, M.A.; Webster, E.T.; Xu, Q.

1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

16

Metal oxide membranes for gas separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for permformation of a microporous ceramic membrane onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane having mean pore sizes less than 30 Angstroms and useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or gas separation.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Webster, Elizabeth T. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Plainsboro, NJ)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Supported Molten Metal Membranes for Hydrogen Separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe here our results on the feasibility of a novel dense metal membrane for hydrogen separation: Supported Molten Metal Membrane, or SMMM.1 The goal in this work was to develop these new membranes based on supporting thin films of low-melting, non- precious group metals, e.g., tin (Sn), indium (In), gallium (Ga), or their alloys, to provide a flux and selectivity of hydrogen that rivals the conventional but substantially more expensive palladium (Pd) or Pd alloy membranes, which are susceptible to poisoning by the many species in the coal-derived syngas, and further possess inadequate stability and limited operating temperature range. The novelty of the technology presented numerous challenges during the course of this project, however, mainly in the selection of appropriate supports, and in the fabrication of a stable membrane. While the wetting instability of the SMMM remains an issue, we did develop an adequate understanding of the interaction between molten metal films with porous supports that we were able to find appropriate supports. Thus, our preliminary results indicate that the Ga/SiC SMMM at 550 C has a permeance that is an order of magnitude higher than that of Pd, and exceeds the 2015 DOE target. To make practical SMM membranes, however, further improving the stability of the molten metal membrane is the next goal. For this, it is important to better understand the change in molten metal surface tension and contact angle as a function of temperature and gas-phase composition. A thermodynamic theory was, thus, developed, that is not only able to explain this change in the liquid-gas surface tension, but also the change in the solid-liquid surface tension as well as the contact angle. This fundamental understanding has allowed us to determine design characteristics to maintain stability in the face of changing gas composition. These designs are being developed. For further progress, it is also important to understand the nature of solution and permeation process in these molten metal membranes. For this, a comprehensive microkinetic model was developed for hydrogen permeation in dense metal membranes, and tested against data for Pd membrane over a broad range of temperatures.3 It is planned to obtain theoretical and experimental estimates of the parameters to corroborate the model against mental results for SMMM.

Datta, Ravindra; Ma, Yi Hua; Yen, Pei-Shan; Deveau, Nicholas; Fishtik, Ilie; Mardilovich, Ivan

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

18

High density adsorbed oxygen on Rh,,111... and enhanced routes to metallic oxidation using atomic oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High density adsorbed oxygen on Rh,,111... and enhanced routes to metallic oxidation using atomic oxygen K. D. Gibson, Mark Viste, Errol C. Sanchez, and S. J. Sibener The James Franck Institute; accepted 30 November 1998 Exposure of Rh 111 to atomic oxygen leads to the facile formation of a full

Sibener, Steven

19

In-situ generation of oxygen-releasing metal peroxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for remediation of contaminants in soil and groundwater is disclosed. The method generates oxygen releasing solids in groundwater or soil by injecting an aqueous energetic oxidant solution containing free radicals, oxidative conditions can be created within or ahead of a contaminant plume. Some contaminants may be remediated directly by reaction with the free radicals. Additionally and more importantly, the free radicals create an oxidative condition whereby native or injected materials, especially metals, are converted to peroxides. These peroxides provide a long-term oxygen reservoir, releasing oxygen relatively slowly over time. The oxygen can enhance microbial metabolism to remediate contaminants, can react with contaminant metals either to form immobile precipitants or to mobilize other metals to permit remediation through leaching techniques. Various injection strategies for injecting the energetic oxidant solution are also disclosed.

Looney, Brian B. (Aiken, SC); Denham, Miles E. (Aiken, SC)

2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

20

Oxygen addition to sulfur of metal thiolates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and characterized. Molecular oxygen or hydrogen peroxide reacted with (N,N'-bis(mercaptoethyl)-1,5-diazacyclooctane-nickel(II), (BME-DACO)2Ni3 +2, to produce a trimetallic, (N,N'-bismercaptoethyl-1,5-diazacyclooctane-nickel(II))-nickelate, (BME-DACO)2Ni3 2...

Soma, Takako

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Transition metal-promoted oxygen ion conductors as oxidation catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel metal oxide composite catalyst for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons was prepared by combining oxygen ion conducting materials with active transition metals. The oxygen ion conductors used were typical fluorite-type oxides, such as ceria, zirconia, and others. Active base metal catalysts, such as copper, were used as additives to promote the catalytic properties of oxygen ion conductors. The intimate contact of the two kinds of materials gave rise to a highly active oxidation catalyst. On Cu-Ce-O composite catalysts, 95% of carbon monoxide was oxidized by air at {approximately} 100 C. Complete methane oxidation on the same catalyst took place at {approximately} 550 C. When the stoichiometric amount of sulfur dioxide was sued to oxidize carbon monoxide, 96% of sulfur dioxide was reduced to elemental sulfur at temperatures above 460 C with 99% of sulfur dioxide conversion. This type of composite catalyst also showed excellent resistance to water poisoning.

Liu, W.; Sarofim, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

Production of Oxygen Gas and Liquid Metal by Electrochemical Decomposition of Molten Iron Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the moon and on Mars for the generation of oxygen along with the production of structural metalsProduction of Oxygen Gas and Liquid Metal by Electrochemical Decomposition of Molten Iron Oxide) is the electrolytic decomposition of a metal oxide, most preferably into liquid metal and oxygen gas. The successful

Sadoway, Donald Robert

23

Liquid phase thermal swing chemical air separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A temperature swing absorption separation of oxygen from air is performed with an oxygen acceptor of alkali metal nitrate and nitrite. 2 figs.

Erickson, D.C.

1988-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

24

Liquid phase thermal swing chemical air separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A temperature swing absorption separation of oxygen from air is performed with an oxygen acceptor of alkali metal nitrate and nitrite.

Erickson, Donald C. (Annapolis, MD)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

& MetalOrganic Frameworks Enhancing CO2 Separation Ability of a MetalOrganic Framework  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that it is a promising material for sequestering CO2 from landfill gas. Introduction Metal­organic frameworks have been considered as promising materials for separating CO2 from landfill gas and industrial flue gas due

Paik Suh, Myunghyun

26

Low energy consumption method for separating gaseous mixtures and in particular for medium purity oxygen production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for the separation of gaseous mixtures such as air and for producing medium purity oxygen, comprising compressing the gaseous mixture in a first compressor to about 3.9-4.1 atmospheres pressure, passing said compressed gaseous mixture in heat exchange relationship with sub-ambient temperature gaseous nitrogen, dividing the cooled, pressurized gaseous mixture into first and second streams, introducing the first stream into the high pressure chamber of a double rectification column, separating the gaseous mixture in the rectification column into a liquid oxygen-enriched stream and a gaseous nitrogen stream and supplying the gaseous nitrogen stream for cooling the compressed gaseous mixture, removing the liquid oxygen-enriched stream from the low pressure chamber of the rectification column and pumping the liquid, oxygen-enriched steam to a predetermined pressure, cooling the second stream, condensing the cooled second stream and evaporating the oxygen-enriched stream in an evaporator-condenser, delivering the condensed second stream to the high pressure chamber of the rectification column, and heating the oxygen-enriched stream and blending the oxygen-enriched stream with a compressed blend-air stream to the desired oxygen concentration.

Jujasz, Albert J. (North Olmsted, OH); Burkhart, James A. (Olmsted Falls, OH); Greenberg, Ralph (New York, NY)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Direct Electrolysis of Molten Lunar Regolith for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

regolith at 1600 C was investigated. Oxygen gas at the anode was generated concomitantly with productionDirect Electrolysis of Molten Lunar Regolith for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon A Center, Florida 32899, USA The feasibility of producing oxygen by direct electrolysis of molten lunar

Sadoway, Donald Robert

28

Hybrid membrane/cryogenic separation of oxygen from air for use in the oxy-fuel process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and high temperature ion transport membranes. While polymeric membranes can produce oxygen enriched air of various concentrations, ion transport membranes can produce purities of close to 100%. Both membraHybrid membrane/cryogenic separation of oxygen from air for use in the oxy-fuel process Thomas

Struchtrup, Henning

29

Oxygen impurity and microalloying effect in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass alloy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen impurity and microalloying effect in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass alloy C.T. Liu*, M composition Zr­10 at.%Al­5% Ti­17.9% Cu­14.6% Ni (BAM-11) was used to study the effects of oxygen impurities and microalloying on the microstructure and mechanical properties. Oxygen impurity at a level of 3000 appm

Pennycook, Steve

30

New Proton-Ionizable, Calixarene-Based Ligands for Selective Metal Ion Separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The project objective was the discovery of new ligands for performing metal ion separations. The research effort entailed the preparation of new metal ion complexing agents and polymers and their evaluation in metal ion separation processes of solvent extraction, synthetic liquid membrane transport, and sorption. Structural variations in acyclic, cyclic, and bicyclic organic ligands were used to probe their influence upon the efficiency and selectivity with which metal ion separations can be performed. A unifying feature of the ligand structures is the presence of one (or more) side arm with a pendent acidic function. When a metal ion is complexed within the central cavity of the ligand, ionization of the side arm(s) produces the requisite anion(s) for formation of an overall electroneutral complex. This markedly enhances extraction/transport efficiency for separations in which movement of aqueous phase anions of chloride, nitrate, or sulfate into an organic medium would be required. Through systematic structural variations, new ligands have been developed for efficient and selective separations of monovalent metal ions (e.g., alkali metal, silver, and thallium cations) and of divalent metal ion species (e.g., alkaline earth metal, lead, and mercury cations). Research results obtained in these fundamental investigations provide important insight for the design and development of ligands suitable for practical metal ion separation applications.

Bartsch, Richard A.

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

31

Nano- sized strontium titanate metal oxide semiconductor oxygen gas sensors.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The project focuses on strontium titanate (SrTiO3> material, a very important material for oxygen sensors. The advantages of the material are low cost and stability (more)

Hu, Ying.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Method of producing metallized chloroplasts and use thereof in the photochemical production of hydrogen and oxygen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is primarily a metallized chloroplast composition for use in a photosynthetic reaction. A catalytic metal is precipitated on a chloroplast membrane at the location where a catalyzed reduction reaction occurs. This metallized chloroplast is stabilized by depositing it on a support medium such as fiber so that it can be easily handled. A possible application of this invention is the splitting of water to form hydrogen and oxygen that can be used as a renewable energy source.

Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Regenerable MgO promoted metal oxide oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier comprised of a plurality of metal oxide particles in contact with a plurality of MgO promoter particles. The MgO promoter particles increase the reaction rate and oxygen utilization of the metal oxide when contacting with a gaseous hydrocarbon at a temperature greater than about 725.degree. C. The promoted oxide solid is generally comprised of less than about 25 wt. % MgO, and may be prepared by physical mixing, incipient wetness impregnation, or other methods known in the art. The oxygen carrier exhibits a crystalline structure of the metal oxide and a crystalline structure of MgO under XRD crystallography, and retains these crystalline structures over subsequent redox cycles. In an embodiment, the metal oxide is Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, and the gaseous hydrocarbon is comprised of methane.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Miller, Duane D.

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

34

SEPARATION OF HEAVY METALS: REMOVAL FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

a two- or three-stage operation to remove the metals and 0il sepcrately). ComplexationSequestration Complexation involves the formation of a complex or chelating agent....

35

Analysis of Heat Transfer in Metal Hydride Based Hydrogen Separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This thesis presents a transient heat transfer analysis to model the heat transfer in the Pd/k packed column, and the impact of adding metallic foam.

Fleming, W.H. Jr.

1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

36

Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A furnace 10 for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron 20 is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance 40, through which a center stream of particulate coal 53 is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer 30. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon 51 enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen 52 is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream 51. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus 84 to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer 30, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace.

Schlichting, Mark R. (Chesterton, IN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Fuel and oxygen addition for metal smelting or refining process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A furnace for smelting iron ore and/or refining molten iron is equipped with an overhead pneumatic lance, through which a center stream of particulate coal is ejected at high velocity into a slag layer. An annular stream of nitrogen or argon enshrouds the coal stream. Oxygen is simultaneously ejected in an annular stream encircling the inert gas stream. The interposition of the inert gas stream between the coal and oxygen streams prevents the volatile matter in the coal from combusting before it reaches the slag layer. Heat of combustion is thus more efficiently delivered to the slag, where it is needed to sustain the desired reactions occurring there. A second stream of lower velocity oxygen can be delivered through an outermost annulus to react with carbon monoxide gas rising from slag layer, thereby adding still more heat to the furnace. 7 figs.

Schlichting, M.R.

1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

38

Oxygen reduction at platimun/ionomer interface: effects of phase separation of ionomer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the interface between platinum and recast ionomers (Nafion EW 1100 and 950 and 6F-40) was studied at different temperatures (20--80{sup o}C) and humidities (10--100%) employing smooth Pt and Pt-black-covered ultramicroelectrodes. ORR was strongly inhibited on smooth electrodes. The inhibition increased with the reduction time, temperature and humidity, but was absent for Nafion EW 1100 in contact with liquid water. It was attributed to the hydrophobic component of ionomer blocking both active sites and oxygen transport. It was postulated that the dynamic changes in interfacial phase separation of ionomer are facilitated by the attractive interactions between the hydrophobic component of ionomer and bare platinum and between oxide-covered Pt and the hydrophilic component of ionomer. These interactions were also proposed to be responsible for the differences in ORR voltammetry for films prepared and equilibrated under different conditions. The decrease in ORR inhibition, Nafion EW 950> Nafion EW 1100> 6F-40, was correlated with physical and molecular properties of the ionomers. The lack of inhibition for Pt-black-covered electrodes was attributed to the more random distribution of ionomer chains and the high activation barriers for the ionomer restructuring at rough interfaces.

Chlistunoff, Jerzy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen K-edge Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advancing theories of how metal oxygen bonding influences metal oxo properties can expose new avenues for innovation in materials science, catalysis, and biochemistry. Historically, spectroscopic analyses of the transition metal peroxyanions, MO4x-, have formed the basis for new M O bonding theories. Herein, relative changes in M O orbital mixing in MO42- (M = Cr, Mo, W) and MO41- (M = Mn, Tc, Re) are evaluated for the first time by non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray absorption spectroscopy using fluorescence and transmission (via a scanning transmission X-ray microscope), and linear-response density functional theory. The results suggest that moving from Group 6 to Group 7 or down the triads increases M O e () mixing. Meanwhile, t2 mixing ( + ) remains relatively constant within the same Group. These unexpected changes in frontier orbital energy and composition are evaluated in terms of periodic trends in d orbital energy and radial extension.

Minasian, Stefan G.; Keith, Jason M.; Batista, Enrique R.; Boland, Kevin S.; Bradley, Joseph A.; Daly, Scott R.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Martin, Richard L.; Nordlund, Dennis; Seidler, Gerald T.; Shuh, David K.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Wagner, Gregory L.; Weng, Tsu-Chein; Yang, Ping

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Industrially challenging separations via adsorption in metal-organic frameworks : a computational exploration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In recent years, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been identified as promising adsorbents in a number of industrially relevant, yet challenging, separations, including the removal of propane from propane/propylene ...

Lennox, Matthew James

2015-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Highly efficient separation of carbon dioxide by a metal-organic framework replete with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Highly efficient separation of carbon dioxide by a metal-organic framework replete with open metal capture of CO2, which is essential for natural gas purifi- cation and CO2 sequestration, has been reported media. carbon dioxide capture dynamic adsorption reticular chemistry Selective removal of CO2 from

Yaghi, Omar M.

42

Atmospheric pressure intercalation of oxygen via wrinkles between graphene and a metal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric pressure intercalation of oxygen via wrinkles between graphene and a metal Amina with graphene, an atomically thin sheet of carbon atoms in a honeycomb lattice. These prospects are urging, has reached such maturity that graphene now appears as an alternative to indium tin oxide

Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

43

Influence of oxygen dissolution history on reconstruction behavior of a stepped metal surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the upper end of the thermal range over which this stepped metal surface transforms from single to double Present address: Applied Materials, Inc., 3050 Bowers Ave, Santa Clara, CA 95054-3299, USA. 3 Present for oxygen and are more resistant to forming oxides. Structural phase sensitivity of these high index

Sibener, Steven

44

Evaluation of Novel Ceria-Supported Metal Oxides As Oxygen Carriers for Chemical-Looping Combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaluation of Novel Ceria-Supported Metal Oxides As Oxygen Carriers for Chemical-Looping Combustion of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goteborg, Sweden States § Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goteborg

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

45

Hydrocarbon Separations in Metal-Organic Frameworks | Center for Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area.Portal SolarAboutSeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy

46

Bridged transition-metal complexes and uses thereof for hydrogen separation, storage and hydrogenation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention constitutes a class of organometallic complexes which reversibly react with hydrogen to form dihydrides and processes by which these compounds can be utilized. The class includes bimetallic complexes in which two cyclopentadienyl rings are bridged together and also separately .pi.-bonded to two transition metal atoms. The transition metals are believed to bond with the hydrogen in forming the dihydride. Transition metals such as Fe, Mn or Co may be employed in the complexes although Cr constitutes the preferred metal. A multiple number of ancilliary ligands such as CO are bonded to the metal atoms in the complexes. Alkyl groups and the like may be substituted on the cyclopentadienyl rings. These organometallic compounds may be used in absorption/desorption systems and in facilitated transport membrane systems for storing and separating out H.sub.2 from mixed gas streams such as the product gas from coal gasification processes.

Lilga, Michael A. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Bridged transition-metal complexes and uses thereof for hydrogen separation, storage and hydrogenation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention constitutes a class of organometallic complexes which reversibly react with hydrogen to form dihydrides and processes by which these compounds can be utilized. The class includes bimetallic complexes in which two cyclopentadienyl rings are bridged together and also separately .pi.-bonded to two transition metal atoms. The transition metals are believed to bond with the hydrogen in forming the dihydride. Transition metals such as Fe, Mn or Co may be employed in the complexes although Cr constitutes the preferred metal. A multiple number of ancilliary ligands such as CO are bonded to the metal atoms in the complexes. Alkyl groups and the like may be substituted on the cyclopentadienyl rings. These organometallic compounds may be used in absorption/desorption systems and in facilitated transport membrane systems for storing and separating out H.sub.2 from mixed gas streams such as the produce gas from coal gasification processes.

Lilga, Michael A. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Bridged transition-metal complexes and uses thereof for hydrogen separation, storage and hydrogenation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention constitutes a class of organometallic complexes which reversibly react with hydrogen to form dihydrides and processes by which these compounds can be utilized. The class includes bimetallic complexes in which two cyclopentadienyl rings are bridged together and also separately [pi]-bonded to two transition metal atoms. The transition metals are believed to bond with the hydrogen in forming the dihydride. Transition metals such as Fe, Mn or Co may be employed in the complexes although Cr constitutes the preferred metal. A multiple number of ancillary ligands such as CO are bonded to the metal atoms in the complexes. Alkyl groups and the like may be substituted on the cyclopentadienyl rings. These organometallic compounds may be used in absorption/desorption systems and in facilitated transport membrane systems for storing and separating out H[sub 2] from mixed gas streams such as the producer gas from coal gasification processes. 3 figs.

Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

1990-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

49

Bridged transition-metal complexes and uses thereof for hydrogen separation, storage and hydrogenation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention constitutes a class of organometallic complexes which reversibly react with hydrogen to form dihydrides and processes by which these compounds can be utilized. The class includes bimetallic complexes in which two cyclopentadienyl rings are bridged together and also separately [pi]-bonded to two transition metal atoms. The transition metals are believed to bond with the hydrogen in forming the dihydride. Transition metals such as Fe, Mn or Co may be employed in the complexes although Cr constitutes the preferred metal. A multiple number of ancillary ligands such as CO are bonded to the metal atoms in the complexes. Alkyl groups and the like may be substituted on the cyclopentadienyl rings. These organometallic compounds may be used in absorption/desorption systems and in facilitated transport membrane systems for storing and separating out H[sub 2] from mixed gas streams such as the product gas from coal gasification processes. 3 figures.

Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

50

Metal-organic frameworks for Xe/Kr separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are provided and are selectively adsorbent to xenon (Xe) over another noble gas such as krypton (Kr) and/or argon (Ar) as a result of having framework voids (pores) sized to this end. MOF materials having pores that are capable of accommodating a Xe atom but have a small enough pore size to receive no more than one Xe atom are desired to preferentially adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component (Xe--Kr mixture) adsorption method. The MOF material has 20% or more, preferably 40% or more, of the total pore volume in a pore size range of 0.45-0.75 nm which can selectively adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component Xe--Kr mixture over a pressure range of 0.01 to 1.0 MPa.

Ryan, Patrick J.; Farha, Omar K.; Broadbelt, Linda J.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Bae, Youn-Sang

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

51

Metal-organic frameworks for Xe/Kr separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are provided and are selectively adsorbent to xenon (Xe) over another noble gas such as krypton (Kr) and/or argon (Ar) as a result of having framework voids (pores) sized to this end. MOF materials having pores that are capable of accommodating a Xe atom but have a small enough pore size to receive no more than one Xe atom are desired to preferentially adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component (Xe--Kr mixture) adsorption method. The MOF material has 20% or more, preferably 40% or more, of the total pore volume in a pore size range of 0.45-0.75 nm which can selectively adsorb Xe over Kr in a multi-component Xe--Kr mixture over a pressure range of 0.01 to 1.0 MPa.

Ryan, Patrick J.; Farha, Omar K.; Broadbelt, Linda J.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Bae, Youn-Sang

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

52

Dynamics of metal-silicate separation in a terrestrial magma Tobias Hoink, Jorg Schmalzl, and Ulrich Hansen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dynamics of metal-silicate separation in a terrestrial magma ocean Tobias Ho¨ink, Jo¨rg Schmalzl-48149 Mu¨nster, Germany (hoeink@earth.uni-muenster.de) [1] In a terrestrial magma ocean, the metal-silicate the separation of metal droplets from the liquid silicate, occurs on a characteristic timescale, which

Schmalzl, Jörg

53

Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium, Oxygen to Uranium (O/U), and Oxygen to Metal (O/M) in Sintered Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinia-Uranium Dioxide Pellets by Atmospheric Equilibration

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Permitted Oxygen Abundances and the Temperature Scale of Metal-Poor Turn-Off Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use high quality VLT/UVES published data of the permitted OI triplet and FeII lines to determine oxygen and iron abundances in unevolved (dwarfs, turn-off, subgiants) metal-poor halo stars. The calculations have been performed both in LTE and NLTE, employing effective temperatures obtained with the new infrared flux method (IRFM) temperature scale by Ramirez & Melendez, and surface gravities from Hipparcos parallaxes and theoretical isochrones. A new list of accurate transition probabilities for FeII lines, tied to the absolute scale defined by laboratory measurements, has been used. We find a plateau in the oxygen-to-iron ratio over more than two orders of magnitude in iron abundance (-3.2 < [Fe/H] < -0.7), with a mean [O/Fe] = 0.5 dex (sigma = 0.1 dex), independent of metallicity, temperature and surface gravity. According to the new IRFM Teff scale, the temperatures of turn-off halo stars strongly depend on metallicity, a result that is in excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement with stellar evolution calculations, which predict that the Teff of the turn-off at [Fe/H] = -3 is about 600-700 K higher than that at [Fe/H] = -1.

J. Melendez; N. G. Shchukina; I. E. Vasiljeva; I. Ramirez

2006-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

55

Department of Chemical Engineering Fall 2012 Separation and Removal of Metal Spall Particulates from a High-Purity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to Air Products facility in Allentown, PA to gather specific process details Customer needs matrixPENNSTATE Department of Chemical Engineering Fall 2012 Separation and Removal of Metal Spall known as metal spalling is occurring in a gas production technology. Metal spalling is defined

Demirel, Melik C.

56

Method for separating metal chelates from other materials based on solubilities in supercritical fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating a desired metal or metalloi from impurities using a supercritical extraction process based on solubility differences between the components, as well as the ability to vary the solvent power of the supercritical fluid, is described. The use of adduct-forming agents, such as phosphorous-containing ligands, to separate metal or metalloid chelates in such processes is further disclosed. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones; phosphine oxides, such as trialkylphosphine oxides, triarylphosphine oxides and alkylarylphosphine oxides; phosphinic acids; carboxylic acids; phosphates, such as trialkylphosphates, triarylphosphates and alkylarylphosphates; crown ethers; dithiocarbamates; phosphine sulfides; phosphorothioic acids; thiophosphinic acids; halogenated analogs of these chelating agents; and mixtures of these chelating agents. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated.

Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Workington, GB); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

PHOTOPHORETIC SEPARATION OF METALS AND SILICATES: THE FORMATION OF MERCURY-LIKE PLANETS AND METAL DEPLETION IN CHONDRITES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mercury's high uncompressed mass density suggests that the planet is largely composed of iron, either bound within metal (mainly Fe-Ni) or iron sulfide. Recent results from the MESSENGER mission to Mercury imply a low temperature history of the planet which questions the standard formation models of impact mantle stripping or evaporation to explain the high metal content. Like Mercury, the two smallest extrasolar rocky planets with mass and size determination, CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b, were found to be of high density. As they orbit close to their host stars, this indicates that iron-rich inner planets might not be a nuisance of the solar system but be part of a general scheme of planet formation. From undifferentiated chondrites, it is also known that the metal to silicate ratio is highly variable, which must be ascribed to preplanetary fractionation processes. Due to this fractionation, most chondritic parent bodies-most of them originated in the asteroid belt-are depleted in iron relative to average solar system abundances. The astrophysical processes leading to metal silicate fractionation in the solar nebula are essentially unknown. Here, we consider photophoretic forces. As these forces particularly act on irradiated solids, they might play a significant role in the composition of planetesimals forming at the inner edge of protoplanetary disks. Photophoresis can separate high thermal conductivity materials (iron) from lower thermal conductivity solids (silicate). We suggest that the silicates are preferentially pushed into the optically thick disk. Subsequent planetesimal formation at the edge moving outward leads to metal-rich planetesimals close to the star and metal depleted planetesimals farther out in the nebula.

Wurm, Gerhard [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1, D-47057 Duisburg (Germany); Trieloff, Mario [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 234-236, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Rauer, Heike, E-mail: gerhard.wurm@uni-due.de [Institut fuer Planetenforschung, Extrasolare Planeten und Atmosphaeren, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

58

OXYGEN REDUCTION WITH CARBON SUPPORTED METALLIC CLUSTER CATALYSTS IN ALKALINE ELECTROLYTE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be published in the Proceedings OXYGEN REDUCTION WITH CARBONof California. LBL-11891 Oxygen Reduction with Carbonof Pt interacts with both oxygen and water more strongly

Ross Jr., Philip N.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Startup and Operation of a Metal Hydride Based Isotope Separation Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Production scale separation of tritium from other hydrogen isotopes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC, has been accomplished by several methods. These methods include thermal diffusion (1957--1986), fractional absorption (1964--1968), and cryogenic distillation (1967-present). Most recently, the Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP), a metal hydride based hydrogen isotope separation system, began production in the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) on April 9, 1994. TCAP has been in development at the Savannah River Technology Center since 1980. The production startup of this semi-continuous gas chromatographic separation process is a significant accomplishment for the Savannah River Site and was achieved after years of design, development, and testing.

Scogin, J.H.; Poore, A.S.

1995-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

60

Metal-organic and zeolite imidazolate frameworks (MOFs and ZIFs) for highly selective separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal-organic and zeolite imidazolate frameworks (MOFs and ZIFs) have been investigated for the realization as separation media with high selectivity. These structures are held together with strong bonds, making them architecturally, chemically, and thermally stable. Therefore, employing well designed building units, it is possible to discover promising materials for gas and vapor separation. This grant was focused on the study of MOFs and ZIFs with these specific objectives: (i) to develop a strategy for producing MOFs and ZIFs that combine high surface areas with active sites for their use in gas adsorption and separation of small organic compounds, (ii) to introduce active sites in the framework by a post-synthetic modification and metalation of MOFs and ZIFs, and (iii) to design and synthesize MOFs with extremely high surface areas and large pore volumes to accommodate large amounts of guest molecules. By the systematic study, this effort demonstrated how to introduce active functional groups in the frameworks, and this is also the origin of a new strategy, which is termed isoreticular functionalization and metalation. However, a large pore volume is still a prerequisite feature. One of the solutions to overcome this challenge is an isoreticular expansion of a MOF???????¢????????????????s structure. With triangular organic linker and square building units, we demonstrated that MOF-399 has a unit cell volume 17 times larger than that of the first reported material isoreticular to it, and it has the highest porosity (94%) and lowest density (0.126 g cm-3) of any MOF reported to date. MOFs are not just low density materials; the guest-free form of MOF-210 demonstrates an ultrahigh porosity, whose BET surface area was estimated to be 6240 m2 g-1 by N2 adsorption measurements.

Omar M. Yaghi

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Transition Metal Catalyzed Reactions of Carbohydrates: a Nonoxidative Approach to Oxygenated Organics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is a critical need for new environmentally friendly processes in the United States chemical industry as legislative and economic pressures push the industry to zero-waste and cradle-to-grave responsibility for the products they produce. Carbohydrates represent a plentiful, renewable resource, which for some processes might economically replace fossil feedstocks. While the conversion of biomass to fuels, is still not generally economical, the selective synthesis of a commodity or fine chemical, however, could compete effectively if appropriate catalytic conversion systems can be found. Oxygenated organics, found in a variety of products such as nylon and polyester, are particularly attractive targets. We believe that with concerted research efforts, homogeneous transition metal catalyzed reactions could play a significant role in bringing about this future green chemistry technology.

Andrews, Mark

1997-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

62

Nitrogen/oxygen separations in metal-organic frameworks for clean fossil  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Regionat Cornell BatteriesArchives Events/News

63

Design Principles for Oxygen-Reduction Activity on Perovskite Oxide Catalysts for Fuel Cells and Metal-air Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to {sigma}*-orbital (e{sub g}) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the {sigma}* orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O{sub 2}{sup 2-}/OH{sup -} displacement and OH{sup -} regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

J Suntivich; H Gasteiger; N Yabuuchi; H Nakanishi; J Goodenough; Y Shao-Horn

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

64

Mobilization of Metals from Eau Claire Siltstone and the Impact of Oxygen under Geological Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) has been proposed as a viable strategy to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emission; however, the increased cost that will be incurred by fossil energy production facilities is a deterrent to implementation of this technology. Allowing impurities in the effluent CO2 stream could result in significant financial and energy savings for CO2 capture and separation. However, impurities such as O2 have the potential to influence the redox state and alter the geochemical interactions that occur within GCS reservoirs, which increases the concern for CO2 and brine leakage from the storage reservoir as well as the overlying groundwater contamination. In this work, to investigate the impact of O2 co-injected with CO2 on the geochemical interactions, especially the trace metal mobilization from a GCS reservoir rock, batch studies were conducted with Eau Claire siltstone collected from CO2 sequestration sites. The rock was reacted with synthetic brines in contact with either 100% CO2 or a mixture of 95 mole% CO2-5 mole% O2 at 10.1 MPa and 75 C. Both microscopic and spectroscopic measurements, including 57Fe-Mssbauer spectroscopy, Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and chemical extraction were combined in this study to investigate reaction mechanisms. The Eau Claire siltstone contains quartz (52 wt%), fluorapatite (40%), and aluminosilicate (5%) as major components, and dolomite (2%), pyrite (1%), and small-particle-/poorly-crystalline Fe-oxides as minor components. With the introduction of CO2 into the reaction vessel containing rock and brine, the leaching of small amounts of fluorapatite, aluminosilicate, and dolomite occurred. Trace metals of environmental concern, including Pb, As, Cd, and Cu were detected in the leachate with concentrations up to 400 ppb in the CO2-brine-rock reaction system within 30 days. In the presence of O2, the mobilization of Pb, Cd, and Cu was significantly enhanced, whereas As concentrations decreased, compared with the reaction system without oxygen. The presence of oxygen resulted in the formation of secondary Fe-oxides which appear to be Fe(II)-substituted P-containing ferrihydrite. Although the rock contained only 1.04 wt% total Fe, oxidative dissolution of pyrite, leaching and oxidation of structural Fe(II) in fluorapatite, and precipitation of Fe-oxides significantly decreased the pH in brine with oxygen(pH 3.3-3.7), compared with the reaction system without oxygen (pH 4.2-4.4). In the CO2-rock-brine system without O2, the majority of As remained in the rock, with about 1.1% of the total As being released from intrinsic Fe-oxides to the aqueous phase. The release behavior of As to solution was consistent with competitive adsorption between phosphate/fluoride and As on Fe-oxide surfaces. In the presence of O2 the mobility of As was reduced due to enhanced adsorption onto both intrinsic and secondary Fe-oxide surfaces.When O2 was present, the dominant species in solution was the less toxic As(V). This work will advance our understanding of the geochemical reaction mechanisms that occur under GCS conditions and help to evaluate the risks associated with geological CO2 sequestration.

Shao, Hongbo; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Krogstad, Eirik J.; Newburn, Matthew K.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Method for separating constituents from solution employing a recyclable Lewis acid metal-hydroxy gel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This invention permits radionuclides, heavy metals, and organics to be extracted from solution by scavenging them with an amorphous gel. In the preferred embodiment, a contaminated solution (e.g. from soil washing, decontamination, or groundwater pumping) is transferred to a reaction vessel. The contaminated solution is contacted by the sequestering reagent which might contain for example, aluminate and EDTA anions in a 2.5 M NaOH solution. The pH of the reagent bearing solution is lowered on contact with the contaminated solution, or for example by bubbling carbon dioxide through it, causing an aluminum hydroxide gel to precipitate as the solution drops below the range of 1.8 to 2.5 molar NaOH (less than pH 14). This precipitating gel scavenges waste contaminants as it settles through solution leaving a clean supernatant which is then separated from the gel residue by physical means such as centrifugation, or simple settling. The gel residue containing concentrated contaminants is then redissolved releasing contaminants for separations and processing. This is a critical point: the stabilized gel used in this invention is readily re-dissolved by merely increasing the pH above the gels phase transition to aqueous anions. Thus, concentrated contaminants trapped in the gel can be released for convenient separation from the sequestering reagent, and said reagent can then be recycled.

Alexander, D.H.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

66

Synthesis and Characterization of Iso-Reticular Metal-Organic Frameworks and Their Applications for Gas Separations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of their synthesis and the variety of their potential applications. IRMOFs are a specific series of metal-organic frameworks developed by Yaghi and his coworkers. All IRMOFs are composed of oxygen-centered Zn4O tetrahedra interconnected with dicarboxylate linkers...

Yoo, Yeonshick

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

67

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Gas turbine engine adapted for use in combination with an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from compressed air  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine engine is provided comprising an outer shell, a compressor assembly, at least one combustor assembly, a turbine assembly and duct structure. The outer shell includes a compressor section, a combustor section, an intermediate section and a turbine section. The intermediate section includes at least one first opening and at least one second opening. The compressor assembly is located in the compressor section to define with the compressor section a compressor apparatus to compress air. The at least one combustor assembly is coupled to the combustor section to define with the combustor section a combustor apparatus. The turbine assembly is located in the turbine section to define with the turbine section a turbine apparatus. The duct structure is coupled to the intermediate section to receive at least a portion of the compressed air from the compressor apparatus through the at least one first opening in the intermediate section, pass the compressed air to an apparatus for separating a portion of oxygen from the compressed air to produced vitiated compressed air and return the vitiated compressed air to the intermediate section via the at least one second opening in the intermediate section.

Bland, Robert J. (Oviedo, FL); Horazak, Dennis A. (Orlando, FL)

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

70

Separation and Recovery of Uranium Metal from Spent Light Water Reactor Fuel via Electrolytic Reduction and Electrorefining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of bench-scale experiments was performed in a hot cell at Idaho National Laboratory to demonstrate the separation and recovery of uranium metal from spent light water reactor (LWR) oxide fuel. The experiments involved crushing spent LWR fuel to particulate and separating it from its cladding. Oxide fuel particulate was then converted to metal in a series of six electrolytic reduction runs that were performed in succession with a single salt loading of molten LiCl 1 wt% Li2O at 650 C. Analysis of salt samples following the series of electrolytic reduction runs identified the diffusion of select fission products from the spent fuel to the molten salt electrolyte. The extents of metal oxide conversion in the post-test fuel were also quantified, including a nominal 99.7% conversion of uranium oxide to metal. Uranium metal was then separated from the reduced LWR fuel in a series of six electrorefining runs that were performed in succession with a single salt loading of molten LiCl-KCl-UCl3 at 500 C. Analysis of salt samples following the series of electrorefining runs identified additional partitioning of fission products into the molten salt electrolyte. Analyses of the separated uranium metal were performed, and its decontamination factors were determined.

S. D. Herrmann; S. X. Li

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Direct Electrolysis of Molten Lunar Regolith for the Production of Oxygen and Metals on the Moon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The feasibility of producing oxygen by direct electrolysis of the molten lunar regolith at 1600 C was investigated and the generation of usable oxygen gas at the anode and concomitant production of iron and silicon at the ...

Sirk, Aislinn H.

72

Nanoporous, Metal Carbide, Surface Diffusion Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Colorado School of Mines (CSM) developed high temperature, hydrogen permeable membranes that contain no platinum group metals with the goal of separating hydrogen from gas mixtures representative of gasification of carbon feedstocks such as coal or biomass in order to meet DOE NETL 2015 hydrogen membrane performance targets. We employed a dual synthesis strategy centered on transition metal carbides. In the first approach, novel, high temperature, surface diffusion membranes based on nanoporous Mo{sub 2}C were fabricated on ceramic supports. These were produced in a two step process that consisted of molybdenum oxide deposition followed by thermal carburization. Our best Mo{sub 2}C surface diffusion membrane achieved a pure hydrogen flux of 367 SCFH/ft{sup 2} at a feed pressure of only 20 psig. The highest H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity obtained with this approach was 4.9. A transport model using dusty gas theory was derived to describe the hydrogen transport in the Mo{sub 2}C coated, surface diffusion membranes. The second class of membranes developed were dense metal foils of BCC metals such as vanadium coated with thin (< 60 nm) Mo{sub 2}C catalyst layers. We have fabricated a Mo{sub 2}C/V composite membrane that in pure gas testing delivered a H{sub 2} flux of 238 SCFH/ft{sup 2} at 600 C and 100 psig, with no detectable He permeance. This exceeds the 2010 DOE Target flux. This flux is 2.8 times that of pure Pd at the same membrane thickness and test conditions and over 79% of the 2015 flux target. In mixed gas testing we achieved a permeate purity of ?99.99%, satisfying the permeate purity milestone, but the hydrogen permeance was low, ~0.2 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.psi. However, during testing of a Mo{sub 2}C coated Pd alloy membrane with DOE 1 feed gas mixture a hydrogen permeance of >2 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.psi was obtained which was stable during the entire test, meeting the permeance associated with the 2010 DOE target flux. Lastly, the Mo{sub 2}C/V composite membranes were shown to be stable for at least 168 hours = one week, including cycling at high temperature and alternating He/H{sub 2} exposure.

Way, J.; Wolden, Colin

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

73

Oxygen abundances in metal-poor subgiants as determined from [O I], O I and OH lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The debate on the oxygen abundances of metal-poor stars has its origin in contradictory results obtained using different abundance indicators. To achieve a better understanding of the problem we have acquired high quality spectra with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph at VLT, with a signal-to-noise of the order of 100 in the near ultraviolet and 500 in the optical and near infrared wavelength range. Three different oxygen abundance indicators, OH ultraviolet lines around 310.0 nm, the [OI] line at 630.03 nm and the OI lines at 777.1-5 nm were observed in the spectra of 13 metal-poor subgiants with -3.0Oxygen abundances were obtained from the analysis of these indicators which was carried out assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium and plane-parallel model atmospheres. Abundances derived from OI were corrected for departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium. Stellar parameters were computed using Teff-vs-color calibrations based on the infrared flux method and Balmer line profiles, Hipparcos parallaxes and FeII lines. [O/Fe] values derived from the forbidden line at 630.03 nm are consistent with an oxygen/iron ratio that varies linearly with [Fe/H] as [O/Fe]}=-0.09(+/-0.08)[Fe/H]+0.36(+/-0.15). Values based on the OI triplet are on average 0.19+/-0.22 dex(s.d.) higher than the values based on the forbidden line while the agreement between OH ultraviolet lines and the forbidden line is much better with a mean difference of the order of -0.09+/-0.25 dex(s.d.). In general, our results follow the same trend as previously published results with the exception of the ones based on OH ultraviolet lines. In that case our results lie below the values which gave rise to the oxygen abundance debate for metal-poor stars.

A. E. Garca Prez; M. Asplund; F. Primas; P. E. Nissen; B. Gustafsson

2005-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

74

Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power. 1 fig.

Erickson, D.C.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

75

Effect of Localized Oxygen Functionalization On the Conductance of Metallic Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of metallic carbon nanotubes M. K. Ashraf, 1, * Nicolas A.and metallic zigzag carbon nanotubes ?CNTs? is presented. InI. INTRODUCTION Carbon nanotubes ?CNTs? are a candidate for

Collins, Philip G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

OXYGEN REDUCTION WITH CARBON SUPPORTED METALLIC CLUSTER CATALYSTS IN ALKALINE ELECTROLYTE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transition metal oxide clusters. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary of Conservation and Renewable Energy,

Ross Jr., Philip N.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Application of linear multiple model predictive control (MMPC) framework towards dynamic maximazation of oxygen yield in an elevated-pressure air separation unit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a typical air separation unit (ASU) utilizing either a simple gaseous oxygen (GOX) cycle or a pumped liquid oxygen (PLOX) cycle, the flowrate of liquid nitrogen (LN2) stream connecting high-pressure and low-pressure ASU columns plays an important role in the total oxygen yield. It has been observed that this yield reaches a maximum at a certain optimal flowrate of LN2 stream. At nominal full-load operation, the flowrate of LN2 stream is maintained near this optimum value, whereas at part-load conditions this flowrate is typically modified in proportion with the load-change (oxygen demand) through a ratio/feed-forward controller. Due to nonlinearity in the entire ASU process, the ratio-modified LN2 flowrate does not guarantee an optimal oxygen yield at part-load conditions. This is further exacerbated when process disturbances in form of cold-box heat-leaks enter the system. To address this problem of dynamically maximizing the oxygen yield while the ASU undergoes a load-change and/or a process disturbance, a multiple model predictive control (MMPC) algorithm is proposed. This approach has been used in previous studies to handle large ramp-rates of oxygen demand posed by the gasifier in an IGCC plant. In this study, the proposed algorithm uses linear step-response blackbox models surrounding the operating points corresponding to maximum oxygen yield points at different loads. It has been shown that at any operating point of the ASU, the MMPC algorithm, through model-weight calculation based on plant measurements, naturally and continuously selects the dominant model(s) corresponding to the current plant state, while making control-move decisions that approach the maximum oxygen yield point. This dynamically facilitates less energy consumption in form of compressed feed-air compared to a simple ratio control during load-swings. In addition, since a linear optimization problem is solved at each time step, the approach involves much less computational cost compared to a firstprinciple based nonlinear MPC. Introduction

Mahapatra, P.; Zitney, S.; Bequette, B. Wayne

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Metal hydrides as electrode/catalyst materials for oxygen evolution/reduction in electrochemical devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An at least ternary metal alloy of the formula, AB.sub.(5-Y)X(.sub.y), is claimed. In this formula, A is selected from the rare earth elements, B is selected from the elements of groups 8, 9, and 10 of the periodic table of the elements, and X includes at least one of the following: antimony, arsenic, and bismuth. Ternary or higher-order substitutions, to the base AB.sub.5 alloys, that form strong kinetic interactions with the predominant metals in the base metal hydride are used to form metal alloys with high structural integrity after multiple cycles of hydrogen sorption.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA); Halpert, Gerald (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent (Pasadena, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Hightower, Adrian (Whittier, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Scandium separation from tungsten crucibles : preliminary investigation into the separation of scandium metal from tungsten metal crucibles using an acid soak process.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first step in an attempt to isolate Sco from a Wo crucible was explored by soaking the samples in a series of organic (HOAc) and inorganic (HCl, H2SO4, H3PO4, HNO3) acids. All samples, except the HOAc, yielded a powder. The weight loss suggests that HNO3 is the most efficient solvent; however, the powders were tentatively identified by PXRD and found to contain both W and Sc by-products. The higher weight loss may also indicate dissolution of the Wo crucible, which was further evidenced upon visual inspection of the crucible. The H3PO4 acid soak yielded the cleanest removal of Sc from the crucible. More work to understand the separation of the Sco from the Wo crucible is necessary but the acid routes appear to hold promise under not as of yet established criteria.

Boyle, Timothy J.; Hess, Ryan Falcone; Neville, Michael Luke; Howard, Panit Clifton

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2.3: Sulfur Primer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This deliverable is Subtask 2.3 of Task 2, Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates, of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 2.3 builds upon the sulfur removal information first presented in Subtask 2.1, Gas Cleanup Technologies for Biomass Gasification by adding additional information on the commercial applications, manufacturers, environmental footprint, and technical specifications for sulfur removal technologies. The data was obtained from Nexant's experience, input from GTI and other vendors, past and current facility data, and existing literature.

Nexant Inc.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Development of Metal-Organic Framework Thin Films and Membranes for Low-Energy Gas Separation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are hybrid organic-inorganic micro- or mesoporous materials that exhibit regular crystalline lattices with rigid pore structures. Chemical functionalization of the organic linkers in the structures of MOFs affords...

McCarthy, Michael

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

82

Investigation of source-detector separation optimization for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor for liver blood vessels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An implanted system is being developed to monitor transplanted liver health during the critical 7-10 day period posttransplantation. The unit will monitor organ perfusion and oxygen consumption using optically-based probes placed on both the inflow and outflow blood vessels, and on the liver parenchymal surface. Sensing probes are based on a 3- wavelength LED source and a photodiode detector. Sample diffuse reflectance is measured at 735, 805, and 940 nm. To ascertain optimal source-to-photodetector spacing for perfusion measurement in blood vessels, an ex vivo study was conducted. In this work, a dye mixture simulating 80% blood oxygen saturation was developed and perfused through excised porcine arteries while collecting data for various preset probe source-to-photodetector spacings. The results from this study demonstrate a decrease in the optical signal with decreasing LED drive current and a reduction in perfusion index signal with increasing probe spacing. They also reveal a 2- to 4-mm optimal range for blood vessel perfusion probe source-to-photodetector spacing that allows for sufficient perfusion signal modulation depth with maximized signal to noise ratio (SNR). These findings are currently being applied to guide electronic configuration and probe placement for in vivo liver perfusion porcine model studies.

Baba, Justin S [ORNL; Akl, Tony [Texas A& M University; Cote, Gerard L. [Texas A& M University; Wilson, Mark A. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh PA; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Oxygen pumping II: Probing the Inhomogeneous Metal Enrichment at the Epoch of Reionization with High Frequency CMB Observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At the epoch of reionization, when the high-redshift inter-galactic medium (IGM) is being enriched with metals, the 63.2 micron fine structure line of OI is pumped by the ~ 1300 AA soft UV background and introduces a spectral distortion in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Here we use a toy model for the spatial distribution of neutral oxygen, assuming metal bubbles surround dark matter halos, and compute the fluctuations of this distortion, and the angular power spectrum it imprints on the CMB. We discuss the dependence of the power spectrum on the velocity of the winds polluting the IGM with metals, the minimum mass of the halos producing these winds, and on the cosmic epoch when the OI pumping occurs. We find that, although the clustering signal of the CMB distortion is weak \\delta y_{rms} ~ 10^{-7} (roughly corresponding to a temperature anisotropy of few nK), it may be reachable in deep integrations with high-sensitivity infrared detectors. Even without a detection, these instruments should be able to useful constraints on the heavy element enrichment history of the IGM.

Carlos Hernandez-Monteagudo; Zoltan Haiman; Licia Verde; Raul Jimenez

2007-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

84

Oxygen-induced magnetic properties and metallic behavior of a BN sheet. |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006 The 2002Optics GroupPlanning WorkshoptheEMSL Oxygen-induced

85

Transition metal carbides, nitrides and borides, and their oxygen containing analogs useful as water gas shift catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Mono- and bimetallic transition metal carbides, nitrides and borides, and their oxygen containing analogs (e.g. oxycarbides) for use as water gas shift catalysts are described. In a preferred embodiment, the catalysts have the general formula of M1.sub.A M2.sub.B Z.sub.C O.sub.D, wherein M1 is selected from the group consisting of Mo, W, and combinations thereof; M2 is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Ni, Cu, Co, and combinations thereof; Z is selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, boron, and combinations thereof; A is an integer; B is 0 or an integer greater than 0; C is an integer; O is oxygen; and D is 0 or an integer greater than 0. The catalysts exhibit good reactivity, stability, and sulfur tolerance, as compared to conventional water shift gas catalysts. These catalysts hold promise for use in conjunction with proton exchange membrane fuel cell powered systems.

Thompson, Levi T.; Patt, Jeremy; Moon, Dong Ju; Phillips, Cory

2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

86

Electrical conductivity in oxygen-deficient phases of transition metal oxides from first-principles calculations.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Density-functional theory calculations, ab-initio molecular dynamics, and the Kubo-Greenwood formula are applied to predict electrical conductivity in Ta2Ox (0x5) as a function of composition, phase, and temperature, where additional focus is given to various oxidation states of the O monovacancy (VOn; n=0,1+,2+). Our calculations of DC conductivity at 300K agree well with experimental measurements taken on Ta2Ox thin films and bulk Ta2O5 powder-sintered pellets, although simulation accuracy can be improved for the most insulating, stoichiometric compositions. Our conductivity calculations and further interrogation of the O-deficient Ta2O5 electronic structure provide further theoretical basis to substantiate VO0 as a donor dopant in Ta2O5 and other metal oxides. Furthermore, this dopant-like behavior appears specific to neutral VO cases in both Ta2O5 and TiO2 and was not observed in other oxidation states. This suggests that reduction and oxidation reactions may effectively act as donor activation and deactivation mechanisms, respectively, for VO0 in transition metal oxides.

Bondi, Robert James; Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Marinella, Matthew

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Hydrocarbon Separations in a Metal-Organic Framework with Open Iron(II)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area.Portal SolarAboutSeparationsRelevant to Clean

88

Dissolution of metal oxides and separation of uranium from lanthanides and actinides in supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates the feasibility of extracting and separating uranium from lanthanides and other actinides by using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (sc-CO{sub 2}) as a solvent modified with tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) for the development of a counter current stripping technique, which would be a more efficient and environmentally benign technology for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing compared to traditional solvent extraction. Several actinides (U, Pu, and Np) and europium were extracted in sc-CO{sub 2} modified with TBP over a range of nitric acid concentrations and then the actinides were exposed to reducing and complexing agents to suppress their extractability. According to this study, uranium/europium and uranium/plutonium extraction and separation in sc-CO{sub 2} modified with TBP is successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 6 M and at nitric acid concentrations of less than 3 M with acetohydroxamic acid or oxalic acid, respectively. A scheme for recycling uranium from spent nuclear fuel by using sc-CO{sub 2} and counter current stripping columns is presented. (authors)

Quach, D.L.; Wai, C.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States); Mincher, B.J. [Idaho National Lab, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

DISSOLUTION OF METAL OXIDES AND SEPARATION OF URANIUM FROM LANTHANIDES AND ACTINIDES IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates the feasibility of extracting and separating uranium from lanthanides and other actinides by using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) as a solvent modified with tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) for the development of a counter current stripping technique, which would be a more efficient and environmentally benign technology for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing compared to traditional solvent extraction. Several actinides (U, Pu, and Np) and europium were extracted in sc-CO2 modified with TBP over a range of nitric acid concentrations and then the actinides were exposed to reducing and complexing agents to suppress their extractability. According to this study, uranium/europium and uranium/plutonium extraction and separation in sc-CO2 modified with TBP is successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 6 M and at nitric acid concentrations of less than 3 M with acetohydroxamic acid or oxalic acid, respectively. A scheme for recycling uranium from spent nuclear fuel by using sc-CO2 and counter current stripping columns is presented.

Donna L. Quach; Bruce J. Mincher; Chien M. Wai

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Report of Separate Effects Testing for Modeling of Metallic Fuel Casting Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to give guidance regarding the best investment of time and effort in experimental determination of parameters defining the casting process, a Flow-3D model of the casting process was used to investigate the most influential parameters regarding void fraction of the solidified rods and solidification speed for fluid flow parameters, liquid heat transfer parameters, and solid heat transfer parameters. Table 1 summarizes the most significant variables for each of the situations studied. A primary, secondary, and tertiary effect is provided for fluid flow parameters (impacts void fraction) and liquid heat transfer parameters (impacts solidification). In Table 1, the wetting angle represents the angle between the liquid and mold surface as pictured in Figure 1. The viscosity is the dynamic viscosity of the liquid and the surface tension is the property of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force. When only considering solid heat transfer properties, the variations from case to case were very small. Details on this conclusion are provided in the section considering solid heat transfer properties. The primary recommendation of the study is to measure the fluid flow parameters, specifically the wetting angle, surface tension, and dynamic viscosity, in order of importance, as well as the heat transfer parameters latent heat and specific heat of the liquid alloy. The wetting angle and surface tension can be measured simultaneously using the sessile drop method. It is unclear whether there is a temperature dependency in these properties. Thus measurements for all three parameters are requested at 1340, 1420, and 1500 degrees Celsius, which correspond to the minimum, middle, and maximum temperatures of the liquid alloy during the process. In addition, the heat transfer coefficient between the mold and liquid metal, the latent heat of transformation, and the specific heat of the liquid metal all have strong influences on solidification. These parameters should be measured to achieve better simulation fidelity. Information on all the mentioned parameters is virtually nonexistent. Presently, all the parameters within the casting model are estimates based on pure U, or another alloy such as U-Ni.

Crapps, Justin M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Galloway, Jack D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Decroix, David S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korzekwa, David A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aikin, Robert M. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fielding, R. [Idaho National Laboratory; Kennedy, R [Idaho National Laboratory

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

91

The oxygen abundance in the inner HII regions of M101. Implications for the calibration of strong-line metallicity indicators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I present deep spectroscopy of four HII regions in the inner, metal-rich zone of the spiral galaxy M101 obtained with the LRIS spectrograph at the Keck telescope. From the analysis of the collisionally excited lines in two of the target HII regions, H1013 and H493, I have obtained oxygen abundances 12+log(O/H)=8.52 and 12+log(O/H)=8.74, respectively. These measurements extend the determination of the oxygen abundance gradient of M101 via the direct method to only 3 kpc from the center. The intensity of the CII 4267 line in H1013 leads to a carbon abundance 12+log(C/H)=8.66, corresponding to nearly twice the solar value. From a comparison of the continuum temperature derived from the Balmer discontinuity, T(Bac)=5000 K, and the line temperature derived from [OIII]4363/5007, T[OIII]=7700 K, an average temperature T0=5500 K and a mean square temperature fluctuation t^2=0.06 have been derived. Accounting for the spatial inhomogeneity in temperature raises the oxygen abundance obtained from the oxygen auroral lines to 12+log(O/H)=8.93. These findings are discussed in the context of the calibration of strong-line metallicity indicators, in particular of the upper branch of R23. There is no evidence for the strong abundance biases arising from temperature gradients predicted theoretically for metal-rich HII regions.

Fabio Bresolin

2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

92

Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

93

Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 1: Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This deliverable is the Final Report for Task 1, Cost Estimates of Small Modular Systems, as part of NREL Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Subtask 1.1 looked into processes and technologies that have been commercially built at both large and small scales, with three technologies, Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) of refinery gas oil, Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) of Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) Expanders, chosen for further investigation. These technologies were chosen due to their applicability relative to other technologies being considered by NREL for future commercial applications, such as indirect gasification and fluidized bed tar cracking. Research in this subject is driven by an interest in the impact that scaling has on the cost and major process unit designs for commercial technologies. Conclusions from the evaluations performed could be applied to other technologies being considered for modular or skid-mounted applications.

Nexant Inc.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing...

95

Structure having spatially separated photo-excitable electron-hole pairs and method of manufacturing same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing quantum dots. The method includes cleaning an oxide substrate and separately cleaning a metal source. The substrate is then heated and exposed to the source in an oxygen environment. This causes metal oxide quantum dots to form on the surface of the substrate.

Liang, Yong (Richland, WA); Daschbach, John L. (Richland, WA); Su, Yali (Richland, WA); Chambers, Scott A. (Kennewick, WA)

2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

96

Structure having spatially separated photo-excitable electron-hole pairs and method of manufacturing same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing quantum dots. The method includes cleaning an oxide substrate and separately cleaning a metal source. The substrate is then heated and exposed to the source in an oxygen environment. This causes metal oxide quantum dots to form on the surface of the substrate.

Liang, Yong [Richland, WA; Daschbach, John L [Richland, WA; Su, Yali [Richland, WA; Chambers, Scott A [Kennewick, WA

2003-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

97

MULTISCALE ATOMISTIC SIMULATION OF METAL-OXYGEN SURFACE INTERACTIONS: METHODOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT, THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION, AND CORRELATION WITH EXPERIMENT - FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our long-term vision is for a comprehensive and fundamental understanding of a critical gas-surface reaction, nano-oxidation???????¢???????????????? from the adsorption of oxygen atoms on the metal surface to the coalescence of the bulk oxide???????¢????????????????via coordinated multi-scale theoretical and in situ experimental efforts. Reaching this goal necessitates close collaborations between theorists and experimentalists, and the development and utilization of unique and substantial theoretical and experimental tools. Achievement of this goal will be a major breakthrough in dynamic surface/interface reactions that will dramatically impact several scientific fields. Many of these are of interest to DOE, such as thin films and nanostructures that use oxidation for processing, heteroepitaxy, oxidation and corrosion, environmental stability of nano-devices, catalysis, fuel cells and sensors. The purpose of this specific DOE program was the support for the theoretical effort. Our focus for the first round of funding has been the development of a Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) code to simulate the complexities of oxygen interactions with a metal surface. Our primary deliverable is a user-friendly, general and quite versatile KMC program, called Thin Film Oxidation (TFOx). TFOx-2D presently simulates the general behavior of irreversible 2-dimensional nucleation and growth of epitaxial islands on a square or rectangular lattice. The TFOx model explicitly considers a very large range of elementary steps, including deposition, adsorption, dissociation of gas molecules (such as O2), surface diffusion, aggregation, desorption and substrate-mediated indirect interactions between static adatoms. This capability allows for the description of the numerous physical processes involved in nucleation and growth. The large number of possible input parameters used in this program provides a rich environment for the simulation of epitaxial growth or oxidation of thin films. As a first demonstration of the power of TFOx-2D, the input parameters were systematically altered to observe how various physical processes impact morphologies. It was noted that potential gradients, developed to simulate medium-range substrate mediated interactions such as strain, and the probability of an adatom attaching to an island, have the largest effect on island morphologies. Nanorods, and round, square and dendritic shapes have all been observed (see section 2E) which correlate well with experimental observations of the wide range of oxide morphologies produced during in situ oxidation of Cu thin films. The people involved in the development and utilization of TFOx included a post-doc, Dr. Rich McAfee, and a graduate student, Ms. Xuetian Han. Both joined this program in August 2002. Dr. McAfee has been at Brashear Co., in Pittsburgh, PA since June 2004. To allow TFOx to be accessible to the rest of the scientific community, a web-site describing TFOx has been developed: www.tfox.org. No unexpended funds are expected at the completion of the current funding cycle. For in-depth development of the theoretical effort, the Principle Investigator (PI) proposed in the initial grant to collaborate with Dr. Maria Bartelt at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL). A graduate student, Dr. Guangwen Zhou, was supported within this DOE program for several months, where he was to collaborate with Dr. Bartelt. Unfortunately, Dr. Bartelt became very ill during this time and passed away in 2003. The focus of Dr. Zhou???????¢????????????????s thesis work (completed in December, 2003) was the wide

PI: Yang, Judith C., Mechanical Eng. & Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh; Co-PI: McGaughey, Alan, Mechanical Eng., Carnegie Mellon University; Sinnott, Susan and Phillpot, Simon, Materials Science & Eng., University of Florida

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

98

Interaction of iron-copper mixed metal oxide oxygen carriers with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to prepare supported bimetallic FeCu oxygen carriers and to evaluate their performance for the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal/air. Ten-cycle CLC tests were conducted with FeCu oxygen carriers in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer utilizing simulated synthesis gas derived from the steam gasification of Polish Janina coal and Illinois #6 coal as fuel. The effect of temperature on reaction rates, chemical stability, and oxygen transport capacity were determined. Fractional reduction, fractional oxidation, and global rates of reactions were calculated from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data. The supports greatly affected reaction performance. Data showed that reaction rates and oxygen capacities were stable during the 10-cycle TGA tests for most FeCu/support oxygen carriers. Bimetallic FeCu/support oxygen carriers showed higher reduction rates than Fe-support oxygen carriers. The carriers containing higher Cu content showed better stabilities and better reduction rates. An increase in temperature from 800 C to 900 C did not have a significant effect on either the oxygen capacity or the reduction rates with synthesis gas derived from Janina coal. Oxidation reaction was significantly faster than reduction reaction for all supported FeCu oxygen carriers. Carriers with higher Cu content had lower oxidation rates. Ten-cycle TGA data indicated that these oxygen carriers had stable performances at 800900 C and might be successfully used up to 900 C for coal CLC reaction in the presence of steam.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. [U.S. DOE; Ksepko, Ewelina; Tian, Hanging [URS

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Three-dimensional hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres of red giant stars. IV. Oxygen diagnostics in extremely metal-poor red giants with infrared OH lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Context. Although oxygen is an important tracer of Galactic chemical evolution, measurements of its abundance in the atmospheres of the oldest Galactic stars are still scarce and rather imprecise. At the lowest end of the metallicity scale, oxygen can only be measured in giant stars and in most of cases such measurements rely on a single forbidden [O I] 630 nm line that is very weak and frequently blended with telluric lines. Although molecular OH lines located in the ultraviolet and infrared could also be used for the diagnostics, oxygen abundances obtained from the OH lines and the [O I] 630 nm line are usually discrepant to a level of ~0.3-0.4 dex. Aims. We study the influence of convection on the formation of the infrared (IR) OH lines and the forbidden [O I] 630 nm line in the atmospheres of extremely metal-poor (EMP) red giant stars. Methods. We used high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectra of four EMP red giant stars obtained with the VLT CRIRES spectrograph. For each EMP star, 4-14 IR OH...

Dobrovolskas, V; Bonifacio, P; Caffau, E; Ludwig, H -G; Steffen, M; Spite, M

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Synthesis of Amine-Modified Aerogel Sorbents and Metal-Organic Framework-5 (MOF-5) Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Separation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Amine-modified solid sorbents and membrane separation are promising technologies for separation and capture of carbon dioxide (CO2) from combustion flue gas. Amine absorption processes are (more)

Rosa, Teresa M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Direct observation of both contact and remote oxygen scavenging of GeO{sub 2} in a metal-oxide-semiconductor stack  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the path to incorporating Ge based metal-oxide-semiconductor into modern nano-electronics, one of the main issues is the oxide-semiconductor interface quality. Here, the reactivity of Ti on Ge stacks and the scavenging effect of Ti were studied using synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, with an in-situ metal deposition and high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging. Oxygen removal from the Ge surface was observed both in direct contact as well as remotely through an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. The scavenging effect was studied in situ at room temperature and after annealing. We find that the reactivity of Ti can be utilized for improved scaling of Ge based devices.

Fadida, S., E-mail: sivanfa@tx.technion.ac.il; Shekhter, P.; Eizenberg, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Cvetko, D. [Laboratorio TASC/IOM-CNR, Area di ricerca, Trieste (Italy); Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Floreano, L.; Verdini, A. [Laboratorio TASC/IOM-CNR, Area di ricerca, Trieste (Italy); Nyns, L.; Van Elshocht, S. [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kymissis, I. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

102

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. This project has the following 6 main tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

The effects of wavelength, metals, and reactive oxygen species on the sunlight inactivation of microorganisms: observations and applications to the solar disinfection of drinking water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

singlet oxygen. Environmental Science & Technology 41(13),Oxygen Mediated Inactivation. Environmental Science & TechnologyOxygen Mediated Inactivation. Environmental Science & Technology

Fisher, Michael Benjamin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Computational identification of a metal organic framework for high selectivity membrane-based CO2/CH4 separations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is an important issue in natural gas processing1,2 and landfill gas recovery.3 Enormous reserves of natural gas an adsorption-based separation.17 The conflicting trends in adsorption and diffusion selectivity noted above

Nair, Sankar

105

Immobilized fluid membranes for gas separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Provided herein are immobilized liquid membranes for gas separation, methods of preparing such membranes and uses thereof. In one example, the immobilized membrane includes a porous metallic host matrix and an immobilized liquid fluid (such as a silicone oil) that is immobilized within one or more pores included within the porous metallic host matrix. The immobilized liquid membrane is capable of selective permeation of one type of molecule (such as oxygen) over another type of molecule (such as water). In some examples, the selective membrane is incorporated into a device to supply oxygen from ambient air to the device for electrochemical reactions, and at the same time, to block water penetration and electrolyte loss from the device.

Liu, Wei; Canfield, Nathan L; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Zhang, Jiguang

2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

106

Electrophoretic-like Gating Used To Control Metal-Insulator Transitions in Electronically Phase Separated Manganite Wires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

characteristics are shown to be fully reversible, polarity independent, and highly resistant to thermal breakdown, electrophoretic switching, transition metal oxides Resistive switching is observed across many different material, Elbio Dagotto,, Jian Shen,*,,# and T. Zac Ward*, Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge

Tennessee, University of

107

Role of metal components in Pd?Cu bimetallic catalysts supported on CeO2 for the oxygen-enhanced water gas shift  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Catalytic hydrogen production and CO removal in a post-reforming process are critical for low-temperature fuel cell applications. The present study aims at clarifying the role of metal components in bimetallic catalysts for oxygen-enhanced water gas shift (OWGS), wherein a small amount of O{sub 2} is added to H{sub 2}-rich reformate gas to enhance CO shift. Among CeO{sub 2}-supported bimetallic catalysts, Pd-Cu and Pt-Cu combinations were found to show strong synergetic promoting effect in OWGS, which leads to much higher CO conversion and higher H{sub 2} yield than WGS at low temperature around 250 C. Temperature programmed reduction (TPR) showed strong interaction between Pd and Cu in Pd-Cu/CeO{sub 2} by a single reduction peak in contrast to multiple peaks on monometallic Cu/CeO{sub 2}. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis revealed that such bimetallic Pd-Cu and Pt-Cu form alloy nanoparticles, where noble metal is mainly surrounded by Cu atoms. Oxygen storage capacity (OSC) measurements point to higher resistance of Pd-Cu to oxidation indicating that Pd keeps Cu in reduced state in air pulse condition. From kinetic study, Pd in Pd-Cu was found to promote CO shift, rather than CO oxidation by increasing the number of active sites and by suppressing H{sub 2} activation (that is inherent to monometallic Pd), which minimizes both the inhibition effect of H{sub 2} and the loss of H{sub 2} by oxidation in OWGS. Transient response technique revealed that Cu in Pd-Cu enhances desorption of strongly chemisorbed CO{sub 2} on catalyst surface in contrast to very slow CO{sub 2} desorption from surface of monometallic Pd. Thus, the excellent OWGS activity of Pd-Cu catalyst has been attributed to the complementary roles of the two metals for enhancing CO shift, which is realized by its alloy structure and the accompanying strong interaction between metal components.

Kugai, J.; Miller, J. T.; Guo, N.; Song, C. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); ( PSC-USR); (Penn State Univ.)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Chalcogels : porous metal-chalcogenide networks from main-group metal ions. Effect of surface polarizability on selectivity in gas separation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the synthesis of metal-chalcogenide gels and aerogels from anionic chalcogenide clusters and linking metal ions. Metal ions such as Sb{sup 3+} and Sn{sup 2+}, respectively chelated with tartrate and acetate ligands, react in solution with the chalcogenide clusters to form extended polymeric networks that exhibit gelation phenomena. Chalcogenide cluster anions with different charge densities, such as [Sn{sub 2}S{sub 6}]{sup 4-} and [SnS{sub 4}]{sup 4-}, were employed. In situ rheological measurements during gelation showed that a higher charge density on the chalcogenide cluster favors formation of a rigid gel network. Aerogels obtained from the gels after supercritical drying have BET surface areas from 114 to 368 m{sup 2}/g. Electron microscopy images coupled with nitrogen adsorption measurements showed the pores are micro (below 2 nm), meso (2-50 nm), and macro (above 50 nm) regions. These chalcogels possess band gaps in the range of 1.00-2.00 eV and selectively adsorb polarizable gases. A 2-fold increase in selectivity toward CO{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 6} over H{sub 2} was observed for the Pt/Sb/Ge{sub 4}Se{sub 10}-containing aerogel compared to aerogel containing Pt{sub 2}Ge{sub 4}S{sub 10}. The experimental results suggest that high selectivity in gas adsorption is achievable with high-surface-area chalcogenide materials containing heavy polarizable elements.

Bag, S.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.

2010-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

109

Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

Pal, Uday B

2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

110

Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced.

Kansa, Edward J. (Livermore, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); Wijesinghe, Ananda M. (Tracy, CA); Viani, Brian E. (Oakland, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced. 3 figs.

Kansa, E.J.; Anderson, B.L.; Wijesinghe, A.M.; Viani, B.E.

1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

112

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

113

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

114

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

Sallis, S.; Williams, D. S. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Butler, K. T.; Walsh, A. [Center for Sustainable Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Quackenbush, N. F. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Junda, M.; Podraza, N. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); White, B. E.; Piper, L. F. J., E-mail: lpiper@binghamton.edu [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States)

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

116

Adsorption and Separation of Light Gases on an Amino-Functionalized MetalOrganic Framework: An Adsorption and In Situ XRD Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) metal-organic framework was studied for its use in the separation of CO{sub 2} from CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2} C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} mixtures. Isotherms of methane, ethane, propane, hydrogen, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} were measured. The atypical shape of these isotherms is attributed to the breathing properties of the material, in which a transition from a very narrow pore form to a narrow pore form and from a narrow pore form to a large pore form occurs, depending on the total pressure and the nature of the adsorbate, as demonstrated by in-situ XRD patterns measured during adsorption. Apart from CO{sub 2}, all tested gases interacted weakly with the adsorbent. As a result, they are excluded from adsorption in the narrow pore form of the material at low pressure. CO{sub 2} interacted much more strongly and was adsorbed in significant amounts at low pressure. This gives the material excellent properties to separate CO{sub 2} from other gases. The separation of CO{sub 2} from methane, nitrogen, hydrogen, or a combination of these gases has been demonstrated by breakthrough experiments using pellets of NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al). The effect of total pressure (1-30 bar), gas composition, temperature (303-403 K) and contact time has been examined. In all cases, CO{sub 2} was selectively adsorbed, whereas methane, nitrogen, and hydrogen nearly did not adsorb at all. Regeneration of the adsorbent by thermal treatment, inert purge gas stripping, and pressure swing has been demonstrated. The NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) pellets retained their selectivity and capacity for more than two years.

Couck S.; Stavitski E.; Gobehiya, E.; Kirschhock, C.E.A.; Serra-Crespo, P.; Juan-Alcaniz, J.; Martinez Joaristi, A.; Gascon, J.; Kapteijn, F.; Baron, G. V.; Denayer J.F.M.

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

117

Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) ) : ,- Oxygen and Nitrogen Contamination During Arc Welding T. W. Eagar Department of }faterials, shielded metal arc, self-shielded metal arc, and submerged arc welding are reviewed. Calcu- lations upon heating is also discussed. Introduction Oxygen and nitrogen ~ontamination of weld metal

Eagar, Thomas W.

118

The effects of wavelength, metals, and reactive oxygen species on the sunlight inactivation of microorganisms: observations and applications to the solar disinfection of drinking water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contained in transparent plastic bottles: characterizing thepolyethylene terephthalate) plastic bottle, oxygenating themethod requires only plastic bottles, considered by many of

Fisher, Michael Benjamin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Evaluation of CuAl2O4 as an Oxygen Carrier in Chemical-Looping Mehdi Arjmand,*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaluation of CuAl2O4 as an Oxygen Carrier in Chemical-Looping Combustion Mehdi Arjmand,*, Abdul of Technology, SE-412 96 Goteborg, Sweden ABSTRACT: The chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process is a novel solution for efficient combustion with intrinsic separation of carbon dioxide. The process uses a metal

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

120

I-NERI ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An attractive alternative to the once-through disposal of electrorefiner salt is to selectively remove the active fission products from the salt and recycle the salt back to the electrorefiner (ER). This would allow salt reuse for some number of cycles before ultimate disposal of the salt in a ceramic waste form. Reuse of ER salt would, thus, greatly reduce the volume of ceramic waste produced during the pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This final portion of the joint I-NERI research project is to demonstrate the separation of fission products from molten ER salt by two methods previously selected during phase two (FY-08) of this project. The two methods selected were salt/zeolite contacting and rare-earth fission product precipitation by oxygen bubbling. The ER salt used in these tests came from the Mark-IV electrorefiner used to anodically dissolved driver fuel from the EBR-II reactor on the INL site. The tests were performed using the Hot Fuel Dissolution Apparatus (HFDA) located in the main cell of the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels complex on the INL site. Results from these tests were evaluated during a joint meeting of KAERI and INL investigators to provide recommendations as to the future direction of fission product removal from electrorefiner salt that accumulate during spent fuel treatment. Additionally, work continued on kinetic measurements of surrogate quaternary salt systems to provide fundamental kinetics on the ion exchange system and to expand the equilibrium model system developed during the first two phases of this project. The specific objectives of the FY09 I-NERI research activities at the INL include the following: Perform demonstration tests of the selected KAERI precipitation and INL salt/zeolite contacting processes for fission product removal using radioactive, fission product loaded ER salt Continue kinetic studies of the quaternary Cs/Sr-LiCl-KCl system to determine the rate of ion exchange during the salt/zeolite contacting process Compare the adsorption models to experimentally obtained, ER salt results Evaluate results obtained from the oxygen precipitation and salt/zeolite ion exchange studies to determine the best processes for selective fission-product removal from electrorefiner salt.

S. Frank

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

122

Mixed-Matric Membranes for CO2 and H2 Gas Separations Using Metal-Organic Framework and Mesoporus Hybrid Silicas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we have investigated the separation performance of polymer-based mixed-matrix membranes containing metal-organic frameworks and mesoporous hybrid silicas. The MOF/Matrimid{reg_sign} and MOP-18/Matrimid{reg_sign} membranes exhibited improved dispersion and mechanical strength that allowed high additive loadings with reduced aggregation, as is the case of the 80 wt% MOP-18/Matrimid{reg_sign} and the 80% (w/w) Cu-MOF/Matrimid{reg_sign} membranes. Membranes with up to 60% (w/w) ZIF-8 content exhibited similar mechanical strength and improved dispersion. The H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} separation properties of MOF/Matrimid{reg_sign} mixed-matrix membranes was improved by either keeping the selectivity constant and increasing the permeability (MOF-5, Cu-MOF) or by improving both selectivity and permeability (ZIF-8). In the case of MOF-5/Matrimid{reg_sign} mixed-matrix membranes, the H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity was kept at 2.6 and the H{sub 2} permeability increased from 24.4 to 53.8 Barrers. For the Cu-MOF/Matrimid{reg_sign} mixed-matrix membranes, the H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity was kept at 2.05 and the H{sub 2} permeability increased from 17.1 to 158 Barrers. These two materials introduced porosity and uniform paths that enhanced the gas transport in the membranes. When ZIF-8/Matrimid{reg_sign} mixed-matrix membranes were studied, the H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity increased from 2.9 to 4.4 and the permeability of H{sub 2} increased from 26.5 to 35.8 Barrers. The increased H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity in ZIF-8/Matrimid{reg_sign} membranes was explained by the sieving effect introduced by the ZIF-8 crystals (pore window 0.34 nm) that restricted the transport of molecules larger than H{sub 2}. Materials with microporous and/or mesoporous cavities like carbon aerogel composites with zeolite A and zeolite Y, and membranes containing mesoporous ZSM-5 showed sieving effects for small molecules (e.g. H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}), however, the membranes were most selective for CO{sub 2} due to the strong interaction of the zeolites with CO{sub 2}. For example, at 30 wt% ZSM-5 loading, the CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} selectivity increased from 34.7 (Matrimid{reg_sign}) to 56.4. The large increase in selectivity was the result of the increase in CO{sub 2} permeability from 7.3 (Matrimid{reg_sign}) to 14.6 Barrers. At 30 wt% ZSM-5 loading, the H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation was also improved from 83.3 (Matrimid{reg_sign}) to 136.7 with an increase in H{sub 2} permeability from 17.5 (Matrimid{reg_sign}) to 35.3 Barrers. The 10% carbon aerogel-zeolite A and -zeolite Y composite/Matrimid{reg_sign} membranes exhibited an increase in the CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} separation from 34.7 to 71.5 (zeolite A composite) and to 57.4 (zeolite Y composite); in addition, the membrane exhibited an increase in the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation from 33.1 to 50 (zeolite A composite) and to 49.4 (zeolite Y composite), indicating that these type of materials have affinity for CO{sub 2}. The inclusion of mesoporosity enhanced the dispersion of the additive allowing loadings of up to 30% (w/w) without the formation of non-selective voids.

Inga Musselman; Kenneth Balkus, Jr.; John Ferraris

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

123

Oxygen analyzer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

Benner, William H. (Danville, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Oxygen analyzer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

Benner, W.H.

1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

125

Oxygen Detection via Nanoscale Optical Indicators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen Detection via Nanoscale Optical Indicators Ruby N. Ghosh Dept. of Physics Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, USA weekschr@msu.edu Abstract--Oxygen plays a ubiquitous role in terrestrial developed an optical technique for monitoring oxygen in both gas and liquid phases utilizing nanoscale metal

Ghosh, Ruby N.

126

Composite metal membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

Peachey, Nathaniel M. (Espanola, NM); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Ronny C. (Los Alamos, NM); Birdsell, Stephan A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Composite metal membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

128

Device for hydrogen separation and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for hydrogen separation has a porous support and hydrogen separation material on the support. The support is prepared by heat treatment of metal microparticles, preferably of iron-based or nickel-based alloys that also include aluminum and/or yttrium. The hydrogen separation material is then deposited on the support. Preferred hydrogen separation materials include metals such as palladium, alloys, platinum, refractory metals, and alloys.

Paglieri, Stephen N. (White Rock, NM); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert L. (Ames, IA)

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

129

Ultracapacitor separator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultracapacitor includes two solid, nonporous current collectors, two porous electrodes separating the collectors, a porous separator between the electrodes and an electrolyte occupying the pores in the electrodes and separator. The electrolyte is a polar aprotic organic solvent and a salt. The porous separator comprises a wet laid cellulosic material.

Wei, Chang (Niskayuna, NY); Jerabek, Elihu Calvin (Glenmont, NY); LeBlanc, Jr., Oliver Harris (Schenectady, NY)

2001-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

130

A New Technique for Joining Ceramic and Metal Components in High Temperature Electrochemical Devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal is a potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present quarter, the possibility of using a more complex interfacial engineering approach to the development of reliable and stable oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes/metal seals is discussed. Experiments are presented and ceramic/metal interactions are characterized. Crack growth and fracture toughness of the membrane in the reducing conditions are also discussed. Future work regarding this approach is proposed are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu.sub.5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo.sub.4 and CaNi.sub.5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors.

Aldridge, Frederick T. (Livermore, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Neptunium separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two procedures for the separation of Np are presented; the first involves separation of /sup 239/Np from irradiated /sup 238/U, and the second involves separation of /sup 237/Np from a solution representing that from a dissolved fuel element.

Wild, J.F.

1983-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

134

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers the following tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints; Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability; Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres; Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures; Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability; and Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

The Fundamental Role of Nano-Scale Oxide Films in the Oxidation of Hydrogen and the Reduction of Oxygen on Noble Metal Electrocatalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The derivation of successful fuel cell technologies requires the development of more effective, cheaper, and poison-resistant electrocatalysts for both the anode (H{sub 2} oxidation in the presence of small amounts of CO from the reforming of carbonaceous fuels) and the cathode (reduction of oxygen in the presence of carried-over fuel). The proposed work is tightly focused on one specific aspect of electrocatalysis; the fundamental role(s) played by nanoscale (1-2 nm thick) oxide (''passive'') films that form on the electrocatalyst surfaces above substrate-dependent, critical potentials, on charge transfer reactions, particularly at elevated temperatures (25 C < T < 200 C). Once the role(s) of these films is (are) adequately understood, we will then use this information to specify, at the molecular level, optimal properties of the passive layer for the efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction.

Digby Macdonald

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared with the results from the previous batch.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of simultaneously removing SO/sub 2/ and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO/sub 2/ and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Wingender, R.J.

1985-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

138

Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets.

Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA); Jones, Lawrence L. (Des Moines, IA); Lincoln, Lanny P. (Woodward, IA)

1992-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

139

Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. 3 figs.

Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.; Lincoln, L.P.

1992-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

140

Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The conversion of coal into gaseous and liquid fuels and chemical feedstock will require large quantities of oxygen. This oxygen will be produced in large multi-train air separation plants which will consume about 350 kilowatt hours of energy...

Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Advances in studying bioinorganic reaction mechanisms: isotopic probes of activated oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advances in studying bioinorganic reaction mechanisms: isotopic probes of activated oxygen intermediates in metalloenzymes Justine P Roth Metalloenzymes catalyze reactions of molecular oxygen and its reduced forms through the controlled formation of metal- bound, activated oxygen intermediates

Roth, Justine P.

142

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

146

Composite oxygen transport membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

147

Composite oxygen ion transport element  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Besecker, Charles J. (Batavia, IL); Chen, Hancun (Williamsville, NY); Robinson, Earil T. (Mentor, OH)

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

148

Recent Development of SOFC Metallic Interconnect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interest in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) stems from their higher eciencies and lower levels of emitted pollu- tants, compared to traditional power production methods. Interconnects are a critical part in SOFC stacks, which connect cells in series electrically, and also separate air or oxygen at the cathode side from fuel at the anode side. Therefore, the requirements of interconnects are the most demanding, i:e:, to maintain high elec- trical conductivity, good stability in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and close coecient of thermal expansion (CTE) match and good compatibility with other SOFC ceramic components. The paper reviewed the interconnect materials, and coatings for metallic interconnect materials.

Wu JW, Liu XB

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Mobilization of Metals from Eau Claire Siltstone and the Impact...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Metals from Eau Claire Siltstone and the Impact of Oxygen under Geological Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Mobilization of Metals from Eau Claire Siltstone and the...

150

Composite hydrogen separation element and module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There are disclosed improvements in multicomponent composite metal membranes useful for the separation of hydrogen, the improvements comprising the provision of a flexible porous intermediate layer between a support layer and a nonporous hydrogen-permeable coating metal layer, and the provision of a textured coating metal layer. 15 figs.

Edlund, D.J.

1996-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

151

Method for preparing metal powder, device for preparing metal powder, method for processing spent nuclear fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing metal powder is provided the comprising supplying a molten bath containing a reducing agent, contacting a metal oxide with the molten bath for a time and at a temperature sufficient to reduce the metal in the metal oxide to elemental metal and produce free oxygen; and isolating the elemental metal from the molten bath.

Park, Jong-Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

152

Center for Gas Separations Relevant to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Center for Gas Separations Relevant to Clean Energy Technologies #12;Director Berend Smit Jeffrey, metal-organic framework. © 2013 EFRC Center for Gas Separation Relevant to Clean Energy Technology. All the current separation technology, developed over sixty years ago, requires 25-35% more coal to produce

Cohen, Ronald C.

153

Separation system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A separation system for dewatering radioactive waste materials includes a disposal container, drive structure for receiving the container, and means for releasably attaching the container to the drive structure. Separation structure disposed in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure retains solids while allowing passage of liquids. Inlet port structure in the container top wall is normally closed by first valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the inlet port and discharge port structure at the container periphery receives liquid that passes through the separation structure and is normally closed by second valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the discharge ports. The container also includes coupling structure for releasable engagement with the centrifugal drive structure. Centrifugal force produced when the container is driven in rotation by the drive structure opens the valve structures, and radioactive waste material introduced into the container through the open inlet port is dewatered, and the waste is compacted. The ports are automatically closed by the valves when the container drum is not subjected to centrifugal force such that containment effectiveness is enhanced and exposure of personnel to radioactive materials is minimized.

Rubin, Leslie S. (Newton, MA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

Royer, Lamar T. (Knoxville, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

In Situ Studies of the Active Sites for the Water Gas Shift Reaction over Cu-CeO2 Catalysts: Complex Interaction Between Metallic Copper and Oxygen Vacancies of Ceria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New information about the active sites for the water gas shift (WGS) reaction over Cu-CeO{sub 2} systems was obtained using in-situ, time-resolved X-ray diffraction (TR-XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (TR-XAS, Cu K and Ce L3 edges), and infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Cu-CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles prepared by a novel reversed microemulsion method (doped Ce1-xCuxO2 sample) and an impregnation method (impregnated CuO{sub x}/CeO{sub 2} sample) were studied. The results from all of the samples indicate that both metallic copper and oxygen vacancies in ceria were involved in the generation of active sites for the WGS reaction. Evidence was found for a synergistic Cu-O vacancy interaction. This interaction enhances the chemical activity of Cu, and the presence of Cu facilitates the formation of O vacancies in ceria under reaction conditions. Water dissociation occurred on the O vacancy sites or the Cu-O vacancy interface. No significant amounts of formate were formed on the catalysts during the WGS reaction. The presence of strongly bound carbonates is an important factor for the deactivation of the catalysts at high temperatures. This work identifies for the first time the active sites for the WGS reaction on Cu-CeO{sub 2} catalysts and illustrates the importance of in situ structural studies for heterogeneous catalytic reactions.

Wang,X.; Rodriguez, J.; Hanson, J.; Gamarra, D.; Martinez-Arias, A.; Fernandez-Garcia, M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Innovative Separations Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reprocessing used nuclear fuel (UNF) is a multi-faceted problem involving chemistry, material properties, and engineering. Technology options are available to meet a variety of processing goals. A decision about which reprocessing method is best depends significantly on the process attributes considered to be a priority. New methods of reprocessing that could provide advantages over the aqueous Plutonium Uranium Reduction Extraction (PUREX) and Uranium Extraction + (UREX+) processes, electrochemical, and other approaches are under investigation in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) Separations Campaign. In an attempt to develop a revolutionary approach to UNF recycle that may have more favorable characteristics than existing technologies, five innovative separations projects have been initiated. These include: (1) Nitrogen Trifluoride for UNF Processing; (2) Reactive Fluoride Gas (SF6) for UNF Processing; (3) Dry Head-end Nitration Processing; (4) Chlorination Processing of UNF; and (5) Enhanced Oxidation/Chlorination Processing of UNF. This report provides a description of the proposed processes, explores how they fit into the Modified Open Cycle (MOC) and Full Recycle (FR) fuel cycles, and identifies performance differences when compared to 'reference' advanced aqueous and fluoride volatility separations cases. To be able to highlight the key changes to the reference case, general background on advanced aqueous solvent extraction, advanced oxidative processes (e.g., volumetric oxidation, or 'voloxidation,' which is high temperature reaction of oxide UNF with oxygen, or modified using other oxidizing and reducing gases), and fluorination and chlorination processes is provided.

J. Tripp; N. Soelberg; R. Wigeland

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

On the maximum value of the cosmic abundance of oxygen and the oxygen yield  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We search for the maximum oxygen abundance in spiral galaxies. Because this maximum value is expected to occur in the centers of the most luminous galaxies, we have constructed the luminosity - central metallicity diagram for spiral galaxies, based on a large compilation of existing data on oxygen abundances of HII regions in spiral galaxies. We found that this diagram shows a plateau at high luminosities (-22.3 oxygen abundance 12+log(O/H) ~ 8.87. This provides strong evidence that the oxygen abundance in the centers of the most luminous metal-rich galaxies reaches the maximum attainable value of oxygen abundance. Since some fraction of the oxygen (about 0.08 dex) is expected to be locked into dust grains, the maximum value of the true gas+dust oxygen abundance in spiral galaxies is 12+log(O/H) ~ 8.95. This value is a factor of ~ 2 higher than the recently estimated solar value. Based on the derived maximum oxygen abundance in galaxies, we found the oxygen yield to be about 0.0035, depending on the fraction of oxygen incorporated into dust grains.

L. S. Pilyugin; T. X. Thuan; J. M. Vilchez

2007-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

158

Surface Science 425 (1999) 114 Non-adiabatic charge transfer process of oxygen on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface Science 425 (1999) 1­14 Non-adiabatic charge transfer process of oxygen on metal surfaces November 1998 Abstract The dynamics of charge transfer processes of oxygen on metal surfaces a different charged oxygen species. Empirical universal potential energy functions have been constructed

Zeiri, Yehuda

159

Oxygen and Nitroaen Contamination During Submerged Arc Wel ding of Titanium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) ) ) ··- -~ Oxygen and Nitroaen Contamination During Submerged Arc Wel ding of Titanium T· \\v· Eagar* The oxygen content of ti tanium submerged arc wel ~ metal is primaril y derendent uron the purity of the fluo1~ ide fluxes, but it is shown here that the oxygen content of the weld metal may be affected

Eagar, Thomas W.

160

Particle separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Embodiments of a method for selecting particles, such as based on their morphology, is disclosed. In a particular example, the particles are charged and acquire different amounts of charge, or have different charge distributions, based on their morphology. The particles are then sorted based on their flow properties. In a specific example, the particles are sorted using a differential mobility analyzer, which sorts particles, at least in part, based on their electrical mobility. Given a population of particles with similar electrical mobilities, the disclosed process can be used to sort particles based on the net charge carried by the particle, and thus, given the relationship between charge and morphology, separate the particles based on their morphology.

Moosmuller, Hans (Reno, NV); Chakrabarty, Rajan K. (Reno, NV); Arnott, W. Patrick (Reno, NV)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was carried out on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} to investigate oxygen deficiency ({delta}) of the sample. The TGA was performed in a controlled atmosphere using oxygen, argon, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with adjustable gas flow rates. In this experiment, the weight loss and gain of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} was directly measured by TGA. The weight change of the sample was evaluated at between 600 and 1250 C in air or 1000 C as a function of oxygen partial pressure. The oxygen deficiencies calculated from TGA data as a function of oxygen activity and temperature will be estimated and compared with that from neutron diffraction measurement in air. The LSFT and LSFT/CGO membranes were fabricated from the powder obtained from Praxair Specialty Ceramics. The sintered membranes were subjected to microstructure analysis and hardness analysis. The LSFT membrane is composed of fine grains with two kinds of grain morphology. The grain size distribution was characterized using image analysis. In LSFT/CGO membrane a lot of grain pullout was observed from the less dense, porous phase. The hardness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes were studied at various loads. The hardness values obtained from the cross section of the membranes were also compared to that of the values obtained from the surface. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. Measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} as a function of temperature an oxygen partial pressure are reported. Further analysis of the dilatometry data obtained previously is presented. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Separation Processes, Second Edition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by; Uranium isotopes separation) Iteration methods (seemethod for activity coefficients, 43, 481 Uranium isotopes separation,

King, C. Judson

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Separators - Technology review: Ceramic based separators for secondary batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Besides a continuous increase of the worldwide use of electricity, the electric energy storage technology market is a growing sector. At the latest since the German energy transition ('Energiewende') was announced, technological solutions for the storage of renewable energy have been intensively studied. Storage technologies in various forms are commercially available. A widespread technology is the electrochemical cell. Here the cost per kWh, e. g. determined by energy density, production process and cycle life, is of main interest. Commonly, an electrochemical cell consists of an anode and a cathode that are separated by an ion permeable or ion conductive membrane - the separator - as one of the main components. Many applications use polymeric separators whose pores are filled with liquid electrolyte, providing high power densities. However, problems arise from different failure mechanisms during cell operation, which can affect the integrity and functionality of these separators. In the case of excessive heating or mechanical damage, the polymeric separators become an incalculable security risk. Furthermore, the growth of metallic dendrites between the electrodes leads to unwanted short circuits. In order to minimize these risks, temperature stable and non-flammable ceramic particles can be added, forming so-called composite separators. Full ceramic separators, in turn, are currently commercially used only for high-temperature operation systems, due to their comparably low ion conductivity at room temperature. However, as security and lifetime demands increase, these materials turn into focus also for future room temperature applications. Hence, growing research effort is being spent on the improvement of the ion conductivity of these ceramic solid electrolyte materials, acting as separator and electrolyte at the same time. Starting with a short overview of available separator technologies and the separator market, this review focuses on ceramic-based separators. Two prominent examples, the lithium-ion and sodium-sulfur battery, are described to show the current stage of development. New routes are presented as promising technologies for safe and long-life electrochemical storage cells.

Nestler, Tina; Schmid, Robert; Mnchgesang, Wolfram; Bazhenov, Vasilii; Meyer, Dirk C. [Technische Universitt Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fr Experimentelle Physik, Leipziger Str. 23, 09596 Freiberg (Germany); Schilm, Jochen [Fraunhofer-Institut fr Keramische Technologien und Systeme IKTS, Winterbergstrae 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Leisegang, Tilmann [Fraunhofer-Technologiezentrum Halbleitermaterialien THM, Am St.-Niclas-Schacht 13, 09599 Freiberg (Germany)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

164

Electronic structure of perovskite oxide surfaces at elevated temperatures and its correlation with oxygen reduction reactivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective is to understand the origin of the local oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity on the basis of the local electronic structure at the surface of transition metal oxides at elevated temperatures and in oxygen ...

Chen, Yan, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ti doping on La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF) tends to increase the oxygen equilibration kinetics of LSF in lower oxygen activity environment because of the high valence state of Ti. However, the addition of Ti decreases the total conductivity because the acceptor ([Sr{prime}{sub La}]) is compensated by the donor ([Ti{sub Fe}{sup {sm_bullet}}]) which decreases the carrier concentration. The properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSFT, x = 0.45) have been experimentally and theoretically investigated to elucidate (1) the dependence of oxygen occupancy and electrochemical properties on temperature and oxygen activity by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (2) the electrical conductivity and carrier concentration by Seebeck coefficient and electrical measurements. In the present study, dual phase (La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) membranes have been evaluated for structural properties such as hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength. The effect of high temperature and slightly reducing atmosphere on the structural properties of the membranes was studied. The flexural strength of the membrane decreases upon exposure to slightly reducing conditions at 1000 C. The as-received and post-fractured membranes were characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA to understand the fracture mechanisms. Changes in structural properties of the composite were sought to be correlated with the physiochemical features of the two-phases. We have reviewed the electrical conductivity data and stoichiometry data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} some of which was reported previously. Electrical conductivity data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCrF) were obtained in the temperature range, 752 {approx} 1055 C and in the pO{sub 2} range, 10{sup -18} {approx} 0.5 atm. The slope of the plot of log {sigma} vs. log pO{sub 2} is {approx} 1/5 in the p-type region, pO{sub 2} = 10{sup -5} {approx} 10{sup -1} atm. The pO{sub 2} at which the p-n transition is observed increases with increasing temperature. The activation energy for ionic conduction was estimated to be 0.86 eV from an Arrhenius plot of the minimum conductivity vs. reciprocal temperature. At temperatures below 940 C, a plateau in the conductivity isotherm suggests the presence of a two-phase region. Most likely, phase separation occurs to form a mixture of a perovskite phase and an oxygen vacancy ordered phase related to brownmillerite. Additional data for the oxygen non stoichiometry are presented.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

166

Artificial oxygen transport protein  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

Dutton, P. Leslie

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

167

Phosphazene membranes for gas separations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polyphosphazene having a glass transition temperature ("Tg") of approximately -20.degree. C. or less. The polyphosphazene has at least one pendant group attached to a backbone of the polyphosphazene, wherein the pendant group has no halogen atoms. In addition, no aromatic groups are attached to an oxygen atom that is bound to a phosphorus atom of the backbone. The polyphosphazene may have a Tg ranging from approximately -100.degree. C. to approximately -20.degree. C. The polyphosphazene may be selected from the group consisting of poly[bis-3-phenyl-1-propoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(2-phenyl-1-ethoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(dodecanoxypolyethoxy)-phosphazene], and poly[bis-(2-(2-(2-.omega.-undecylenyloxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene]. The polyphosphazene may be used in a separation membrane to selectively separate individual gases from a gas mixture, such as to separate polar gases from nonpolar gases in the gas mixture.

Stewart, Frederick F.; Harrup, Mason K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.

2006-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

168

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C. It was found that space group of R3c yielded a better refinement than a cubic structure of Pm3m. Oxygen occupancy was nearly 3 in the region from room temperature to 700 C, above which the occupancy decreased due to oxygen loss. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. The X-Ray data and fracture mechanisms points to non-equilibrium decomposition of the LSFCO OTM membrane. The non-equilibrium conditions could probably be due to the nature of the applied stress field (stressing rates) and leads to transition in crystal structures and increased kinetics of decomposition. The formations of a Brownmillerite or Sr2Fe2O5 type structures, which are orthorhombic are attributed to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The cubic to orthorhombic transitions leads to 2.6% increase in strains and thus residual stresses generated could influence the fracture behavior of the OTM membrane. Continued investigations on the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase-separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials were carried out. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previously characterization, stoichiometry and conductivity measurements for samples of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were reported. In this report, measurements of the chemical and thermal expansion as a function of temperature and p{sub O2} are described.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Modeling of surface oxidation and oxidation induced damage in metal matrix composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface oxidation in metal matrix composites (MMC's) is modeled by Fickian diffusion of oxygen in both the oxide layer and metal matrix. The oxidation process and the resulting immobilized oxygen at the interface is accounted for by the introduction...

Ma, Xinzheng

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Solid state oxygen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

Garzon, Fernando H. (Sante Fe, NM); Chung, Brandon W. (Los Alamos, NM); Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Dempsey, Michael D. (Revere, MA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Liquid Metal Transformers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Haverford Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PG-ES1, that uses a combination of surface adsorption and narrow pores to separate carbon dioxide from nitrogen, oxygen, and methane gases. Image by Joshua Schrier, Haverford...

175

Hybrid System for Separating Oxygen from Air - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinement plasmasSandy-Nor'easter SituationHybrid Hybrid

176

Nanoscale Phase Separation, Cation Ordering, and Surface Oxygen Chemistry  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andData andFleetEngineering Of Radiation Tolerant SiliconStudied

177

Development of Brazing Technology for Use in High- Temperature Gas Separation Equipment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of high-temperature electrochemical devices such as oxygen and hydrogen separators, fuel gas reformers, solid oxide fuel cells, and chemical sensors is part of a rapidly expanding segment of the solid state technology market. These devices employ an ionic conducting ceramic as the active membrane that establishes the electrochemical potential of the device, either under voltage (i.e. to carry out gas separation) or under chemical gradient (to develop an electrical potential and thereby generate electrical power). Because the device operates under an ionic gradient that develops across the electrolyte, hermiticity across this layer is paramount. That is, not only must this thin ceramic membrane be dense with no interconnected porosity, but it must be connected to the rest of the device, typically constructed from a heat resistant alloy, with a high-temperature, gas-tight seal. A significant engineering challenge in fabricating these devices is how to effectively join the thin electrochemically active membrane to the metallic body of the device such that the resulting seal is hermetic, rugged, and stable during continuous high temperature operation. Active metal brazing is the typical method of joining ceramic and metal engineering components. It employs a braze alloy that contains one or more reactive elements, often titanium, which will chemically reduce the ceramic faying surface and greatly improve its wetting behavior and adherence with the braze. However, recent studies of these brazes for potential use in fabricating high-temperature electrochemical devices revealed problems with interfacial oxidation and subsequent joint failure [1,2]. Specifically, it was found that the introduction of the ceramic electrolyte and/or heat resistant metal substrate dramatically affects the inherent oxidation behavior of the braze, often in a deleterious manner. These conclusions pointed to the need for an oxidation resistant, high-temperature ceramic-to-metal braze and consequently lead to the development of the novel reactive air brazing (RAB) concept. The goal in RAB is to reactively modify one or both oxide faying surfaces with an oxide compound dissolved in a molten noble metal alloy such that the newly formed surface is readily wetted by the remaining liquid filler material. In many respects, this concept is similar to active metal brazing, except that joining can be conducted in air and the final joint will be resistant to oxidation at high temperature. Potentially, there are a number of metal oxide-noble metal systems that can be considered for RAB, including Ag-CuO, Ag-V2O5, and Pt-Nb2O5. Our current interest is in determining whether the Ag-CuO system is suitable for air brazing functional ceramic-to-metal joints such as those needed in practical electrochemical devices. In a series of studies, the wetting behavior of the Ag-CuO braze was investigated with respect to a number of potential hydrogen separation, oxygen separation, and fuel cell electrolyte membrane materials and heat resistant metal systems, including: alumina, (La0.6Sr0.4)(Co0.2Fe0.8)O3, (La0.8Sr0.2)FeO3, YSZ, fecralloy, and Crofer-22APU. Selected findings from these studies as well as from our work on joint strength and durability during high-temperature exposure testing will be discussed.

Weil, K.S.; Hardy, J.S.; Kim, J.Y.

2003-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

178

Oxygen enriched fireflooding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both pure oxygen and enriched air have been considered in fireflooding for enhanced oil recovery. Laboratory and field testing have conclusively shown that oxygen is practical and cost effective for this application. For reservoirs that require a large volume of high pressure gas, oxygen is cheaper than air simply based on compression costs. Additional process benefits with oxygen include: Faster Oil Production; Lower Injection Pressure; Greater Well Spacing; Increased Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure; Lower Gas-to-Oil Ratios; and Purer Produced Gas. These features provide a compelling case for oxygen, once the safety and materials compatibility issues are properly addressed.

Shahani, G.H.; Gunardson, H.H. [Air Products and Chemicals, Allentown, PA (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Oxygen partial pressure sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

Dees, D.W.

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the local environmentals of LSFT with various level of oxygen deficiency. Ionic valence state, magnetic interaction and influence of Ti on superexchange are discussed Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at elevated temperature, pressure and elevated conditions. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. The initial measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Neutron diffraction measurements of the same composition are in agreement with both the stoichiometry and the kinetic behavior observed in coulometric titration measurements. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The COCO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

2003-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

183

MOLTEN OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS FOR LUNAR OXYGEN GENERATION USING IN-SITU RESOURCES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MOLTEN OXIDE ELECTROLYSIS FOR LUNAR OXYGEN GENERATION USING IN-SITU RESOURCES A.T. Vai1 , J.; Woburn, MA, 01801, USA Keywords: ISRU, Molten Oxide Electrolysis, Inert Anode, Oxygen Generation Abstract technology for generating oxygen from lunar regolith simulant. Prior to this work, iridium metal was the only

Sadoway, Donald Robert

184

MassMass transfer andtransfer and separation technologyseparation technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- kemiteknik - Vrme- och strmningsteknik Biskopsgatan 8, 20500 bo 4 #12;Example: Natural gas separationExample: Natural gas separationeknik Example: Natural gas separationExample: Natural gas separation .htmlSepa A porous polymer, ceramic or metal, or A liquid or gas N l l b 4 erfringo Natural polymers may be wood

Zevenhoven, Ron

185

Cobalt discovery replaces precious metals as industrial catalyst  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

- The new material has the highest oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in alkaline media of any non-precious metal catalyst developed to date. Los Alamos research better...

186

Role of Metal Coordination Structures in Enhancement of Electrocatalyt...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Structures in Enhancement of Electrocatalytic Activity of Ternary Nanoalloys for Oxygen Reduction Role of Metal Coordination Structures in Enhancement of Electrocatalytic...

187

Use of exhaust gas as sweep flow to enhance air separation membrane performance  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An intake air separation system for an internal combustion engine is provided with purge gas or sweep flow on the permeate side of separation membranes in the air separation device. Exhaust gas from the engine is used as a purge gas flow, to increase oxygen flux in the separation device without increasing the nitrogen flux.

Dutart, Charles H. (Washington, IL); Choi, Cathy Y. (Morton, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Chemisorption and catalysis by metal clusters. II. Chemisorption of carbon monoxide and of oxygen by supported osmium clusters derived from Os/sub 3/(CO)/sub 12/ and from Os/sub 6/(CO)/sub 18/  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide and oxygen have been chemisorbed at 293 K on the high-nuclearity carbonyl-protected clusters (the various species A) obtained by heating in vacuo to 523 K Os/sub 3/(CO)/sub 12/ or Os/sub 6/(CO)/sub 18/ impregnated on silica, alumina, or titania. The adsorption isotherms have a conventional appearance, but most are composed of a primary and a secondary region. Material adsorbed in the secondary region is removed by evacuation at room temperature whereas that adsorbed in the primary region is removed by evacuation at elevated temperatures. For species A/alumina and the species A/titania the primary region is complete and the secondary region commences when the pressure over the adsorbent is 0.2 Torr. Species A/silica gave no secondary region in oxygen adsorption. Adsorption and subsequent temperature-programmed desorption of (/sup 18/O)CO occurred without any dilution by (/sup 16/O)CO, indicating that ligand-(/sup 16/O)CO and adsorbed-(/sup 18/O)CO do not exchange even at elevated temperatures. The two species A/aluminas catalyzed oxygen isotope exchange at 293 K. From the experimental evidence it is deduced that carbon monoxide and oxygen each adsorbs molecularly in both the primary and the secondary regions. In the primary region carbon monoxide adsorption occurs at osmium sites on the cluster framework, whereas in the secondary region it occurs at ligand-carbon bonded to osmium. For oxygen, adsorption in the primary region is again at osmium sites on the cluster framework but that in the secondary region is at osmium sites of the cluster framework suitably modified as a result of the support-cluster interaction.

Hunt, D.J.; Jackson, S.D.; Moyes, R.B.; Wells, P.B.; Whyman, R.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Advanced Sorbents as a Versatile Platform for Gas Separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The program objective was to develop materials and processes for industrial gas separations to reduce energy use and enable waste reduction. The approach chosen combined novel oxygen selective adsorbents and pressure swing adsorption (PSA) processes. Preliminary materials development and process simulation results indicated that oxygen selective adsorbents could provide a versatile platform for industrial gas separations. If fully successful, this new technology offered the potential for reducing the cost of producing nitrogen/oxygen co-products, high purity nitrogen, argon, and possibly oxygen. The potential energy savings for the gas separations are appreciable, but the end users are the main beneficiaries. Lowering the cost of industrial gases expands their use in applications that can employ them for reducing energy consumption and emissions.

Neil Stephenson

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

190

Upgrading platform using alkali metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

Gordon, John Howard

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

191

Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing gas. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream. 1 fig.

Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.

1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

192

Preparation of metal-catecholate frameworks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The disclosure provides for metal catecholate frameworks, and methods of use thereof, including gas separation, gas storage, catalysis, tunable conductors, supercapacitors, and sensors.

Yaghi, Omar M.; Gandara-Barragan, Felipe; Lu, Zheng; Wan, Shun

2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

193

Liquid Metal Transformers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clarified. Such events are hard to achieve otherwise on rigid metal or conventional liquid spheres. This finding has both fundamental and practical significances which suggest a generalized way of making smart soft machine, collecting discrete metal fluids, as well as flexibly manipulating liquid metal objects including accompanying devices.

Lei Sheng; Jie Zhang; Jing Liu

2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

194

Electrolytic production of metals using a resistant anode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolytic process comprising evolving oxygen on an anode in a molten salt, the anode comprising an alloy comprising a first metal and a second metal, both metals forming oxides, the oxide of the first metal being more resistant than the second metal to attack by the molten salt, the oxide of the second metal being more resistant than the first metal to the diffusion of oxygen. The electrode may also be formed of CuAlO.sub.2 and/or Cu.sub.2 O.

Tarcy, Gary P. (Plum Borough, PA); Gavasto, Thomas M. (New Kensington, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Plum Borough, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Electrolytic production of metals using a resistant anode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrolytic process is described comprising evolving oxygen on an anode in a molten salt, the anode comprising an alloy comprising a first metal and a second metal, both metals forming oxides, the oxide of the first metal being more resistant than the second metal to attack by the molten salt, the oxide of the second metal being more resistant than the first metal to the diffusion of oxygen. The electrode may also be formed of CuAlO[sub 2] and/or Cu[sub 2]O. 2 figs.

Tarcy, G.P.; Gavasto, T.M.; Ray, S.P.

1986-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

196

Oxygen Handling and Cooling Options in High Temperature Electrolysis Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory is working on a project to generate hydrogen by high temperature electrolysis (HTE). In such an HTE system, safety precautions need to be taken to handle high temperature oxygen at ~830C. This report is aimed at addressing oxygen handling in a HTE plant.. Though oxygen itself is not flammable, most engineering material, including many gases and liquids, will burn in the presence of oxygen under some favorable physicochemical conditions. At present, an absolute set of rules does not exist that can cover all aspects of oxygen system design, material selection, and operating practices to avoid subtle hazards related to oxygen. Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite in an oxygen-enriched environment at a temperature lower than that in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Even many metals, if ignited, burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment. However, these hazards do not preclude the operations and systems involving oxygen. Oxygen can be safely handled and used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. In fact, the incidence of oxygen system fires is reported to be low with a probability of about one in a million. This report is a practical guideline and tutorial for the safe operation and handling of gaseous oxygen in high temperature electrolysis system. The intent is to provide safe, practical guidance that permits the accomplishment of experimental operations at INL, while being restrictive enough to prevent personnel endangerment and to provide reasonable facility protection. Adequate guidelines are provided to govern various aspects of oxygen handling associated with high temperature electrolysis system to generate hydrogen. The intent here is to present acceptable oxygen standards and practices for minimum safety requirements. A summary of operational hazards, along with oxygen safety and emergency procedures, are provided.

Manohar S. Sohal; J. Stephen Herring

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Oxygen abundance in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present two samples of $\\hii$ galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic observations data release 3. The electron temperatures($T_e$) of 225 galaxies are calculated with the photoionized $\\hii$ model and $T_e$ of 3997 galaxies are calculated with an empirical method. The oxygen abundances from the $T_e$ methods of the two samples are determined reliably. The oxygen abundances from a strong line metallicity indicator, such as $R_{23}$, $P$, $N2$, and $O3N2$, are also calculated. We compared oxygen abundances of $\\hii$ galaxies obtained with the $T_e$ method, $R_{23}$ method, $P$ method, $N2$ method, and $O3N2$method. The oxygen abundances derived with the $T_e$ method are systematically lower by $\\sim$0.2 dex than those derived with the $R_{23}$ method, consistent with previous studies based on $\\hii$ region samples. No clear offset for oxygen abundance was found between $T_e$ metallicity and $P$, $N2$ and $O3N2$ metallicity. When we studied the relation between N/O and O/H, we found that in the metallicity regime of $\\zoh > 7.95$, the large scatter of the relation can be explained by the contribution of small mass stars to the production of nitrogen. In the high metallicity regime, $\\zoh > 8.2$, nitrogen is primarily a secondary element produced by stars of all masses.

F. Shi; X. Kong; F. Z. Cheng

2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

198

Nanoparticulate-catalyzed oxygen transfer processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nanoparticulates of oxygen transfer materials that are oxides of rare earth metals, combinations of rare earth metals, and combinations of transition metals and rare earth metals are used as catalysts in a variety of processes. Unexpectedly large thermal efficiencies are achieved relative to micron sized particulates. Processes that use these catalysts are exemplified in a multistage reactor. The exemplified reactor cracks C6 to C20 hydrocarbons, desulfurizes the hydrocarbon stream and reforms the hydrocarbons in the stream to produce hydrogen. In a first reactor stage the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate mixed rare earth metal oxide to crack larger hydrocarbon molecules. In a second stage, the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate material that desulfurizes the hydrocarbon. In a third stage, the hydrocarbon and steam are passed through a heated, mixed transition metal/rare earth metal oxide to reform the lower hydrocarbons and thereby produce hydrogen. Stages can be alone or combined. Parallel reactors can provide continuous reactant flow. Each of the processes can be carried out individually.

Hunt, Andrew T. (Atlanta, GA); Breitkopf, Richard C. (Dunwoody, GA)

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Air separation by the Moltox process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report describes results of a development program on a new and energy saving process for air separation. The Moltox process involves reversibly reacting oxygen in air with a recirculating salt solution, such that oxygen is extracted without depressurizing the remaining nitrogen. Energy savings of approximately 50% are indicated for this process compared to conventional cryogenic air separation. The development program consisted of design, construction, and operation of a 6 liter/minute pilot plant; optimization of the process flowsheet through computer modelling; investigation of engineering aspects of the process including corrosion, safety, and NO/sub x/ generation; and an economic comparison to conventional cryogenic practice. All objectives were satisfactorily achieved except for continuous operation of the pilot plant, and the modifications necessary to achieve that have been identified. Economically the Moltox process shows a substantial advantage over large scale cryogenic plants which are powered by fuel vice electricity.

Erickson, D. C.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Meniscus Membranes For Separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

Dye, Robert C. (Irvine, CA); Jorgensen, Betty (Jemez Springs, NM); Pesiri, David R. (Aliso Viejo, CA)

2005-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Meniscus membranes for separations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

Dye, Robert C. (Irvine, CA); Jorgensen, Betty (Jemez Springs, NM); Pesiri, David R. (Aliso Viejo, CA)

2004-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

202

Development of FCC catalyst magnetic separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetic separation has been historically active in several different industries, yet has not been utilized in petroleum refining until recently. Development of economical permanent magnets with high magnetic strength has led to a new process known as MagnaCat{reg_sign}. The MagnaCat{reg_sign}. Process separates less active (high metals) particles catalyst from equilibrium Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) catalyst, producing a higher activity/lower metals catalyst for recycle. Pilot FCC studies showed lower hydrogen, dry gas, and coke make with higher wet gas and octane from catalyst separated by MagnaCat{reg_sign}. With the use of a MagnaCat{reg_sign} Process unit, a refiner would produce an economic advantage of $0.20 to $0.40/Barrel of FCC charge and enhance unit operability.

Goolsby, T.L.; Moore, H.F. [Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (United States)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present quarter, oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

Lucian A. Lucia

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene Triple Junction Points. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene...

206

Method for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods are provided for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers, which include simultaneous or sequential stops of physical vapor depositing an oxygen-reducing catalytic material onto a substrate, the catalytic material comprising a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum; and thermally treating the catalytic material. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; O'Neill, David G.

2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

207

Exploration of the active center structure of nitrogen-doped graphene-based catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a breakthrough for metal-free, N-containing catalysts and their use in applications such as metal­air batteries activity, indicating their potential as a catalyst for fuel cells and metal air batteries. However-graphene) and demonstrate its use as a metal-free catalyst to study the catalytic active center for the oxygen reduction

208

Evidence for Thiol-Dependent Production of Oxygen Radicals by 4-Methyl-5-pyrazinyl-3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to a peroxide species that undergoes a trace metal-catalyzed, Fenton-type reaction to generate oxygen radicalsEvidence for Thiol-Dependent Production of Oxygen Radicals by 4-Methyl-5-pyrazinyl-3H-1,2-dithiole the conversion of molecular oxygen to reactive oxygen radicals. Using a plasmid-based assay that monitors DNA

Gates, Kent. S.

209

Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

211

The effect of oxygen in the Si substrate on Mo, W, Ti, and Co silicide growth by infrared laser heating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study of the effect of implanted oxygen in the Si substrate was accomplished using an IR heating method and a combination of different materials analysis techniques. Principally, Auger electron spectroscopy combined with depth profiling was implemented to investigate the composition of the reacted metal-Si systems as well as the relative movement of the oxygen during silicide formation. The authors systematic study of these four metal-Si systems yielded some interesting results. First, for the three metals Mo, W, and Ti, we observed basically inhibited metal-Si reactions at laser processing conditions that yielded completely reacted metal silicides without implanted oxygen. Second, the evolution from inhibited reactions through partial, metal-rich silicides and finally to completely reacted metal silicide formation at high temperatures was observed and characterized. Last, a distinctly response to the presence of oxygen was observed for the Ti samples as compared to the Mo and W samples.

Lee, H.S.; Wolga, G.J. (School of Electrical Engineering, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (US))

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The separation of An(III) ions from chemically similar Ln(III) ions is perhaps one of the most difficult problems encountered during the processing of nuclear waste. In the 3+ oxidation states, the metal ions have an identical charge and roughly the same ionic radius. They differ strictly in the relative energies of their f- and d-orbitals, and to separate these metal ions, ligands will need to be developed that take advantage of this small but important distinction. The extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution can be performed quantitatively by the extraction with the TBP (tributyl phosphate). Commercially, this process has found wide use in the PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) reprocessing method. The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process is further used to coextract the trivalent lanthanides and actinides ions from HLLW generated during PUREX extraction. This method uses CMPO [(N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide] intermixed with TBP as a synergistic agent. However, the final separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides still remains a challenging task. In TRUEX nitric acid solution, the Am(III) ion is coordinated by three CMPO molecules and three nitrate anions. Taking inspiration from this data and previous work with calix[4]arene systems, researchers on this project have developed a C3-symmetric tris-CMPO ligand system using a triphenoxymethane platform as a base. The triphenoxymethane ligand systems have many advantages for the preparation of complex ligand systems. The compounds are very easy to prepare. The steric and solubility properties can be tuned through an extreme range by the inclusion of different alkoxy and alkyl groups such as methyoxy, ethoxy, t-butoxy, methyl, octyl, t-pentyl, or even t-pentyl at the ortho- and para-positions of the aryl rings. The triphenoxymethane ligand system shows promise as an improved extractant for both tetravalent and trivalent actinide recoveries form high level liquid wastes and a general actinide clean-up procedure. The selectivity of the standard extractant for tetravalent actinides, (N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide (CMPO), was markedly improved by the attachment of three CMPO-like functions onto a triphenoxymethane platform, and a ligand that is both highly selective and effective for An(IV) ions was isolated. A 10 fold excess of ligand will remove virtually all of the 4+ actinides from the acidic layer without extracting appreciable quantities of An(III) and Ln(III) unlike simple CMPO ligands. Inspired by the success of the DIAMEX industrial process for extractions, three new tripodal chelates bearing three diglycolamide and thiodiglycolamide units precisely arranged on a triphenoxymethane platform have been synthesized for an highly efficient extraction of trivalent f-element cations from nitric acid media. A single equivalent of ligand will remove 80% of the Ln(III) ion from the acidic layer since the ligand is perfectly suited to accommodate the tricapped trigonal prismatic geometry preferred by the metal center. The ligand is perhaps the most efficient binder available for the heavier lanthanides and due to this unique attribute, the extraction event can be easily followed by 1H NMR spectroscopy confirming the formation of a TPP complex. The most lipophilic di-n-butyl tris-diglycolamide was found to be a significantly weaker extractant in comparison to the di-isopropyl analogs. The tris-thiodiglycolamide derivative proved to be an ineffective chelate for f-elements and demonstrated the importance of the etheric oxygens in the metal binding. The results presented herein clearly demonstrate a cooperative action of these three ligating groups within a single molecule, confirmed by composition and structure of the extracted complexes, and since actinides prefer to have high coordination numbers, the ligands should be particularly adept at binding with three arms. The use of such an extractant permits the extraction of metal ions form highly acidic environment through the ability

Scott, M.J.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Aluminum oxyhydroxide based separator/electrolyte and battery system, and a method of making the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The instant invention relates a solid-state electrochemical cell and a novel separator/electrolyte incorporated therein. The invented electrochemical cell generally comprising: a unique metal oxyhydroxide based (i.e. AlOOH) separator/electrolyte membrane sandwiched between a first electrode and a second electrode. The novel separator/electrolyte comprises a nanoparticulate metal oxyhydroxide, preferably AlOOH and a salt which are mixed and then pressed together to form a monolithic metal oxyhydroxide-salt membrane.

Gerald, II; Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

214

Gas adsorption and gas mixture separations using mixed-ligand MOF material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of separating a mixture of carbon dioxiode and hydrocarbon gas using a mixed-ligand, metal-organic framework (MOF) material having metal ions coordinated to carboxylate ligands and pyridyl ligands.

Hupp, Joseph T. (Northfield, IL); Mulfort, Karen L. (Chicago, IL); Snurr, Randall Q. (Evanston, IL); Bae, Youn-Sang (Evanston, IL)

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

215

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increased environmental regulations will require utility boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu in the near term. Conventional technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) are unable to achieve these lowered emission levels without substantially higher costs and major operating problems. Oxygen enhanced combustion is a novel technology that allows utilities to meet the NO{sub x} emission requirements without the operational problems that occur with SCR and SNCR. Furthermore, oxygen enhanced combustion can achieve these NO{sub x} limits at costs lower than conventional technologies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the use of oxygen enhanced combustion as a technical and economical method of meeting the EPA State Implementation Plan for NO{sub x} reduction to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu for a wide range of boilers and coal. The oxygen enhanced coal combustion program (Task 1) focused this quarter on the specific objective of exploration of the impact of oxygen enrichment on NO{sub x} formation utilizing small-scale combustors for parametric testing. Research efforts toward understanding any limitations to the applicability of the technology to different burners and fuels such as different types of coal are underway. The objective of the oxygen transport membrane (OTM) materials development program (Task 2.1) is to ascertain a suitable material composition that can be fabricated into dense tubes capable of producing the target oxygen flux under the operating conditions. This requires that the material have sufficient oxygen permeation resulting from high oxygen ion conductivity, high electronic conductivity and high oxygen surface exchange rate. The OTM element development program (Task 2.2) objective is to develop, fabricate and characterize OTM elements for laboratory and pilot reactors utilizing quality control parameters to ensure reproducibility and superior performance. A specific goal is to achieve a material that will sinter to desired density without compromising other variables such as reaction to binder systems or phase purity. Oxygen-enhanced combustion requires a facility which is capable of supplying high purity oxygen (>99.5%) at low costs. This goal can be achieved through the thermal integration of high temperature air separation with ceramic OTM. The objective of the OTM process development program (Task 2.3) is to demonstrate successfully the program objectives on a lab-scale single OTM tube reactor under process conditions comparable to those of an optimum large-scale oxygen facility. This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the first quarter April--June 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1 Oxygen Enhanced Coal Combustion; Task 2 Oxygen Transport Membranes; and Task 4 Program Management.

Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Purification of alkali metal nitrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

Fiorucci, Louis C. (Hamden, CT); Gregory, Kevin M. (Woodridge, IL)

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

217

Hydrogen Production Using Hydrogenase-Containing Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

Melis, A.; Zhang, L.; Benemann, J. R.; Forestier, M.; Ghirardi, M.; Seibert, M.

2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

218

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the fifth quarterly report on a new study to develop a ceramic membrane/metal joint. Results of wetting experiments on commercially available Nickel based brazing alloys on perovskite surfaces are described. Additionally, experimental and numerical investigations on the strength of concentric ceramic/metal joints are presented.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Membrane Separations Research  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS RESEARCH James R. Fair Chemical Engineering Department The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX 78712 ABSTRACT The use of membranes for separating gaseous and liquid mixtures has grown dramatically in the past 15... years. Applications have been dominated by light gas separations and water purification. During this pioneering period, equipment containing the membrane suIfaces has been developed to a point where failures are minimal and the membranes themselves...

Fair, J. R.

220

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C in N{sub 2}. Space group of R3c was found to result in a better refinement and is used in this study. The difference for crystal structure, lattice parameters and local crystal chemistry for LSFT nearly unchanged when gas environment switched from air to N{sub 2}. Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at room temperature in air. A bridge-compression fixture was fabricated to achieve stable pre-cracks from Vickers indents. Post fracture evaluation indicated stable crack growth from the indent and a regime of fast fracture. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. The thermal and chemical expansion of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were studied at 800 {le} T {le} 1000 C and at {approx} 1 x 10{sup -15} {le} pO{sub 2} {le} 0.21 atm. The thermal expansion coefficient of the sample was calculated from the dilatometric analysis in the temperature range between room temperature and 1200 C in air. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped Ti-substituted perovskites, La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3}, with 0 {le} x {le} 0.20, were investigated by neutron diffraction, magnetization, electric resistivity, and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. All samples show a rhombohedral structure (space group R3C) from 10 K to room temperature. At room temperature, the cell parameters a, c and the unit cell volume increase with increasing Ti content. However, at 10 K, the cell parameter a has a maximum value for x = 0.10, and decreases for x > 0.10, while the unit cell volume remains nearly constant for x > 0.10. The average (Mn,Ti)-O bond length increases up to x = 0.15, and the (Mn,Ti)-O-(Mn,Ti) bond angle decreases with increasing Ti content to its minimum value at x = 0.15 at room temperature. Below the Curie temperature TC, the resistance exhibits metallic behavior for the x {le} 0.05 samples. A metal (semiconductor) to insulator transition is observed for the x {ge} 0.10 samples. A peak in resistivity appears below TC for all samples, and shifts to a lower temperature as x increases. The substitution of Mn by Ti decreases the 2p-3d hybridization between O and Mn ions, reduces the bandwidth W, and increases the electron-phonon coupling. Therefore, the TC shifts to a lower temperature and the resistivity increases with increasing Ti content. A field-induced shift of the resistivity maximum occurs at x {le} 0.10 compounds. The maximum MR effect is about 70% for La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}. The separation of TC and the resistivity maximum temperature T{sub {rho},max} enhances the MR effect in these compounds due to the weak coupling between the magnetic ordering and the resistivity as compared with La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}. The bulk densities of the membranes were determined using the Archimedes method. The bulk density was 5.029 and 5.57 g/cc for LSFT and dual phase membranes, respectively. The microstructure of the dual phase membrane was analyzed using SEM. It is evident from the micrograph that the microstructure is composed of dual phases. The dense circular regions are enclosed by the less dense, continuous phase which accommodates most of the pores. The pores are normally aggregated and found clustered along the dense regions where as the dense regions do not have pores. Upon closer observation of the micrograph it is revealed that the dense region has a clear circular cleavage or crack as their boundary. The circular cleavage clearly encompasses a dense region and which consists of no pore or any flaw that is visible. The size distribution of the dense, discontinuous regions is varying from 5 to 20 {micro}m with a D{sub 50} of 15 {micro}m. The grain size distribution was estimated from the micrographs using image analysis and a unimodal distribution of grains was observed with an average grain size of 1.99 {micro}m. The chemical compositions of the membranes were analyzed using EDS analysis and no other impurities were observed. The XRD analysis was carried out for the membranes and the phase purity was confirmed. The fracture toughness of LSFT membranes at room temperature has to be calculated using the Vickers indentation method. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the ionic conductivity by the use of blocking electrodes. Preliminary measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Modifications to the apparatus to improve the data quality have been completed. Electron microscopy studies of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been initiated. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradient

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Westmont, IL); Gatsis, John G. (Des Plaines, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

Kulkarni, S.S.; Chang, Y.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Funk, E.W.

1988-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

224

Methods for fluid separations, and devices capable of separating fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Wick-Containing apparatus capable of separating fluids and methods of separating fluids using wicks are disclosed.

TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Stenkamp, Victoria S [Richland, WA

2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

225

Methods for fluid separations, and devices capable of separating fluids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Wick-Containing apparatus capable of separating fluids and methods of separating fluids using wicks are disclosed.

TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Stenkamp, Victoria S. (Richland, WA)

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

226

Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

Lin, Haiqing

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

227

Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A separation membrane is described which is useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C{sub 2+} hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula shown in the accompanying diagram, wherein R{sub 1} is chosen from the group consisting of C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R{sub 2} is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP]. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations. 4 figs.

Pinnau, I.; Morisato, Atsushi

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

228

Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A separation membrane useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C.sub.2+ hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is chosen from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R.sub.2 is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) PMP!. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations.

Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Morisato, Atsushi (Tokyo, JP)

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

229

Separators for flywheel rotors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A separator forms a connection between the rotors of a concentric rotor assembly. This separator allows for the relatively free expansion of outer rotors away from inner rotors while providing a connection between the rotors that is strong enough to prevent disassembly. The rotor assembly includes at least two rotors referred to as inner and outer flywheel rings or rotors. This combination of inner flywheel ring, separator, and outer flywheel ring may be nested to include an arbitrary number of concentric rings. The separator may be a segmented or continuous ring that abuts the ends of the inner rotor and the inner bore of the outer rotor. It is supported against centrifugal loads by the outer rotor and is affixed to the outer rotor. The separator is allowed to slide with respect to the inner rotor. It is made of a material that has a modulus of elasticity that is lower than that of the rotors. 10 figs.

Bender, D.A.; Kuklo, T.C.

1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

230

Separators for flywheel rotors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A separator forms a connection between the rotors of a concentric rotor assembly. This separator allows for the relatively free expansion of outer rotors away from inner rotors while providing a connection between the rotors that is strong enough to prevent disassembly. The rotor assembly includes at least two rotors referred to as inner and outer flywheel rings or rotors. This combination of inner flywheel ring, separator, and outer flywheel ring may be nested to include an arbitrary number of concentric rings. The separator may be a segmented or continuous ring that abuts the ends of the inner rotor and the inner bore of the outer rotor. It is supported against centrifugal loads by the outer rotor and is affixed to the outer rotor. The separator is allowed to slide with respect to the inner rotor. It is made of a material that has a modulus of elasticity that is lower than that of the rotors.

Bender, Donald A. (Dublin, CA); Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Thin Porous Metal Sheet-Supported NaA Zeolite Membrane for Water...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thin Porous Metal Sheet-Supported NaA Zeolite Membrane for WaterEthanol Separation. Thin Porous Metal Sheet-Supported NaA Zeolite Membrane for WaterEthanol Separation. Abstract:...

232

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Metal aminoboranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH2BH3)n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya; Shrestha, Roshan P.

2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

234

A miniature inexpensive, oxygen sensing element  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An exhaustive study was conducted to determine the feasibility of Nernst-type oxygen sensors based on ceramics containing Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The basic sensor design consisted of a ceramic sensing module sealed into a metal tube. The module accommodated an internal heater and thermocouple. Thermal-expansion-matched metals, adhesives, and seals were researched and developed, consistent with sequential firings during sensor assembly. Significant effort was devoted to heater design/testing and to materials' compatibility with Pt electrodes. A systematic approach was taken to develop all sensor components which led to several design modifications. Prototype sensors were constructed and exhaustively tested. It is concluded that development of Nerst-type oxygen sensors based on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} will require much further effort and application of specialized technologies. However, during the course of this 3-year program much progress was reported in the literature on amperometric-type oxygen sensors, and a minor effort was devoted here to this type of sensor based on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These studies were made on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ceramic samples in a multilayer-capacitor-type geometry and amperometric-type oxygen sensing was demonstrated at very low temperatures ({approximately} 160{degree}C). A central advantage here is that these types of sensors can be mass-produced very inexpensively ({approximately} 20--50 cents per unit). Research is needed, however, to develop an optimum diffusion-limiting barrier coating. In summary, the original goals of this program were not achieved due to unforeseen problems with Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based Nernst sensors. However, a miniature amperometric sensor base on Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} was demonstrated in this program, and it is now seen that this latter sensor is far superior to the originally proposed Nernst sensor. 6 refs., 24 figs.

Arenz, R.W.

1991-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

235

High-temperature potentiometric oxygen sensor with internal reference  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compact oxygen sensor is provided, comprising a mixture of metal and metal oxide an enclosure containing said mixture, said enclosure capable of isolating said mixture from an environment external of said enclosure, and a first wire having a first end residing within the enclosure and having a second end exposed to the environment. Also provided is a method for the fabrication of an oxygen sensor, the method comprising confining a metal-metal oxide solid mixture to a container which consists of a single material permeable to oxygen ions, supplying an electrical conductor having a first end and a second end, whereby the first end resides inside the container as a reference (PO.sub.2).sup.ref, and the second end resides outside the container in the atmosphere where oxygen partial pressure (PO.sub.2).sup.ext is to be measured, and sealing the container with additional single material such that grain boundary sliding occurs between grains of the single material and grains of the additional single material.

Routbort, Jules L. (Hinsdale, IL); Singh, Dileep (Naperville, IL); Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Ramasamy, Ramamoorthy (North Royalton, OH); Spirig, John V. (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh (Hilliard, OH)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray...

237

Electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction with reduced platinum oxidation and dissolution rates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen.

Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang; Vukmirovic, Miomir

2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

238

Electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction with reduced platinum oxidation and dissolution rates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen.

Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Zhang, Junliang (Stony Brook, NY); Vukmirovic, Miomir (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

239

Three-Electrode Metal Oxide Reduction Cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

240

Three-electrode metal oxide reduction cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Groves, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Oxygen Electrocatalysts for Water Electrolyzers and Reversible Fuel Cells: Status and Perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen production by electrochemical water electrolysis has received great attention as an alternative technology for energy conversion and storage. The oxygen electrode has a substantial effect on the performance and durability in water electrolyzers and reversible fuel cells because of its intrinsically slow kinetics for oxygen evolution/reduction and poor durability under harsh operating environments. To improve oxygen kinetics and durability of the electrode, extensive studies for highly active and stable oxygen electrocatalyst have been performed. However, due to the thermodynamic instability of transition metals in acidic media, noble metal compounds have been primarily utilized as electrocatalysts in water electrolyzers and reversible fuel cells. For water electrolyzer applications, single noble metal oxides such as ruthenium oxide and iridium oxide have been studied, and binary or ternary metal oxides have been developed to take synergestic effects of each component. On the other hand, a variety of bifunctional electrocatalysts with a combination of monofunctional electrocatalysts such as platinum for oxygen reduction and iridium oxide for oxygen evolution for reversible fuel cell applications have been mainly proposed. Practically, supported iridium oxide-on-platinum, its reverse type, and non-precious metal-supported platinum and iridium bifunctional electrocatalysts have been developed. Recent theoretical calculations and experimental studies in terms of water electrolysis and fuel cell technology suggest effective ways to cope with current major challenges of cost and durability of oxygen electrocatalysts for technical applications.

Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Tuning the Metal-Adsorbate Chemical Bond through the Ligand Effect...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

most active metal catalyst for many important reactions, including the reduction of oxygen in fuel cells. Figure 1. Figure 1. Schematic representation of Pt subsurface alloys...

243

Gas Separation Using Membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Commercial membrane-based gas separator systems based upon high-flux, asymmetric polysulfone hollow fibers were first introduced in 1977 by Monsanto. These systems were packaged in compact modules containing large amounts of permeation surface area...

Koros, W. J.; Paul, D. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

USABC Battery Separator Development  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Separator Development P.I. - Ron Smith Presenter - Kristoffer Stokes, Ph.D. Celgard, LLC Project ID ES007 May 10, 2011 This presentation does not contain any proprietary,...

245

Hydrogen separation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

Mundschau, Michael (Longmont, CO); Xie, Xiaobing (Foster City, CA); Evenson, IV, Carl (Lafayette, CO); Grimmer, Paul (Longmont, CO); Wright, Harold (Longmont, CO)

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

246

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Oxygen abundances in the most oxygen-rich spiral galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen abundances in the spiral galaxies expected to be richest in oxygen are estimated. The new abundance determinations are based on the recently discovered ff-relation between auroral and nebular oxygen line fluxes in HII regions. We find that the maximum gas-phase oxygen abundance in the central regions of spiral galaxies is 12+log(O/H)~8.75. This value is significantly lower than the previously accepted value. The central oxygen abundance in the Milky Way is similar to that in other large spirals.

L. S. Pilyugin; T. X. Thuan; J. M. Vilchez

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

249

Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

Ellis, Timothy W. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation. 2 figs.

Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Oxygen Concentration Microgradients for Cell Culture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Chemotactic Effect of Oxygen on Bacteria, J. Pathol.Measurement and Control of Oxygen Levels in MicrofluidicA Microfabricated Electrochemical Oxygen Generator for High-

Park, Jaehyun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Dual Phase Membrane for High Temperature CO2 Separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project aimed at synthesis of a new inorganic dual-phase carbonate membrane for high temperature CO{sub 2} separation. Metal-carbonate dual-phase membranes were prepared by the direct infiltration method and the synthesis conditions were optimized. Permeation tests for CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} from 450-750 C showed very low permeances of those two gases through the dual-phase membrane, which was expected due to the lack of ionization of those two particular gases. Permeance of the CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} mixture was much higher, indicating that the gases do form an ionic species, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, enhancing transport through the membrane. However, at temperatures in excess of 650 C, the permeance of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} decreased rapidly, while predictions showed that permeance should have continued to increase with temperature. XRD data obtained from used membrane indicated that lithium iron oxides formed on the support surface. This lithium iron oxide layer has a very low conductivity, which drastically reduces the flow of electrons to the CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} gas mixture; thus limiting the formation of the ionic species required for transport through the membrane. These results indicated that the use of stainless steel supports in a high temperature oxidative environment can lead to decreased performance of the membranes. This revelation created the need for an oxidation resistant support, which could be gained by the use of a ceramic-type membrane. Work was extended to synthesize a new inorganic dual-phase carbonate membrane for high temperature CO{sub 2} separation. Helium permeance of the support before and after infiltration of molten carbonate are on the order of 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -10} moles/m{sup 2} {center_dot} Pa {center_dot} s respectively, indicating that the molten carbonate is able to sufficiently infiltrate the membrane. It was found that La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF) was a suitable candidate for the support material. This support material proved to separate CO{sub 2} when combined with O{sub 2} at a flux of 0.194 ml/min {center_dot} cm{sup 2} at 850 C. It was also observed that, because LSCF is a mixed conductor (conductor of both electrons and oxygen ions), the support was able to provide its own oxygen to facilitate separation of CO{sub 2}. Without feeding O{sub 2}, the LSCF dual phase membrane produced a maximum CO{sub 2} flux of 0.246 ml/min {center_dot} cm{sup 2} at 900 C.

Jerry Lin

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

253

Reclaiming metallic material from an article comprising a non-metallic friable substrate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for reclaiming a metallic material from a article including a non-metallic friable substrate. The method comprising crushing the article into a plurality of pieces. An acidic solution capable of dissolving the metallic material is provided dissolving the metallic material in the acidic material to form an etchant effluent. The etchant effluent is separated from the friable substrate. A precipitation agent, capable of precipitating the metallic material, is added to the etchant effluent to precipitate out the metallic material from the etchant effluent. The metallic material is then recovered.

Bohland, John Raphael (Oregon, OH); Anisimov, Igor Ivanovich (Whitehouse, OH); Dapkus, Todd James (Toledo, OH); Sasala, Richard Anthony (Toledo, OH); Smigielski, Ken Alan (Toledo, OH); Kamm, Kristin Danielle (Swanton, OH)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

255

Measuring oxygen reduction/evolution reactions on the nanoscale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficiency of fuel cells and metal-air batteries is significantly limited by the activation of oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR/OER). Despite the well-recognized role of oxygen reaction kinetics on the viability of energy technologies, the governing mechanisms remain elusive and until now addressable only by macroscopic studies. This lack of nanoscale understanding precludes optimization of material architecture. Here we report direct measurements of oxygen reduction/evolution reactions and oxygen vacancy diffusion on oxygen-ion conductive solid surfaces with sub-10 nanometer resolution. In electrochemical strain microscopy (ESM), the biased scanning probe microscopy tip acts as a moving, electrocatalytically active probe exploring local electrochemical activity. The probe concentrates an electric field in a nanometer-scale volume of material, and bias-induced, picometer-level surface displacements provide information on local electrochemical processes. Systematic mapping of oxygen activity on bare and Pt-functionalized yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) surfaces is demonstrated. This approach allows directly visualization of ORR/OER activation process at the triple-phase boundary, and can be extended to broad spectrum of oxygen-conductive and electrocatalytic materials.

Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Kumar, Amit [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Ciucci, Francesco [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Organic Separation Test Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Separable organics have been defined as those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations, could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be no visible layer of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.

Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

257

Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

Wolfs, Denise Y. (Houston, TX); Clavenna, Le Roy R. (Baytown, TX); Eakman, James M. (Houston, TX); Kalina, Theodore (Morris Plains, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

Perkins, John (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David (Evergreen, CO); Taylor, Matthew (Golden, CO); Neuman, George A. (Holland, MI); Luten, Henry A. (Holland, MI); Forgette, Jeffrey A. (Hudsonville, MI); Anderson, John S. (Holland, MI)

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

259

Synthesis of metal-metal oxide catalysts and electrocatalysts using a metal cation adsorption/reduction and adatom replacement by more noble ones  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen. The invention also relates to methods of making the metal-metal oxide composites.

Adzic, Radoslav; Vukmirovic, Miomir; Sasaki, Kotaro

2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

260

Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

Chang, Y. Alice (Des Plaines, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Separators for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Provided are separators for use in an electrochemical cell comprising (a) an inorganic oxide and (b) an organic polymer, wherein the inorganic oxide comprises organic substituents. Preferably, the inorganic oxide comprises an hydrated aluminum oxide of the formula Al.sub.2O.sub.3.xH.sub.2O, wherein x is less than 1.0, and wherein the hydrated aluminum oxide comprises organic substituents, preferably comprising a reaction product of a multifunctional monomer and/or organic carbonate with an aluminum oxide, such as pseudo-boehmite and an aluminum oxide. Also provided are electrochemical cells comprising such separators.

Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley

2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

263

Metal inks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

264

OXYGEN DEPLETION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: IMPLICATIONS FOR GRAIN MODELS AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTAL OXYGEN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper assesses the implications of a recent discovery that atomic oxygen is being depleted from diffuse interstellar gas at a rate that cannot be accounted for by its presence in silicate and metallic oxide particles. To place this discovery in context, the uptake of elemental O into dust is considered over a wide range of environments, from the tenuous intercloud gas and diffuse clouds sampled by the depletion observations to dense clouds where ice mantles and gaseous CO become important reservoirs of O. The distribution of O in these contrasting regions is quantified in terms of a common parameter, the mean number density of hydrogen (n{sub H}). At the interface between diffuse and dense phases (just before the onset of ice-mantle growth) as much as {approx}160 ppm of the O abundance is unaccounted for. If this reservoir of depleted oxygen persists to higher densities it has implications for the oxygen budget in molecular clouds, where a shortfall of the same order is observed. Of various potential carriers, the most plausible appears to be a form of O-bearing carbonaceous matter similar to the organics found in cometary particles returned by the Stardust mission. The 'organic refractory' model for interstellar dust is re-examined in the light of these findings, and it is concluded that further observations and laboratory work are needed to determine whether this class of material is present in quantities sufficient to account for a significant fraction of the unidentified depleted oxygen.

Whittet, D. C. B. [New York Center for Astrobiology, and Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

2010-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

265

Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on...

266

Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride). Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen...

267

Molten salt electrolyte separator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The patent describes a molten salt electrolyte/separator for battery and related electrochemical systems including a molten electrolyte composition and an electrically insulating solid salt dispersed therein, to provide improved performance at higher current densities and alternate designs through ease of fabrication. 5 figs.

Kaun, T.D.

1996-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

268

Hydrogen isotope separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system of four cryogenic fractional distillation columns interlinked with two equilibrators for separating a DT and hydrogen feed stream into four product streams, consisting of a stream of high purity D.sub.2, DT, T.sub.2, and a tritium-free stream of HD for waste disposal.

Bartlit, John R. (Los Alamos, NM); Denton, William H. (Abingdon, GB3); Sherman, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Carbometallic oil conversion with ballistic separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes improvement in a method for converting carbo-metallic containing residual oils to form upgraded liquid products by mixing. The improvement comprises: discharging the suspension from the reaction zone at a velocity of 55 to 100 ft/sec. imparting greater momentum to the solid particles than to the hydrocarbon product vapors whereby instantaneous separation of at least about 80 wt % of the vapors from the solid particles occurs; encouraging separation of solids from remaining vapors following discharge from the reaction zone by diverting solids from the remaining vapors by directional impingement on a target baffle and by providing a lower pressure vapor recovery zone in open communication with one or more cyclone separation zones outside the reaction zone open end; recovering solid particles separated by momentum from the suspension and diverted laterally from the vapor recovery zone as a mass of collected solid particles; stripping and regenerating the collected the particles in a sequence of separate zones; and recycling hot regenerated solids to the reaction zone for contact with the residual oil feed.

Walters, P.W.; Benslay, R.M.; Barger, D.F.

1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

270

High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

Arthur J. Ragauskas

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

271

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the fourth quarterly report on a new study to develop a ceramic membrane/metal joint. The first experiments using the La-Sr-Fe-O ceramic are reported. Some of the analysis performed on the samples obtained are commented upon. A set of experiments to characterize the mechanical strength and thermal fatigue properties of the joints has been designed and begun. Finite element models of joints used to model residual stresses are described.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Silicone metalization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

273

Silicone metalization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

274

Method and apparatus for melting metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for melting metals uses microwave energy as the primary source of heat. The metal or mixture of metals are placed in a ceramic crucible which couples, at least partially, with the microwaves to be used. The crucible is encased in a ceramic casket for insulation and placed within a microwave chamber. The chamber may be evacuated and refilled to exclude oxygen. After melting, the crucible may be removed for pouring or poured within the chamber by dripping or running into a heated mold within the chamber. Apparent coupling of the microwaves with softened or molten metal produces high temperatures with great energy savings.

Moore, Alan F.; Schechter, Donald E.; Morrow, Marvin Stanley

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

275

Oxygen electrodes for energy conversion and storage. Annual report, 1 October 1977-30 September 1978  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research on the development of high performance, long life O/sub 2/ cathodes for both alkaline and acid electrolytes for a spectrum of applications including industrial electrolysis, fuel cells, and metal-air batteries is described. Oxygen electrocatalysts studied include platinum, silver, underpotential deposited layers and alloy metal layers on noble metal substrates, intercalated graphite, transition metal macrocyclic complexes, and transition metal oxides. Research on gas fed electrodes is also described. Results are presented and discussed in detail. An appendix on the electrodeposition of platinum crystallites on graphite substrates is included. (WHK)

None

1980-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Electrochemical studies of quinone oxygen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Asphaltenes are a chemically complex mixture of aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds. This material contains oxygen in various functional groups. The distribution includes esters, carboxylic acids, phenolic and most probably quinone type oxygen functionalities. The present work details the complete electrochemical behaviour of quinone type oxygen. The method is quinone specific. A condensed aromatic quinone, 9,10-anthraquinone, was selected as representative of complex quinones. By this method quinones can be determined in the presence of other oxygen functional groups, alcohols, carboxylic acids, ethers, and other carbonyls.

Deanhardt, M.L. (Lander College, Greenwood, SC (US)); Mushrush, G.W.; Stalick, W.M. (Chemistry Dept., George mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (US)); Watkins, J.M. Jr. (Naval Research Lab., Fuels Section, Code 6180, Washington, DC (US))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Laser isotope separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and apparatus for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photolysis, photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photolysis, photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium.

Robinson, C. Paul (Los Alamos, NM); Jensen, Reed J. (Los Alamos, NM); Cotter, Theodore P. (Munich, DE); Boyer, Keith (Los Alamos, NM); Greiner, Norman R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Photochemical isotope separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium and plutonium.

Robinson, C. Paul (Los Alamos, NM); Jensen, Reed J. (Los Alamos, NM); Cotter, Theodore P. (Los Alamos, NM); Greiner, Norman R. (Los Alamos, NM); Boyer, Keith (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Photochemical isotope separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium and plutonium. 8 figs.

Robinson, C.P.; Jensen, R.J.; Cotter, T.P.; Greiner, N.R.; Boyer, K.

1987-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

280

Steam separator latch assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Advanced Separation Consortium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Center for Advanced Separation Technologies (CAST) was formed in 2001 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy to conduct fundamental research in advanced separation and to develop technologies that can be used to produce coal and minerals in an efficient and environmentally acceptable manner. The CAST consortium consists of seven universities - Virginia Tech, West Virginia University, University of Kentucky, Montana Tech, University of Utah, University of Nevada-Reno, and New Mexico Tech. The consortium brings together a broad range of expertise to solve problems facing the US coal industry and the mining sector in general. At present, a total of 60 research projects are under way. The article outlines some of these, on topics including innovative dewatering technologies, removal of mercury and other impurities, and modelling of the flotation process. 1 photo.

NONE

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Steam separator latch assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

Challberg, Roy C. (Livermore, CA); Kobsa, Irvin R. (San Jose, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Pool octanes via oxygenates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasingly stringent antipollution regulations placed on automobile exhaust gases with consequent reduction or complete lead ban from motor gasoline result in octane shortage at many manufacturing sites. Attractive solutions to this problem, especially in conjunction with abundant methanol supplies, are the hydration and etherification of olefins contained in light product streams from cracking unit or produced by field gas dehydrogenation. A comparison is made between oxygenates octane-volume pool contributions and established refinery technologies. Process reviews for bulk manufacture of fuel-grade isopropanol (IPA), secondary butanol (SBA), tertiary butanol (TBA), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME) are presented together with the characteristic investment and operating data. The implantation of these processes into a typical FCCU refinery complex with the resulting octane-pool improvement possibilities is descried.

Prezelj, M.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Gas separation by composite solvent-swollen membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is disclosed a composite immobilized liquid membrane of a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous organic or inorganic support, the solvent being at least one highly polar solvent containing at least one nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus or sulfur atom, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a specified solubility parameter. The solvent or solvent mixture is homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. The membrane is suitable for acid gas scrubbing and oxygen/nitrogen separation. 3 figs.

Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

1989-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

285

Gas separation by composite solvent-swollen membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is disclosed a composite immobulized liquid membrane of a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous organic or inorganic support, the solvent being at least one highly polar solvent containing at least one nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous or sulfur atom, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a specified solubility parameter. The solvent or solvent mixture is homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. The membrane is suitable for acid gas scrubbing and oxygen/nitrogen separation.

Matson, Stephen L. (Harvard, MA); Lee, Eric K. L. (Acton, MA); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Kelly, Donald J. (Bend, OR)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture over a polymeric membrane which comprises a polymer capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds at temperature ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psi. The membranes which possess pore sizes ranging from about 10 to about 500 Angstroms are cast from a solvent solution and recovered.

Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Des Plaines, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Improved Wetting of Mixed Ionic/Electronic Conductors Used in Electrochemical Devices with Ternary Reactive Air Braze Filler Metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports on the wetting behavior, reactivity, and long-term electrical conductance of a series of ternary filler metals being considered for brazing lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) based oxygen separation membranes. Mixed ionic/electronic conducting perovskite oxides such as LSCF and various doped barium cerates are currently being considered for use in high-temperature electrochemical devices such as oxygen and hydrogen concentrators and solid oxide fuel cells. However to take full advantage of the unique properties of these materials, reliable joining techniques need to be developed. Furthermore, if the proposed joining technique were to yield a hermetic ceramic-to-metal junction that was also electrically conductive, it would additionally benefit the device by allowing current to be drawn from or carried to the electrochemically active mixed conducting oxide component without requiring an separate current collector. A newly developed brazing technique known as air brazing is one such method of joining. In its present form, air brazing uses a silver-copper oxide based filler metal that can be melted directly in air to form a compliant joint that is electrically conductive. Recently, it has been shown that the addition of titania can enhance the wetting behavior of Ag-CuO filler metals on alumina. Here the effect of this wetting agent on the surface wettability, long-term electrical resistance at 750C, and reactivity with La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-? (LSCF-6428 or LSCF) substrates is discussed.

Hardy, John S.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Thomsen, Ed C.; Weil, K. Scott

2007-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

288

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanical properties of model systems were analyzed. A reasonably accurate finite element model was implemented and a rational metric to predict the strength of ceramic/metal concentrical joints was developed. The mode of failure of the ceramic/metal joints was determined and the importance of the mechanical properties of the braze material was assessed. Thermal cycling experiments were performed on the model systems and the results were discussed. Additionally, experiments using the concept of placing diffusion barriers on the ceramic surface to limit the extent of the reaction with the braze were performed. It was also observed that the nature and morphology of the reaction zone depends greatly on the nature of the perovskite structure being used. From the experiments, it is observed that the presence of Cr in the Fe-occupied sites decreases the tendency of Fe to segregate and to precipitate out of the lattice. In these new experiments, Ni was observed to play a major role in the decomposition of the ceramic substrate.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanical properties of model systems were analyzed. A reasonably accurate finite element model was implemented and a rational metric to predict the strength of ceramic/metal concentrical joints was developed. The mode of failure of the ceramic/metal joints was determined and the importance of the mechanical properties of the braze material was assessed. Thermal cycling experiments were performed on the model systems and the results were discussed. Additionally, experiments using the concept of placing diffusion barriers on the ceramic surface to limit the extent of the reaction with the braze were performed. It was also observed that the nature and morphology of the reaction zone depends greatly on the nature of the perovskite structure being used. From the experiments, it is observed that the presence of Cr in the Fe-occupied sites decreases the tendency of Fe to segregate and to precipitate out of the lattice. In these new experiments, Ni was observed to play a major role in the decomposition of the ceramic substrate.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendfra Nagabhushana

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Bimetallic Fe-Ni Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The relative abundance, low cost, and low toxicity of iron make Fe-based oxygen carriers of great interest for chemical looping combustion (CLC), an emerging technology for clean and efficient combustion of fossil and renewable fuels. However, Fe also shows much lower reactivity than other metals (such as Ni and Cu). Here, we demonstrate strong improvement of Fe-based carriers by alloying the metal phase with Ni. Through a combination of carrier synthesis and characterization with thermogravimetric and fixed-bed reactor studies, we demonstrate that the addition of Ni results in a significant enhancement in activity as well as an increase in selectivity for total oxidation. Furthermore, comparing alumina and ceria as support materials highlights the fact that reducible supports can result in a strong increase in oxygen carrier utilization.

Bhavsar, Saurabh; Veser, Goetz

2013-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

291

Oxygen detection using evanescent fields  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from 21.degree. C. to 35.degree. C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Weenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

292

Effect of Oxygen on Ni-Silicided FUSI Metal Gate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Continual evolution of the CMOS technology requires thinner gate dielectric to maintain high performance. However, when moving into the sub-65 nm CMOS generation, the traditional poly-Si gate approach cannot effectively ...

Yu, H.P.

293

Cyclic membrane separation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In one of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the other part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. Ambient air is charged to the membrane separation unit during the latter part of the cycle.

Bowser, John

2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

294

Cyclic membrane separation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In the first part of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the second part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. In one aspect of this invention, a vacuum is drawn in the membrane separation unit thus reducing overall VOC emissions.

Nemser, Stuart M.

2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

295

Alkali metal recovery from carbonaceous material conversion process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced in the gasifier or similar reaction zone, alkali metal constitutents are recovered from the particles by withdrawing and passing the particles from the reaction zone to an alkali metal recovery zone in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen and treating the particles in the recovery zone with water or an aqueous solution in the substantial absence of molecular oxygen. The solution formed by treating the particles in the recovery zone will contain water-soluble alkali metal constituents and is recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preventing contact of the particles with oxygen as they are withdrawn from the reaction zone and during treatment in the recovery zone avoids the formation of undesirable alkali metal constituents in the aqueous solution produced in the recovery zone and insures maximum recovery of water-soluble alkali metal constituents from the alkali metal residues.

Sharp, David W. (Seabrook, TX); Clavenna, LeRoy R. (Baytown, TX); Gorbaty, Martin L. (Fanwood, NJ); Tsou, Joe M. (Galveston, TX)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily Lepalovsky; and Translator Vladimir Litvinov. During this trip project participants were to discuss with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and representative of Praxair Inc. J. Chen the results of project activities (prospects of transition metal-doped material application in oxygen pumps), as well as the prospects of cooperation with Praxair at the meeting with the company management in the following fields: (1) Deposition of thin films of oxide materials of complex composition on support by magnetron and ion sputtering, research of coatings properties; (2) Development of block-type structure technology (made of porous and dense ceramics) for oxygen pump. The block-type structure is promising because when the size of electrolyte block is 2 x 2 inches and assembly height is 10 inches (5 blocks connected together) the area of active surface is ca. 290 square inches (in case of 8 slots), that roughly corresponds to one tube with diameter 1 inch and height 100 inches. So performance of the system made of such blocks may be by a factor of two or three higher than that of tube-based system. However one month before the visit, J. Chen notified us of internal changes at Praxair and the cancellation of the visit to Tonawanda, NY. During consultations with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and Senior Project Manager A. Taylor a decision was made to extend the project term by 2 quarters to prepare proposals for follow-on activities during this extension (development of block-type structures made of dense and porous oxide ceramics for electrochemical oxygen pumps) using the funds that were not used for the trip to the US.

Carter, J. D.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The containment vessel is enclosed within an aqueous atmosphere that is above the supercritical temperature and pressure of the solvent of the metal alkoxide solution.

Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels.

Droege, Michael W. (Livermore, CA); Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Hair, Lucy M. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels. 6 figs.

Droege, M.W.; Coronado, P.R.; Hair, L.M.

1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

300

Aluminum oxyhydroxide based separator/electrolyte and battery system, and a method making the same  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The instant invention relates a solid-state electrochemical cell and a novel separator/electrolyte incorporated therein. A preferred embodiment of the invented electrochemical cell generally comprises a unique metal oxyhydroxide based (i.e. AlOOH) separator/electrolyte membrane sandwiched between a first electrode and a second electrode. A preferred novel separator/electrolyte comprises a nanoparticulate metal oxyhydroxide, preferably AlOOH and a salt which are mixed and then pressed together to form a monolithic metal oxyhydroxide-salt membrane.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL)

2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and initial studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. In addition, studies were also begun to obtain reliable estimates of fracture toughness and stable crack growth in specific environments. Newer composition of Ti doped LSF membranes were characterized by neutron diffraction analysis. Quench studies indicated an apparent correlation between the unit cell volume and oxygen occupancy. The studies however, indicated an anomaly of increasing Fe/Ti ratio with change in heat treatment. Ti doped LSF was also characterized for stoichiometry as a function of temp and pO{sub 2}. The non stoichiometry parameter {delta} was observed to increase almost linearly on lowering pO{sub 2} until a ideal stoichiometric composition of {delta} = 0.175 was approached.

S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; W.B. Yelon; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Low Oxygen Environments in Chesapeake Bay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low Oxygen Environments in Chesapeake Bay Jeremy Testa Chesapeake Biological Laboratory University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Why we care about low oxygen? What causes low oxygen? Where and When does Chesapeake Bay lose oxygen? #12;#12;Hypoxia and Chesapeake Animals Low dissolved oxygen

Boynton, Walter R.

303

Use of Transition Metal Forms in Separation of Lipid Components  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

obtained in the second study supported the fact that the precipitate obtained is due to a complex between zinc ion and the carboxylate group of the C16:0 FA. Computational chemistry calculations indicate that the that specific complex formation...

Kulkarni, Sayali V

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

SEPARATION OF HEAVY METALS: REMOVAL FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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305

In silico screening of metal-organic frameworks in separation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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306

Metal-Organic Frameworks for Separations | Center for Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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307

Enhanced membrane gas separations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved membrane gas separation process is described comprising: (a) passing a feed gas stream to the non-permeate side of a membrane system adapted for the passage of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, and for the passage of the feed gas stream in a counter current flow pattern relative to the flow of purge gas on the permeate side thereof, said membrane system being capable of selectively permeating a fast permeating component from said feed gas, at a feed gas pressure at or above atmospheric pressure; (b) passing purge gas to the permeate side of the membrane system in counter current flow to the flow of said feed gas stream in order to facilitate carrying away of said fast permeating component from the surface of the membrane and maintaining the driving force for removal of the fast permeating component through the membrane from the feed gas stream, said permeate side of the membrane being maintained at a subatmospheric pressure within the range of from about 0.1 to about 5 psia by vacuum pump means; (c) recovering a product gas stream from the non-permeate side of the membrane; and (d) discharging purge gas and the fast permeating component that has permeated the membrane from the permeate side of the membrane, whereby the vacuum conditions maintained on the permeate side of the membrane by said vacuum pump means enhance the efficiency of the gas separation operation, thereby reducing the overall energy requirements thereof.

Prasad, R.

1993-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

308

Explosively separable casing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An explosively separable casing including a cylindrical afterbody and a circular cover for one end of the afterbody is disclosed. The afterbody has a cylindrical tongue extending longitudinally from one end which is matingly received in a corresponding groove in the cover. The groove is sized to provide a pocket between the end of the tongue and the remainder of the groove so that an explosive can be located therein. A seal is also provided between the tongue and the groove for sealing the pocket from the atmosphere. A frangible holding device is utilized to hold the cover to the afterbody. When the explosive is ignited, the increase in pressure in the pocket causes the cover to be accelerated away from the afterbody. Preferably, the inner wall of the afterbody is in the same plane as the inner wall of the tongue to provide a maximum space for storage in the afterbody and the side wall of the cover is thicker than the side wall of the afterbody so as to provide a sufficiently strong surrounding portion for the pocket in which the explosion takes place. The detonator for the explosive is also located on the cover and is carried away with the cover during separation. The seal is preferably located at the longitudinal end of the tongue and has a chevron cross section.

Jacobson, Albin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Rychnovsky, Raymond E. (Livermore, CA); Visbeck, Cornelius N. (Livermore, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment are begun. The studies are to be in parallel with LSFCO composition to characterize the segregation of cations and slow crack growth in environmental conditions. La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} has also been characterized for paramagnetic ordering at room temperature and the evolution of magnetic moments as a function of temperature are investigated. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

The role of oxygen in hydrogen sensing by a platinum-gate silicon carbide gas sensor: An ultrahigh vacuum study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The role of oxygen in hydrogen sensing by a platinum-gate silicon carbide gas sensor: An ultrahigh conditions that elucidate the role of oxygen in the functioning of silicon carbide field-effect gas sensors hydrogen-depleted state; competition between hydrogen oxidation and hydrogen diffusion to metal/ oxide

Tobin, Roger G.

311

Air separation by the Moltox process. Interim final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are described of a development program on a new and energy-saving process for air separation. The Moltox process involves reversibly reacting oxygen in air with a recirculating salt solution, such that oxygen is extracted without depressurizing the remaining nitrogen. Energy savings of approximately 50% are indicated for this process compared to conventional cryogenic air separation. The development program consisted of design, construction, and operation of a 6 liter/minute pilot plant; optimization of the process flowsheet through computer modelling; investigation of engineering aspects of the process including corrosion, safety, and NO/sub x/ generation; and an economic comparison to conventional cryogenic practice. All objectives were satisfactorily achieved except for continuous operation of the pilot plant, and the modifications necessary to achieve that have been identified. Economically the Moltox process shows a substantial advantage over large scale cryogenic plants which are powered by fuel vice electricity.

Erickson, D.C.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen K-edge  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phases on &gamma;-Al2O3. |ID#:Synchrotron Radiation TheSpectroscopy

313

Hydrogen Production from Methane Using Oxygen-permeable Ceramic Membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is the existence of hot spots in the catalyst bed due to the reaction exothermicity [1]. This hydrogen production process could be cost-effective if oxygen is provided by sources other than air separation plant. CO2 reforming (or dry reforming) of methane... information about equilibrium product compositions and equilibrium constants at different temperatures were provided by one of the former students in Dr Susan Williams research group [8]. Syngas can also be produced by coal gasification. The syngas...

Faraji, Sedigheh

2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

314

Oxygen Abundance Measurements of SHIELD Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have derived oxygen abundances for 8 galaxies from the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD). The SHIELD survey is an ongoing study of very low-mass galaxies, with M$_{\\rm HI}$ between 10$^{6.5}$ and 10$^{7.5}$ M$_{\\odot}$, that were detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. H$\\alpha$ images from the WIYN 3.5m telescope show that these 8 SHIELD galaxies each possess one or two active star-forming regions which were targeted with long-slit spectral observations using the Mayall 4m telescope at KPNO. We obtained a direct measurement of the electron temperature by detection of the weak [O III] $\\lambda$4363 line in 2 of the HII regions. Oxygen abundances for the other HII regions were estimated using a strong-line method. When the SHIELD galaxies are plotted on a B-band luminosity-metallicity diagram they appear to suggest a slightly shallower slope to the relationship than normally seen. However, that offset is systematically reduced when the near-infrared luminosity is used ins...

Haurberg, Nathalie C; Cannon, John M; Marshall, Melissa V

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Gas Separation With Graphene Membranes By Will Soutter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

applications including fuel cells, batteries, gas sensors and gas purification. The materials, and inorganic membranes made of ceramics, metals or glass. These membranes all have the key properties nanopores in separating gases like methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen from air using a model based

Bunch, Scott

316

Waste Management in Dsseldorf Combination of separate collection,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Waste Management in Düsseldorf Combination of separate collection, recycling and waste-to-energy Biowaste Garden waste Light packaging Paper Glass Wood from bulky waste Bulky waste Rest / mixed waste Bio- Garden- Paper Glass Light Metals Wood Bulky Rest waste waste Card- Pack. waste board Saved CO2

Columbia University

317

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Electrified Separation Processes in Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For any separation procedure in the chemical industry, a certain amount of reversible work in the form of free energy is required, as dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. Classical techniques for effecting liquid-phase separations...

Appleby, A. J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Oxygen transfer in the implant environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Temperature dependence of oxygen diffusion and consumptionRN. Influence of temperature on oxygen diffusion in hamster341-347, 1988. Cox ME. Oxygen Diffusion in Poly(dimethyl

Goor, Jared Braden

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN UO2-x  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~ K.C. K:i.m, "Oxygen Diffusion in Hypostoichiometricsystem for enriching uo 2 in oxygen-18 or for stoichiometry+nal of Nuclear Materials OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN U0 2 _:x K.C.

Kim, K.C.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Separation Nanotechnology of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nanotechnology of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid Bonded Magnetic Nanoparticles for Spent Nuclear Fuel. Separation Nanotechnology of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid Bonded...

322

Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Water column oxygen demand and sediment oxygen flux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Water column oxygen demand and sediment oxygen flux: patterns of oxygen dissolved oxygen (DO) levels often occur during summer in tidal creeks along the southeastern coast of the USA. We analyzed rates of oxygen loss as water-column biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and sediment

Mallin, Michael

324

Hydrogen-permeable composite metal membrane and uses thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Various hydrogen production and hydrogen sulfide decomposition processes are disclosed that utilize composite metal membranes that contain an intermetallic diffusion barrier separating a hydrogen-permeable base metal and a hydrogen-permeable coating metal. The barrier is a thermally stable inorganic proton conductor.

Edlund, David J. (Bend, OR); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR)

1993-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

325

Method for fixating sludges and soils contaminated with mercury and other heavy metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a method, composition and apparatus for stabilizing mercury and other heavy metals present in a particulate material such that the metals will not leach from the particulate material. The method generally involves the application of a metal reagent, a sulfur-containing compound, and the addition of oxygen to the particulate material, either through agitation, sparging or the addition of an oxygen-containing compound.

Broderick, Thomas E.; Roth, Rachel L.; Carlson, Allan L.

2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

326

Electrically conductive polycrystalline diamond and particulate metal based electrodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrically conducting and dimensionally stable diamond (12, 14) and metal particle (13) electrode produced by electrodepositing the metal on the diamond is described. The electrode is particularly useful in harsh chemical environments and at high current densities and potentials. The electrode is particularly useful for generating hydrogen, and for reducing oxygen and oxidizing methanol in reactions which are of importance in fuel cells.

Swain, Greg M.; Wang, Jian

2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

327

Oxygen and Nitrogen in Leo A and GR 8  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present elemental abundances for multiple HII regions in Leo A and GR 8 obtained from long slit optical spectroscopy of these two nearby low luminosity dwarf irregular galaxies. As expected from their luminosities, and in agreement with previous observations, the derived oxygen abundances are extremely low in both galaxies. High signal-to-noise ratio observations of a planetary nebula in Leo A yield 12 + log(O/H) = 7.30 +/- 0.05; "semi-empirical" calculations of the oxygen abundance in four HII regions in Leo A indicate 12 + log(O/H) = 7.38 +/- 0.10. These results confirm that Leo A has one of the lowest ISM metal abundances of known nearby galaxies. Based on results from two HII regions with high signal-to-noise measurements of the weak [O III] 4363 line, the mean oxygen abundance of GR 8 is 12 + log(O/H) = 7.65 +/- 0.06; using "empirical" and "semi-empirical" methods, similar abundances are derived for 6 other GR 8 HII regions. Similar to previous results in other low metallicity galaxies, the mean log(N/O) = -1.53 +/- 0.09 for Leo A and -1.51 +/- 0.07 for GR 8. There is no evidence of significant variations in either O/H or N/O in the HII regions. The metallicity-luminosity relation for nearby (D oxygen abundances has a mean correlation of 12 + log(O/H) = 5.67 - 0.151 M_B with a dispersion in oxygen about the relationship of 0.21. These observations confirm that gas-rich low luminosity galaxies have extremely low elemental abundances in the ionized gas-phase of their interstellar media. Although Leo A has one of the lowest metal abundances of known nearby galaxies, detection of tracers of an older stellar population indicate that it is not a newly formed galaxy as has been proposed for some other similarly low metallicity star forming galaxies.

L. van Zee; E. D. Skillman; M. P. Haynes

2005-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

328

Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified...

329

Polycyclic Aromatic Triptycenes: Oxygen Substitution Cyclization Strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The cyclization and planarization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with concomitant oxygen substitution was achieved through acid catalyzed transetherification and oxygen-radical reactions. The triptycene scaffold ...

VanVeller, Brett

330

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation in the immature swine heart in vivo. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation...

331

OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Research Division OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC11905 -DISCLAIMER - OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRICc o n e e n i g woroxygen self-diffusion coefficient

Kim, Kee Chul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Abstract: The formation...

333

Oxygen Concentration Microgradients for Cell Culture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for technology that can control microscale oxygen gradientstechnology is the ability to rapidly generate and alter oxygentechnology should enable numerous studies in the field of biology where oxygen

Park, Jaehyun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Process for the conversion of lower alcohols to higher branched oxygenates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is provided for the production of branched C.sub.4+ oxygenates from lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and mixtures thereof. The process comprises contacting the lower alcohols with a solid catalyst comprising a mixed metal oxide support having components selected from the group consisting of oxides of zinc, magnesium, zirconia, titanium, manganese, chromium, and lanthanides, and an activation metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIII metal, Group IB metals, and mixtures thereof. The advantage of the process is improved yields and selectivity to isobutanol which can subsequently be employed in the production of high octane motor gasoline.

Barger, Paul T. (Arlington Heights, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Process for the conversion of lower alcohols to higher branched oxygenates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is provided for the production of branched C{sub x} oxygenates from lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and mixtures thereof. The process comprises contacting the lower alcohols with a solid catalyst comprising a mixed metal oxide support having components selected from the group consisting of oxides of zinc, magnesium, zirconia, titanium, manganese, chromium, and lanthanides, and an activation metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIII metal, Group IB metals, and mixtures thereof. The advantage of the process is improved yields and selectivity to isobutanol which can subsequently be employed in the production of high octane motor gasoline.

Barger, P.T.

1996-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

336

Production of Organic Oxygenates in the Partial Oxidation of Methane in a Silent Electric Discharge Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the water- gas shift and rev Reactor David W. Larkin, Lance L. Lobban, and Richard G. Mallinson* Institute for Gas Utilization discharge uses an annular reactor consisting of two metal electrodes separated by a gas gap and a glass

Mallinson, Richard

337

Metal oxide films on metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Method of producing thermally sprayed metallic coating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The cylinder walls of light metal engine blocks are thermally spray coated with a ferrous-based coating using an HVOF device. A ferrous-based wire is fed to the HVOF device to locate a tip end of the wire in a high temperature zone of the device. Jet flows of oxygen and gaseous fuel are fed to the high temperature zone and are combusted to generate heat to melt the tip end. The oxygen is oversupplied in relation to the gaseous fuel. The excess oxygen reacts with and burns a fraction of the ferrous-based feed wire in an exothermic reaction to generate substantial supplemental heat to the HVOF device. The molten/combusted metal is sprayed by the device onto the walls of the cylinder by the jet flow of gases.

Byrnes, Larry Edward (Rochester Hills, MI); Kramer, Martin Stephen (Clarkston, MI); Neiser, Richard A. (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

339

Continuous production of tritium in an isotope-production reactor with a separate circulation system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for producing tritium in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium is allowed to flow through the reactor in separate loops in order to facilitate the production and removal of tritium.

Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

340

Incorporation of noble metals into aerogels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aerogels or xerogels containing atomically dispersed noble metals for applications such as environmental remediation are disclosed. New noble metal precursors, such as Pt--Si or Pd(Si--P){sub 2}, have been created to bridge the incompatibility between noble metals and oxygen, followed by their incorporation into the aerogel or xerogel through sol-gel chemistry and processing. Applications include oxidation of hydrocarbons and reduction of nitrogen oxide species, complete oxidation of volatile organic carbon species, oxidative membranes for photocatalysis and partial oxidation for synthetic applications.

Hair, L.M.; Sanner, R.D.; Coronado, P.R.

1998-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Process for removing metals from water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions. 2 tabs.

Napier, J.M.; Hancher, C.M.; Hackett, G.D.

1987-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

342

Incorporation of noble metals into aerogels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aerogels or xerogels containing atomically dispersed noble metals for applications such environmental remediation. New noble metal precursors, such as Pt--Si or Pd(Si--P).sub.2, have been created to bridge the incompatibility between noble metals and oxygen, followed by their incorporation into the aerogel or xerogel through sol-gel chemistry and processing. Applications include oxidation of hydrocarbons and reduction of nitrogen oxide species, complete oxidation of volatile organic carbon species, oxidative membranes for photocatalysis and partial oxidation for synthetic applications.

Hair, Lucy M. (Livermore, CA); Sanner, Robert D. (Livermore, CA); Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Extraction of trace metals from fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

Blander, Milton (Palos Park, IL); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Nagy, Zoltan (Woodridge, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Extraction of trace metals from fly ash  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

1983-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

345

Gas separation process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The method for production of high purity hydrogen and high purity carbon monoxide from a mixed gas stream comprising these components together with carbon dioxide and a zero to a minor amount of one or more other gaseous contaminants is described comprising the steps of: (a) passing the mixed gas stream into and through a first bed of solid adsorbent capable of selectively adsorbing carbon dioxide and water while discharging from the bed a dry CO/sub 2/-freed effluent; (b) introducing the dry CO/sub 2/-freed effluent into a cryogenic environment for cooling the same therein under conditions effective for condensation of at least the major part of the carbon monoxide present in the dry CO/sub 2/-freed effluent; (c) withdrawing from the cryogenic environment carbon monoxide of high purity; (d) separately withdrawing from the cryogenic environment an uncondensed first gas stream product comprised of crude hydrogen and subjecting the first gas stream product to selective adsorption of non-hydrogen components therefrom in a second bed of solid absorbent, while recovering from the second bed the non-sorbed fraction as a product stream of essentially pure hydrogen; (e) purging the second solid adsorbent bed to desorb non-hydrogen components sorbed therein in step (d), and withdrawing from the bed a gas stream comprising the desorbed non-hydrogen components.

Nicholas, D.M.; Hopkins, J.A.; Roden, T.M.; Bushinsky, J.P.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

346

Organic contaminant separator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is presented of sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium by (a) passing an initial aqueous medium including a minor amount of the organic contaminant through a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester, the composite tube having an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and being of sufficient length to permit the organic contaminant to adhere to the composite tube, (b) passing a solvent through the composite tube. The solvent is capable of separating the adhered organic contaminant from the composite tube. Further, an extraction apparatus is presented for sample preparation prior to analysis for the concentration of an organic contaminant in an aqueous medium. The apparatus includes a composite tube comprised of a blend of a polyolefin and a polyester. The composite tube has an internal diameter of from about 0.1 to about 2.0 millimeters and has sufficient length to permit an organic contaminant contained within an aqueous medium passed therethrough to adhere to the composite tube. 2 figures.

Del Mar, P.

1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

347

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300°F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

1997-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

348

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase 2 Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NOx emissions below 5-10-3 g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O2 dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300?F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in-furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, wit6h increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of lower utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, required additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

349

Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing furnace nitrogen content and furnace temperature, but remained relatively insensitive to variations in fuel injection velocity and firing rate. NO{sub x} emissions below 5{times}10{sup -3} g/MJ (10 ppm-air equivalent at 3% O{sub 2} dry) were obtained for furnace temperatures below 1533 K (2300{degree}F) and furnace nitrogen levels between 1 and 40%. CO emissions were typically low (<35 ppm). Detailed in- furnace species measurements revealed the importance of the interior furnace circulation patterns, as influenced by fuel and oxidant injection schemes, on pollutant emissions. The combustion stability traits of several DOC burner arrangements were ascertained through furnace pressure measurements, with increased stability occurring as furnace temperature increased and as the separation distance between fuel and oxidant inputs decreased. Based on current market conditions, oxy-fuel conversion of batch steel reheat furnaces with a DOC burner is justified on the basis of utility costs alone. However, conversion of continuous steel reheat furnaces, which are responsible for most steel production, requires additional economic incentives, such as further fuel savings, increased furnace productivity, or emission credits.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Determination of oxygen in molten alkali halide salts by proton activation analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors have recently used a lanthanum fluoride precipitation method to separate /sup 18/F produced from proton activation of /sup 18/O in alkali chloride and fluoride salts. The procedure was developed for studying dissolved oxide species in alkali halide melts. Determination of oxygen in these systems is important for research in batteries and in extractive metallurgy utilizing molten salts as solvents. The details are given oxygen determination in alkali chloride and fluoride systems.

Wai, C.M.; Dysart, M.E.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Metals 2000  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This strategic planning exercise identified and characterized new and emerging advanced metallic technologies in the context of the drastic changes in global politics and decreasing fiscal resources. In consideration of a hierarchy of technology thrusts stated by various Department of Defense (DOD) spokesmen, and the need to find new and creative ways to acquire and organize programs within an evolving Wright Laboratory, five major candidate programs identified are: C-17 Flap, Transport Fuselage, Mach 5 Aircraft, 4.Fighter Structures, and 5. Missile Structures. These results were formed by extensive discussion with selected major contractors and other experts, and a survey of advanced metallic structure materials. Candidate structural applications with detailed metal structure descriptions bracket a wide variety of uses which warrant consideration for the suggested programs. An analysis on implementing smart skins and structures concepts is given from a metal structures perspective.

Allison, S.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Slaughter, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Boensch, F.D. [6025 Oak Hill Lane, Centerville, OH (United States); Claus, R.O.; de Vries, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Dendritic metal nanostructures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dendritic metal nanostructures made using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Song, Yujiang (Albuquerque, NM); Pereira, Eulalia F. (Vila Nova de Gaia, PT); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA)

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

353

OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES Alejandro Montoya, Jorge O. Gil, Fanor-rich site of the carbon basal plane of graphite and then, it dissociates into oxygen atoms.1,2 Oxygen atoms at the edge of the carbon surface can form covalent bonds with oxygen. These sites can chemisorb

Truong, Thanh N.

354

Separation process using microchannel technology  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosed invention relates to a process and apparatus for separating a first fluid from a fluid mixture comprising the first fluid. The process comprises: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator in contact with a sorption medium, the fluid mixture being maintained in the microchannel separator until at least part of the first fluid is sorbed by the sorption medium, removing non-sorbed parts of the fluid mixture from the microchannel separator; and (B) desorbing first fluid from the sorption medium and removing desorbed first fluid from the microchannel separator. The process and apparatus are suitable for separating nitrogen or methane from a fluid mixture comprising nitrogen and methane. The process and apparatus may be used for rejecting nitrogen in the upgrading of sub-quality methane.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Bothell, WA); Lamont, Michael Jay (Hilliard, OH); Burwell, Deanna (Cleveland Heights, OH); Dritz, Terence Andrew (Worthington, OH); McDaniel, Jeffrey S. (Columbus, OH); Rogers, Jr.; William A. (Marysville, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Dublin, OH); Weidert, Daniel J. (Lewis Center, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Chadwell, G. Bradley (Reynoldsburg, OH)

2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

355

Development of a metal hydride electrode waste treatment process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Manufacturing residues of metal hydride electrodes for nickel - metal hydride batteries were chemically processed to recover the metal part and heat treated for the organic part. Chemical recovery yielded Ni-Co alloy after electrolysis of the solution and hydroxides of other metal, mainly rare earths. The organic part, pyrolyzed at 700 C, led to separation between carbon and fluorinated matter. Infrared coupling at the output of the pyrolysis furnace was used to identify the pyrolysis gases.

Bianco, J.C.; Martin, D.; Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Thermochemical Modeling of the Uranium-Cerium-Oxygen System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the Fuel Cycle R&D Program, Advanced Fuels campaign is to provide the research and development necessary to develop low loss, high quality nuclear fuels for ultra-high burnup reactor operation. Primary work in this area will be focused on the ceramic and metallic fuel systems. The goal of the current work is to enhance the understanding of ceramic nuclear fuel thermochemistry to support fuel research and development efforts. The thermochemical behavior of oxide nuclear fuel under irradiation is dependent on the oxygen to metal ratio (O:M). In fluorite-structured fuel, the actinide metal cation is bonded with {approx}2 oxygen atoms on a crystal lattice and as the metal atoms fission, fission fragments and free oxygen are created. The resulting fission fragments will contain some oxide forming elements, however these are insufficient to bind to all the liberated oxygen and therefore, there is an average increase in O:M with fuel burnup. Some of the fission products also form species that will migrate to and react with the cladding surface in a phenomenon known as Fuel Clad Chemical Interaction (FCCI). Cladding corrosion is life-limiting so it is desirable to understand influencing factors, such as oxide thermochemistry, which can be used to guide the design and fabrication of higher burn up fuel. A phased oxide fuel thermochemical model development effort is underway within the Advanced Fuels Campaign. First models of binary oxide systems are developed. For nuclear fuel system this means U-O and transuranic systems such as Pu-O, Np-O and Am-O. Next, the binary systems will be combined to form pseudobinary systems such as U-Pu-O, etc. The model development effort requires the use of data to allow optimization based on known thermochemical parameters as a function of composition and temperature. Available data is mined from the literature and supplemented by experimental work as needed. Due to the difficulty of performing fuel fabrication development with actinide materials, fundamental studies with uranium are performed using surrogate materials as stand-ins for transuranic elements. In most cases, cerium can be used as a suitable substitute for plutonium when performing O:M and sintering kinetics studies because of identical valence states. Differences exist between the magnitude of reported thermodynamic data of (U,Pu)O{sub x} and (U,Ce)O{sub x}, however the change in oxygen potential versus O:M follows the same trend for both systems. Cerium is also a major fission product element, and thus understanding its behavior in fuel is an important issue as well.

Voit, Stewart L [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Gas separation membrane module assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

Wynn, Nicholas P (Palo Alto, CA); Fulton, Donald A. (Fairfield, CA)

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

358

Membrane Separations of Liquid Mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MEMBRANE SEPARATIONS OF LIQUID MIXTURES Douglas R. Lloyd Separations Research Program Department of Chemical Engineering The University of Texas at Austin Austin, Texas In recent years considerable attention has been given to the need... for reduced energy costs in the chemical processing industry. A major portion of the energy consumed in this industry is associated with the separation and recovery of chemicals. Membrane processes offer energy-efficient, cost effective methods...

Lloyd, D. R.

359

Clean Metal Casting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

2002-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

360

Dual Phase Membrane for High temperature CO2 Separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research in the previous years in this project found that stainless steel supports are oxidized during high temperature, dual phase membrane separation of carbon dioxide (with oxygen). Consequently, a new material has been sought to alleviate the problems with oxidation. Lanthanum cobaltite oxide is a suitable candidate for the support material in the dual phase membrane due to its oxidation resistance and electronic conductivity. Porous lanthanum cobaltite membranes were prepared via the citrate method, using nitrate metal precursors as the source of La, Sr, Co and Fe. The material was prepared and ground into a powder, which was subsequently pressed into disks for sintering at 900 C. Conductivity measurements were evaluated using the four-probe DC method. Support pore size was determined by helium permeation. Conductivity of the lanthanum cobaltite material was found to be at a maximum of 0.1856 S/cm at 550 C. The helium permeance of the lanthanum cobaltite membranes for this research was on the order of 10{sup -6} moles/m{sup 2} {center_dot} Pa {center_dot} s, proving that the membranes are porous after sintering at 900 C. The average pore size based on steady state helium permeance measurements was found to be between 0.37 and 0.57 {micro}m. The lanthanum cobaltite membranes have shown to have desired porosity, pore size and electric conductivity as the support for the dual-phase membranes. Molten carbonate was infiltrated to the pores of lanthanum cobaltite membranes support. After infiltration with molten carbonate, the helium permeance of the membranes decreased by three orders of magnitude to 10{sup -9} moles/m{sup 2} {center_dot} Pa {center_dot} s. This number, however, is one order of magnitude larger than the room temperate permeance of the stainless steel supports after infiltration with molten carbonate. Optimization of the dip coating process with molten carbonate will be evaluated to determine if lower permeance values can be obtained with the lanthanum cobaltite membrane supports.

Jerry Y.S. Lin; Matthew Anderson

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Method for the generation of variable density metal vapors which bypasses the liquidus phase  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method for producing a metal vapor that includes the steps of combining a metal and graphite in a vessel to form a mixture; heating the mixture to a first temperature in an argon gas atmosphere to form a metal carbide; maintaining the first temperature for a period of time; heating the metal carbide to a second temperature to form a metal vapor; withdrawing the metal vapor and the argon gas from the vessel; and separating the metal vapor from the argon gas. Metal vapors made using this method can be used to produce uniform powders of the metal oxide that have narrow size distribution and high purity.

Kunnmann, Walter (Stony Brook, NY); Larese, John Z. (Rocky Point, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Effect of bacterium Oceanospirillum on the corrosion potential and oxygen reduction of AISI 4340 steel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In view of the electrochemical nature of metallic corrosion, it is reasonable to study MIC utilizing electrochemical techniques(1 ? 6). An excellent technical review of electrochemical techniques applied to microbiologically influenced corrosion... on a metal surface will interfere with the electrochemical reactions (hydrogen and oxygen reduction) which control the corrosion rates. Most confirmed cases of microbial corrosion are localized and include: pitting, selective leaching and stress...

Popova, Snezana N.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Zero Emission Power Plants Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Oxygen Transport Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Siemens Westinghouse Power Corp. (SWPC) is engaged in the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stationary power systems. SWPC has combined DOE Developmental funds with commercial customer funding to establish a record of successful SOFC field demonstration power systems of increasing size. SWPC will soon deploy the first unit of a newly developed 250 kWe Combined Heat Power System. It will generate electrical power at greater than 45% electrical efficiency. The SWPC SOFC power systems are equipped to operate on lower number hydrocarbon fuels such as pipeline natural gas, which is desulfurized within the SOFC power system. Because the system operates with a relatively high electrical efficiency, the CO2 emissions, {approx}1.0 lb CO2/ kW-hr, are low. Within the SOFC module the desulfurized fuel is utilized electrochemically and oxidized below the temperature for NOx generation. Therefore the NOx and SOx emissions for the SOFC power generation system are near negligible. The byproducts of the power generation from hydrocarbon fuels that are released into the environment are CO2 and water vapor. This forward looking DOE sponsored Vision 21 program is supporting the development of methods to capture and sequester the CO2, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system. To accomplish this, SWPC is developing a SOFC module design, to be demonstrated in operating hardware, that will maintain separation of the fuel cell anode gas, consisting of H2, CO, H2O and CO2, from the vitiated air. That anode gas, the depleted fuel stream, containing less than 18% (H2 + CO), will be directed to an Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) Afterburner that is being developed by Praxair, Inc.. The OTM is supplied air and the depleted fuel. The OTM will selectively transport oxygen across the membrane to oxidize the remaining H2 and CO. The water vapor is then condensed from the totally 1.5.DOC oxidized fuel stream exiting the afterburner, leaving only the CO2 in gaseous form. That CO2 can then be compressed and sequestered, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system operating on hydrocarbon fuel that adds only water vapor to the environment. Praxair has been developing oxygen separation systems based on dense walled, mixed electronic, oxygen ion conducting ceramics for a number of years. The oxygen separation membranes find applications in syngas production, high purity oxygen production and gas purification. In the SOFC afterburner application the chemical potential difference between the high temperature SOFC depleted fuel gas and the supplied air provides the driving force for oxygen transport. This permeated oxygen subsequently combusts the residual fuel in the SOFC exhaust. A number of experiments have been carried out in which simulated SOFC depleted fuel gas compositions and air have been supplied to either side of single OTM tubes in laboratory-scale reactors. The ceramic tubes are sealed into high temperature metallic housings which precludes mixing of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel and air streams. In early tests, although complete oxidation of the residual CO and H2 in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel was achieved, membrane performance degraded over time. The source of degradation was found to be contaminants in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream. Following removal of the contaminants, stable membrane performance has subsequently been demonstrated. In an ongoing test, the dried afterburner exhaust composition has been found to be stable at 99.2% CO2, 0.4% N2 and 0.6%O2 after 350 hours online. Discussion of these results is presented. A test of a longer, commercial demonstration size tube was performed in the SWPC test facility. A similar contamination of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream occurred and the performance degraded over time. A second test is being prepared. Siemens Westinghouse and Praxair are collaborating on the preliminary design of an OTM equipped Afterburner demonstration unit. The intent is to test the afterburner in conjunction with a reduced size SOFC test module that has the anode gas separati

Shockling, Larry A.; Huang, Keqin; Gilboy, Thomas E. (Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation); Christie, G. Maxwell; Raybold, Troy M. (Praxair, Inc.)

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

364

Electrostatic coalescence of used automotive crankcase oil as an alternative to other separation processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, verified by separating and analyzing a used oil emulsion. The metal removal efficiency was compared to that of a five day gravity settling. Separation experiments were performed in a 2.26 L coalescer with a flat parallel insulated electrode configuration...

Dixon, John Leslie

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Oxygen isotopic exchange: A useful tool for characterizing oxygen conducting oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen isotopic exchange: A useful tool for characterizing oxygen conducting oxides Bassat J we obtain in both cases data concerning the oxygen diffusion in the bulk and the oxygen exchange with regards to the oxygen reduction reaction. Detailed experimental and analytical processes are given

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

366

Oxygen uptake of benthic systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mg/hr/sq m between standard and maximum mixing. Hanes and Irvine (23) made a determination of the effects of temperature on quiescent oxygen uptake rates by covering sludge with aerated water and allowing the supernatant to be totally de- pleted.... ECTROLTSIS STSTDI FOA MEMURIRC BOO. FIGURE 2. SWITCH ELECTROQE IN CONTACT WITH ELECTROIYTE. OXYGEN GENERATOR OFF. FIGURE 3. SWIICH ELECI'RODE NOT IN CONTACT' WITH -' ECTROLYTE. 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 ~ O0 0 o 0 0 o o 0 0 0 0 PIERRE A. HIGH SPEED NIXINC...

Priebe, William Franklin

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Oxygen and nitrogen diffusion in ?-hafnium from first principles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use a combination of density functional theory and multistate diffusion formalism to analyze the diffusion of oxygen and nitrogen in technologically important hafnium metal. Comparing the local density approximation and the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof version of the generalized gradient approximation, we find that a better description of the hafnium lattice in the latter results in the correct sequence of stable and transition states for oxygen interstitials leading to essentially quantitative agreement with experiment. For oxygen diffusion, we find an isotropic temperature-dependent diffusion coefficient of D=0.082e{sup ?2.04/k{sub B}T}cm{sup 2}s{sup ?1} utilizing interstitial sites with hexahedral and octahedral coordination. For the diffusivity of nitrogen, we find that an additional stable interstitial site, the crowdion site, exists and that the diffusion coefficient is D=0.15e{sup ?2.68/k{sub B}T}cm{sup 2}s{sup ?1}. Our results also reproduce the experimental observation that nitrogen diffusivity is lower than that of oxygen in hafnium.

O'Hara, Andrew; Demkov, Alexander A., E-mail: demkov@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

368

Separator material for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical cell is characterized as utilizing an aramid fiber as a separator material. The aramid fibers are especially suited for lithium/thionyl chloride battery systems. The battery separator made of aramid fibers possesses superior mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and is flame retardant.

Cieslak, W.R.; Storz, L.J.

1991-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

369

Entrepreneurial separation to transfer technology.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Entrepreneurial separation to transfer technology (ESTT) program is that entrepreneurs terminate their employment with Sandia. The term of the separation is two years with the option to request a third year. Entrepreneurs are guaranteed reinstatement by Sandia if they return before ESTT expiration. Participants may start up or helpe expand technology businesses.

Fairbanks, Richard R.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Separator material for electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical cell characterized as utilizing an aramid fiber as a separator material. The aramid fibers are especially suited for lithium/thionyl chloride battery systems. The battery separator made of aramid fibers possesses superior mechanical strength, chemical resistance, and is flame retardant.

Cieslak, Wendy R. (1166 Laurel Loop NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Storz, Leonard J. (2215 Ambassador NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Three phase downhole separator process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Three Phase Downhole Separator Process (TPDSP) is a process which results in the separation of all three phases, (1) oil, (2) gas, and (3) water, at the downhole location in the well bore, water disposal injection downhole, and oil and gas production uphole.

Cognata, Louis John (Baytown, TX)

2008-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

372

Porous platinum-based catalysts for oxygen reduction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A porous metal that comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m.sup.2/g and less than 75 m.sup.2/g. A fuel cell includes a first electrode, a second electrode spaced apart from the first electrode, and an electrolyte arranged between the first and the second electrodes. At least one of the first and second electrodes is coated with a porous metal catalyst for oxygen reduction, and the porous metal catalyst comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m.sup.2/g and less than 75 m.sup.2/g. A method of producing a porous metal according to an embodiment of the current invention includes producing an alloy consisting essentially of platinum and nickel according to the formula Pt.sub.xNi.sub.1-x, where x is at least 0.01 and less than 0.3; and dealloying the alloy in a substantially pH neutral solution to reduce an amount of nickel in the alloy to produce the porous metal.

Erlebacher, Jonah D; Snyder, Joshua D

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

373

Modulation of mixed-phase titania photoluminescence by oxygen adsorption  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the effect of oxygen (O{sub 2}) adsorption on photoluminescence properties of mixed-phase titania nanoparticle films deposited by femtosecond pulsed laser deposition, aiming to assess preliminary conclusions about the feasibility of opto-chemical sensing based on titania. We evidence that O{sub 2} produces opposite responses in rutile and anatase photoluminescence efficiency, highlighting interesting potentialities for future double-parametric optical sensing based on titania. The results evidence an important role of lattice oxygen atoms, suggesting that the standard Schottky barrier mechanism driving the response toward gas species in most used metal-oxide sensors (e.g., tin dioxide) is not the only active mechanism in titania.

Pallotti, D.; Orabona, E.; Amoruso, S.; Maddalena, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universit degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Institute for Superconductors, Oxides and Innovative Materials and Devices, CNR-SPIN, U.O.S. Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Lettieri, S., E-mail: stefano.lettieri@spin.cnr.it [Institute for Superconductors, Oxides and Innovative Materials and Devices, CNR-SPIN, U.O.S. Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

374

Apparatus and method for making metal chloride salt product  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing metal chlorides is disclosed in which chlorine gas is introduced into liquid Cd. CdCl.sub.2 salt is floating on the liquid Cd and as more liquid CdCl.sub.2 is formed it separates from the liquid Cd metal and dissolves in the salt. The salt with the CdCl.sub.2 dissolved therein contacts a metal which reacts with CdCl.sub.2 to form a metal chloride, forming a mixture of metal chloride and CdCl.sub.2. After separation of bulk Cd from the salt, by gravitational means, the metal chloride is obtained by distillation which removes CdCl.sub.2 and any Cd dissolved in the metal chloride.

Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Homer Glen, IL); Richmann, Michael K. (Carlsbad, NM)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Palladium-catalyzed allylic oxidation of cyclohexenes using molecular oxygen as oxidant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cyclohexane and some related alkenes are readily converted into allyl by catalytic amounts of palladium acetate and a reoxidation system consisting of molecular oxygen and either hydroquinone and a second transition metal acetate or cobalt(II) Schiff's base complexes such as 7 and 8.

Bystroem, S.E.; Larsson, E.M.; Akermark, B. (Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden))

1990-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

376

Synergetic effects of mixed copper-iron oxides oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean energy production from fuels. CLC produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}-streams without a significant energy penalty. Development of efficient oxygen carriers is essential to successfully operate a CLC system. Copper and iron oxides are promising candidates for CLC. Copper oxide possesses high reactivity but it has issues with particle agglomeration due to its low melting point. Even though iron oxide is an inexpensive oxygen carrier it has a slower reactivity. In this study, mixed metal oxide carriers containing iron and copper oxides were evaluated for coal and methane CLC. The components of CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were optimized to obtain good reactivity while maintaining physical and chemical stability during cyclic reactions for methane-CLC and solid-fuel CLC. Compared with single metal oxygen carriers, the optimized CuFe mixed oxide oxygen carriers demonstrated high reaction rate, better combustion conversion, greater oxygen usage and improved physical stability. Thermodynamic calculations, XRD, TGA, flow reactor studies and TPR experiments suggested that there is a strong interaction between CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contributing to a synergistic effect during CLC reactions. The amount of oxygen release of the mixed oxide carrier in the absence of a fuel was similar to that of the single metal oxides. However, in the presence of fuels, the oxygen consumption and the reaction profiles of the mixed oxide carriers were significantly better than that of the single metal oxides. The nature of the fuel not only influenced the reactivity, but also the final reduction status of the oxygen carriers during chemical looping combustion. Cu oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced metallic copper with both coal and methane. Fe oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced Fe metal with methane but it was reduced to only FeO with coal. Possible mechanisms of how the presence of CuO enhances the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are discussed.

Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Quantifying the areal extent and dissolved oxygen concentrations of Archean oxygen oases.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Several lines of evidence indicate that the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis preceded the oxygenation of the atmosphereperhaps by as much as 300 million years. The (more)

Olson, Stephanie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Efficient separations & processing crosscutting program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP) was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect chemical and physical separations technologies and chemical processes which treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the DOE complex. The ESP funds several multiyear tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESP supports applied research and development (R & D) leading to the demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management.

NONE

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Methane/nitrogen separation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane separation process is described for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. The authors have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen. 11 figs.

Baker, R.W.; Lokhandwala, K.A.; Pinnau, I.; Segelke, S.

1997-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

380

Methane/nitrogen separation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane separation process for treating a gas stream containing methane and nitrogen, for example, natural gas. The separation process works by preferentially permeating methane and rejecting nitrogen. We have found that the process is able to meet natural gas pipeline specifications for nitrogen, with acceptably small methane loss, so long as the membrane can exhibit a methane/nitrogen selectivity of about 4, 5 or more. This selectivity can be achieved with some rubbery and super-glassy membranes at low temperatures. The process can also be used for separating ethylene from nitrogen.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Menlo Park, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Segelke, Scott (Mountain View, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Cole, Roger L. (Elmhurst, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal Oxide  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject:Ground HawaiiWaste Heat Recovery: Success Stories

383

Recovery Act: Novel Oxygen Carriers for Coal-fueled Chemical Looping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) could totally negate the necessity of pure oxygen by using oxygen carriers for purification of CO{sub 2} stream during combustion. It splits the single fuel combustion reaction into two linked reactions using oxygen carriers. The two linked reactions are the oxidation of oxygen carriers in the air reactor using air, and the reduction of oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor using fuels (i.e. coal). Generally metal/metal oxides are used as oxygen carriers and operated in a cyclic mode. Chemical looping combustion significantly improves the energy conversion efficiency, in terms of the electricity generation, because it improves the reversibility of the fuel combustion process through two linked parallel processes, compared to the conventional combustion process, which is operated far away from its thermo-equilibrium. Under the current carbon-constraint environment, it has been a promising carbon capture technology in terms of fuel combustion for power generation. Its disadvantage is that it is less mature in terms of technological commercialization. In this DOE-funded project, accomplishment is made by developing a series of advanced copper-based oxygen carriers, with properties of the higher oxygen-transfer capability, a favorable thermodynamics to generate high purity of CO{sub 2}, the higher reactivity, the attrition-resistance, the thermal stability in red-ox cycles and the achievement of the auto-thermal heat balance. This will be achieved into three phases in three consecutive years. The selected oxygen carriers with final-determined formula were tested in a scaled-up 10kW coal-fueled chemical looping combustion facility. This scaled-up evaluation tests (2-day, 8-hour per day) indicated that, there was no tendency of agglomeration of copper-based oxygen carriers. Only trace-amount of coke or carbon deposits on the copper-based oxygen carriers in the fuel reactor. There was also no evidence to show the sulphidization of oxygen carriers in the system by using the high-sulfur-laden asphalt fuels. In all, the scaled-up test in 10 kW CLC facility demonstrated that the preparation method of copper-based oxygen carrier not only help to maintain its good reactivity, also largely minimize its agglomeration tendency.

Pan, Wei-Ping; Cao, Yan

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

384

Kinetics of Electron Transfer and Oxygen Evolution in the Reaction of [Ru(bpy)3]3+ with Colloidal Iridium Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrogen and oxygen has been studied since the early 1970s1 and today remains one of the major challenges in the field of chemistry.2 Overall water splitting has been demonstrated in series and tandem and oxygen. Although the reduction of water to hydrogen at noble metal catalysts is facile, the water

385

Continuous magnetic separator and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A continuous magnetic separator and process for separating a slurry comprising magnetic particles into a clarified stream and a thickened stream. The separator has a container with a slurry inlet, an overflow outlet for the discharge of the clarified slurry stream, and an underflow outlet for the discharge of a thickened slurry stream. Magnetic particles in the slurry are attracted to, and slide down, magnetic rods within the container. The slurry is thus separated into magnetic concentrate and clarified slurry. Flow control means can be used to control the ratio of the rate of magnetic concentrate to the rate of clarified slurry. Feed control means can be used to control the rate of slurry feed to the slurry inlet.

Oder, Robin R. (Export, PA); Jamison, Russell E. (Lower Burrell, PA)

2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

386

Pump and centrifugal separator apparatus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The invention relates to agitating means for preventing the accumulation of particulate matter at the contaminate outlet orifices in a pump and centrifugal separator apparatus. The pump separator apparatus includes a rotatable casing forming a chamber for centrifugally separating the oil, water and contaminant matter in an oil well production fluid. The clean oil is collected by a stationary pitot tube in the chamber, the clean water is drawn off at an outlet port near the outer periphery of the chamber, and the dirty water and contaminants are discharged through outlet orifices formed in the outer wall of the casing. The agitating means includes rotating jet ports for directing streams of pressurized fluid tangentially along the inner surface of the casing to agitate accumulations of separated solid contaminant matter thereby preventing the clogging of the outlet orifices.

Erickson, J.W.

1981-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

387

Fluorine separation and generation device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and apparatus for the electrolytic separation of fluorine from a mixture of gases is disclosed. Also described is the process and apparatus for the generation of fluorine from fluorine/fluoride containing solids, liquids or gases.

Jacobson, Craig P. (Moraga, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA); Stefan, Constantin I. (Hayward, CA)

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

388

Fluorine separation and generation device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and apparatus for the electrolytic separation of fluorine from a mixture of gases is disclosed. Also described is the process and apparatus for the generation of fluorine from fluorine/fluoride containing solids, liquids or gases.

The Regents of the University of California (Oakland, CA)

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

389

Wireless Harsh-Environment Oxygen Sensors D.W. Greve,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Environmental Engineering Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Abstract--Surface acoustic wave (SAW pollution. In oxy-fuel combustion of coal, separated oxygen is used so that the exhaust is nearly pure of multiple sensors to sample the nonhomogeneous exhaust flow. We recently reported on a surface acoustic wave

Greve, David.W.

390

Accelerated decarburization of Fe-C metal alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for improving the rate of metal production and FeO utilization in a steelmaking process or a process combining iron-making and steelmaking in a single reactor that uses or generates Fe-C metal alloy droplets submerged in an FeO-containing slag. The process involves discharging a charge build-up (electron accumulation) in the slag at the slag-metal alloy interface by means of an electron conductor connected between the metal alloy droplets and a gas at a gas-slag interface, said gas having an oxygen partial pressure of at least about 0.01 atmosphere. 2 figs.

Pal, U.B.; Sadoway, D.R.

1997-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

391

Method for preparing hydride configurations and reactive metal surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for preparing highly hydrogen-reactive surfaces on metals which normally require substantial heating, high pressures, or an extended induction period, which involves pretreatment of said surfaces with either a non-oxidizing acid or hydrogen gas to form a hydrogen-bearing coating on said surfaces, and subsequently heating said coated metal in the absence of moisture and oxygen for a period sufficient to decompose said coating and cooling said metal to room temperature. Surfaces so treated will react almost instantaneously with hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure. The method is particularly applicable to uranium, thorium, and lanthanide metals.

Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

1988-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

392

Accelerated decarburization of Fe-C metal alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for improving the rate of metal production and FeO utilization in a steelmaking process or a process combining iron-making and steelmaking in a single reactor that uses or generates Fe-C metal alloy droplets submerged in an FeO-containing slag. The process involves discharging a charge build-up (electron accumulation) in the slag at the slag-metal alloy interface by means of an electron conductor connected between the metal alloy droplets and a gas at a gas-slag interface, said gas having an oxygen partial pressure of at least about 0.01 atmosphere.

Pal, Uday B. (Needham, MA); Sadoway, Donald R. (Belmont, MA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Oxygen reduction on platinum : an EIS study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on platinum over yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is examined via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for oxygen partial pressures between 10-4 and 1 atm and at temperatures ...

Golfinopoulos, Theodore

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Microchemical systems for singlet oxygen generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers (COIL) are a technology of interest for industrial and military audiences. COILs are flowing gas lasers where the gain medium of iodine atoms is collisionally pumped by singlet delta oxygen ...

Hill, Tyrone F. (Tyrone Frank), 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Products supplies oxygen to a number of coal gasification and partial oxidation facilities worldwide. At the high operating pressures of these processes, economics favor the use of 90% and higher oxygen purities. The effect of inerts...

Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

396

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and cancer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (mROS) as a natural by-product of electron transport chain activity. While initial studies focused on the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, a recent paradigm shift ...

Chandel, Navdeep S

397

Wetting of metals and glasses on Mo  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The wetting of low melting point metals and Si-Ca-Al-Ti-O glasses on molybdenum has been investigated. The selected metals (Au, Cu, Ag) form a simple eutectic with Mo. Metal spreading occurs under nonreactive conditions without interdiffusion or ridge formation. The metals exhibit low (non-zero) contact angles on Mo but this requires temperatures higher than 1100 C in reducing atmospheres in order to eliminate a layer of adsorbed impurities on the molybdenum surface. By controlling the oxygen activity in the furnace, glass spreading can take place under reactive or nonreactive conditions. We have found that in the glass/Mo system the contact angle does not decrease under reactive conditions. In all cases, adsorption from the liquid seems to accelerate the diffusivity on the free molybdenum surface.

Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Saiz, Eduardo; Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Benhassine, Mehdi; de Coninck, Joel; Rauch, Nicole; Ruehle, Manfred

2008-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

398

Directed light fabrication of refractory metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) is a metal, rapid fabrication process that fuses metal powders to full density into a solid replica of a computer modeled component. It has been shown feasible for forming nearly any metal and also intermetallics to near net shape with a single process. DLF of refractory pure metals is feasible, bypassing the extensive series of conventional processing steps used for processing these high melting point materials. Tungsten, tantalum, and rhenium were processed and show a continuous resolidified microstructure. Porosity was a problem for the tantalum and rhenium powders produced by chemical reduction processes but not for the tungsten powder spherodized in a plasma arc. Chemical analysis of powder compared to the DLF deposit showed reductions in carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, indicating that process parameters may also be optimized for evolution of residual gases in the deposits.

Lewis, G.K.; Thoma, D.J.; Nemec, R.B.; Milewski, J.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Interplay between electronic structure and catalytic activity in transition metal oxide model system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The efficiency of many energy storage and conversion technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and hydrogen production from water splitting, is limited by the slow kinetics of the oxygen ...

Suntivich, Jin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Electrospun carbon nanofiber electrodes decorated with palladium metal nanoparticles : fabrication and characterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new method was investigated to produce a novel oxygen reduction electrode comprised of carbon nanofibers for use in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells and metal-air batteries. The process involved electrospinning ...

Kurpiewski, John Paul

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

402

Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

Swedo, R.J.; Kurek, P.R.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

403

Metal Hydrides  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department of EnergyDevelopmentTechnologies |Charles Page -toMetabolic PathwaysMetal

404

AN ELECTRICAL OXYGEN-TEMPERATURE METER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

426 AN ELECTRICAL OXYGEN-TEMPERATURE METER FOR FISHERY BIOLOGISTS SEP 2 1196: vuUiJo HIM. . SPECIAL and Wildlife, Daniel H. Janzen, Director AN ELECTRICAL OXYGEN-TEMPERATURE METER FOR FISHERY BIOLOGISTS -temperature meter 11 Maintenance and trouble -shooting 12 #12;AN ELECTRICAL OXYGEN-TEMPERATURE METER

405

Effects of oxygen on fracturing fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The stability of polysaccharide gels at high temperature is limited by such factors as pH, mechanical degradation, and oxidants. Oxygen is unavoidably placed in fracturing fluids through dissolution of air. To prevent premature degradation of the fracturing fluid by this oxidant, oxygen scavengers are commonly used. In this paper, the effects of oxygen and various oxygen scavengers on gel stability will be presented. Mechanical removal of oxygen resulted in surprisingly stable fracturing gels at 275 F. However, chemical removal of oxygen gave mixed results. Test data from sodium thiosulfate, sodium sulfite, and sodium erythorbate used as oxygen scavengers/gel stabilizers showed that the efficiency of oxygen removal from gels did not directly coincide with the viscosity retention of the gel, and large excesses of additives were necessary to provide optimum gel stabilization. The inability of some oxygen scavengers to stabilize the gel was the result of products created from the interaction of oxygen with the oxygen scavenger, which in turn, produced species that degraded the gel. The ideal oxygen scavenger should provide superior gel stabilization without creating detrimental side reaction products. Of the materials tested, sodium thiosulfate appeared to be the most beneficial.

Walker, M.L.; Shuchart, C.E.; Yaritz, J.G.; Norman, L.R.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

8, 22252248, 2008 Detection of oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 8, 2225­2248, 2008 Detection of oxygen emission related to spring bloom H. Yamagishi et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Detection of regional scale sea-to-air oxygen emission related to spring bloom near Japan by using in-situ measurements of atmospheric oxygen/nitrogen ratio H. Yamagishi 1 , Y

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous...

408

Oxygen consumption of bovine granulosa cells in vitro.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The oxygen consumption rate of granulosa cells is considered to be a key determinant of oocyte oxygenation in follicles. The oxygen status of the oocyte (more)

Li, Dongxing

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Activated Carbon Composites for Air Separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal-derived synthesis gas is a potential major source of hydrogen for fuel cells. Oxygen-blown coal gasification is an efficient approach to achieving the goal of producing hydrogen from coal, but a cost-effective means of enriching O2 concentration in air is required. A key objective of this project is to assess the utility of a system that exploits porous carbon materials and electrical swing adsorption to produce an O2-enriched air stream for coal gasification. As a complement to O2 and N2 adsorption measurements, CO2 was used as a more sensitive probe molecule for the characterization of molecular sieving effects. To further enhance the potential of activated carbon composite materials for air separation, work was implemented on incorporating a novel twist into the system; namely the addition of a magnetic field to influence O2 adsorption, which is accompanied by a transition between the paramagnetic and diamagnetic states. The preliminary findings in this respect are discussed.

Baker, Frederick S [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Use of impure inert gases in the controlled heating and cooling of mixed conducting metal oxide materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for processing an article comprising mixed conducting metal oxide material. The method comprises contacting the article with an oxygen-containing gas and either reducing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a cooling period or increasing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a heating period; during the cooling period, reducing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the cooling period and increasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is reduced during at least a portion of the cooling period; and during the heating period, increasing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the heating period and decreasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is increased during at least a portion of the heating period.

Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Bernhart, John Charles (Fleetwood, PA)

2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

411

Lycopene cyclase paralog CruP protects against reactive oxygen species in oxygenic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, quenching singlet oxygen generated during the water-splitting process of photo- synthesis (10, 11). VariousLycopene cyclase paralog CruP protects against reactive oxygen species in oxygenic photosynthetic cyclase. Instead, we show that CruP aids in preventing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS

Wurtzel, Eleanore

412

Experimental Effects of Atomic Oxygen on the Development of an Electric Discharge Oxygen Iodine Laser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

state I. Conventionally, a two-phase (gas-liquid) chemistry singlet oxygen generator (SOG) producesExperimental Effects of Atomic Oxygen on the Development of an Electric Discharge Oxygen Iodine of the electric discharge iodine laser continues, the role of oxygen atoms downstream of the discharge region

Carroll, David L.

413

Singlet Oxygen Singlet oxygen generation and detection are growing fields with applications in such areas as  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Singlet Oxygen Singlet oxygen generation and detection are growing fields with applications in such areas as cancer treatment, photosensitized oxidations, and biomolecular degradation. Ground state oxygen state of an oxygen molecule is a singlet state, which can readily react with other singlet molecules

Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto

414

Oxygen permeation in bismuth-based materials part I: Sintering and oxygen permeation fluxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Oxygen permeation in bismuth-based materials part I: Sintering and oxygen permeation fluxes E;2 Abstract Oxygen permeation measurements were performed on two layered bismuth based oxide ceramics. Oxygen permeability for these systems was compared to permeability of the cubic fluorite type structure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

415

System and method for producing metallic iron  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of production of metallic iron nodules comprises assembling a hearth furnace having a moveable hearth comprising refractory material and having a conversion zone and a fusion zone, providing a hearth material layer comprising carbonaceous material on the refractory material, providing a layer of reducible material comprising and iron bearing material arranged in discrete portions over at least a portion of the hearth material layer, delivering oxygen gas into the hearth furnace to a ratio of at least 0.8:1 ponds of oxygen to pounds of iron in the reducible material to heat the conversion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material and to heat the fusion zone to a temperature sufficient to at least partially reduce the reducible material, and heating the reducible material to form one or more metallic iron nodules and slag.

Englund, David J.; Schlichting, Mark; Meehan, John; Crouch, Jeremiah; Wilson, Logan

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

416

Analysis and methodology for measuring oxygen concentration in liquid sodium with a plugging meter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxygen concentration in liquid sodium is a critical measurement in assessing the potential for corrosion damage in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). There has been little recent work on sodium reactors and oxygen detection. Thus, the technical expertise dealing with oxygen measurements within sodium is no longer readily available in the U.S. Two methods of oxygen detection that have been investigated are the plugging meter and the galvanic cell. One of the overall goals of the Univ. of Wisconsin's sodium research program is to develop an affordable, reliable galvanic cell oxygen sensor. Accordingly, attention must first be dedicated to a well-known standard known as a plugging meter. Therefore, a sodium loop has been constructed on campus in effort to develop the plugging meter technique and gain experience working with liquid metal. The loop contains both a galvanic cell test section and a plugging meter test section. Consistent plugging results have been achieved below 20 [wppm], and a detailed process for achieving effective plugging has been developed. This paper will focus both on an accurate methodology to obtain oxygen concentrations from a plugging meter, and on how to easily control the oxygen concentration of sodium in a test loop. Details of the design, materials, manufacturing, and operation will be presented. Data interpretation will also be discussed, since a modern discussion of plugging data interpretation does not currently exist. (authors)

Nollet, B. K.; Hvasta, M.; Anderson, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Hydroprocessing Bio-oil and Products Separation for Coke Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fast pyrolysis of biomass can be used to produce a raw bio-oil product, which can be upgraded by catalytic hydroprocessing to hydrocarbon liquid products. In this study the upgraded products were distilled to recover light naphtha and oils and to produce a distillation resid with useful properties for coker processing and production of renewable, low-sulfur electrode carbon. For this hydroprocessing work, phase separation of the bio-oil was applied as a preparatory step to concentrate the heavier, more phenolic components thus generating a more amenable feedstock for resid production. Low residual oxygen content products were produced by continuous-flow, catalytic hydroprocessing of the phase separated bio-oil.

Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Slag-Metal Reactions during Welding: Part Ill. Verification of the Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Slag-Metal Reactions during Welding: Part Ill. Verification of the Theory U. MITRA and T.W. EAGAR. The transfer of carbon and oxygen is also discussed. It is shown that the transfer of oxygen into the weld of inclusions in the solidifying weld pool. Methods of applying this analysis to multipass welds and active

Eagar, Thomas W.

419

Advanced Palladium Membrane Scale-up for Hydrogen Separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of this project was to construct, test, and demonstrate a Pd-Cu metallic tubular membrane micro-channel separator capable of producing 2 lb day{sup -1} H{sub 2} at ?95% recovery when operating downstream of an actual coal gasifier. A key milestone for the project was to complete a pilot-scale gasifier test by 1 September 2011 and demonstrate the separation of 2 lb day{sup -1} H{sub 2} to verify progress toward the DOE??s goals prior to down-selection for larger-scale (??100 lb day{sup -1}) hydrogen separator development. Three different pilot-scale (??1.5 ft{sup 2}) separators were evaluated downstream of coal gasifiers during four different tests and the key project milestone was achieved in August 2011, ahead of schedule. During three of those tests, all of the separators demonstrated or exceeded the targeted separation rate of 2 lb day{sup -1} H{sub 2}. The separator design was proved to be leak tight and durable in the presence of gasifier exhaust contaminants at temperatures and pressures up to 500 °C and 500 psia. The contaminants in the coal gasifier syngas for the most part had negligible impact on separator performance, with H{sub 2} partial pressure being the greatest determinant of membrane performance. Carbon monoxide and low levels of H{sub 2}S (<39 ppmv) had no effect on H{sub 2} permeability, in agreement with laboratory experiments. However, higher levels of H{sub 2}S (>100 ppmv) were shown to significantly reduce H{sub 2} separation performance. The presence of trace metals, including mercury and arsenic, appeared to have no effect based on the experimental data. Subscale Pd-Cu coupon tests further quantified the impact of H{sub 2}S on irreversible sulfide formation in the UTRC separators. Conditions that have a thermodynamic driving force to form coke were found to reduce the performance of the separators, presumably by blockage of effective separation area with carbon deposits. However, it was demonstrated that both in situ and ex situ (laboratory) air regeneration at 450 °C could restore separator performance by burning out such deposits. Gasifier testing revealed that high molecular weight hydrocarbons have the potential to retard H2 separation. Unconverted coal tars with carbon numbers greater than 14 have a boiling point such that they can act as a reversible poison to the Pd-Cu membranes even at temperatures above 500 °C. The use of real-time, physics-based, performance models revealed the effect of these coal tars. It is believed that this project provided the first evidence for the impact of coal tars on H{sub 2} separator performance. Final down-selection of candidate alloys for non-membrane materials of construction proceeded by evaluating the alloys in both UTRC laboratory tests and testing downstream of an actual gasifier at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The overall alloy ratings were calculated by multiplying the projected cost of a 100 lb day{sup -1} H{sub 2} separator outer shell by the projected oxide scale thickness for 5 years of operation. The alloy with the lowest resulting rating parameter was stainless steel 309 (SS-309) followed by stainless steel 310 (SS-310). However, it was noted that approximately half of the alloys showed susceptibility to pitting and localized corrosion. SS-309 was one of the alloys that exhibited heavy localized attack after 2000 hours of laboratory testing. As this localized corrosion can potentially lead to accelerated end of life, it was determined that SS-310 would be the best alloy selection for this application as it does not show signs of localized pitting corrosion.

Sean Emerson; Neal Magdefrau; Ying She; Catherine Thibaud-Erkey

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

420

Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

La0.8Sr0.2MnO3-Decorated with Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-: A Bifunctional Surface for Oxygen Electrocatalysis with Enhanced  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is central to the development of efficient energy storage and conversion devices1 such as metal-air batteries and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) kinetics,5 particularly for first-row transition metal oxides as cost the ORR and OER activities per oxide area (intrinsic activities) of first-row transition metal

Anlage, Steven

422

Application of oxygen-enriched combustion for locomotive diesel engines. Phase 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermodynamic simulation is used to study the effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on the performance and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. The parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the oxygen-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, the gross and net power outputs of an engine operating under different levels of oxygen enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in an increase in net engine power of approximately 13% when intake air with an oxygen content of 28% by volume is used and fuel injection timing is retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure improves power by only 4%. If part of the significantly higher exhaust enthalpies available as a result of oxygen enrichment are recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met, resulting in substantial net power improvements. Oxygen enrichment reduces particulate and visible smoke emissions but increases NO emissions. However, a combination of retarded fuel injection timing and post-treatment of exhaust gases may be adequate to meet the locomotive diesel engine NO{sub x} standards. Exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required to realize the full potential of oxygen enrichment. Economic analysis shows that oxygen-enrichment technology is economically feasible and provides high returns on investment. The study also indicates the strong influence of membrane parasitic requirements and exhaust energy recovery on economic benefits. To obtain an economic advantage while using a membrane with higher parasitic power requirements, it is necessary to recover a part of the exhaust energy.

Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.R.; Assanis, D.N.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Actinide Lanthanide Separation Process ALSEP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Separation of the minor actinides (Am, Cm) from the lanthanides at an industrial scale remains a significant technical challenge for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. To increase the safety of used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing, as well as reduce associated costs, a novel solvent extraction process has been developed. The process allows for partitioning minor actinides, lanthanides and fission products following uranium/plutonium/neptunium removal; minimizing the number of separation steps, flowsheets, chemical consumption, and waste. This new process, Actinide Lanthanide SEParation (ALSEP), uses an organic solvent consisting of a neutral diglycolamide extractant, either N,N,N',N'-tetra(2 ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) or N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA), and an acidic extractant 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]), dissolved in an aliphatic diluent (e.g. n-dodecane). The An/Ln co-extraction is conducted from moderate-to-strong nitric acid, while the selective stripping of the minor actinides from the lanthanides is carried out using a polyaminocarboxylic acid/citrate buffered solution at pH anywhere between 3 and 4.5. The extraction and separation of the actinides from the fission products is very effective in a wide range of HNO3 concentrations and the minimum separation factors for lanthanide/Am exceed 30 for Nd/Am, reaching > 60 for Eu/Am under some conditions. The experimental results presented here demonstrate the great potential for a combined system, consisting of a neutral extractant such as T2EHDGA or TODGA, and an acidic extractant such as HEH[EHP], for separating the minor actinides from the lanthanides.

Gelis, Artem V.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

424

Mechanochemical processing for metals and metal alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A set of processes for preparing metal powders, including metal alloy powders, by ambient temperature reduction of a reducible metal compound by a reactive metal or metal hydride through mechanochemical processing. The reduction process includes milling reactants to induce and complete the reduction reaction. The preferred reducing agents include magnesium and calcium hydride powders. A process of pre-milling magnesium as a reducing agent to increase the activity of the magnesium has been established as one part of the invention.

Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Prisbrey, Keith (Moscow, ID)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES TWO-eng-48 OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

Byrn, Marianne; Calvin, Melvin

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Energy Conservation Possibilities Using Gas Separating Membranes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The separation of gases using semi permeable membranes is a viable unit operation. A novel composite membrane combined with hollow fiber spinning technology enable Monsanto Co. to offer PRISM (TM); Separators to the industrial market. The separator...

Knieriem, H.; Henis, J. M. S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Study of iron structure stability in high temperature molten lead-bismuth eutectic with oxygen injection using molecular dynamics simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corrosion of structural materials in high temperature molten lead-bismuth eutectic is a major problem for design of PbBi cooled reactor. One technique to inhibit corrosion process is to inject oxygen into coolant. In this paper we study and focus on a way of inhibiting the corrosion of iron using molecular dynamics method. For the simulation results we concluded that effective corrosion inhibition of iron may be achieved by injection 0.0532 wt% to 0.1156 wt% oxygen into liquid lead-bismuth. At this oxygen concentration the structure of iron material will be maintained at about 70% in bcc crystal structure during interaction with liquid metal.

Arkundato, Artoto [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Jember University, Jl. Kalimantan 37 Jember (Indonesia); Su'ud, Zaki [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung (Indonesia); Sudarko [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Jember University, Jl. Kalimantan 37 Jember (Indonesia); Shafii, Mohammad Ali [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Andalas University, Padang (Indonesia); Celino, Massimo [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy)

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

428

Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2006.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. This goal of this project is to develop two types of dense ceramic membrane for producing hydrogen nongalvanically, i.e., without electrodes or external power supply, at commercially significant fluxes under industrially relevant operating conditions. The first type of membrane, hydrogen transport membranes (HTMs), will be used to separate hydrogen from gas mixtures such as the product streams from coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. Potential ancillary uses of HTMs include dehydrogenation and olefin production, as well as hydrogen recovery in petroleum refineries and ammonia synthesis plants, the largest current users of deliberately produced hydrogen. The second type of membrane, oxygen transport membranes (OTMs), will produce hydrogen by nongalvanically removing oxygen that is generated when water dissociates at elevated temperatures. This report describes progress that was made during FY 2006 on the development of OTM and HTM materials.

Balachandran, U.; Chen, L.; Ciocco, M.; Doctor, R. D.; Dorris, S.E.; Emerson, J. E.; Fisher, B.; Lee, T. H.; Killmeyer, R. P.; Morreale,B.; Picciolo, J. J.; Siriwardane, R. V.; Song, S. J.

2007-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

429

33rd Actinide Separations Conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Welcome to the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference hosted this year by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This annual conference is centered on the idea of networking and communication with scientists from throughout the United States, Britain, France and Japan who have expertise in nuclear material processing. This conference forum provides an excellent opportunity for bringing together experts in the fields of chemistry, nuclear and chemical engineering, and actinide processing to present and discuss experiences, research results, testing and application of actinide separation processes. The exchange of information that will take place between you, and other subject matter experts from around the nation and across the international boundaries, is a critical tool to assist in solving both national and international problems associated with the processing of nuclear materials used for both defense and energy purposes, as well as for the safe disposition of excess nuclear material. Granlibakken is a dedicated conference facility and training campus that is set up to provide the venue that supports communication between scientists and engineers attending the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference. We believe that you will find that Granlibakken and the Lake Tahoe views provide an atmosphere that is stimulating for fruitful discussions between participants from both government and private industry. We thank the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the United States Department of Energy for their support of this conference. We especially thank you, the participants and subject matter experts, for your involvement in the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference.

McDonald, L M; Wilk, P A

2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

430

Gas Separations using Ceramic Membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project has been oriented toward the development of a commercially viable ceramic membrane for high temperature gas separations. A technically and commercially viable high temperature gas separation membrane and process has been developed under this project. The lab and field tests have demonstrated the operational stability, both performance and material, of the gas separation thin film, deposited upon the ceramic membrane developed. This performance reliability is built upon the ceramic membrane developed under this project as a substrate for elevated temperature operation. A comprehensive product development approach has been taken to produce an economically viable ceramic substrate, gas selective thin film and the module required to house the innovative membranes for the elevated temperature operation. Field tests have been performed to demonstrate the technical and commercial viability for (i) energy and water recovery from boiler flue gases, and (ii) hydrogen recovery from refinery waste streams using the membrane/module product developed under this project. Active commercializations effort teaming with key industrial OEMs and end users is currently underway for these applications. In addition, the gas separation membrane developed under this project has demonstrated its economical viability for the CO2 removal from subquality natural gas and landfill gas, although performance stability at the elevated temperature remains to be confirmed in the field.

Paul KT Liu

2005-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

431

Separations innovative concepts: Project summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project summary includes the results of 10 innovations that were funded under the US Department's Innovative Concept Programs. The concepts address innovations that can substantially reduce the energy used in industrial separations. Each paper describes the proposed concept, and discusses the concept's potential energy savings, market applications, technical feasibility, prior work and state of the art, and future development needs.

Lee, V.E. (ed.)

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Are oxygen and neon enriched in PNe and is the current solar Ne/O abundance ratio underestimated?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A thorough critical literature survey has been carried out for reliable measurements of oxygen and neon abundances of planetary nebulae (PNe) and HII regions. By contrasting the results of PNe and of HII regions, we aim to address the issues of the evolution of oxygen and neon in the interstellar medium (ISM) and in the late evolutionary phases of low- and intermediate-mass stars (LIMS), as well as the currently hotly disputed solar Ne/O abundance ratio. Through the comparisons, we find that neon abundance and Ne/O ratio increase with increasing oxygen abundance in both types of nebulae, with positive correlation coefficients larger than 0.75. The correlations suggest different enrichment mechanisms for oxygen and neon in the ISM, in the sense that the growth of neon is delayed compared to oxygen. The differences of abundances between PNe and HII regions, are mainly attributed to the results of nucleosynthesis and dredge-up processes that occurred in the progenitor stars of PNe. We find that both these alpha-elements are significantly enriched at low metallicity (initial oxygen abundance oxygen in intermediate mass stars (IMS) of low initial metallicities and in more massive stars, a conjecture that requires verification by further theoretical studies. This result also strongly suggests that both the solar neon abundance and the Ne/O ratio should be revised upwards by ~0.22 dex from the Asplund, Grevesse & Sauval values or by ~0.14 dex from the Grevesse & Sauval values.

W. Wang; X. -W. Liu

2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

433

Extracting metals directly from metal oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

434

Extracting metals directly from metal oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new electrolytic process and apparatus are provided using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in alloy or within a sodium beta or beta"-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then chanted to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required.

Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Tomczuk, Zygmunt (Lockport, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Electrolytic recovery of reactor metal fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new electrolytic process and apparatus are provided using sodium, cerium or a similar metal in alloy or within a sodium beta or beta[double prime]-alumina sodium ion conductor to electrolytically displace each of the spent fuel metals except for cesium and strontium on a selective basis from the electrolyte to an inert metal cathode. Each of the metals can be deposited separately. An electrolytic transfer of spent fuel into the electrolyte includes a sodium or cerium salt in the electrolyte with sodium or cerium alloy being deposited on the cathode during the transfer of the metals from the spent fuel. The cathode with the deposit of sodium or cerium alloy is then shunted to an anode and the reverse transfer is carried out on a selective basis with each metal being deposited separately at the cathode. The result is that the sodium or cerium needed for the process is regenerated in the first step and no additional source of these reactants is required. 2 figs.

Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

437

SULFUR HEXAFLUORIDE TREATMENT OF USED NUCLEAR FUEL TO ENHANCE SEPARATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reactive Gas Recycling (RGR) technology development has been initiated at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), with a stretch-goal to develop a fully dry recycling technology for Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF). This approach is attractive due to the potential of targeted gas-phase treatment steps to reduce footprint and secondary waste volumes associated with separations relying primarily on traditional technologies, so long as the fluorinators employed in the reaction are recycled for use in the reactors or are optimized for conversion of fluorinator reactant. The developed fluorination via SF{sub 6}, similar to the case for other fluorinators such as NF{sub 3}, can be used to address multiple fuel forms and downstream cycles including continued processing for LWR via fluorination or incorporation into a aqueous process (e.g. modified FLUOREX) or for subsequent pyro treatment to be used in advanced gas reactor designs such metal- or gas-cooled reactors. This report details the most recent experimental results on the reaction of SF{sub 6} with various fission product surrogate materials in the form of oxides and metals, including uranium oxides using a high-temperature DTA apparatus capable of temperatures in excess of 1000{deg}C . The experimental results indicate that the majority of the fission products form stable solid fluorides and sulfides, while a subset of the fission products form volatile fluorides such as molybdenum fluoride and niobium fluoride, as predicted thermodynamically. Additional kinetic analysis has been performed on additional fission products. A key result is the verification that SF{sub 6} requires high temperatures for direct fluorination and subsequent volatilization of uranium oxides to UF{sub 6}, and thus is well positioned as a head-end treatment for other separations technologies, such as the volatilization of uranium oxide by NF{sub 3} as reported by colleagues at PNNL, advanced pyrochemical separations or traditional full recycle approaches. Based on current results of the research at SRNL on SF{sub 6} fluoride volatility for UNF separations, SF{sub 6} treatment renders all anticipated volatile fluorides studied to be volatile, and all non-volatile fluorides studied to be non-volatile, with the notable exception of uranium oxides. This offers an excellent opportunity to use this as a head-end separations treatment process because: 1. SF{sub 6} can be used to remove volatile fluorides from a UNF matrix while leaving behind uranium oxides. Therefore an agent such as NF{sub 3} should be able to very cleanly separate a pure UF{sub 6} stream, leaving compounds in the bottoms such as PuF{sub 4}, SrF{sub 2} and CsF after the UNF matrix has been pre-treated with SF{sub 6}. 2. Due to the fact that the uranium oxide is not separated in the volatilization step upon direct contact with SF{sub 6} at moderately high temperatures (? 1000{deg}C), this fluoride approach may be wellsuited for head-end processing for Gen IV reactor designs where the LWR is treated as a fuel stock, and it is not desired to separate the uranium from plutonium, but it is desired to separate many of the volatile fission products. 3. It is likely that removal of the volatile fission products from the uranium oxide should simplify both traditional and next generation pyroprocessing techniques. 4. SF{sub 6} treatment to remove volatile fission products, with or without treatment with additional fluorinators, could be used to simplify the separations of traditional aqueous processes in similar fashion to the FLUOREX process. Further research should be conducted to determine the separations efficiency of a combined SF{sub 6}/NF{sub 3} separations approach which could be used as a stand-alone separations technology or a head-end process.

Gray, J.; Torres, R.; Korinko, P.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Becnel, J.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Adams, T.

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

438

Identification of an Archean marine oxygen oasis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The early Earth was essentially anoxic. A number of indicators suggest the presence of oxygenic photosynthesis 2700 3000 million years (Ma) ago, but direct evidence for molecular oxygen (O2) in seawater has remained elusive. Here we report rare earth element (REE) analyses of 2800 million year old shallowmarine limestones and deep-water iron-rich sediments at Steep Rock Lake, Canada. These show that the seawater from which extensive shallow-water limestones precipitated was oxygenated, whereas the adjacent deeper waters where iron-rich sediments formed were not. We propose that oxygen promoted limestone precipitation by oxidative removal of dissolved ferrous iron species, Fe(II), to insoluble Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, and estimate that at least 10.25 M oxygen concentration in seawater was required to accomplish this at Steep Rock. This agrees with the hypothesis that an ample supply of dissolved Fe(II) in Archean oceans would have hindered limestone formation. There is no direct evidence for the oxygen source at Steep Rock, but organic carbon isotope values and diverse stromatolites in the limestones suggest the presence of cyanobacteria. Our findings support the view that during the Archean significant oxygen levels first developed in protected nutrient-rich shallow marine habitats. They indicate that these environments were spatially restricted, transient, and promoted limestone precipitation. If Archean marine limestones in general reflect localized oxygenic removal of dissolved iron at the margins of otherwise anoxic iron-rich seas, then early oxygen oases are less elusive than has been assumed.

Riding, Dr Robert E [University of Tennessee (UT); Fralick, Dr Philip [Lakehead University, Canada; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Myocardial Reloading after Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Protein Synthesis. Abstract: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) unloads the heart providing a bridge to recovery in children after myocardial stunning. Mortality after...

440

Oxygen Concentration Microgradients for Cell Culture.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??There is a growing need for technology that can control microscale oxygen gradients onto a tissue or culture sample in vitro. This dissertation introduces the (more)

Park, Jaehyun

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxygen separation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Isotope separation by laser means  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for separating isotopes by selective excitation of isotopic species of a volatile compound by tuned laser light. A highly cooled gas of the volatile compound is produced in which the isotopic shift is sharpened and defined. Before substantial condensation occurs, the cooled gas is irradiated with laser light precisely tuned to a desired wavelength to selectively excite a particular isotopic species in the cooled gas. The laser light may impart sufficient energy to the excited species to cause it to undergo photochemical reaction or even to photoionize. Alternatively, a two-photon irradiation may be applied to the cooled gas to induce photochemical reaction or photoionization. The process is particularly applicable to the separation of isotopes of uranium and plutonium.

Robinson, C. Paul (Los Alamos, NM); Jensen, Reed J. (Los Alamos, NM); Cotter, Theodore P. (Los Alamos, NM); Greiner, Norman R. (Los Alamos, NM); Boyer, Keith (Los Alamos, NM)

1982-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

442

Noise suppressing capillary separation system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A noise-suppressing capillary separation system for detecting the real-time presence or concentration of an analyte in a sample is provided. The system contains a capillary separation means through which the analyte is moved, a coherent light source that generates a beam which is split into a reference beam and a sample beam that irradiate the capillary, and a detector for detecting the reference beam and the sample beam light that transmits through the capillary. The laser beam is of a wavelength effective to be absorbed by a chromophore in the capillary. The system includes a noise suppressing system to improve performance and accuracy without signal averaging or multiple scans. 13 figs.

Yeung, E.S.; Xue, Y.

1996-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

443

Metal-phosphate binders  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

444

Efficient gas-separation process to upgrade dilute methane stream for use as fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A membrane-based gas separation process for treating gas streams that contain methane in low concentrations. The invention involves flowing the stream to be treated across the feed side of a membrane and flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side. Carbon dioxide permeates the membrane preferentially and is picked up in the sweep air stream on the permeate side; oxygen permeates in the other direction and is picked up in the methane-containing stream. The resulting residue stream is enriched in methane as well as oxygen and has an EMC value enabling it to be either flared or combusted by mixing with ordinary air.

Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C. (Menlo Park, CA); Lin, Haiqing (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Scott (Brecksville, OH); Daniels, Ramin (San Jose, CA)

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

445

Oxygen ion-beam microlithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used.

Tsuo, Y. Simon (Lakewood, CO)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Convex polytopes and quantum separability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We advance a perspective of the entanglement issue that appeals to the Schlienz-Mahler measure [Phys. Rev. A 52, 4396 (1995)]. Related to it, we propose a criterium based on the consideration of convex subsets of quantum states. This criterium generalizes a property of product states to convex subsets (of the set of quantum states) that is able to uncover an interesting geometrical property of the separability property.

Holik, F.; Plastino, A. [Departamento de Matematica - Ciclo Basico Comun, Universidad de Buenos Aires - Pabellon III, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires, Argentina and CONICET (Argentina); National University La Plata and CONICET IFLP-CCT, C.C. 727 - 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

Guayule resin separation and purification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fraction and reducing the presence of these terpenes to practically non-detectable levels in the polar fraction. A single component, as identified by gas chromatograph (GC) was also effectively extracted from the Texas A&M resins. Saponification..., using an FID Solvent fractionation of the Firestone resin between methanol and hexane was also apparently effective in separating the low molecular weight rubber. Figure 16 and Figure 17 show the gas chromatographs of the bottom phase (fraction "a...

Bajwa, Mohinder P.S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Separation of CO2 from flue gas using electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ABSTRACT Past research with high temperature molten carbonate electrochemical cells has shown that carbon dioxide can be separated from flue gas streams produced by pulverized coal combustion for power generation, However, the presence of trace contaminants, i.e" sulfur dioxide and nitric oxides, will impact the electrolyte within the cell. If a lower temperature cell could be devised that would utilize the benefits of commercially-available, upstream desulfurization and denitrification in the power plant, then this CO2 separation technique can approach more viability in the carbon sequestration area, Recent work has led to the assembly and successful operation of a low temperature electrochemical cell. In the proof-of-concept testing with this cell, an anion exchange membrane was sandwiched between gas-diffusion electrodes consisting of nickel-based anode electrocatalysts on carbon paper. When a potential was applied across the cell and a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide was flowed over the wetted electrolyte on the cathode side, a stream of CO2 to O2 was produced on the anode side, suggesting that carbonate/ bicarbonate ions are the CO2 carrier in the membrane. Since a mixture of CO 2 and 02 is produced, the possibility exists to use this stream in oxy-firing of additional fuel. From this research, a novel concept for efficiently producing a carbon dioxide rich effiuent from combustion of a fossil fuel was proposed. Carbon dioxide and oxygen are captured from the flue gas of a fossilfuel combustor by one or more electrochemical cells or cell stacks. The separated stream is then transferred to an oxy-fired combustor which uses the gas stream for ancillary combustion, ultimately resulting in an effluent rich in carbon dioxide, A portion of the resulting flow produced by the oxy-fired combustor may be continuously recycled back into the oxy-fired combustor for temperature control and an optimal carbon dioxide rich effluent.

Pennline, H.W; Granite, E.J.; Luebke, D.R; Kitchin, J.R; Landon, J.; Weiland, L.M.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Anisotropic membranes for gas separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas separation membrane has a dense separating layer about 10,000 Angstroms or less thick and a porous support layer 10 to 400 microns thick that is an integral unit with gradually and continuously decreasing pore size from the base of the support layer to the surface of the thin separating layer and is made from a casting solution comprising ethyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose-based blends, typically greater than 47.5 ethoxyl content ethyl cellulose blended with compatible second polymers, such as nitrocellulose. The polymer content of the casting solution is from about 10% to about 35% by weight of the total solution with up to about 50% of this polymer weight a compatible second polymer to the ethyl cellulose in a volatile solvent such as isopropanol, methylacetate, methanol, ethanol, and acetone. Typical nonsolvents for the casting solutions include water and formamide. The casting solution is cast in air from about zero to 10 seconds to allow the volatile solvent to evaporate and then quenched in a coagulation bath, typically water, at a temperature of 7.degree.-25.degree. C. and then air dried at ambient temperature, typically 10.degree.-30.degree. C.

Gollan, Arye Z. (Newton, MA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Anisotropic membranes for gas separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas separation membrane has a dense separating layer about 10,000 Angstroms or less thick and a porous support layer 10 to 400 microns thick that is an integral unit with gradually and continuously decreasing pore size from the base of the support layer to the surface of the thin separating layer and is made from a casting solution comprising ethyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose-based blends, typically greater than 47.5 ethoxyl content ethyl cellulose blended with compatible second polymers, such as nitrocellulose. The polymer content of the casting solution is from about 10% to about 35% by weight of the total solution with up to about 50% of this polymer weight a compatible second polymer to the ethyl cellulose in a volatile solvent such as isopropanol, methylacetate, methanol, ethanol, and acetone. Typical nonsolvents for the casting solutions include water and formamide. The casting solution is cast in air from about zero to 10 seconds to allow the volatile solvent to evaporate and then quenched in a coagulation bath, typically water, at a temperature of 7--25 C and then air dried at ambient temperature, typically 10--30 C. 2 figs.

Gollan, A.Z.

1987-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

451

Transient oxygen consumption rate measurements with the BDT?M? oxygen biosensor system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) is a reliable indicator of tissue health. Recently, the OCR of isolated human islets has been shown to predict transplant outcome in diabetic mice. The Oxygen Biosensor System (OBS) is a ...

Low, Clarke Alan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Apparatus and method for separating constituents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A centrifugal separator apparatus and method for improving the efficiency of the separation of constituents in a fluid stream. A cyclone separator includes an assembly for separately discharging both constituents through the same end of the separator housing. A rotary separator includes a rotary housing having a baffle disposed therein for minimizing the differential rotational velocities of the constituents in the housing, thereby decreasing turbulence, and increasing efficiency. The intensity of the centrifugal force and the time which the constituents reside within the housing can be independently controlled to improve efficiency of separation.

Maronde, Carl P. (McMurray, PA); Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Metal Hydrides - Science Needs  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

with traditions in metal hydride research Metal and Ceramic Sciences Condensed Matter Physics Materials Chemistry Chemical and Biological Sciences Located on campus of Tier...

454

All-alkoxide synthesis of strontium-containing metal oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for making strontium-containing metal-oxide ceramic thin films from a precursor liquid by mixing a strontium neo-pentoxide dissolved in an amine solvent and at least one metal alkoxide dissolved in a solvent, said at least one metal alkoxide selected from the group consisting of alkoxides of calcium, barium, bismuth, cadmium, lead, titanium, tantalum, hafnium, tungsten, niobium, zirconium, yttrium, lanthanum, antimony, chromium and thallium, depositing a thin film of the precursor liquid on a substrate, and heating the thin film in the presence of oxygen at between 550 and 700.degree. C.

Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Formation of selenide, sulfide or mixed selenide-sulfide films on metal or metal coated substrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and composition for preventing cracking in composite structures comprising a metal coated substrate and a selenide, sulfide or mixed selenide sulfide film. Specifically, cracking is prevented in the coating of molybdenum coated substrates upon which a copper, indium-gallium diselenide (CIGS) film is deposited. Cracking is inhibited by adding a Se passivating amount of oxygen to the Mo and limiting the amount of Se deposited on the Mo coating.

Eser, Erten; Fields, Shannon

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z