National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for metal oxo bonds

  1. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Wednesday, 29 May 2013 00:00 Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides

  2. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the...

  3. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide

  4. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in both in technological and biological processes that are often governed by careful control over the physical and chemical properties of metal-oxygen bonds. For example,...

  5. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    low energy of the oxygen K-edge (about 530 eV), which magnifies issues associated with surface contamination and self-absorption effects. These challenges were overcome by...

  6. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effects. These challenges were overcome by applying state-of-the-art soft x-ray techniques in conjunction with hybrid density functional theory (DFT) calculations. To...

  7. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    magnetic behavior, and conductivity. A better understanding of their behavior would help open up new avenues for innovation in a variety of scientific and technical areas. In this...

  8. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectroscopy (XAS) has emerged as an effective method for quantitatively probing electronic structure and orbital mixing in molecules and materials. The presence of...

  9. BONDING ALUMINUM METALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1961-06-13

    A process is given for bonding aluminum to aluminum. Silicon powder is applied to at least one of the two surfaces of the two elements to be bonded, the two elements are assembled and rubbed against each other at room temperature whereby any oxide film is ruptured by the silicon crystals in the interface; thereafter heat and pressure are applied whereby an aluminum-silicon alloy is formed, squeezed out from the interface together with any oxide film, and the elements are bonded.

  10. Metal-Oxo Catalysts for Generating Hydrogen from Water - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Metal-Oxo Catalysts for Generating Hydrogen from Water Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryScientists at Berkeley Lab have developed an inexpensive, highly efficient catalyst that can be used in the electrolysis of water to generate H2-a source of clean fuel, a reducing agent for metal ores, and a reactant used to produce hydrochloric acid

  11. Metal-bonded graphite foam composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menchhofer, Paul A; Klett, James W

    2015-04-28

    A metal-bonded graphite foam composite includes a ductile metal continuous phase and a dispersed phase that includes graphite foam particles.

  12. Molecular metal-Oxo catalysts for generating hydrogen from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Long, Jeffrey R; Chang, Christopher J; Karunadasa, Hemamala I

    2015-02-24

    A composition of matter suitable for the generation of hydrogen from water is described, the positively charged cation of the composition having the general formula [(PY5W.sub.2)MO].sup.2+, wherein PY5W.sub.2 is (NC.sub.5XYZ)(NC.sub.5H.sub.4).sub.4C.sub.2W.sub.2, M is a transition metal, and W, X, Y, and Z can be H, R, a halide, CF.sub.3, or SiR.sub.3, where R can be an alkyl or aryl group. The two accompanying counter anions, in one embodiment, can be selected from the following Cl.sup.-, I.sup.-, PF.sub.6.sup.-, and CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-. In embodiments of the invention, water, such as tap water containing electrolyte or straight sea water can be subject to an electric potential of between 1.0 V and 1.4 V relative to the standard hydrogen electrode, which at pH 7 corresponds to an overpotential of 0.6 to 1.0 V, with the result being, among other things, the generation of hydrogen with an optimal turnover frequency of ca. 1.5 million mol H.sub.2/mol catalyst per h.

  13. Method of bonding metals to ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1991-01-01

    A ceramic or glass having a thin layer of silver, gold or alloys thereof at the surface thereof. A first metal is bonded to the thin layer and a second metal is bonded to the first metal. The first metal is selected from the class consisting of In, Ga, Sn, Bi, Zn, Cd, Pb, Tl and alloys thereof, and the second metal is selected from the class consisting of Cu, Al, Pb, An and alloys thereof.

  14. Method of bonding metals to ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, V.A.

    1991-04-23

    A ceramic or glass having a thin layer of silver, gold or alloys thereof at the surface thereof is disclosed. A first metal is bonded to the thin layer and a second metal is bonded to the first metal. The first metal is selected from the class consisting of In, Ga, Sn, Bi, Zn, Cd, Pb, Tl and alloys thereof, and the second metal is selected from the class consisting of Cu, Al, Pb, Au and alloys thereof. 3 figures.

  15. Method of bonding metals to ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1992-01-01

    A method of forming a composite by providing a ceramic capable of having zero electrical resistance and complete diamagnetism at superconducting temperatures, bonding a thin layer of Ag, Au or alloys thereof with the ceramic. Thereafter, there is bonded a first metal to the ceramic surface at a temperature less than about 400.degree. C., and then a second metal is bonded to the first metal at a temperature less than about 400.degree. C. to form a composite wherein the first metal is selected from the class consisting of In, Ga, Sn, Bi, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ti and alloys thereof and wherein the second metal is selected from the class consisting of Al, Cu, Pb and Zn and alloys thereof.

  16. Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen K-edge Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minasian, Stefan G.; Keith, Jason M.; Batista, Enrique R.; Boland, Kevin S.; Bradley, Joseph A.; Daly, Scott R.; Kozimor, Stosh A.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Martin, Richard L.; Nordlund, Dennis; Seidler, Gerald T.; Shuh, David K.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Wagner, Gregory L.; Weng, Tsu-Chein; Yang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Advancing theories of how metal oxygen bonding influences metal oxo properties can expose new avenues for innovation in materials science, catalysis, and biochemistry. Historically, spectroscopic analyses of the transition metal peroxyanions, MO4x-, have formed the basis for new M O bonding theories. Herein, relative changes in M O orbital mixing in MO42- (M = Cr, Mo, W) and MO41- (M = Mn, Tc, Re) are evaluated for the first time by non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, X-ray absorption spectroscopy using fluorescence and transmission (via a scanning transmission X-ray microscope), and linear-response density functional theory. The results suggest that moving from Group 6 to Group 7 or down the triads increases M O e () mixing. Meanwhile, t2 mixing ( + ) remains relatively constant within the same Group. These unexpected changes in frontier orbital energy and composition are evaluated in terms of periodic trends in d orbital energy and radial extension.

  17. A Metal-Organic Framework Containing Unusual Eight-Connected Zr–-Oxo Secondary Building Units and Orthogonal Carboxylic Acids for Ultra-sensitive Metal Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carboni, Michaël; Lin, Zekai; Abney, Carter W.; Zhang, Teng; Lin, Wenbin

    2015-08-21

    Two metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with Zr-oxo secondary building units (SBUs) were prepared by using p,p'-terphenyldicarboxylate (TPDC) bridging ligands pre-functionalized with orthogonal succinic acid (MOF-1) and maleic acid groups (MOF-2). Single-crystal X-ray structure analysis of MOF-1 provides the first direct evidence for eight-connected SBUs in UiO-type MOFs. In contrast, MOF-2 contains twelve-connected SBUs as seen in the traditional UiO MOF topology. These structural assignments were confirmed by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. The highly porous MOF-1 is an excellent fluorescence sensor for metal ions with the detection limit of <0.5 ppb for Mn2+ and three to four orders of magnitude greater sensitivity for metal ions than previously reported luminescent MOFs.

  18. Thermal barrier and overlay coating systems comprising composite metal/metal oxide bond coating layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.; Vance, Steven J.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer coating systems comprising a composite metal/metal oxide bond coat layer. The coating systems may be used in gas turbines.

  19. Metal-bonded, carbon fiber-reinforced composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sastri, Suri A. (Lexington, MA); Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Cooke, Richard A. (Framingham, MA); Litchfield, John K. (Bedford, MA); Smith, Mark B. (Ipswich, MA)

    1996-01-01

    Metal bonded carbon fiber-reinforced composites are disclosed in which the metal and the composite are strongly bound by (1) providing a matrix-depleted zone in the composite of sufficient depth to provide a binding site for the metal to be bonded and then (2) infiltrating the metal into the matrix-free zone to fill a substantial portion of the zone and also provide a surface layer of metal, thereby forming a strong bond between the composite and the metal. The invention also includes the metal-bound composite itself, as well as the provision of a coating over the metal for high-temperature performance or for joining to other such composites or to other substrates.

  20. Metal-bonded, carbon fiber-reinforced composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sastri, S.A.; Pemsler, J.P.; Cooke, R.A.; Litchfield, J.K.; Smith, M.B.

    1996-03-05

    Metal bonded carbon fiber-reinforced composites are disclosed in which the metal and the composite are strongly bound by (1) providing a matrix-depleted zone in the composite of sufficient depth to provide a binding site for the metal to be bonded and then (2) infiltrating the metal into the matrix-free zone to fill a substantial portion of the zone and also provide a surface layer of metal, thereby forming a strong bond between the composite and the metal. The invention also includes the metal-bound composite itself, as well as the provision of a coating over the metal for high-temperature performance or for joining to other such composites or to other substrates. 2 figs.

  1. Bonding Low-density Nanoporous Metal Foams Using Sputtered Solder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bono, M; Cervantes, O; Akaba, C; Hamza, A; Foreman, R; Teslich, N

    2007-08-21

    A method has been developed for bonding low-density nanoporous metal foam components to a substrate using solder that is sputtered onto the surfaces. Metal foams have unusual properties that make them excellent choices for many applications, and as technologies for processing these materials are evolving, their use in industry is increasing dramatically. Metal foams are lightweight and have advantageous dynamic properties, which make them excellent choices for many structural applications. They also provide good acoustic damping, low thermal conductivity, and excellent energy absorption characteristics. Therefore, these materials are commonly used in the automotive, aerospace, construction, and biomedical industries. The synthesis of nanoporous metal foams with a cell size of less then 1 {micro}m is an emerging technology that is expected to lead to widespread application of metal foams in microdevices, such as sensors and actuators. One of the challenges to manufacturing components from metal foams is that they can be difficult to attach to other structures without degrading their properties. For example, traditional liquid adhesives cannot be used because they are absorbed into foams. The problem of bonding or joining can be particularly difficult for small-scale devices made from nanoporous foam, due to the requirement for a thin bond layer. The current study addresses this problem and develops a method of soldering a nanoporous metal foam to a substrate with a bond thickness of less than 2 {micro}m. There are many applications that require micro-scale metal foams precisely bonded to substrates. This study was motivated by a physics experiment that used a laser to drive a shock wave through an aluminum foil and into a copper foam, in order to determine the speed of the shock in the copper foam. To avoid disturbing the shock, the interface between the copper foam and the aluminum substrate had to be as thin as possible. There are many other applications that

  2. Process Of Bonding A Metal Brush Structure To A Planar Surface Of A Metal Substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slattery, Kevin T.; Driemeyer, Daniel E.; Wille; Gerald W.

    1999-11-02

    Process for bonding a metal brush structure to a planar surface of a metal substrate in which an array of metal rods are retained and immobilized at their tips by a common retention layer formed of metal, and the brush structure is then joined to a planar surface of a metal substrate via the retention layer.

  3. Method for joining metal by solid-state bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burkhart, L. Elkin; Fultz, Chester R.; Maulden, Kerry A.

    1979-01-01

    The present development is directed to a method for joining metal at relatively low temperatures by solid-state bonding. Planar surfaces of the metal workpieces are placed in a parallel abutting relationship with one another. A load is applied to at least one of the workpieces for forcing the workpieces together while one of the workpieces is relatively slowly oscillated in a rotary motion over a distance of about 1.degree.. After a preselected number of oscillations, the rotary motion is terminated and the bond between the abutting surfaces is effected. An additional load may be applied to facilitate the bond after terminating the rotary motion.

  4. METHOD OF MAKING METAL BONDED CARBON BODIES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goeddel, W.V.; Simnad, M.T.

    1961-09-26

    A method of producing carbon bodies having high structural strength and low permeability is described. The method comprises mixing less than 10 wt.% of a diffusional bonding material selected from the group consisting of zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, titanium, nickel, chromium, silicon, and decomposable compounds thereof with finely divided particles of carbon or graphite. While being maintained at a mechanical pressure over 3,000 psi, the mixture is then heated uniformly to a temperature of 1500 deg C or higher, usually for less than one hour. The resulting carbon bodies have a low diffusion constant, high dimensional stability, and high mechanical strength.

  5. Tuning the Metal-Adsorbate Chemical Bond through the Ligand Effect...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tuning the Metal-Adsorbate Chemical Bond through the Ligand Effect on Platinum Subsurface ... Tuning chemical functionality by implementing a ligand effect - in other words, by ...

  6. Photochemical route to actinide-transition metal bonds: synthesis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    bonds: synthesis, characterization and reactivity of a series of thorium and uranium ... bonds: synthesis, characterization and reactivity of a series of thorium and uranium ...

  7. Propensity of bond exchange as a window into the mechanical properties of metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiao, W.; Wang, X. L. Lan, S.; Pan, S. P.; Lu, Z. P.

    2015-02-09

    We investigated the mechanical properties of Zr-Cu-Al bulk metallic glasses, by compression experiment and molecular dynamics simulations. From the simulation, we found that the large, solvent atom, Zr, has high propensity of bond exchange compared to those of the smaller solute atoms. The difference in bond exchange is consistent with the observed disparity in mechanical behaviors: Zr-rich metallic glass exhibits low elastic modulus and large plastic strain. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements suggest that the increased propensity in bond exchange is related to the softening of Zr bonds with increasing Zr content.

  8. Method of bonding metals to ceramics and other materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Krauss, Alan R.; DeWald, A. Bruce; Ju, Chien-Ping; Rigsbee, James M.

    1993-01-01

    A composite and method of forming same wherein the composite has a non-metallic portion and an alloy portion wherein the alloy comprises an alkali metal and a metal which is an electrical conductor such as Cu, Ag, Al, Sn or Au and forms an alloy with the alkali metal. A cable of superconductors and composite is also disclosed.

  9. Method of bonding metals to ceramics and other materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.; Krauss, A.R.; DeWald, A.P.; Chienping Ju; Rigsbee, J.M.

    1993-01-05

    A composite and method of forming same wherein the composite has a non-metallic portion and an alloy portion wherein the alloy comprises an alkali metal and a metal which is an electrical conductor such as Cu, Ag, Al, Sn or Au and forms an alloy with the alkali metal. A cable of superconductors and composite is also disclosed.

  10. Transition metal-catalyzed process for addition of amines to carbon-carbon double bonds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartwig, John F.; Kawatsura, Motoi; Loeber, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for addition of amines to carbon-carbon double bonds in a substrate, comprising: reacting an amine with a compound containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond in the presence a transition metal catalyst under reaction conditions effective to form a product having a covalent bond between the amine and a carbon atom of the former carbon-carbon double bond. The transition metal catalyst comprises a Group 8 metal and a ligand containing one or more 2-electron donor atoms. The present invention is also directed to enantioselective reactions of amine compounds with compounds containing carbon-carbon double bonds, and a calorimetric assay to evaluate potential catalysts in these reactions.

  11. Liquid Metal Bond for Improved Heat Transfer in LWR Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Olander

    2005-08-24

    A liquid metal (LM) consisting of 1/3 weight fraction each of Pb, Sn, and Bi has been proposed as the bonding substance in the pellet-cladding gap in place of He. The LM bond eliminates the large AT over the pre-closure gap which is characteristic of helium-bonded fuel elements. Because the LM does not wet either UO2 or Zircaloy, simply loading fuel pellets into a cladding tube containing LM at atmospheric pressure leaves unfilled regions (voids) in the bond. The HEATING 7.3 heat transfer code indicates that these void spaces lead to local fuel hot spots.

  12. Electrostatic Cooperativity of Hydroxyl Groups at Metal Oxide Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boily, Jean F.; Lins, Roberto D.

    2009-09-24

    The O-H bond distribution of hydroxyl groups at the {110} goethite (R-FeOOH) surface was investigated by molecular dynamics. This distribution was strongly affected by electrostatic interactions with neighboring oxo and hydroxo groups. The effects of proton surface loading, simulated by emplacing two protons at different distances of separation, were diverse and generated several sets of O-H bond distributions. DFT calculations of a representative molecular cluster were also carried out to demonstrate the impact of these effects on the orientation of oxygen lone pairs in neighboring oxo groups. These effects should have strong repercussions on O-H stretching vibrations of metal oxide surfaces.h

  13. Tuning the Metal-Adsorbate Chemical Bond through the Ligand Effect on

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Platinum Subsurface Alloys | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Tuning the Metal-Adsorbate Chemical Bond through the Ligand Effect on Platinum Subsurface Alloys Tuesday, July 31, 2012 The ability to design and control the activities of transition metal catalysts, which are scarce in nature and thus expensive, has been of great importance to the development of economical industrial and energy-saving processes. Over the years several methods have been suggested, especially for

  14. Anion Binding in Metal-Organic Frameworks Functionalized with Urea Hydrogen-Bonding Groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custelcean, Radu; Moyer, Bruce A; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.; Hay, Benjamin P.

    2006-01-01

    A series of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) functionalized with urea hydrogen-bonding groups has been synthesized and structurally analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction to evaluate the efficacy of anion coordination by urea within the structural constraints of the MOFs. We found that urea-based functionalities may be used for anion binding within metal-organic frameworks when the tendency for urea{hor_ellipsis}urea self-association is decreased by strengthening the intramolecular CH{hor_ellipsis}O hydrogen bonding of N-phenyl substituents to the carbonyl oxygen atom. Theoretical calculations indicate that N,N'-bis(m-pyridyl)urea (BPU) and N,N'-bis(m-cyanophenyl)urea (BCPU) should have enhanced hydrogen-bonding donor abilities toward anions and decreased tendencies to self-associate into hydrogen-bonded tapes compared to other disubstituted ureas. Accordingly, BPU and BCPU were incorporated in MOFs as linkers through coordination of various Zn, Cu, and Ag transition metal salts, including Zn(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}, ZnSO{sub 4}, Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, Cu(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}, AgNO{sub 3}, and AgSO{sub 3}CH{sub 3}. Structural analysis by single-crystal X-ray diffraction showed that these linkers are versatile anion binders, capable of chelate hydrogen bonding to all of the oxoanions explored. Anion coordination by the urea functionalities was found to successfully compete with urea self-association in all cases except for that of charge-diffuse perchlorate.

  15. Metal Catalyzed sp2 Bonded Carbon - Large-scale Graphene Synthesis and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beyond | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Metal Catalyzed sp2 Bonded Carbon - Large-scale Graphene Synthesis and Beyond December 1, 2009 at 3pm/36-428 Peter Sutter Center for Functional Nanomaterials sutter abstract: Carbon honeycomb lattices have shown a number of remarkable properties. When wrapped up into fullerenes, for instance, superconductivity with high transition temperatures can be induced by alkali intercalation. Rolling carbon sheets up into 1-dimensional nanotubes generates the

  16. High-temperature, high-pressure bonding of nested tubular metallic components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quinby, Thomas C. (Kingston, TN)

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a tool for effecting high-temperature, high-compression bonding between the confronting faces of nested, tubular, metallic components. In a typical application, the tool is used to produce tubular target assemblies for irradiation in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators, the target assembly comprising a uranium foil and an aluminum-alloy substrate. The tool preferably is composed throughout of graphite. It comprises a tubular restraining member in which a mechanically expandable tubular core is mounted to form an annulus with the member. The components to be bonded are mounted in nested relation in the annulus. The expandable core is formed of individually movable, axially elongated segments whose outer faces cooperatively define a cylindrical pressing surface and whose inner faces cooperatively define two opposed, inwardly tapered, axial bores. Tapered rams extend respectively into the bores. The loaded tool is mounted in a conventional hot-press provided with evacuation means, heaters for maintaining its interior at bonding temperature, and hydraulic cylinders for maintaining a selected inwardly directed pressure on the tapered rams. With the hot-press evacuated and the loaded tool at the desired temperature, the cylinders are actuated to apply the selected pressure to the rams. The rams in turn expand the segmented core to maintain the nested components in compression against the restraining member. These conditions are maintained until the confronting faces of the nested components are joined in a continuous, uniform bond characterized by high thermal conductivity.

  17. Rare-Earth Transition-Metal Intermetallics: Structure-bonding-Property Relationships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mi-Kyung Han

    2006-05-01

    Our explorations of rare-earth, transition metal intermetallics have resulted in the synthesis and characterization, and electronic structure investigation, as well as understanding the structure-bonding-property relationships. Our work has presented the following results: (1) Understanding the relationship between compositions and properties in LaFe{sub 13-x}Si{sub x} system: A detailed structural and theoretical investigation provided the understanding of the role of a third element on stabilizing the structure and controlling the transformation of cubic NaZn{sub 13}-type structures to the tetragonal derivative, as well as the relationship between the structures and properties. (2) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth iron silicides RE{sub 2-x}Fe{sub 4}Si{sub 14-y} and proposed superstructure: This compound offers complex structural challenges such as fractional occupancies and their ordering in superstructure. (3) Electronic structure calculation of FeSi{sub 2}: This shows that the metal-semiconductor phase transition depends on the structure. The mechanism of band gap opening is described in terms of bonding and structural distortion. This result shows that the electronic structure calculations are an essential tool for understanding the relationship between structure and chemical bonding in these compounds. (4) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth Zinc aluminides Tb{sub 3}Zn{sub 3.6}Al{sub 7.4}: Partially ordered structure of Tb{sub 3}Zn{sub 3.6}Al{sub 7.4} compound provides new insights into the formation, composition and structure of rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics. Electronic structure calculations attribute the observed composition to optimizing metal-metal bonding in the electronegative (Zn, Al) framework, while the specific ordering is strongly influenced by specific orbital interactions. (5) Synthesis of new structure type of Zn{sub 39}(Cr{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}){sub 81}: These layered structures are similar to icosahedral Mn-Al quasicrystalline

  18. Rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics: Structure-bonding-property relationships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, M.K.

    2006-05-06

    The explorations of rare-earth, transition metal intermetallics have resulted in the synthesis and characterization, and electronic structure investigation, as well as understanding the structure-bonding property relationships. The work has presented the following results: (1) Understanding the relationship between compositions and properties in LaFe{sub 13-x}Si{sub x} system: A detailed structural and theoretical investigation provided the understanding of the role of a third element on stabilizing the structure and controlling the transformation of cubic NaZn{sub 13}-type structures to the tetragonal derivative, as well as the relationship between the structures and properties. (2) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth iron silicides Re{sub 2-x}Fe{sub 4}Si{sub 14-y} and proposed superstructure: This compound offers complex structural challenges such as fractional occupancies and their ordering in superstructure. (3) Electronic structure calculation of FeSi{sub 2}: This shows that the metal-semiconductor phase transition depends on the structure. The mechanism of band gap opening is described in terms of bonding and structural distortion. This result shows that the electronic structure calculations are an essential tool for understanding the relationship between structure and chemical bonding in these compounds. (4) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth Zinc aluminides Tb{sub 3}Zn{sub 3.6}Al{sub 7.4}: Partially ordered structure of Tb{sub 3}Zn{sub 3.6}Al{sub 7.4} compound provides new insights into the formation, composition and structure of rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics. Electronic structure calculations attribute the observed composition to optimizing metal-metal bonding in the electronegative (Zn, Al) framework, while the specific ordering is strongly influenced by specific orbital interactions. (5) Synthesis of new structure type of Zn{sub 39}(Cr{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}){sub 81}: These layered structures are similar to icosahedral Mn-Al quasicrystalline

  19. Anion Coordination in Metal-Organic Frameworks Functionalized with Urea Hydrogen-Bonding Groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custelcean, Radu; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav; Hay, Benjamin P.

    2005-12-15

    A series of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) functionalized with urea hydrogen-bonding groups have been designed, synthesized, and structurally analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction to evaluate the efficacy of anion binding within the structural constraints of the MOFs. We found that urea-based functionalities may be used for anion binding within metal-organic frameworks when the tendency for urea???urea self-association is decreased by strengthening the intramolelcular CH???O hydrogen bonding of N-phenyl substituents to the carbonyl oxygen atom. Theoretical calculations indicate that N,N?-bis(m-pyridyl)urea (BPU) and N,N?-bis(m-cyanophenyl)urea (BCPU) should have enhanced hydrogen-bonding donor abilities toward anions and decreased tendencies to self-associate into hydrogen-bonded chains compared to other disubstituted ureas. Accordingly, BPU and BCPU were incorporated in MOFs as linkers through coordination of various Zn, Cu, and Ag transition metal salts, including Zn(ClO4)2, ZnSO4, Cu(NO3)2, Cu(CF3SO3)2, AgNO3 and AgSO3CH3. Structural analysis by single-crystal X-ray diffraction showed that these linkers are versatile anion binders, capable of chelate hydrogen bonding to all of the oxoanions explored. Anion binding by the urea functionalities was found to successfully compete with urea self-association in all cases except for that of charge-diffuse perchlorate. This research was sponsored by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy, under contract number DE-AC05-00OR22725 with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (managed by UT-Battelle, LLC), and performed at Oak Ridge National laboratory and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (managed by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76RL01830). This research was performed in part using the Molecular Science Computing Facility (MSCF) in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences laboratory

  20. Method for applying a high-temperature bond coat on a metal substrate, and related compositions and articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasz, Wayne Charles; Sangeeta, D

    2006-04-18

    A method for applying a bond coat on a metal-based substrate is described. A slurry which contains braze material and a volatile component is deposited on the substrate. The slurry can also include bond coat material. Alternatively, the bond coat material can be applied afterward, in solid form or in the form of a second slurry. The slurry and bond coat are then dried and fused to the substrate. A repair technique using this slurry is also described, along with related compositions and articles.

  1. Method for applying a high-temperature bond coat on a metal substrate, and related compositions and articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasz, Wayne Charles; Sangeeta, D

    2002-01-01

    A method for applying a bond coat on a metal-based substrate is described. A slurry which contains braze material and a volatile component is deposited on the substrate. The slurry can also include bond coat material. Alternatively, the bond coat material can be applied afterward, in solid form or in the form of a second slurry. The slurry and bond coat are then dried and fused to the substrate. A repair technique using this slurry is also described, along with related compositions and articles.

  2. Method of applying a bond coating and a thermal barrier coating on a metal substrate, and related articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasz, Wayne Charles; Borom, Marcus Preston

    2002-01-01

    A method for applying at least one bond coating on a surface of a metal-based substrate is described. A foil of the bond coating material is first attached to the substrate surface and then fused thereto, e.g., by brazing. The foil is often initially prepared by thermally spraying the bond coating material onto a removable support sheet, and then detaching the support sheet. Optionally, the foil may also include a thermal barrier coating applied over the bond coating. The substrate can be a turbine engine component.

  3. A coordinatively saturated sulfate encapsulated in a metal-organic framework functionalized with urea hydrogen-bonding groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custelcean, Radu; Moyer, Bruce A.; Hay, Benjamin P.

    2005-10-14

    A functional coordination polymer decorated with urea hydrogen-bonding donor groups has been designed for optional binding of sulfate; self-assembly of a tripodal tri-urea linker with Ag2SO4 resulted in the formation of a 1D metal-organic framework that encapsulated SO42- anions via twelve complementary hydrogen bonds, which represents the highest coordination number observed for sulfate in a natural or synthetic host.

  4. A coordinatively saturated sulfate encapsulated in a metal-organic framework functionalized with urea hydrogen-bonding groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custelcean, Radu; Moyer, Bruce A; Hay, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    A functional coordination polymer decorated with urea hydrogen-bonding donor groups has been designed for optimal binding of sulfate; self-assembly of a tripodal tris-urea linker with Ag2SO4 resulted in the formation of a 1D metal - organic framework that encapsulates SO42- anions via twelve complementary hydrogen bonds, which represents the highest coordination number observed for sulfate in a natural or synthetic host.

  5. Multilayered thermal insulation formed of zirconia bonded layers of zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1988-09-13

    A multilayered thermal insulating composite is formed of a first layer of zirconia-bonded zirconia fibers for utilization near the hot phase or surface of a furnace or the like. A second layer of zirconia-bonded metal oxide fibers is attached to the zirconia fiber layer by a transition layer formed of intermingled zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers. The thermal insulation is fabricated by vacuum molding with the layers being sequentially applied from aqueous solutions containing the fibers to a configured mandrel. A portion of the solution containing the fibers forming the first layer is intermixed with the solution containing the fibers of the second layer for forming the layer of mixed fibers. The two layers of fibers joined together by the transition layer are saturated with a solution of zirconium oxynitrate which provides a zirconia matrix for the composite when the fibers are sintered together at their nexi.

  6. Multilayered thermal insulation formed of zirconia bonded layers of zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrenn, Jr., George E. (Clinton, TN); Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Farragut, TN)

    1988-01-01

    A multilayered thermal insulating composite is formed of a first layer of zirconia-bonded zirconia fibers for utilization near the hot phase or surface of a furnace or the like. A second layer of zirconia-bonded metal oxide fibers is attached to the zirconia fiber layer by a transition layer formed of intermingled zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers. The thermal insulation is fabricated by vacuum molding with the layers being sequentially applied from aqueous solutions containing the fibers to a configured mandrel. A portion of the solution containing the fibers forming the first layer is intermixed with the solution containing the fibers of the second layer for forming the layer of mixed fibers. The two layers of fibers joined together by the transition layer are saturated with a solution of zirconium oxynitrate which provides a zirconia matrix for the composite when the fibers are sintered together at their nexi.

  7. Simple bond-order-type interatomic potential for an intermixed Fe-Cr-C system of metallic and covalent bondings in heat-resistant ferritic steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumagai, Tomohisa Nakamura, Kaoru; Yamada, Susumu; Ohnuma, Toshiharu

    2014-12-28

    It is known that M{sub 23}C{sub 6}(M?=?Cr/Fe) behavior in heat-resistant ferritic steels affects the strength of the material at high temperature. The ability to garner direct information regarding the atomic motion using classical molecular dynamics simulations is useful for investigating the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} behavior in heat-resistant ferritic steels. For such classical molecular dynamics calculations, a suitable interatomic potential is needed. To satisfy this requirement, an empirical bond-order-type interatomic potential for Fe-Cr-C systems was developed because the three main elements to simulate the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} behavior in heat-resistant ferritic steels are Fe, Cr, and C. The angular-dependent term, which applies only in non-metallic systems, was determined based on the similarity between a Finnis-Sinclair-type embedded-atom-method interatomic potential and a Tersoff-type bond-order potential. The potential parameters were determined such that the material properties of Fe-Cr-C systems were reproduced. These properties include the energy and lattice constants of 89 crystal structures; the elastic constants of four realistic precipitates; the bulk moduli of B1, B2, and B3 crystals; the surface energies of B1 and B2 crystals; and the defect-formation energies and atomic configurations of 66 Fe-Cr-C complexes. Most of these material properties were found to be reproduced by our proposed empirical bond-order potentials. The formation energies and lattice constants of randomly mixed Fe-Cr alloys calculated using the interatomic potentials were comparable to those obtained through experiments and first-principles calculations. Furthermore, the energies and structures of interfaces between Cr carbide and ?-Fe as predicted through first-principles calculations were well reproduced using these interatomic potentials.

  8. Intriguing structures and magic sizes of heavy noble metal nanoclusters around size 55 governed by relativistic effect and covalent bonding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, X. J.; Xue, X. L.; Jia, Yu; Guo, Z. X.; Li, S. F.; Zhang, Zhenyu; Gao, Y. F.

    2015-11-07

    Nanoclusters usually display exotic physical and chemical properties due to their intriguing geometric structures in contrast to their bulk counterparts. By means of first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we find that heavy noble metal Pt{sub N} nanoclusters around the size N = 55 begin to prefer an open configuration, rather than previously reported close-packed icosahedron or core-shell structures. Particularly, for Pt{sub N}, the widely supposed icosahedronal magic cluster is changed to a three-atomic-layered structure with D{sub 6h} symmetry, which can be well addressed by our recently established generalized Wulff construction principle (GWCP). However, the magic number of Pt{sub N} clusters around 55 is shifted to a new odd number of 57. The high symmetric three-layered Pt{sub 57} motif is mainly stabilized by the enhanced covalent bonding contributed by both spin-orbital coupling effect and the open d orbital (5d{sup 9}6s{sup 1}) of Pt, which result in a delicate balance between the enhanced Pt–Pt covalent bonding of the interlayers and negligible d dangling bonds on the cluster edges. These findings about Pt{sub N} clusters are also applicable to Ir{sub N} clusters, but qualitatively different from their earlier neighboring element Os and their later neighboring element Au. The magic numbers for Os and Au are even, being 56 and 58, respectively. The findings of the new odd magic number 57 are the important supplementary of the recently established GWCP.

  9. Transition Metal Catalyzed Hydroarylation of Multiple Bonds: Exploration of Second Generation Ruthenium Catalysts and Extension to Copper Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. Brent Gunnoe

    2011-02-17

    Catalysts provide foundational technology for the development of new materials and can enhance the efficiency of routes to known materials. New catalyst technologies offer the possibility of reducing energy and raw material consumption as well as enabling chemical processes with a lower environmental impact. The rising demand and expense of fossil resources has strained national and global economies and has increased the importance of accessing more efficient catalytic processes for the conversion of hydrocarbons to useful products. The goals of the research are to develop and understand single-site homogeneous catalysts for the conversion of readily available hydrocarbons into useful materials. A detailed understanding of these catalytic reactions could lead to the development of catalysts with improved activity, longevity and selectivity. Such transformations could reduce the environmental impact of hydrocarbon functionalization, conserve energy and valuable fossil resources and provide new technologies for the production of liquid fuels. This project is a collaborative effort that incorporates both experimental and computational studies to understand the details of transition metal catalyzed C-H activation and C-C bond forming reactions with olefins. Accomplishments of the current funding period include: (1) We have completed and published studies of C-H activation and catalytic olefin hydroarylation by TpRu{l_brace}P(pyr){sub 3}{r_brace}(NCMe)R (pyr = N-pyrrolyl) complexes. While these systems efficiently initiate stoichiometric benzene C-H activation, catalytic olefin hydroarylation is hindered by inhibition of olefin coordination, which is a result of the steric bulk of the P(pyr){sub 3} ligand. (2) We have extended our studies of catalytic olefin hydroarylation by TpRu(L)(NCMe)Ph systems to L = P(OCH{sub 2}){sub 3}CEt. Thus, we have now completed detailed mechanistic studies of four systems with L = CO, PMe{sub 3}, P(pyr){sub 3} and P(OCH{sub 2}){sub 3}CEt

  10. Method Of Bonding A Metal Connection To An Electrode Including A Core Having A Fiber Or Foam Type Structure For An Electrochemical Cell, An

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loustau, Marie-Therese; Verhoog, Roelof; Precigout, Claude

    1996-09-24

    A method of bonding a metal connection to an electrode including a core having a fiber or foam-type structure for an electrochemical cell, in which method at least one metal strip is pressed against one edge of the core and is welded thereto under compression, wherein, at least in line with the region in which said strip is welded to the core, which is referred to as the "main core", a retaining core of a type analogous to that of the main core is disposed prior to the welding.

  11. Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    describe bonding in organometallics are at frequently at odds with classical coordination chemistry, in that they invoke a covalent bond between the metal and the carbon-based...

  12. Photochemical route to actinide-transition metal bonds: synthesis, characterization and reactivity of a series of thorium and uranium heterobimetallic complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Ashleigh; Lukens, Wayne; Lu, Connie; Arnold, John

    2014-04-01

    A series of actinide-transition metal heterobimetallics has been prepared, featuring thorium, uranium and cobalt. Complexes incorporating the binucleating ligand N[-(NHCH2PiPr2)C6H4]3 and Th(IV) (4) or U(IV) (5) with a carbonyl bridged [Co(CO)4]- unit were synthesized from the corresponding actinide chlorides (Th: 2; U: 3) and Na[Co(CO)4]. Irradiation of the isocarbonyls with ultraviolet light resulted in the formation of new species containing actinide-metal bonds in good yields (Th: 6; U: 7); this photolysis method provides a new approach to a relatively rare class of complexes. Characterization by single-crystal X-ray diffraction revealed that elimination of the bridging carbonyl is accompanied by coordination of a phosphine arm from the N4P3 ligand to the cobalt center. Additionally, actinide-cobalt bonds of 3.0771(5) and 3.0319(7) for the thorium and uranium complexes, respectively, were observed. The solution state behavior of the thorium complexes was evaluated using 1H, 1H-1H COSY, 31P and variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy. IR, UV-Vis/NIR, and variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements are also reported.

  13. Solder extrusion pressure bonding process and bonded products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beavis, Leonard C.; Karnowsky, Maurice M.; Yost, Frederick G.

    1992-01-01

    Production of soldered joints which are highly reliable and capable of surviving 10,000 thermal cycles between about -40.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. Process involves interposing a thin layer of a metal solder composition between the metal surfaces of members to be bonded and applying heat and up to about 1000 psi compression pressure to the superposed members, in the presence of a reducing atmosphere, to extrude the major amount of the solder composition, contaminants including fluxing gases and air, from between the members being bonded, to form a very thin, strong intermetallic bonding layer having a thermal expansion tolerant with that of the bonded members.

  14. Solder extrusion pressure bonding process and bonded products produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beavis, L.C.; Karnowsky, M.M.; Yost, F.G.

    1992-06-16

    Disclosed is a process for production of soldered joints which are highly reliable and capable of surviving 10,000 thermal cycles between about [minus]40 C and 110 C. Process involves interposing a thin layer of a metal solder composition between the metal surfaces of members to be bonded and applying heat and up to about 1000 psi compression pressure to the superposed members, in the presence of a reducing atmosphere, to extrude the major amount of the solder composition, contaminants including fluxing gases and air, from between the members being bonded, to form a very thin, strong intermetallic bonding layer having a thermal expansion tolerant with that of the bonded members.

  15. Transient liquid phase ceramic bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Andreas M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Ceramics are joined to themselves or to metals using a transient liquid phase method employing three layers, one of which is a refractory metal, ceramic or alloy. The refractory layer is placed between two metal layers, each of which has a lower melting point than the refractory layer. The three layers are pressed between the two articles to be bonded to form an assembly. The assembly is heated to a bonding temperature at which the refractory layer remains solid, but the two metal layers melt to form a liquid. The refractory layer reacts with the surrounding liquid and a single solid bonding layer is eventually formed. The layers may be designed to react completely with each other and form refractory intermetallic bonding layers. Impurities incorporated into the refractory metal may react with the metal layers to form refractory compounds. Another method for joining ceramic articles employs a ceramic interlayer sandwiched between two metal layers. In alternative embodiments, the metal layers may include sublayers. A method is also provided for joining two ceramic articles using a single interlayer. An alternate bonding method provides a refractory-metal oxide interlayer placed adjacent to a strong oxide former. Aluminum or aluminum alloys are joined together using metal interlayers.

  16. Ultrathin body GaSb-on-insulator p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors on Si fabricated by direct wafer bonding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yokoyama, Masafumi Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi; Yokoyama, Haruki

    2015-02-16

    We have realized ultrathin body GaSb-on-insulator (GaSb-OI) on Si wafers by direct wafer bonding technology using atomic-layer deposition (ALD) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and have demonstrated GaSb-OI p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (p-MOSFETs) on Si. A 23-nm-thick GaSb-OI p-MOSFET exhibits the peak effective mobility of ∼76 cm{sup 2}/V s. We have found that the effective hole mobility of the thin-body GaSb-OI p-MOSFETs decreases with a decrease in the GaSb-OI thickness or with an increase in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD temperature. The InAs passivation of GaSb-OI MOS interfaces can enhance the peak effective mobility up to 159 cm{sup 2}/V s for GaSb-OI p-MOSFETs with the 20-nm-thick GaSb layer.

  17. A single crystalline porphyrinic titanium metalorganic framework

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yuan, Shuai; Liu, Tian -Fu; Feng, Dawei; Tian, Jian; Wang, Kecheng; Qin, Junsheng; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Ying -Pin; Bosch, Mathieu; Zou, Lanfang; et al

    2015-04-28

    We successfully assembled the photocatalytic titanium-oxo cluster and photosensitizing porphyrinic linker into a metalorganic framework (MOF), namely PCN-22. A preformed titanium-oxo carboxylate cluster is adopted as the starting material to judiciously control the MOF growth process to afford single crystals. This synthetic method is useful to obtain highly crystalline titanium MOFs, which has been a daunting challenge in this field. Moreover, PCN-22 demonstrated permanent porosity and photocatalytic activities toward alcohol oxidation.

  18. Alkane functionalization at ([mu]-Oxo)diiron(III) centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leising, R.A.; Kim, J.; Perez, M.A.; Que, L. Jr. )

    1993-10-20

    The reactivity of ([mu]-oxo)diferric complexes with [sup t]BuOOH (TBHP) for the functionalization of alkanes in CH[sub 3]CN has been investigated as part of our efforts to model dinuclear sites in nonheme iron enzymes. [Fe[sub 2](TPA)[sub 2]O(OAc)](CIO[sub 4])[sub 3] (1) (TPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine, OAc = acetate) is an efficient catalyst for cyclohexane oxidation, affording cyclohexanol (A, 9 equiv), cyclohexanone (K, 11 equiv), and (tert-butylperoxy)cyclohexane (P, 16 equiv) in 0.25 h at ambient temperature and pressure under an argon atmosphere. The catalyst is remarkably robust, as indicated by the [sup 1]H NMR and UV-vis spectra of the reaction mixture during the catalytic reaction and by its ability to maintain its turnover efficiency with subsequent additions of oxidant. The catalytic mechanism for TBHP utilization was explored by observing the effects of varying the tripodal ligands on the ([mu]-oxo)([mu]-carboxylato)diferric catalysts and varying the bridge on Fe[sub 2]O(TPA)[sub 2] catalysts. The (A + K)/P ratio increased as the ligands became more electron donating. Solvent also played an important role in determining the partitioning of products between A + K and P, with benzonitrile favoring hydroxylated products at the expense of P and pyridine having the opposite effect. 49 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. BREAKING BOND

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BREAKING BOND the Can chemistry help unbind us from fossil fuels? 1663 July 2016 21 When ... Their goal: to use chemistry to construct gasoline-like hydrocarbons from plant sugars. ...

  20. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage of 1,2-hydroxy ethers b7 vanadium(V) dipicolinate complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, Susan K; Gordon, John C; Thorn, David L; Scott, Brian L; Baker, R Tom

    2009-01-01

    The development of alternatives to current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals is becoming increasingly important due to concerns over climate change, growing world energy demand, and energy security issues. Using non-food derived biomass to produce renewable feedstocks for chemicals and fuels is a particularly attractive possibility. However, the majority of biomass is in the form of lignocellulose, which is often not fully utilized due to difficulties associated with breaking down both lignin and cellulose. Recently, a number of methods have been reported to transform cellulose directly into more valuable materials such as glucose, sorbitol, 5-(chloromethyl)furfural, and ethylene glycol. Less progress has been made with selective transformations of lignin, which is typically treated in paper and forest industries by kraft pulping (sodium hydroxide/sodium sulfide) or incineration. Our group has begun investigating aerobic oxidative C-C bond cleavage catalyzed by dipicolinate vanadium complexes, with the idea that a selective C-C cleavage reaction of this type could be used to produce valuable chemicals or intermediates from cellulose or lignin. Lignin is a randomized polymer containing methoxylated phenoxy propanol units. A number of different linkages occur naturally; one of the most prevalent is the {beta}-O-4 linkage shown in Figure 1, containing a C-C bond with 1,2-hydroxy ether substituents. While the oxidative C-C bond cleavage of 1,2-diols has been reported for a number of metals, including vanadium, iron, manganese, ruthenium, and polyoxometalate complexes, C-C bond cleavage of 1,2-hydroxy ethers is much less common. We report herein vanadium-mediated cleavage of C-C bonds between alcohol and ether functionalities in several lignin model complexes. In order to explore the scope and potential of vanadium complexes to effect oxidative C-C bond cleavage in 1,2-hydroxy ethers, we examined the reactivity of the lignin model complexes pinacol monomethyl ether (A

  1. Diffusion bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1976-06-22

    1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

  2. Pre-plated reactive diffusion-bonded battery electrode plaques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1984-01-01

    A high strength, metallic fiber battery plaque is made using reactive diffusion bonding techniques, where a substantial amount of the fibers are bonded together by an iron-nickel alloy.

  3. Non-bonded ultrasonic transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eoff, J.M.

    1984-07-06

    A mechanically assembled non-bonded ultrasonic transducer includes a substrate, a piezoelectric film, a wetting agent, a thin metal electrode, and a lens held in intimate contact by a mechanical clamp. No epoxy or glue is used in the assembly of this device.

  4. SOLID STATE BONDING OF THORIUM WITH ALUMINUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Storchhelm, S.

    1959-12-01

    A method is described for bonding thorium and aluminum by placing clean surfaces of thorium and aluminum in contact with each other and hot pressing the metals together in a protective atmosphere at a temperature of about 375 to 575 deg C and at a pressure of at least 10 tsi to effect a bond.

  5. IMPROVED BONDING METHOD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Padgett, E.V. Jr.; Warf, D.H.

    1964-04-28

    An improved process of bonding aluminum to aluminum without fusion by ultrasonic vibrations plus pressure is described. The surfaces to be bonded are coated with an aqueous solution of alkali metal stearate prior to assembling for bonding. (AEC) O H19504 Present information is reviewed on steady state proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of blood cells in mammals. Data are cited from metabolic tracer studies, autoradiographic studies, cytologic studies, studies of hematopoietic response to radiation injuries, and computer analyses of blood cell production. A 3-step model for erythropoiesis and a model for granulocyte kinetics are presented. New approaches to the study of lymphocytopoiesis described include extracorporeal blood irradiation to deplete lymphocytic tissue without direct injury to the formative tissues as a means to study the stressed system, function control, and rates of proliferation. It is pointed out that present knowledge indicates that lymphocytes comprise a mixed family, with diverse life spans, functions, and migration patterns with apparent aimless recycling from modes to lymph to blood to nodes that has not yet been quantitated. Areas of future research are postulated. (70 references.) (C.H.)

  6. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT for grant DE-FG02-93ER14353 ????"Carbon-Hydrogen Bond Functionalization Catalyzed by Transition Metal Systems"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan S. Goldman

    2012-05-21

    Alkanes are our most abundant organic resource but are highly resistant to selective chemical transformations. Alkenes (olefins) by contrast are the single most versatile class of molecules for selective transformations, and are intermediates in virtually every petrochemical process as well as a vast range of commodity and fine chemical processes. Over the course of this project we have developed the most efficient catalysts to date for the selective conversion of alkanes to give olefins, and have applied these catalysts to other dehydrogenation reactions. We have also developed some of the first efficient catalysts for carbonylation of alkanes and arenes to give aldehydes. The development of these catalysts has been accompanied by elucidation of the mechanism of their operation and the factors controlling the kinetics and thermodynamics of C-H bond activation and other individual steps of the catalytic cycles. This fundamental understanding will allow the further improvement of these catalysts, as well as the development of the next generation of catalysts for the functionalization of alkanes and other molecules containing C-H bonds.

  7. Process Of Bonding Copper And Tungsten

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slattery, Kevin T.; Driemeyer, Daniel E.; Davis, John W.

    2000-07-18

    Process for bonding a copper substrate to a tungsten substrate by providing a thin metallic adhesion promoting film bonded to a tungsten substrate and a functionally graded material (FGM) interlayer bonding the thin metallic adhesion promoting film to the copper substrate. The FGM interlayer is formed by sintering a stack of individual copper and tungsten powder blend layers having progressively higher copper content/tungsten content, by volume, ratio values in successive powder blend layers in a lineal direction extending from the tungsten substrate towards the copper substrate. The resulting copper to tungsten joint well accommodates the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials.

  8. Bond-valence methods for pKa prediction. II. Bond-valence, electrostatic, molecular geometry, and solvation effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickmore, Barry R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Tadanier, Christopher J.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Doud, Darrin

    2006-08-15

    In a previous contribution, we outlined a method for predicting (hydr)oxy-acid and oxide surface acidity constants based on three main factors: bond valence, Me?O bond ionicity, and molecular shape. Here electrostatics calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are used to qualitatively show that Me?O bond ionicity controls the extent to which the electrostatic work of proton removal departs from ideality, bond valence controls the extent of solvation of individual functional groups, and bond valence and molecular shape controls local dielectric response. These results are consistent with our model of acidity, but completely at odds with other methods of predicting acidity constants for use in multisite complexation models. In particular, our ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of solvated monomers clearly indicate that hydrogen bonding between (hydr)oxo-groups and water molecules adjusts to obey the valence sum rule, rather than maintaining a fixed valence based on the coordination of the oxygen atom as predicted by the standard MUSIC model.

  9. Method of bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saller, deceased, Henry A. (late of Columbus, OH); Hodge, Edwin S. (Columbus, OH); Paprocki, Stanley J. (Columbus, OH); Dayton, Russell W. (Columbus, OH)

    1987-12-01

    1. A method of making a fuel-containing structure for nuclear reactors, comprising providing an assembly comprising a plurality of fuel units; each fuel unit consisting of a core plate containing thermal-neutron-fissionable material, sheets of cladding metal on its bottom and top surfaces, said cladding sheets being of greater width and length than said core plates whereby recesses are formed at the ends and sides of said core plate, and end pieces and first side pieces of cladding metal of the same thickness as the core plate positioned in said recesses, the assembly further comprising a plurality of second side pieces of cladding metal engaging the cladding sheets so as to space the fuel units from one another, and a plurality of filler plates of an acid-dissolvable nonresilient material whose melting point is above 2000.degree. F., each filler plate being arranged between a pair of said second side pieces and the cladding plates of two adjacent fuel units, the filler plates having the same thickness as the second side pieces; the method further comprising enclosing the entire assembly in an envelope; evacuating the interior of the entire assembly through said envelope; applying inert gas under a pressure of about 10,000 psi to the outside of said envelope while at the same time heating the assembly to a temperature above the flow point of the cladding metal but below the melting point of any material of the assembly, whereby the envelope is pressed against the assembly and integral bonds are formed between plates, sheets, first side pieces, and end pieces and between the sheets and the second side pieces; slowly cooling the assembly to room temperature; removing the envelope; and dissolving the filler plates without attacking the cladding metal.

  10. In-situ and theoretical studies for the dissociation of water on an active Ni/CeO? catalyst: Importance of strong metal-support interactions for the cleavage of O-H bonds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrasco, Javier; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Lopez-Duran, David; Liu, Zongyuan; Duchon, Tomas; Evans, Jaime; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Matolin, Vladimir; Ganduglia-Pirovano, M. Veronica

    2015-03-23

    Water dissociation is crucial in many catalytic reactions on oxide-supported transition-metal catalysts. Here, supported by experimental and density-functional theory results, we elucidate the effect of the support on O-H bond cleavage activity for nickel/ceria systems. Ambient-pressure O1s photoemission spectra at low Ni loadings on CeO?(111) reveal a substantially larger amount of OH groups as compared to the bare support. Our computed activation energy barriers for water dissociation show an enhanced reactivity of Ni adatoms on CeO?(111) compared with pyramidal Ni? particles with one Ni atom not in contact with the support, and extended Ni(111) surfaces. At the origin of this support effect is the ability of ceria to stabilize oxidized Ni? species by accommodating electrons in localized f-states. The fast dissociation of water on Ni/CeO? has a dramatic effect on the activity and stability of this system as a catalyst for the water-gas shift and ethanol steam reforming reactions.

  11. In-situ and theoretical studies for the dissociation of water on an active Ni/CeO₂ catalyst: Importance of strong metal-support interactions for the cleavage of O-H bonds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carrasco, Javier; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Lopez-Duran, David; Liu, Zongyuan; Duchon, Tomas; Evans, Jaime; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Matolin, Vladimir; Ganduglia-Pirovano, M. Veronica

    2015-03-23

    Water dissociation is crucial in many catalytic reactions on oxide-supported transition-metal catalysts. Here, supported by experimental and density-functional theory results, we elucidate the effect of the support on O-H bond cleavage activity for nickel/ceria systems. Ambient-pressure O1s photoemission spectra at low Ni loadings on CeO₂(111) reveal a substantially larger amount of OH groups as compared to the bare support. Our computed activation energy barriers for water dissociation show an enhanced reactivity of Ni adatoms on CeO₂(111) compared with pyramidal Ni₄ particles with one Ni atom not in contact with the support, and extended Ni(111) surfaces. At the origin of thismore » support effect is the ability of ceria to stabilize oxidized Ni²⁺ species by accommodating electrons in localized f-states. The fast dissociation of water on Ni/CeO₂ has a dramatic effect on the activity and stability of this system as a catalyst for the water-gas shift and ethanol steam reforming reactions.« less

  12. Spectroscopic Evidence for a High-Spin Br-Fe(IV)-Oxo Intermediate in the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Halogenase CytC3 from Streptomyces Working title - Spectroscopic Evidence for a High-Spin Br-Fe(IV)-Oxo Intermediate in the alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Halogenase CytC3 from Streptomyces There are over 4,500 known halogenated natural products. The presence of a halogen in the molecular framework tunes a compound's chemical reactivity or biological activity in these natural fungicides and antibiotics. Four classes of enzymes are now known to catalyze

  13. Metal Nanostructure Formation on Graphene: Weak versus Strong...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metal Nanostructure Formation on Graphene: Weak versus Strong Bonding Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metal Nanostructure Formation on Graphene: Weak versus Strong...

  14. Nonconsumable electrode assembly and use thereof for the electrolytic production of metals and silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrne, Stephen C.; Ray, Siba P.

    1984-01-01

    A nonconsumable electrode assembly suitable for use in the production of metal by electrolytic reduction of a metal compound dissolved in a molten salt, the assembly comprising a metal conductor attached to a ceramic electrode body by a metal bond on a portion of the body having a level of free metal or metal alloy sufficient to effect a metal bond.

  15. Smart interfacial bonding alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Q. Hwang; J. C. Hamilton; J. E. Houston

    1999-04-01

    The goal of this LDRD was to explore the use of the newly discovered strain-stabilized 2-D interfacial alloys as smart interface bonding alloys (SIBA). These materials will be used as templates for the heteroepitaxial growth of metallic thin films. SIBA are formed by two metallic components which mix at an interface to relieve strain and prevent dislocations from forming in subsequent thin film growth. The composition of the SIBA is determined locally by the amount of strain, and therefore can react smartly to areas of the highest strain to relieve dislocations. In this way, SIBA can be used to tailor the dislocation structure of thin films. This project included growth, characterization and modeling of films grown using SIBA templates. Characterization will include atomic imaging of the dislocations structure, measurement of the mechanical properties of the film using interface force microscopy (IFM) and the nanoindenter, and measurement of the electronic structure of the SIBA with synchrotron photoemission. Resistance of films to sulfidation and oxidation will also be examined. The Paragon parallel processing computer will be used to calculate the structure of the SIBA and thin films in order to develop ability to predict and tailor SIBA and thin film behavior. This work will lead to the possible development of a new class of thin film materials with properties tailored by varying the composition of the SIBA, serving as a buffer layer to relieve the strain between the substrate and the thin film. Such films will have improved mechanical and corrosion resistance allowing application as protective barriers for weapons applications. They will also exhibit enhanced electrical conductivity and reduced electromigration making them particularly suitable for application as interconnects and other electronic needs.

  16. Oxidation of ethane to ethanol by N2O in a metal-organic framework with coordinatively unsaturated iron(II) sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Dianne J.; Bloch, Eric D.; Mason, Jarad A.; Queen, Wendy L.; Hudson, Matthew R.; Planas, Nora; Borycz, Joshua; Dzubak, Allison L.; Verma, Pragya; Lee, Kyuho; Bonino, Francesca; Crocellà, Valentina; Yano, Junko; Bordiga, Silvia; Truhlar, Donald G.; Gagliardi, Laura; Brown, Craig M.; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2014-08-19

    Enzymatic haem and non-haem high-valent iron–oxo species are known to activate strong C–H bonds, yet duplicating this reactivity in a synthetic system remains a formidable challenge. Although instability of the terminal iron–oxo moiety is perhaps the foremost obstacle, steric and electronic factors also limit the activity of previously reported mononuclear iron(IV)–oxo compounds. In particular, although nature's non-haem iron(IV)–oxo compounds possess high-spin S = 2 ground states, this electronic configuration has proved difficult to achieve in a molecular species. These challenges may be mitigated within metal–organic frameworks that feature site-isolated iron centres in a constrained, weak-field ligand environment. Here, we show that the metal–organic framework Fe2(dobdc) (dobdc4- = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) and its magnesium-diluted analogue, Fe0.1Mg1.9(dobdc), are able to activate the C–H bonds of ethane and convert it into ethanol and acetaldehyde using nitrous oxide as the terminal oxidant. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the active oxidant is likely to be a high-spin S = 2 iron(IV)–oxo species.

  17. A nanotubular metal-organic framework with permanent porosity : structure analysis and gas sorption studies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, S.; Simmons, J. M.; Li, J. R.; Yuan, D.; Weng, W.; Liu, D. J.; Zhou, H. C.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Texas A&M Univ.; NIST

    2009-01-01

    A nanotubular metal-organic framework, PCN-19, was constructed based on a micro3-oxo-trinickel basic carboxylate secondary building unit (SBU) and the 9,10-anthracenedicarboxylate ligand; its permanent porosity was confirmed by N2 adsorption isotherms, and its H2 storage performances were evaluated under both low and high pressures at 77 K.

  18. Bonding thermoplastic polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallow, Thomas I.; Hunter, Marion C.; Krafcik, Karen Lee; Morales, Alfredo M.; Simmons, Blake A.; Domeier, Linda A.

    2008-06-24

    We demonstrate a new method for joining patterned thermoplastic parts into layered structures. The method takes advantage of case-II permeant diffusion to generate dimensionally controlled, activated bonding layers at the surfaces being joined. It is capable of producing bonds characterized by cohesive failure while preserving the fidelity of patterned features in the bonding surfaces. This approach is uniquely suited to production of microfluidic multilayer structures, as it allows the bond-forming interface between plastic parts to be precisely manipulated at micrometer length scales. The bond enhancing procedure is easily integrated in standard process flows and requires no specialized equipment.

  19. Clean Energy Bond Finance Model: Industrial Development Bonds (IDBs) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Bond Finance Model: Industrial Development Bonds (IDBs) Clean Energy Bond Finance Model: Industrial Development Bonds (IDBs) Overview of industrial development bonds. Author: Clean Energy and Bond Finance Initiative (CE+BFI) Industrial Development Bonds (IDBs) Fact Sheet More Documents & Publications Reduce Risk, Increase Clean Energy: How States and Cities are Using Old Finance Tools to Scale Up a New Industry Clean Energy and Bond Finance Initiative Financing

  20. Electrically conductive resinous bond and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snowden, T.M. Jr.; Wells, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    A method of bonding elements together with a bond of high strength and good electrical conductivity which comprises: applying an unfilled polyimide resin between surfaces of the elements to be bonded, heat treating said unfilled polyimide resin in stages between a temperature range of about 40 to 365/sup 0/C to form a strong adhesive bond between said elements, applying a metal-filled polyimide resin overcoat between said elements so as to provide electrical connection therebetween, and heat treating said metal-filled polyimide resin with substantially the same temperature profile as the unfilled polyimide resin. The present invention is also concerned with an adhesive, resilient, substantially void free bonding combination for providing a high strength, electrically conductive adhesive attachment between electrically conductive elements which comprises a major amount of an unfilled polyimide resin and a minor amount of a metal-filled polyimide resin.

  1. Electrically conductive resinous bond and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snowden, Jr., Thomas M.; Wells, Barbara J.

    1987-01-01

    A method of bonding elements together with a bond of high strength and good electrical conductivity which comprises: applying an unfilled polyimide resin between surfaces of the elements to be bonded, heat treating said unfilled polyimide resin in stages between a temperature range of about 40.degree. to 365.degree. C. to form a strong adhesive bond between said elements, applying a metal-filled polyimide resin overcoat between said elements so as to provide electrical connection therebetween, and heat treating said metal-filled polyimide resin with substantially the same temperature profile as the unfilled polyimide resin. The present invention is also concerned with an adhesive, resilient, substantially void free bonding combination for providing a high strength, electrically conductive adhesive attachment between electrically conductive elements which comprises a major amount of an unfilled polyimide resin and a minor amount of a metal-filled polyimide resin.

  2. Process Of Bonding Copper And Tungsten

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slattery, Kevin T.; Driemeyer, Daniel E.

    1999-11-23

    Process for bonding a copper substrate to a tungsten substrate by providing a thin metallic adhesion promoting film bonded to a tungsten substrate and a functionally graded material (FGM) interlayer bonding the thin metallic adhesion promoting film to the copper substrate. The FGM interlayer is formed by thermal plasma spraying mixtures of copper powder and tungsten powder in a varied blending ratio such that the blending ratio of the copper powder and the tungsten powder that is fed to a plasma torch is intermittently adjusted to provide progressively higher copper content/tungsten content, by volume, ratio values in the interlayer in a lineal direction extending from the tungsten substrate towards the copper substrate. The resulting copper to tungsten joint well accommodates the difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the materials.

  3. METHOD AND ALLOY FOR BONDING TO ZIRCONIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCuaig, F.D.; Misch, R.D.

    1960-04-19

    A brazing alloy can be used for bonding zirconium and its alloys to other metals, ceramics, and cermets, and consists of 6 to 9 wt.% Ni, 6 to 9 wn~.% Cr, Mo, or W, 0 to 7.5 wt.% Fe, and the balance Zr.

  4. Non-bonded piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eoff, James M.

    1985-01-01

    A mechanically assembled non-bonded ultrasonic transducer includes a substrate, a piezoelectric film, a wetting agent, a thin metal electrode, and a lens held in intimate contact by a mechanical clamp. No epoxy or glue is used in the assembly of this device.

  5. Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With tax credit bonds, generally the borrower who issues the bond pays back only the principal of the bond, and the bondholder receives federal tax credits in lieu of the traditional bond interest...

  6. Nitrogen-tuned bonding mechanism of Li and Ti adatom embedded graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Sangho; Chung, Yong-Chae, E-mail: yongchae@hanyang.ac.kr

    2013-09-15

    The effects of nitrogen defects on the bonding mechanism and resultant binding energy between the metal and graphene layer were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For the graphitic N-doped graphene, Li adatom exhibited ionic bonding character, while Ti adatom showed features of covalent bonding similar to that of pristine graphene. However, in the cases of pyridinic and pyrrolic structures, partially covalent bonding characteristic occurred around N atoms in the process of binding with metals, and this particular bond formation enhanced the bond strength of metal on the graphene layer as much as it exceeded the cohesive energy of the metal bulk. Thus, Li and Ti metals are expected to be dispersed with atomic accuracy on the pyridinic and pyrrolic N-doped graphene layers. These results demonstrate that the bonding mechanism of metalgraphene complex can change according to the type of N defect, and this also affects the binding results. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: Nitrogen defects changed the bonding mechanism between metal and graphene. Bonding character and binding results were investigated using DFT calculations. Covalent bonding character occurred around pyridinic and pyrrolic N-doped graphene. Pyridinic and pyrrolic N atoms are effective for metal dispersion on the graphene.

  7. Method of making sintered ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plucknett, Kevin; Tiegs, Terry N.; Becher, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    A method of making an intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite involves combining a particulate brittle intermetallic precursor with a particulate reactant metal and a particulate ceramic to form a mixture and heating the mixture in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time to react the brittle intermetallic precursor and the reactant metal to form a ductile intermetallic and sinter the mixture to form a ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite.

  8. Method of making sintered ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plucknett, K.; Tiegs, T.N.; Becher, P.F.

    1999-05-18

    A method of making an intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite involves combining a particulate brittle intermetallic precursor with a particulate reactant metal and a particulate ceramic to form a mixture and heating the mixture in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time to react the brittle intermetallic precursor and the reactant metal to form a ductile intermetallic and sinter the mixture to form a ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite. 2 figs.

  9. Bonded semiconductor substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atwater, Jr.; Harry A. , Zahler; James M.

    2010-07-13

    Ge/Si and other nonsilicon film heterostructures are formed by hydrogen-induced exfoliation of the Ge film which is wafer bonded to a cheaper substrate, such as Si. A thin, single-crystal layer of Ge is transferred to Si substrate. The bond at the interface of the Ge/Si heterostructures is covalent to ensure good thermal contact, mechanical strength, and to enable the formation of an ohmic contact between the Si substrate and Ge layers. To accomplish this type of bond, hydrophobic wafer bonding is used, because as the invention demonstrates the hydrogen-surface-terminating species that facilitate van der Waals bonding evolves at temperatures above 600.degree. C. into covalent bonding in hydrophobically bound Ge/Si layer transferred systems.

  10. Adsorption of propane, isopropyl, and hydrogen on cluster models of the M1 phase of Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govindasamy, Agalya; Muthukumar, Kaliappan; Yu, Junjun; Xu, Ye; Guliants, Vadim V.

    2010-01-01

    The Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst possessing the M1 phase structure is uniquely capable of directly converting propane into acrylonitrile. However, the mechanism of this complex eight-electron transformation, which includes a series of oxidative H-abstraction and N-insertion steps, remains poorly understood. We have conducted a density functional theory study of cluster models of the proposed active and selective site for propane ammoxidation, including the adsorption of propane, isopropyl (CH{sub 3}CHCH{sub 3}), and H which are involved in the first step of this transformation, that is, the methylene C-H bond scission in propane, on these active site models. Among the surface oxygen species, the telluryl oxo (Te=O) is found to be the most nucleophilic. Whereas the adsorption of propane is weak regardless of the MO{sub x} species involved, isopropyl and H adsorption exhibits strong preference in the order of Te=O > V=O > bridging oxygens > empty Mo apical site, suggesting the importance of TeO{sub x} species for H abstraction. The adsorption energies of isopropyl and H and consequently the reaction energy of the initial dehydrogenation of propane are strongly dependent on the number of ab planes included in the cluster, which points to the need to employ multilayer cluster models to correctly capture the energetics of surface chemistry on this mixed metal oxide catalyst.

  11. Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A Qualified Energy Conservation Bond (QECB) is a bond that enables qualified state, tribal, and local government issuers to borrow money at attractive rates to fund energy conservation projects (it is important to note that QECBs are not grants). A QECB is among the lowest-cost public financing tools because the U.S. Department of the Treasury subsidizes the issuer's borrowing costs.

  12. Bonded ultrasonic transducer and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dixon, Raymond D.; Roe, Lawrence H.; Migliori, Albert

    1995-01-01

    An ultrasonic transducer is formed as a diffusion bonded assembly of piezoelectric crystal, backing material, and, optionally, a ceramic wear surface. The mating surfaces of each component are silver films that are diffusion bonded together under the application of pressure and heat. Each mating surface may also be coated with a reactive metal, such as hafnium, to increase the adhesion of the silver films to the component surfaces. Only thin silver films are deposited, e.g., a thickness of about 0.00635 mm, to form a substantially non-compliant bond between surfaces. The resulting transducer assembly is substantially free of self-resonances over normal operating ranges for taking resonant ultrasound measurements.

  13. Bonded ultrasonic transducer and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dixon, R.D.; Roe, L.H.; Migliori, A.

    1995-11-14

    An ultrasonic transducer is formed as a diffusion bonded assembly of piezoelectric crystal, backing material, and, optionally, a ceramic wear surface. The mating surfaces of each component are silver films that are diffusion bonded together under the application of pressure and heat. Each mating surface may also be coated with a reactive metal, such as hafnium, to increase the adhesion of the silver films to the component surfaces. Only thin silver films are deposited, e.g., a thickness of about 0.00635 mm, to form a substantially non-compliant bond between surfaces. The resulting transducer assembly is substantially free of self-resonances over normal operating ranges for taking resonant ultrasound measurements. 12 figs.

  14. Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides an in-depth description of qualified energy conservation bonds, including process and mechanics, case studies, utilization trends, barriers, and regulatory and legal issues. Author: Energy Programs Consortium

  15. Bonding aerogels with polyurethanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, F.M.; Hoffman, D.M.

    1989-11-01

    Aerogels, porous silica glasses with ultra-fine cell size (30nm), are made by a solution gelation (sol-gel) process. The resulting gel is critical point dried to densities from 0.15--0.60 g/cc. This material is machinable, homogeneous, transparent, coatable and bondable. To bond aerogel an adhesive should have long cure time, no attack on the aerogel structure, and high strength. Several epoxies and urethanes were examined to determine if they satisfied these conditions. Bond strengths above 13 psi were found with double bubble and DP-110 epoxies and XI-208/ODA-1000 and Castall U-2630 urethanes. Hardman Kalex Tough Stuff'' A-85 hardness urethane gave 18 psi bond strength. Hardman A-85, Tuff-Stuff'' was selected for further evaluation because it produced bond strengths comparable to the adherend cohesive strength. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Breaking the Bond

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Breaking the Bond 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:July 2016 past issues All Issues » submit Breaking the Bond Can chemistry help unbind us from fossil fuels? July 21, 2016 info graphic gas pump Accelerating toward a more sustainable future: gas pumps may someday soon contain bio-gasoline made from plants. We are condensing millions of years of fossilization into a few chemical reactions. Fossil fuels are a finite resource. Unfortunately, the existing global

  17. Low temperature material bonding technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-02-12

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  18. Low Temperature Material Bonding Technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-10-10

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  19. Visible Light-Induced Electron Transfer from Di-mu-oxo Bridged Dinuclear Mn Complexes to Cr Centers in Silica Nanopores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frei, Heinz; Weare, Walter W.; Pushkar, Yulia; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Frei, Heinz

    2008-06-03

    The compound (bpy)2MnIII(mu-O)2MnIV(bpy)2, a structural model relevant for the photosynthetic water oxidation complex, was coupled to single CrVI charge-transfer chromophores in the channels of the nanoporous oxide AlMCM-41. Mn K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy confirmed that the di-mu-oxo dinuclear Mn core of the complex is unaffected when loaded into the nanoscale pores. Observation of the 16-line EPR signal characteristic of MnIII(mu-O)2MnIV demonstrates that the majority of the loaded complexes retained their nascent oxidation state in the presence or absence of CrVI centers. The FT-Raman spectrum upon visible light excitation of the CrVI-OII --> CrV-OI ligand-to-metal charge-transfer reveals electron transfer from MnIII(mu-O)2MnIV (Mn-O stretch at 700 cm-1) to CrVI, resulting in the formation of CrV and MnIV(mu-O)2MnIV (Mn-O stretch at 645 cm-1). All initial and final states are directly observed by FT-Raman or EPR spectroscopy, and the assignments corroborated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements. The endoergic charge separation products (DELTA Eo = -0.6 V) remain after several minutes, which points to spatial separation of CrV and MnIV(mu-O)2MnIV as a consequence of hole (OI) hopping as a major contributing mechanism. This is the first observation of visible light-induced oxidation of a potential water oxidation complex by a metal charge-transfer pump in a nanoporous environment. These findings will allow for the assembly and photochemical characterization of well defined transition metal molecular units, with the ultimate goal of performing endothermic, multi-electron transformations that are coupled to visible light electron pumps in nanostructured scaffolds.

  20. METAL COATED ARTICLES AND METHOD OF MAKING

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-26

    A method for manufacturing a solid metallic uranium body having an integral multiple layer protective coating, comprising an inner uranium-aluminum alloy firmly bonded to the metallic uranium is presented. A third layer of silver-zinc alloy is bonded to the zinc-aluiminum layer and finally a fourth layer of lead-silver alloy is firmly bonded to the silver-zinc layer.

  1. Bonded Radii and the Contraction of the Electron Density of the Oxygen Atom by Bonded Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, Gerald V.; Ross, Nancy L.; Cox, David F.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Iversen, Bo B.; Spackman, M. A.

    2013-02-21

    The bonded radii for more than 550 bonded pairs of atoms, comprising more than 50 crystals, determined from experimental and theoretical electron density distributions, are compared with the effective ionic, ri(M), and crystal radii, rc(M), for metal atoms, M, bonded to O atoms. At odds with the fixed ionic radius of 1.40 , assumed for the O atom in the compilation of the ionic radii, the bonded radius for the atom, rb(O), is not fixed but displays a relatively wide range of values as the O atom is progressively polarized by the M-O bonded interactions: as such, rb(O) decreases systematically from 1.40 (the Pauling radius of the oxide anion) as bond lengths decrease when bonded to an electropositive atom like sodium, to 0.64 (Braggs atomic radius of the O atom) when bonded to an electronegative atom like nitrogen. Both rb(M) and rb(O) increase in tandum with the increasing coordination number of the M atom. The bonded radii of the M atoms are highly correlated with both ri(M) and rc(M), but they both depart systematically from rb(M) and become smaller as the electronegativity of the M atom increases and the M-O bond length decreases. The well-developed correlations between both sets of radii and rb(M) testifies to the relative precision of both sets of radii and the fact that both sets are highly correlated the M-O bond 1 lengths. On the other hand, the progressive departure of rb(O) from the fixed ionic radius of the O atom with the increasing electronegativity of the bonded M atom indicates that any compilation of sets of ionic radii, assuming that the radius for the oxygen atom is fixed in value, is problematical and impacts on the accuracy of the resulting sets of ionic and crystal radii thus compiled. The assumption of a fixed O atom radius not only results in a negative ionic radii for several atoms, but it also results in values of rb(M) that are much as ~ 0.6 larger than the ri(M) and rc(M) values, respectively, particularly for the more

  2. Diffusion Bonding Characterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diffusion Bonding Characterization - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs

  3. Photochemical tissue bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redmond, Robert W.; Kochevar, Irene E.

    2012-01-10

    Photochemical tissue bonding methods include the application of a photosensitizer to a tissue and/or tissue graft, followed by irradiation with electromagnetic energy to produce a tissue seal. The methods are useful for tissue adhesion, such as in wound closure, tissue grafting, skin grafting, musculoskeletal tissue repair, ligament or tendon repair and corneal repair.

  4. GRAPHITE BONDING METHOD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, L.D.P.

    1964-02-25

    A process for bonding or joining graphite members together in which a thin platinum foil is placed between the members, heated in an inert atmosphere to a temperature of 1800 deg C, and then cooled to room temperature is described. (AEC)

  5. Tuning the reactivity of mononuclear nonheme manganese(iv)-oxo complexes by triflic acid

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Junying; Yoon, Heejung; Lee, Yong -Min; Seo, Mi Sook; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Nam, Wonwoo

    2015-04-14

    Triflic acid (HOTf)-bound nonheme Mn(IV)-oxo complexes, [(L)MnIV(O)]2+–(HOTf)2 (L = N4Py and Bn-TPEN; N4Py = N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine and Bn-TPEN = N-benzyl-N,N',N'-tris(2-pyridylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine), were synthesized by adding HOTf to the solutions of the [(L)MnIV(O)]2+ complexes and were characterized by various spectroscopies. The one-electron reduction potentials of the MnIV(O) complexes exhibited a significant positive shift upon binding of HOTf. The driving force dependences of electron transfer (ET) from electron donors to the MnIV(O) and MnIV(O)–(HOTf)2 complexes were examined and evaluated in light of the Marcus theory of ET to determine the reorganization energies of ET. The smaller reorganization energies and much more positive reduction potentialsmore » of the [(L)MnIV(O)]2+–(HOTf)2 complexes resulted in greatly enhanced oxidation capacity towards one-electron reductants and para-X-substituted-thioanisoles. The reactivities of the Mn(IV)-oxo complexes were markedly enhanced by binding of HOTf, such as a 6.4 × 105-fold increase in the oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reaction (i.e., sulfoxidation). Such a remarkable acceleration in the OAT reaction results from the enhancement of ET from para-X-substituted-thioanisoles to the MnIV(O) complexes as revealed by the unified ET driving force dependence of the rate constants of OAT and ET reactions of [(L)MnIV(O)]2+–(HOTf)2. In contrast, deceleration was observed in the rate of H-atom transfer (HAT) reaction of [(L)MnIV(O)]2+–(HOTf)2 complexes with 1,4-cyclohexadiene as compared with those of the [(L)MnIV(O)]2+ complexes. Thus, the binding of two HOTf molecules to the MnIV(O) moiety resulted in remarkable acceleration of the ET rate when the ET is thermodynamically feasible. When the ET reaction is highly endergonic, the rate of the HAT reaction is decelerated due to the steric effect of the counter anion of HOTf.« less

  6. Tuning the reactivity of mononuclear nonheme manganese(iv)-oxo complexes by triflic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Junying; Yoon, Heejung; Lee, Yong -Min; Seo, Mi Sook; Sarangi, Ritimukta; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Nam, Wonwoo

    2015-04-14

    Triflic acid (HOTf)-bound nonheme Mn(IV)-oxo complexes, [(L)MnIV(O)]2+(HOTf)2 (L = N4Py and Bn-TPEN; N4Py = N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine and Bn-TPEN = N-benzyl-N,N',N'-tris(2-pyridylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine), were synthesized by adding HOTf to the solutions of the [(L)MnIV(O)]2+ complexes and were characterized by various spectroscopies. The one-electron reduction potentials of the MnIV(O) complexes exhibited a significant positive shift upon binding of HOTf. The driving force dependences of electron transfer (ET) from electron donors to the MnIV(O) and MnIV(O)(HOTf)2 complexes were examined and evaluated in light of the Marcus theory of ET to determine the reorganization energies of ET. The smaller reorganization energies and much more positive reduction potentials of the [(L)MnIV(O)]2+(HOTf)2 complexes resulted in greatly enhanced oxidation capacity towards one-electron reductants and para-X-substituted-thioanisoles. The reactivities of the Mn(IV)-oxo complexes were markedly enhanced by binding of HOTf, such as a 6.4 105-fold increase in the oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reaction (i.e., sulfoxidation). Such a remarkable acceleration in the OAT reaction results from the enhancement of ET from para-X-substituted-thioanisoles to the MnIV(O) complexes as revealed by the unified ET driving force dependence of the rate constants of OAT and ET reactions of [(L)MnIV(O)]2+(HOTf)2. In contrast, deceleration was observed in the rate of H-atom transfer (HAT) reaction of [(L)MnIV(O)]2+(HOTf)2 complexes with 1,4-cyclohexadiene as compared with those of the [(L)MnIV(O)]2+ complexes. Thus, the binding of two HOTf molecules to the MnIV(O) moiety resulted in remarkable acceleration of the ET rate when

  7. STRIPPING METAL COATINGS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siefen, H.T.; Campbell, J.M.

    1959-02-01

    A method is described for removing aluminumuranium-silicon alloy bonded to metallic U comprising subjecting the Al-U -Si alloy to treatment with hot concentrated HNO/sun 3/ to partially dissolve and embrittle the alloy and shot- blasting the embrittled alloy to loosen it from the U.

  8. Bond Program | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bond Program Jump to: navigation, search This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleBondProgram&oldid5427...

  9. Opportunities in Bond Financing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities in Bond Financing James Dack Vice President Alternative Energy Finance Group Stern Brothers & Co. Seattle, WA 98101 Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado June 11-13, 2012 2 INTRODUCTION * Stern Brothers, founded in 1917 and headquartered in St. Louis, is an investment banking firm that is focused on project financing (taxable and tax-exempt) for renewable energy, real estate, higher education and healthcare. * Stern's Alternative

  10. Low temperature reactive bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    The joining technique requires no external heat source and generates very little heat during joining. It involves the reaction of thin multilayered films deposited on faying surfaces to create a stable compound that functions as an intermediate or braze material in order to create a high strength bond. While high temperatures are reached in the reaction of the multilayer film, very little heat is generated because the films are very thin. It is essentially a room temperature joining process.

  11. Bonding Tools | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bonding Tools Bonding Tools Bonds are one of the most common forms of financing used by state and local governments, because they are a low-cost source of capital available to most entities. State and local officials may consider using bonds for a variety of clean energy purposes, including: Financing a specific set of energy upgrades in their own facilities (can be combined with an energy savings performance contract) Capitalizing finance programs (e.g., revolving loan fund) for public sector

  12. Qualified Energy Conservation Bond Webinars

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides a listing of past qualified energy conservation bond webinars and associated files. Author: U.S. Department of Energy

  13. Cu-Cu direct bonding achieved by surface method at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Utsumi, Jun [Advanced Technology Research Center, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 1-8-1 Sachiura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-8515 (Japan); Ichiyanagi, Yuko, E-mail: yuko@ynu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2014-02-20

    The metal bonding is a key technology in the processes for the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and the semiconductor devices to improve functionality and higher density integration. Strong adhesion between surfaces at the atomic level is crucial; however, it is difficult to achieve close bonding in such a system. Cu films were deposited on Si substrates by vacuum deposition, and then, two Cu films were bonded directly by means of surface activated bonding (SAB) at room temperature. The two Cu films, with the surface roughness Ra about 1.3nm, were bonded by using SAB at room temperature, however, the bonding strength was very weak in this method. In order to improve the bonding strength between the Cu films, samples were annealed at low temperatures, between 323 and 473 K, in air. As the result, the Cu-Cu bonding strength was 10 times higher than that of the original samples without annealing.

  14. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, Oscar H.; Curtis, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof.

  15. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, O.H.; Curtis, P.G.

    1992-03-31

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof. 1 figure.

  16. Physical mechanisms of copper-copper wafer bonding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebhan, B.; Hingerl, K.

    2015-10-07

    The study of the physical mechanisms driving Cu-Cu wafer bonding allowed for reducing the bonding temperatures below 200 °C. Metal thermo-compression Cu-Cu wafer bonding results obtained at such low temperatures are very encouraging and suggest that the process is possible even at room temperature if some boundary conditions are fulfilled. Sputtered (PVD) and electroplated Cu thin layers were investigated, and the analysis of both metallization techniques demonstrated the importance of decreasing Cu surface roughness. For an equal surface roughness, the bonding temperature of PVD Cu wafers could be even further reduced due to the favorable microstructure. Their smaller grain size enhances the length of the grain boundaries (observed on the surface prior bonding), acting as efficient mass transfer channels across the interface, and hence the grains are able to grow over the initial bonding interface. Due to the higher concentration of random high-angle grain boundaries, this effect is intensified. The model presented is explaining the microstructural changes based on atomic migration, taking into account that the reduction of the grain boundary area is the major driving force to reduce the Gibbs free energy, and predicts the subsequent microstructure evolution (grain growth) during thermal annealing.

  17. Printability Optimization For Fine Pitch Solder Bonding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Chang-Woo; Yoo, Sehoon

    2011-01-17

    Effect of metal mask and pad design on solder printability was evaluated by DOE in this study. The process parameters were stencil thickness, squeegee angle, squeegee speed, mask separating speed, and pad angle of PCB. The main process parameters for printability were stencil thickness and squeegee angle. The response surface showed that maximum printability of 1005 chip was achieved at the stencil thickness of 0.12 mm while the maximum printability of 0603 and 0402 chip was obtained at the stencil thickness of 0.05 mm. The bonding strength of the MLCC chips was also directly related with the printability.

  18. Low temperature reactive bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Bionta, R.M.

    1995-01-17

    The joining technique is disclosed that requires no external heat source and generates very little heat during joining. It involves the reaction of thin multilayered films deposited on faying surfaces to create a stable compound that functions as an intermediate or braze material in order to create a high strength bond. While high temperatures are reached in the reaction of the multilayer film, very little heat is generated because the films are very thin. It is essentially a room temperature joining process. 5 figures.

  19. Understanding Trends in CO2 adsorption in Metal-Organic Frameworks...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding Trends in CO2 adsorption in Metal-Organic Frameworks with Open-Metal Sites ... bond analysis, we study and explain trends in the binding between CO2 and open-metal ...

  20. Process for protecting bonded components from plating shorts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarte, Lisa A.; Bonde, Wayne L.; Carey, Paul G.; Contolini, Robert J.; McCarthy, Anthony M.

    2000-01-01

    A method which protects the region between a component and the substrate onto which the components is bonded using an electrically insulating fillet of photoresist. The fillet protects the regions from subsequent plating with metal and therefore shorting the plated conductors which run down the sides of the component and onto the substrate.

  1. Metal-organic framework materials with ultrahigh surface areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Wilmer, Christopher E.; Eryazici, Ibrahim; Snurr, Randall Q.; Gomez-Gualdron, Diego A.; Borah, Bhaskarjyoti

    2015-12-22

    A metal organic framework (MOF) material including a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area greater than 7,010 m.sup.2/g. Also a metal organic framework (MOF) material including hexa-carboxylated linkers including alkyne bond. Also a metal organic framework (MOF) material including three types of cuboctahedron cages fused to provide continuous channels. Also a method of making a metal organic framework (MOF) material including saponifying hexaester precursors having alkyne bonds to form a plurality of hexa-carboxylated linkers including alkyne bonds and performing a solvothermal reaction with the plurality of hexa-carboxylated linkers and one or more metal containing compounds to form the MOF material.

  2. Multilayer roll bonded aluminium foil: processing, microstructure and flow stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barlow, C.Y.; Nielsen, P.; Hansen, N

    2004-08-02

    Bulk aluminium has been produced by warm-rolling followed by cold-rolling of commercial purity (99% purity) aluminium foil. The bonding appeared perfect from observation with the naked eye, light and transmission electron microscopy. By comparison with bulk aluminium of similar purity (AA1200) rolled to a similar strain (90%RA), the roll-bonded metal showed a much higher density of high-angle grain boundaries, similar strength and improved thermal stability. This study has implications for a number of applications in relation to the processing of aluminium. Roll bonding is of interest as a method for grain size refinement; oxide-containing materials have increased strength, enhanced work-hardening behaviour, and exhibit alterations in recrystallisation behaviour. The behaviour of the hard oxide film is of interest in aluminium processing, and has been investigated by characterising the size and distribution of oxide particles in the roll-bonded samples.

  3. Diffusion welded nonconsumable electrode assembly and use thereof for electrolytic production of metals and silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrne, Stephen C.; Vasudevan, Asuri K.

    1984-01-01

    A nonconsumable electrode assembly suitable for use in the production of metal by electrolytic reduction of a metal compound dissolved in a molten salt, the assembly comprising a metal conductor diffusion welded to a portion of a ceramic electrode body having a level of free metal or metal alloy sufficient to effect a metal bond.

  4. Chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung Y.; Lohan, Dirk; Elizabeth, Anne

    2003-01-01

    A chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramic formed by chemically reacting a monovalent alkali metal phosphate (or ammonium hydrogen phosphate) and a sparsely soluble oxide, with a sparsely soluble silicate in an aqueous solution. The monovalent alkali metal phosphate (or ammonium hydrogen phosphate) and sparsely soluble oxide are both in powder form and combined in a stochiometric molar ratio range of (0.5-1.5):1 to form a binder powder. Similarly, the sparsely soluble silicate is also in powder form and mixed with the binder powder to form a mixture. Water is added to the mixture to form a slurry. The water comprises 50% by weight of the powder mixture in said slurry. The slurry is allowed to harden. The resulting chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramic exhibits high flexural strength, high compression strength, low porosity and permeability to water, has a definable and bio-compatible chemical composition, and is readily and easily colored to almost any desired shade or hue.

  5. Metal Hydride Storage Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... typically of alkali or alkaline earth elements that are ionically bonded to a complex anion. ... Journal of Rare Earths (23), 2005; pp. 611-616. Switendick, A.C. In Hydrogen in Metals ...

  6. Ceramic to metal attachment system. [Ceramic electrode to metal conductor in MHD generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marchant, D.D.

    1983-06-10

    A composition and method are described for attaching a ceramic electrode to a metal conductor. A layer of randomly interlocked metal fibers saturated with polyimide resin is sandwiched between the ceramic electrode and the metal conductor. The polyimide resin is then polymerized providing bonding.

  7. Theoretical Study of High-Valent Vanadium Oxo-Porphyrins as a Dopant of Crude Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salcedo, Roberto; Martinez, LMR; Martinez-Magadan, Jose M.

    2001-06-15

    The role played by the vanadyl porphyrinate as a dopant for zeolites in the refinement process of crude oil is analyzed using DFT calculations. The pair formed by the vanadium atom and its bonded oxygen atoms seems to be the responsible items in the dopant reaction. However, the present paper shows the participation of the vanadium atom as being the most important.

  8. Method for bonding thin film thermocouples to ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreider, Kenneth G. (Potomac, MD)

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for adhering a thin film metal thermocouple to a ceramic substrate used in an environment up to 700 degrees Centigrade, such as at a cylinder of an internal combustion engine. The method includes the steps of: depositing a thin layer of a reactive metal on a clean ceramic substrate; and depositing thin layers of platinum and a platinum-10% rhodium alloy forming the respective legs of the thermocouple on the reactive metal layer. The reactive metal layer serves as a bond coat between the thin noble metal thermocouple layers and the ceramic substrate. The thin layers of noble metal are in the range of 1-4 micrometers thick. Preferably, the ceramic substrate is selected from the group consisting of alumina and partially stabilized zirconia. Preferably, the thin layer of reactive metal is in the range of 0.015-0.030 micrometers (15-30 nanometers) thick. The preferred reactive metal is chromium. Other reactive metals may be titanium or zirconium. The thin layer of reactive metal may be deposited by sputtering in ultra high purity argon in a vacuum of approximately 2 milliTorr (0.3 Pascals).

  9. Metal deposition using seed layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  10. Metallic carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Marvin Lou; Crespi, Vincent Henry; Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng; Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter

    1999-01-01

    Novel metallic forms of planar carbon are described, as well as methods of designing and making them. Nonhexagonal arrangements of carbon are introduced into a graphite carbon network essentially without destroying the planar structure. Specifically a form of carbon comprising primarily pentagons and heptagons, and having a large density of states at the Fermi level is described. Other arrangements of pentagons and heptagons that include some hexagons, and structures incorporating squares and octagons are additionally disclosed. Reducing the bond angle symmetry associated with a hexagonal arrangement of carbons increases the likelihood that the carbon material will have a metallic electron structure.

  11. Steel bonded dense silicon nitride compositions and method for their fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.; Shell, T.E.

    1985-05-20

    A two-stage bonding technique for bonding high density silicon nitride and other ceramic materials to stainless steel and other hard metals, and multilayered ceramic-metal composites prepared by the technique are disclosed. The technique involves initially slurry coating a surface of the ceramic material at about 1500/sup 0/C in a vacuum with a refractory material and the stainless steel is then pressure bonded to the metallic coated surface by brazing it with nickel-copper-silver or nickel-copper-manganese alloys at a temperature in the range of about 850/sup 0/ to 950/sup 0/C in a vacuum. The two-stage bonding technique minimizes the temperature-expansion mismatch between the dissimilar materials.

  12. Steel bonded dense silicon nitride compositions and method for their fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, Richard L.; Shell, Thomas E.

    1987-01-01

    A two-stage bonding technique for bonding high density silicon nitride and other ceramic materials to stainless steel and other hard metals, and multilayered ceramic-metal composites prepared by the technique are disclosed. The technique involves initially slurry coating a surface of the ceramic material at about 1500.degree. C. in a vacuum with a refractory material and the stainless steel is then pressure bonded to the metallic coated surface by brazing it with nickel-copper-silver or nickel-copper-manganese alloys at a temperature in the range of about 850.degree. to 950.degree. C. in a vacuum. The two-stage bonding technique minimizes the temperature-expansion mismatch between the dissimilar materials.

  13. Method for vacuum fusion bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2001-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  14. Fusion bonding and alignment fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2000-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all the components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  15. Public Bonding Options | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bonding Options Public Bonding Options Traditionally, state and local governments (as well as certain other nonprofit organizations such as universities and hospitals) have had the ability to issue debt, in the form of bonds, to finance construction and/or improvements to public infrastructure. Bonds issued by state and local governments-often referred to as municipal or public bonds-can also be used, under certain circumstances for private activities. Public bonds vary by tax liability, as well

  16. Clean Energy Revenue Bond Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The bonds are exempt from taxation by the state, and any type of renewable energy system and most energy efficiency measures, including energy recovery and combined heat and power (CHP) systems,...

  17. Method to improve commercial bonded SOI material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey John; Sadana, Devendra Kumar

    2000-07-11

    A method of improving the bonding characteristics of a previously bonded silicon on insulator (SOI) structure is provided. The improvement in the bonding characteristics is achieved in the present invention by, optionally, forming an oxide cap layer on the silicon surface of the bonded SOI structure and then annealing either the uncapped or oxide capped structure in a slightly oxidizing ambient at temperatures greater than 1200.degree. C. Also provided herein is a method for detecting the bonding characteristics of previously bonded SOI structures. According to this aspect of the present invention, a pico-second laser pulse technique is employed to determine the bonding imperfections of previously bonded SOI structures.

  18. Low Temperature Material Bonding Techniq Ue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael; Foote, Robert S.

    2002-08-06

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  19. Local Option- Industrial Facilities and Development Bonds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the Utah Industrial Facilities and Development Act, counties, municipalities, and state universities in Utah may issue Industrial Revenue Bonds (IRBs) or Industrial Development Bonds (IDBs)...

  20. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-09-04

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

  1. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-06-30

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C.

  2. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-15

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C.

  3. A trinuclear oxo-chromium(III) complex containing the natural flavonoid primuletin: Synthesis, characterization, and antiradical properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rocha, Reginaldo C.; Alexiou, Anamaria D.P.; Decandio, Carla C.; Almeida, Sabrina da N.; Ferreira, Marcelo J.P.; Romoff, Paulete

    2015-04-10

    A new trinuclear oxo-centered chromium(III) complex with formula [Cr₃O(CH₃CO₂)₆(L)(H₂O)₂] (L = 5-hydroxyflavone, known as primuletin) was synthetized and characterized by ESI mass spectrometry, thermogravimetry, and ¹H-NMR, UV-Vis, and FTIR spectroscopies. In agreement with the experimental results, DFT calculations indicated that the flavonoid ligand is coordinated to one of the three Cr(III) centers in an O,O-bidentate mode through the 5-hydroxy/4-keto groups. In a comparative study involving the uncoordinated primuletin and its corresponding complex, systematic reactions with the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) showed that antiradical activity increases upon complexation.

  4. New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds New clean renewable energy bonds (CREBs) are tax credit bonds, the proceeds of which are used for capital ...

  5. Solid state bonding of beryllium-copper for an ITER first wall application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odegard, B.C. Jr.; Cadden, C.H.

    1998-02-01

    Several different joint assemblies were evaluated in support of a manufacturing technology for diffusion bonding a beryllium armor tile to a copper alloy heat sink for fusion reactor applications. Because beryllium reacts with all but a few elements to form intermetallic compounds, this study considered several different surface treatments as a means of both inhibiting these reactions and promoting a good diffusion bond between the two substrates. A diffusion bonded assemblies used aluminum or an aluminum-beryllium composite (AlBeMet-150) as the interfacial material in contact with beryllium. In most cases, explosive bonding was utilized as a technique for joining the copper alloy heat sink to an aluminum or AlBeMet-150 substrate, which was subsequently diffusion bonded to an aluminum coated beryllium tile. In this approach, a 250 {micro}m thick titanium foil was used as a diffusion barrier between the copper and aluminum to prevent the formation of Cu-Al intermetallic phases. In all cases, a hot isostatic pressing (HIP) furnace was used in conjunction with canned assemblies in order to minimize oxidation and apply sufficient pressure on the assembly for excellent metal-to-metal contact and subsequent bonding. Several different processing schedules were evaluated during the course of this study; bonded assemblies were produced that failed outside the bond area indicating a 100% joint efficiency.

  6. Method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.; Moorhead, Arthur J.

    1997-01-01

    A method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals by brazing. Conventional brazing of recently developed carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) material to a metal substrate is limited by the tendency of the braze alloy to "wick" into the CBCF composite rather than to form a strong bond. The surface of the CBCF composite that is to be bonded is first sealed with a fairly dense carbonaceous layer achieved by any of several methods. The sealed surface is then brazed to the metal substrate by vacuum brazing with a Ti-Cu-Be alloy.

  7. Method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1997-07-15

    A method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals by brazing. Conventional brazing of recently developed carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) material to a metal substrate is limited by the tendency of the braze alloy to ``wick`` into the CBCF composite rather than to form a strong bond. The surface of the CBCF composite that is to be bonded is first sealed with a fairly dense carbonaceous layer achieved by any of several methods. The sealed surface is then brazed to the metal substrate by vacuum brazing with a Ti-Cu-Be alloy. 1 fig.

  8. INFORMATION REGARDING PERFORMANCE AND PAYMENT BONDS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C&BS Form Date: 5-20-2015 1 INFORMATION REGARDING PERFORMANCE AND PAYMENT BONDS I. PERFORMANCE BOND A performance bond secures performance and fulfillment of the Subcontractor's obligations under the subcontract. A performance bond is required in accordance with this subcontract. The Subcontractor shall submit the performance bond to the subcontract administrator within five (5) calendar days after notification of award and prior to starting work for any subcontract exceeding $30,000.00. The

  9. Metal aminoboranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya Kaviraj; Shrestha, Roshan P.

    2010-05-11

    Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

  10. Bonded polyimide fuel cell package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan; Graff, Robert T.; Bettencourt, Kerry

    2010-06-08

    Described herein are processes for fabricating microfluidic fuel cell systems with embedded components in which micron-scale features are formed by bonding layers of DuPont Kapton.TM. polyimide laminate. A microfluidic fuel cell system fabricated using this process is also described.

  11. Method for adhesion of metal films to ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowndes, D.H.; Pedraza, A.J.; DeSilva, M.J.; Kumar, R.A.

    1997-12-30

    Methods for making strongly bonded metal-ceramic materials are disclosed. The methods include irradiating a portion of the surface of the ceramic material with a pulsed ultraviolet laser having an energy density sufficient to effect activation of the irradiated surface of the ceramic material so that adhesion of metals subsequently deposited onto the irradiated surface is substantially increased. Advantages of the invention include (i) the need for only a small number of laser pulses at relatively low focused energy density, (ii) a smoother substrate surface, (iii) activation of the laser-treated surface which provides a chemical bond between the surface and a metal deposited thereon, (iv) only low temperature annealing is required to produce the strong metal-ceramic bond; (v) the ability to obtain strong adhesion between ceramic materials and oxidation resistant metals; (vi) ability to store the laser treated ceramic materials for later deposition of metals thereon. 7 figs.

  12. Method for adhesion of metal films to ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowndes, Douglas H.; Pedraza, Anthony J.; DeSilva, Melvin J.; Kumar, Rajagopalan A.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for making strongly bonded metal-ceramic materials. The methods include irradiating a portion of the surface of the ceramic material with a pulsed ultraviolet laser having an energy density sufficient to effect activation of the irradiated surface of the ceramic material so that adhesion of metals subsequently deposited onto the irradiated surface is substantially increased. Advantages of the invention include (i) the need for only a small number of laser pulses at relatively low focused energy density, (ii) a smoother substrate surface, (iii) activation of the laser-treated surface which provides a chemical bond between the surface and a metal deposited thereon, (iv) only low temperature annealing is required to produce the strong metal-ceramic bond; (v) the ability to obtain strong adhesion between ceramic materials and oxidation resistant metals; (vi) ability to store the laser treated ceramic materials for later deposition of metals thereon.

  13. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-04-28

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  14. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2014-09-16

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  15. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-22

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  16. Method for providing adhesion to a metal surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrah, Larry A.; Allred, Ronald E.; Wilson, Jr., Kennard V.

    1992-01-01

    A process for treating metal surfaces to obtain improved susceptibility to bonding with adhesive compositions is disclosed. A metal surface is oxidized with a halogen to form a monolayer of halide ions on the surface. The halide ions are then exchanged with azide ions to form an azide monolayer on the metal surface. Upon contact of the treated surface with an adhesive composition, the azide layer may be thermally or photochemically decomposed to form active nitrene species, which react to bond the adhesive composition to the metal surface.

  17. Method for providing adhesion to a metal surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrah, L.A.; Allred, R.E.; Wilson, K.V. Jr.

    1992-02-18

    A process for treating metal surfaces to obtain improved susceptibility to bonding with adhesive compositions is disclosed. A metal surface is oxidized with a halogen to form a monolayer of halide ions on the surface. The halide ions are then exchanged with azide ions to form an azide monolayer on the metal surface. Upon contact of the treated surface with an adhesive composition, the azide layer may be thermally or photochemically decomposed to form active nitrene species, which react to bond the adhesive composition to the metal surface.

  18. Hi Bond Tapes Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hi Bond Tapes Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hi-Bond Tapes Ltd Place: Northamptonshire, England, United Kingdom Zip: NN17 5TS Product: Northamptonshire-based supplier of...

  19. Rhodium-Catalyzed C-C Bond Formation via Heteroatom-Directed C-H Bond Activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colby, Denise; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan

    2010-05-13

    seen widespread success involves the use of a proximal heteroatom that serves as a directing group for the selective functionalization of a specific C-H bond. In a survey of examples of heteroatom-directed Rh catalysis, two mechanistically distinct reaction pathways are revealed. In one case, the heteroatom acts as a chelator to bind the Rh catalyst, facilitating reactivity at a proximal site. In this case, the formation of a five-membered metallacycle provides a favorable driving force in inducing reactivity at the desired location. In the other case, the heteroatom initially coordinates the Rh catalyst and then acts to stabilize the formation of a metal-carbon bond at a proximal site. A true test of the utility of a synthetic method is in its application to the synthesis of natural products or complex molecules. Several groups have demonstrated the applicability of C-H bond functionalization reactions towards complex molecule synthesis. Target-oriented synthesis provides a platform to test the effectiveness of a method in unique chemical and steric environments. In this respect, Rh-catalyzed methods for C-H bond functionalization stand out, with several syntheses being described in the literature that utilize C-H bond functionalization in a key step. These syntheses are highlighted following the discussion of the method they employ.

  20. Bond strength and stress measurements in thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gell, M.; Jordan, E.

    1995-12-31

    Thermal barrier coatings have been used extensively in aircraft gas turbines for more than 15 years to insulate combustors and turbine vanes from the hot gas stream. Plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) provide metal temperature reductions as much as 300{degrees}F, with improvements in durability of two times or more being achieved. The introduction of TBCs deposited by electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processes in the last five years has provided a major improvement in durability and also enabled TBCs to be applied to turbine blades for improved engine performance. This program evaluates the bond strength of yttria stabilized zirconia coatings with MCrAlY and Pt-Al bond coats utilizing diffraction and fluorescence methods.

  1. Bonded, walk-off compensated optical elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ebbers, Christopher A.

    2003-04-08

    A bonded, walk-off compensated crystal, for use with optical equipment, and methods of making optical components including same.

  2. Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules Print Wednesday, 28 May 2014 00:00 Glenn Seaborg was one of the first scientists to recognize that differences in the degree of covalent bonding in lanthanide and actinide compounds could have profound consequences for their unique chemical reactivity and physical properties. Now, researchers working at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 have found evidence for unexpected bonding interactions in two organometallic

  3. Silicon-nitride and metal composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.; Huffsmith, S.A.

    A composite and a method for bonding the composite are described. The composite includes a ceramic portion of silicon nitride, a refractory metal portion and a layer of MoSi/sub 2/ indirectly bonding the composite together. The method includes contacting the layer of MoSi/sub 2/ with a surface of the silicon nitride and with a surface of the metal; heating the layer to a temperature below 1400/sup 0/C; and, simultaneously, compressing the layer such that the contacting is with a pressure of at least 30 MPa. This composite overcomes useful life problems in the fabrication of parts for a helical expander for use in power generation.

  4. Silicon-nitride and metal composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, Richard L.; Huffsmith, Sarah A.

    1981-01-01

    A composite and a method for bonding the composite. The composite includes a ceramic portion of silicon nitride, a refractory metal portion and a layer of MoSi.sub.2 indirectly bonding the composite together. The method includes contacting the layer of MoSi.sub.2 with a surface of the silicon nitride and with a surface of the metal; heating the layer to a temperature below 1400.degree. C.; and, simultaneously with the heating, compressing the layer such that the contacting is with a pressure of at least 30 MPa. This composite overcomes useful life problems in the fabrication of parts for a helical expander for use in power generation.

  5. Method of measuring metal coating adhesion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roper, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A method for measuring metal coating adhesion to a substrate material comprising the steps of preparing a test coupon of substrate material having the metal coating applied to one surface thereof, applying a second metal coating of gold or silver to opposite surfaces of the test coupon by hot hollow cathode process, applying a coating to one end of each of two pulling rod members, joining the coated ends of the pulling rod members to said opposite coated surfaces of the test coupon by a solid state bonding technique and finally applying instrumented static tensile loading to the pulling rod members until fracture of the metal coating adhesion to the substrate material occurs.

  6. Method of measuring metal coating adhesion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roper, J.R.

    A method for measuring metal coating adhesion to a substrate material comprising the steps of preparing a test coupon of substrate material having the metal coating applied to one surface thereof, applying a second metal coating of gold or silver to opposite surfaces of the test coupon by hot hollow cathode process, applying a coating to one end of each of two pulling rod members, joining the coated ends of the pulling rod members to said opposite coated surfaces of the test coupon by a solid state bonding technique and finally applying instrumented static tensile loading to the pulling rod members until fracture of the metal coating adhesion to the substrate material occurs.

  7. Metal inks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

    2014-02-04

    Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

  8. METAL PHTHALOCYANINES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frigerio, N.A.

    1962-03-27

    A process is given for preparing heavy metal phthalocyanines, sulfonated or not. The process comprises mixing an inorganic metal salt with dimethyl formamide or methyl sulfoxide; separating the metal complex formed from the solution; mixing the complex with an equimolar amount of sodium, potassium, lithium, magnesium, or beryllium sulfonated or unsulfonated phthalocyanine whereby heavy-metal phthalocyanine crystals are formed; and separating the crystals from the solution. Uranyl, thorium, lead, hafnium, and lanthanide rare earth phthalocyanines can be produced by the process. (AEC)

  9. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2006-12-05

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  10. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  11. Composite metal foil and ceramic fabric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Brent J.; Antoniak, Zen I.; Prater, John T.; DeSteese, John G.

    1992-01-01

    The invention comprises new materials useful in a wide variety of terrestrial and space applications. In one aspect, the invention comprises a flexible cloth-like material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of metallic foil. In another aspect, the invention includes a flexible fluid impermeable barrier comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric layer having metal wire woven therein. A metallic foil layer is incontinuously welded to the woven metal wire. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of an organic polymer. In still another aspect, the invention includes a rigid fabric structure comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric and a resinous support material which has been hardened as the direct result of exposure to ultraviolet light. Inventive methods for producing such material are also disclosed.

  12. Composite metal foil and ceramic fabric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, B.J.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Prater, J.T.; DeSteese, J.G.

    1992-03-24

    The invention comprises new materials useful in a wide variety of terrestrial and space applications. In one aspect, the invention comprises a flexible cloth-like material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of metallic foil. In another aspect, the invention includes a flexible fluid impermeable barrier comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric layer having metal wire woven therein. A metallic foil layer is incontinuously welded to the woven metal wire. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of an organic polymer. In still another aspect, the invention includes a rigid fabric structure comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric and a resinous support material which has been hardened as the direct result of exposure to ultraviolet light. Inventive methods for producing such material are also disclosed. 11 figs.

  13. Solid polymer battery electrolyte and reactive metal-water battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K.; Peterson, Eric S.; Stewart, Frederick F.

    2000-01-01

    In one implementation, a reactive metal-water battery includes an anode comprising a metal in atomic or alloy form selected from the group consisting of periodic table Group 1A metals, periodic table Group 2A metals and mixtures thereof. The battery includes a cathode comprising water. Such also includes a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a polyphosphazene comprising ligands bonded with a phosphazene polymer backbone. The ligands comprise an aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion and a metal ion carrier portion. The metal ion carrier portion is bonded at one location with the polymer backbone and at another location with the aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion. The invention also contemplates such solid polymer electrolytes use in reactive metal/water batteries, and in any other battery.

  14. Cascaded die mountings with spring-loaded contact-bond options

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.; Su, Gui-Jia; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester

    2005-08-16

    A cascaded die mounting device and method using spring contacts for die attachment, with or without metallic bonds between the contacts and the dies, is disclosed. One embodiment is for the direct refrigerant cooling of an inverter/converter carrying higher power levels than most of the low power circuits previously taught, and does not require using a heat sink.

  15. Method of making cascaded die mountings with springs-loaded contact-bond options

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.; Su, Gui-Jia; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester

    2007-06-19

    A cascaded die mounting device and method using spring contacts for die attachment, with or without metallic bonds between the contacts and the dies, is disclosed. One embodiment is for the direct refrigerant cooling of an inverter/converter carrying higher power levels than most of the low power circuits previously taught, and does not require using a heat sink.

  16. Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) & New Clean Renewable Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bonds (New CREBs) | Department of Energy Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) & New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (New CREBs) Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) & New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (New CREBs) Provides a presentation overview of qualified energy conservation bond and new clean renewable energy bonds, including characteristics, mechanics, allocated volume, and other information. Author: U.S. Department of Energy Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds &

  17. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of reactive intermediates in photochemical and transition metal-assisted oxidation, decarboxylation and alkyl transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carraher, Jack McCaslin

    2014-01-01

    Reactive species like high-valent metal-oxo complexes and carbon and oxygen centered radicals are important intermediates in enzymatic systems, atmospheric chemistry, and industrial processes. Understanding the pathways by which these intermediates form, their relative reactivity, and their fate after reactions is of the utmost importance. Herein are described the mechanistic detail for the generation of several reactive intermediates, synthesis of precursors, characterization of precursors, and methods to direct the chemistry to more desirable outcomes yielding ‘greener’ sources of commodity chemicals and fuels.

  18. Bonding energies and long-range order in the trialuminides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparks, C.J.; Specht, E.D.; Ice, G.E.; Zschack, P.; Schneibel, J.

    1990-01-01

    The degree of long-range order in the trialuminides is determined by X-ray powder diffraction techniques. Long-range order exists to their melting points. For the binary trialuminides Al{sub 3}Ti, Al{sub 73}Ti{sub 27}, and Al{sub 3}Sc, the degree of long-range order is nearly perfect and is a measure of the lack of mixing of the aluminum atoms onto the sublattice occupied by either Ti or Sc. A calculation of the bond energy between neighboring pairs of atoms from the ordering (melting) temperature is made following the Bragg-Williams mean field theory approach. These bond energies compare favorably with more sophisticated calculations. Bond energies are found to be larger than the energy difference between the crystal structure forms DO{sub 22}, Ll{sub 2}, and DO{sub 23}, and therefore, more relevant to understanding the mechanical and chemical behavior of the trialuminides. Ordering or melting temperatures of these intermetallics reflect the strong Al-metal near-neighbor pair potentials and may provide insights to their brittle properties. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules Print Glenn Seaborg was one of the first scientists to recognize that differences in the degree of covalent bonding in lanthanide and actinide compounds could have profound consequences for their unique chemical reactivity and physical properties. Now, researchers working at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 have found evidence for unexpected bonding interactions in two organometallic actinide "sandwich" complexes that have been lightning rods in

  20. Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules Print Glenn Seaborg was one of the first scientists to recognize that differences in the degree of covalent bonding in lanthanide and actinide compounds could have profound consequences for their unique chemical reactivity and physical properties. Now, researchers working at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 have found evidence for unexpected bonding interactions in two organometallic actinide "sandwich" complexes that have been lightning rods in

  1. Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules Print Glenn Seaborg was one of the first scientists to recognize that differences in the degree of covalent bonding in lanthanide and actinide compounds could have profound consequences for their unique chemical reactivity and physical properties. Now, researchers working at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 have found evidence for unexpected bonding interactions in two organometallic actinide "sandwich" complexes that have been lightning rods in

  2. Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules Print Glenn Seaborg was one of the first scientists to recognize that differences in the degree of covalent bonding in lanthanide and actinide compounds could have profound consequences for their unique chemical reactivity and physical properties. Now, researchers working at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 have found evidence for unexpected bonding interactions in two organometallic actinide "sandwich" complexes that have been lightning rods in

  3. Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules Print Glenn Seaborg was one of the first scientists to recognize that differences in the degree of covalent bonding in lanthanide and actinide compounds could have profound consequences for their unique chemical reactivity and physical properties. Now, researchers working at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 have found evidence for unexpected bonding interactions in two organometallic actinide "sandwich" complexes that have been lightning rods in

  4. Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules Print Glenn Seaborg was one of the first scientists to recognize that differences in the degree of covalent bonding in lanthanide and actinide compounds could have profound consequences for their unique chemical reactivity and physical properties. Now, researchers working at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 have found evidence for unexpected bonding interactions in two organometallic actinide "sandwich" complexes that have been lightning rods in

  5. Method of bonding silver to glass and mirrors produced according to this method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J.R.; Thomas, T.M.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1984-07-31

    A method for adhering silver to a glass substrate for producing mirrors includes attaining a silicon enriched substrate surface by reducing the oxygen therein in a vacuum and then vacuum depositing a silver layer onto the silicon enriched surface. The silicon enrichment can be attained by electron beam bombardment, ion beam bombardment, or neutral beam bombardment. It can also be attained by depositing a metal, such as aluminum, on the substrate surface, allowing the metal to oxidize by pulling oxygen from the substrate surface, thereby leaving a silicon enriched surface, and then etching or eroding the metal oxide layer away to expose the silicon enriched surface. Ultraviolet rays can be used to maintain dangling silicon bonds on the enriched surface until covalent bonding with the silver can occur. This disclosure also includes encapsulated mirrors with diffusion layers built therein. One of these mirrors is assembled on a polymer substrate.

  6. Method of bonding silver to glass and mirrors produced according to this method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, John R.; Thomas, Terence M.; Czanderna, Alvin W.

    1985-01-01

    A method for adhering silver to a glass substrate for producing mirrors includes attaining a silicon enriched substrate surface by reducing the oxygen therein in a vacuum and then vacuum depositing a silver layer onto the silicon enriched surface. The silicon enrichment can be attained by electron beam bombardment, ion beam bombardment, or neutral beam bombardment. It can also be attained by depositing a metal, such as aluminum, on the substrate surface, allowing the metal to oxidize by pulling oxygen from the substrate surface, thereby leaving a silicon enriched surface, and then etching or eroding the metal oxide layer away to expose the silicon enriched surface. Ultraviolet rays can be used to maintain dangling silicon bonds on the enriched surface until covalent bonding with the silver can occur. This disclosure also includes encapsulated mirrors with diffusion layers built therein. One of these mirrors is assembled on a polymer substrate.

  7. Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Beamline 11.0.2 have found evidence for unexpected bonding interactions in two organometallic actinide "sandwich" complexes that have been lightning rods in discussions of...

  8. Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation in Supported Few-Layer ... that only a sub-monolayer amount of hydrogen adsorption on the topmost layer results ...

  9. Green Infrastructure Bonds | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    allowing the Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism to issue Green Infrastructure Bonds to secture low-cost financing for clean energy installations,...

  10. Covalent Bonding in Actinide Sandwich Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bonds, are vital as industrial or bioinorganic catalysts and as precursors for nanomaterial synthesis. The work at the ALS also provides conclusive evidence for a new form of...

  11. Tire with outer groove containing bonded tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welter, Carolin Anna; Chandra, Dinesh; Benedict, Robert Leon

    2016-02-16

    The invention relates generally to a pneumatic rubber tire which contains an outer, annular, circular groove which contains a flexible tube bonded to the walls of the groove.

  12. Non-Destructive Inspection of Adhesive Bonds in Metal-Metal Joints

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  13. Non-Destructive Inspection of Adhesive Bonds in Metal-Metal Joints...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon lm15moore.pdf More Documents & Publications FY 2008 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials ...

  14. Spectroscopic Evidence for a High-Spin Br-Fe(IV)-Oxo Intermediate in the alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Halogenase CytC3 from Streptomyces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galonic Fujimori,D.; Barr, E.; Matthews, M.; Koch, G.; Yonce, J.; Walsh, C.; Bollinger, J.; Krebs, C.; Riggs-Gelasco, P.

    2007-01-01

    The complex of the mononuclear non-heme halogenase CytC3 from Streptomyces, Fe(II), {alpha}-ketoglutarate, bromide, and the substrate l-2-aminobutyryl-S-CytC2 reacts with O2 to form a reaction intermediate. Variable-field, freeze-quench Mossbauer spectroscopy reveals this intermediate to be a mixture of two high-spin Fe(IV) complexes in an approximate 3.7/1 ratio. Freeze-quench Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides further insight into the structure of this intermediate. A short 1.62-Angstroms interaction between the Fe and one of its ligands is attributed to the Fe(IV)-oxo group, and a 2.43-Angstroms interaction is assigned to the Fe-Br interaction. A significantly longer Fe-Br separation (2.53 Angstroms) is observed in the reactant complex, consistent with lower valency of the Fe in the reactant complex. This intermediate is the first example for a Br-Fe(IV)-oxo complex in a protein and provides evidence for a unifying mechanism for Fe(II) and {alpha}-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases and halogenases.

  15. Spectroscopic Evidence for a High-Spin Br-Fe(IV)-Oxo Intermediate in the -Ketoglutarate-Dependent Halogenase CyTc3 From Streptomyces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujimori, D.Galonic; Barr, E.W.; Matthews, M.L.; Koch, G.M.; Yonce, J.R.; Walsh, C.T.; Bollinger, J.M., Jr.; Krebs, C.; Riggs-Gelasco, P.J.

    2009-06-01

    The complex of the mononuclear non-heme halogenase CytC3 from Streptomyces, Fe(II), {alpha}-ketoglutarate, bromide, and the substrate l-2-aminobutyryl-S-CytC2 reacts with O{sub 2} to form a reaction intermediate. Variable-field, freeze-quench Moessbauer spectroscopy reveals this intermediate to be a mixture of two high-spin Fe(IV) complexes in an approximate 3.7/1 ratio. Freeze-quench Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides further insight into the structure of this intermediate. A short 1.62-{angstrom} interaction between the Fe and one of its ligands is attributed to the Fe(IV)-oxo group, and a 2.43-{angstrom} interaction is assigned to the Fe-Br interaction. A significantly longer Fe-Br separation (2.53 {angstrom}) is observed in the reactant complex, consistent with lower valency of the Fe in the reactant complex. This intermediate is the first example for a Br-Fe(IV)-oxo complex in a protein and provides evidence for a unifying mechanism for Fe(II) and {alpha}-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases and halogenases.

  16. Cold bond agglomeration of waste oxides for recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D`Alessio, G.; Lu, W.K.

    1996-12-31

    Recycling of waste oxides has been an on-going challenge for integrated steel plants. The majority of these waste oxides are collected from the cleaning systems of ironmaking and steelmaking processes, and are usually in the form of fine particulates and slurries. In most cases, these waste materials are contaminated by oils and heavy metals and often require treatment at a considerable expense prior to landfill disposal. This contamination also limits the re-use or recycling potential of these oxides as secondary resources of reliable quality. However, recycling of some selected wastes in blast furnaces or steelmaking vessels is possible, but first requires agglomeration of the fine particulate by such methods as cold bond briquetting. Cold bond briquetting technology provides both mechanical compacting and bonding (with appropriate binders) of the particulates. This method of recycling has the potential to be economically viable and environmentally sustainable. The nature of the present study is cold bond briquetting of iron ore pellet fines with a molasses-cement-H{sub 2}O binder for recycling in a blast furnace. The inclusion of molasses is for its contribution to the green strength of briquettes. During the curing stage, significant gains in strength may be credited to molasses in the presence of cement. The interactions of cement (and its substitutes), water and molasses and their effects on the properties of the agglomerates during and after various curing conditions were investigated. Tensile strengths of briquettes made in the laboratory and subjected to experimental conditions which simulated the top part of a blast furnace shaft were also examined.

  17. Identification of products containing {single_bond}COOH, {single_bond}OH, and {single_bond}C{double_bond}O in atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, J.; Flagan, R.C.; Seinfeld, J.H.

    1998-08-15

    Atmospheric oxidation of hydrocarbons by hydroxyl radicals and ozone leads to products containing {single_bond}COOH, {single_bond}OH, and {single_bond}C{double_bond}O functional groups. The high polarity of such compounds precludes direct GC-MS analysis. In addition, many such compounds often exist in a single sample at trace levels. An analytical method has been developed to identify compounds containing one or more functional groups of carbonyl, carboxy, and hydroxy in atmospheric samples. In the method, {single_bond}C{double_bond}O groups are derivatized using O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxy amine(PFBHA), and {single_bond}COOH and {single_bond}OH groups are derivatized using a silylation reagent N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). The derivatives are easily resolved by a GC column. The chemical ionization mass spectra of these derivatives exhibit several pseudomolecular ions, allowing unambiguous determination of molecular weights. Functional group identification is accomplished by monitoring the ions in the electron ionization mass spectra that are characteristic of each functional group derivative: m/z 181 for carbonyl and m/z 73 and 75 for carboxyl and hydroxy groups. The method is used to identify products in laboratory studies of ozone oxidation of {alpha}-pinene and {Delta}{sup 3}-carene.

  18. Hydrogen bond dynamics in bulk alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinokita, Keisuke; Cunha, Ana V.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.

    2015-06-07

    Hydrogen-bonded liquids play a significant role in numerous chemical and biological phenomena. In the past decade, impressive developments in multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy and combined molecular dynamicsquantum mechanical simulation have established many intriguing features of hydrogen bond dynamics in one of the fundamental solvents in nature, water. The next class of a hydrogen-bonded liquidalcoholshas attracted much less attention. This is surprising given such important differences between water and alcohols as the imbalance between the number of hydrogen bonds, each molecule can accept (two) and donate (one) and the very presence of the hydrophobic group in alcohols. Here, we use polarization-resolved pump-probe and 2D infrared spectroscopy supported by extensive theoretical modeling to investigate hydrogen bond dynamics in methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol employing the OH stretching mode as a reporter. The sub-ps dynamics in alcohols are similar to those in water as they are determined by similar librational and hydrogen-bond stretch motions. However, lower density of hydrogen bond acceptors and donors in alcohols leads to the appearance of slow diffusion-controlled hydrogen bond exchange dynamics, which are essentially absent in water. We anticipate that the findings herein would have a potential impact on fundamental chemistry and biology as many processes in nature involve the interplay of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups.

  19. 1 mil gold bond wire study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huff, Johnathon; McLean, Michael B.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Rutherford, Brian Milne

    2013-05-01

    In microcircuit fabrication, the diameter and length of a bond wire have been shown to both affect the current versus fusing time ratio of a bond wire as well as the gap length of the fused wire. This study investigated the impact of current level on the time-to-open and gap length of 1 mil by 60 mil gold bond wires. During the experiments, constant current was provided for a control set of bond wires for 250ms, 410ms and until the wire fused; non-destructively pull-tested wires for 250ms; and notched wires. The key findings were that as the current increases, the gap length increases and 73% of the bond wires will fuse at 1.8A, and 100% of the wires fuse at 1.9A within 60ms. Due to the limited scope of experiments and limited data analyzed, further investigation is encouraged to confirm these observations.

  20. Surface preparation of IPNS (Intense Pulsed Neutron Source) booster target components prior to diffusion bonding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simandl, R.F.; Richards, H.L.; Thompson, L.M.

    1988-10-06

    In support of Argonne National Laboratory's Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) program, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has fabricated 15 Zircaloy-2 clad, enriched uranium booster targets using hot isostatic pressing (HIP) to effect diffusion bonding between the enriched uranium core and the Zircaloy-2 cladding. Guided by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (XPS/ESCA) data, surface preparation procedures for both the Zircaloy-2 and uranium were refined to ensure 100% bonding between the dissimilar metals and survival of the rigors of beta quenching. 7 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for High-Temperature Packaging (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devoto, D.

    2014-11-01

    The thermal performance and reliability of sintered-silver is being evaluated for power electronics packaging applications. This will be experimentally accomplished by the synthesis of large-area bonded interfaces between metalized substrates that will be subsequently subjected to thermal cycles. A finite element model of crack initiation and propagation in these bonded interfaces will allow for the interpretation of degradation rates by a crack-velocity (V)-stress intensity factor (K) analysis. The experiment is outlined, and the modeling approach is discussed.

  2. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  3. Bio-Oxo Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is it difficult? Aldehydes are more toxic to bacterial cells than alcohols. Toxins and inhibitors such as acetate, formate and 5- (hydroxymethyl)furfural are created ...

  4. Method of CO and/or CO.sub.2 hydrogenation using doped mixed-metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shekhawat, Dushyant; Berry, David A.; Haynes, Daniel J.; Abdelsayed, Victor; Smith, Mark W.; Spivey, James J.

    2015-10-06

    A method of hydrogenation utilizing a reactant gas mixture comprising a carbon oxide and a hydrogen agent, and a hydrogenation catalyst comprising a mixed-metal oxide containing metal sites supported and/or incorporated into the lattice. The mixed-metal oxide comprises a perovskite, a pyrochlore, a fluorite, a brownmillerite, or mixtures thereof doped at the A-site or the B-site. The metal site may comprise a deposited metal, where the deposited metal is a transition metal, an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal, or mixtures thereof. Contact between the carbon oxide, hydrogen agent, and hydrogenation catalyst under appropriate conditions of temperature, pressure and gas flow rate generate a hydrogenation reaction and produce a hydrogenated product made up of carbon from the carbon oxide and some portion of the hydrogen agent. The carbon oxide may be CO, CO.sub.2, or mixtures thereof and the hydrogen agent may be H.sub.2. In a particular embodiment, the hydrogenated product comprises an alcohol, an olefin, an aldehyde, a ketone, an ester, an oxo-product, or mixtures thereof.

  5. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aytug, Tolga

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  6. Boosting investor yields through bond insurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosbacher, M.L.; Burkhardt, D.A.

    1993-02-01

    The market for utility securities generally tends to be fairly static. Innovative financing techniques are rarely used because of the marketability of utility securities stemming from the companies' generally strong financial credit and the monopoly markets most utilities serve. To many people, utility securities are considered the pillars of the financial world, and innovation is not needed. Further, plain vanilla utility issues are easily understood by investors, as well as by regulators and customers. Over the past several years, however, a new utility bond product has crept into the world of utility securities - insured secondary utility bonds. These insured bonds may possibly be used as an alternative financing technique for newly issued debt. Individual investors often tend to rely on insurance as a tool for reducing credit risk and are willing to take the lower yields as a tradeoff. Insured utility bonds are created by brokerage firms through the acqusition of a portion of an outstanding utility bond issue and subsequent solicitation of the insurance companies for bids. The insurance company then agrees to insure that portion of the issue until maturity for a fee, and the brokerage firm sells those bonds to their customers as a AAA-insured bond. Issuers are encouraged to explore the retail market as a financing alternative. They may find a most cost-effective means of raising capital.

  7. Metals 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, S.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Slaughter, G.; Boensch, F.D.; Claus, R.O.; de Vries, M.

    1993-05-01

    This strategic planning exercise identified and characterized new and emerging advanced metallic technologies in the context of the drastic changes in global politics and decreasing fiscal resources. In consideration of a hierarchy of technology thrusts stated by various Department of Defense (DOD) spokesmen, and the need to find new and creative ways to acquire and organize programs within an evolving Wright Laboratory, five major candidate programs identified are: C-17 Flap, Transport Fuselage, Mach 5 Aircraft, 4.Fighter Structures, and 5. Missile Structures. These results were formed by extensive discussion with selected major contractors and other experts, and a survey of advanced metallic structure materials. Candidate structural applications with detailed metal structure descriptions bracket a wide variety of uses which warrant consideration for the suggested programs. An analysis on implementing smart skins and structures concepts is given from a metal structures perspective.

  8. Metal Hydrides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal Hydrides Theodore Motyka Savannah River National Laboratory Metal Hydride System Architect Jose-Miguel Pasini, & Bart van Hassel UTRC Claudio Corgnale & Bruce Hardy SRNL Kevin Simmons and Mark Weimar PNNL Darsh Kumar GM, Matthew Thornton NREL, Kevin Drost OSU DOE Materials-Based Hydrogen Storage Summit Defining Pathways for Onboard Automotive Applications 2 Outline * Background and MH History * MH HSECoE Results * Material Operating Requirements * Modeling and Analyses * BOP and

  9. Surface preparation of adhesively bonded joints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogg, I.C.; Janardhana, M.N.

    1993-12-31

    For the bonding of structures, it is essential that correct surface preparation is completed to ensure both a reliable and a durable bond. In a controlled environment this can be achieved easily, but difficulties can occur in the field. This paper is a compilation of research completed in the area of surface preparation for the bonding of aluminum and graphite epoxy composites. Finite element analysis software MSC/NASTRAN has been used to investigate the effect of adhesion on the strength and failure characteristics of a single lap joint.

  10. Growth morphology and properties of metals on graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xiaojie; Han, Yong; Evans, James W.; Engstfeld, Albert K.; Behm, R. Juergen; Tringides, Michael C.; Hupalo, Myron; Lin, Hai -Qing; Huang, Li; Ho, Kai -Ming; Appy, David; Thiel, Patricia A.; Wang, Cai -Zhuang

    2015-12-01

    Graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite, has been the focus of recent intensive studies due to its novel electronic and structural properties. With this study, metals grown on graphene also have been of interest because of their potential use as metal contacts in graphene devices, for spintronics applications, and for catalysis. All of these applications require good understanding and control of the metal growth morphology, which in part reflects the strength of the metal–graphene bond. The interaction between graphene and metal is sufficiently strong to modify the electronic structure of graphene is also of great importance. We will discuss recent experimental and computational studies related to deposition of metals on graphene supported on various substrates (SiC, SiO2, and hexagonal close-packed metal surfaces). Of specific interest are the metal–graphene interactions (adsorption energies and diffusion barriers of metal adatoms), and the crystal structures and thermal stability of the metal nanoclusters.

  11. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond...

  12. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Wednesday, 25 July 2012 00:00 Hydrogen bonds are...

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and crystal structure of 2-amino-7-methyl-5-oxo-4-phenyl-4,5-dihydropyrano[3,2-c] pyran-3-carbonitrile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, S.; Banerjee, B.; Brahmachari, G.; Kant, Rajni; Gupta, V. K.

    2015-12-15

    2-Amino-7-methyl-5-oxo-4-phenyl-4,5-dihydropyrano[3,2-c] pyran-3-carbonitrile, C{sub 16}H{sub 12}N{sub 2}O{sub 3} is synthesized via one-pot multi-component reaction at room temperature using commercially available urea as inexpensive and environmentally benign organo-catalyst. Its structure is determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique The crystals are monoclinic, a = 10.7357(12), b = 8.7774(8), c = 15.0759(16) Å, β = 103.575(11)°, Z = 4, sp. gr. P2{sub 1}/n, R = 0.0551 for 1696 observed reflections. The crystal structure is stabilized by N–H···N, C–H···O, and C–H···π interactions.

  14. Dendritic metal nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A.; Song, Yujiang; Pereira, Eulalia F.; Medforth, Craig J.

    2010-08-31

    Dendritic metal nanostructures made using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

  15. The plant limonoid 7-oxo-deacetoxygedunin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing activation of the NF-{kappa}B and MAPK pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wisutsitthiwong, Chonnaree; Buranaruk, Chayanit; Pudhom, Khanitha; Palaga, Tanapat

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A gedunin type limonoid from seeds of mangroves, 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin, exhibits strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with this limonoid results in significant decrease in expression of NFATc1 and osteoclast-related genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mode of action of this limonoid is by inhibiting activation of the NF-{kappa}B and MAPK pathways which are activated by RANKL. -- Abstract: Osteoclasts together with osteoblasts play pivotal roles in bone remodeling. Aberrations in osteoclast differentiation and activity contribute to osteopenic disease. Osteoclasts differentiate from monocyte/macrophage progenitors, a process that is initiated by the interaction between receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B (RANK) and its ligand, RANKL. In this study, we identified 7-oxo-7-deacetoxygedunin (7-OG), a gedunin type limonoid from seeds of the mangrove Xylocarpus moluccensis, as a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis. Additionally, 7-OG showed strong anti-osteoclastogenic activity with low cytotoxicity against the monocyte/macrophage progenitor cell line, RAW264.7. The IC50 for anti-osteoclastogenic activity was 4.14 {mu}M. Treatment with 7-OG completely abolished the appearance of multinucleated giant cells with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with RANKL. When the expression of genes related to osteoclastogenesis was investigated, a complete downregulation of NFATc1 and cathepsin K and a delayed downregulation of irf8 were observed upon 7-OG treatment in the presence of RANKL. Furthermore, treatment with this limonoid suppressed RANKL-induced activation of p38, MAPK and Erk and nuclear localization of NF-{kappa}B p65. Taken together, we present evidence indicating a plant limonoid as a novel osteoclastogenic inhibitor that could be used for osteoporosis and related conditions.

  16. Clean Energy and Bond Finance Initiative | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Energy and Bond Finance Initiative Clean Energy and Bond Finance Initiative Provides information on Clean Energy and Bond Finance Initiative (CE+BFI). CE+BFI brings together public infrastructure finance agencies, clean energy public fund managers and institutional investors across the country to explore how to raise capital at scale for clean energy development through bond financing. Author: Clean Energy and Bond Finance Initiative Clean Energy and Bond Finance Initiative Website More

  17. Cement Bond Log | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    casing and cement and between cement and borehole wall. Most cement-bond logs are a measurement only of the amplitude of the early arriving casing signal. Although a small...

  18. Method for forming or bonding a liner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prevender, Thomas S.

    1980-01-01

    A process and means for forming or bonding a liner to a shell or element wherein the liner is filled with or immersed in water and a portion of the water is frozen.

  19. Local Option- Energy Efficiency Project Bonds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On March 2015, the Arkansas legislature passed SB 896 or the “Local Government Energy Efficiency Project Bond Act” which provides enabling legislation for a municipality or a county to issue energy...

  20. Producing microchannels using graduated diffusion bonding of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of precision machined foils or sheets (laminates) to make a micro-channel reactor A novel multi-step process for the diffusion bonding of laminates National Energy Technology...

  1. Bond Coating Performance of Thermal Barrier Coatings for Industrial Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Ian G; Pint, Bruce A

    2005-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are intended to work in conjunction with internal cooling schemes to reduce the metal temperature of critical hot gas path components in gas turbine engines. The thermal resistance is typically provided by a 100--250 {mu}m thick layer of ceramic (most usually zirconia stabilized with an addition of 7--8 wt% of yttria), and this is deposited on to an approximately 50 {mu} thick, metallic bond coating that is intended to anchor the ceramic to the metallic surface, to provide some degree of mechanical compliance, and to act as a reservoir of protective scale-forming elements (Al) to protect the underlying superalloy from high-temperature corrosion. A feature of importance to the durability of thermal barrier coatings is the early establishment of a continuous, protective oxide layer (preferably {alpha}-alumina) at the bond coating-ceramic interface. Because zirconia is permeable to oxygen, this oxide layer continues to grow during service. Some superalloys are inherently resistant to high-temperature oxidation, so a separate bond coating may not be needed in those cases. Thermal barrier coatings have been in service in aeroengines for a number of years, and the use of this technology for increasing the durability and/or efficiency of industrial gas turbines is currently of significant interest. The data presented were taken from an investigation of routes to optimize bond coating performance, and the focus of the paper is on the influences of reactive elements and Pt on the oxidation behaviour of NiAl-based alloys determined in studies using cast versions of bond coating compositions.

  2. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1993-08-31

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density.

  3. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R. William; Dennis, Kevin W.; Lograsso, Barbara K.; Anderson, Iver E.

    1995-11-28

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density.

  4. Method of making bonded or sintered permanent magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1995-11-28

    An isotropic permanent magnet is made by mixing a thermally responsive, low viscosity binder and atomized rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) alloy powder having a carbon-bearing (e.g., graphite) layer thereon that facilitates wetting and bonding of the powder particles by the binder. Prior to mixing with the binder, the atomized alloy powder may be sized or classified to provide a particular particle size fraction having a grain size within a given relatively narrow range. A selected particle size fraction is mixed with the binder and the mixture is molded to a desired complex magnet shape. A molded isotropic permanent magnet is thereby formed. A sintered isotropic permanent magnet can be formed by removing the binder from the molded mixture and thereafter sintering to full density. 14 figs.

  5. Opportunities in Bond Financing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Bond Financing Opportunities in Bond Financing Presentation about financial options and opportunities for biogas and fuel cells. Presented by James Dack, Stern Brothers, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado. june2012_biogas_workshop_dack.pdf (154.9 KB) More Documents & Publications Leveraging Federal Funds Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop Summary Report: Proceedings from the Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop, Golden, Colorado, June 11-13,

  6. Syntactic foam composites and bonding. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWhirter, R.J.

    1980-09-01

    A manufacturing process has been developed to produce billets molded from a composite of carbon microspheres, a polyimide resin, and carbon fibers. The billets then are machined to configuration which results in extremely sharp and fragile edges on one part. To strengthen these parts, a parylene coating is applied, after which the parts are assembled with other parts by bonding. Bonding and assembly problems are discussed in detail; other problems encountered are summarized, and several are referenced to previous reports.

  7. FITCH RATES ENERGY NORTHWEST, WA'S ELECTRIC REV RFDG BONDS 'AA...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    debt (4.1 billion). KEY RATING DRIVERS BONNEVILLE'S OBLIGATION SECURES BONDS: The rating on the Energy Northwest bonds reflects the credit quality of Bonneville and its...

  8. Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) & New Clean Renewable...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Provides a presentation overview of qualified energy conservation bond and new clean renewable energy bonds, including characteristics, mechanics, allocated volume, and other ...

  9. An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction during phosphinothrici...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction during phosphinothricin biosynthesis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An unusual carbon-carbon bond cleavage reaction ...

  10. Fitzgerald Wtr Lgt & Bond Comm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fitzgerald Wtr Lgt & Bond Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name: Fitzgerald Wtr Lgt & Bond Comm Place: Georgia Phone Number: (229) 426-5400 Website: fitzutilities.com Outage...

  11. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding as a synthetic tool to induce...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    hydrogen bonding as a synthetic tool to induce chemical selectivity in acid catalyzed porphyrin synthesis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Intramolecular hydrogen bonding ...

  12. Taking Advantage of Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantage of Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) Taking Advantage of Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) This webinar, held on Sept. 22, 2010, provides information ...

  13. Peer Exchange Call on Financing and Revenue: Bond Funding | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peer Exchange Call on Financing and Revenue: Bond Funding Peer Exchange Call on Financing and Revenue: Bond Funding Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Peer Exchange Call on ...

  14. Olefin metathesis for effective polymer healing via dynamic exchange of strong carbon-carbon bonds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guan, Zhibin; Lu, Yixuan

    2015-09-15

    A method of preparing a malleable and/or self-healing polymeric or composite material is provided. The method includes providing a polymeric or composite material comprising at least one alkene-containing polymer, combining the polymer with at least one homogeneous or heterogeneous transition metal olefin metathesis catalyst to form a polymeric or composite material, and performing an olefin metathesis reaction on the polymer so as to form reversible carbon-carbon double bonds in the polymer. Also provided is a method of healing a fractured surface of a polymeric material. The method includes bringing a fractured surface of a first polymeric material into contact with a second polymeric material, and performing an olefin metathesis reaction in the presence of a transition metal olefin metathesis catalyst such that the first polymeric material forms reversible carbon-carbon double bonds with the second polymeric material. Compositions comprising malleable and/or self-healing polymeric or composite material are also provided.

  15. Metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carnes, J.R.; Kherani, N.P.

    1987-11-01

    Metal hydride information is not available for most hydrides in a consolidated quick-reference source. This report's objective is to fill the need for such a document providing basic thermodynamic data for as many metal hydrides as possible. We conduced a computerized library search to access as many sources as possible and screened each source for such thermodynamic data as pressure-temperature graphs, van't Hoff curves, and impurity effects. We included any other relevant information and commented on it. A primary concern to be investigated in the future is the behavior of metal tritides. This would be important in the area of emergency tritium cleanup systems. The hydride graphs are useful, however, as tritides may be expected in most cases to behave similarly and at least follow trends of their respective hydrides. 42 refs., 40 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. An investigation on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties during liquid state diffusion bonding of Al2024 to Ti–6Al–4V

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samavatian, Majid; Halvaee, Ayoub; Amadeh, Ahmad Ali; Khodabandeh, Alireza

    2014-12-15

    Joining mechanism of Ti/Al dissimilar alloys was studied during liquid state diffusion bonding process using Cu/Sn/Cu interlayer at 510 °C under vacuum of 7.5 × 10{sup −5} Torr for various bonding times. The microstructure and compositional changes in the joint zone were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Microhardness and shear strength tests were also applied to study the mechanical properties of the joints. It was found that with an increase in bonding time, the elements of interlayer diffused into the parent metals and formed various intermetallic compounds at the interface. Diffusion process led to the isothermal solidification and the bonding evolution in the joint zone. The results from mechanical tests showed that microhardness and shear strength values have a straight relation with bonding time so that the maximum shear strength of joint was obtained for a bond made with 60 min bonding time. - Highlights: • Liquid state diffusion bonding of Al2024 to Ti–6Al–4V was performed successfully. • Diffusion of the elements caused the formation of various intermetallics at the interface. • Microhardness and shear strength values have a straight relation with bonding time. • The maximum shear strength reached to 36 MPa in 60 min bonding time.

  17. Guidance for Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Grantees on Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds and New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Guidance for Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program grantees regarding Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) and New Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (New CREBs)

  18. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  19. METAL COMPOSITIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seybolt, A.U.

    1959-02-01

    Alloys of uranium which are strong, hard, and machinable are presented, These alloys of uranium contain bctween 0.1 to 5.0% by weight of at least one noble metal such as rhodium, palladium, and gold. The alloys may be heat treated to obtain a product with iniproved tensile and compression strengths,

  20. Anion separation with metal-organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custelcean, Radu; Moyer, Bruce A

    2007-01-01

    The application of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to anion separations with a special emphasis on anion selectivity is reviewed. The coordination frameworks are classified on the basis of the main interactions to the included anion, from weak and non-specific van der Waals forces to more specific interactions such as coordination to Lewis acid metal centers or hydrogen bonding. The importance of anion solvation phenomena to the observed anion selectivities is highlighted, and strategies for reversing the Hofmeister bias that favors large, less hydrophilic anions, and for obtaining peak selectivities based on shape recognition are delineated. Functionalization of the anion-binding sites in MOFs with strong and directional hydrogen-bonding groups that are complementary to the included anion, combined with organizational rigidity of the coordination framework, appears to be the most promising approach for achieving non-Hofmeister selectivity.

  1. Qualified Energy Conservation Bond State-by-State Summary Tables

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides a list of qualified energy conservation bond state summary tables. Author: Energy Programs Consortium

  2. Composite metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peachey, Nathaniel M.; Dye, Robert C.; Snow, Ronny C.; Birdsell, Stephan A.

    1998-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  3. Composite metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1998-04-14

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  4. Bridged transition-metal complexes and uses thereof for hydrogen separation, storage and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

    1991-10-15

    The present invention constitutes a class of organometallic complexes which reversibly react with hydrogen to form dihydrides and processes by which these compounds can be utilized. The class includes bimetallic complexes in which two cyclopentadienyl rings are bridged together and also separately [pi]-bonded to two transition metal atoms. The transition metals are believed to bond with the hydrogen in forming the dihydride. Transition metals such as Fe, Mn or Co may be employed in the complexes although Cr constitutes the preferred metal. A multiple number of ancillary ligands such as CO are bonded to the metal atoms in the complexes. Alkyl groups and the like may be substituted on the cyclopentadienyl rings. These organometallic compounds may be used in absorption/desorption systems and in facilitated transport membrane systems for storing and separating out H[sub 2] from mixed gas streams such as the product gas from coal gasification processes. 3 figures.

  5. Bridged transition-metal complexes and uses thereof for hydrogen separation, storage and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention constitutes a class of organometallic complexes which reversibly react with hydrogen to form dihydrides and processes by which these compounds can be utilized. The class includes bimetallic complexes in which two cyclopentadienyl rings are bridged together and also separately .pi.-bonded to two transition metal atoms. The transition metals are believed to bond with the hydrogen in forming the dihydride. Transition metals such as Fe, Mn or Co may be employed in the complexes although Cr constitutes the preferred metal. A multiple number of ancilliary ligands such as CO are bonded to the metal atoms in the complexes. Alkyl groups and the like may be substituted on the cyclopentadienyl rings. These organometallic compounds may be used in absorption/desorption systems and in facilitated transport membrane systems for storing and separating out H.sub.2 from mixed gas streams such as the product gas from coal gasification processes.

  6. Bridged transition-metal complexes and uses thereof for hydrogen separation, storage and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

    1990-08-28

    The present invention constitutes a class of organometallic complexes which reversibly react with hydrogen to form dihydrides and processes by which these compounds can be utilized. The class includes bimetallic complexes in which two cyclopentadienyl rings are bridged together and also separately [pi]-bonded to two transition metal atoms. The transition metals are believed to bond with the hydrogen in forming the dihydride. Transition metals such as Fe, Mn or Co may be employed in the complexes although Cr constitutes the preferred metal. A multiple number of ancillary ligands such as CO are bonded to the metal atoms in the complexes. Alkyl groups and the like may be substituted on the cyclopentadienyl rings. These organometallic compounds may be used in absorption/desorption systems and in facilitated transport membrane systems for storing and separating out H[sub 2] from mixed gas streams such as the producer gas from coal gasification processes. 3 figs.

  7. Bridged transition-metal complexes and uses thereof for hydrogen separation, storage and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lilga, Michael A.; Hallen, Richard T.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention constitutes a class of organometallic complexes which reversibly react with hydrogen to form dihydrides and processes by which these compounds can be utilized. The class includes bimetallic complexes in which two cyclopentadienyl rings are bridged together and also separately .pi.-bonded to two transition metal atoms. The transition metals are believed to bond with the hydrogen in forming the dihydride. Transition metals such as Fe, Mn or Co may be employed in the complexes although Cr constitutes the preferred metal. A multiple number of ancilliary ligands such as CO are bonded to the metal atoms in the complexes. Alkyl groups and the like may be substituted on the cyclopentadienyl rings. These organometallic compounds may be used in absorption/desorption systems and in facilitated transport membrane systems for storing and separating out H.sub.2 from mixed gas streams such as the produce gas from coal gasification processes.

  8. Epoxy bond and stop etch fabrication method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simmons, Jerry A.; Weckwerth, Mark V.; Baca, Wes E.

    2000-01-01

    A class of epoxy bond and stop etch (EBASE) microelectronic fabrication techniques is disclosed. The essence of such techniques is to grow circuit components on top of a stop etch layer grown on a first substrate. The first substrate and a host substrate are then bonded together so that the circuit components are attached to the host substrate by the bonding agent. The first substrate is then removed, e.g., by a chemical or physical etching process to which the stop etch layer is resistant. EBASE fabrication methods allow access to regions of a device structure which are usually blocked by the presence of a substrate, and are of particular utility in the fabrication of ultrafast electronic and optoelectronic devices and circuits.

  9. Fundamental aspects of recoupled pair bonds. II. Recoupled pair bond dyads in carbon and sulfur difluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunning, Thom H. Takeshita, Tyler Y.; Xu, Lu T.

    2015-01-21

    Formation of a bond between a second ligand and a molecule with a recoupled pair bond results in a recoupled pair bond dyad. We examine the recoupled pair bond dyads in the a{sup 3}B{sub 1} states of CF{sub 2} and SF{sub 2}, which are formed by the addition of a fluorine atom to the a{sup 4}Σ{sup −} states of CF and SF, both of which possess recoupled pair bonds. The two dyads are very different. In SF{sub 2}, the second FS–F bond is very strong (D{sub e} = 106.3 kcal/mol), the bond length is much shorter than that in the SF(a{sup 4}Σ{sup −}) state (1.666 Å versus 1.882 Å), and the three atoms are nearly collinear (θ{sub e} = 162.7°) with only a small barrier to linearity (0.4 kcal/mol). In CF{sub 2}, the second FC–F bond is also very strong (D{sub e} = 149.5 kcal/mol), but the bond is only slightly shorter than that in the CF(a{sup 4}Σ{sup −}) state (1.314 Å versus 1.327 Å), and the molecule is strongly bent (θ{sub e} = 119.0°) with an 80.5 kcal/mol barrier to linearity. The a{sup 3}B{sub 1} states of CF{sub 2} and SF{sub 2} illustrate the fundamental differences between recoupled pair bond dyads formed from 2s and 3p lone pairs.

  10. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-08-25

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  11. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  12. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.

    1993-09-21

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

  13. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate.

  14. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.; Paulauskas, Felix L.; Fathi, Zakaryae; Wei, Jianghua

    1998-01-01

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy.

  15. Steel-SiC Metal Matrix Composite Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Don D.

    2005-07-17

    The goal of this project is to develop a method for fabricating SiC-reinforced high-strength steel. We are developing a metal-matrix composite (MMC) in which SiC fibers are be embedded within a metal matrix of steel, with adequate interfacial bonding to deliver the full benefit of the tensile strength of the SiC fibers in the composite.

  16. Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Gene W.

    1982-01-01

    By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

  17. Thermally stable, plastic-bonded explosives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benziger, Theodore M.

    1979-01-01

    By use of an appropriate thermoplastic rubber as the binder, the thermal stability and thermal stress characteristics of plastic-bonded explosives may be greatly improved. In particular, an HMX-based explosive composition using an oil-extended styrene-ethylenebutylene-styrene block copolymer as the binder exhibits high explosive energy and thermal stability and good handling safety and physical properties.

  18. Method for producing chemically bonded phosphate ceramics and for stabilizing contaminants encapsulated therein utilizing reducing agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2000-01-01

    Known phosphate ceramic formulations are improved and the ability to produce iron-based phosphate ceramic systems is enabled by the addition of an oxidizing or reducing step during the acid-base reactions that form the phosphate ceramic products. The additives allow control of the rate of the acid-base reactions and concomitant heat generation. In an alternate embodiment, waste containing metal anions are stabilized in phosphate ceramic products by the addition of a reducing agent to the phosphate ceramic mixture. The reduced metal ions are more stable and/or reactive with the phosphate ions, resulting in the formation of insoluble metal species within the phosphate ceramic matrix, such that the resulting chemically bonded phosphate ceramic product has greater leach resistance.

  19. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR EFFECTING THERMAL BONDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Monson, H.O.; Jaross, R.A.

    1961-10-17

    A device is described for completing the alkali metal bend between a fael element and its jacket. It consists of a heater and electo1nagic surrounding the fael element so tbat while it is heated a rotating magnetic field will agirate the alkali metal and work out void spaces. (AEC)

  20. A periodic energy decomposition analysis method for the investigation of chemical bonding in extended systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raupach, Marc; Tonner, Ralf

    2015-05-21

    The development and first applications of a new periodic energy decomposition analysis (pEDA) scheme for extended systems based on the Kohn-Sham approach to density functional theory are described. The pEDA decomposes the bonding energy between two fragments (e.g., the adsorption energy of a molecule on a surface) into several well-defined terms: preparation, electrostatic, Pauli repulsion, and orbital relaxation energies. This is complemented by consideration of dispersion interactions via a pairwise scheme. One major extension toward a previous implementation [Philipsen and Baerends, J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 12470 (2006)] lies in the separate discussion of electrostatic and Pauli and the addition of a dispersion term. The pEDA presented here for an implementation based on atomic orbitals can handle restricted and unrestricted fragments for 0D to 3D systems considering periodic boundary conditions with and without the determination of fragment occupations. For the latter case, reciprocal space sampling is enabled. The new method gives comparable results to established schemes for molecular systems and shows good convergence with respect to the basis set (TZ2P), the integration accuracy, and k-space sampling. Four typical bonding scenarios for surface-adsorbate complexes were chosen to highlight the performance of the method representing insulating (CO on MgO(001)), metallic (H{sub 2} on M(001), M = Pd, Cu), and semiconducting (CO and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} on Si(001)) substrates. These examples cover diverse substrates as well as bonding scenarios ranging from weakly interacting to covalent (shared electron and donor acceptor) bonding. The results presented lend confidence that the pEDA will be a powerful tool for the analysis of surface-adsorbate bonding in the future, enabling the transfer of concepts like ionic and covalent bonding, donor-acceptor interaction, steric repulsion, and others to extended systems.

  1. Metal dusting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edited by K. Natesan

    2004-01-01

    This workshop was held soon after the September 11th incident under a climate of sorrow and uncertainty among the people of the world, in particular the Workshop participants and their host organizations. With considerable help from the partiicpants, the Workshop was conducted as planed and we had excellent participation in spite of the circumstances. A good fraction of the attendees in the Workshop were from abroad and from several industries, indicating the importance and relevance of the subject for the chemical process industry. Degradation of structural metallic alloys by metal dusting has been an issue for over 40 years in the chemical, petrochemical, syngas, and iron ore reduction plants. However, the fundamental scientific reasons for the degradation of complex alloys in high carbon activity environments are not clear. one of the major parameters of importance is the variation in gas chemistry in both the laboratory experiments and in the plant-service environments. the industry has questioned the applicability of the laboratory test data, obtained in low steam environments, in assessment and life prediction for the materials in plant service where the environments contain 25-35% steam. Several other variables such as system pressure, gas flow velocity, incubation time, alloy chemistry, surface finish, and weldments, were also identified in the literature as to having an effect on the initiatino and propagation of metal dusting attack. It is the purpose of this Workshop to establish a forum in which the researchers from scientific and industrial laboratories, alloy manufacturers, end users, and research and development sponsors can exchange information, discuss different points of view, prioritize the issues, and to elaborate on the trends in industry for the future. We believe that we accomplished these goals successfully and sincerely thank the participants for their contributions.

  2. 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid, a linoleic acid metabolite produced by gut lactic acid bacteria, potently activates PPARγ and stimulates adipogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Furuzono, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yamakuni, Kanae; Yang, Ha-Eun; Li, Yongjia; Ohue, Ryuji; Nomura, Wataru; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Yu, Rina; Kitamura, Nahoko; and others

    2015-04-17

    Our previous study has shown that gut lactic acid bacteria generate various kinds of fatty acids from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA). In this study, we investigated the effects of LA and LA-derived fatty acids on the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) which regulate whole-body energy metabolism. None of the fatty acids activated PPARδ, whereas almost all activated PPARα in luciferase assays. Two fatty acids potently activated PPARγ, a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, with 10-oxo-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (KetoA) having the most potency. In 3T3-L1 cells, KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ, and increased adiponectin production and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. These findings suggest that fatty acids, including KetoA, generated in gut by lactic acid bacteria may be involved in the regulation of host energy metabolism. - Highlights: • Most LA-derived fatty acids from gut lactic acid bacteria potently activated PPARα. • Among tested fatty acids, KetoA and KetoC significantly activated PPARγ. • KetoA induced adipocyte differentiation via the activation of PPARγ. • KetoA enhanced adiponectin production and glucose uptake during adipogenesis.

  3. Mechanochemical processing for metals and metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Froes, Francis H.; Eranezhuth, Baburaj G.; Prisbrey, Keith

    2001-01-01

    A set of processes for preparing metal powders, including metal alloy powders, by ambient temperature reduction of a reducible metal compound by a reactive metal or metal hydride through mechanochemical processing. The reduction process includes milling reactants to induce and complete the reduction reaction. The preferred reducing agents include magnesium and calcium hydride powders. A process of pre-milling magnesium as a reducing agent to increase the activity of the magnesium has been established as one part of the invention.

  4. Thermodynamic aspects of dehydrogenation reactions on noble metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svane, K. L. Hammer, B.

    2014-11-07

    The reaction free energy for dehydrogenation of phenol, aniline, thiophenol, benzoic acid, and 1,4-benzenediol on the close packed copper, silver, and gold surfaces has been studied by density functional theory calculations. Dehydrogenation of thiophenol is found to be favourable on all three surfaces while aniline does not dehydrogenate on any of them. For phenol, benzenediol and benzoic acid dehydrogenation is favourable on copper and silver only, following the general trend of an increasing reaction free energy when going form gold to silver to copper. This trend can be correlated with the changes in bond lengths within the molecule upon dehydrogenation. While copper is able to replace hydrogen, leaving small changes in the bond lengths of the aromatic ring, the metal-molecule bond is weaker for silver and gold, resulting in a partial loss of aromaticity. This difference in bond strength leads to pronounced differences in adsorption geometries upon multiple dehydrogenations.

  5. First Structural Characterization of a Protactinium(V) Single...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of a Protactinium(V) Single Oxo Bond in Aqueous Media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: First Structural Characterization of a Protactinium(V) Single Oxo Bond in ...

  6. Reaction Pathways and Energetics of Etheric C−O Bond Cleavage Catalyzed by Lanthanide Triflates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assary, Rajeev S.; Atesin, Abdurrahman C.; Li, Zhi; Curtiss, Larry A.; Marks, Tobin J.

    2013-07-15

    Efficient and selective cleavage of etheric C−O bonds is crucial for converting biomass into platform chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. In this contribution, computational methods at the DFT B3LYP level of theory are employed to understand the efficacy of lanthanide triflate catalysts (Ln(OTf)3, Ln = La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Yb, and Lu) in cleaving etheric C−O bonds. In agreement with experiment, the calculations indicate that the reaction pathway for C−O cleavage occurs via a C−H → O−H proton transfer in concert with weakening of the C−O bond of the coordinated ether substrate to ultimately yield a coordinated alkenol. The activation energy for this process falls as the lanthanide ionic radius decreases, reflecting enhanced metal ion electrophilicity. Details of the reaction mechanism for Yb(OTf)3-catalyzed ring opening are explored in depth, and for 1-methyl-d3-butyl phenyl ether, the computed primary kinetic isotope effect of 2.4 is in excellent agreement with experiment (2.7), confirming that etheric ring-opening pathway involves proton transfer from the methyl group alpha to the etheric oxygen atom, which is activated by the electrophilic lanthanide ion. Calculations of the catalytic pathway using eight different ether substrates indicate that the more rapid cleavage of acyclic versus cyclic ethers is largely due to entropic effects, with the former C−O bond scission processes increasing the degrees of freedom/particles as the transition state is approached.

  7. Metal filled porous carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Adam F.; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping; Salguero, Tina T.

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  8. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  9. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Phelps, Cindy

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  10. Bond order potential module for LAMMPS

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-11

    pair_bop is a module for performing energy calculations using the Bond Order Potential (BOP) for use in the parallel molecular dynamics code LAMMPS. The bop pair style computes BOP based upon quantum mechanical incorporating both sigma and pi bondings. By analytically deriving the BOP pair bop from quantum mechanical theory its transferability to different phases can approach that of quantum mechanical methods. This potential is extremely effective at modeling 111-V and II-VI compounds such asmore » GaAs and CdTe. This potential is similar to the original BOP developed by Pettifor and later updated by Murdock et al. and Ward et al.« less

  11. Article coated with flash bonded superhydrophobic particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T [Clinton, TN; Blue, Craig A [Knoxville, TN; Kiggans, Jr., James O [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-13

    A method of making article having a superhydrophobic surface includes: providing a solid body defining at least one surface; applying to the surface a plurality of diatomaceous earth particles and/or particles characterized by particle sizes ranging from at least 100 nm to about 10 .mu.m, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of nanopores, wherein at least some of the nanopores provide flow through porosity, the particles being further characterized by a plurality of spaced apart nanostructured features that include a contiguous, protrusive material; flash bonding the particles to the surface so that the particles are adherently bonded to the surface; and applying a hydrophobic coating layer to the surface and the particles so that the hydrophobic coating layer conforms to the nanostructured features.

  12. Reversible Sigma C-C Bond Formation Between Phenanthroline Ligands...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reversible Sigma C-C Bond Formation Between Phenanthroline Ligands Activated by (C5Me5)2Yb Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reversible Sigma C-C Bond Formation Between ...

  13. Fractional vortices in the XY model with {pi} bonds (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fractional vortices in the XY model with pi bonds Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fractional vortices in the XY model with pi bonds We define a new set of excitations ...

  14. Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P.; Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2001-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  15. Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swierkowski, Steve P.; Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2000-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  16. Microchannel cooling of face down bonded chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.

    1993-01-01

    Microchannel cooling is applied to flip-chip bonded integrated circuits, in a manner which maintains the advantages of flip-chip bonds, while overcoming the difficulties encountered in cooling the chips. The technique is suited to either multichip integrated circuit boards in a plane, or to stacks of circuit boards in a three dimensional interconnect structure. Integrated circuit chips are mounted on a circuit board using flip-chip or control collapse bonds. A microchannel structure is essentially permanently coupled with the back of the chip. A coolant delivery manifold delivers coolant to the microchannel structure, and a seal consisting of a compressible elastomer is provided between the coolant delivery manifold and the microchannel structure. The integrated circuit chip and microchannel structure are connected together to form a replaceable integrated circuit module which can be easily decoupled from the coolant delivery manifold and the circuit board. The coolant supply manifolds may be disposed between the circuit boards in a stack and coupled to supplies of coolant through a side of the stack.

  17. Microchannel cooling of face down bonded chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.

    1993-06-08

    Microchannel cooling is applied to flip-chip bonded integrated circuits, in a manner which maintains the advantages of flip-chip bonds, while overcoming the difficulties encountered in cooling the chips. The technique is suited to either multi chip integrated circuit boards in a plane, or to stacks of circuit boards in a three dimensional interconnect structure. Integrated circuit chips are mounted on a circuit board using flip-chip or control collapse bonds. A microchannel structure is essentially permanently coupled with the back of the chip. A coolant delivery manifold delivers coolant to the microchannel structure, and a seal consisting of a compressible elastomer is provided between the coolant delivery manifold and the microchannel structure. The integrated circuit chip and microchannel structure are connected together to form a replaceable integrated circuit module which can be easily decoupled from the coolant delivery manifold and the circuit board. The coolant supply manifolds may be disposed between the circuit boards in a stack and coupled to supplies of coolant through a side of the stack.

  18. Thermal Modeling of A Friction Bonding Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Dixon; Douglas Burkes; Pavel Medvedev

    2007-10-01

    A COMSOL model capable of predicting temperature evolution during nuclear fuel fabrication is being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Fuel plates are fabricated by friction bonding (FB) uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy foils positioned between two aluminum plates. The ability to predict temperature distribution during fabrication is imperative to ensure good quality bonding without inducing an undesirable chemical reaction between U-Mo and aluminum. A three-dimensional heat transfer model of the FB process implementing shallow pin penetration for cladding monolithic nuclear fuel foils is presented. Temperature distribution during the FB process as a function of fabrication parameters such as weld speed, tool load, and tool rotational frequency are predicted. Model assumptions, settings, and equations are described in relation to standard friction stir welding. Current experimental design for validation and calibration of the model is also demonstrated. Resulting experimental data reveal the accuracy in describing asymmetrical temperature distributions about the tool face. Temperature of the bonded plate drops beneath the pin and is higher on the advancing side than the retreating side of the tool.

  19. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Wednesday, 25 July 2012 00:00 Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional

  20. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Wednesday, 25 May 2005 00:00 The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the

  1. Taking Advantage of Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Taking Advantage of Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds Taking Advantage of Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds This webinar, held on Sept. 22, 2010, provides information on qualified energy conservation bonds. Transcript Presentation (2.03 MB) More Documents & Publications Aggregating QECB Allocations and Using QECBs to Support the Private Sector: A Case Study on Massachusetts Making it Easier to Complete Clean Energy Projects with Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs)

  2. Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds: Updates from the Field

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This webinar, held on March 28, 2011, focuses on qualified energy conservation bond updates, including issuance trends and performance contracting.

  3. Process for the fabrication of aluminum metallized pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Ramsey, Philip B.; Juntz, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    An improved method for fabricating pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets with superior heat transfer ability, longer life, and maximum energy transmission. Anisotropic pyrolytic graphite is contoured and/or segmented to match the erosion profile of the sputter target and then oriented such that the graphite's high thermal conductivity planes are in maximum contact with a thermally conductive metal backing. The graphite contact surface is metallized, using high rate physical vapor deposition (HRPVD), with an aluminum coating and the thermally conductive metal backing is joined to the metallized graphite target by one of four low-temperature bonding methods; liquid-metal casting, powder metallurgy compaction, eutectic brazing, and laser welding.

  4. Method of waste stabilization with dewatered chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D.

    2010-06-29

    A method of stabilizing a waste in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC). The method consists of preparing a slurry including the waste, water, an oxide binder, and a phosphate binder. The slurry is then allowed to cure to a solid, hydrated CBPC matrix. Next, bound water within the solid, hydrated CBPC matrix is removed. Typically, the bound water is removed by applying heat to the cured CBPC matrix. Preferably, the quantity of heat applied to the cured CBPC matrix is sufficient to drive off water bound within the hydrated CBPC matrix, but not to volatalize other non-water components of the matrix, such as metals and radioactive components. Typically, a temperature range of between 100.degree. C.-200.degree. C. will be sufficient. In another embodiment of the invention wherein the waste and water have been mixed prior to the preparation of the slurry, a select amount of water may be evaporated from the waste and water mixture prior to preparation of the slurry. Another aspect of the invention is a direct anyhydrous CBPC fabrication method wherein water is removed from the slurry by heating and mixing the slurry while allowing the slurry to cure. Additional aspects of the invention are ceramic matrix waste forms prepared by the methods disclosed above.

  5. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  6. Ceramic pressure housing with metal endcaps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Downing, J.P. Jr.; DeRoos, B.G.; Hackman, D.J.

    1995-06-27

    A housing is disclosed for the containment of instrumentation in a high pressure fluid environment that consists of a metallic endcap and ceramic cylinder bonded together. The improvement comprises a structure which results in the improved sealing of said housing as the fluid pressure increases. The cylindrical ceramic tube and endcap are dimensioned such that mechanical failure does not occur when exposed to the desired external operating pressures which includes up to 36,000 feet of water. The housing is designed to withstand the external operating pressures without being subject to mechanical failure or excessive deformation which results in the loss of pressure housing integrity via cracking or deformation of the ceramic tube, deformation of the endcap, or from failure of the bonding agent. 9 figs.

  7. Ceramic pressure housing with metal endcaps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Downing, Jr., John P. (Port Townsand, WA); DeRoos, Bradley G. (Worthington, OH); Hackman, Donald J. (Columbus, OH)

    1995-01-01

    A housing for the containment of instrumentation in a high pressure fluid environment that consists of a metallic endcap and ceramic cylinder bonded together. The improvement comprises a structure which results in the improved sealing of said housing as the fluid pressure increases. The cylindrical ceramic tube and endcap are dimensioned such that mechanical failure does not occur when exposed to the desired external operating pressures which includes up to 36,000 feet of water. The housing is designed to withstand the external operating pressures without being subject to mechanical failure or excessive deformation which results in the loss of pressure housing integrity via cracking or deformation of the ceramic tube, deformation of the endcap, or from failure of the bonding agent.

  8. REFRACTORY METAL TUBE DRAWING

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, C.H.; Karasek, F.J.

    1963-01-29

    A lubricant for drawing Zr and other refractory metals is described. Metallic Cu powder is added to a solution of acrylic resin in chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent. (AEC)

  9. Fracture toughness measurements on a glass bonded sodalite high-level waste form.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiSanto, T.; Goff, K. M.; Johnson, S. G.; O'Holleran, T. P.

    1999-05-19

    The electrometallurgical treatment of metallic spent nuclear fuel produces two high-level waste streams; cladding hulls and chloride salt. Argonne National Laboratory is developing a glass bonded sodalite waste form to immobilize the salt waste stream. The waste form consists of 75 Vol.% crystalline sodalite (containing the salt) with 25 Vol.% of an ''intergranular'' glassy phase. Microindentation fracture toughness measurements were performed on representative samples of this material using a Vickers indenter. Palmqvist cracking was confirmed by post-indentation polishing of a test sample. Young's modulus was measured by an acoustic technique. Fracture toughness, microhardness, and Young's modulus values are reported, along with results from scanning electron microscopy studies.

  10. Method for bonding a transmission line to a downhole tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2007-11-06

    An apparatus for bonding a transmission line to the central bore of a downhole tool includes a pre-formed interface for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. The pre-formed interface includes a first surface that substantially conforms to the outside contour of a transmission line and a second surface that substantially conforms to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. In another aspect of the invention, a method for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool includes positioning a transmission line near the inside wall of a downhole tool and placing a mold near the transmission line and the inside wall. The method further includes injecting a bonding material into the mold and curing the bonding material such that the bonding material bonds the transmission line to the inside wall.

  11. Crystalline ropes of metallic carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thess, A.; Lee, R.; Nikolaev, P.

    1996-07-26

    Fullerene single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) were produced in yields of more than 70 percent by condensation of a laser-vaporized carbon-nickel-cobalt mixture at 1200{degrees}C. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy showed that these SWNTs are nearly uniform in diameter and that they self-organize into {open_quotes}ropes,{close_quotes} which consist of 100 to 500 SWNTs in a two-dimensional triangular lattice with a lattice constant of 17 angstroms. The x-ray form factor is consistent with that of uniformly charged cylinders 13.8 {plus_minus} 0.2 angstroms in diameter. The ropes were metallic, with a single-rope resistivity of <10{sup {minus}4} ohmcentimeters at 300 kelvin. The uniformity of SWNT diameter is attributed to the efficient annealing of an initial fullerene tubelet kept open by a few metal atoms; the optimum diameter is determined by competition between the strain energy of curvature of the graphene sheet and the dangling-bond energy of the open edge, where growth occurs. These factors strongly favor the metallic (10,10) tube with C{sub 5v} symmetry and an open edge stabilized by triple bonds. 33 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. Bond selective chemistry beyond the adiabatic approximation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, L.J.

    1993-12-01

    One of the most important challenges in chemistry is to develop predictive ability for the branching between energetically allowed chemical reaction pathways. Such predictive capability, coupled with a fundamental understanding of the important molecular interactions, is essential to the development and utilization of new fuels and the design of efficient combustion processes. Existing transition state and exact quantum theories successfully predict the branching between available product channels for systems in which each reaction coordinate can be adequately described by different paths along a single adiabatic potential energy surface. In particular, unimolecular dissociation following thermal, infrared multiphoton, or overtone excitation in the ground state yields a branching between energetically allowed product channels which can be successfully predicted by the application of statistical theories, i.e. the weakest bond breaks. (The predictions are particularly good for competing reactions in which when there is no saddle point along the reaction coordinates, as in simple bond fission reactions.) The predicted lack of bond selectivity results from the assumption of rapid internal vibrational energy redistribution and the implicit use of a single adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface for the reaction. However, the adiabatic approximation is not valid for the reaction of a wide variety of energetic materials and organic fuels; coupling between the electronic states of the reacting species play a a key role in determining the selectivity of the chemical reactions induced. The work described below investigated the central role played by coupling between electronic states in polyatomic molecules in determining the selective branching between energetically allowed fragmentation pathways in two key systems.

  13. Special purpose revenue bonds: boon or bane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taussig, R.A.

    1985-02-21

    Utilities are looking with increasing interest at the advantages offered by industrial development bonds (IDBs), a financing tool made available to investor-owned utilities through provision of federal law. IDBs are not without problems, however, particularly if regulatory agencies account for them improperly in rate cases. Regulatory agencies should allow returns based on the funds-used rather than the total-funds approach or the tariffs will not compensate investors adequately. The author examines both the risks to be avoided and the benefits when using IDBs.

  14. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.; Malba, V.; Riddle, R.A.

    1997-08-05

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules is disclosed. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder. 10 figs.

  15. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Contolini, Robert J.; Malba, Vincent; Riddle, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

  16. Highly Fluorescent Group 13 Metal Complexes with Cyclic, Aromatic Hydroxamic Acid Ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seitz, Michael; Moore, Evan G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2008-02-11

    The neutral complexes of two ligands based on the 1-oxo-2-hydroxy-isoquinoline (1,2-HOIQO) motif with group 13 metals (Al, Ga, In) show bright blue-violet luminescence in organic solvents. The corresponding transition can be attributed to ligand-centered singlet emission, characterized by a small Stokes shifts of only a few nm combined with lifetimes in the range between 1-3 ns. The fluorescence efficiency is high, with quantum yields of up to 37% in benzene solution. The crystal structure of one of the indium(III) complexes (trigonal space group R-3, a = b = 13.0384(15) {angstrom}, c = 32.870(8) {angstrom}, ? = {beta} = 90{sup o}, {gamma} = 120{sup o}, V = 4839.3(14) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 6) shows a six-coordinate geometry around the indium center which is close to trigonal-prismatic, with a twist angle between the two trigonal faces of 20.7{sup o}. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations (Al and Ga: B3LYP/6-31G(d)); In: B3LYP/LANL2DZ of the fac and mer isomers with one of the two ligands indicate that there is no clear preference for either one of the isomeric forms of the metal complexes. In addition, the metal centers do not have a significant influence on the electronic structure, and as a consequence, on the predominant intraligand optical transitions.

  17. Isotopic Studies of O-O Bond Formation During Water Oxidation (SISGR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roth, Justine P.

    2015-03-03

    Isotopic Studies of O-O Bond Formation During Water Oxidation (SISGR) Research during the project period focused primarily on mechanisms of water oxidation by structurally defined transition metal complexes. Competitive oxygen isotope fractionation of water, mediated by oxidized precursors or reduced catalysts together with ceric, Ce(IV), ammonium nitrate in aqueous media, afforded oxygen-18 kinetic isotope effects (O-18 KIEs). Measurement, calculation, and interpretation of O-18 KIEs, described in the accompanying report has important ramifications for the production of electricity and solar hydrogen (as fuel). The catalysis division of BES has acknowledged that understanding mechanisms of transition metal catalyzed water oxidation has major ramifications, potentially leading to transformation of the global economy and natural environment in years to come. Yet, because of program restructuring and decreased availability of funds, it was recommended that the Solar Photochemistry sub-division of BES would be a more appropriate parent program for support of continued research.

  18. The Hardest Superconducting Metal Nitride

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Shanmin; Antonio, Daniel; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cornelius, Andrew L.; He, Duanwei; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-09-03

    Transitionmetal (TM) nitrides are a class of compounds with a wide range of properties and applications. Hard superconducting nitrides are of particular interest for electronic applications under working conditions such as coating and high stress (e.g., electromechanical systems). However, most of the known TM nitrides crystallize in the rocksalt structure, a structure that is unfavorable to resist shear strain, and they exhibit relatively low indentation hardness, typically in the range of 1020 GPa. Here, we report highpressure synthesis of hexagonal ?MoN and cubic ?MoN through an ionexchange reaction at 3.5 GPa. The final products are in the bulk form withmorecrystallite sizes of 50 80 ?m. Based on indentation testing on single crystals, hexagonal ?MoN exhibits excellent hardness of ~30 GPa, which is 30% higher than cubic ?MoN (~23 GPa) and is so far the hardest among the known metal nitrides. The hardness enhancement in hexagonal phase is attributed to extended covalently bonded MoN network than that in cubic phase. The measured superconducting transition temperatures for ?MoN and cubic ?MoN are 13.8 and 5.5 K, respectively, in good agreement with previous measurements.less

  19. The Hardest Superconducting Metal Nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shanmin; Antonio, Daniel; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cornelius, Andrew L.; He, Duanwei; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-09-03

    Transition–metal (TM) nitrides are a class of compounds with a wide range of properties and applications. Hard superconducting nitrides are of particular interest for electronic applications under working conditions such as coating and high stress (e.g., electromechanical systems). However, most of the known TM nitrides crystallize in the rock–salt structure, a structure that is unfavorable to resist shear strain, and they exhibit relatively low indentation hardness, typically in the range of 10–20 GPa. Here, we report high–pressure synthesis of hexagonal δ–MoN and cubic γ–MoN through an ion–exchange reaction at 3.5 GPa. The final products are in the bulk form with crystallite sizes of 50 – 80 μm. Based on indentation testing on single crystals, hexagonal δ–MoN exhibits excellent hardness of ~30 GPa, which is 30% higher than cubic γ–MoN (~23 GPa) and is so far the hardest among the known metal nitrides. The hardness enhancement in hexagonal phase is attributed to extended covalently bonded Mo–N network than that in cubic phase. The measured superconducting transition temperatures for δ–MoN and cubic γ–MoN are 13.8 and 5.5 K, respectively, in good agreement with previous measurements.

  20. The Hardest Superconducting Metal Nitride

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Shanmin; Antonio, Daniel; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cornelius, Andrew L.; He, Duanwei; Zhao, Yusheng

    2015-09-03

    Transition–metal (TM) nitrides are a class of compounds with a wide range of properties and applications. Hard superconducting nitrides are of particular interest for electronic applications under working conditions such as coating and high stress (e.g., electromechanical systems). However, most of the known TM nitrides crystallize in the rock–salt structure, a structure that is unfavorable to resist shear strain, and they exhibit relatively low indentation hardness, typically in the range of 10–20 GPa. Here, we report high–pressure synthesis of hexagonal δ–MoN and cubic γ–MoN through an ion–exchange reaction at 3.5 GPa. The final products are in the bulk form withmore » crystallite sizes of 50 – 80 μm. Based on indentation testing on single crystals, hexagonal δ–MoN exhibits excellent hardness of ~30 GPa, which is 30% higher than cubic γ–MoN (~23 GPa) and is so far the hardest among the known metal nitrides. The hardness enhancement in hexagonal phase is attributed to extended covalently bonded Mo–N network than that in cubic phase. The measured superconducting transition temperatures for δ–MoN and cubic γ–MoN are 13.8 and 5.5 K, respectively, in good agreement with previous measurements.« less

  1. Solving the Mystery of the Billion-Dollar Bond, Double Bond

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plant fatty acids are used in a vast range of products, from polymers to plastics and soaps to industrial feed stocks -- making up an estimated $150 billion market annually. A new discovery of inserting double bonds in the fatty acids could show the way to the designer production of plant fatty acids, and, in turn, to new industrial applications and new products.

  2. METAL PRODUCTION AND CASTING

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magel, T.T.

    1958-03-01

    This patent covers a method and apparatus for collecting the molten metal produced by high temperature metal salt reduction. It consists essentially of subjecting the reaction vessel to centrifugal force in order to force the liberatcd molten metal into a coherent molten mass, and allowing it to solidify there. The apparatus is particularly suitable for use with small quantities of rare metals.

  3. Heavy metal biosensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hillson, Nathan J; Shapiro, Lucille; Hu, Ping; Andersen, Gary L

    2014-04-15

    Compositions and methods are provided for detection of certain heavy metals using bacterial whole cell biosensors.

  4. Ceramic to metal seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snow, Gary S.; Wilcox, Paul D.

    1976-01-01

    Providing a high strength, hermetic ceramic to metal seal by essentially heating a wire-like metal gasket and a ceramic member, which have been chemically cleaned, while simultaneously deforming from about 50 to 95 percent the metal gasket against the ceramic member at a temperature of about 30 to 75 percent of the melting temperature of the metal gasket.

  5. Ceramic-metal composite article and joining method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Shinhoo; Selverian, John H.; Kim, Hans J.; Dunn, Edmund M.; Kim, Kyung S.

    1992-01-01

    A ceramic-metal article including a ceramic rod, a metal rod, and a braze joining the ceramic and metal rods at a braze area of a coaxial bore in the metal rod. The bore gradually decreases in diameter, having an inward seat area sized for close sliding fit about the ceramic, a larger brazing area near the joint end, and a void area intermediate the braze and seat areas. The ceramic is seated without brazing in the bore seat area. The side wall between the brazing area and the metal outer surface is about 0.030-0.080 inch. The braze includes an inner braze layer, an outer braze layer, and an interlayer about 0.030-0.090 inch thick. A shoulder between the brazing and void areas supports the interlayer during bonding while preventing bonding between the void area and the ceramic member, leaving a void space between the void area and the ceramic member. A venting orifice extends generally radially through the metal member from the outer surface to the void space. The braze layers are palladium, platinum, gold, silver, copper, nickel, indium, chromium, molybdenum, niobium, iron, aluminum, or alloys thereof. Preferred is a gold-palladium-nickel brazing alloy. The interlayer is nickel, molybdenum, copper, tantalum, tungsten, niobium, aluminum, cobalt, iron, or an alloy thereof.

  6. Ceramic-metal composite article and joining method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, S.; Selverian, J.H.; Kim, H.J.; Dunn, E.M.; Kim, K.S.

    1992-04-28

    A ceramic-metal article including a ceramic rod, a metal rod, and a braze joining the ceramic and metal rods at a braze area of a coaxial bore in the metal rod is described. The bore gradually decreases in diameter, having an inward seat area sized for close sliding fit about the ceramic, a larger brazing area near the joint end, and a void area intermediate the braze and seat areas. The ceramic is seated without brazing in the bore seat area. The side wall between the brazing area and the metal outer surface is about 0.030-0.080 inch. The braze includes an inner braze layer, an outer braze layer, and an interlayer about 0.030-0.090 inch thick. A shoulder between the brazing and void areas supports the interlayer during bonding while preventing bonding between the void area and the ceramic member, leaving a void space between the void area and the ceramic member. A venting orifice extends generally radially through the metal member from the outer surface to the void space. The braze layers are palladium, platinum, gold, silver, copper, nickel, indium, chromium, molybdenum, niobium, iron, aluminum, or alloys thereof. Preferred is a gold-palladium-nickel brazing alloy. The interlayer is nickel, molybdenum, copper, tantalum, tungsten, niobium, aluminum, cobalt, iron, or an alloy thereof. 4 figs.

  7. Amorphous metal composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrne, Martin A. (Troy, NY); Lupinski, John H. (Scotia, NY)

    1984-01-01

    An improved amorphous metal composite and process of making the composite. The amorphous metal composite comprises amorphous metal (e.g. iron) and a low molecular weight thermosetting polymer binder. The process comprises placing an amorphous metal in particulate form and a thermosetting polymer binder powder into a container, mixing these materials, and applying heat and pressure to convert the mixture into an amorphous metal composite.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOLITHIC FUEL FOIL PROPERTIES AND BOND STRENGTH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D E Burkes; D D Keiser; D M Wachs; J S Larson; M D Chapple

    2007-03-01

    Understanding fuel foil mechanical properties, and fuel / cladding bond quality and strength in monolithic plates is an important area of investigation and quantification. Specifically, what constitutes an acceptable monolithic fuel – cladding bond, how are the properties of the bond measured and determined, and what is the impact of fabrication process or change in parameters on the level of bonding? Currently, non-bond areas are quantified employing ultrasonic determinations that are challenging to interpret and understand in terms of irradiation impact. Thus, determining mechanical properties of the fuel foil and what constitutes fuel / cladding non-bonds is essential to successful qualification of monolithic fuel plates. Capabilities and tests related to determination of these properties have been implemented at the INL and are discussed, along with preliminary results.

  9. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  10. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  11. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  12. Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (CREBs) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (CREBs) Clean Renewable Energy Bonds (CREBs) < Back Eligibility Local Government Schools State Government Tribal Government Savings Category Geothermal Electric Solar Thermal Electric Solar Photovoltaics Wind (All) Biomass Hydroelectric Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Gas Tidal Wave Ocean Thermal Anaerobic Digestion Program Info Sector Name Federal Administrator U.S. Internal Revenue Service Website http://www.irs.gov/Tax-Exempt-Bonds State Federal Program Type

  13. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional wisdom has it that proton transfer from one molecule to another can only happen via

  14. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional wisdom has it that proton transfer from one molecule to another can only happen via

  15. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional wisdom has it that proton transfer from one molecule to another can only happen via

  16. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional wisdom has it that proton transfer from one molecule to another can only happen via

  17. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  18. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  19. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  20. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived

  1. Tax-Exempt Bond Financing for Nonprofit Organizations and Industries |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Tax-Exempt Bond Financing for Nonprofit Organizations and Industries Tax-Exempt Bond Financing for Nonprofit Organizations and Industries State-chartered bond authorities exist in every state. They include healthcare facility authorities, housing finance agencies, higher education facility authorities, and industrial development finance authorities. For those authorities, eligible projects include energy efficiency retrofits for existing facilities owned by eligible

  2. Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds for Public Building Upgrades:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing Energy Bills in the City of Philadelphia | Department of Energy Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds for Public Building Upgrades: Reducing Energy Bills in the City of Philadelphia Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds for Public Building Upgrades: Reducing Energy Bills in the City of Philadelphia Summarizes how the City of Philadelphia leveraged $6.25 million in qualified energy conservation bonds to upgrade the energy efficiency of city buildings. Author: Lawrence Berkeley

  3. Production of sintered porous metal fluoride pellets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, L.W.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1973-12-25

    Porous pellets characterized by a moderately reactive crust and a softer core of higher reactivity are produced by forming agglomerates containing a metal fluoride powder and a selected amount ofwater. The metal fluoride is selected to be sinterable and essentially non-reactive with gaseous fluorinating agents. The agglomerates are contacted with a gaseous fluorinating agent under controlled conditions whereby the heat generated by localized reaction of the agent and water is limited to values effccting bonding by localized sintering. Porous pellets composed of cryolite (Na/sub 3/AlF/sub 6/) can be used to selectively remove trace quantities of niobium pentafluoride from a feed gas consisting predominantly of uranium hexafluoride. (Official Gazette)

  4. Metal fuel test program in the FFTF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitner, A.L.; Baker, R.B. )

    1992-01-01

    Aggressive irradiation testing of metal-fuel assemblies containing long fuel pins has been successfully conducted in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and no cladding breaches have been observed up to burnups approaching 150 MWd/kg M. In-reactor measurements of performance indicate good behavior. Postirradiation examinations (under way and future) will characterize fuel and sodium bond performance, cladding strain behavior, fuel/cladding mechanical interaction, and other irradiation performance attributes. With continued FFTF operation, ultimate burnup capabilities and the breach mode in long metal-fuel pins will be determined. These results support the design development of the IFR fuel system, the design of the ALMR, and provide a potential advanced driver fuel design for the FFTF.

  5. Wafer bonded epitaxial templates for silicon heterostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atwater, Jr., Harry A.; Zahler, James M.; Morral, Anna Fontcubera I

    2008-03-11

    A heterostructure device layer is epitaxially grown on a virtual substrate, such as an InP/InGaAs/InP double heterostructure. A device substrate and a handle substrate form the virtual substrate. The device substrate is bonded to the handle substrate and is composed of a material suitable for fabrication of optoelectronic devices. The handle substrate is composed of a material suitable for providing mechanical support. The mechanical strength of the device and handle substrates is improved and the device substrate is thinned to leave a single-crystal film on the virtual substrate such as by exfoliation of a device film from the device substrate. An upper portion of the device film exfoliated from the device substrate is removed to provide a smoother and less defect prone surface for an optoelectronic device. A heterostructure is epitaxially grown on the smoothed surface in which an optoelectronic device may be fabricated.

  6. Microsoft Word - NMN292==CARES--2003 Refunding Bonds Official...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    service to eligible customers and to undertake certain other programs, such as fish and wildlife protection, mitigation and enhancement. The 2003 Bonds are special limited...

  7. Municipal Bond - Power Purchase Agreement Model Continues to...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    power purchase agreement model to provide low-cost solar energy. Author: National Renewable Energy Laboratory Municipal Bond - Power Purchase Agreement Model Continues to Provide...

  8. Graphene Oxide Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation: The Importance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Graphene Oxide Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation: The Importance Oxygen Functional Groups for Biaryl Construction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Graphene Oxide Catalyzed C-...

  9. Pressure-Induced Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Iron Oxyhydroxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Pressure-Induced Hydrogen Bond Symmetrization in Iron Oxyhydroxide ... Publication Date: 2014-07-21 OSTI Identifier: 1123936 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  10. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen ...

  11. Computational catalyst screening: Scaling, bond-order and catalysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Computational catalyst screening: Scaling, bond-order and catalysis This content will become publicly available on December 29, 2017 Prev Next Title: Computational catalyst ...

  12. Direct Determination of the Chemical Bonding of Individual Impurities...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: Direct Determination of the Chemical Bonding of Individual Impurities in Graphene Prev Next Title: Direct Determination of the Chemical ...

  13. Qualified Energy Conservation Bond (QECB) Update: New Guidance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bonds for Public Building Upgrades: Reducing Energy Bills in the City of Philadelphia Aggregating QECB Allocations and Using QECBs to Support the Private Sector: A Case ...

  14. Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds for Public Building...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Bills in the City of Philadelphia Using Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds for Public Building Upgrades: Reducing Energy Bills in the City of Philadelphia Summarizes ...

  15. New Bond Helps Toledo, Ohio, Expand Financing Pool | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The logo for Better Buildings Northwest Ohio, Toleco Lucas County Port Authority Program. ... assessments-has received a second bond from the Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority. ...

  16. Ligand Bridging-Angle-Driven Assembly of Molecular Architectures Based on Quadruply Bonded Mo-Mo Dimers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jian-Rong; Yakovenko, Andrey A; Lu, Weigang; Timmons, Daren J; Zhuang, Wenjuan; Yuan, Daqiang; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2010-12-15

    A systematic exploration of the assembly of Mo?(O?C-)?-based metalorganic molecular architectures structurally controlled by the bridging angles of rigid organic linkers has been performed. Twelve bridging dicarboxylate ligands were designed to be of different sizes with bridging angles of 0, 60, 90, and 120 while incorporating a variety of nonbridging functional groups, and these ligands were used as linkers. These dicarboxylate linkers assemble with quadruply bonded MoMo clusters acting as nodes to give 13 molecular architectures, termed metalorganic polygons/polyhedra with metal cluster node arrangements of a linear shape, triangle, octahedron, and cuboctahedron/anti-cuboctahedron. The syntheses of these complexes have been optimized and their structures determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The results have shown that the shape and size of the resulting molecular architecture can be controlled by tuning the bridging angle and size of the linker, respectively. Functionalization of the linker can adjust the solubility of the ensuing molecular assembly but has little or no effect on the geometry of the product. Preliminary gas adsorption, spectroscopic, and electrochemical properties of selected members were also studied. The present work is trying to enrich metal-containing supramolecular chemistry through the inclusion of well-characterized quadruply bonded MoMo units into the structures, which can widen the prospect of additional electronic functionality, thereby leading to novel properties.

  17. Transition metals on the (0001) surface of graphite: Fundamental aspects of adsorption, diffusion, and morphology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appy, David [Ames Laboratory; Lei, Huaping [Ames Laboratory; Wang, Cai-Zhuang [Ames Laboratory; Tringides, Michael C [Ames Laboratory; Liu, Da-Jiang [Ames Laboratory; Evans, James W [Ames Laboratory; Thiel, Patricia A [Ames Laboratory

    2014-08-01

    In this article, we review basic information about the interaction of transition metal atoms with the (0 0 0 1) surface of graphite, especially fundamental phenomena related to growth. Those phenomena involve adatom-surface bonding, diffusion, morphology of metal clusters, interactions with steps and sputter-induced defects, condensation, and desorption. General traits emerge which have not been summarized previously. Some of these features are rather surprising when compared with metal-on-metal adsorption and growth. Opportunities for future work are pointed out.

  18. Method of bonding single crystal quartz by field-assisted bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curlee, Richard M.; Tuthill, Clinton D.; Watkins, Randall D.

    1991-01-01

    The method of producing a hermetic stable structural bond between quartz crystals includes providing first and second quartz crystals and depositing thin films of borosilicate glass and silicon on portions of the first and second crystals, respectively. The portions of the first and second crystals are then juxtaposed in a surface contact relationship and heated to a temperature for a period sufficient to cause the glass and silicon films to become electrically conductive. An electrical potential is then applied across the first and second crystals for creating an electrostatic field between the adjoining surfaces and causing the juxtaposed portions to be attracted into an intimate contact and form a bond for joining the adjoining surfaces of the crystals.

  19. Method of bonding single crystal quartz by field-assisted bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curlee, R.M.; Tuthill, C.D.; Watkins, R.D.

    1991-04-23

    The method of producing a hermetic stable structural bond between quartz crystals includes providing first and second quartz crystals and depositing thin films of borosilicate glass and silicon on portions of the first and second crystals, respectively. The portions of the first and second crystals are then juxtaposed in a surface contact relationship and heated to a temperature for a period sufficient to cause the glass and silicon films to become electrically conductive. An electrical potential is then applied across the first and second crystals for creating an electrostatic field between the adjoining surfaces and causing the juxtaposed portions to be attracted into an intimate contact and form a bond for joining the adjoining surfaces of the crystals. 2 figures.

  20. Metal halogen electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, F.M.

    1986-06-03

    An electrochemical cell is described having a metal anode selected from the group consisting of zinc and cadmium; a bromine cathode; and, an aqueous electrolyte containing a metal bromide, the metal having the same metal as the metal of the anode, the improvement comprising: a bromine complexing agent in the aqueous metal bromide electrolyte consisting solely of a tetraorgano substituted ammonium salt, which salt is soluble of water and forms and substantially water immiscible liquid bromine complex at temperatures in the range of about 10/sup 0/C. to about 60/sup 0/C. and wherein the tetraorgano substituted ammonium salt is selected from asymmetric quaternary ammonium compounds.

  1. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiorucci, Louis C. (Hamden, CT); Morgan, Michael J. (Guilford, CT)

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  2. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  3. Bond-bending isomerism of Au2I3-: Competition between covalent bonding and aurophilicity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Wan -Lu; Liu, Hong -Tao; Jian, Tian; Lopez, Gary V.; Piazza, Zachary A.; Huang, Dao -Ling; Chen, Teng -Teng; Su, Jing; Yang, Ping; Chen, Xin; et al

    2015-10-13

    We report a joint photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical investigation of the gaseous Au2I3– cluster, which is found to exhibit two types of isomers due to competition between Au–I covalent bonding and Au–Au aurophilic interactions. The covalent bonding favors a bent IAuIAuI– structure with an obtuse Au–I–Au angle (100.7°), while aurophilic interactions pull the two Au atoms much closer, leading to an acutely bent structure (72.0°) with an Au–Au distance of 3.08 Å. The two isomers are separated by a small barrier and are nearly degenerate with the obtuse isomer being slightly more stable. At low temperature, only the obtuse isomermore » is observed; distinct experimental evidence is observed for the co-existence of a combination of isomers with both acute and obtuse bending angles at room temperature. As a result, the two bond-bending isomers of Au2I3– reveal a unique example of one molecule being able to oscillate between different structures as a result of two competing chemical forces.« less

  4. Ternary metal-rich sulfide with a layered structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Franzen, Hugo F.; Yao, Xiaoqiang

    1993-08-17

    A ternary Nb-Ta-S compound is provided having the atomic formula, Nb.sub.1.72 Ta.sub.3.28 S.sub.2, and exhibiting a layered structure in the sequence S-M3-M2-M1-M2-M3-S wherein S represents sulfur layers and M1, M2, and M3 represent Nb/Ta mixed metal layers. This sequence generates seven sheets stacked along the [001] direction of an approximate body centered cubic crystal structure with relatively weak sulfur-to-sulfur van der Waals type interactions between adjacent sulfur sheets and metal-to-metal bonding within and between adjacent mixed metal sheets.

  5. High surface area graphene-supported metal chalcogenide assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kuntz, Joshua; Orme, Christine A.

    2016-04-19

    A composition comprising at least one graphene-supported assembly, which comprises a three-dimensional network of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds, and at least one metal chalcogenide compound disposed on said graphene sheets, wherein the chalcogen of said metal chalcogenide compound is selected from S, Se and Te. Also disclosed are methods for making and using the graphene-supported assembly, including graphene-supported MoS.sub.2. Monoliths with high surface area and conductivity can be achieved. Lower operating temperatures in some applications can be achieved. Pore size and volume can be tuned.

  6. Growth morphology and properties of metals on graphene

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Xiaojie; Han, Yong; Evans, James W.; Engstfeld, Albert K.; Behm, R. Juergen; Tringides, Michael C.; Hupalo, Myron; Lin, Hai -Qing; Huang, Li; Ho, Kai -Ming; et al

    2015-12-01

    Graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite, has been the focus of recent intensive studies due to its novel electronic and structural properties. With this study, metals grown on graphene also have been of interest because of their potential use as metal contacts in graphene devices, for spintronics applications, and for catalysis. All of these applications require good understanding and control of the metal growth morphology, which in part reflects the strength of the metal–graphene bond. The interaction between graphene and metal is sufficiently strong to modify the electronic structure of graphene is also of great importance. We will discussmore » recent experimental and computational studies related to deposition of metals on graphene supported on various substrates (SiC, SiO2, and hexagonal close-packed metal surfaces). Of specific interest are the metal–graphene interactions (adsorption energies and diffusion barriers of metal adatoms), and the crystal structures and thermal stability of the metal nanoclusters.« less

  7. Consequences of Metal-Oxide Interconversion for C-H Bond Activation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    states and the formation of tight three-center (HC***Pd***H) transition states. ... *****OH) that is looser and higher inmore enthalpy than on bare Pd surfaces. ...

  8. Metal to semiconductor transition in metallic transition metal dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yan; Kang, Jun; Li, Jingbo; Tongay, Sefaattin; Wu, Junqiao; Yue, Qu

    2013-11-07

    We report on tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of metallic transition metal dichalcogenides (mTMDCs) by 2D to 1D size confinement. The stability of the mTMDC monolayers and nanoribbons is demonstrated by the larger binding energy compared to the experimentally available semiconducting TMDCs. The 2D MX{sub 2} (M?=?Nb, Ta; X?=?S, Se) monolayers are non-ferromagnetic metals and mechanically softer compared to their semiconducting TMDCs counterparts. Interestingly, mTMDCs undergo metal-to-semiconductor transition when the ribbon width approaches to ?13? and ?7? for zigzag and armchair edge terminations, respectively; then these ribbons convert back to metal when the ribbon widths further decrease. Zigzag terminated nanoribbons are ferromagnetic semiconductors, and their magnetic properties can also be tuned by hydrogen edge passivation, whereas the armchair nanoribbons are non-ferromagnetic semiconductors. Our results display that the mTMDCs offer a broad range of physical properties spanning from metallic to semiconducting and non-ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic that is ideal for applications where stable narrow bandgap semiconductors with different magnetic properties are desired.

  9. Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P; Toops, Todd J; Tortorelli, Peter F; More, Karren Leslie; Meyer III, Harry M; Pihl, Josh A; Wang, Heli; Turner, John; Garzon, Fernando; Rockward, Tommy; Gervasio, Don; Rakowski, Jim; EstevezGenCell, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Effort devoted to scale up and demonstration of thin stamped metallic bipolar plates. Overall goal is to demonstrate potential for metallic bipolar plates to meet 5000 h automotive durability goal at a cost of less than $5/kW.

  10. Metal phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E.; Lyons, James E.

    1994-01-01

    As a new composition of matter, alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

  11. Metal phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

    1994-10-11

    A new composition of matter is described which is an alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

  12. MECS 2006- Fabricated Metals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Fabricated Metals (NAICS 332) Sector with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

  13. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  14. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, Paul O.; Kennedy, Cheryl E.; Jorgensen, Gary J.; Shinton, Yvonne D.; Goggin, Rita M.

    1994-01-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

  15. Thermal transport properties of metal/MoS{sub 2} interfaces from first principles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Rui; Kong, Byoung Don; Kim, Ki Wook, E-mail: kwk@ncsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7911 (United States)

    2014-07-21

    Thermal transport properties at the metal/MoS{sub 2} interfaces are analyzed by using an atomistic phonon transport model based on the Landauer formalism and first-principles calculations. The considered structures include chemisorbed Sc(0001)/MoS{sub 2} and Ru(0001)/MoS{sub 2}, physisorbed Au(111)/MoS{sub 2}, as well as Pd(111)/MoS{sub 2} with intermediate characteristics. Calculated results illustrate a distinctive dependence of thermal transfer on the details of interfacial microstructures. More specifically, the chemisorbed case with a stronger bonding exhibits a generally smaller interfacial thermal resistance than the physisorbed. Comparison between metal/MoS{sub 2} and metal/graphene systems suggests that metal/MoS{sub 2} is significantly more resistive. Further examination of lattice dynamics identifies the presence of multiple distinct atomic planes and bonding patterns at the interface as the key origins of the observed large thermal resistance.

  16. Rhodium mediated bond activation: from synthesis to catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Hung-An

    2012-03-06

    Recently, our lab has developed monoanionic tridentate ligand, To{sup R}, showing the corresponding coordination chemistry and catalyst reactivity of magnesium, zirconium, zinc and iridium complexes. This thesis details synthetic chemistry, structural study and catalytic reactivity of the To{sup R}-supported rhodium compounds. Tl[To{sup R}] has been proved to be a superior ligand transfer agent for synthesizing rhodium complexes. The salt metathesis route of Tl[To{sup M}] with [Rh({mu}-Cl)(CO)]{sub 2} and [Rh({mu}- Cl)(COE)]{sub 2} gives To{sup M}Rh(CO){sub 2} (2.2) and To{sup M}RhH({eta}{sup 3}-C{sub 8}H{sub 13}) (3.1) respectively while Tl[To{sup P}] with [Rh({mu}-Cl)(CO)]{sub 2} affords To{sup P}Rh(CO){sub 2} (2.3). 2.2 reacts with both strong and weak electrophiles, resulting in the oxazoline N-attacked and the metal center-attacked compounds correspondingly. Using one of the metal center-attacked electrophiles, 2.3 was demonstrated to give high diastereoselectivity. Parallel to COE allylic C-H activation complex 3.1, the propene and allylbenzene allylic C-H activation products have also been synthesized. The subsequent functionalization attempts have been examined by treating with Brnsted acids, Lewis acids, electrophiles, nucleophiles, 1,3-dipolar reagents and reagents containing multiple bonds able to be inserted. Various related complexes have been obtained under these conditions, in which one of the azide insertion compounds reductively eliminates to give an allylic functionalization product stoichiometrically. 3.1 reacts with various primary alcohols to give the decarbonylation dihydride complex To{sup M}Rh(H){sub 2}CO (4.1). 4.1 shows catalytic reactivity for primary alcohol decarbonylation under a photolytic condition. Meanwhile, 2.2 has been found to be more reactive than 4.1 for catalytic alcohol decarbonylation under the same condition. Various complexes and primary alcohols have been investigated as well. The proposed mechanism is based on the

  17. Differentiation of O-H and C-H Bond Scission Mechanisms of Ethylene Glycol on Pt and Ni/Pt Using Theory and Isotopic Labeling Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salciccioli, Michael [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation (CCEI) and Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST); Yu, Weiting [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation (CCEI) and Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST); Barteau, Mark A. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation (CCEI) and Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST); Chen, Jingguang G. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation (CCEI) and Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST); Vlachos, Dionisios G. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation (CCEI) and Center for Catalytic Science and Technology (CCST)

    2011-05-25

    Understanding and controlling bond-breaking sequences of oxygenates on transition metal catalysts can greatly impact the utilization of biomass feedstocks for fuels and chemicals. The decomposition of ethylene glycol, as the simplest representative of biomass-derived polyols, was studied via density functional theory (DFT) calculations to identify the differences in reaction pathways between Pt and the more active Ni/Pt bimetallic catalyst. Comparison of the computed transition states indicated three potentially feasible paths from ethylene glycol to C1 oxygenated adsorbates on Pt. While not important on Pt, the pathway to 1,2-dioxyethylene (OCH?CH?O) is favored energetically on the Ni/Pt catalyst. Temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) experiments were conducted with deuterated ethylene glycols for comparison with DFT results. These experiments confirmed that decomposition of ethylene glycol on Pt proceeds via initial OH bond cleavage, followed by CH and the second OH bond cleavages, whereas on the Ni/Pt surface, both OH bonds are cleaved initially. The results are consistent with vibrational spectra and indicate that tuning of the catalyst surface can selectively control bond breaking. Finally, the significant mechanistic differences in decomposition of polyols compared to that of monoalcohols and hydrocarbons serve to identify general trends in bond scission sequences.

  18. Molecular models of site-isolated cobalt, rhodium, and iridium catalysts supported on zeolites: Ligand bond dissociation energies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Mingyang; Serna, Pedro; Lu, Jing; Gates, Bruce C.; Dixon, David A.

    2015-09-28

    The chemistry of zeolite-supported site-isolated cobalt, rhodium, and iridium complexes that are essentially molecular was investigated with density functional theory (DFT) and the results compared with experimentally determined spectra characterizing rhodium and iridium species formed by the reactions of Rh(C2H4)2(acac) and Ir(C2H4)2(acac) (acac = acetylacetonate) with acidic zeolites such as dealuminated HY zeolite. The experimental results characterize ligand exchange reactions and catalytic reactions of adsorbed ligands, including olefin hydrogenation and dimerization. Two molecular models were used to characterize various binding sites of the metal complexes in the zeolites, and the agreement between experimental and calculated infrared frequencies and metal-ligand distancesmore » determined by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy was generally very good. The calculated structures and energies indicate a metal-support-oxygen (M(I)-O) coordination number of two for most of the supported complexes and a value of three when the ligands include the radicals C2H5 or H. The results characterizing various isomers of the supported metal complexes incorporating hydrocarbon ligands indicate that some carbene and carbyne ligands could form. Ligand bond dissociation energies (LDEs) are reported to explain the observed reactivity trends. The experimental observations of a stronger M-CO bond than M-(C2H4) bond for both Ir and Rh match the calculated LDEs, which show that the single-ligand LDEs of the mono and dual-ligand complexes for CO are similar to 12 and similar to 15 kcal/mol higher in energy (when the metal is Rh) and similar to 17 and similar to 20 kcal/mol higher (when the metal is Ir) than the single-ligand LDEs of the mono and dual ligand complexes for C2H4, respectively. The results provide a foundation for the prediction of the catalytic properties of numerous supported metal complexes, as summarized in detail here.« less

  19. Electrolytic purification of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowman, Kenneth A.

    1980-01-01

    A method of electrolytically separating metal from impurities comprises providing the metal and impurities in a molten state in a container having a porous membrane therein, the membrane having a thickness in the range of about 0.01 to 0.1 inch, being capable of containing the molten metal in the container, and being permeable by a molten electrolyte. The metal is electrolytically transferred through the membrane to a cathode in the presence of the electrolyte for purposes of separating or removing impurities from the metal.

  20. Uptake and metabolism of L-2-oxo-(35S)thiazolidine-4-carboxylate by rat cells is slower than that of L-(35S)cysteine or L-(35S)methionine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coloso, R.M.; Hirschberger, L.L.; Stipanuk, M.H. )

    1991-09-01

    The uptake and metabolism of L-2-oxo-(35S)thiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) was compared with that of L-(35S)cysteine and L-(35S)methionine in studies with freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, renal cortical tubules and enterocytes. All three 35S-labeled substrates were metabolized to glutathione, inorganic sulfur and taurine by hepatocytes and to inorganic sulfur by renal tubules and enterocytes. The rate of metabolite production from OTC was always less than 30% of that from cysteine or methionine. The transport rate for uptake of (35S)OTC by hepatocytes was less than that observed for uptake of (35S)cysteine or (35S)methionine. The capacity of rat hepatocytes, renal cortical tubules and enterocytes to take up and metabolize OTC is substantially lower than that for uptake and metabolism of cysteine or its normal intracellular precursor, methionine.

  1. Vacuum pull down method for an enhanced bonding process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    1999-01-01

    A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

  2. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Royer, L.T.

    1987-03-20

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  3. Pollution-abatement revenue bonds as a source of finance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, J.F.; Christofi, P.

    1980-01-31

    The use of pollution-abatement revenue bonds, or environmental improvement bonds, is a comparatively new development in electric-utility financing. It has proven to be a convenient and relatively low-cost source of funds for certain kinds of required capital investment. The authors conducted a study of the extent to which, and manner in which, these instruments have been utilized by utilities, examining and analyzing the contents of 363 pollution-abatement revenue bond issues that appeared from 1971 to 1978. The report on their findings and on the benefits of this form of financing for utilities is presented.

  4. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print Wednesday, 28 September 2005 00:00 We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms

  5. Wire bond vibration of forward pixel tracking detector of CMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atac, M.; Gobbi, B.; Kwan, S.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Spencer, E.; Sellberg, G.; Pavlicek, V.; /Fermilab

    2006-10-01

    Wire bonds of the Forward Pixel (FPix) tracking detectors are oriented in the direction that maximizes Lorentz Forces relative to the 4 Tesla field of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Detector's magnet. The CMS Experiment is under construction at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. We were concerned about Lorentz Force oscillating the wires at their fundamental frequencies and possibly fracturing or breaking them at their heels, as happened with the CDF wire bonds. This paper reports a study to understand what conditions break such bonds.

  6. Hydrogen-Bond Networks: Strengths of Different Types of Hydrogen Bonds and An Alternative to the Low Barrier Hydrogen-Bond Proposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shokri, Alireza; Wang, Yanping; O'Doherty, George A.; Wang, Xue B.; Kass, Steven R.

    2013-11-27

    We report quantifying the strengths of different types of hydrogen bonds in hydrogen bond networks (HBNs) via measurement of the adiabatic electron detachment energy of the conjugate base of a small covalent polyol model compound (i.e., (HOCH2CH2CH(OH)CH2)2CHOH) in the gas phase and the pKa of the corresponding acid in DMSO. The latter result reveals that the hydrogen bonds to the charged center and those that are one solvation shell further away (i.e., primary and secondary) provide 5.3 and 2.5 pKa units of stabilization per hydrogen bond in DMSO. Computations indicate that these energies increase to 8.4 and 3.9 pKa units in benzene and that the total stabilizations are 16 (DMSO) and 25 (benzene) pKa units. Calculations on a larger linear heptaol (i.e., (HOCH2CH2CH(OH)CH2CH(OH)CH2)2CHOH) reveal that the terminal hydroxyl groups each contribute 0.6 pKa units of stabilization in DMSO and 1.1 pKa units in benzene. All of these results taken together indicate that the presence of a charged center can provide a powerful energetic driving force for enzyme catalysis and conformational changes such as in protein folding due to multiple hydrogen bonds in a HBN.

  7. High voltage photo-switch package module having encapsulation with profiled metallized concavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, James S; Sanders, David M; Hawkins, Steven A; Sampayan, Stephen A

    2015-05-05

    A photo-conductive switch package module having a photo-conductive substrate or wafer with opposing electrode-interface surfaces metalized with first metallic layers formed thereon, and encapsulated with a dielectric encapsulation material such as for example epoxy. The first metallic layers are exposed through the encapsulation via encapsulation concavities which have a known contour profile, such as a Rogowski edge profile. Second metallic layers are then formed to line the concavities and come in contact with the first metal layer, to form profiled and metalized encapsulation concavities which mitigate enhancement points at the edges of electrodes matingly seated in the concavities. One or more optical waveguides may also be bonded to the substrate for coupling light into the photo-conductive wafer, with the encapsulation also encapsulating the waveguides.

  8. FORMING PROTECTIVE FILMS ON METAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gurinsky, D.H.; Kammerer, O.F.; Sadofsky, J.; Weeks, J.R.

    1958-12-16

    Methods are described of inhibiting the corrosion of ferrous metal by contact with heavy liquid metals such as bismuth and gallium at temperatures above 500 icient laborato C generally by bringing nltrogen and either the metal zirconium, hafnium, or titanium into reactlve contact with the ferrous metal to form a thin adherent layer of the nitride of the metal and thereafter maintaining a fractional percentage of the metal absorbed in the heavy liquid metal in contact with the ferrous metal container. The general purpose for uslng such high boiling liquid metals in ferrous contalners would be as heat transfer agents in liquid-metal-fueled nuclear reactors.

  9. Mercury stabilization in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagh, A. S.; Singh, D.; Jeong, S. Y.

    2000-04-04

    Mercury stabilization and solidification is a significant challenge for conventional stabilization technologies. This is because of the stringent regulatory limits on leaching of its stabilized products. In a conventional cement stabilization process, Hg is converted at high pH to its hydroxide, which is not a very insoluble compound; hence the preferred route for Hg sulfidation to convert it into insoluble cinnabar (HgS). Unfortunately, efficient formation of this compound is pH-dependent. At a high pH, one obtains a more soluble Hg sulfate, in a very low pH range, insufficient immobilization occurs because of the escape of hydrogen sulfide, while efficient formation of HgS occurs only in a moderately acidic region. Thus, the pH range of 4 to 8 is where stabilization with Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics (CBPC) is carried out. This paper discusses the authors experience on bench-scale stabilization of various US Department of Energy (DOE) waste streams containing Hg in the CBPC process. This process was developed to treat DOE's mixed waste streams. It is a room-temperature-setting process based on an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide and monopotassium phosphate solution that forms a dense ceramic within hours. For Hg stabilization, addition of a small amount (< 1 wt.%) of Na{sub 2}S or K{sub 2}S is sufficient in the binder composition. Here the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results on CBPC waste forms of surrogate waste streams representing secondary Hg containing wastes such as combustion residues and Delphi DETOX{trademark} residues are presented. The results show that although the current limit on leaching of Hg is 0.2 mg/L, the results from the CBPC waste forms are at least one order lower than this stringent limit. Encouraged by these results on surrogate wastes, they treated actual low-level Hg-containing mixed waste from their facility at Idaho. TCLP results on this waste are presented here. The efficient stabilization in

  10. Bonded Bracket Assmebly for Frameless Solar Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, Todd; Jackson, Nick; Dupont, Luc; Moser, Jeff

    2013-01-30

    that would be bonded to frameless PV modules for commercial rooftop installations; 2) The development of a composite pultruded rail to replace traditional racking materials; 3) In partnership with a roofing company, pilot the certification of a commercial roof to be solar panel compliant, eliminating the need for structural analysis and government oversight resulting in significantly decreased permitting costs; and 4) Reduce the sum of all cost impacts in topic #2 from a baseline total of $2.05/watt to $.34/watt.

  11. Light metal production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Qinbai

    2016-04-19

    An electrochemical process for the production of light metals, particularly aluminum. Such a process involves contacting a light metal source material with an inorganic acid to form a solution containing the light metal ions in high concentration. The solution is fed to an electrochemical reactor assembly having an anode side containing an anode and a cathode side containing a cathode, with anode side and the cathode side separated by a bipolar membrane, with the solution being fed to the anode side. Light metal ions are electrochemically transferred through the bipolar membrane to the cathode side. The process further involves reducing the light metal ions to light metal powder. An associated processing system is also provided.

  12. IRS Announces New Tribal Economic Development Bond Allocation Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Treasury and the IRS published new guidance today allocating Tribal Economic Development Bonds (TEDBs) for Tribes that have projects that are in the final stages of going to the market to receive financing.

  13. NMSLO Water Lease Damage Bond | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water Lease Damage BondLegal Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect 2012 Legal Citation Not provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online...

  14. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the...

  15. Low-Cost Financing with Clean Renewable Energy Bonds

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Contains information from the TAP Webcast on June 24, 2009 on clean renewable energy bonds from Claire Kreycik on feed-in tariffs, an economic resource for developing renewable energy.

  16. A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9.0.2. To examine how the molecules were bonded, the team first created a gaseous molecular beam of methylated uracil monomers and dimers, then ionized them with vacuum...

  17. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lindenberg, O.R. Monteiro, Z. Chang, R.W. Lee, and R.W. Falcone, "Bonding in liquid carbon studied by time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 057407 (2005...

  18. Aluminum for bonding Si-Ge alloys to graphite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eggemann, Robert V.

    1976-01-13

    Improved thermoelectric device and process, comprising the high-temperature, vacuum bonding of a graphite contact and silicon-germanium thermoelectric element by the use of a low void, aluminum, metallurgical shim with low electrical resistance sandwiched therebetween.

  19. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huxford, T.J.

    1993-11-16

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

  20. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huxford, Theodore J.

    1993-01-01

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal.

  1. Metal atom oxidation laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides. (auth)

  2. Metal atom oxidation laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides.

  3. Supported metal alloy catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrera, Joseph; Smith, David C.

    2000-01-01

    A process of preparing a Group IV, V, or VI metal carbonitride including reacting a Group IV, V, or VI metal amide complex with ammonia to obtain an intermediate product; and, heating the intermediate product to temperatures and for times sufficient to form a Group IV, V, or VI metal carbonitride is provided together with the product of the process and a process of reforming an n-alkane by use of the product.

  4. Closed cell metal foam method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patten, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Foamed metals and metal alloys which have a closed cellular structure are prepared by heating a metal body containing entrapped inert gas uniformly distributed throughout to a temperature above the melting point of the metal and maintaining the body at this temperature a period of time sufficient to permit the entrapped gas to expand, forming individual cells within the molten metal, thus expanding and foaming the molten metal. After cell formation has reached the desired amount, the foamed molten metal body is cooled to below the melting temperature of the metal. The void area or density of the foamed metal is controlled by predetermining the amount of inert gas entrapped in the metal body and by the period of time the metal body is maintained in the molten state. This method is useful for preparing foamed metals and metal alloys from any metal or other material of which a body containing entrapped inert gas can be prepared.

  5. BN Bonded BN fiber article and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Robert S.

    1981-08-18

    A boron nitride bonded boron nitride fiber article and the method for its manufacture which comprises forming a shaped article with a composition comprising a bonding compound selected from boron oxide and boric acid and a structural fiber selected from the group consisting of boron oxide, boron nitride and partially nitrided boron oxide fibers, heating the composition in an anhydrous gas to a temperature above the melting point of the compound and nitriding the resulting article in ammonia gas.

  6. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  7. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  8. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  9. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  10. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  11. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon Print We are accustomed to observing carbon in its elemental form as a solid, ranging from the soft "lead" in pencils to the precious gemstone in diamond rings. While considerable attention has been focused on solid forms of carbon, the properties of liquid carbon are much more difficult to measure accurately. The very strong bonding between carbon atoms that gives diamonds their hardness also makes carbon very difficult to melt,

  12. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding as a synthetic tool to induce chemical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    selectivity in acid catalyzed porphyrin synthesis Intramolecular hydrogen bonding as a synthetic tool to induce chemical selectivity in acid catalyzed porphyrin synthesis Authors: Megiatto, J. D., Patterson, D., Sherman, B. D., Moore, T. A., Gust, D., and Moore, A. L. Title: Intramolecular hydrogen bonding as a synthetic tool to induce chemical selectivity in acid catalyzed porphyrin synthesis Source: Chemical Communications Year: 2012 Volume: 48 Pages: 4558-4560 ABSTRACT: A straightforward

  13. Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics: Stabilization of Secondary Wastes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Streams | Argonne National Laboratory Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics: Stabilization of Secondary Wastes Streams Title Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics: Stabilization of Secondary Wastes Streams Publication Type Book Chapter Year of Publication 2016 Authors Singh, D, Ganga, R, Gaviria, J, Yusufoglu, Y Book Title Engineered Ceramics: Current Status and Future Prospects Chapter 22 Publisher J. Wiley & Sons City Hoboken, NJ ISBN 978-1-119-10040-9 Abstract In this book project, all

  14. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilbane, II, John J.

    1994-01-01

    A microbial process for selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials, Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C--S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  15. Microbial cleavage of organic C-S bonds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilbane, J.J. II.

    1994-10-25

    A microbial process is described for selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds which may be used for reducing the sulfur content of sulfur-containing organic carbonaceous materials. Microorganisms of Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Bacillus sphaericus have been found which have the ability of selective cleavage of organic C-S bonds. Particularly preferred microorganisms are Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain ATCC 53968 and Bacillus sphaericus strain ATCC 53969 and their derivatives.

  16. III-V/Si Wafer Bonding Using Transparent, Conductive Oxide Interlayers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    III-VSi Wafer Bonding Using Transparent, Conductive Oxide Interlayers; Article No. 263904 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: III-VSi Wafer Bonding Using Transparent, ...

  17. Probing metal solidification nondestructively

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    provide the insight needed to control the microstructure of metals and lead to advanced manufacturing processes to produce materials with desired properties. Los Alamos...

  18. Method of producing homogeneous mixed metal oxides and metal-metal oxide mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quinby, Thomas C.

    1978-01-01

    Metal powders, metal oxide powders, and mixtures thereof of controlled particle size are provided by reacting an aqueous solution containing dissolved metal values with excess urea. Upon heating, urea reacts with water from the solution leaving a molten urea solution containing the metal values. The molten urea solution is heated to above about 180.degree. C. whereupon metal values precipitate homogeneously as a powder. The powder is reduced to metal or calcined to form oxide particles. One or more metal oxides in a mixture can be selectively reduced to produce metal particles or a mixture of metal and metal oxide particles.

  19. Integrated optical MEMS using through-wafer vias and bump-bonding.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, Frederick Bossert; Frederick, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    This LDRD began as a three year program to integrate through-wafer vias, micro-mirrors and control electronics with high-voltage capability to yield a 64 by 64 array of individually controllable micro-mirrors on 125 or 250 micron pitch with piston, tip and tilt movement. The effort was a mix of R&D and application. Care was taken to create SUMMiT{trademark} (Sandia's ultraplanar, multilevel MEMS technology) compatible via and mirror processes, and the ultimate goal was to mate this MEMS fabrication product to a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics substrate. Significant progress was made on the via and mirror fabrication and design, the attach process development as well as the electronics high voltage (30 volt) and control designs. After approximately 22 months, the program was ready to proceed with fabrication and integration of the electronics, final mirror array, and through wafer vias to create a high resolution OMEMS array with individual mirror electronic control. At this point, however, mission alignment and budget constraints reduced the last year program funding and redirected the program to help support the through-silicon via work in the Hyper-Temporal Sensors (HTS) Grand Challenge (GC) LDRD. Several months of investigation and discussion with the HTS team resulted in a revised plan for the remaining 10 months of the program. We planned to build a capability in finer-pitched via fabrication on thinned substrates along with metallization schemes and bonding techniques for very large arrays of high density interconnects (up to 2000 x 2000 vias). Through this program, Sandia was able to build capability in several different conductive through wafer via processes using internal and external resources, MEMS mirror design and fabrication, various bonding techniques for arrayed substrates, and arrayed electronics control design with high voltage capability.

  20. Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brueck, Steven R. J.; Myers, David R.; Sharma, Ashwani K.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

  1. Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brueck, Steven R. J.; Myers, David R.; Sharma, Ashwani K.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

  2. Scaling Relationships for Adsorption Energies of C2 Hydrocarbons on Transition Metal Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G

    2011-08-18

    Using density functional theory calculations we show that the adsorption energies for C{sub 2}H{sub x}-type adsorbates on transition metal surfaces scale with each other according to a simple bond order conservation model. This observation generalizes some recently recognized adsorption energy scaling laws for AH{sub x}-type adsorbates to unsaturated hydrocarbons and establishes a coherent simplified description of saturated as well as unsaturated hydrocarbons adsorbed on transition metal surfaces. A number of potential applications are discussed. We apply the model to the dehydrogenation of ethane over pure transition metal catalysts. Comparison with the corresponding full density functional theory calculations shows excellent agreement.

  3. METAL PLATING PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, D.E.; Noland, R.A.

    1958-08-12

    A process ts described for obtaining a closely bonded coating of steel or iron on uranium. The process consists of providing, between the steel and uramium. a layer of silver. amd then pressure rolling tbe assembly at about 600 deg C until a reduction of from l0 to 50% has been obtained.

  4. Porous metallic bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.

    1984-03-13

    Porous metallic bodies having a substantially uniform pore size of less than about 200 microns and a density of less than about 25 percent theoretical, as well as the method for making them, are disclosed. Group IIA, IIIB, IVB, VB, and rare earth metal hydrides a

  5. METAL SURFACE TREATMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-12

    Improved flux baths are described for use in conjunction with hot dipped coatings for uranium. The flux bath consists of molten alkali metal, or alkaline earth metal halides. One preferred embodiment comprises a bath containing molten KCl, NaCl, and LiCl in proportions approximating the triple eutectic.

  6. Metallic nanowire networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A.

    2012-11-06

    A metallic nanowire network synthesized using chemical reduction of a metal ion source by a reducing agent in the presence of a soft template comprising a tubular inverse micellar network. The network of interconnected polycrystalline nanowires has a very high surface-area/volume ratio, which makes it highly suitable for use in catalytic applications.

  7. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyon, W.L.; Moore, R.H.

    1961-01-17

    A process is given for producing plutonium metal by the reduction of plutonium chloride, dissolved in alkali metal chloride plus or minus aluminum chloride, with magnesium or a magnesium-aluminum alloy at between 700 and 800 deg C and separating the plutonium or plutonium-aluminum alloy formed from the salt.

  8. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M. [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A. [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S. [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  9. Metallization of electronic insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM); Uribe, Francisco A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    An electroplated element is formed to include an insulating substrate, a conducting polymer polymerized in situ on the substrate, and a metal layer deposited on the conducting polymer. In one application a circuit board is formed by polymerizing pyrrole on an epoxy-fiberglass substrate in a single step process and then electrodepositing a metal over the resulting polypyrrole polymer. No chemical deposition of the metal is required prior to electroplating and the resulting layer of substrate-polymer-metal has excellent adhesion characteristics. The metal deposition is surprisingly smooth and uniform over the relatively high resistance film of polypyrrole. A continuous manufacturing process is obtained by filtering the solution between successive substrates to remove polymer formed in the solution, by maintaining the solution oxidizing potential within selected limits, and by adding a strong oxidant, such as KMnO.sub.4 at periodic intervals to maintain a low sheet resistivity in the resulting conducting polymer film.

  10. Conceptual Design of a MEDE Treatment System for Sodium Bonded Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl E. Baily; Karen A. Moore; Collin J. Knight; Peter B. Wells; Paul J. Petersen; Ali S. Siahpush; Matthew T. Weseman

    2008-05-01

    Unirradiated sodium bonded metal fuel and casting scrap material containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) is stored at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This material, which includes intact fuel assemblies and elements from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) reactors as well as scrap material from the casting of these fuels, has no current use under the terminated reactor programs for both facilities. The Department of Energy (DOE), under the Sodium-Bonded Spent Nuclear Fuel Treatment Record of Decision (ROD), has determined that this material could be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for commercial nuclear reactors. A plan is being developed to prepare, package and transfer this material to the DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO), located at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Disposition of the sodium bonded material will require separating the elemental sodium from the metallic uranium fuel. A sodium distillation process known as MEDE (Melt-Drain-Evaporate), will be used for the separation process. The casting scrap material needs to be sorted to remove any foreign material or fines that are not acceptable to the HDPO program. Once all elements have been cut and loaded into baskets, they are then loaded into an evaporation chamber as the first step in the MEDE process. The chamber will be sealed and the pressure reduced to approximately 200 mtorr. The chamber will then be heated as high as 650 ºC, causing the sodium to melt and then vaporize. The vapor phase sodium will be driven into an outlet line where it is condensed and drained into a receiver vessel. Once the evaporation operation is complete, the system is de-energized and returned to atmospheric pressure. This paper describes the MEDE process as well as a general overview of the furnace systems, as

  11. An Electrically Switchable Metal-Organic Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Martin, Paul F.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bowden, Mark E.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Dang, Liem X.; Xu, Wu; Chen, Xilin; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-08-19

    Crystalline metal organic framework (MOF) materials containing interconnected porosity can be chemically modified to promote stimulus-driven (light, magnetic or electric fields) structural transformations that can be used in a number of devices. Innovative research strategies are now focused on understanding the role of chemical bond manipulation to reversibly alter the free volume in such structures of critical importance for electro-catalysis, molecular electronics, energy storage technologies, sensor devices and smart membranes. In this letter, we study the mechanism for which an electrically switchable MOF composed of Cu(TCNQ) (TCNQ 5 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) transitions from a high-resistance state to a conducting state in a reversible fashion by an applied potential. The actual mechanism for this reversible electrical switching is still not understood even though a number of reports are available describing the application of electric-field-induced switching of Cu(TCNQ) in device fabrication.

  12. An Electrically Switchable Metal-Organic Framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, CA; Martin, PC; Schaef, T; Bowden, ME; Thallapally, PK; Dang, L; Xu, W; Chen, XL; McGrail, BP

    2014-08-19

    Crystalline metal organic framework (MOF) materials containing interconnected porosity can be chemically modified to promote stimulus-driven (light, magnetic or electric fields) structural transformations that can be used in a number of devices. Innovative research strategies are now focused on understanding the role of chemical bond manipulation to reversibly alter the free volume in such structures of critical importance for electro-catalysis, molecular electronics, energy storage technologies, sensor devices and smart membranes. In this letter, we study the mechanism for which an electrically switchable MOF composed of Cu(TCNQ) (TCNQ = 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) transitions from a high-resistance state to a conducting state in a reversible fashion by an applied potential. The actual mechanism for this reversible electrical switching is still not understood even though a number of reports are available describing the application of electric-field-induced switching of Cu(TCNQ) in device fabrication.

  13. ROLE OF C AND P SITES ON THE CHEMICAL ACTIVITY OF METAL CARBIDE AND PHOSPHIDES: FROM CLUSTERS TO SINGLE-CRYSTAL SURFACES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RODRIGUEZ,J.A.; VINES, F.; LIU, P.; ILLAS, F.

    2007-07-01

    Transition metal carbides and phosphides have shown tremendous potential as highly active catalysts. At a microscopic level, it is not well understood how these new catalysts work. Their high activity is usually attributed to ligand or/and ensemble effects. Here, we review recent studies that examine the chemical activity of metal carbide and phosphides as a function of size, from clusters to extended surfaces, and metal/carbon or metal/phosphorous ratio. These studies reveal that the C and P sites in these compounds cannot be considered as simple spectators. They moderate the reactivity of the metal centers and provide bonding sites for adsorbates.

  14. Embedded cluster metal-polymeric micro interface and process for producing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menezes, Marlon E.; Birnbaum, Howard K.; Robertson, Ian M.

    2002-01-29

    A micro interface between a polymeric layer and a metal layer includes isolated clusters of metal partially embedded in the polymeric layer. The exposed portion of the clusters is smaller than embedded portions, so that a cross section, taken parallel to the interface, of an exposed portion of an individual cluster is smaller than a cross section, taken parallel to the interface, of an embedded portion of the individual cluster. At least half, but not all of the height of a preferred spherical cluster is embedded. The metal layer is completed by a continuous layer of metal bonded to the exposed portions of the discontinuous clusters. The micro interface is formed by heating a polymeric layer to a temperature, near its glass transition temperature, sufficient to allow penetration of the layer by metal clusters, after isolated clusters have been deposited on the layer at lower temperatures. The layer is recooled after embedding, and a continuous metal layer is deposited upon the polymeric layer to bond with the discontinuous metal clusters.

  15. Photochemical deterioration of the organic/metal contacts in organic optoelectronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Qi; Williams, Graeme; Aziz, Hany; Tsui Ting

    2012-09-15

    We study the effect of exposure to light on a wide range of organic/metal contacts that are commonly used in organic optoelectronic devices and found that irradiation by light in the visible and UV range results in a gradual deterioration in their electrical properties. This photo-induced contact degradation reduces both charge injection (i.e., from the metal to the organic layer) and charge extraction (i.e., from the organic layer to the metal). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements reveal detectable changes in the interface characteristics after irradiation, indicating that the photo-degradation is chemical in nature. Changes in XPS characteristics after irradiation suggests a possible reduction in bonds associated with organic-metal complexes. Measurements of interfacial adhesion strength using the four-point flexure technique reveal a decrease in organic/metal adhesion in irradiated samples, consistent with a decrease in metal-organic bond density. The results shed the light on a new material degradation mechanism that appears to have a wide presence in organic/metal interfaces in general, and which likely plays a key role in limiting the stability of various organic optoelectronic devices such as organic light emitting devices, organic solar cells, and organic photo-detectors.

  16. Synthesis of metal silicide at metal/silicon oxide interface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Synthesis of metal silicide at metalsilicon oxide interface by electronic excitation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis of metal silicide at metalsilicon oxide ...

  17. Synthesis of Metal-Metal Oxide Catalysts and Electrocatalysts...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthesis of Metal-Metal Oxide Catalysts and Electrocatalysts Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication...

  18. Work Functions of the transition Metals and Metal Silicides ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Work Functions of the transition Metals and Metal Silicides Citation Details In-Document Search ... Publication Date: 1999-02-15 OSTI Identifier: 3597 Report ...

  19. Thermal Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces for Power Electronics Packaging Applications (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devoto, D.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation discusses the thermal performance and reliability of bonded interfaces for power electronics packaging applications.

  20. Catalyst Of A Metal Heteropoly Acid Salt That Is Insoluble In A Polar Solvent On A Non-Metallic Porous Support And Method Of Making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang. Yong (Richland, WA); Peden. Charles H. F. (West Richland, WA); Choi. Saemin (Richland, WA)

    2004-11-09

    The present invention includes a catalyst having (a) a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores; (b) a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on the non-metallic support; wherein at least a portion of the metal heteropoly acid salt is dispersed within said plurality of pores. The present invention also includes a method of depositing a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent onto a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores. The method has the steps of: (a) obtaining a first solution containing a first precursor of a metal salt cation; (b) obtaining a second solution containing a second precursor of a heteropoly acid anion in a solvent having a limited dissolution potential for said first precursor; (c) impregnating the non-metallic support with the first precursor forming a first precursor deposit within the plurality of pores, forming a first precursor impregnated support; (d) heating said first precursor impregnated support forming a bonded first precursor impregnated support; (e) impregnating the second precursor that reacts with the precursor deposit and forms the metal heteropoly acid salt.

  1. Catalyst of a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on a non-metallic porous support and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Peden, Charles H. F. [West Richland, WA; Choi, Saemin [Richland, WA

    2002-10-29

    The present invention includes a catalyst having (a) a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores; (b) a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent on the non-metallic support; wherein at least a portion of the metal heteropoly acid salt is dispersed within said plurality of pores. The present invention also includes a method of depositing a metal heteropoly acid salt that is insoluble in a polar solvent onto a non-metallic support having a plurality of pores. The method has the steps of: (a) obtaining a first solution containing a first precursor of a metal salt cation; (b) obtaining a second solution containing a second precursor of a heteropoly acid anion in a solvent having a limited dissolution potential for said first precursor; (c) impregnating the non-metallic support with the first precursor forming a first precursor deposit within the plurality of pores, forming a first precursor impregnated support; (d) heating said first precursor impregnated support forming a bonded first precursor impregnated support; (e) impregnating the second precursor that reacts with the precursor deposit and forms the metal heteropoly acid salt.

  2. Metal Aminoboranes - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Metal Aminoboranes Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction

  3. Method for producing metallic microparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-06-29

    Method for producing metallic particles. The method converts metallic nanoparticles into larger, spherical metallic particles. An aerosol of solid metallic nanoparticles and a non-oxidizing plasma having a portion sufficiently hot to melt the nanoparticles are generated. The aerosol is directed into the plasma where the metallic nanoparticles melt, collide, join, and spheroidize. The molten spherical metallic particles are directed away from the plasma and enter the afterglow where they cool and solidify.

  4. Method for producing metallic nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-02-10

    Method for producing metallic nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating non-oxidizing plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone to metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and to the plasma afterglow where it cools and condenses to form solid metallic nanoparticles.

  5. Precious Metals | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Precious Metals General Information: The Materials Handling group provides Precious Metals receiving and documentation (PM's) for research programs funded by the Department of Energy (DOE). Precious metals are obtained from the DOE's Business Center for Precious Metals Sales and Recovery (BCPMSR). The return of scrap and excess precious metals to the BCPMSR is also provided by this group. Metals under this control are: GOLD - SILVER - PLATINUM - RHODIUM - PALLADIUM - IRIDIUM - OSMIUM - RUTHENIUM

  6. Metal nanodisks using bicellar templates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A

    2013-12-03

    Metallic nanodisks and a method of making them. The metallic nanodisks are wheel-shaped structures that that provide large surface areas for catalytic applications. The metallic nanodisks are grown within bicelles (disk-like micelles) that template the growth of the metal in the form of approximately circular dendritic sheets. The zero-valent metal forming the nanodisks is formed by reduction of a metal ion using a suitable electron donor species.

  7. Phase transformations during the Ag-In plating and bonding of vertical diode elements of multijunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klochko, N. P. Khrypunov, G. S.; Volkova, N. D.; Kopach, V. R.; Lyubov, V. N.; Kirichenko, M. V.; Momotenko, A. V.; Kharchenko, N. M.; Nikitin, V. A.

    2013-06-15

    The conditions of the bonding of silicon multijunction solar cells with vertical p-n junctions using Ag-In solder are studied. The compositions of electrodeposited indium films on silicon wafers silver plated by screen printing and silver and indium films fabricated by layer-by-layer electrochemical deposition onto the surface of silicon vertical diode cells silver plated in vacuum are studied. Studying the electrochemical-deposition conditions, structure, and surface morphology of the grown layers showed that guaranteed bonding is provided by 8-min heat treatment at 400 Degree-Sign C under the pressure of a stack of metallized silicon wafers; however, the ratio of the indium and silver layer thicknesses should not exceed 1: 3. As this condition is satisfied, the solder after wafer bonding has the InAg{sub 3} structure (or InAg{sub 3} with an Ag phase admixture), due to which the junction melting point exceeds 700 Degree-Sign C, which guarantees the functioning of such solar cells under concentrated illumination.

  8. APS TBC performance on directionally-solidified superalloy substrates with HVOF NiCoCrAlYHfSi bond coatings

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lance, Michael J.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Haynes, James A.; Pint, Bruce A.

    2015-09-04

    Directionally-solidified (DS) superalloy components with advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC) to lower the metal operating temperature have the potential to replace more expensive single crystal superalloys for large land-based turbines. In order to assess relative TBC performance, furnace cyclic testing was used with superalloys 1483, X4 and Hf-rich DS 247 substrates and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF)-NiCoCrAlYHfSi bond coatings at 1100 °C with 1-h cycles in air with 10% H2O. With these coating and test conditions, there was no statistically-significant effect of substrate alloy on the average lifetime of the air plasma sprayed (APS) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coatings onmore » small coupons. Using photo-stimulated luminescence piezospectroscopy maps at regular cycling intervals, the residual compressive stress in the α-Al2O3 scale underneath the YSZ top coating and on a bare bond coating was similar for all three substrates and delaminations occurred at roughly the same rate and frequency. As a result, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements collected from the bare bond coating surface revealed higher Ti interdiffusion occurring with the 1483 substrate, which contained the highest Ti content.« less

  9. Solid-phase materials for chelating metal ions and methods of making and using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K.; Wey, John E.; Peterson, Eric S.

    2003-06-10

    A solid material for recovering metal ions from aqueous streams, and methods of making and using the solid material, are disclosed. The solid material is made by covalently bonding a chelating agent to a silica-based solid, or in-situ condensing ceramic precursors along with the chelating agent to accomplish the covalent bonding. The chelating agent preferably comprises a oxime type chelating head, preferably a salicylaldoxime-type molecule, with an organic tail covalently bonded to the head. The hydrocarbon tail includes a carbon-carbon double bond, which is instrumental in the step of covalently bonding the tail to the silica-based solid or the in-situ condensation. The invented solid material may be contacted directly with aqueous streams containing metal ions, and is selective to ions such as copper (II) even in the presence of such ions as iron (III) and other materials that are present in earthen materials. The solid material with high selectivity to copper may be used to recover copper from mining and plating industry streams, to replace the costly and toxic solvent extraction steps of conventional copper processing.

  10. Tuning of noble metal work function with organophosphonate nanolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanath, Ganpati Kwan, Matthew; Chow, P. K.; Quintero, Y. Cardona; Ramprasad, R.; Mutin, P. H.

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate that weak chemical interactions between untethered moieties in molecular nanolayers on metal surfaces can strongly influence the effective work function ?{sub eff}. Electron spectroscopy shows that nanolayers of mercaptan-anchored organophosphonates on Au and Pt decrease ?{sub eff}. The measured ?{sub eff} shifts correlate with the chemical state of phosphonic acid moieties, and scale with molecular length. These results are contrary to predictions of ab initio calculations of monolayer-capped surfaces, but are consistent with calculations of bilayer-capped surfaces with face-to-face hydrogen-bonded phosphonic acid moieties. Our findings indicate that intra-layer bonding and layering in molecular nanolayers can be key to tailoring heterointerfacial electronic properties for applications.

  11. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  12. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-03-24

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  13. EXELFS of Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Y.; Alamgir, F.M.; Schwarz, R.B.; Jain, H.; Williams, D.B.

    1999-11-30

    The feasibility of using extended energy-loss fine structure (EXELFS) obtained from {approximately}1 nm regions of metallic glasses to study their short-range order has been examined. Ionization edges of the metallic glasses in the electron energy-loss spectrum (EELS) have been obtained from PdNiP bulk metallic glass and Ni{sub 2}P polycrystalline powder in a transmission electron microscope. The complexity of EXELFS analysis of L- and M-ionization edges of heavy elements (Z>22, i.e. Ni and Pd) is addressed by theoretical calculations using an ab initio computer code, and its results are compared with the experimental data.

  14. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  15. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  16. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1992-01-01

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  17. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, Nancy N.; Watkin, John G.

    1992-01-01

    A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  18. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel

    2012-07-03

    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  19. Anharmonic Potential Constants and Their Dependence Upon Bond Length

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Herschbach, D. R.; Laurie, V. W.

    1961-01-01

    Empirical study of cubic and quartic vibrational force constants for diatomic molecules shows them to be approximately exponential functions of internuclear distance. A family of curves is obtained, determined by the location of the bonded atoms in rows of the periodic table. Displacements between successive curves correspond closely to those in Badger's rule for quadratic force constants (for which the parameters are redetermined to accord with all data now available). Constants for excited electronic and ionic states appear on practically the same curves as those for the ground states. Predictions based on the diatomic correlations agree with the available cubic constants for bond stretching in polyatomic molecules, regardless of the type of bonding involved. Implications of these regularities are discussed. (auth)

  20. Multiheteromacrocycles that Complex Metal Ions. Sixth Progress Report, 1 May 1979-30 April 1980

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Cram, D. J.

    1980-01-15

    Objective is to design synthesize, and evaluate cyclic and polycyclic host organic compounds for their abilities to complex and lipophilize guest metal ions, their complexes, and their clusters. Host organic compounds consist of strategically placed solvating, coordinating, and ion-pairing sites tied together by covalent bonds through hydrocarbon units around cavities shaped to be occupied by guest metal ions or by metal ions plus their ligands. Specificity in complexation is sought by matching the following properties of host and guest: cavity and metal ion sizes; geometric arrangements of binding sites; number of binding sites; character of binding sites; and valences. During this period, hemispherands based on an aryloxy or cyclic urea unit, spherands based on aryloxyl units only, and their complexes with alkali metals and alkaline earths were investigated. An attempt to separate {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li by gel permeation chromatography of lithiospherium chloride failed. (DLC)

  1. Process for the fabrication of aluminum metallized pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Ramsey, P.B.; Juntz, R.S.

    1995-07-04

    An improved method is disclosed for fabricating pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets with superior heat transfer ability, longer life, and maximum energy transmission. Anisotropic pyrolytic graphite is contoured and/or segmented to match the erosion profile of the sputter target and then oriented such that the graphite`s high thermal conductivity planes are in maximum contact with a thermally conductive metal backing. The graphite contact surface is metallized, using high rate physical vapor deposition (HRPVD), with an aluminum coating and the thermally conductive metal backing is joined to the metallized graphite target by one of four low-temperature bonding methods; liquid-metal casting, powder metallurgy compaction, eutectic brazing, and laser welding. 11 figs.

  2. Bond Amendment, Security Clearances - January 1, 2008 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Bond Amendment, Security Clearances - January 1, 2008 Bond Amendment, Security Clearances - January 1, 2008 January 1, 2008 In General.-Title III of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (50 U.S.C. 435b) is amended by adding at the end the following new section: "SEC. 3002. SECURITY CLEARANCES; LIMITATIONS SEC. 1072. SECURITY CLEARANCES; LIMITATIONS. (a) In General.-Title III of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (50 U.S.C. 435b)

  3. Methods and system for controlled laser-driven explosive bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Hackel, Lloyd; Rankin, Jon

    2015-11-19

    A technique for bonding two dissimilar materials includes positioning a second material over a first material at an oblique angle and applying a tamping layer over the second martial. A laser beam is directed at the second material that generates a plasma at the location of impact on the second material. The plasma generates pressure that accelerates a portion of the second material to a very high velocity and towards the first material. The second material impacts the first material causing bonding of the two materials.

  4. Thermal Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ape028_devoto_2012_o.pdf (1.45 MB) More Documents & Publications Reliability of Bonded Interfaces Thermal Performance and Reliability of Bonded Interfaces Thermal Performance and Reliability Energy

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ape028_narumanchi_2011_o.pdf (740.98 KB) More

  5. Glassy dynamics of hydrogen-bonded heteroditopic molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lou, Nan; Wang, Yangyang; Li, Haixia; Sokolov, Alexei P; Xiong, Huiming

    2012-01-01

    A self-complementary heteroditopic molecule composed of thymine and diamidopyridine end groups and a flexible aliphatic interconnecting chain has been synthesized. The glassy dynamics of this hydrogen-bonded supramolecule have been investigated by using dielectric and rheological measurements, in combination with infra-red spectroscopy and solid-state 13C NMR experiments. Decoupling of main dielectric relaxation from viscosity has been found in the vicinity of the glass transition and the temperature dependence of viscosity appears to be stronger than that of dielectric relaxation. The unusual dynamic decoupling phenomenon is ascribed to the chemical/dynamic heterogeneity and formation of hydrogen bonds in the supramolecules.

  6. METALS DESIGN HANDBOOK DISCLAIMER

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    otherwise does not necessarily constitute o r imply its endorsement, rccom- mendation, or ... : Enclosed f o r your useinformation is DOE-HTGR-88106, Rev. 0, "Metals Design Handbook". ...

  7. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Palmer, Donald A.; Beard, James S.

    2012-04-10

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  8. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  9. In situ production of ceramic reinforcement in metallic parts by thermal degradation of organometallics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shivkumar, S.; Cournoyer, J.; Makhlouf, M. )

    1993-08-15

    The ability to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of metallic components by particulate ceramic reinforcement is well documented. Several methods have been used to incorporate the ceramic particles in the metallic matrix. These methods can be classified into three groups based on the physical state of the metallic phase during processing: (1) liquid phase methods, (2) solid state methods and (3) semi-solid state methods. Liquid phase methods have generated considerable interest because they offer the most economical route for the production of near-net-shape components. In order to realize the full benefits of the ceramic reinforcement, it is imperative that the interfacial bond strength between the ceramic and the metal be maximized. This interfacial bond strength depends to a large extent on the ability of the molten metal to wet the ceramic. It is often difficult to achieve good wetting between molten metals and ceramics because of the large surface tension commonly associated with metals. Several techniques have been used to improve metal/ceramic wetting characteristics. These methods include application of coatings on the ceramic, alloying the metal with reactive elements such as Li, Mg, Ca, Ti or Zr and heat treating the ceramic. A variety of new technologies are also emerging for the in situ production of the reinforcing phase. The in situ production of the ceramic could potentially enhance the wetting characteristics and may probide improved control of the size and level of reinforcement. In this contribution, the feasibility of producing ceramic reinforcements in situ by thermal degradation of a suitable organometallic in a liquid metal bath has been explored.

  10. Molten metal reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-11-05

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  11. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coops, Melvin S.

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  12. Electrochemical nitridation of metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Heli; Turner, John A.

    2015-06-30

    Electrochemical nitridation of metals and the produced metals are disclosed. An exemplary method of electrochemical nitridation of metals comprises providing an electrochemical solution at low temperature. The method also comprises providing a three-electrode potentiostat system. The method also comprises stabilizing the three-electrode potentiostat system at open circuit potential. The method also comprises applying a cathodic potential to a metal.

  13. BN Bonded BN fiber article from boric oxide fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Robert S.

    1978-12-19

    A boron nitride bonded boron nitride fiber article and the method for its manufacture which comprises forming a shaped article with a composition comprising boron oxide fibers and boric acid, heating the composition in an anhydrous gas to a temperature above the melting point of the boric acid and nitriding the resulting article in ammonia gas.

  14. Bonded polyimide fuel cell package and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan; Graff, Robert T.; Bettencourt, Kerry

    2005-11-01

    Described herein are processes for fabricating microfluidic fuel cell systems with embedded components in which micron-scale features are formed by bonding layers of DuPont Kapton.TM. polyimide laminate. A microfluidic fuel cell system fabricated using this process is also described.

  15. Method of preparation of bonded polyimide fuel cell package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan; Graff, Robert T.; Bettencourt, Kerry

    2011-04-26

    Described herein are processes for fabricating microfluidic fuel cell systems with embedded components in which micron-scale features are formed by bonding layers of DuPont Kapton.TM. polyimide laminate. A microfluidic fuel cell system fabricated using this process is also described.

  16. Methods of making metallic glass foil laminate composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vianco, Paul T.; Fisher, Robert W.; Hosking, Floyd M.; Zanner, Frank J.

    1996-01-01

    A process for the fabrication of a rapidly solidified foil laminate composite. An amorphous metallic glass foil is flux treated and coated with solder. Before solidification of the solder the foil is collected on a take-up spool which forms the composite into a solid annular configuration. The resulting composite exhibits high strength, resiliency and favorable magnetic and electrical properties associated with amorphous materials. The composite also exhibits bonding strength between the foil layers which significantly exceeds the bulk strength of the solder alone.

  17. Fully-Coupled Metallic Fuel Performance Simulations using BISON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galloway, Jack D.; Unal, Cetin

    2015-08-27

    This document is a set of slides intended to accompany a talk at a meeting. The first topic taken up is zirconium redistribution. The rod edge Zr increase is evidently due to the Soret term and temperature gradient. Then metallic fission gas release modeling is considered. Based on a GRSIS/FEAST model, the approach of generating fission gas in the fuel matrix is described. A sensitivity study on parameters is presented, including sodium bond & diffusion coefficient sensitivity along with dt sensitivity. Finally, results of some coupled simulations are shown, with ideas about future work.

  18. Methods of making metallic glass foil laminate composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vianco, P.T.; Fisher, R.W.; Hosking, F.M.; Zanner, F.J.

    1996-08-20

    A process for the fabrication of a rapidly solidified foil laminate composite. An amorphous metallic glass foil is flux treated and coated with solder. Before solidification of the solder the foil is collected on a take-up spool which forms the composite into a solid annular configuration. The resulting composite exhibits high strength, resiliency and favorable magnetic and electrical properties associated with amorphous materials. The composite also exhibits bonding strength between the foil layers which significantly exceeds the bulk strength of the solder alone. 6 figs.

  19. Thermally tolerant multilayer metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dye, Robert C.; Snow, Ronny C.

    2001-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of a Group IVB or Group VB metal sandwiched between two layers of a Group VIIIB metal selected from the group consisting of palladium, platinum, nickel, rhodium, iridium, cobalt, and alloys thereof, and a non-continuous layer of a metal chalcogenide upon one layer of the Group VIIIB metal is disclosed together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture using such a composite membrane and a process for forming such a composite metal membrane.

  20. Peroxotitanates for Biodelivery of Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, David; Elvington, M.

    2009-02-11

    Metal-based drugs are largely undeveloped in pharmacology. One limiting factor is the systemic toxicity of metal-based compounds. A solid-phase, sequestratable delivery agent for local delivery of metals could reduce systemic toxicity, facilitating new drug development in this nascent area. Amorphous peroxotitanates (APT) are ion exchange materials with high affinity for several heavy metal ions, and have been proposed to deliver or sequester metal ions in biological contexts. In the current study, we tested a hypothesis that APT are able to deliver metals or metal compounds to cells. We exposed fibroblasts (L929) or monocytes (THP1) to metal-APT materials for 72 h in vitro, then measured cellular mitochondrial activity (SDH-MTT method) to assess the biological impact of the metal-APT materials vs. metals or APT alone. APT alone did not significantly affect cellular mitochondrial activity, but all metal-APT materials suppressed the mitochondrial activity of fibroblasts (by 30-65% of controls). The concentration of metal-APT materials required to suppress cellular mitochondrial activity was below that required for metals alone, suggesting that simple extracellular release of the metals from the metal-APT materials was not the primary mechanism of mitochondrial suppression. In contrast to fibroblasts, no metal-APT material had a measurable effect on THP1 monocyte mitochondrial activity, despite potent suppression by metals alone. This latter result suggested that 'biodelivery' by metal-APT materials may be cell type-specific. Therefore, it appears that APT are plausible solid phase delivery agents of metals or metal compounds to some types of cells for potential therapeutic effect.

  1. Method for forming metal contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reddington, Erik; Sutter, Thomas C; Bu, Lujia; Cannon, Alexandra; Habas, Susan E; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2013-09-17

    Methods of forming metal contacts with metal inks in the manufacture of photovoltaic devices are disclosed. The metal inks are selectively deposited on semiconductor coatings by inkjet and aerosol apparatus. The composite is heated to selective temperatures where the metal inks burn through the coating to form an electrical contact with the semiconductor. Metal layers are then deposited on the electrical contacts by light induced or light assisted plating.

  2. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  3. Alkali metal ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauerle, James E.; Reed, William H.; Berkey, Edgar

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the conventional filament and collector electrodes of an alkali metal ionization detector, including the substitution of helical electrode configurations for either the conventional wire filament or flat plate collector; or, the substitution of a plurality of discrete filament electrodes providing an in situ capability for transferring from an operationally defective filament electrode to a previously unused filament electrode without removing the alkali metal ionization detector from the monitored environment. In particular, the helical collector arrangement which is coaxially disposed about the filament electrode, i.e. the thermal ionizer, provides an improved collection of positive ions developed by the filament electrode. The helical filament design, on the other hand, provides the advantage of an increased surface area for ionization of alkali metal-bearing species in a monitored gas environment as well as providing a relatively strong electric field for collecting the ions at the collector electrode about which the helical filament electrode is coaxially positioned. Alternatively, both the filament and collector electrodes can be helical. Furthermore, the operation of the conventional alkali metal ionization detector as a leak detector can be simplified as to cost and complexity, by operating the detector at a reduced collector potential while maintaining the sensitivity of the alkali metal ionization detector adequate for the relatively low concentration of alkali vapor and aerosol typically encountered in leak detection applications.

  4. Effect of Graphene with Nanopores on Metal Clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Hu; Chen, Xianlang; Wang, Lei; Zhong, Xing; Zhuang, Guilin; Li, Xiaonian; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Jianguo

    2015-10-07

    Porous graphene, which is a novel type of defective graphene, shows excellent potential as a support material for metal clusters. In this work, the stability and electronic structures of metal clusters (Pd, Ir, Rh) supported on pristine graphene and graphene with different sizes of nanopore were investigated by first-principle density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Thereafter, CO adsorption and oxidation reaction on the Pd-graphene system were chosen to evaluate its catalytic performance. Graphene with nanopore can strongly stabilize the metal clusters and cause a substantial downshift of the d-band center of the metal clusters, thus decreasing CO adsorption. All binding energies, d-band centers, and adsorption energies show a linear change with the size of the nanopore: a bigger size of nanopore corresponds to a stronger metal clusters bond to the graphene, lower downshift of the d-band center, and weaker CO adsorption. By using a suitable size nanopore, supported Pd clusters on the graphene will have similar CO and O2 adsorption ability, thus leading to superior CO tolerance. The DFT calculated reaction energy barriers show that graphene with nanopore is a superior catalyst for CO oxidation reaction. These properties can play an important role in instructing graphene-supported metal catalyst preparation to prevent the diffusion or agglomeration of metal clusters and enhance catalytic performance. This work was supported by National Basic Research Program of China (973Program) (2013CB733501), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC-21176221, 21136001, 21101137, 21306169, and 91334013). D. Mei acknowledges the support from the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computing time was granted by the grand challenge of computational

  5. Development of bonded composite doublers for the repair of oil recovery equipment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, David W.; Rackow, Kirk A.

    2005-06-01

    An unavoidable by-product of a metallic structure's use is the appearance of crack and corrosion flaws. Economic barriers to the replacement of these structures have created an aging infrastructure and placed even greater demands on efficient and safe repair methods. In the past decade, an advanced composite repair technology has made great strides in commercial aviation use. Extensive testing and analysis, through joint programs between the Sandia Labs FAA Airworthiness Assurance Center and the aviation industry, have proven that composite materials can be used to repair damaged aluminum structure. Successful pilot programs have produced flight performance history to establish the durability of bonded composite patches as a permanent repair on commercial aircraft structures. With this foundation in place, this effort is adapting bonded composite repair technology to civil structures. The use of bonded composite doublers has the potential to correct the difficulties associated with current repair techniques and the ability to be applied where there are no rehabilitation options. It promises to be cost-effective with minimal disruption to the users of the structure. This report concludes a study into the application of composite patches on thick steel structures typically used in mining operations. Extreme fatigue, temperature, erosive, and corrosive environments induce an array of equipment damage. The current weld repair techniques for these structures provide a fatigue life that is inferior to that of the original plate. Subsequent cracking must be revisited on a regular basis. The use of composite doublers, which do not have brittle fracture problems such as those inherent in welds, can help extend the structure's fatigue life and reduce the equipment downtime. Two of the main issues for adapting aircraft composite repairs to civil applications are developing an installation technique for carbon steel and accommodating large repairs on extremely thick structures

  6. METAL RESISTIVITY MEASURING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renken, J. Jr.; Myers, R.G.

    1960-12-20

    An eddy current device is offered for detecting discontinuities in metal samples. Alternate short and long duration pulses are inductively applied to a metal sample via the outer coil of a probe. The long pulses give a resultant signal from the metal sample responsive to probe-tosample spacing and discontinuities within the sample and the shont pulses give a resultant signal responsive only to probe -to-sample spacing. The inner coil of the probe detects the two resultant signals and transmits them to a separation network where the two signals are separated. The two separated signals are then transmitted to a compensation network where the detected signals due to the short pulses are used to compensate for variations due to probe-to-sample spacing contained in the detected signals from the long pulses. Thus, a resultant signal is obtained responsive to discontinuities within the sample and independent of probe-to- sample spacing.

  7. Metal Resistivity Measuring Device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renken, Jr, C. J.; Myers, R. G.

    1960-12-20

    An eddy current device is designed for detecting discontinuities in metal samples. Alternate short and long duration pulses are inductively applied to a metal sample via the outer coil of a probe. The lorg pulses give a resultant signal from the metal sample responsive to probe-tosample spacing and discontinuities with the sample, and the short pulses give a resultant signal responsive only to probe-to-sample spacing. The inner coil of the probe detects the two resultant signals and transmits them to a separation network where the two signals are separated. The two separated signals are then transmitted to a compensation network where the detected signals due to the short pulses are used to compensate for variations due to probeto-sample spacing contained in the detected signals from the long pulses. Thus a resultant signal is obtained responsive to discontinuities within the sample and independent of probe-to- sample spacing.

  8. Method of forming and assembly of metal and ceramic parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ripley, Edward B

    2014-04-22

    A method of forming and assembling at least two parts together that may be metal, ceramic, or a combination of metal and ceramic parts. Such parts may have different CTE. Individual parts that are formed and sintered from particles leave a network of interconnecting porosity in each sintered part. The separate parts are assembled together and then a fill material is infiltrated into the assembled parts using a method such as capillary action, gravity, and/or pressure. The assembly is then cured to yield a bonded and fully or near-fully dense part that has the desired physical and mechanical properties for the part's intended purpose. Structural strength may be added to the parts by the inclusion of fibrous materials.

  9. Elastic properties of Pu metal and Pu-Ga alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soderlind, P; Landa, A; Klepeis, J E; Suzuki, Y; Migliori, A

    2010-01-05

    We present elastic properties, theoretical and experimental, of Pu metal and Pu-Ga ({delta}) alloys together with ab initio equilibrium equation-of-state for these systems. For the theoretical treatment we employ density-functional theory in conjunction with spin-orbit coupling and orbital polarization for the metal and coherent-potential approximation for the alloys. Pu and Pu-Ga alloys are also investigated experimentally using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. We show that orbital correlations become more important proceeding from {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} plutonium, thus suggesting increasing f-electron correlation (localization). For the {delta}-Pu-Ga alloys we find a softening with larger Ga content, i.e., atomic volume, bulk modulus, and elastic constants, suggest a weakened chemical bonding with addition of Ga. Our measurements confirm qualitatively the theory but uncertainties remain when comparing the model with experiments.

  10. Metal chelate process to remove pollutants from fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.T.

    1994-12-06

    The present invention relates to improved methods using an organic iron chelate to remove pollutants from fluids, such as flue gas. Specifically, the present invention relates to a process to remove NO[sub x] and optionally SO[sub 2] from a fluid using a metal ion (Fe[sup 2+]) chelate wherein the ligand is a dimercapto compound wherein the --SH groups are attached to adjacent carbon atoms (HS--C--C--SH) or (SH--C--CCSH) and contain a polar functional group so that the ligand of DMC chelate is water soluble. Alternatively, the DMC is covalently attached to a water insoluble substrate such as a polymer or resin, e.g., polystyrene. The chelate is regenerated using electroreduction or a chemical additive. The dimercapto compound bonded to a water insoluble substrate is also useful to lower the concentration or remove hazardous metal ions from an aqueous solution. 26 figures.

  11. Metal chelate process to remove pollutants from fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger T.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention relates to improved methods using an organic iron chelate to remove pollutants from fluids, such as flue gas. Specifically, the present invention relates to a process to remove NO.sub.x and optionally SO.sub.2 from a fluid using a metal ion (Fe.sup.2+) chelate wherein the ligand is a dimercapto compound wherein the --SH groups are attached to adjacent carbon atoms (HS--C--C--SH) or (SH--C--CCSH) and contain a polar functional group so that the ligand of DMC chelate is water soluble. Alternatively, the DMC' is covalently attached to a water insoluble substrate such as a polymer or resin, e.g., polystyrene. The chelate is regenerated using electroreduction or a chemical additive. The dimercapto compound bonded to a water insoluble substrate is also useful to lower the concentration or remove hazardous metal ions from an aqueous solution.

  12. Method for locating metallic nitride inclusions in metallic alloy ingots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Jack C.; Traut, Davis E.; Oden, Laurance L.; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1992-01-01

    A method of determining the location and history of metallic nitride and/or oxynitride inclusions in metallic melts. The method includes the steps of labeling metallic nitride and/or oxynitride inclusions by making a coreduced metallic-hafnium sponge from a mixture of hafnium chloride and the chloride of a metal, reducing the mixed chlorides with magnesium, nitriding the hafnium-labeled metallic-hafnium sponge, and seeding the sponge to be melted with hafnium-labeled nitride inclusions. The ingots are neutron activated and the hafnium is located by radiometric means. Hafnium possesses exactly the proper metallurgical and radiochemical properties for this use.

  13. ITP Metal Casting: A Vision for the U.S. Metal Casting Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    KB) More Documents & Publications ITP Metal Casting: Metalcasting Industry Technology Roadmap ITP Metal Casting: Implementation of Metal Casting Best Practices ITP Metal Casting: ...

  14. Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates M.P. Brady (project lead) P. F. Tortorelli Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6115 Feb 14, 2007 Kick-Off Meeting OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 1 Effort Devoted to Scale Up and Demonstration of Thin Stamped Metallic Bipolar Plates Timeline Barriers * Start- April, 2006 * A. Durability (estimated) * Finish- April, 2008 * B. Cost (estimated) * Targets (2010) - resistivity < 10 mohm-cm 2 - corrosion < 1 x10 -6 A/cm 2

  15. Metal-smelting facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kellogg, D.R.; Mack, J.E.; Thompson, W.T.; Williams, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Currently there are 90,000 tons of contaminated ferrous and nonferrous scrap metal stored in aboveground scrap yards at the Department of Energy's Uranium Enrichment Facilities in Tennessee, Kentucky, and Ohio. This scrap is primarily contaminated with 100 to 500 ppM uranium at an average enrichment of 1 to 1.5% /sup 235/U. A study was performed that evaluated smelting of the ORGDP metal in a reference facility located at Oak Ridge. The study defined the process systems and baseline requirements, evaluated alternatives to smelting, and provided capital and operating costs for the reference facility. A review of the results and recommendations of this study are presented.

  16. Metal alloy identifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, William D. (Avondale, MD); Brown, Jr., Robert D. (Avondale, MD)

    1987-01-01

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  17. Liquid metal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  18. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-07-26

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  19. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell

    1986-01-01

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  20. Bi–Mn mixed metal organic oxide: A novel 3d-6p mixed metal coordination network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Fa-Nian; Rosa Silva, Ana; Bian, Liang

    2015-05-15

    A new terminology of metal organic oxide (MOO) was given a definition as a type of coordination polymers which possess the feature of inorganic connectivity between metals and the direct bonded atoms and show 1D, 2D or 3D inorganic sub-networks. One such compound was shown as an example. A 3d-6p (Mn–Bi. Named MOOMnBi) mixed metals coordination network has been synthesized via hydrothermal method. The new compound with the molecular formula of [MnBi{sub 2}O(1,3,5-BTC){sub 2}]{sub n} (1,3,5-BTC stands for benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) was characterized via single crystal X-ray diffraction technique that revealed a very interesting 3-dimensional (3D) framework with Bi{sub 4}O{sub 2}(COO){sub 12} clusters which are further connected to Mn(COO){sub 6} fragments into a 2D MOO. The topology study indicates an unprecedented topological type with the net point group of (4{sup 13}.6{sup 2})(4{sup 13}.6{sup 8})(4{sup 16}.6{sup 5})(4{sup 18}.6{sup 10})(4{sup 22}.6{sup 14})(4{sup 3}) corresponding to 3,6,7,7,8,9-c hexa-nodal net. MOOMnBi shows catalytic activity in the synthesis of (E)-α,β-unsaturated ketones. - Graphical abstract: This metal organic framework (MOF) is the essence of a 2D metal organic oxide (MOO). - Highlights: • New concept of metal organic oxide (MOO) was defined and made difference from metal organic framework. • New MOO of MOOMnBi was synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Crystal structure of MOOMnBi was determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. • The catalytic activity of MOOMnBi was studied showing reusable after 2 cycles.

  1. On the conditions for enhanced transport through molecular junctions based on metal centres ligated by pairs of pyridazino-derived ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Bei; Washington, Victoria; Dunietz, Barry D

    2010-10-10

    Transport properties of a Ni bis-?{sup 2} complex ligated by a pair of bi-pyridazino derivative are considered. This complex provides the opportunity to avoid perpendicular alignment of the ligand ? planes. We study the effects of ?-bonding and of intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the ligands as mediated by the metal centre on electron transport. The complicated effect of the electronic structure equilibration with the electrodes on the transport is discussed. The analysis at the electronic structure level provides guidelines to design a molecular bridge that is based on metal complexation with effective electronic transport.

  2. Time-Resolved XAFS Spectroscopic Studies of B-H and N-H Oxidative Addition to Transition Metal Catalysts Relevant to Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitterwolf, Thomas E.

    2014-12-09

    Successful catalytic dehydrogenation of aminoborane, H3NBH3, prompted questions as to the potential role of N-H oxidative addition in the mechanisms of these processes. N-H oxidative addition reactions are rare, and in all cases appear to involve initial dative bonding to the metal by the amine lone pairs followed by transfer of a proton to the basic metal. Aminoborane and its trimethylborane derivative block this mechanism and, in principle, should permit authentic N-H oxidative attrition to occur. Extensive experimental work failed to confirm this hypothesis. In all cases either B-H complexation or oxidative addition of solvent C-H bonds dominate the chemistry.

  3. Wick for metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

  4. Effect of nuclear ownership on utility bond ratings and yields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nesse, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    The major objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that investors have required an additional interest rate premium before purchasing bonds of utilities with large investments in nuclear facilities. The study required several tasks. First, the literature relating to firm bankruptcy and default was reviewed. Second, the failing financial health of the electric utility industry was assessed in terms of construction problems, the impact of federal and state regulations, and the impact of Three Mile Island. Finally, data were collected on 63 electric utilities. This allowed statistical estimation of the magnitude of the risk premium associated with utility involvement in nuclear power. The effect of this involvement on a utility's bond ratings was also examined. Multiple regression was the statistical tool used for the statistical testing and estimation.

  5. Characterization of Fuel-Cladding Bond Strength Using Laser Shock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Smith; David L. Cottle; Barry H. Rabin

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes new laser-based capabilities for characterization of fuel-cladding bond strength in nuclear fuels, and presents preliminary results obtained from studies on as-fabricated monolithic fuel consisting of uranium-10 wt.% molybdenum alloys clad in 6061 aluminum by hot isostatic pressing. Two complementary experimental methods are employed, laser-shock testing and laser-ultrasonic imaging. Measurements are spatially localized, non-contacting and require minimum specimen preparation, and are therefore ideally suited for applications involving radioactive materials, including irradiated materials. The theoretical principles and experimental approaches employed in characterization of nuclear fuel plates are described. The ability to measure layer thicknesses, elastic properties of the constituents, and the location and nature of laser-shock induced debonds is demonstrated, and preliminary bond strength measurement results are discussed.

  6. Wafer bonded virtual substrate and method for forming the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atwater, Jr., Harry A.; Zahler, James M.; Morral, Anna Fontcuberta i

    2007-07-03

    A method of forming a virtual substrate comprised of an optoelectronic device substrate and handle substrate comprises the steps of initiating bonding of the device substrate to the handle substrate, improving or increasing the mechanical strength of the device and handle substrates, and thinning the device substrate to leave a single-crystal film on the virtual substrate such as by exfoliation of a device film from the device substrate. The handle substrate is typically Si or other inexpensive common substrate material, while the optoelectronic device substrate is formed of more expensive and specialized electro-optic material. Using the methodology of the invention a wide variety of thin film electro-optic materials of high quality can be bonded to inexpensive substrates which serve as the mechanical support for an optoelectronic device layer fabricated in the thin film electro-optic material.

  7. Final Report: Metal Perhydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, J-Y.; Shi, S.; Hackney, S.; Swenson, D.; Hu, Y.

    2011-07-26

    Hydrogen is a promising energy source for the future economy due to its environmental friendliness. One of the important obstacles for the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel source for applications such as fuel cells is the storage of hydrogen. In the infrastructure of the expected hydrogen economy, hydrogen storage is one of the key enabling technologies. Although hydrogen possesses the highest gravimetric energy content (142 KJ/g) of all fuels, its volumetric energy density (8 MJ/L) is very low. It is desired to increase the volumetric energy density of hydrogen in a system to satisfy various applications. Research on hydrogen storage has been pursed for many years. Various storage technologies, including liquefaction, compression, metal hydride, chemical hydride, and adsorption, have been examined. Liquefaction and high pressure compression are not desired due to concerns related to complicated devices, high energy cost and safety. Metal hydrides and chemical hydrides have high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities but encounter issues because high temperature is required for the release of hydrogen, due to the strong bonding of hydrogen in the compounds. Reversibility of hydrogen loading and unloading is another concern. Adsorption of hydrogen on high surface area sorbents such as activated carbon and organic metal frameworks does not have the reversibility problem. But on the other hand, the weak force (primarily the van der Waals force) between hydrogen and the sorbent yields a very small amount of adsorption capacity at ambient temperature. Significant storage capacity can only be achieved at low temperatures such as 77K. The use of liquid nitrogen in a hydrogen storage system is not practical. Perhydrides are proposed as novel hydrogen storage materials that may overcome barriers slowing advances to a hydrogen fuel economy. In conventional hydrides, e.g. metal hydrides, the number of hydrogen atoms equals the total valence of the metal ions. One Li

  8. Metal Insertion in a Microporous Metal-Organic Framework Lined...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Insertion in a Microporous Metal-Organic Framework Lined with 2,2 '-Bipyridine Previous Next List E. D. Bloch, D. Britt, C. Lee, C. J. Doonan, F. J. Uribe-Romo, H. Furukawa, ...

  9. Selectivity of Chemisorbed Oxygen in C-H Bond Activation and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Selectivity of Chemisorbed Oxygen in C-H Bond Activation and CO Oxidation and Kinetic ... Title: Selectivity of Chemisorbed Oxygen in C-H Bond Activation and CO Oxidation and ...

  10. Mechanisms of Selective Cleavage of C-O Bonds in Di-aryl Ethers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Selective Cleavage of C-O Bonds in Di-aryl Ethers in Aqueous Phase Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanisms of Selective Cleavage of C-O Bonds in Di-aryl Ethers in ...

  11. Bridging silyl groups in sigma-bond metathesis and [1, 2] shifts...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bridging silyl groups in sigma-bond metathesis and 1, 2 shifts. An experimental and ... Title: Bridging silyl groups in sigma-bond metathesis and 1, 2 shifts. An experimental ...

  12. Metal working lubricant compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andress, H.J.; Davis, R.H.; Schick, J.W.

    1981-08-11

    A lubricant concentrate for use in metal processing comprises a sulfur compound such as a sulfurized olefin or sulfurized mineral oil and an ester prepared from a fatty acid having 12 to 40 carbon atoms or the dimer thereof or a polyalkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride and a hydroxyl-containing amine.

  13. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conner, W.V.

    1981-10-09

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as souces of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  14. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conner, William V.

    1983-01-01

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  15. Metal halogen electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bellows, Richard J.; Kantner, Edward

    1988-08-23

    It has now been discovered that reduction in the coulombic efficiency of metal halogen cells can be minimized if the microporous separator employed in such cells is selected from one which is preferably wet by the aqueous electrolyte and is not wet substantially by the cathodic halogen.

  16. Serpentine metal gasket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothgeb, Timothy Moore; Reece, Charles Edwin

    2009-06-02

    A metallic seal or gasket for use in the joining of cryogenic fluid conduits, the seal or gasket having a generally planar and serpentine periphery defining a central aperture. According to a preferred embodiment, the periphery has at least two opposing elongated serpentine sides and two opposing arcuate ends joining the opposing elongated serpentine sides and is of a hexagonal cross-section.

  17. Metal corrosion in a supercritical carbon dioxide - liquid sodium power cycle.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Robert Charles; Conboy, Thomas M.

    2012-02-01

    A liquid sodium cooled fast reactor coupled to a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power cycle is a promising combination for the next generation nuclear power production process. For optimum efficiency, a microchannel heat exchanger, constructed by diffusion bonding, can be used for heat transfer from the liquid sodium reactor coolant to the supercritical carbon dioxide. In this work, we have reviewed the literature on corrosion of metals in liquid sodium and carbon dioxide. The main conclusions are (1) pure, dry CO{sub 2} is virtually inert but can be highly corrosive in the presence of even ppm concentrations of water, (2) carburization and decarburization are very significant mechanism for corrosion in liquid sodium especially at high temperature and the mechanism is not well understood, and (3) very little information could be located on corrosion of diffusion bonded metals. Significantly more research is needed in all of these areas.

  18. Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for mass production and that produces high adhesive strength of the ceramic-metal interfaces. Consider the fabrication and use of low-cost AlN as a potential (and...

  19. Compacting Plastic-Bonded Explosive Molding Powders to Dense Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Olinger

    2005-04-15

    Dense solid high explosives are made by compacting plastic-bonded explosive molding powders with high pressures and temperatures for extended periods of time. The density is influenced by manufacturing processes of the powders, compaction temperature, the magnitude of compaction pressure, pressure duration, and number of repeated applications of pressure. The internal density variation of compacted explosives depends on method of compaction and the material being compacted.

  20. Oxford Area Community School District (Michigan) Bonds Case Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Michigans Oxford Area Community School District entered into an energy savings performance contract and issued limited tax general obligation bonds to fund the up-front costs of almost $3 million of energy-related improvements. Case study is excerpted from Financing Energy Upgrades for K-12 School Districts: A Guide to Tapping into Funding for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements. Author: Merrian Borgeson and Mark Zimring