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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide polymer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Durable metallized polymer mirror  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

PAD: Polymer-Assisted Deposition of Metal-Oxide and Metal ...  

Wind Energy; Partners (27) Visual Patent ... for the successful production of both simple and complex metal-oxide films such as TiO2, ITO, SrTiO3, TiN, AlN, and ...

3

Polymer quenched prealloyed metal powder  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3 % Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Midlothian, VA); Fleischhauer, Grier (Midlothian, VA); German, Randall M. (State College, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Metal atom oxidation laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides. (auth)

Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

1975-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

5

Metal atom oxidation laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides.

Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

1975-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

6

Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

DeSimone, Joseph M. (7315 Crescent Ridge Dr., Chapel Hill, NC 27516); Tumas, William (1130 Big Rock Loop, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Powell, Kimberly R. (103 Timber Hollow Ct. Apartment 323, Chapel Hill, NC 27514); McCleskey, T. Mark (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Romack, Timothy J. (5810 Forest Ridge Dr., Durham, NC 27713); McClain, James B. (8530 Sommersweet La., Raleigh, NC 27612); Birnbaum, Eva R. (1930 Camino Mora, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Extracting metals directly from metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Extracting metals directly from metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

9

MESOPOROUS METAL OXIDE MICROSPHERE ELECTRODE COMPOSITIONS AND ...  

Compositions and methods of making are provided for mesoporous metal oxide microspheres electrodes. The mesoporous metal oxide microsphere ...

10

Two Dimensional Polymer That Generates Nitric Oxide.  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A polymeric composition that generates nitric oxide and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate nonthrombogenic by applying a coating of the polymeric composition to the substrate are disclosed. The composition comprises: (1) a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, and (ii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups; and (2) a plurality of nitric oxide generating functional groups associated with the crosslinked chemical combination. Once exposed to a physiological environment, the coating generates nitric oxide thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. In one embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups are provided by a nitrated compound (e.g., nitrocellulose) imbedded in the polymeric composition. In another embodiment, the nitric oxide generating functional groups comprise N2O2- groups covalently bonded to amino groups on the polymer.

McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Koren, Amy B. (Lansing, MI)

2005-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

11

Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large variety of polymer and metal matrix composites have an overlapping ... of Metal Matrix Composites via Spark Plasma Sintering for Nuclear Energy ...

12

Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aluminum-fly Ash Composites Produced by Powder Metallurgy Processing · Characterisation of Al-AC8H/Al2O3p Metal Matrix Composites Produced by Stir ...

13

Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This summarizes NREL's FY09 battery materials research activity in developing metal oxide nanostructured anodes to enable high-energy, durable and affordable li-ion batteries for HEVs and PHEVs.

Dillon, A. C.; Riley, L. A.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ban, C.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Pesaran, A.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This summarizes NREL's FY09 battery materials research activity in developing metal oxide nanostructured anodes to enable high-energy, durable and affordable li-ion batteries for HEVs and PHEVs.

Dillon, A. C.; Riley, L. A.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ban, C.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Pesaran, A.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES  

SciTech Connect

This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Atomizing apparatus for making polymer and metal powders and whiskers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method for making polymer particulates, such as spherical powder and whiskers, by melting a polymer material under conditions to avoid thermal degradation of the polymer material, atomizing the melt using gas jet means in a manner to form atomized droplets, and cooling the droplets to form polymer particulates, which are collected for further processing. Atomization parameters can be controlled to produce polymer particulates with controlled particle shape, particle size, and particle size distribution. For example, atomization parameters can be controlled to produce spherical polymer powders, polymer whiskers, and combinations of spherical powders and whiskers. Atomizing apparatus also is provided for atoomizing polymer and metallic materials.

Otaigbe, Joshua U. (Ames, IA); McAvoy, Jon M. (Moline, IL); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Mi, Jia (Pittsburgh, PA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA)

2003-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

17

Process for fabrication of metal oxide films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a method of fabricating metal oxide films from a plurality of reactants by inducing a reaction by plasma deposition among the reactants. The plasma reaction is effective for consolidating the reactants and producing thin films of metal oxides, e.g. electro-optically active transition metal oxides, at a high deposition rate. The presence of hydrogen during the plasma reaction enhances the deposition rate of the metal oxide. Various types of metal oxide films can be produced.

Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.; Svensson, S.

1990-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

18

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for medical imaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the most versatile and safe materials used in medicine are polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. This dissertation describes several formulations for in vivo imaging applications. The paramagnetic polymer-coated ...

Chen, Suelin, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Machinable dissolved metal oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Powders of a metal oxide superconductor are mixed with sufficient amount (10--80 mol%) of In, Sn, and/or Al, to become nonbrittle, machinable. Preferred superconductors are YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]x] and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O compounds.

Chen, Chung-Hsuan.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide polymer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Machinable dissolved metal oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Powders of a metal oxide superconductor are mixed with sufficient amount (10--80 mol%) of In, Sn, and/or Al, to become nonbrittle, machinable. Preferred superconductors are YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O compounds.

Chen, Chung-Hsuan

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Jeon, Sea Ho (Dracut, MA); Mack, Nathan H. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

23

Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof  

SciTech Connect

Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Jeon, Sea Ho (Dracut, MA); Mack, Nathan H. (Los Alamos, NM)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

24

Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene Triple Junction Points  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbon-supported metal catalysts are widely used in heterogeneous catalysis and electrocatalysis. In this paper, we report a novel method to deposit metal catalysts and metal oxide nanoparticles on two-dimensional graphene sheets to improve the catalytic performance and stability of the catalyst materials. The new synthesis method allows indium tin oxide (ITO) nanocrystals to be directly grown on functionalized graphene sheets forming the ITO-graphene hybrids. Pt nanoparticles are then deposited to form a special triple-junction structure (Pt-ITO-graphene). Both experimental study and periodic density functional theory calculations show that the supported Pt nanoparticles are stable at Pt-ITO-graphene triple junction points. The new catalyst materials were tested for oxygen reduction for potential applications in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, and they exhibited greatly enhanced stability and activity. The reasons for the high stability and activity of Pt-ITO-graphene are analyzed.

Kou, Rong; Shao, Yuyan; Mei, Donghai; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Wang, Chong M.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Park, Seh K.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

25

Solid polymer battery electrolyte and reactive metal-water battery  

SciTech Connect

In one implementation, a reactive metal-water battery includes an anode comprising a metal in atomic or alloy form selected from the group consisting of periodic table Group 1A metals, periodic table Group 2A metals and mixtures thereof. The battery includes a cathode comprising water. Such also includes a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a polyphosphazene comprising ligands bonded with a phosphazene polymer backbone. The ligands comprise an aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion and a metal ion carrier portion. The metal ion carrier portion is bonded at one location with the polymer backbone and at another location with the aromatic ring containing hydrophobic portion. The invention also contemplates such solid polymer electrolytes use in reactive metal/water batteries, and in any other battery.

Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Formation of metal oxides by cathodic arc deposition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metal oxide thin films are of interest for a number of applications. Cathodic arc deposition, an established, industrially applied technique for formation of nitrides (e.g. TiN), can also be used for metal oxide thin film formation. A cathodic arc plasma source with desired cathode material is operated in an oxygen atmosphere, and metal oxides of various stoichiometric composition can be formed on different substrates. We report here on a series of experiments on metal oxide formation by cathodic arc deposition for different applications. Black copper oxide has been deposited on ALS components to increase the radiative heat transfer between the parts. Various metal oxides such as tungsten oxide, niobium oxide, nickel oxide and vanadium oxide have been deposited on ITO glass to form electrochromic films for window applications. Tantalum oxide films are of interest for replacing polymer electrolytes. Optical waveguide structures can be formed by refractive index variation using oxide multilayers. We have synthesized multilayers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si as possible basic structures for passive optoelectronic integrated circuits, and Al{sub 2-x}Er{sub x}O{sub 3} thin films with a variable Er concentration which is a potential component layer for the production of active optoelectronic integrated devices such as amplifiers or lasers at a wavelength of 1.53 {mu}m. Aluminum and chromium oxide films have been deposited on a number of substrates to impart improved corrosion resistance at high temperature. Titanium sub-oxides which are electrically conductive and corrosion resistant and stable in a number of aggressive environments have been deposited on various substrates. These sub-oxides are of great interest for use in electrochemical cells.

Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Rubin, M.; Wang, Z.; Raoux, S.; Kong, F.; Brown, I.G.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates.

Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

28

Electropositive bivalent metallic ion unsaturated polyester complexed polymer concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Quick setting polymer concrete compositions which are mixtures of unsaturated polyesters and crosslinking monomers together with appropriate initiators and promoters in association with aggregate which may be wet and a source of bivalent metallic ions which will set to polymer concrete with excellent structural properties.

Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.; Horn, W.H.

1981-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

29

Electropositive bivalent metallic ion unsaturated polyester complexed polymer concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Quick setting polymer concrete compositions with excellent structural properties are disclosed; these polymer concrete compositions are mixtures of unsaturated polyesters and crosslinking monomers together with appropriate initiators and promoters in association with aggregate, which may be wet, and with a source of bivalent metallic ions.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Mastic Beach, NY); Kukacka, Lawrence E. (Port Jefferson, NY); Horn, William H. (Brookhaven, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Electropositive bivalent metallic ion unsaturated polyester complexed polymer concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Quick setting polymer concrete compositions are described which are mixtures of unsaturated polyesters and crosslinking monomers together with appropriate initiators and promoters in association with aggregate which may be wet and a source of bivalent metallic ions which will set to polymer concrete with excellent structural properties.

Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.; Horn, W.H.

1983-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

31

Laser Processing of Metals and Polymers  

SciTech Connect

A laser offers a unique set of opportunities for precise delivery of high quality coherent energy. This energy can be tailored to alter the properties of material allowing a very flexible adjustment of the interaction that can lead to melting, vaporization, or just surface modification. Nowadays laser systems can be found in nearly all branches of research and industry for numerous applications. Sufficient evidence exists in the literature to suggest that further advancements in the field of laser material processing will rely significantly on the development of new process schemes. As a result they can be applied in various applications starting from fundamental research on systems, materials and processes performed on a scientific and technical basis for the industrial needs. The interaction of intense laser radiation with solid surfaces has extensively been studied for many years, in part, for development of possible applications. In this thesis, I present several applications of laser processing of metals and polymers including polishing niobium surface, producing a superconducting phase niobium nitride and depositing thin films of niobium nitride and organic material (cyclic olefin copolymer). The treated materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), high resolution optical microscopy, surface profilometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Power spectral density (PSD) spectra computed from AFM data gives further insight into the effect of laser melting on the topography of the treated niobium.

Senthilraja Singaravelu

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

32

Metal oxide composite dosimeter method and material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method of measuring a radiation dose wherein a radiation responsive material consisting essentially of metal oxide is first exposed to ionizing radiation. The metal oxide is then stimulating with light thereby causing the radiation responsive material to photoluminesce. Photons emitted from the metal oxide as a result of photoluminescence may be counted to provide a measure of the ionizing radiation.

Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Metal Current Collector Protected by Oxide Film  

For Industry; For Researchers; Success Stories; About Us; ... metal felt made substantially of inexpensive ferritic steel coated with a thin oxide film, ...

34

Reduction of Metal Oxide to Metal using Ionic Liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel pathway for the high efficiency production of metal from metal oxide means of electrolysis in ionic liquids at low temperature was investigated. The main emphasis was to eliminate the use of carbon and high temperature application in the reduction of metal oxides to metals. The emphasis of this research was to produce metals such as Zn, and Pb that are normally produced by the application of very high temperatures. The reduction of zinc oxide to zinc and lead oxide to lead were investigated. This study involved three steps in accomplishing the final goal of reduction of metal oxide to metal using ionic liquids: 1) Dissolution of metal oxide in an ionic liquid, 2) Determination of reduction potential using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 3) Reduction of the dissolved metal oxide. Ionic liquids provide additional advantage by offering a wide potential range for the deposition. In each and every step of the process, more than one process variable has been examined. Experimental results for electrochemical extraction of Zn from ZnO and Pb from PbO using eutectic mixtures of Urea ((NH2)2CO) and Choline chloride (HOC2H4N(CH3)3+Cl-) or (ChCl) in a molar ratio 2:1, varying voltage and temperatures were carried out. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of ionic liquids with and without metal oxide additions were conducted. FTIR and induction coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICPS) was used in the characterization of the metal oxide dissolved ionic liquid. Electrochemical experiments were conducted using EG&G potentiostat/galvanostat with three electrode cell systems. Cyclic voltammetry was used in the determination of reduction potentials for the deposition of metals. Chronoamperometric experiments were carried out in the potential range of -0.6V to -1.9V for lead and -1.4V to -1.9V for zinc. The deposits were characterized using XRD and SEM-EDS for phase, morphological and elemental analysis. The results showed that pure metal was deposited on the cathode. Successful extraction of metal from metal oxide dissolved in Urea/ChCl (2:1) was accomplished. The current efficiencies were relatively high in both the metal deposition processes with current efficiency greater than 86% for lead and 95% for zinc. This technology will advance the metal oxide reduction process by increasing the process efficiency and also eliminate the production of CO2 which makes this an environmentally benign technology for metal extraction.

Dr. Ramana Reddy

2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

35

Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials  

SciTech Connect

Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

36

Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels.

Droege, Michael W. (Livermore, CA); Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Hair, Lucy M. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels. 6 figs.

Droege, M.W.; Coronado, P.R.; Hair, L.M.

1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

38

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Process for etching mixed metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An etching process using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstom range may be achieved by this method.

Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Process for etching mixed metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An etching process is described using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstrom range may be achieved by this method. 1 fig.

Ashby, C.I.H.; Ginley, D.S.

1994-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide polymer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The containment vessel is enclosed within an aqueous atmosphere that is above the supercritical temperature and pressure of the solvent of the metal alkoxide solution.

Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Superconductivity in Metal-mixed Ion-Implanted Polymer Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ion-implantation of normally insulating polymers offers an alternative to depositing conjugated organics onto plastic films to make electronic circuits. We used a 50 keV nitrogen ion beam to mix a thin 10 nm Sn/Sb alloy film into the sub-surface of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and report the low temperature properties of this material. We observed metallic behavior, and the onset of superconductivity below 3 K. There are strong indications that the superconductivity does not result from a residual thin-film of alloy, but instead from a network of alloy grains coupled via a weakly conducting, ion-beam carbonized polymer matrix.

A. P. Micolich; E. Tavenner; B. J. Powell; A. R. Hamilton; M. T. Curry; R. E. Giedd; P. Meredith

2005-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

43

Spectroscopic studies of metal growth on oxides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metal/oxide chemistry and metal cluster growth on oxides are fundamental to our understanding of the catalytic activity and selectivity of metal catalysts, thus considerable research recently has addressed the physical and chemical properties of metal clusters on well-defined oxide surfaces. In this work, the nucleation and growth modes of Ag on TiO?(110)(1x1) and (1x2) surfaces, Ag on ultra-thin Al?O? films, and Au on ultra-thin SiO? films were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEIS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In general, Ag grows three-dimensionally (3D) on both TiO?(110) and Al?O? film at 300 K. The growth mode of Au at fractional monolayer coverages is quasi-two dimensional (2D); at higher coverages, three-dimensional growth of Au was found. In these three systems, Ag/TiO?, Ag/Al?O?, and Au/SiO?, no strong chemical interaction was observed between metal clusters and substrates. Sintering was observed for all metal clusters upon annealing. A non-zero order desorption was observed for Ag/Al?O? and Au/SiO? in temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies. The desorption activation energies decrease with decreasing metal coverages.

Luo, Kai

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Senkov, Oleg N. (Moscow, ID)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Oxidation Behavior of Metallic Glass - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, M. Bulk Metallic Glasses, Nanocrystalline Materials, and ... Application of Metallic Glass for High Performance Si Solar Cell: Oxidation Behavior of ...

46

Template synthesis and surface modification of metal oxides.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Porous metal oxide monoliths, specifically silica, titania, zirconia and mixed oxides containing aluminum and yttrium, were prepared in a one-pot synthesis. Macroporosity was induced using… (more)

Drisko, Glenna Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques. 2 figures.

Anderson, M.A.

1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

48

Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Free Energies of Novel Metal Oxides and Metal Oxide Surfaces at ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The deposition of metal oxides on nuclear fuel rods in ... melds first principles calculations with experimental free energies of formation, we have ... and Pressures using Thermodynamics Informed by Density Functional Theory.

50

Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to ...  

Using metal oxide semiconductor nanoparticles to target and control biological molecules could fuel medical breakthroughs in many areas, including ...

51

Modeling and precision control of ionic polymer metal composite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the open-loop behavior of an ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) strip as a novel actuator, the empirical force and position models, the control system and the improved dynamic characteristics with the feedback control implemented. Ionic polymer metal composite is a novel polymer in the class of electroactive polymers. IPMC consists of a base polymer coated with electrodes made up of highly conducting pure metals such as gold. The actuation behavior of IPMC can be attributed to the bending of an IPMC strip upon application of voltage across its thickness. The main reasons for the bending are ion migration on the application of voltage and swelling and contraction caused by water content. An experimental setup to study the open-loop force and tip displacement of an IPMC strip in a cantilever configuration was developed, and real time controllers were implemented. In open loop, the force response of the IPMC strip of dimensions 25 mm x 3.9 mm x 0.16 mm to a 1.2-V step input is studied. The open-loop rise time was 0.08 s and the percent overshoot was 131.62 %, while the settling time was about 10 s. Based on this open-loop step response using a least-square curve-fitting methodology, a fourth-order empirical transfer function from the voltage input to the force output was derived. The tip displacement response of an IPMC strip of dimensions 23 mm x 3.96 mm x 0.16 mm to a 1.2-V step input was also studied. The step response exhibited a 205.34 % overshoot with a rise time of 0.08 s, and the settling time was 27 s. A fourth-order empirical transfer function from the step input to the tip displacement as output was also derived. Based on the derived transfer functions lead-lag feedback controllers were designed for precision control of both force and displacement. The control objectives were to decrease the settling time and the percent overshoot, and achieve reference input tracking. After implementing the controllers, the percent overshoot decreased to 30% while the settling time was reduced to 1.5 s in case of force control. With position control, the settling time was reduced to 1 s while the percent overshoot decreased to 20%. Precision micro-scale force and position-control capabilities of the IPMC were also demonstrated. A 4 ?N force resolution was achieved, with a force noise of 0.904-?N rms. The position resolution was 20 ?m with a position noise of 7.6-?m rms.

Bhat, Nikhil Dilip

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Impact Dynamics of Oxidized Liquid Metal Drops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With exposure to air, many liquid metals spontaneously generate an oxide layer on their surface. In oscillatory rheological tests, this skin is found to introduce a yield stress that typically dominates the elastic response but can be tuned by exposing the metal to hydrochloric acid solutions of different concentration. We systematically studied the normal impact of eutectic gallium-indium (eGaIn) drops under different oxidation conditions and show how this leads to two different dynamical regimes. At low impact velocity (or low Weber number), eGaIn droplets display strong recoil and rebound from the impacted surface when the oxide layer is removed. In addition, the degree of drop deformation or spreading during the impact is controlled by the oxide skin. We show that the scaling law known from ordinary liquids for the maximum spreading radius as a function of impact velocity can still be applied to the case of oxidized eGaIn if an effective Weber number $We^{\\star}$ is employed that uses an effective surface...

Xu, Qin; Jaeger, Heinrich M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Reactor vessel using metal oxide ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Zeltner, Walter A. (Oregon, WI)

1992-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

54

Metal oxide and metal fluoride nanostructures and methods of making same  

SciTech Connect

The present invention includes pure single-crystalline metal oxide and metal fluoride nanostructures, and methods of making same. These nanostructures include nanorods and nanoarrays.

Wong, Stanislaus S. (Stony Brook, NY); Mao, Yuanbing (Los Angeles, CA)

2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

55

Thermal barrier and overlay coating systems comprising composite metal/metal oxide bond coating layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention generally describes multilayer coating systems comprising a composite metal/metal oxide bond coat layer. The coating systems may be used in gas turbines.

Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL); Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Hydrous metal oxide catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work performed at Sandia under a CRADA with Shell Development of Houston, Texas aimed at developing hydrous metal oxide (HMO) catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons. Autoxidation as well as selective oxidation of 1-octene was studied in the presence of HMO catalysts based on known oxidation catalysts. The desired reactions were the conversion of olefin to epoxides, alcohols, and ketones, HMOs seem to inhibit autoxidation reactions, perhaps by reacting with peroxides or radicals. Attempts to use HMOs and metal loaded HMOs as epoxidation catalysts were unsuccessful, although their utility for this reaction was not entirely ruled out. Likewise, alcohol formation from olefins in the presence of HMO catalysts was not achieved. However, this work led to the discovery that acidified HMOs can lead to carbocation reactions of hydrocarbons such as cracking. An HMO catalyst containing Rh and Cu that promotes the reaction of {alpha}-olefins with oxygen to form methyl ketones was identified. Although the activity of the catalyst is relatively low and isomerization reactions of the olefin simultaneously occur, results indicate that these problems may be addressed by eliminating mass transfer limitations. Other suggestions for improving the catalyst are also made. 57 refs.

Miller, J.E.; Dosch, R.G.; McLaughlin, L.I. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Process Research Dept.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Method for producing metal oxide aerogels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two-step hydrolysis-condensation method was developed to form metal oxide aerogels of any density, including densities of less than 0.003g/cm{sup 3} and greater than 0.27g/cm{sup 3}. High purity metal alkoxide is reacted with water, alcohol solvent, and an additive to form a partially condensed metal intermediate. All solvent and reaction-generated alcohol is removed, and the intermediate is diluted with a nonalcoholic solvent. The intermediate can be stored for future use to make aerogels of any density. The aerogels are formed by reacting the intermediate with water, nonalcoholic solvent, and a catalyst, and extracting the nonalcoholic solvent directly. The resulting monolithic aerogels are hydrophobic and stable under atmospheric conditions, and exhibit good optical transparency, high clarity, and homogeneity. The aerogels have high thermal insulation capacity, high porosity, mechanical strength and stability, and require shorter gelation times than aerogels formed by conventional methods. 8 figs.

Tillotson, T.M.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Thomas, I.M.

1995-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

58

Method for producing metal oxide aerogels  

SciTech Connect

A two-step hydrolysis-condensation method was developed to form metal oxide aerogels of any density, including densities of less than 0.003g/cm.sup.3 and greater than 0.27g/cm.sup.3. High purity metal alkoxide is reacted with water, alcohol solvent, and an additive to form a partially condensed metal intermediate. All solvent and reaction-generated alcohol is removed, and the intermediate is diluted with a nonalcoholic solvent. The intermediate can be stored for future use to make aerogels of any density. The aerogels are formed by reacting the intermediate with water, nonalcoholic solvent, and a catalyst, and extracting the nonalcoholic solvent directly. The resulting monolithic aerogels are hydrophobic and stable under atmospheric conditions, and exhibit good optical transparency, high clarity, and homogeneity. The aerogels have high thermal insulation capacity, high porosity, mechanical strength and stability, and require shorter gelation times than aerogels formed by conventional methods.

Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Thomas, Ian M. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Metallic Ferroelectricity and Superconductivity in the Transition Metal Oxide Pyrochlore Cd2Re2O7.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Single crystalline samples of transition metal oxide Cd2Re2O7, the first superconductor among pyrochlore oxides with general formula A2B2O7 and the first example of “ferroelectric metal”… (more)

He, Jian

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Synthesis of Thermal Interface Materials Made of Metal Decorated Carbon Nanotubes and Polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the synthesis of a low modulus, thermally conductive thermal interface materials (TIM) using metal decorated nanotubes as fillers. TIMs are very important in electronics because they act as a thermally-conductive medium for thermal transfer between the interface of a heat sink and an electronic package. The performance of an electronic package decreases with increasing operating temperature, hence, there exists a need to create a TIM which has high thermal conduction to reduce the operating temperature. The TIM in this study is made from metal decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and VinnapasźBP 600 polymer. The sample was functionalized using mild oxidative treatment with nitric acid (HNO3) or, with N-Methly-2-Pyrrolidone (NMP). The metals used for this experiment were copper (Cu), tin (Sn), and nickel (Ni). The metal nanoparticles were seeded using functionalized MWCNTs as templates. Once seeded, the nanotubes and polymer composites were made with or without sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), as a surfactant. Thermal conductivity (k) measurement was carried out using ASTM D-5470 method at room temperature. This setup best models the working conditions of a TIM. The TIM samples made for this study showed promise in their ability to have significant increase in thermal conduction while retaining the polymer’s mechanical properties. The highest k value that was obtained was 0.72 W/m-K for a well dispersed aligned 5 wt percent Ni@MWCNT sample. The Cu samples underperformed both Ni and Sn samples for the same synthesis conditions. This is because Cu nanoparticles were significantly larger than those of Ni and Sn. They were large enough to cause alloy scattering and too large to attach to the nanotubes. Addition of thermally-conductive fillers, such as exfoliated graphite, did not yield better k results as it sunk to the bottom during drying. The use of SDBS greatly increased the k values of the sample by reducing agglomeration. Increasing the amount of metal@MWCNT wt percent in the sample had negative or no effect to the k values. Shear testing on the sample shows it adheres well to the surface when pressure is applied, yet it can be removed with ease.

Okoth, Marion Odul

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide polymer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Correlation between the Indium Tin Oxide morphology and the performances of polymer light-emitting diodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: This paper reports on performance enhancement of polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) based on poly(2,5-bis. Keywords : Polymer light emitting diode; Indium tin oxide; Atomic force microscopy; Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy 1. Introduction Polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) have received worldwide

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

62

Metal oxide membranes for gas separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for permformation of a microporous ceramic membrane onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane having mean pore sizes less than 30 Angstroms and useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or gas separation.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Webster, Elizabeth T. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Plainsboro, NJ)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Metal oxide membranes for gas separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for formation of a microporous ceramic membrane onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane having mean pore sizes less than 30 Angstroms and useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or gas separation. 4 figs.

Anderson, M.A.; Webster, E.T.; Xu, Q.

1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

64

Kinetic Consequences of Chemisorbed Oxygen Atoms during Methane Oxidation on Group VIII Metal Clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

v for the oxidation of bulk Pt metals. The bulk oxidation isbulk, cluster size and metal coordination effects on thermodynamic tendencies of bulk oxidation,O s * sites at metal surfaces. Bulk oxidation exposes Pd 2+

Chin, Ya Huei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Ring Walking/Oxidative Addition Reactions for the Controlled Synthesis of Conjugated Polymers  

SciTech Connect

Power conversion efficiencies of plastic solar cells depend strongly on the molecular weight characteristics of the semiconducting polymers used for their fabrication. The synthesis of these materials typically relies on transition metal mediated catalytic reactions. In many instances, the ideal structures cannot be attained because of deficiencies in these reactions, particularly when it comes to being able to achieve high number average molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions. Another important conjugated polymer structure of interest is one in which a single functional group is attached at the end group of the chain. Such systems would be ideal for modifying surface properties at interfaces and for labeling biomolecular probes used in fluorescent biosensors. To respond to the challenges above, our efforts have centered on the design of homogenous transition metal complexes that are easy to prepare and effective in carrying out living, or quasi-living, condensative chain polymerization reactions. The key mechanistic challenge for the success of this reaction is to force the insertion of one monomer unit at a time via a process that involves migration of the transition metal-containing fragment to one terminus of the polymer chain. Chain growth characteristics are therefore favored when the metal does not dissociate from the newly formed reductive elimination product. We have proposed that dissociation is disfavored by the formation of a Ï?-complex, in which the metal can sample various locations of the electronically delocalized framework, a process that we term â??ring-walkingâ?, and find the functionality where oxidative addition takes place. Success has been achieved in the nickel-mediated cross coupling reaction of Grignard reagents with aromatic halides by using bromo[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane]phenylnickel. This reagent can yield poly(thiophene)s (one of the most widely used type of polymer in plastic solar cells) with excellent stereoregularity and molecular weight distributions with polydispersities that are consistent with a living polymerization sequence. Another important objective of this program concerned the use of these new catalysts and improved mechanistic insight for the synthesis of specific polymeric materials with prespecified properties.

Bazan, Guillermo C

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

66

Near room temperature lithographically processed metal-oxide transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A fully lithographic process at near-room-temperature was developed for the purpose of fabricating transistors based on metal-oxide channel materials. The combination of indium tin oxide (ITO) as the source/drain electrodes, ...

Tang, Hui, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Pave the Way for ...  

Argonne researchers have developed a unique application of technology that involves using metal oxide semiconductor nanoparticles to target and control biological ...

68

Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites for Li-Ion Battery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites for Li-Ion Battery. Author(s), Donghai Wang, Daiwon Choi, Juan Li, Zhenguo Yang, Zimin Nie, Rong ...

69

Flame Synthesized Metal Oxide Nanowires as Effective Photoanodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stanford, CA 94305, USA I will discuss an atmospheric, cost-effective and scalable flame synthesis method for the growth and doping of metal oxide nanowires and these...

70

Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Madison, WI)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Madison, WI)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Conductive metal oxide film and method of making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method for reducing a dopant in a film of a metal oxide wherein the dopant is reduced and the first metal oxide is substantially not reduced. The method of the present invention relies upon exposing the film to reducing conditions for a predetermined time and reducing a valence of the metal from a positive valence to a zero valence and maintaining atoms with a zero valence in an atomic configuration within the lattice structure of the metal oxide. According to the present invention, exposure to reducing conditions may be achieved electrochemically or achieved in an elevated temperature gas phase.

Windisch, Jr., Charles F. (Kennewick, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as Al, Ti, Ta or stainless steel. The composition comprises Sn and Zn; Ge as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of Cu and Sb; and a grit, such as SiC. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the Ge penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The Ge comprises less than 10 wt.% of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above 300 C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so that the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

74

High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets  

SciTech Connect

This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (1) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (2) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (3) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

Scalettar, Richard T.; Pickett, Warren E.

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets  

SciTech Connect

This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (i) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (ii) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (iii) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett

2005-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

76

Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

Poston, James A. (Star City, WV)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixtures derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

Poston, J.A.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

78

P-64: A Comparative Study of Metal Oxide Coated Indium-tin Oxide Anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Indium-tin oxide anodes capped with certain oxides of metals enhance while other oxides degrade the hole-injection and quantum efficiencies of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The oxides of tin, zinc, praseodymium, yttrium, gallium, terbium and titanium have been investigated. The power efficiency of an OLED with a 1nm thick praseodymium oxide cap is improved by 2.5 times over that of a conventional OLED without an oxide capped anode.

For Organic Light-Emitting; Chengfeng Qiu; Haiying Chen; Zhilang Xie; Man Wong; Hoi Sing Kwok

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchangers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

Dosch, R.G.; Stephens, H.P.; Stohl, F.V.

1983-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

80

Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchanges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

Dosch, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Stephens, Howard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Stohl, Frances V. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide polymer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixtures is then cooled to a temperature less than -100/sup 0/C in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

Duerksen, W.K.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of conductive polymers for use in novel photovoltaic device architectures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), (PEDOT), deposited via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) has been investigated for use in organic electronic devices. The oCVD process as well as the ...

Howden, Rachel M. (Rachel Mary)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

NREL Demonstrates Efficient Solar Water Splitting by Metal Oxide Photoabsorber (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

New development demonstrates that inexpensive and robust metal oxide photoabsorbers hold great promise as photoanodes for water oxidation.

Not Available

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Properties and Characterization of Nano-Structured Metal Oxides ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to synthesize numerous metal oxide nano- structures including TiO2, Nb-doped TiO2, SnO2, ZnO, and NiO and deposit these ...

89

Displacement method and apparatus for reducing passivated metal powders and metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of reducing target metal oxides and passivated metals to their metallic state. A reduction reaction is used, often combined with a flux agent to enhance separation of the reaction products. Thermal energy in the form of conventional furnace, infrared, or microwave heating may be applied in combination with the reduction reaction.

Morrell; Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN), Ripley; Edward B. (Knoxville, TN)

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

90

Interactions of Hydrogen Isotopes and Oxides with Metal Tubes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Understanding and accounting for interaction of hydrogen isotopes and their oxides with metal surfaces is important for persons working with tritium systems. Reported data from several investigators have shown that the processes of oxidation, adsorption, absorption, and permeation are all coupled and interactive. A computer model has been developed for predicting the interaction of hydrogen isotopes and their corresponding oxides in a flowing carrier gas stream with the walls of a metallic tube, particularly at low hydrogen concentrations. An experiment has been constructed to validate the predictive model. Predictions from modeling lead to unexpected experiment results.

Glen R. Longhurst

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said substrate, and as having a crystalline orientation defined as predominantly C-axis oriented by x-ray diffraction is disclosed.

Ott, K.C.; Kodas, T.T.

1990-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

92

Internal zone growth method for producing metal oxide metal eutectic composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for preparing a cermet comprises preparing a compact having about 85 to 95 percent theoretical density from a mixture of metal and metal oxide powders from a system containing a eutectic composition, and inductively heating the compact in a radiofrequency field to cause the formation of an internal molten zone. The metal oxide particles in the powder mixture are effectively sized relative to the metal particles to permit direct inductive heating of the compact by radiofrequency from room temperature. Surface melting is prevented by external cooling or by effectively sizing the particles in the powder mixture.

Clark, Grady W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Holder, John D. (Knoxville, TN); Pasto, Arvid E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Methods of making metal oxide nanostructures and methods of controlling morphology of same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a method of producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure. The method comprises providing a metal salt solution and providing a basic solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal salt solution and the basic solution, wherein metal cations of the metal salt solution and hydroxide ions of the basic solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure.

Wong, Stanislaus S; Hongjun, Zhou

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

94

Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Initial stages of high temperature metal oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The application of XPS and UPS to the study of the initial stages of high temperature (> 350/sup 0/C) electrochemical oxidation of iron and nickel is discussed. In the high temperature experiments, iron and nickel electrodes were electrochemically oxidized in contact with a solid oxide electrolyte in the uhv system. The great advantages of this technique are that the oxygen activity at the interface may be precisely controlled and the ability to run the reactions in uhv allows the simultaneous observation of the reactions by XPS.

Yang, C.Y.; O'Grady, W.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

TRANSITION METAL CATALYZED BIOMASS CONVERSION AND POLYMER SYNTHESIS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??I have mainly worked on two areas during my graduate study in Dr. Ayusman Sen’s group. One is about transition metal catalyzed biomass conversion to… (more)

Yang, Weiran

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Solid polymer electrolyte compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

Garbe, James E. (Stillwater, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (St. Paul, MN); Le, Dinh Ba (St. Paul, MN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Flame Synthesis of One-Dimensional Metal Oxide Nanomaterials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synthesis of One-Dimensional Metal Oxide Nanomaterials Synthesis of One-Dimensional Metal Oxide Nanomaterials Alexei V. Saveliev Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA Robust, scalable, and energy efficient methods of nanomaterial synthesis are needed to meet the demands of current and potential applications. Flames have been successfully applied for the synthesis of metal oxide and ceramic nanopowders largely composed of spherical particles and their aggregates. In recent years, premixed and diffusion flames have been employed for the synthesis of 1-D carbon nanoforms such as carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes. The extension of flame methods to gas phase and solid support synthesis of 1-D inorganic nanoforms is of great interest and significance. This talk presents

99

OXIDATION BEHAVIOR OF WELDED AND BASE METAL UNS N06025  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxidation behavior of specimens containing tungsten inert gas welds of UNS N06025 (NiCrFeAlY) was investigated in air for up to 5,000h at 900 -1000 C and 1,000h at 1100 -1200 C. In general, the microstructure was very homogeneous in the weld with smaller carbides and the Al2O3 penetrations were similar or smaller compared to those formed in the base metal. Above 1000 C, significant spallation was observed and Al and Cr depletion in the metal was observed to a similar extent in the weld and base metal. The maximum internal oxidation depth of the base metal at 900 and 1100 C was lower than several other commercial Ni-base alloys.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Paul, Larry D. [Thyssen-Krupp VDM

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Metal current collect protected by oxide film  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive current collects and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical devices having as current interconnects a ferritic steel felt or screen coated with a protective oxide film.

Jacobson, Craig P. (Lafayette, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2004-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide polymer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

Perkins, John (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David (Evergreen, CO); Taylor, Matthew (Golden, CO); Neuman, George A. (Holland, MI); Luten, Henry A. (Holland, MI); Forgette, Jeffrey A. (Hudsonville, MI); Anderson, John S. (Holland, MI)

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

102

Carbon monoxide oxidation over three different states of copper: Development of a model metal oxide catalyst  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide oxidation was performed over the three different oxidation states of copper -- metallic (Cu), copper (I) oxide (Cu{sub 2}O), and copper (II) oxide (CuO) as a test case for developing a model metal oxide catalyst amenable to study by the methods of modern surface science and catalysis. Copper was deposited and oxidized on oxidized supports of aluminum, silicon, molybdenum, tantalum, stainless steel, and iron as well as on graphite. The catalytic activity was found to decrease with increasing oxidation state (Cu > Cu{sub 2}O > CuO) and the activation energy increased with increasing oxidation state (Cu, 9 kcal/mol < Cu{sub 2}O, 14 kcal/mol < CuO, 17 kcal/mol). Reaction mechanisms were determined for the different oxidation states. Lastly, NO reduction by CO was studied. A Cu and CuO catalyst were exposed to an equal mixture of CO and NO at 300--350 C to observe the production of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. At the end of each reaction, the catalyst was found to be Cu{sub 2}O. There is a need to study the kinetics of this reaction over the different oxidation states of copper.

Jernigan, G.G. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials and Chemical Sciences Div.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Measurement system for metal-oxide gas sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study on smell sensing and classification has been developed for a long time by many ways. Most of these have been focused on bad smells, when factors of bad smells were known chemically. Many gas sensors have been developed to detect specific chemicals. ... Keywords: Metal-oxide gas sensor, Multi-channel sensors, Smell measurement

Hideo Araki; Sigeru Omatu

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Metal complexes of substituted Gable porphyrins as oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transition metal complexes of Gable porphyrins are disclosed having two porphyrin rings connected through a linking group, and having on the porphyrin rings electron-withdrawing groups, such as halogen, nitro or cyano. These complexes are useful as catalysts for the oxidation of organic compounds, e.g. alkanes.

Lyons, J.E.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Wagner, R.W.

1996-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

105

Metal complexes of substituted Gable porphyrins as oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transition metal complexes of Gable porphyrins having two porphyrin rings connected through a linking group, and having on the porphyrin rings electron-withdrawing groups, such as halogen, nitro or cyano. These complexes are useful as catalysts for the oxidation of organic compounds, e.g. alkanes.

Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Wagner, Richard W. (Murrysville, PA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Electrical excitation of colloidally synthesized quantum dots in metal oxide structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis develops methods for integrating colloidally synthesized quantum dots (QDs) and metal oxides in optoelectronic devices, presents three distinct light emitting devices (LEDs) with metal oxides surrounding a QD ...

Wood, Vanessa Claire

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

SP-29: Oxidation Behavior of Zr56Al16Co28 Metallic Glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The oxidation behavior of Zr56A16Co28 bulk metallic glass was ... A high resistance against oxidation in Zr56Al16Co28 bulk metallic glasses ...

108

Production of Oxygen Gas and Liquid Metal by Electrochemical Decomposition of Molten Iron Oxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is the electrolytic decomposition of a metal oxide, most preferably into liquid metal and oxygen gas. The successful deployment of MOE hinges upon the existence of an inert anode capable of ...

Wang, Dihua

109

Mechanistic aspects of photooxidation of polyhydroxylated molecules on metal oxides.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polyhydroxylated molecules, including natural carbohydrates, are known to undergo photooxidation on wide-gap transition-metal oxides irradiated by ultraviolet light. In this study, we examine mechanistic aspects of this photoreaction on aqueous TiO{sub 2}, {alpha}-FeOOH, and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and site-selective deuteration. We demonstrate that the carbohydrates are oxidized at sites involved in the formation of oxo bridges between the chemisorbed carbohydrate molecule and metal ions at the oxide surface. This bridging inhibits the loss of water (which is the typical reaction of the analogous free radicals in bulk solvent) promoting instead a rearrangement that leads to elimination of the formyl radical. For natural carbohydrates, the latter reaction mainly involves carbon-1, whereas the main radical products of the oxidation are radical arising from H atom loss centered on carbon-1, -2, and -3 sites. Photoexcited TiO{sub 2} oxidizes all of the carbohydrates and polyols, whereas {alpha}-FeOOH oxidizes some of the carbohydrates, and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is unreactive. These results serve as a stepping stone for understanding the photochemistry on mineral surfaces of more complex biomolecules such as nucleic acids.

Shkrob, I. A.; Marin, T. M.; Sevilla, M. D.; Chemerisov, S. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Benedictine Univ.); (Oakland Univ.)

2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

110

Viscoelastic properties of oxide-coated liquid metals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many liquid metals exposed to air develop an oxide film on their outer surface. This film is sufficiently solid-like to provide mechanical stability to small liquid metal droplets, yet weak enough to allow the droplets to be malleable. These properties are useful in both micro-electronics and microfluidics; however, little is known about how to characterize them. Here we probe the elastic, yielding, and relaxation properties of oxide-coated gallium and eutectic gallium indium using a rheometer equipped with a parallel-plate geometry. By using parallel plates of different size, we show that surface stresses dominate bulk stresses. These experiments also demonstrate that the apparent elastic properties of the oxide film are highly sensitive to its strain history. Moreover, the apparent elasticity is sensitive to the stresses stored in the oxide skin. We probe these stresses and their time-dependence, with both torque and normal force measurements. We also characterize the time-dependence of the elasticity by observing free vibrations of the rheometer. We rationalize the strain history and time-dependence in terms of oxidation and show that despite this dependence, reproducible elasticity measurements can be obtained due to the ability of shear to produce a state that is independent of the strain history. © 2009 The Society of Rheology. ?DOI: 10.1122/1.3236517? I.

Ryan J. Larsen A; Michael D. Dickey B; George M. Whitesides; David A. Weitz C

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

For cermet inert anode containing oxide and metal phases useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cermet inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a ceramic phase including an oxide of Ni, Fe and M, where M is at least one metal selected from Zn, Co, Al, Li, Cu, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, Hf and rare earths, preferably Zn and/or Co. Preferred ceramic compositions comprise Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO and ZnO or CoO. The cermet inert anode also comprises a metal phase such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. A preferred metal phase comprises Cu and Ag. The cermet inert anodes may be used in electrolytic reduction cells for the production of commercial purity aluminum as well as other metals.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Polymers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... developer solution, a photoacid generator (PAG), and ... also provided the first direct evidence of ... decreasing pressure required to drive the polymer ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

113

Dual-environment effects on the oxidation of metallic interconnects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells are exposed to a dual environment: fuel on one side (i.e., H2 gas) and oxidizer on the other side (i.e., air). It has been observed that the oxidation behavior of thin stainless steel sheet in air is changed by the presence of H2 on the other side of the sheet. The resulting dual-environment scales are flaky and more friable than the single-environment scales. The H2 disrupts the scale on the air side. A model to explain some of the effects of a dual environment is presented where hydrogen diffusing through the stainless steel sheet reacts with oxygen diffusing through the scale to form water vapor, which has sufficient vapor pressure to mechanically disrupt the scale. Experiments on preoxidized 316L stainless steel tubing exposed to air-air, H2-air, and H2-Ar environments are reported in support of the model.

Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0oxidation state and with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more ion with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

2004-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

115

Thermodynamic properties of some metal oxide-zirconia systems  

SciTech Connect

Metal oxide-zirconia systems are a potential class of materials for use as structural materials at temperatures above 1900 K. These materials must have no destructive phase changes and low vapor pressures. Both alkaline earth oxide (MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO)-zirconia and some rare earth oxide (Y2O3, Sc2O3, La2O3, CeO2, Sm2O3, Gd2O3, Yb2O3, Dy2O3, Ho2O3, and Er2O3)-zirconia system are examined. For each system, the phase diagram is discussed and the vapor pressure for each vapor species is calculated via a free energy minimization procedure. The available thermodynamic literature on each system is also surveyed. Some of the systems look promising for high temperature structural materials.

Jacobson, N.S.

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0oxidation state and with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more ion with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oakbrook, IL)

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

117

Hydrocracking and hydroisomerization of long-chain alkanes and polyolefins over metal-promoted anion-modified transition metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of cracking a feedstock by contacting the feedstock with a metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst in the presence of hydrogen gas. The metal oxide of the catalyst is one or more of ZrO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, TiO.sub.2 and SnO.sub.2, and the feedstock is principally chains of at least 20 carbon atoms. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of Pt, Ni, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, (Mn & Fe) or mixtures of them present between about 0.2% to about 15% by weight of the catalyst. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of SO.sub.4, WO.sub.3, or mixtures of them present between about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the catalyst.

Venkatesh, Koppampatti R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Hu, Jianli (Cranbury, NJ); Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Hydrocracking and hydroisomerization of long-chain alkanes and polyolefins over metal-promoted anion-modified transition metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for cracking a feedstock by contacting the feedstock with a metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst in the presence of hydrogen gas. The metal oxide of the catalyst is one or more of ZrO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2}, and the feedstock is principally chains of at least 20 carbon atoms. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of Pt, Ni, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, (Mn and Fe) or mixtures of them present between about 0.2% to about 15% by weight of the catalyst. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of SO{sub 4}, WO{sub 3}, or mixtures of them present between about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the catalyst.

Venkatesh, Koppampatti R.; Hu, Jianli; Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Super sensitive UV detector using polymer functionalized nanobelts  

SciTech Connect

An ultraviolet light sensor includes an elongated metal oxide nanostructure, a layer of an ultraviolet light-absorbing polymer, a current source and a current detector. The elongated metal oxide nanostructure has a first end and an opposite second end. The layer of an ultraviolet light-absorbing polymer is disposed about at least a portion of the metal oxide nanostructure. The current source is configured to provide electrons to the first end of the metal oxide nanostructure. The current detector is configured to detect an amount of current flowing through the metal oxide nanostructure. The amount of current flowing through the metal oxide nanostructure corresponds to an amount of ultraviolet light impinging on the metal oxide nanostructure.

Wang, Zhong L; Lao, Changshi; Zhou, Jun

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

120

The Effect Of Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Exposure On Phenylphosphine Oxide-Containing Polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thin films of phenylphosphine oxide-containing polymers were exposed to low Earth orbit aboard a space shuttle flight (STS-85) as part of flight experiment designated Evaluation of Space Environment and Effects on Materials (ESEM). This flight experiment was a cooperative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The thin film samples described herein were part of an atomic oxygen exposure experiment (AOE) and were exposed to primarily atomic oxygen (~1 X 10 19 atoms/cm 2 ). The thin film samples consisted of three phosphine oxide containing polymers (arylene ether, benzimidazole and imide). Based on post-flight analyses using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and weight loss data, it was found that atomic oxygen exposure of these materials efficiently produces a phosphate layer at the surface of the samples. This layer provides a barrier towards further attack by AO. Consequently, th...

John Connell National; John W. Connell

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide polymer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Broadband light absorption enhancement in polymer photovoltaics using metal nanowall gratings as transparent electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigate light absorption in organic solar cells in which indium tin oxide (ITO) is replaced by a new metallic architecture (grating) as a transparent electrode. Different from typical metal nanowire gratings, our gratings consist of metal nanowalls with nanoscale footprint and (sub)microscale height [Adv. Mater. 23, 2469 (2011)], thus ensuring high optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. Simulations reveal that a broadband and polarization-insensitive light absorption enhancement is achieved via two mechanisms, when such silver nanowall gratings are employed in P3HT:PCBM based solar cells. Overall absorption enhanced by ~23% compared to a reference cell with ITO electrode.

Ye, Zhuo; Chaudhary, Sumit; Kuang, Ping; Ho, Kai-Ming

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

122

On Coating Durability of Polymer Coated Sheet Metal under Plastic Deformation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polymer coated sheet metal components find diverse applications in many industries. The manufacturing of the components generally involves forming of sheet metal into the desired shape and coating of the formed part with organic coating. An alternative manufacturing route is to coat the sheet metal first before forming. The change in the manufacturing sequence can potentially improve cost and reduce environmental impact. This approach, however, requires the coating to survive the deformation process. Thus, the effect of plastic deformation on coating adhesion is of primary interest to many engineers and researchers. This research aims at developing a methodology to predict the adhesion of coating after metal forming processes. A pull-off apparatus that measures the coating pull-off stress was used to indicate the coating adhesion strength. Several types of specimen were designed to obtain uniaxial tension, biaxial tension, and tension-compression deformation modes on pre-coated sheet by using a uniaxial tensile tester. Experimental results from two selected polymer coated sheet metals show that coating adhesion was affected by plastic deformation. An analytical model based on a virtual interface crack concept was developed to indicate the adhesion potential of the coating-substrate interface. From interfacial fracture mechanics, the initial adhesion potential is defined as the energy release rate characterized by the virtual interface crack and the initial pull-off stress. The analytical model was used to predict coating adhesion loss after deformation in uniaxial tension mode. The analytical model predictions agreed well with experimental results. Finite element analysis tool was applied to simulate more complex deformation modes in stamping of coated sheet meals. The stress field near the interface crack tip was used to calculate the energy release rate and predict the adhesion loss under different deformation modes. The predictions obtained from numerical method are also in good agreements with the experimental results in biaxial tension and tension-compression modes. The research has led to a better understanding of the effects of plastic deformation on coating adhesion. The developed adhesion test methods can be used to generate useful information on coating durability for diverse practical use. It is also expected that the results of the research will facilitate the development of better polymer coated sheet metal to be used in sheet metal forming processes.

Huang, Yu-Hsuan

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Transition metal oxides deposited on rhodium and platinum: Surface chemistry and catalysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The surface chemistry and catalytic reactivity of transition metal oxides deposited on Rh and Pt substrates has been examined in order to establish the role of oxide-metal interactions in influencing catalytic activity. The oxides investigated included titanium oxide (TiOx), vanadium oxide (VOx), iron oxide (FeOx), zirconium oxide (ZrOx), niobium oxide (NbOx), tantalum oxide (TaOx), and tungsten oxide (WOx). The techniques used to characterize the sample included AES, XPS, LEED, TPD, ISS, and STM. After characterization of the surface in UHV, the sample was enclosed in an atmospheric reaction cell to measure the influence of the oxide deposits on the catalytic activity of the pure metal for CO and CO{sub 2} hydrogenation. The oxide deposits were found to strongly enhance the reactivity of the Rh foil. The rates of methane formation were promoted by up to 15 fold with the maximum in rate enhancement occurring at oxide coverages of approximately 0.5 ML. TiOx TaOx, and NbOx were the most effective promoters and were stable in the highest oxidation states during both reactions (compared to VOx, WOx, and FeOx). The trend in promoter effectiveness was attributed to the direct relationship between oxidation state and Lewis acidity. Bonding at the metal oxide/metal interface between the oxygen end of adsorbed CO and the Lewis acidic oxide was postulated to facilitate C-O bond dissociation and subsequent hydrogenation. 192 refs.

Boffa, A.B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Work function control at metal high-dielectric-constant gate oxide interfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been difficulty in finding metals of sufficiently large or small effective work function to act as metal electrodes on high-dielectric-constant gate oxides. To understand the factors affecting the effective work function, we have calculated ... Keywords: High K oxides, Metal gates

K. Tse; J. Robertson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

126

Giant magnetoresistance in oxide-based metallic multilayers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors report on the first measurement of low-field giant magnetoresistance in metallic multilayers of perovskite oxides. The authors performed in-plane measurements of the magnetoelectric transport properties in La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}MnO{sub 3}/LaNiO{sub 3} trilayers and succeeded in distinguishing the giant magnetoresistance effect from other contributions to the total magnetoresistance. The samples were grown on single-crystalline SrTiO{sub 3} substrates by dc sputtering.

Granada, Mara; Rojas Sanchez, J. Carlos; Steren, Laura B. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (R8402AGP) San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)

2007-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

127

Electrochemical lithiation and delithiation for control of magnetic properties of nanoscale transition metal oxides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transition metal oxides comprise a fascinating class of materials displaying a variety of magnetic and electronic properties, ranging from half-metallic ferromagnets like CrO2, ferrimagnetic semiconductors like Fey's, and ...

Sivakumar, Vikram

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Acoustic plane wave preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0metal oxide in the form of a ceramic slip which has not yet set, orientation of the crystal basal planes parallel with the direction of desired current flow is accomplished by an applied acoustic plane wave in the acoustic or ultrasonic frequency range (either progressive or standing) in applying a torque to each crystal particle. The ceramic slip is then set and fired by conventional methods to produce a conductor with preferentially oriented grains and substantially enhanced current carrying capacity.

Tolt, Thomas L. (North Olmsted, OH); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Bipolar plating of metal contacts onto oxide interconnection for solid oxide electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of forming an adherent metal deposit on a conducting layer of a tube sealed at one end. The tube is immersed with the sealed end down into an aqueous solution containing ions of the metal to be deposited. An ionically conducting aqueous fluid is placed inside the tube and a direct current is passed from a cathode inside the tube to an anode outside the tube. Also disclosed is a multi-layered solid oxide fuel cell tube which consists of an inner porous ceramic support tube, a porous air electrode covering the support tube, a non-porous electrolyte covering a portion of the air electrode, a non-porous conducting interconnection covering the remaining portion of the electrode, and a metal deposit on the interconnection. 1 fig.

Isenberg, A.O.

1987-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

130

Metal-based turn-on fluorescent probes for nitric oxide sensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 1. Metal-Based Turn-On Fluorescent Probes for Sensing Nitric Oxide. Nitric oxide, a reactive free radical, regulates a variety of biological processes. The absence of tools to detect NO directly, rapidly, specifically ...

Lim, Mi Hee

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Investigation of the nature of electronic states in the alkali_metal oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hartree-Fock and Density functional theories have been applied to investigate the density of electronic states and electronic band structures. We studied: oxides, peroxides, nadoxides and ozonides, alkali-metal oxides M2O, peroxides M2O2, ...

O. O. Obolonskaya

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

A Low Temperature Fully Lithographic Process For Metal–Oxide Field-Effect Transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a low temperature ( ~ 100à °C) lithographic method for fabricating hybrid metal oxide/organic field-effect transistors (FETs) that combine a zinc-indium-oxide (ZIO) semiconductor channel and organic, parylene, ...

Sodini, Charles G.

133

Catalytic effects of period iv transition metal in the oxidation of biodiesel.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??CATALYTIC EFFECTS OF PERIOD IV TRANSITION METALS IN THE OXIDATION OF BIODIESEL BRADLEY R CLARK December 2011 Advisors: Dr. Steve Salley, Dr. Simon Ng, Dr.… (more)

Clark, Bradley

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Oxidation Resistance of Zr- and Ti- Based Bulk Metallic Glasses in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2012 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Bulk Metallic Glasses IX. Presentation Title, Oxidation Resistance of Zr- and ...

135

The use of natural gas for reduction of metal oxides: constraints and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, The use of natural gas for reduction of metal oxides: constraints ... Reaction mechanism and reaction rate of Sn evaporation from liquid steel.

136

Dual Environment Effects on the Oxidation of Metallic Interconnects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells are exposed to a dual environment: fuel on one side (i.e. H2 gas) and oxidizer on the other side (i.e. air). It has been observed that the oxidation behavior of thin stainless steel sheet in air is changed by the presence of H2 on the other side of the sheet. The resulting dual environment scales are flaky and more friable than the single environment scales. The H2 disrupts the scale on the air-side. A model to explain some of the effects of a dual environment is presented where hydrogen diffusing through the stainless steel sheet reacts with oxygen diffusing through the scale to form water vapor, which has sufficient vapor pressure to mechanically disrupt the scale. Experiments on preoxidized 316L stainless steel tubing exposed to air/air, H2/air, and H2/Ar environments are reported in support of the model.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Malgorzata; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Jr., Bernard S.; and Bullard, Sophie J.

2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

137

Surface Oxidation and Dissolution of Metal Nanocatalysts in Acid Medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the most important challenges in low-temperature fuel cell technology is improving the catalytic efficiency at the electrode-catalyst where the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) occurs. Platinum is the best pure catalyst for this reaction but its high cost and scarcity hinder the commercial implementation of fuel cells in automobiles. Pt-based alloys are promising alternatives to substitute platinum while maintaining the efficiency and life-time of the pure catalyst. However, the acid medium and the oxidation of the surface reduce the activity and durability of the alloy catalyst through changes in its local composition and structure. Molecular simulation techniques are applied to characterize the thermodynamics and dynamic evolution of the surface of platinum-based alloy catalysts under reaction conditions.1-10 A simulation scheme of the surface oxidation is proposed which combines classical molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT). This approach is able to reproduce the main features of the oxidation phenomena observed experimentally, it is concluded that the dissolution mechanism of metal atoms involves: 1) Surface segregation of alloy atoms, 2) oxygen absorption into the subsurface of the catalyst, and 3) metal detachment through the interaction with ions in the solvent. Therefore, to improve the durability of platinum-based alloy catalysts, the steps of the dissolution mechanism must be prevented. A versatile 3-D kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) code is developed to study the degradation and dealloying in nanocatalysts. The results on the degradation of Pt nanoparticles under different potential regimes demonstrate that the dissolution depends on the potential path to which the nanocatalyst is exposed. Metal atoms detach from the boundaries of (111) facets expecting a reduction in the activity of the nanoparticle. Also, the formation of Pt hollow nanoparticles by the Kirkendall effect is addressed, the role of vacancies is crucial in the removal of the non-noble core that yields to hollow nanoparticles. To investigate the reasons for the experimentally found enhanced ORR activity in porous/hollow nanoparticles, the effect of subsurface vacancies on the main ORR activity descriptors is studied with DFT. It is found that an optimum amount of vacancies may enhance the ORR activity of Pt-monolayer catalysts over certain alloy cores by changing the binding energies of O and OH.

Callejas-Tovar, Juan

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Solar Thermal Electrolytic Production of Metals from Their Oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Alternative Energy Resources for Metals and Materials Production Symposium. Presentation Title, Solar Thermal Electrolytic Production of Metals ...

139

Oxidation catalysts comprising metal exchanged hexaaluminate wherein the metal is Sr, Pd, La, and/or Mn  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides metal-exchanged hexaaluminate catalysts that exhibit good catalytic activity and/or stability at high temperatures for extended periods with retention of activity as combustion catalysts, and more generally as oxidation catalysts, that make them eminently suitable for use in methane combustion, particularly for use in natural gas fired gas turbines. The hexaaluminate catalysts of this invention are of particular interest for methane combustion processes for minimization of the generation of undesired levels (less than about 10 ppm) of NOx species. Metal exchanged hexaaluminate oxidation catalysts are also useful for oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC), particularly hydrocarbons. Metal exchanged hexaaluminate oxidation catalysts are further useful for partial oxidation, particularly at high temperatures, of reduced species, particularly hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes).

Wickham, David (Boulder, CO); Cook, Ronald (Lakewood, CO)

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

140

GaN Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors  

SciTech Connect

A GaN based depletion mode metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) was demonstrated using Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}(Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) as the gate dielectric. The MOS gate reverse breakdown voltage was > 35V which was significantly improved from 17V of Pt Schottky gate on the same material. A maximum extrinsic transconductance of 15 mS/mm was obtained at V{sub ds} = 30 V and device performance was limited by the contact resistance. A unity current gain cut-off frequency, f{sub {tau}}, and maximum frequency of oscillation, f{sub max} of 3.1 and 10.3 GHz, respectively, were measured at V{sub ds} = 25 V and V{sub gs} = {minus}20 V.

Ren, F.; Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Baca, A.; Cheng, P.; Shul, R.J.; Chu, S.N.G.; Hong, M.; Lothian, J.R.; Schurman, M.J.

1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide polymer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Metal oxide morphology in argon-assisted glancing angle deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Glancing angle deposition (GLAD) is a thin film deposition technique capable of fabricating columnar architectures such as posts, helices, and chevrons with control over nanoscale film features. Argon bombardment during deposition modifies the GLAD process, producing films with new morphologies which have shown promise for sensing and photonic devices. The authors report modification of column tilt angle, film density, and specific surface area for 12 different metal oxide and fluoride film materials deposited using Ar-assisted GLAD. For the vapor flux/ion beam geometry and materials studied here, with increasing argon flux, the column tilt increases, film density increases, and specific surface area decreases. With a better understanding of the nature of property modification and the mechanisms responsible, the Ar-assisted deposition process can be more effectively targeted towards specific applications, including birefringent thin films or photonic crystal square spirals.

Sorge, J. B.; Taschuk, M. T.; Wakefield, N. G.; Sit, J. C.; Brett, M. J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V4 (Canada); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V4 (Canada) and NRC National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, AB T6G 2M9 (Canada)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials  

SciTech Connect

Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

143

Method of dissolving metal oxides with di- or polyphosphonic acid and a redundant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of dissolving metal oxides using a mixture of a di- or polyphosphonic acid and a reductant wherein each is present in a sufficient amount to provide a synergistic effect with respect to the dissolution of metal oxides and optionally containing corrosion inhibitors and pH adjusting agents.

Horwitz, Earl P. (Argonne, IL); Chiarizia, Renato (Argonne, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Formic acid oxidation in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell: A real-time mass-spectrometry study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electro-oxidation of formic acid was studied in a direct-oxidation polymer-electrolyte fuel cell at 170 C using real-time mass spectrometry. The results are compared with those obtained for methanol oxidation under the same conditions. Formic acid was electrochemically more active than methanol on both Pt-black and Pt-Ru catalysts. The polarization potential of formic acid oxidation was ca. 90 to 100 mV lower than that of methanol. The oxidation of formic acid was dependent on the water/formic acid mole ratio. The best anode performance was obtained using a water/formic acid mole ratio of {approximately}2. In addition, Pt/Ru catalyst was more active than Pt-black for formic acid oxidation. The mass spectrometric results showed that CO{sub 2} is the only reaction product of formic acid oxidation. The results are discussed in terms of possible formic acid oxidation mechanisms.

Weber, M.; Wang, J.T.; Wasmus, S.; Savinell, R.F. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Method of making metal oxide ceramic membranes with small pore sizes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes is composed of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Madison, WI)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Superconductors and Complex Transition Metal Oxides for Tunable THz Plasmonic Metamaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The outline of this presentation are: (1) Motivation - Non-tunability of metal metamaterials; (2) Superconductors for temperature tunable metamaterials; (3) Ultrafast optical switching in superconductor metamaterials; (4) Controlling the conductivity with infrared pump beam; (5) Complex metal oxides as active substrates - Strontium Titanate; and (6) Conclusion. Conclusions are: (1) High Tc superconductors good for tunable and ultrafast metamaterials; (2) Large frequency and amplitude tunability in ultrathin superconductor films; (3) Such tunable properties cannot be accessed using metals; (4) Complex metal oxides can be used as active substrates - large tunability; (5) Complex oxides fail to address the issue of radiation losses in THz metamaterials.

Singh, Ranjan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xiong, Jie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azad, Md A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Hao [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trugman, Stuart A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Houtong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

147

HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION/CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF METALS AND ALLOYS UNDER A HYDROGEN GRADIENT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metallic interconnects in SOFC stacks, perform in challenging environment, as they are simultaneously exposed to a reducing environment (e.g. hydrogen, reformate) on one side and an oxidizing environment (e.g. air) on the other side at elevated temperatures. To understand the oxidation/corrosion behavior of metals and alloys under the dual exposures and assess their suitability, selected metals and alloys, including nickel, Fe-Cr and Ni-Cr base chromia forming alloys, alumina forming Fecralloyź, were investigated. It was found that the oxidation/corrosion behavior of metals and alloys in the presence of dual environment can be significantly different in terms of scale structure and/or chemistry from their exposure in a single oxidizing or reducing atmosphere. The anomalous oxidization/corrosion is attributed to the presence of hydrogen diffusion flux from the fuel side to the air side under the influence of a hydrogen gradient across the metallic substrates.

Yang, Z Gary; Xia, Gordon; Walker, Matthew S.; Wang, Chong M.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Metal/ceria water-gas shift catalysts for automotive polymer electrolyte fuel cell system.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems are a leading candidate for replacing the internal combustion engine in light duty vehicles. One method of generating the hydrogen necessary for the PEFC is reforming a liquid fuel, such as methanol or gasoline, via partial oxidation, steam reforming, or autothermal reforming (a combination of partial oxidation and steam reforming). The H{sub 2}-rich reformate can contain as much as 10% carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide has been shown to poison the platinum-based anode catalyst at concentrations as low as 10 ppm,1 necessitating removal of CO to this level before passing the reformate to the fuel cell stack. The water-gas shift (WGS) reaction, CO + H{sub 2}O {rightleftharpoons} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}, is used to convert the bulk of the reformate CO to CO{sub 2}. Industrially, the WGS reaction is conducted over two catalysts, which operate in different temperature regimes. One catalyst is a FeCr mixed oxide, which operates at 350-450 C and is termed the high-temperature shift (HTS) catalyst. The second catalyst is a CuZn mixed oxide, which operates at 200-250 C and is termed the low-temperature shift (LTS) catalyst. Although these two catalysts are used industrially in the production of H{sub 2} for ammonia synthesis, they have major drawbacks that make them unsuitable for transportation applications. Both the LTS and the HTS catalysts must first be ''activated'' before being used. For example, the copper in the copper oxide/zinc oxide LTS catalyst must first be reduced to elemental copper in situ before it becomes active for the WGS reaction. This reduction reaction is exothermic and must be carried out under well- controlled conditions using a dilute hydrogen stream (1 vol% H{sub 2}) to prevent high catalyst temperatures, which can result in sintering (agglomeration) of the copper particles and loss of active surface area for the WGS reaction. Also, once the catalyst has been activated by reduction, it must be protected from exposure to ambient air to prevent re-oxidation of the copper. The activated catalyst must also be protected from the condensation of liquids, for example, during start-up or transient operation. For these reasons, a more thermally rugged catalyst is needed which has sufficient activity to operate at the low temperatures that are thermodynamically necessary to achieve low CO concentrations.

Myers, D. J.; Krebs, J. F.; Carter, J. D.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

2002-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

149

Process and apparatus for generating elemental sulfur and re-usable metal oxide from spent metal sulfide sorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for generating elemental sulfur and re-usable metal oxide from spent metal-sulfur compound. Spent metal-sulfur compound is regenerated to re-usable metal oxide by moving a bed of spent metal-sulfur compound progressively through a single regeneration vessel having a first and second regeneration stage and a third cooling and purging stage. The regeneration is carried out and elemental sulfur is generated in the first stage by introducing a first gas of sulfur dioxide which contains oxygen at a concentration less than the stoichiometric amount required for complete oxidation of the spent metal-sulfur compound. A second gas containing sulfur dioxide and excess oxygen at a concentration sufficient for complete oxidation of the partially spent metal-sulfur compound, is introduced into the second regeneration stage. Gaseous sulfur formed in the first regeneration stage is removed prior to introducing the second gas into the second regeneration stage. An oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the third cooling and purging stage. Except for the gaseous sulfur removed from the first stage, the combined gases derived from the regeneration stages which are generally rich in sulfur dioxide and lean in oxygen, are removed from the regenerator as an off-gas and recycled as the first and second gas into the regenerator. Oxygen concentration is controlled by adding air, oxygen-enriched air or pure oxygen to the recycled off-gas.

Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY); Gal, Eli (Lititz, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nanoparticle seeded indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrate usingarrays were grown on an indium-tin oxide substrate followedof a double-sided indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate

Wang, Gongming

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Method for heat treating and sintering metal oxides with microwave radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for microwave sintering materials, primarily metal oxides, is described. Metal oxides do not normally absorb microwave radiation at temperatures ranging from about room temperature to several hundred degrees centrigrade are sintered with microwave radiation without the use of the heretofore required sintering aids. This sintering is achieved by enclosing a compact of the oxide material in a housing or capsule formed of a oxide which has microwave coupling properties at room temprature up to at least the microwave coupling temperature of the oxide material forming the compact. The heating of the housing effects the initial heating of the oxide material forming the compact by heat transference and then functions as a thermal insulator for the encased oxide material after the oxide material reaches a sufficient temperature to adequately absorb or couple with microwave radiation for heating thereof to sintering temperature.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Production of crystalline refractory metal oxides containing colloidal metal precipitates and useful as solar-effective absorbers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a new process for producing refractory crystalline oxides having improved or unusual properties. The process comprises the steps of forming a doped-metal crystal of the oxide; exposing the doped crystal in a bomb to a reducing atmosphere at superatmospheric pressure and a temperature effecting precipitation of the dopant metal in the crystal lattice of the oxide but insufficient to effect net diffusion of the metal out of the lattice; and then cooling the crystal. Preferably, the cooling step is effected by quenching. The process forms colloidal precipitates of the metal in the oxide lattice. The process may be used, for example, to produce thermally stable black MgO crystalline bodies containing magnetic colloidal precipitates consisting of about 99% Ni. The Ni-containing bodies are solar-selective absorbers, having a room-temperature absorptivity of about 0.96 over virtually all of the solar-energy spectrum and exhibiting an absorption edge in the region of 2 .mu.m. The process parameters can be varied to control the average size of the precipitates. The process can produce a black MgO crystalline body containing colloidal Ni precipitates, some of which have the face-centered-cubic structure and others of which have the body-centered cubic structure. The products of the process are metal-precipitate-containing refractory crystalline oxides which have improved or unique optical, mechanical, magnetic, and/or electronic properties.

Narayan, Jagdish (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Yok (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Computational study of the complexation of metal ion precursors in dendritic polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metal ions are important for medical, environmental and catalytic applications. They are used as precursor molecules for the manufacture of metal nanocatalysts, which are promising materials for an array of biomedical, industrial, and technological applications. Understanding the effect of the environment upon a metal ion-dendrimer system constitutes a step closer to the understanding of the liquid phase templated synthesis of metal nanoparticles. In this dissertation we have used computational techniques such as abinitio calculations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the complexation of Cu(II) and Pt(II) metal ions to a polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendritic polymer from structural, thermodynamic, and kinetic viewpoints. First, we analyze the local configuration of a low generation polyamidoamine dendrimer to understand the role of intramolecular interactions. Then, we examine the local configuration of dendrimer outer pockets in order to determine their capacity to encapsulate water within. Next, the complexation of Cu(II) with a small –OH terminated dendrimer in presence of solvent and counterions is investigated. This relatively simple system gives insight on how cationic species bind within a dendrimer. The complexation of potassium tetrachloroplatinate, commonly used precursor salt in dendrimer templated synthesis of platinum and bimetallic platinum-containing nanoparticles, with PAMAM dendrimer has been the subject of several experimental reports. So we investigate the complexation of potassium tetrachloroplatinate within a dendrimer outer pocket in order to understand the effect of dendrimer branches, Pt(II) speciation, pH, solvent and counterions upon it. Our study shows that dendrimer branches can improve the thermodynamics but can also preclude the kinetics by raising the energy barriers. Our study provides an explanation of why, where Pt(II) and how Pt(II) binds. We believe that these molecular level details, unaccessible to experimental techniques, can be a helpful contribution toward furthering our understanding of the complexation of Pt(II) and the starting point to study the next step of dendrimer templated synthesis, the reduction of Pt(II) into platinum nanoparticles inside pockets.

Tarazona Vasquez, Francisco

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Extrusion of metal oxide superconducting wire, tube or ribbon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for extruding a superconducting metal oxide composition YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} provides a wire (tube or ribbon) having a cohesive mass and a degree of flexibility together with enhanced electrical properties. Wire diameters in the range of 6--85 mils have been produced with smaller wires on the order of 10 mils in diameter exhibiting enhanced flexibility for forming braided, or multistrand, configurations for greater current carrying capacity. The composition for extrusion contains a polymeric binder to provide a cohesive mass to bind the particles together during the extrusion process with the binder subsequently removed at lower temperatures during sintering. The composition for extrusion further includes a deflocculent, an organic plasticizer and a solvent which also are subsequently removed during sintering. Electrically conductive tubing with an inner diameter of 52 mil and an outer diameter of 87--335 mil has also been produced. Flat ribbons have been produced in the range of 10--125 mil thick by 100--500 mil wide. The superconducting wire, tube or ribbon may include an outer ceramic insulating sheath co-extruded with the wire, tubing or ribbon.

Dusek, J.T.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Protonation enthalpies of metal oxides from high temperature electrophoresis.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface protonation reactions play an important role in the behavior of mineral and colloidal systems, specifically in hydrothermal aqueous environments. However, studies addressing the reactions at the solid/liquid interface at temperatures above 100 C are scarce. In this study, newly and previously obtained high temperature electrophoresis data (up to 260 C) - zeta potentials and isoelectric points - for metal oxides, including SiO{sub 2}, SnO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, were used in thermodynamic analysis to derive the standard enthalpies of their surface protonation. Two different approaches were used for calculating the protonation enthalpy: one is based on thermodynamic description of the 1-pKa model for surface protonation, and another one - on a combination of crystal chemistry and solvation theories which link the relative permittivity of the solid phase and the ratio of the Pauling bond strength and bond length to standard protonation enthalpy. From this analysis, two expressions relating the protonation enthalpy to the relative permittivity of the solid phase were obtained.

Rodriguez-Santiago, V [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Fedkin, Mark V [ORNL; Lvov, Serguei N. [Pennsylvania State University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Protonation enthalpies of metal oxides from high temperature electrophoresis  

SciTech Connect

Surface protonation reactions play an important role in the behavior of mineral and colloidal systems, specifically in hydrothermal aqueous environments. However, studies addressing the reactions at the solid/liquid interface at temperatures above 100 C are scarce. In this study, newly and previously obtained high temperature electrophoresis data (up to 260 C) zeta potentials and isoelectric points for metal oxides, including SiO2, SnO2, ZrO2, TiO2, and Fe3O4, were used in thermodynamic analysis to derive the standard enthalpies of their surface protonation. Two different approaches were used for calculating the protonation enthalpy: one is based on thermodynamic description of the 1-pKa model for surface protonation, and another one on a combination of crystal chemistry and solvation theories which link the relative permittivity of the solid phase and the ratio of the Pauling bond strength and bond length to standard protonation enthalpy. From this analysis, two expressions relating the protonation enthalpy to the relative permittivity of the solid phase were obtained.

Rodriguez-Santiago, V [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Fedkin, Mark V. [Pennsylvania State University; Lvov, Serguei N. [Pennsylvania State University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Energy ratings for metal oxide varistors under repetitively pulsed operation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nonlinear resistors can be used to improve the energy transfer efficiency of inductive energy storage systems that use resistive transfer elements. Improved energy transfer efficiency can result in significant cost savings in some large systems if the cost of the nonlinear resistor is less than the cost of the energy storage and charging hardware that the resistor replaces. This report describes experimental tests that were done to determine appropriate energy ratings for ZnO Metal Oxide Varistors (MOVs) for pulsed conditions from 10 to 20 ms long. Tests were performed first on single MOV units which were forced to failure in a small number of shots. Then several sets of matched pairs were operated under identical conditions to investigate current sharing and the statistics of failure. Test results show that the standard rating method used by manufacturers relating peak current, pulse length, and expected lifetime are adequate, but somewhat conservative. The manufacturers' energy ratings project to a very economical nonlinear transfer resistor. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Melton, J.G.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Extrusion of metal oxide superconducting wire, tube or ribbon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for extruding a superconducting metal oxide composition YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x provides a wire (tube or ribbon) having a cohesive mass and a degree of flexibility together with enhanced electrical properties. Wire diameters in the range of 6-85 mils have been produced with smaller wires on the order of 10 mils in diameter exhibiting enhanced flexibility for forming braided, or multistrand, configurations for greater current carrying capacity. The composition for extrusion contains a polymeric binder to provide a cohesive mass to bind the particles together during the extrusion process with the binder subsequently removed at lower temperatures during sintering. The composition for extrusion further includes a deflocculent, an organic plasticizer and a solvent which also are subsequently removed during sintering. Electrically conductive tubing with an inner diameter of 52 mil and an outer diameter of 87-355 mil has also been produced. Flat ribbons have been produced in the range of 10-125 mil thick by 100-500 mil wide. The superconducting wire, tube or ribbon may include an outer ceramic insulating sheath co-extruded with the wire, tubing or ribbon.

Dusek, Joseph T. (Lombard, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

METHOD FOR THE PREPARATION OF STABLE ACTINIDE METAL OXIDE-CONTAINING SLURRIES AND OF THE OXIDES THEREFOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent deals with a method of preparing actinide metal oxides of a very fine particle size and of forming stable suspensions therefrom. The process consists of dissolving the nitrate of the actinide element in a combustible organic solvent, converting the solution obtained into a spray, and igniting the spray whereby an oxide powder is obtained. The oxide powder is then slurried in an aqueous soiution of a substance which is adsorbable by said oxides, dspersed in a colloid mill whereby a suspension is obtained, and electrodialyzed until a low spectiic conductance is reached.

Hansen, R.S.; Minturn, R.E.

1958-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

160

Synthesis of Nano-Structured Metal-Oxides and Deposition via Ink ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to synthesize numerous metal oxide nano- structures including TiO2, Nb-doped TiO2, and SnO2 and deposit these materials on ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide polymer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Recovery of Metal Oxides From Fly Ash, Volumes 1-3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By processing fly ash to obtain metal oxides and other commercial products, utilities can realize both sales revenues and reduced disposal costs. A commercial-scale processing plant could be ready for demonstration by 1992.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Design and construction of rigs for studying surface condensation and creating anodized metal oxide surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis details the design and construction of a rig for studying surface condensation and a rig for creating anodized metal oxides (AMOs). The condensation rig characterizes condensation for different surfaces; this ...

Sun, Wei-Yang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Pt–metal oxide aerogel catalysts: X-ray photoemission investigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

X-ray photoemission spectroscopy was used to study Pt–metal oxide aerogel catalysts that have been developed to respond to increased NO x emissions of lean-burn engines. Lean-burn engines

A. J. Nelson; John G. Reynolds; R. D. Sanner; P. R. Coronado; L. M. Hair

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Alkane oxidation with porphyrins and metal complexes thereof having haloalkyl side chains  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transition metal complexes of meso-haloalkylporphyrins, wherein the haloalkyl groups contain 2 to 8 carbon atoms have been found to be highly effective catalysts for oxidation of alkanes and for the decomposition of hydroperoxides.

Wijesekera, Tilak (Glen Mills, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Bhinde, Manoj V. (Boothwyn, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Alkane oxidation with porphyrins and metal complexes thereof having haloalkyl side chains  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transition metal complexes of meso-haloalkylporphyrins are disclosed, wherein the haloalkyl groups contain 2 to 8 carbon atoms have been found to be highly effective catalysts for oxidation of alkanes and for the decomposition of hydroperoxides. 7 figs.

Wijesekera, T.; Lyons, J.E.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Bhinde, M.V.

1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

166

Tritium storage development. Progress report No. 10, October--December 1976. [In metal hydride; polymer-impregnated tritiated concrete  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laboratory and engineering scale work has been initiated on the storage of tritium in a metal hydride. Laboratory hydriding apparatus has been assembled and a preliminary series of experiments was carried out on zirconium. Several engineering design concepts for the reaction and storage of tritium in a metal hydride are presented. The design of a three 3-in.-diam. bench scale reaction system is in progress. Developmental work is continuing on the injector technique for the fixation of tritium in polymer-impregnated concrete.

Colombo, P; Steinberg, M

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Antimicrobial Polymer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The polymeric composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from metals, metal alloys, metal salts, metal complexes and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one example embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.3 P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the metallic antimicrobial agent is selected from chelated silver ions, silver metal, chelated copper ions, copper metal, chelated zinc ions, zinc metal and mixtures thereof.

McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Wright, Stacy C. (Flint, MI); Taylor, Andrew C. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

168

Electronically conducting proton exchange polymers as catalyst supports for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction, hydrogen oxidation, and methanol oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A variety of supported catalysts were prepared by the chemical deposition of Pt and Pt-Ru particles on chemically prepared poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) and PEDOT/polyvinylsulfate (PVS) composites. The polymer particles were designed to provide a porous, proton-conducting and electron-conducting catalyst support for use in fuel cells. These polymer-supported catalysts were characterized by electron microscopy, impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and conductivity measurements. Their catalytic activities toward hydrogen and methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction were evaluated in proton exchange membrane fuel-cell-type gas diffusion electrodes. Activities for oxygen reduction comparable to that obtained with a commercial carbon-supported catalyst were observed, whereas those for hydrogen and methanol oxidation were significantly inferior, although still high for prototype catalysts.

Lefebvre, M.C.; Qi, Z.; Pickup, P.G. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Porous desulfurization sorbent pellets containing a reactive metal oxide and an inert zirconium compound  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from coal gas are prepared by combining a reactive oxide, in particular zinc oxide, with a zirconium compound such as an oxide, silicate, or aluminate of zirconium, and an inorganic binder and pelletizing and calcining the mixture. Alternately, the zinc oxide may be replaced by copper oxide or a combination of copper, molybdenum, and manganese oxides. The pellet components may be mixed in dry form, moistened to produce a paste, and converted to pellets by forming an aqueous slurry of the components and spray drying the slurry, or the reactive oxide may be formed on existing zirconium-containing catalyst-carrier pellets by infusing a solution of a salt of the active metal onto the existing pellets and firing at a high temperature to produce the oxide. Pellets made according to this invention show a high reactivity with hydrogen sulfide and durability such as to be useful over repeated cycles of sorption and regeneration.

Gardner, Todd H.; Gasper-Galvin, Lee D.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Towards Sustainable Metals Production by Molten Oxide Electrolysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid-metal/molten-salt cells have been shown to operate as rechargeable batteries that have the potential to handle colossal currents thereby enabling us to ...

171

Solution-mediated strategies for synthesizing metal oxides, borates and phosphides using nanocrystals as reactive precursors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Because of their high surface area (and hence, increased reactivity) nanocrystals can be used as reactive precursors in the low-temperature synthesis of solid state materials. When nanocrystals are used as reactants, the temperatures needed for diffusion between them can be significantly lower than for bulk-scale reactions—often at temperatures attainable using solution-based techniques. In the following work, two synthetic strategies are defined and developed for accessing metal oxides, borates and phosphides using nanocrystalline precursors and solution-mediated techniques. Broadly, the strategies involve either 1) the formation of a nano-sized precursor in solution which is post-annealed after isolation to form a target metal oxide or borate or 2) the solution-mediated diffusion of phosphorus into a nanocrystalline metal to form target metal phosphides. To form multi-metal oxides using the first strategy, metal oxide nanoparticle precursors are mixed in stoichiometric ratios in solution to form a nanocomposite. After isolation, the nanocomposite is annealed in air at 700-800 °C to form target ternary metal oxides, including Y2Ti2O7, Eu2Ti2O7, NiTiO3, Zn2SnO4 and CuInO2. As a variation of this method, rare earth borate nanoparticle precursors can be formed in solution by the reaction of RE3+ with NaBH4. After isolation, annealing in air at 700-800 °C crystallizes a range of REBO3 and Al3RE(BO3)4 powders. Using solution-based techniques, metal phosphides can be formed by the reaction of pre-formed metal nanocrystals with trioctylphosphine (TOP), which acts as a mild phosphorus-source, at 300-370 °C. A range of transition metal phosphide nanocrystals are accessible using this strategy, including the polyphosphides PdP2, AgP2 and Au2P3. Furthermore, shape and size of the metal phosphide product can be influenced by the shape and size of the metal precursor, allowing for the templated-design of nanostructured metal phosphides. The utility of this technique is not limited to the nano-regime. Bulk-scale metal powders, wires, foils, thin films and nanostructured metals can be converted to metal phosphides using analogous reactions with hot TOP. The two-fold purpose of this work is to extend these solution-mediated nanocrystal-based synthetic strategies to new classes of materials, and to compliment the existing library of low-temperature methods for making solid state materials.

Henkes, Amanda Erin

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Platinum Group Metal Oxide Absorption Properties of Perovskite ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the absorption properties of various perovskite-type oxide is .... Influence of Different Cooling Structure on Surface Crack of HSLA Steel Plate by

173

Polymer Formation at Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Facile Native Oxide Based Passivation of Silicon: An Unconventional Approach · Hybrid Polymer-nanocrystal Multilayered Architectures for High-performance ...

174

Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Tiegs, T.N.

1992-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

176

Metal catalyzed synthesis of hyperbranched ethylene and/or .alpha.-olefin polymers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oily hyperbranched polymers derived from ethylene, propylene, butene and/or a C.sub.5 -C.sub.24 .alpha.-olefin, and a method for their synthesis, are disclosed. The polymers have non-regular microstructures and are characterized by a ratio ({character pullout})of methyl hydrogens centered around 0.85 ppm on the 1H-NMR spectra of the polymers relative to total aliphatic hydrogens of from about 0.40 to about 0.65 for polymers derived from ethylene or butene, and a ratio ({character pullout})of from greater than 0.50 to about 0.65 for polymers derived from propylene. A method for grafting hyperbranched polymers derived from ethylene, propylene, butene and/or a C.sub.5 -C.sub.24 .alpha.-olefin onto aromatic rings in organic molecules and polymers, and the resulting grafted materials, are also disclosed. The hyperbranched polymers and grafted materials are useful, for example, as lubricants and lubricant additives.

Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Kim, Jang Sub (State College, PA); Pawlow, James H. (Gainesville, FL); Murtuza, Shahid (State College, PA); Kacker, Smita (Annandale, NJ); Wojcinski, III, Louis M. (State College, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Functional transport properties in complex transition metal oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transition oxide materials have a long and high-flying history due to their attractive properties. They are well-known today for magnets, high temperature superconductors as well as promising electronic materials. For example, BaTiO 3 ...

Hee Taek Yi / Sang-Wook Cheong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Aerosol synthesis of nano and micro-scale zero valent metal particles from oxide precursors  

SciTech Connect

In this work a novel aerosol method, derived form the batch Reduction/Expansion Synthesis (RES) method, for production of nano / micro-scale metal particles from oxides and hydroxides is presented. In the Aerosol-RES (A-RES) method, an aerosol, consisting of a physical mixture of urea and metal oxide or hydroxides, is passed through a heated oven (1000 C) with a residence time of the order of 1 second, producing pure (zero valent) metal particles. It appears that the process is flexible regarding metal or alloy identity, allows control of particle size and can be readily scaled to very large throughput. Current work is focused on creating nanoparticles of metal and metal alloy using this method. Although this is primarily a report on observations, some key elements of the chemistry are clear. In particular, the reducing species produced by urea decomposition are the primary agents responsible for reduction of oxides and hydroxides to metal. It is also likely that the rapid expansion that takes place when solid/liquid urea decomposes to form gas species influences the final morphology of the particles.

Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luhrs, Claudia [UNM; Lesman, Zayd [UNM; Soliman, Haytham [UNM; Zea, Hugo [UNM

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Sulfidation of mixed metal oxides in a fluidized-bed reactor  

SciTech Connect

Mixed metal oxides were used for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a hot gas stream. Sorbents were prepared according to the dry and wet impregnation techniques. The desulfurization performance of the metal oxide sorbents was experimentally tested in a fluidized-bed reactor system. Sulfidation experiments performed under reaction conditions similar to those at the exit of a coal gasifier showed that the preparation procedure and technique, the type and the amount of the impregnated metal oxide, the type of the solid carrier, and the size of the solid reactant affect the H[sub 2]S removal capacity of the sorbents. The pore structure of fresh and sulfided sorbents was analyzed using mercury porosimetry, nitrogen adsorption, and scanning electron microscopy.

Christoforou, S.C.; Efthimiadis, E.A.; Vasalos, I.A. (Aristotelian Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece))

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

The Chemical Behavior and Degradation Mitigation Effect of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in Perfluorosulfonic Acid Polymer Electrolyte Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Perfluorosulfonic acid membranes, the polymer of choice for polymer electrolyte hydrogen fuel cells, are susceptible to degradation due to attacks on polymer chains from radicals. Mitigation of this attack by cerium-based radical scavengers is an approach that has shown promise. In this work, two formulations of single-crystal cerium oxide nanoparticles, with an order of magnitude difference in particle size, are incorporated into said membranes and subjected to proton conductivity measurements and ex-situ durability tests. We found that ceria is reduced to Ce(III) ions in the acidic environment of a heated, humidified membrane which negatively impacts proton conductivity. In liquid and gas Fenton testing, fluoride emission is reduced by an order of magnitude, drastically increasing membrane longevity. Side-product analysis demonstrated that in the liquid Fenton test, the main point of attack are weak polymer end groups, while in the gas Fenton test, there is additional side-chain attack. Both mechanisms are mitigated by the addition of the ceria nanoparticles, whereby the extent of the durability improvement is found to be independent of particle size.

Pearman, Benjamin P [ORNL; Mohajeri, Nahid [ORNL; Slattery, Darlene [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); Hampton, Michael [University of Florida; Seal, Sudipta [University of Central Florida; Cullen, David A [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide polymer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Optocoupler made from semiconducting polymers  

SciTech Connect

Optocouplers (optoisolators) were fabricated using semiconducting polymers. The input unit is a polymer light emitting diode with an external quantum efficiency of approximately 1% photons/electron. The output unit is a polymer photodiode with a quantum yield of approximately 35% electrons/photon at 590 nm. Both units can be operated at bias voltages sufficiently low to be compatible with TTL and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor logic circuits. Since the transfer characteristic is nearly linear, the polymer optocoupler can be used in analogue circuits as well. The current transfer ratio reaches 2 x 10{sup {minus}3} under - 10V reverse bias, comparable to that of commercial inorganic optocouplers. 12 refs., 6 figs.

Yu, G.; Pakbaz, K.; Heeger, A.J. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

On the behavior of Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi Relations for Transition Metal Oxides  

SciTech Connect

Versatile Broensted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relations are found from density functional theory for a wide range of transition metal oxides including rutiles and perovskites. For oxides, the relation depends on the type of oxide, the active site and the dissociating molecule. The slope of the BEP relation is strongly coupled to the adsorbate geometry in the transition state. If it is final state-like the dissociative chemisorption energy can be considered as a descriptor for the dissociation. If it is initial state-like, on the other hand, the dissociative chemisorption energy is not suitable as descriptor for the dissociation. Dissociation of molecules with strong intramolecular bonds belong to the former and molecules with weak intramolecular bonds to the latter group. We show, for the prototype system La-perovskites, that there is a 'cyclic' behavior in the transition state characteristics upon change of the active transition metal of the oxide.

Vojvodic, Aleksandra

2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

183

Anomalous oxidation reactions at noble metal surfaces at low potentials: With particular reference to palladium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multilayer palladium hydrous oxide films, produced by potential cycling, were more stable in acid solution at 0 C (as compared with room temperature). The electrochemical responses for the reduction of such films were more consistent at the lower temperature and were remarkably similar to those of platinum under similar conditions. Both metals yield a hydrous oxide containing two components, HO1 and HO2. The cyclic voltammogram for the bare metal (Pd or Pt) in acid contains an unusual feature at low potentials in the absorbed hydrogen region. This feature, a low level reversible transition at ca. 0.24 V(RHE) for palladium, was reported in earlier independent work. It is attributed here to a premonolayer oxidation effect, i.e., an active metal atom/incipient hydrous oxide transition. The peak maximum potential (E{sub p}) for HO2 reduction in multilayer Pd hydrous oxide reduction experiments, on extrapolation to either very low sweep rates or low film thicknesses, gave a similar potential value. The relevance of this result to noble metal electrocatalysis is outlined. Electrocatalysis is a topic of major interest at the present time, especially in connection with fuel cell development.

Burke, L.D.; Buckley, D.T. [University College Cork (Ireland). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Structure formation upon reactive direct current magnetron sputtering of transition metal oxide films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comparative study of reactive direct current magnetron sputtering for different transition metal oxides reveals crystalline films at room temperature for group 4 and amorphous films for groups 5 and 6. This observation cannot be explained by the known growth laws and is attributed to the impact of energetic particles, originating from the oxidized target, on the growing film. This scenario is supported by measured target characteristics, the evolution of deposition stress of the films, and the observed backsputtering.

Ngaruiya, J.M.; Kappertz, O.; Mohamed, S.H.; Wuttig, M. [I. Physikalisches Institut der RWTH Aachen, D-52056 Aachen, Germany and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Box 62000 Nairobi (Kenya); I. Physikalisches Institut der RWTH Aachen, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

2004-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

185

Noble Metal Catalysts for Mercury Oxidation in Utility Flue Gas: Gold, Palladium and Platinum Formulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of noble metals as catalysts for mercury oxidation in flue gas remains an area of active study. To date, field studies have focused on gold and palladium catalysts installed at pilot scale. In this article, we introduce bench-scale experimental results for gold, palladium and platinum catalysts tested in realistic simulated flue gas. Our initial results reveal some intriguing characteristics of catalytic mercury oxidation and provide insight for future research into this potentially important process.

Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Metal oxide coatings for piezoelectric exhaust gas sensors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have deposited ZrO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, and SnO{sub 2} films on ST-cut quartz surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices via sol-gel techniques. The films range from 100 to 300 nm thick and have porosities after calcination at 300{degrees}C that range from 82-88 % for ZrO{sub 2}, 77-81% for TiO{sub 2}, and 57-66% for SnO{sub 2}. In all cases, we have varied the synthesis and processing parameters over a wide range to optimize film properties: metal ion concentration (0.05-1.0 M), the H{sub 2}O:metal ratio (0.3-5.3), the acid concentration in the sol (0.02-0.7 M), the modifier ligand:metal ratio (r = 0.0-1.0), the processing conditions (100-900{degrees}C). The modifier ligand, triethanolamine (TEA), is added to each solution to allow multilayer films to be made crack free. The multilayer films are studied by optical microscopy, ellipsometry, X-ray diffraction, and N{sub 2} sorption. Preliminary high temperature frequency response measurements to target gases, such as, H{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, and propylene indicate limited sensitivity for the configurations tested.

Anderson, M.T.; Cernosek, R.W.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

METAL INTERCONNECTS FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL POWER SYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Interconnect development is identified by the U.S. Department of Energy as a key technical area requiring focused research to meet the performance and cost goals under the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance initiative. In the Phase I SECA Core Technology Program, Ceramatec investigated a commercial ferritic stainless steel composition for oxidation resistance properties by measuring the weight gain when exposed to air at the fuel cell operating temperature. A pre-treatment process that results in a dense, adherent scale was found to reduce the oxide scale growth rate significantly. A process for coating the surface of the alloy in order to reduce the in-plane resistance and potentially inhibit chromium oxide evaporation was also identified. The combination of treatments provided a very low resistance through the scale. The resistance measured was as low as 10 milliohm-cm{sup 2} at 750 C in air. The oxide scale was found to be stable in humidified air at 750 C. The resistance value was stable over several thermal cycles. A similar treatment and coating for the fuel side of the interconnect also showed an exceptionally low resistance of one milliohm-cm{sup 2} in humidified hydrogen at 750 C, and was stable through multiple thermal cycles. Analysis of the scale after exposure to various atmospheres showed the presence of a stable composition. When exposed to a dual (air and hydrogen) atmosphere however, the scale composition contains a mixture of phases. Based on results to-date, the alloy selection and the treatment processes appear to be well suited for SOFC interconnect application.

S. Elangovan; S. Balagopal; M. Timper; I. Bay; D. Larsen; J. Hartvigsen

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal recovery from aqueous solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe.sup.3+ ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu.sup.2+, Zn.sup.2+, Mn.sup.2+, Ni.sup.2+, Mg.sup.2+, Al.sup.3+, and Cr.sup.3+ ions at pH 1-3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe.sup.3+ (for example, Hg.sup.2+ at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe.sup.3+ Al.sup.3+ ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads used determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K.sub.m) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe.sup.3+ ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2,6-LICAMS series of polymer pendant ligands are more selective to divalent metal ions Cu.sup.2+, Zn.sup.2+, Mn.sup.2+, Ni.sup.2+, and Mg.sup.2+, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe.sup.3+ ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe.sup.3+, the polymer ligand is selective for Al.sup.3+, Cu.sup.2+ or Hg.sup.2+. The changing of the cavity size from two CH.sub.2 groups to six CH.sub.2 groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity.

Fish, Richard H. (Berkeley, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal recovery from aqueous solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe{sup 3+} ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+} ions at pH 1--3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe{sup 3+} (for example, Hg{sup 2+} at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+} ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads used determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K{sub m}) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe{sup 3+} ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2,6-LICAMS series of polymer pendant ligands are more selective to divalent metal ions Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe{sup 3+} ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe{sup 3+}, the polymer ligand is selective for Al{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} or Hg{sup 2+}. The changing of the cavity size from two CH{sub 2} groups to six CH{sub 2} groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity. 9 figs.

Fish, R.H.

1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

190

Electrical and physical characteristics of HfLaON-gated metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with various nitrogen concentration profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The comparative studies of electrical and physical characteristics of HfLaON-gated metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with various nitrogen concentration profiles (NCPs) were investigated. Various NCPs in HfLaON gate dielectrics were adjusted ... Keywords: Charge trapping, Current-conduction, High-k dielectric, Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS), Nitrogen concentration profiles (NCPs)

Chin-Lung Cheng; Jeng-Haur Horng; Hung-Yang Tsai

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Diffusion coefficients in trimethyleneoxide containing comb branch polymer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Diffusion coefficients in trimethyleneoxide containing comb branch polymer Diffusion coefficients in trimethyleneoxide containing comb branch polymer electrolytes Title Diffusion coefficients in trimethyleneoxide containing comb branch polymer electrolytes Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2004 Authors Liu, Gao, Craig L. Reeder, Xiaoguang Sun, and John B. Kerr Journal Solid State Ionics Volume 175 Pagination 781-783 Keywords comb branch polyethers, conductivity, lithium battery, polymer electrolytes, salt diffusion coefficient, trimethylene oxide Abstract This paper reports on a new comb branch polymer based on trimethylene oxide (TMO) side chains as a polymer electrolyte for potential application in lithium metal rechargeable batteries. The trimethylene oxide (TMO) units are attached to the side chains of a polyepoxide ether to maximize the segmental motion. Lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) salt was used to formulate the polymer electrolyte with the new TMO containing polymers. The new polymer electrolytes show improved salt diffusion coefficients (Ds) and conductivity at ambient and subambient temperature compare to the ethylene oxide (EO) counterpart, whereas performance at high temperature (85 °C) remains the same or is actually worse for salt diffusivity.

192

AC conductivity of nanoporous metal-oxide photoanodes for solar energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AC conductivity of nanoporous metal-oxide photoanodes for solar energy conversion Steven J. Konezny and SnO2 play a central role in solar energy conversion applications.1­7 In fact, the discovery of low-cost high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) (i.e., exceeding 10% solar-to-electric energy

193

Production of hydrogen. [metals oxidation/carbon reduction process; and cyyclic electrolytic; carbon reduction  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen is produced in a cyclic metals oxidation/carbon reduction process. In particular, elemental iron or cobalt is oxidized in an aqueous solution of an alkali metal hydroxide with the simultaneous generation of hydrogen. The iron or cobalt oxidation products of the reaction are thereafter reduced to elemental iron or cobalt by contact with a carbonaceous reducing agent at elevated temperatures and the reduced material recycled for reoxidation. In an alternate operation, hydrogen is produced in a cyclic electrolytic/carbon reduction process wherein elemental iron or cobalt is electrolytically converted to corresponding oxidation products with the simultaneous generation of hydrogen. The electrolytic cell used in this process comprises a cathode, a magnetic anode that is adapted to attract and retain iron and/or cobalt particles and an aqueous electrolyte. In the electrolytic cell, hydrogen is produced at the cathode and metal particles contained on the magnetic electrode are oxidized to a non-ferromagnetic specie, such as ferrous hydroxide. The nonferromagnetic species are recovered from the electrolytic cell and thereafter reconverted to particulate elemental iron and/or cobalt by treating the material with a carbonaceous reductant at an elevated temperature.

Batzold, J.S.; Pan, Y.

1980-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

194

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Architectural Diversity of Metal Oxide Nanostructures - Esther Takeuchi, Stony Brook University  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Architectural Diversity of Metal Oxide Nanostructures: Architectural Diversity of Metal Oxide Nanostructures: An Opportunity for the Rational Optimization of Group II Cation Based Batteries. Esther S. Takeuchi, Kenneth J. Takeuchi, Amy C. Marschilok esther.takeuchi@stonybrook.edu, kenneth.takeuchi.1@stonybrook.edu, amy.marschilok@stonybrook.edu Utilize earth abundant, low cost elements with minimal environmental impact as battery materials. Exploit magnesium due to air stability and ~1,000X higher natural abundance than lithium and ~5,000X higher abundance than lead. Cathode materials feature Mn, Fe or V metal centers. Strategy Results Results This project targets some of the unique needs of large scale power storage: 1) reduced cost 2) low environmental impact 3) scalability 4) reversibility

195

Evaluation of reaction mechanism of coal-metal oxide interactions in chemical-looping combustion  

SciTech Connect

The knowledge of reaction mechanism is very important in designing reactors for chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of coal. Recent CLC studies have considered the more technically difficult problem of reactions between abundant solid fuels (i.e. coal and waste streams) and solid metal oxides. A definitive reaction mechanism has not been reported for CLC reaction of solid fuels. It has often been assumed that the solid/solid reaction is slow and therefore requires that reactions be conducted at temperatures high enough to gasify the solid fuel, or decompose the metal oxide. In contrast, data presented in this paper demonstrates that solid/solid reactions can be completed at much lower temperatures, with rates that are technically useful as long as adequate fuel/metal oxide contact is achieved. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations as well as experimental techniques such as thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), flow reactor studies, in situ X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to evaluate how the proximal interaction between solid phases proceeds. The data indicate that carbon induces the Cu-O bond breaking process to initiate the combustion of carbon at temperatures significantly lower than the spontaneous decomposition temperature of CuO, and the type of reducing medium in the vicinity of the metal oxide influences the temperature at which the oxygen release from the metal oxide takes place. Surface melting of Cu and wetting of carbon may contribute to the solid-solid contacts necessary for the reaction. (author)

Siriwardane, Ranjani; Richards, George; Poston, James [US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 (United States); Tian, Hanjing; Miller, Duane; Simonyi, Thomas [US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 (United States); URS, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

Half-Metallicity in Europium Oxide Conductively Matched with Silicon  

SciTech Connect

EuO1-x--a remarkably versatile ferromagnetic semiconductor with variable transport properties--incorporated into a heterostructure with n+ doped silicon is shown to be {approx}90% spin polarized by Andreev reflection (AR) spin spectroscopy. The AR measurements were done in a planar geometry with an InSn superconducting film. A simple reactive growth technique was used to controllably introduce oxygen vacancies into EuO1-x to adjust its carrier concentration. We demonstrate by direct measurements of spin polarization that half-metallicity of EuO1-x can be achieved in the films conductively matched with Si, thus making EuO1-x one of the most attractive materials for silicon-based spintronics.

Panguluri,R.; Santos, T.; Negusse, E.; Dvorak, J.; Idzerda, Y.; Moodera, J.; Nadgorny, B.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Niobium Oxide-Metal Based Seals for High Temperature Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present final report describes technical progress made in regards to evaluating niobium oxide/alumina as a high temperature seal material. Fabrication and characterization of specimens comprising niobium oxide and alumina composites of various compositions was performed. The goal was to identify regions where a glass formed. There were no experimental conditions where a glassy phase was unequivocally identified. However, the results led to the formation of an interesting class of fibrous composites which may have applications where high compliance and high toughness are needed. It is clear that vapor phase sintering is an active mass transport mechanism in Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites (Figure 1), and it may be possible to design porous materials by utilizing vapor phase sintering. The compositions evaluated in the present work are 52, 60, 73, 82 and 95 mol. % Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} with the remainder Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These were chosen so that some eutectic composition was present during cooling, in an attempt to encourage glass formation. However, the presence of large, elongated crystals, both in the slow cool and the quench experiments indicates that the driving force for crystallization is very high. Several joints were formed between high purity alumina with two compositions (60 and 82 mol. %) forming the joint. These were created by grinding and polishing alumina surfaces and stacking them end-to-end with the powdered Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} material in between. Joining was accomplished in air at temperatures between 1400 C and 1450 C. The joints failed during subsequent machining for strength bars, indicating low strength. It may be possible to use the compositions evaluated here as a joint material, but it seems unlikely that a glassy phase could be produced while joining.

Ivar Reimanis

2006-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

198

Method for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas, device for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the simultaneous removal of oxides and heavy metals from a fluid is provided comprising combining the fluid with compounds containing alkali and sulfur to create a mixture; spray drying the mixture to create a vapor phase and a solid phase; and isolating the vapor phase from the solid phase. A device is also provided comprising a means for spray-drying flue gas with alkali-sulfide containing liquor at a temperature sufficient to cause the flue gas to react with the compounds so as to create a gaseous fraction and a solid fraction and a means for directing the gaseous fraction to a fabric filter.

Huang, Hann-Sheng; Livengood, Charles David

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Catalytic hydrocarbon reactions over supported metal oxides. Progress report, April 1, 1994--January 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oxide catalysis plays a central role in hydrocarbon processing and improvements in catalytic activity or selectivity are of great technological importance because these improvements will translate directly into more efficient utilization of hydrocarbon supplies and lower energy consumption in separation processes. An understanding of the relationships between surface structure and catalytic properties is needed to describe and improve oxide catalysts. Our approach has been to prepare supported oxides that have a specific structure and oxidation state and then employ these structures in reaction studies. Our current research program is focused on studying the fundamental relationships between structure and reactivity for two important reactions that are present in many oxide-catalyzed processes, partial oxidation and carbon-carbon bond formation. Oxide catalysis can be a complex process with both metal cation and oxygen anions participating in the chemical reactions. From an energy perspective carbon-carbon bond formation is particularly relevant to CO hydrogenation in isosynthesis. Hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation form the basis for heteroatom removal in fuels processing. Understanding the catalysis of these processes (and others) requires isolating reaction steps in the overall cycle and determining how structure and composition influence the individual reaction steps. Specially designed oxides, such as we use, permit one to study some of the steps in oxidation, carbon-carbon coupling and heteroatom removal catalysis. During the course of our studies we have: (1) developed methods to form and stabilize various Mo and W oxide structures on silica; (2) studied C-H abstraction reactions over the fully oxidized cations; (3) studied C-C bond coupling by methathesis and reductive coupling of aldehydes and ketones over reduced cation structures; and (4) initiated a study of hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis over reduced cation structures.

Ekerdt, J.G.

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

200

Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal and recovery from aqueous solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe.sup.3+ ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu.sup.2+, Zn.sup.2+, Mn.sup.2+, Ni.sup.2+,Mg.sup.2+, Al.sup.3+, and Cr.sup.3+ ions at pH 1-3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe.sup.3+ (for example, Hg.sup.2+ at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe.sup.3+ Al.sup.3+ ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads use determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K.sub.m) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe.sup.3+ ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2-6-Mn.sup.2+, Ni.sup.2+, and Mg.sup.2+, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe.sup.3+ ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe.sup.3+, the polymer ligand is selective for Al.sup.3+, Cu.sup.2+ or Hg.sup.2+. The changing of the cavity size from two CH.sub.2 groups to six CH.sub.2 groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity.

Fish, Richard H. (Berkeley, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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201

Polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands and their use in selective metal ion removal and recovery from aqueous solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention concerns the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis-catechol linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS) and sulfonated 3,3-linear tris-catechol amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands, which chemically bond to modified 6% crosslinked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB). These polymers are useful for the for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe{sup 3+} ion selectivity shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+} ions at pH 1--3. Further, the metal ion selectivity is changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe{sup 3+} (for example, Hg{sup 2+} at pH 3). The rates of selective removal and recovery of the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+} ion etc. with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS, and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads use determined are useful as well as equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K{sub m}) values for all metal competition studies. The chelate effect for the predisposed octahedral PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand is the reason that this ligand has a more pronounced selectivity for Fe{sup 3+} ion in comparison to the PS-CATS polymer beads. The predisposed square planar PS-2-6-Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+}, than either PS-CATS or PS-3,3-LICAMS. However, Fe{sup 3+} ion still dominates in competition with other divalent and trivalent metal ions. In the absence of Fe{sup 3+}, the polymer ligand is selective for Al{sup 3+}, Cu{sup 2+} or Hg{sup 2+}. The changing of the cavity size from two CH{sub 2} groups to six CH{sub 2} groups in the PS-2-6-LICAMS polymer pendant ligand series does not effect the order of metal ion selectivity. 9 figs.

Fish, R.H.

1997-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

202

Metal oxide coating of carbon supports for supercapacitor applications.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The global market for wireless sensor networks in 2010 will be valued close to $10 B, or 200 M units. TPL, Inc. is a small Albuquerque based business that has positioned itself to be a leader in providing uninterruptible power supplies in this growing market with projected revenues expected to exceed $26 M in 5 years. This project focused on improving TPL, Inc.'s patent-pending EnerPak{trademark} device which converts small amounts of energy from the environment (e.g., vibrations, light or temperature differences) into electrical energy that can be used to charge small energy storage devices. A critical component of the EnerPak{trademark} is the supercapacitor that handles high power delivery for wireless communications; however, optimization and miniaturization of this critical component is required. This proposal aimed to produce prototype microsupercapacitors through the integration of novel materials and fabrication processes developed at New Mexico Technology Research Collaborative (NMTRC) member institutions. In particular, we focused on developing novel ruthenium oxide nanomaterials and placed them into carbon supports to significantly increase the energy density of the supercapacitor. These improvements were expected to reduce maintenance costs and expand the utility of the TPL, Inc.'s device, enabling New Mexico to become the leader in the growing global wireless power supply market. By dominating this niche, new customers were expected to be attracted to TPL, Inc. yielding new technical opportunities and increased job opportunities for New Mexico.

Boyle, Timothy J.; Tribby, Louis, J (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Lakeman, Charles D. E. (TPL, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Han, Sang M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Lambert, Timothy N.; Fleig, Patrick F. (TPL, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

O-vacancies in transition metal (TM) oxides: Coordination and local site symmetry of transition and negative ion states in TM2O3 and TMO2 oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Removal of neutral O-atoms from a transition metal (TM) oxide results in two electrons residing within the vacated site. Two-electron multiplet theory has been used to develop a d^2equivalent model. When applied to tetragonal HfO"2, the two electrons ... Keywords: Negative ion states, O-vacancy, Second derivative O K pre-edge spectra, Tanabe-Sugano diagrams, Transition metal oxides: X-ray absorption spectroscopy

G. Lucovsky; D. Zeller; J. L. Whitten

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M{sub x}Z{sub y}Mn{sub (1{minus}y)}O{sub 2}, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell. 11 figs.

Doeff, M.M.; Peng, M.Y.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.C.

1996-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

205

Sputtered Nickel Oxide Thin Film for Efficient Hole Transport Layer in Polymer-Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cell  

SciTech Connect

Bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPV) are very promising thin film renewable energy conversion technologies due to low production cost by high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing, an expansive list of compatible materials, and flexible device fabrication. An important aspect of OPV device efficiency is good contact engineering. The use of oxide thin films for this application offers increased design flexibility and improved chemical stability. Here we present our investigation of radio frequency magnetron sputtered nickel oxide (NiO{sub x}) deposited from oxide targets as an efficient, easily scalable hole transport layer (HTL) with variable work-function, ranging from 4.8 to 5.8 eV. Differences in HTL work-function were not found to result in statistically significant changes in open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) for poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) BHJ device. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) characterization of the NiO{sub x} film and its interface with the polymer shows Fermi level alignment of the polymer with the NiO{sub x} film. UPS of the blend also demonstrates Fermi level alignment of the organic active layer with the HTL, consistent with the lack of correlation between V{sub oc} and HTL work-function. Instead, trends in j{sub sc}, V{sub oc}, and thus overall device performance are related to the surface treatment of the HTL prior to active layer deposition through changes in active layer thickness.

Widjonarko, N. E.; Ratcliff, E. L.; Perkins, C. L.; Sigdel, A. K.; Zakutayev, A.; Ndione, P. F.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Ginley, D. S.; Olson, D. C.; Berry, J. J.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

NiO as a peculiar support for metal nanoparticles in polyols oxidation  

SciTech Connect

The peculiar influence of a NiO support was studied by preparing gold catalysts supported on NiO(1-x) TiO2(x) mixed oxides. PVA protected Au nanoparticles showed high activity when supported on NiO for the selective oxidation of glycerol and ethan-1,2-diol. A detailed characterization of the resulting Au catalysts revealed a preferential deposition of the metal nanoparticles on the NiO phase. However, the activity of Au on NiO(1-x)-TiO2(x) decreased with respect to pure NiO and the selectivity evolved with changes to the support.

Villa, Alberto [Universita di Milano, Italy; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Ferri, Davide [EMPA, Laboratory for High Performance Ceramics, Duebendorf, Switzerland; Weidenkaff, Anke [EMPA, Laboratory for High Performance Ceramics, Duebendorf, Switzerland; Perry, Kelly A [ORNL; Campisi, Sebastiano [University of Milan and INFN, Milano, Italy; Prati, Laura [Universita di Milano, Italy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Brazing a Mixed Ionic/Electronic Conductor to an Oxidation Resistant Metal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mixed ionically/electrically conducting oxides such as lanthanum calcium manganate are currently being investigated for use as electrodes in a number of high temperature devices, including solid oxide fuel cells. Traditionally, glass seals have been employed as a means of hermetically joining the ceramic components that lie at the heart of these devices to the heat resistant metal frame that gives the device its structural integrity. The present paper outlines an alternative brazing technique for joining these dissimilar materials and discusses recent findings regarding the wettability of the braze on the two joining surfaces, as well as the strength of the resulting joint.

Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.

2003-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

208

Study of metallic materials for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metallic interconnect acts as a gas separator and a gas distributor and therefore, it needs to function adequately in two widely different environments. The interconnect material will be exposed to air on one side and natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas on the other side. The viable material for the interconnect application must be resistant not only to oxidation but also carburization in hydrocarbon containing low-oxygen environments. In addition, the scales that develop on the exposed surfaces must possess adequate electrical conductivity for them to function as current leads over long service life of the fuel cell. This report addresses five topics of interest for the development of metallic interconnects with adequate performance in fuel cells for long service life. The research conducted over the years and the conclusions reached were used to identify additional areas of research on materials for improved performance of components, especially metallic interconnects, in the complex fuel cell environments. This report details research conducted in the following areas: measurement of area specific electrical resistivity, corrosion performance in dual gas environments by experiments using alloy 446, long term corrosion performance of ferritic and austenitic alloys in hydrogen and methane-reformed synthesis fuel-gas environments, approaches to reduce the area resistance of metallic interconnect, and reduction of electrical resistivity of alumina scales on metallic interconnect. Based on the key requirements for metallic interconnects and the data developed on the corrosion behavior of candidate materials in meeting those requirements, several areas are recommended for further research to develop metallic interconnects with acceptable and reliable long-term performance in solid oxide fuel cells.

Natesan, K.; Zeng, Z.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2009-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

209

Investigation on Durability and Reactivity of Promising Metal Oxide Sorbents During Sulfidation and Regeneration  

SciTech Connect

Research activities and efforts of this research project were concentrated on formulating various metal oxide sorbents with various additives under various formulation conditions, conducting experiments on initial reactivity of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide, and testing hardness of formulated sorbents. Experiments on reactivity of formulated metal oxide sorbents with wet hydrogen sulfide contained in a simulated coal gas mixture were carried out for 120 seconds at 550 o C (see Table 1) to evaluate reactivity of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide. Hardness of formulated sorbents was evaluated in addition to testing their reactivity with hydrogen sulfide. A typical simulated coal gas mixture consists of 9107-ppm hydrogen sulfide (0.005 g; 1 wt %), 0.085-g water (15.84 wt %), 0.0029-g hydrogen (0.58 wt %), and 0.4046-g nitrogen (81.34 wt%).

K. C. Kwon

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Removal of NOx or its conversion into harmless gases by charcoals and composites of metal oxides  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, much attention has been devoted to environmental problems such as acid rain, photochemical smog and water pollution. In particular, NOx emissions from factories, auto mobiles, etc. in urban areas have become worse. To solve these problems on environmental pollution on a global scale, the use of activated charcoal to reduce air pollutants is increasing. However, the capability of wood-based charcoal materials is not yet fully known. The removal of NOx or its conversion into harmless gases such as N{sub 2} should be described. In this study, the adsorption of NO over wood charcoal or metal oxide-dispersed wood charcoal was investigated. In particular, carbonized wood powder of Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) was used to study the effectivity of using these materials in adsorbing NOx. Since wood charcoal is chemically stable, metal oxide with the ability of photocatalysis was dispersed into wood charcoal to improve its adsorption and capability to use the light energy effectively.

Ishihara, Shigehisa; Furutsuka, Takeshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

211

NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDES FOR ANODES OF LI-ION RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The aligned nanorods of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and nanoporous hollow spheres (NHS) of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated as the anodes for Li-ion rechargeable batteries. The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods demonstrated 1433 mAh/g reversible capacity. The NHS of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} delivered 400 mAh/g and 250 mAh/g capacities respectively in multiple galvonastatic discharge-charge cycles. It was found that high capacity of NHS of metal oxides is sustainable attributed to their unique structure that maintains material integrity during cycling. The nanostructured metal oxides exhibit great potential as the new anode materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries with high energy density, low cost and inherent safety.

Au, M.

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

212

Tubular solid oxide fuel cells with porous metal supports and ceramic interconnections  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell structure capable of operating at from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. having a very thin porous hollow elongated metallic support tube having a thickness from 0.10 mm to 1.0 mm, preferably 0.10 mm to 0.35 mm, a porosity of from 25 vol. % to 50 vol. % and a tensile strength from 700 GPa to 900 GPa, which metallic tube supports a reduced thickness air electrode having a thickness from 0.010 mm to 0.2 mm, a solid oxide electrolyte, a cermet fuel electrode, a ceramic interconnection and an electrically conductive cell to cell contact layer.

Huang, Kevin (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

213

Inert anode containing oxides of nickel, iron and zinc useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO: 0.2 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.8 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.3 ZnO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Inert anode containing oxides of nickel iron and cobalt useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO: 0.15 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.85 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.45 CoO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Activation of Noble Metals on Metal-Carbide Surfaces: Novel Catalysts for CO Oxidation, Desulfurization and Hydrogenation Reactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This perspective article focuses on the physical and chemical properties of highly active catalysts for CO oxidation, desulfurization and hydrogenation reactions generated by depositing noble metals on metal-carbide surfaces. To rationalize structure-reactivity relationships for these novel catalysts, well-defined systems are required. High-resolution photoemission, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and first-principles periodic density-functional (DF) calculations have been used to study the interaction of metals of Groups 9, 10 and 11 with MC(001) (M = Ti, Zr, V, Mo) surfaces. DF calculations give adsorption energies that range from 2 eV (Cu, Ag, Au) to 6 eV (Co, Rh, Ir). STM images show that Au, Cu, Ni and Pt grow on the carbide substrates forming two-dimensional islands at very low coverage, and three-dimensional islands at medium and large coverages. In many systems, the results of DF calculations point to the preferential formation of admetal-C bonds with significant electronic perturbations in the admetal. TiC(001) and ZrC(001) transfer some electron density to the admetals facilitating bonding of the adatom with electron-acceptor molecules (CO, O{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, thiophene, etc.). For example, the Cu/TiC(001) and Au/TiC(001) systems are able to cleave both S-O bonds of SO{sub 2} at a temperature as low as 150 K, displaying a reactivity much larger than that of TiC(001) or extended surfaces of bulk copper and gold. At temperatures below 200 K, Au/TiC is able to dissociate O{sub 2} and perform the 2CO + O{sub 2} {yields} 2CO{sub 2} reaction. Furthermore, in spite of the very poor hydrodesulfurization performance of TiC(001) or Au(111), a Au/TiC(001) surface displays an activity for the hydrodesulfurization of thiophene higher than that of conventional Ni/MoS{sub x} catalysts. In general, the Au/TiC system is more chemically active than systems generated by depositing Au nanoparticles on oxide surfaces. Thus, metal carbides are excellent supports for enhancing the chemical reactivity of noble metals.

Rodriguez J. A.; Illas, F.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides Print Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides Print "Ferroelectricity," by analogy to ferromagnetism, is defined as the presence of spontaneous electrical polarization in a material, often arising from distortions in the material's crystal structure. In oxides of the metals lead and bismuth, such distortions were for many years attributed to the existence of "lone pair" electrons: pairs of chemically inert, nonbonding valence electrons in hybrid orbitals that leave noticeable voids in the crystal structure. At the ALS, researchers from the U.K., Ireland, and the U.S. have now obtained definitive experimental evidence that this lone-pair model must be revised. High-resolution x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and soft x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) have clarified the subtle electronic origins of the prototypical distortions in these crystal structures. The results have important implications for the tantalizing possibility of spintronic or superconducting devices combining ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties.

217

Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides Print Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides Print "Ferroelectricity," by analogy to ferromagnetism, is defined as the presence of spontaneous electrical polarization in a material, often arising from distortions in the material's crystal structure. In oxides of the metals lead and bismuth, such distortions were for many years attributed to the existence of "lone pair" electrons: pairs of chemically inert, nonbonding valence electrons in hybrid orbitals that leave noticeable voids in the crystal structure. At the ALS, researchers from the U.K., Ireland, and the U.S. have now obtained definitive experimental evidence that this lone-pair model must be revised. High-resolution x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and soft x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) have clarified the subtle electronic origins of the prototypical distortions in these crystal structures. The results have important implications for the tantalizing possibility of spintronic or superconducting devices combining ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties.

218

Oxidation Resistant, Cr Retaining, Electrically Conductive Coatings on Metallic Alloys for SOFC Interconnects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes significant results from an on-going, collaborative effort to enable the use of inexpensive metallic alloys as interconnects in planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) through the use of advanced coating technologies. Arcomac Surface Engineering, LLC, under the leadership of Dr. Vladimir Gorokhovsky, is investigating filtered-arc and filtered-arc plasma-assisted hybrid coating deposition technologies to promote oxidation resistance, eliminate Cr volatility, and stabilize the electrical conductivity of both standard and specialty steel alloys of interest for SOFC metallic interconnect (IC) applications. Arcomac has successfully developed technologies and processes to deposit coatings with excellent adhesion, which have demonstrated a substantial increase in high temperature oxidation resistance, stabilization of low Area Specific Resistance values and significantly decrease Cr volatility. An extensive matrix of deposition processes, coating compositions and architectures was evaluated. Technical performance of coated and uncoated sample coupons during exposures to SOFC interconnect-relevant conditions is discussed, and promising future directions are considered. Cost analyses have been prepared based on assessment of plasma processing parameters, which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed surface engineering process for SOFC metallic IC applications.

Vladimir Gorokhovsky

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

219

Mercury Removal from Aqueous Systems Using Commercial and Laboratory Prepared Metal Oxide Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Five commercial metal oxide nanoparticles (CuO, SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2 and Al2O3) have been individually screened for mercury removal in a batch reactor under bicarbonate buffered and non-buffered aqueous solutions (DI water). Copper oxide was then selected for surface modification to enhance mercury removal. The surfaces of both laboratory prepared and commercially available copper oxide nanoparticles were treated with 1-octanethiol to produce copper sulfide and/or copper alkanethiol nanoparticles. The resulting particles were characterized using X-Ray Fluorescence(XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The novel nanoparticles demonstrated very high mercury removal (> 99%) from both the buffered and non-buffered aqueous solutions.

Desai, Ishan

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Recent trends in the microwave-assisted synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes and their applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study of coating carbon nanotubes with metal/oxides nanoparticles is now becoming a promising and challenging area of research. To optimize the use of carbon nanotubes in various applications, it is necessary to attach functional groups or other ...

Sarah C. Motshekga; Sreejarani K. Pillai; Suprakas Sinha Ray; Kalala Jalama; Rui. W. M. Krause

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide polymer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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221

Modelling of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of metallic and oxide fuels for sodium fast reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A robust and reliable code to model the irradiation behavior of metal and oxide fuels in sodium cooled fast reactors is developed. Modeling capability was enhanced by adopting a non-empirical mechanistic approach to the ...

Karahan, Aydin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

An exploratory program for using hydrous metal oxide ion exchangers as Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program is to investigate the potential of hydrous metal oxide (HMO) ion exchangers, invented at Sandia National Laboratories, as Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalysts. Metals known to be active in F-T synthesis (e.g. Fe, Co) were ion exchanged on hydrous metal oxide supports. Although HMO catalysts based on Zr, Nb, and Ta have been investigated in direct coal liquefaction studies, this effect focused on formulations based on the hydrous titanium oxide (HTO) system. The program has the goals of developing a catalyst with (1) high activity, (2) selectively to fuel range or other useful products, and (3) better properties for use in slurry reactors. The program has three main tasks: (1) catalyst synthesis, to develop methods for preparing catalysts having desirable F-T properties, (2) characterization, to investigate catalysts proving to have desirable properties by a variety of analytical techniques to determine correlations between activity and material properties and (3) testing to determine activity and selectivity of catalysts. This paper discussed results of activity testing of Ruhrchemie catalyst and some catalyst formulations prepared using ion exchange on hydrous titanium oxide and precipitation. For example, at 250{degree}C the Ruhrchemie catalyst converts {approximately}50% of the syngas feed to reaction products. In comparison, iron catalysts prepared by ion exchange and precipitation had conversions ranging from 20 to 50% over a temperature range of 250 to 275{degree}C of the syngas feed. In addition, results are Auger surface analysis of Ruhrchemie catalyst are presented. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Lynch, A.W.; Dosch, R.G.; Sault, A.G.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Polymer pendant ligand chemistry. 3. A biomimetic approach to selective metal ion removal and recovery from aqueous solution with polymer-supported sulfonated catechol and linear catechol amide ligands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design of organic ligands to selectively remove and recover metal ions from aqueous solution is a new and important area of environmental inorganic chemistry. One approach to designing organic ligands for these purposes is to use biological systems as examples for selective metal ion complexation. Thus, the authors report results on the synthesis of several biomimetically important polymer-supported, sulfonated catechol (PS-CATS), sulfonated bis(catechol) linear amide (PS-2-6-LICAMS), and sulfonated 3.3-linear tris(catechol) amide (PS-3,3-LICAMS) ligands that are chemically bonded to modified 6% cross-linked macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene beads (PS-DVB) for selective removal and recovery of environmentally and economically important metal ions from aqueous solution, as a function of pH. The Fe{sup 3+} ion selectivity was dramatically shown for PS-CATS, PS-2-6-LICAMS and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads in competition with a similar concentration of Cu{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Cr{sup 3+} ions at pH 1-3, while metal ion selectivity could be changed at higher pH values in the absence of Fe{sup 3+} (for example, Hg{sup 2+} at pH 3). Rates of removal and recovery of the Fe{sup 3+} ion with the PS-CATS, PS-2-6LICAMS and PS-3,3-LICAMS polymer beads were also studied as well as relative equilibrium selectivity coefficient (K{sub m}) values for all metal competition studies.

Huang, Song-Ping; Li, Wei; Franz, K.J.; Albright, R.L.; Fish, R.H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1995-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

224

The optical properties of magnesium oxide containing transition metal ions and defects produced by fast neutron irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The photoluminescence (PL), its excitation (PLE) and optical absorption of MgO crystals containing transition metal ions and defects produced by fast neutron irradiation fluence up to 1020cm-2 (E>0.1 MeV) are investigated. Three ... Keywords: absorption, luminescence spectra, magnesium oxide, radiation defect, transition metal ions

Vera Skvortsova; Laima Trinkler

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Solid-State 17O NMR Study of Benzoic Acid Adsorption On Metal Oxide Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid-state 17O NMR spectra of 17O-labeled benzoic and anisic acids are reported and benzoic acid is used to probe the surface of metal oxides. Complexes formed when benzoic acid is dry-mixed with mesoporous silica, and nonporous titania and alumina are characterized. Chemical reactions with silica are not observed. The nature of benzoic acid on silica is a function of the water content of the oxide. The acid disperses in the pores of the silica if the silica is in equilibrium with ambient laboratory humidity. The acid displays high mobility as evidenced by a liquid-like, Lorentzian resonance. Excess benzoic acid remains as the crystalline hydrogen-bonded dimer. Benzoic acid reacts with titania and alumina surfaces in equilibrium with laboratory air to form the corresponding titanium and aluminum benzoates. In both materials the oxygen of the 17O-labeled acid is bound to the metal, showing the reaction proceeds by bond formation between oxygen deficient metal sites and the oxygen of the carboxylic acid. 27Al MAS NMR confirms this mechanism for the reaction on alumina. Dry mixing of benzoic acid with alumina rapidly quenches pentacoordinate aluminum sites, excellent evidence that these sites are confined to the surface of the alumina particles.

Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W [ORNL; Chen, Banghao [ORNL; Jiao, Jian [ORNL; Parsons, Williams [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Uses for structured catalytic supports, such as ceramic straight-channel monoliths and ceramic foams, have been established for a long time. One of the most prominent examples is the washcoated ceramic monolith as a three-way catalytic converter for gasoline-powered automobiles. A distinct alternative to the ceramic monolith is the metal foam, with potential use in fuel cell-powered automobiles. The metal foams are characterized by their pores per inch (ppi) and density ({rho}). In previous research, using 5 wt% platinum (Pt) and 0.5 wt% iron (Fe) catalysts, washcoated metal foams, 5.08 cm in length and 2.54 cm in diameter, of both varying and similar ppi and {rho} were tested for their activity (X{sub CO}) and selectivity (S{sub CO}) on a CO preferential oxidation (PROX) reaction in the presence of a H{sub 2}-rich gas stream. The variances in these metal foams' activity and selectivity were much larger than expected. Other structured supports with 5 wt% Pt, 0-1 wt% Fe weight loading were also examined. A theory for this phenomenon states that even though these structured supports have a similar nominal catalyst weight loading, only a certain percentage of the Pt/Fe catalyst is exposed on the surface as an active site for CO adsorption. We will use two techniques, pulse chemisorption and temperature programmed desorption (TPD), to characterize our structured supports. Active metal count, metal dispersion, and other calculations will help clarify the causes for the activity and selectivity variations between the supports. Results on ceramic monoliths show that a higher Fe loading yields a lower dispersion, potentially because of Fe inhibition of the Pt surface for CO adsorption. This theory is used to explain the reason for activity and selectivity differences for varying ppi and {rho} metal foams; less active and selective metal foams have a lower Fe loading, which justifies their higher metal dispersion. Data on the CO desorption temperature and average metal crystallite size for TPD are also collected.

Paul Chin; George W. Roberts; James J. Spivey

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

227

Manganese Doping of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Tailoring Surface Reactivity for a Regenerable Heavy Metal Sorbent  

SciTech Connect

A method for tuning the analyte affinity of magnetic, inorganic nanostructured sorbents for heavy metal contaminants is described. The manganese-doped iron oxide nanoparticle sorbents have a remarkably high affinity compared to the precursor material. Sorbent affinity can be tuned toward an analyte of interest simply by adjustment of the dopant quantity. The results show that following the Mn doping process there is a large increase in affinity and capacity for heavy metals (i.e., Co, Ni, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Tl). Capacity measurements were carried out for the removal of cadmium from river water and showed significantly higher loading than the relevant commercial sorbents tested for comparison. The reduction in Cd concentration from 100 ppb spiked river water to 1 ppb (less than the EPA drinking water limit of 5 ppb for Cd) was achieved following treatment with the Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles. The Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were able to load 1 ppm of Cd followed by complete stripping and recovery of the Cd with a mild acid wash. The Cd loading and stripping is shown to be consistent through multiple cycles with no loss of sorbent performance.

Warner, Cynthia L.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Mackie, Katherine E.; Neiner, Doinita; Saraf, Laxmikant; Droubay, Timothy C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Addleman, Raymond S.

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

228

X-Ray Absorption Studies of Vanadium-Containing Metal Oxide Nanocrystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metal oxide nanocrystals offer significant potential for use as catalysts or catalyst supports due to their high surface areas and unique chemical properties that result from the high number of exposed corners and edges. However, little is known about the catalytic activity of these materials, especially as oxidation catalysts. This research focused on the preparation, characterization and use of vanadium-containing nanocrystals as selective oxidation catalysts. Three vanadium-containing nanocrystals were prepared using a modified sol-gel procedure: V/MgO, V/SiO2, and vanadium phosphate (VPO). These represent active oxidation catalysts for a number of industrially relevant reactions. The catalysts were characterized by x-ray diffraction and Raman, UV-VIS, infrared and x-ray absorption spectroscopies with the goal of determining the primary structural and chemical differences between nanocrystals and microcrystals. The catalytic activity of these catalysts was also studied in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and methanol oxidation to formaldehyde. V/MgO nanocrystals were investigated for activity in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and compared to conventional V/MgO catalysts. Characterization of V/MgO catalysts using Raman spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that both types of catalysts contained magnesium orthovanadate at vanadium loadings below 15 weight%, but above that loading, magnesium pyrovanadate may have been present. In general, MgO nanocrystals had roughly half the crystal size and double the surface area of the conventional MgO. In oxidative dehydrogenation of butane, nanocrystalline V/MgO gave higher selectivity to butene than conventional V/MgO at the same conversion. This difference was attributed to differences in vanadium domain size resulting from the higher surface areas of the nanocrystalline support, since characterization suggested that similar vanadium phases were present on both types of catalysts. Experiments in methanol oxidation were used to probe the chemical differences between sol-gel prepared and conventionally prepared metal oxides. Both V/MgO and V/SiO2 were studied. For both catalysts, similar product selectivities were noted for either preparation method, suggesting similar acid/base and redox properties for the catalysts. At lower weight loadings (butane oxidation to maleic anhydride. In this method vanadium (V) triisopropoxide was reacted with orthophosphoric acid in THF to form a gel. Drying this gel under air resulted in an intercalated VOPO4 compound, where solvent molecules were trapped between layers of the vanadium phosphate compound. Higher surface areas could be achieved by drying this gel at high pressure in an autoclave. The amount of solvent (THF) placed in the autoclave was important in this process. Low amounts of solvent led to a lower surface area, as the solvent evaporated before reaching the critical point and collapsed the gel's pores. In addition, vanadium reduction occurred in the autoclave due to reaction of isopropanol with the vanadium phosphate. Higher amounts of THF reduced the concentration of isopropanol, leading to less reduction. Surfaces areas in excess of 100 m2/g were achieved with this method, and the product was confirmed through XPS and IR to be VOHPO4*0.5H2O, the common precursor for industrial VPO catalysts. Furthermore, this product displayed a platelet morphology, which is desirable for butane oxidation. Further work showed that this material could be transformed to (VO)2P2O7 (the industrial catalyst for butane oxidation to maleic anhydride) by heating under nitrogen without losing much surface are

Hohn, Keith, L.

2006-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

229

Variation of the shape and morphological properties of silica and metal oxide powders by electro homogeneous precipitation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method for preparing irreversible linear aggregates (fibrils) of metal oxide powders by utilizing static or pulsed DC electrical fields across a relatively non-conducting liquid solvent in which organometal compounds or silicon alkoxides have been dissolved. The electric field is applied to the relatively non-conducting solution throughout the particle formation and growth process promoting the formation of either linear aggregates (fibrils) or spherical shaped particles as desired. Thus the present invention provides a physical method for altering the size, shape and porosity of precursor hydrous metal oxide or hydrous silicon oxide powders for the development of advanced ceramics with improved strength and insulating capacity.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sisson, Warren G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Brunson, Ronald R. (Lenoir City, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Process for the displacement of cyanide ions from metal-cyanide complexes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to water-soluble polymers and the use of such water-soluble polymers in a process for the displacement of the cyanide ions from the metal ions within metal-cyanide complexes. The process waste streams can include metal-cyanide containing electroplating waste streams, mining leach waste streams, mineral processing waste streams, and related metal-cyanide containing waste streams. The metal ions of interest are metals that give very strong complexes with cyanide, mostly iron, nickel, and copper. The physical separation of the water-soluble polymer-metal complex from the cyanide ions can be accomplished through the use of ultrafiltration. Once the metal-cyanide complex is disrupted, the freed cyanide ions can be recovered for reuse or destroyed using available oxidative processes rendering the cyanide nonhazardous. The metal ions are released from the polymer, using dilute acid, metal ion oxidation state adjustment, or competing chelating agents, and collected and recovered or disposed of by appropriate waste management techniques. The water-soluble polymer can then be recycled. Preferred water-soluble polymers include polyethyleneimine and polyethyleneimine having a catechol or hydroxamate group.

Smith, Barbara F. (Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Impact of metal nano layer thickness on tunneling oxide and memory performance of core-shell iridium-oxide nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

The impact of iridium-oxide (IrO{sub x}) nano layer thickness on the tunneling oxide and memory performance of IrO{sub x} metal nanocrystals in an n-Si/SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/IrO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/IrO{sub x} structure has been investigated. A thinner (1.5 nm) IrO{sub x} nano layer has shown better memory performance than that of a thicker one (2.5 nm). Core-shell IrO{sub x} nanocrystals with a small average diameter of 2.4 nm and a high density of {approx}2 x 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2} have been observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The IrO{sub x} nanocrystals are confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A large memory window of 3.0 V at a sweeping gate voltage of {+-}5 V and 7.2 V at a sweeping gate voltage of {+-} 8 V has been observed for the 1.5 nm-thick IrO{sub x} nano layer memory capacitors with a small equivalent oxide thickness of 8 nm. The electrons and holes are trapped in the core and annular regions of the IrO{sub x} nanocrystals, respectively, which is explained by Gibbs free energy. High electron and hole-trapping densities are found to be 1.5 x 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2} and 2 x 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2}, respectively, due to the small size and high-density of IrO{sub x} nanocrystals. Excellent program/erase endurance of >10{sup 6} cycles and good retention of 10{sup 4} s with a good memory window of >1.2 V under a small operation voltage of {+-} 5 V are obtained. A large memory size of >10 Tbit/sq. in. can be designed by using the IrO{sub x} nanocrystals. This study is not only important for the IrO{sub x} nanocrystal charge-trapping memory investigation but it will also help to design future metal nanocrystal flash memory.

Banerjee, W.; Maikap, S. [Thin Film Nano Tech. Lab., Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan 333, Taiwan (China); Tien, T.-C. [Material Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan 310, Taiwan (China); Li, W.-C.; Yang, J.-R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Effect of Temperature on GaGdO/GaN Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors  

SciTech Connect

GaGdO was deposited on GaN for use as a gate dielectric in order to fabricate a depletion metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). This is the fmt demonstration of such a device in the III-Nitride system. Analysis of the effect of temperature on the device shows that gate leakage is significantly reduced at elevated temperature relative to a conventional metal semiconductor field effeet transistor (MESFET) fabricated on the same GaN layer. MOSFET device operation in fact improved upon heating to 400 C. Modeling of the effeet of temperature on contact resistance suggests that the improvement is due to a reduction in the parasitic resistances present in the device.

Abernathy, C.R.; Baca, A.; Chu, S.N.G.; Hong, M.; Lothian, J.R.; Marcus, M.A.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Schurman, M.J.

1998-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

233

Low temperature photochemical vapor deposition of alloy and mixed metal oxide films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for formation of an alloy thin film, or a mixed metal oxide thin film, on a substrate at relatively low temperatures. Precursor vapor(s) containing the desired thin film constituents is positioned adjacent to the substrate and irradiated by light having wavelengths in a selected wavelength range, to dissociate the gas(es) and provide atoms or molecules containing only the desired constituents. These gases then deposit at relatively low temperatures as a thin film on the substrate. The precursor vapor(s) is formed by vaporization of one or more precursor materials, where the vaporization temperature(s) is selected to control the ratio of concentration of metals present in the precursor vapor(s) and/or the total precursor vapor pressure.

Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Post-Deposition Induced Conductivity in Pulsed Laser Irradiated Metal Doped Zinc Oxide Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The optical and electrical properties of doped solution-deposited and rf sputter-deposited thin metal oxide films were investigated following post deposition pulsed laser irradiation. Solution deposited films were annealed at 450 șC. Following the heating regiment, the transparent metal oxide films were subjected to 355 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation (4 nsec pulsewidth) at fluences between 5 and 150 mJ/cm2. Irradiation times at pulse frequencies of 30 Hz ranged from seconds to tens of minutes. Film densification, index change and a marked increase in conductivity were observed following irradiation in air and under vacuum of Al:ZnO (AZO), Ga:ZnO (GZO), and In:ZnO (IZO) films deposited on silica substrates. Despite the measured increase in conductivity, all films continued to show high transparency on the order of 90% at wavelengths from the band edge well into the near infrared region of the spectrum. Laser energies required for turning on the conductivity of these films varied depending upon the dopant. Irradiations in air yielded resistivity measurements on the order of 16 ?.cm. Resistivities of films irradiated under vacuum were on the order of 0.1 ?.cm. The increase in conductivity can be attributed to the formation of oxygen vacancies and subsequent promotion of free carriers into the conduction band. All irradiated films become insulating after around 24 hours. Oxygen atoms in air become reduced by electrons in the metal conduction band and diffuse into the vacancies in the lattice. The rate of this reduction process depends on the type of dopant. This work also sheds light on the damage threshold, correlating the optical properties with the presence of free carriers that have been introduced into the conduction band. All films were characterized by means of UV-VIS-NIR transmission spectroscopy, visible and UV Raman spectroscopy and Hall measurements. Analysis of interference fringes in measured transmission spectra allowed film density and refractive index to be evaluated while the Raman measurements showed an increase in LO mode intensity with respect to the TO mode intensity as the films became more conducting. Results of this study are not only important for the continued development of transparent conducting oxide films that find use in photovoltaic cells and solid state lighting modules, but also provide evidence for the role of free carriers in initiating the laser damage process in these wide bandgap metal oxide films.

Wang, Lisa J.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

2009-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

235

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon fuels must be reformed in a series of steps to provide hydrogen for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Preferential oxidation (PROX) is one method to reduce the CO concentration to less than 10 ppm in the presence of {approx}40% H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and steam. This will prevent CO poisoning of the PEMFC anode. Structured supports, such as ceramic monoliths, can be used for the PROX reaction. Alternatively, metal foams offer a number of advantages over the traditional ceramic monolith.

Paul Chin; Xiaolei Sun; George W. Roberts; Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Sourabh Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr; Richard W. Rice; James J. Spivey

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cellmembranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) membranes were developed in which zirconia-based electrolyte thin films were supported by a composite metal/ceramic electrode, and were subjected to rapid thermal cycling between 200 and 800 C. The effects of this cycling on membrane performance were evaluated. The membranes, not yet optimized for performance, showed a peak power density of 350mW/cm2at 900 C in laboratory-sized SOFCs that was not affected by the thermal cycling. This resistance to cycling degradation is attributed to the close matching of thermal expansion coefficient of the cermet support electrode with that of the zirconia electrolyte.

Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

2004-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

237

Synthesis of transition metal nitride by nitridation of metastable oxide precursor  

SciTech Connect

Metastable transition metal oxides were used as precursors to synthesize transition metal nitrides at low temperature. Amorphous MoO{sub 2} was prepared by reduction of (NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24} solution with hydrazine. As-synthesized amorphous MoO{sub 2} was transformed into fcc {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N at 400 Degree-Sign C and then into hexagonal {delta}-MoN by further increasing the temperature to 600 Degree-Sign C under a NH{sub 3} flow. The nitridation temperature employed here is much lower than that employed in nitridation of crystalline materials, and the amorphous materials underwent a unique nitridation process. Besides this, the bimetallic nitride Ni{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}N was also synthesized by nitridating amorphous bimetallic precursor. These results suggested that the nitridation of amorphous precursor possessed potential to be a general method for synthesizing many interstitial metallic compounds, such as nitrides and carbides at low temperature. - graphical abstract: Amorphous oxide was used as new precursor to prepare nitride at low temperature. Pure {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N and {delta}-MoN were obtained at 400 Degree-Sign C and at 600 Degree-Sign C, respectively. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We bring out a new method to synthesize transition metal nitrides at low temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both mono- and bimetallic molybdenum nitrides were synthesized at a mild condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation of two different molybdenum nitrides {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N and {delta}-MoN can be controlled from the same metastable precursor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nitridation temperature was much lower than that reported from crystalline precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The metastable precursor had different reaction process in comparison with crystalline precursor.

Wang, Huamin; Wu, Zijie; Kong, Jing [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang, Zhiqiang, E-mail: zqwang@mail.nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China) [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Water Environment and Resources, Tianjin Normal University, No. 393 Binshui Road, Xiqing Dist., Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhang, Minghui, E-mail: zhangmh@nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

238

Metal Oxidation Kinetics and the Transition from Thin to Thick Films  

SciTech Connect

We report an investigation of growth kinetics and transition from thin to thick films during metal oxidation. In the thin film limit (< 20 nm), Cabrera and Mott’s theory is usually adopted by explicitly considering ionic drift through the oxide in response to electric fields, where the growth kinetics follow an inverse logarithmic law . It is generally accepted that Wagner’s theory, involving self-diffusion, is valid only in the limit of thick film regime (>1?m) and leads to parabolic growth kinetics , where l is the oxide film thickness. Theory presented here unifies the two models and provides a complete description of oxidation including the transition from thin to thick film. The range of validity of Cabrera and Mott’s theory and Wagner’s theory can be well defined in terms of the Debye-Hückel screening length. The transition from drift-dominated ionic transport for thin film to diffusion-dominated transport for thick film is found to strictly follow the direct logarithmic law that is frequently observed in many experiments.

Xu, Zhijie; Rosso, Kevin M.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Development of hybrid organic-inorganic light emitting diodes using conducting polymers deposited by oxidative chemical vapor deposition process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Difficulties with traditional methods of synthesis and film formation for conducting polymers, many of which are insoluble, motivate the development of CVD methods. Indeed, conjugated polymers with rigid linear backbones ...

Chelawat, Hitesh

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Nanoscale Reinforced, Polymer Derived Ceramic Matrix Coatings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to explore and develop a novel class of nanoscale reinforced ceramic coatings for high temperature (600-1000 C) corrosion protection of metallic components in a coal-fired environment. It was focused on developing coatings that are easy to process and low cost. The approach was to use high-yield preceramic polymers loaded with nano-size fillers. The complex interplay of the particles in the polymer, their role in controlling shrinkage and phase evolution during thermal treatment, resulting densification and microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and effectiveness as corrosion protection coatings were investigated. Fe-and Ni-based alloys currently used in coal-fired environments do not possess the requisite corrosion and oxidation resistance for next generation of advanced power systems. One example of this is the power plants that use ultra supercritical steam as the working fluid. The increase in thermal efficiency of the plant and decrease in pollutant emissions are only possible by changing the properties of steam from supercritical to ultra supercritical. However, the conditions, 650 C and 34.5 MPa, are too severe and result in higher rate of corrosion due to higher metal temperatures. Coating the metallic components with ceramics that are resistant to corrosion, oxidation and erosion, is an economical and immediate solution to this problem. Good high temperature corrosion protection ceramic coatings for metallic structures must have a set of properties that are difficult to achieve using established processing techniques. The required properties include ease of coating complex shapes, low processing temperatures, thermal expansion match with metallic structures and good mechanical and chemical properties. Nanoscale reinforced composite coatings in which the matrix is derived from preceramic polymers have the potential to meet these requirements. The research was focused on developing suitable material systems and processing techniques for these coatings. In addition, we investigated the effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties and oxidation protection ability of the coatings. Coatings were developed to provide oxidation protection to both ferritic and austentic alloys and Ni-based alloys. The coatings that we developed are based on low viscosity pre-ceramic polymers. Thus they can be easily applied to any shape by using a variety of techniques including dip-coating, spray-coating and painting. The polymers are loaded with a variety of nanoparticles. The nanoparticles have two primary roles: control of the final composition and phases (and hence the properties); and control of the shrinkage during thermal decomposition of the polymer. Thus the selection of the nanoparticles was the most critical aspect of this project. Based on the results of the processing studies, the performance of selected coatings in oxidizing conditions (both static and cyclic) was investigated.

Rajendra Bordia

2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide polymer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Impact of Iron-Reducing Bacteria on Metals and Radionuclides Adsorbed to Humic-Coated Iron(III) Oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the final report for Grant No. DEFGO2-98ER62691 submitted to the DOE NABR Program. This research has focused on (1) the role of natural organic matter (NOM), quinines, and complexants in enhancing the biological reduction of solid-phase crystalline ferric oxides, (2) the effect of heavy metals (specifically zinc) and NOM on ferric oxide bioreduction, (3) the sorption of Me(II) [Cu(II), Fe(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II)] to ferric oxides and subsequent Me(II)-promoted phase transformations of the ferric oxides, and (4) the development of reaction-based biogeochemical models to numerically simulate our experimental results.

Burgos, W. D.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Air-Oxidation of a (Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5)98Er2 Bulk Metallic Glass at ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Bulk Metallic Glasses VII. Presentation Title, Air-Oxidation of a ...

243

Effect of pre-oxidation and environmental aging on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealing glass with metallic interconnect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel high-temperature alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass was used to join two ferritic stainless steel coupons for strength evaluation. The steel coupons were pre-oxidized at elevated temperatures to promote thick oxide layers to simulate long-term exposure conditions. In addition, seals to as-received metal coupons were also tested after aging in oxidizing or reducing environments to simulate the actual SOFC environment. Room temperature tensile testing showed strength degradation when using pre-oxidized coupons, and more extensive degradation after aging in air. Fracture surface and microstructural analysis confirmed that the cause of degradation was formation of SrCrO4 at the outer sealing edges exposed to air.

Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

Electrodeposition of conducting polymer fibers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conducting polymers are materials that possess the electrical conductivity of metals while still retaining the mechanical properties such as flexibility of traditional polymers. Polypyrrole (PPy) is one of the more commonly ...

Chen, Angela Y. (Angela Ying-Ju), 1982-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Disposition of Uranium -233 (sup 233U) in Plutonium Metal and Oxide at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the position that the concentration of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) in plutonium metal and oxide currently stored at the DOE Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is well below the maximum permissible stabilization, packaging, shipping and storage limits. The {sup 233}U stabilization, packaging and storage limit is 0.5 weight percent (wt%), which is also the shipping limit maximum. These two plutonium products (metal and oxide) are scheduled for processing through the Building 371 Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (PuSPS). This justification is supported by written technical reports, personnel interviews, and nuclear material inventories, as compiled in the ''History of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant In Support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program'' RS-090-056, April 1, 1999. Relevant data from this report is summarized for application to the PuSPS metal and oxide processing campaigns.

Freiboth, Cameron J.; Gibbs, Frank E.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

A Phenomenological Study of the Metal-Oxide Interface: The Role of Catalysis in Hydrogen Production from Renewable Resources  

SciTech Connect

The truth about Cats: The metal-oxide interface of a Pd-Rh/CeO{sub 2} catalyst was studied in the context of developing active, selective and durable solid catalytic materials for the production of hydrogen from renewables. The presence of a stable contact between finely dispersed transition-metal clusters (Pd and Rh) on the nanoparticles of the CeO{sub 2} support leads to a highly active and stable catalyst for the steam reforming of ethanol.

Idriss, H.; Llorca, J; Chan, S; Blackford, M; Pas, S; Hill, A; Alamgir, F; Rettew, R; Petersburg, C; Barteau, M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

X-Ray Absorption Studies of Vanadium-Containing Metal Oxide Nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

Metal oxide nanocrystals offer significant potential for use as catalysts or catalyst supports due to their high surface areas and unique chemical properties that result from the high number of exposed corners and edges. However, little is known about the catalytic activity of these materials, especially as oxidation catalysts. This research focused on the preparation, characterization and use of vanadium-containing nanocrystals as selective oxidation catalysts. Three vanadium-containing nanocrystals were prepared using a modified sol-gel procedure: V/MgO, V/SiO2, and vanadium phosphate (VPO). These represent active oxidation catalysts for a number of industrially relevant reactions. The catalysts were characterized by x-ray diffraction and Raman, UV-VIS, infrared and x-ray absorption spectroscopies with the goal of determining the primary structural and chemical differences between nanocrystals and microcrystals. The catalytic activity of these catalysts was also studied in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and methanol oxidation to formaldehyde. V/MgO nanocrystals were investigated for activity in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and compared to conventional V/MgO catalysts. Characterization of V/MgO catalysts using Raman spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that both types of catalysts contained magnesium orthovanadate at vanadium loadings below 15 weight%, but above that loading, magnesium pyrovanadate may have been present. In general, MgO nanocrystals had roughly half the crystal size and double the surface area of the conventional MgO. In oxidative dehydrogenation of butane, nanocrystalline V/MgO gave higher selectivity to butene than conventional V/MgO at the same conversion. This difference was attributed to differences in vanadium domain size resulting from the higher surface areas of the nanocrystalline support, since characterization suggested that similar vanadium phases were present on both types of catalysts. Experiments in methanol oxidation were used to probe the chemical differences between sol-gel prepared and conventionally prepared metal oxides. Both V/MgO and V/SiO2 were studied. For both catalysts, similar product selectivities were noted for either preparation method, suggesting similar acid/base and redox properties for the catalysts. At lower weight loadings (<5%), activity was also similar, but at higher weight loadings the sol-gel prepared catalysts were more active. This was attributed to the greater dispersion of vanadium on sol-gel prepared catalysts, and it was suggested that small vanadium oxide domains were more active in methanol oxidation than polymeric and bulk domains. A novel sol-gel method was developed for preparation of VPO catalysts, which are used industrially in butane oxidation to maleic anhydride. In this method vanadium (V) triisopropoxide was reacted with orthophosphoric acid in THF to form a gel. Drying this gel under air resulted in an intercalated VOPO4 compound, where solvent molecules were trapped between layers of the vanadium phosphate compound. Higher surface areas could be achieved by drying this gel at high pressure in an autoclave. The amount of solvent (THF) placed in the autoclave was important in this process. Low amounts of solvent led to a lower surface area, as the solvent evaporated before reaching the critical point and collapsed the gel's pores. In addition, vanadium reduction occurred in the autoclave due to reaction of isopropanol with the vanadium phosphate. Higher amounts of THF reduced the concentration of isopropanol, leading to less reduction. Surfaces areas in excess of 100 m2/g were achieved with this method, and the product was confirmed through XPS and IR to be VOHPO4*0.5H2O, the common precursor for industrial VPO catalysts. Furthermore, this product displayed a platelet morphology, which is desirable for butane oxidation. Further work showed that this material could be transformed to (VO)2P2O7 (the industrial catalyst for butane oxidation to maleic anhydride) by heating under nitrogen without losing much surface are

Hohn, Keith, L.

2006-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

248

Design Principles for Oxygen-Reduction Activity on Perovskite Oxide Catalysts for Fuel Cells and Metal-air Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to {sigma}*-orbital (e{sub g}) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the {sigma}* orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O{sub 2}{sup 2-}/OH{sup -} displacement and OH{sup -} regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

J Suntivich; H Gasteiger; N Yabuuchi; H Nakanishi; J Goodenough; Y Shao-Horn

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

249

The crystallinity and mechanical properties of indium tin oxide coatings on polymer substrates  

SciTech Connect

We present the relationship between the microstructure and mechanical strength of indium tin oxide (ITO) on flexible substrates. With varying thickness (h{sub f}), ITO is deposited on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by dc magnetron sputtering. The microstructure of ITO is controlled by substrate surface conditions and sputtering parameters. The maximum substrate temperature during deposition is limited to 80 deg. C due to the low glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) of PET. The crystallinity and surface roughness (R{sub rms}) are analyzed by high resolution x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and AFM. The crack resistance of ITO is evaluated by uniaxial tension test. The experimental results reveal that, at a fixed h{sub f}, the degree and quality of crystallinity of ITO are highly improved by increasing sputtering power and the substrate temperature. As the crystallinity is improved, the ratio of preferred growth orientations of (222) to (400) is increased and the degree of peak shifts to lower 2{theta} is decreased. They indicate that the crystallinity is improved as the lattice damage is reduced and film density is increased. The tension test results confirm that, up to a certain h{sub f}, the strength of ITO can be significantly enhanced by improving the microstructures.

Kim, Eun-Hye; Yang, Chan-Woo; Park, Jin-Woo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Engineering Escherichia coli for molecularly defined electron transfer to metal oxides and electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1-thiogalactopyranoside Indium tin oxide Microbial fuel cellone type of electrode: indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glasssurface, specifically indium tin oxide (ITO), with nanoscale

Jensen, Heather Marie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Method for producing metal oxide aerogels having densities less than 0. 02 g/cc  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two-step method is described for making transparent aerogels which have a density of less than 0.003 g/cm[sup 3] to those with a density of more than 0.8 g/cm[sup 3], by a sol/gel process and supercritical extraction. Condensed metal oxide intermediate made with purified reagents can be diluted to produce stable aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 g/cm[sup 3]. High temperature, direct supercritical extraction of the liquid phase of the gel produces hydrophobic aerogels which are stable at atmospheric moisture conditions. Monolithic, homogeneous silica aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 to higher than 0.8 g/cm[sup 3], with high thermal insulation capacity, improved mechanical strength and good optical transparency, are described. 7 figures.

Tillotson, T.M.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Thomas, I.M.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

252

Method for producing metal oxide aerogels having densities less than 0.02 g/cc  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-step method is described for making transparent aerogels which have a density of less than 0.003 g/cm.sup.3 to those with a density of more than 0.8 g/cm.sup.3, by a sol/gel process and supercritical extraction. Condensed metal oxide intermediate made with purified reagents can be diluted to produce stable aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 g/cm.sup.3. High temperature, direct supercritical extraction of the liquid phase of the gel produces hydrophobic aerogels which are stable at atmospheric moisture conditions. Monolithic, homogeneous silica aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 to higher than 0.8 g/cm.sup.3, with high thermal insulation capacity, improved mechanical strength and good optical transparency, are described.

Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Thomas, Ian M. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Metal blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal  

SciTech Connect

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Blending HEU (highly enriched uranium) with less-enriched uranium to form LEU has been proposed as a disposition option. Five technologies are being assessed for blending HEU. This document provides data to be used in environmental impact analysis for the HEU-LEU disposition option that uses metal blending with an oxide waste product. It is divided into: mission and assumptions, conversion and blending facility descriptions, process descriptions and requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards discussion, and intersite transportation.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Corrosion and Protection of Metallic Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Energy security and increased concern over environmental protection have spurred a dramatic world-wide growth in research and development of fuel cells, which electrochemically convert incoming fuel into electricity with no or low pollution. Fuel cell technology has become increasingly attractive to a number of sectors, including utility, automotive, and defense industries. Among the various types of fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperature (typically 650-1,000 C) and have advantages in terms of high conversion efficiency and the flexibility of using hydrocarbon fuels, in addition to hydrogen. The high temperature operation, however, can lead to increased mass transport and interactions between the surrounding environment and components that are required to be stable during a lifetime of thousands of hours and up to hundreds of thermal cycles. For stacks with relatively low operating temperatures (<800 C), the interconnects that are used to electrically connect a number of cells in series are typically made from cost-effective metals or alloys. The metallic interconnects must demonstrate excellent stability in a very challenging environment during SOFC operation, as they are simultaneously exposed to both an oxidizing (air) environment on the cathode side and a reducing environment (hydrogen or a reformed hydrocarbon fuel) on the anode side. Other challenges include the fact that water vapor is likely to be present in both of these environments, and the fuel is likely to contain impurities, such as sulfides. Since the fuel is usually a reformed hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas, coal gas, biogas, gasoline, etc., the interconnect is exposed to a wet carbonaceous environment at the anode side. Finally, the interconnect must be stable towards any adjacent components, such as electrodes, seals and electrical contact materials, with which it is in physical contact.

Yang, Z Gary; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2007-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

255

Investigating the First-Cycle Irreversibility of Lithium Metal Oxide Cathodes for Li Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Layered lithium metal oxide cathodes typically exhibit irreversibility during the first cycle in lithium cells when cycled in conventional voltage ranges (e.g., 3-4.3 V vs. Li+/Li). In this work, we have studied the first-cycle irreversibility of lithium cells containing various layered cathode materials using galvanostatic cycling and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. When cycled between 3.0 and 4.3 V vs. Li+/Li, the cells containing LiCoO2, LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2, and Li1.048(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)0.952O2 as cathodes showed initial coulombic efficiencies of 98.0, 87.0, and 88.6%, respectively, at relatively slow current (8 mA/g). However, the 'lost capacity' could be completely recovered by discharging the cells to low voltages (<2 V vs Li+/Li). During this deep discharge, the same cells exhibited voltage plateaus at 1.17, 1.81, and 1.47 V, respectively, which is believed to be associated with formation of a Li2MO2-like phase (M = Ni, Co, Mn) on the oxide particle surface due to very sluggish lithium diffusion in LieMO2 with {var_epsilon}{yields} 1 (i.e., near the end of discharge). The voltage relaxation curve and in situ X-ray diffraction patterns, obtained from a Li/Li1.048(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)0.952O2 cell, showed that the oxide cathode reversibly returned to its original state [i.e., Li1.048(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)0.952O2] during relaxation following the deep discharge to achieve 100% cycle efficiency.

Kang,S.; Yoon , W.; Nam, K.; Yang, X.; Abraham, D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

INFLUENCE OF OXIDE GROWTH AND METAL CREEP ON STRAIN DEVELOPMENT IN THE STEAM-SIDE OXIDE IN BOILER TUBES  

SciTech Connect

This effort is concerned with developing a quantitative description of the exfoliation behavior of oxide scales grown inside steam tubes in a pressure boiler. Consideration of the development of stress/strain in growing oxides has included expansion mismatch-induced strains during thermal cycling as well as inelastic mechanical effects from oxide/alloy creep phenomena and volume change from oxide growth. The magnitude of the parameters used has been closely matched to actual boiler operating practice. The creep model used was validated against published data. Representation of oxide growth-induced strain was found to be a difficult challenge because the processes involved are not fully understood. In addition to the traditional uniaxial (radial) and dilatational models, lateral growth models are discussed in the context of experimentally-derived criteria, such as the level of elastic strains involved in oxide exfoliation. It was found that strain variation in the oxide cannot be neglected.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Wright, Ian G [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Published on Web 10/28/2008 Gas-Phase, Bulk Production of Metal Oxide Nanowires and Nanoparticles Using a Microwave Plasma Jet Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report gas-phase production of metal oxide nanowires (NWs) and nanoparticles (NPs) using direct oxidation of micron-size metal particles in a high-throughput, atmospheric pressure microwave plasma jet reactor. We demonstrate the concept with production of SnO2, ZnO, TiO2, and Al2O3 NWs. The results suggest that the NW production primarily depends upon the starting metal particle size, microwave power, and the gas-phase composition. The resulting NW powders could be separated from the unreacted metal and metal oxide NPs by sonication in 1-methoxy 2-propanol followed by gravity sedimentation. The experiments conducted using higher microwave powers resulted in spherical, unagglomerated, metal oxide NPs. The results obtained using various metal oxides suggest that the mechanism of NW nucleation and growth in the gas phase is similar to that observed in experiments with metal particles supported on substrates. A simplified analysis suggests that the metal powders melt in the plasma primarily with the heat generated from chemical reactions, such as radical recombination and oxidation reactions on the particle surface.

Jeong H. Kim; Rashekhar Pendyala; Boris Chernomordik; Mahendra K. Sunkara

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Fully Integrated Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Bio-Assay Platform  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Bio-Assay Platform by OctavianOxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Bio-Assay Platform by OctavianOxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Bio-Assay Platform by Octavian

Florescu, Octavian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

effect of pressure on solid oxide fuel cell performance," inflat plate solid oxide fuel cells," in Proceedings of theSymposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Electrochem. Soc. 1993,

Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several different catalytic reactions must be carried out in order to convert hydrocarbons (or alcohols) into hydrogen for use as a fuel for polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Each reaction in the fuel-processing sequence has a different set of characteristics, which influences the type of catalyst support that should be used for that particular reaction. A wide range of supports are being evaluated for the various reactions in the fuel-processing scheme, including porous and non-porous particles, ceramic and metal straight-channel monoliths, and ceramic and metal monolithic foams. These different types of support have distinctly different transport characteristics. The best choice of support for a given reaction will depend on the design constraints for the system, e.g., allowable pressure drop, and on the characteristics of the reaction for which the catalyst is being designed. Three of the most important reaction characteristics are the intrinsic reaction rate, the exothermicity/endothermicity of the reaction, and the nature of the reaction network, e.g., whether more than one reaction takes place and, in the case of multiple reactions, the configuration of the network. Isotopic transient kinetic analysis was used to study the surface intermediates. The preferential oxidation of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the presence of high concentrations of hydrogen (PROX) is an important final step in most fuel processor designs. Data on the behavior of straight-channel monoliths and foam monolith supports will be presented to illustrate some of the factors involved in choosing a support for this reaction.

Mr. Paul Chin; Dr. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts; Professor James J. Spivey; Mr. Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Dr. James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Dr. Richard W. Rice

2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide polymer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Fluorescence-based detection methodologies for nitric oxide using transition metal scaffolds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 1. Fluorescence-Based Detection Methodologies for Nitric Oxide: A Review. Chapter 2. Cobalt Chemistry with Mixed Aminotroponimine Salicylaldimine Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization, and Nitric Oxide Reactivity. ...

Hilderbrand, Scott A. (Scott Alan), 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Mesoporous mixed metal oxides derived from P123-templated Mg-Al layered double hydroxides  

SciTech Connect

We report the preparation of mesoporous mixed metal oxides (MMOs) through a soft template method. Different amounts of P123 were used as structure directing agent to synthesize P123-templated Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs). After calcination of as-synthesized LDHs at 500 {sup o}C, the ordered mesopores were obtained by removal of P123. The mesoporous Mg-Al MMOs fabricated by using 2 wt% P123 exhibited a high specific surface area of 108.1 m{sup 2}/g, and wide distribution of pore size (2-18 nm). An investigation of the 'memory effect' of the mesoporous MMOs revealed that they were successfully reconstructed to ibuprofen intercalated LDHs having different gallery heights, which indicated different intercalation capacities. Due to their mesoporosity these unique MMOs have particular potential as drug or catalyst carriers. - Graphical abstract: Ordered mesoporous Mg-Al MMOs can be obtained through the calcination of P123-templated Mg-Al-CO{sub 3} LDHs. The pore diameter is 2.2 nm. At the presence of ibuprofen, the Mg-Al MMOs can recover to Mg-Al-IBU LDHs, based on its 'remember effect'. Display Omitted

Wang Jun, E-mail: zhqw1888@sohu.co [College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); College of Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, 150001 (China); Zhou Jideng; Li Zhanshuang; He Yang; Lin Shuangshuang; Liu Qi [College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang Milin [College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, 150001 (China); Jiang Zhaohua [College of Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Final LDRD report : metal oxide films, nanostructures, and heterostructures for solar hydrogen production.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The distinction between electricity and fuel use in analyses of global power consumption statistics highlights the critical importance of establishing efficient synthesis techniques for solar fuels-those chemicals whose bond energies are obtained through conversion processes driven by solar energy. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes show potential for the production of solar fuels because of their demonstrated versatility in facilitating optoelectronic and chemical conversion processes. Tandem PEC-photovoltaic modular configurations for the generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight (solar water splitting) provide an opportunity to develop a low-cost and efficient energy conversion scheme. The critical component in devices of this type is the PEC photoelectrode, which must be optically absorptive, chemically stable, and possess the required electronic band alignment with the electrochemical scale for its charge carriers to have sufficient potential to drive the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. After many decades of investigation, the primary technological obstacle remains the development of photoelectrode structures capable of efficient conversion of light with visible frequencies, which is abundant in the solar spectrum. Metal oxides represent one of the few material classes that can be made photoactive and remain stable to perform the required functions.

Kronawitter, Coleman X. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Mao, Samuel S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Investigation of zinc oxide doped with metal impurities for use as thin film conductive phosphors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Various technologies for manufacturing flat panel displays are currently being pursued world-wide. These include active matrix LCD, passive matrix LCD, and LED technologies, as well as several field emission approaches. To facilitate the development of a viable flat panel display, low voltage, conductive phosphors which emit blue, red, and green light will be required for the field emission technology. This thesis examines zinc oxide (ZnO) based thin ( ) phosphors for such an application. ZnO is a 11-VI wide bandgap semiconductor which exhibits green luminescence and has been shown to produce red luminescence as well. However, no blue light emission from ZnO thin film phosphors has been reported. An experimental survey has been conducted in which metal dopants were introduced in ZnO. This survey has revealed tungsten doped ZnO to be a previously unreported brilliant blue phosphor with high resistivity. Additional experiments indicated aluminum could be introduced in conjunction with the tungsten to increase the conductivity of the new blue ZnO phosphors. ZnO doped samples with varying amounts of tungsten and aluminum were subsequently prepared and tested. Optimization of the annealing conditions was then studied. The survey results are contained herein. Finally, it should be noted these phosphors have produced light when used as the anode material in vacuum field emission diodes.

Evatt, Steven R.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Titanium Oxide Aerogel Prepared from Titanium Metal and HydrogenPeroxide  

SciTech Connect

The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with excess titanium metal produces rigid titanium oxide aquagels. Subsequent solvent exchanges with ethanol and carbon dioxide, and supercritical drying produces the corresponding aerogels. The aerogels are translucent yellow in appearance, are amorphous to X-rays, and have a BET surface area of 350 m{sup 2}/g. The empirical formula of the material, as prepared, is TiO{sub 3}H{sub 2.7}C{sub 0.35}. Infrared spectroscopy indicates the presence of peroxide and carbonate groups. the microstructure of the aerogel consists of a network of elongated particles 2-5 nm in diameter and tens of nm in length. Thermal treatment under argon at 473 K causes rapid decomposition of the aerogel, forming a blue-gray powder consisting of a mixture of rutile and anatase with a surface area of 80 m{sup 2}/g. Additional thermal treatment at 973 K under air forms predominantly rutile, with a surface area of 20 m{sup 2}/g.

Ayers, M.R.; Hunt, A.J.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Investigation of Some Transparent Metal Oxides as Damp Heat Protective Coating for CIGS Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We investigated the protective effectiveness of some transparent metal oxides (TMO) on CIGS solar cell coupons against damp heat (DH) exposure at 85oC and 85% relative humidity (RH). Sputter-deposited bilayer ZnO (BZO) with up to 0.5-um Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer and 0.2-um bilayer InZnO were used as 'inherent' part of device structure on CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG. Sputter-deposited 0.2-um ZnSnO and atomic layer deposited (ALD) 0.1-um Al2O3 were used as overcoat on typical BZO/CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG solar cells. The results were all negative -- all TMO-coated CIGS cells exhibited substantial degradation in DH. Combining the optical photographs, PL and EL imaging, SEM surface micro-morphology, coupled with XRD, I-V and QE measurements, the causes of the device degradations are attributed to hydrolytic corrosion, flaking, micro-cracking, and delamination induced by the DH moisture. Mechanical stress and decrease in crystallinity (grain size effect) could be additional degrading factors for thicker AZO grown on CdS/CIGS.

Pern, F. J.; Yan, F.; Zaaunbrecher, B.; To, B.; Perkins, J.; Noufi, R.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Multilayered thermal insulation formed of zirconia bonded layers of zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers and method for making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multilayered thermal insulating composite is formed of a first layer of zirconia-bonded zirconia fibers for utilization near the hot phase or surface of a furnace or the like. A second layer of zirconia-bonded metal oxide fibers is attached to the zirconia fiber layer by a transition layer formed of intermingled zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers. The thermal insulation is fabricated by vacuum molding with the layers being sequentially applied from aqueous solutions containing the fibers to a configured mandrel. A portion of the solution containing the fibers forming the first layer is intermixed with the solution containing the fibers of the second layer for forming the layer of mixed fibers. The two layers of fibers joined together by the transition layer are saturated with a solution of zirconium oxynitrate which provides a zirconia matrix for the composite when the fibers are sintered together at their nexi.

Wrenn, Jr., George E. (Clinton, TN); Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Farragut, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Redox chromophore compounds and electrodes of metal containing substituted bipyridines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Chromophoric compounds, each having a wide range of distinct color changes in response to changes in the oxidation states thereof, are provided in the form of polymerizable monomers, and polymers thereof, of certain metal containing, and electron group substituted, 2,2'-bipyridine compounds.

Elliott, Cecil M. (Fort Collins, CO); Redepenning, Jody G. (Fort Collins, CO)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Polymer films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

Granick, Steve (Champaign, IL); Sukhishvili, Svetlana A. (Maplewood, NJ)

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

271

Removal of metal oxide defects through improved semi-anisotropic wet etching process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Data recently collected from an industrial thin film manufacturer indicate that almost 8% of devices are rejected due to excess metal, or unwanted metal on the device surface. Experimentation and analysis suggest that ...

Dave, Neha H. (Neha Hemang)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Promises and problems with metallic interconnects for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proceedings of Ist European SOFC Forum, U. Bossel , Editor,on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC-VI) ed. S. C. Singhal etsolid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) development is towards lower

Hou, Peggy Y.; Huang, Keqin; Bakker, Wate T.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions  

SciTech Connect

The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

274

The Making and Mechanical Performance of Metal Powder Injection ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites ... Fabrication of Metal Matrix Composites via Spark Plasma Sintering for Nuclear Energy Application.

275

Support shape effect in metal oxide catalysis: ceria nanoshapes supported vanadia catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane  

SciTech Connect

The activation energy of VOx/CeO2 catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane was found dependent on the shape of ceria support: rods < octahedra, closely related to the surface oxygen vacancy formation energy and defects amount of the two ceria supports with different crystallographic surface planes.

Wu, Zili [ORNL; Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Li, Meijun [ORNL; Rondinone, Adam Justin [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

C-V characteristics of epitaxial germanium metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor on GaAs substrate with ALD Al2O3 dielectric  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Epitaxial germanium metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAP) were fabricated on GaAs substrate using atomic layer deposited Al"2O"3 gate dielectric with surface treatments including pure HF and HF plus rapid thermal oxidation (RTO). The electrical ... Keywords: ALD Al2O3, CMOS integration, Ge MOSCAP, Ge epitaxial film, RTO

Shih Hsuan Tang; Chien I. Kuo; Hai Dang Trinh; Mantu Hudait; Edward Yi Chang; Ching Yi Hsu; Yung Hsuan Su; Guang-Li Luo; Hong Quan Nguyen

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Solar Thermo-Chemical Splitting of Carbon Dioxide by Metal Oxide ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Solar Thermo-Chemical Splitting of Carbon Dioxide by Metal ... which can split carbon dioxide as well as water molecules by abstracting ...

278

The oxidation of binary alloys of chromium with metals of the first ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

oxide as the essential scale constituent is responsible for the change in ... Coles for laboratory facilities, and to the Science. Research Council for financial ...

279

In Vitro Evolution of a Peptide with a Hematite Binding Motif That May Constitute a Natural Metal-Oxide Binding Archetype  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Phage-display technology was used to evolve peptides that selectively bind to the metal-oxide hematite (Fe2O3) from a library of approximately 3 billion different polypeptides. The sequences of these peptides contained the highly conserved amino acid motif, Ser/Thr-hydrophobic/aromatic-Ser/Thr-Pro-Ser/Thr. To better understand the nature of the peptide?metal oxide binding demonstrated by these experiments, molecular dynamics simulations were carried out for Ser-Pro-Ser at a hematite surface. These simulations show that hydrogen bonding occurs between the two serine amino acids and the hydroxylated hematite surface and that the presence of proline between the hydroxide residues restricts the peptide flexibility, thereby inducing a structural-binding motif. A search of published sequence data revealed that the binding motif (Ser/Thr-Pro-Ser/Thr) is adjacent to the terminal heme-binding domain of both OmcA and MtrC, which are outer membrane cytochromes from the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. The entire five amino acid consensus sequence (Ser/Thr-hydrophobic/aromatic-Ser/Thr-Pro-Ser/Thr) was also found as multiple copies in the primary sequences of metal-oxide binding proteins Sil1 and Sil2 from Thalassiosira pseudonana. We suggest that this motif constitutes a natural metal-oxide binding archetype that could be exploited in enzyme-based biofuel cell design and approaches to synthesize tailored metal-oxide nanostructures.

Lower, Brian H.; Lins, Roberto D.; Oestreicher, Zachery W.; Straatsma, TP; Hochella Jr., Michael F.; Shi, Liang; Lower, Steven

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

280

Semiconducting Transition-Metal Oxides Based on D5 Cations: Theory for MnO and Fe2O3  

SciTech Connect

Transition-metal oxides with partially filled d shells are typically Mott or charge-transfer insulators with notoriously poor transport properties due to large effective electron/hole masses or due to carrier self-trapping. Employing band-structure calculations and ab initio small-polaron theory for MnO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, we explore the potential of d{sup 5} oxides for achieving desirable semiconducting properties, e.g., in solar energy applications. The quantification of self-trapping energies and the trends with the coordination symmetry suggest strategies to overcome the main bottlenecks, i.e., the tendency for self-trapping of holes due to Mn(II) and of electrons due to Fe(III).

Peng, H.; Lany, S.

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide polymer" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Composite Membranes for CO2 Capture: High Performance Metal Organic Frameworks/Polymer Composite Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: A team of six faculty members at Georgia Tech are developing an enhanced membrane by fitting metal organic frameworks, compounds that show great promise for improved carbon capture, into hollow fiber membranes. This new material would be highly efficient at removing CO2 from the flue gas produced at coal-fired power plants. The team is analyzing thousands of metal organic frameworks to identify those that are most suitable for carbon capture based both on their ability to allow coal exhaust to pass easily through them and their ability to select CO2 from that exhaust for capture and storage. The most suitable frameworks would be inserted into the walls of the hollow fiber membranes, making the technology readily scalable due to their high surface area. This composite membrane would be highly stable, withstanding the harsh gas environment found in coal exhaust.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Polymer blends for use in photoelectrochemical cells for conversion of solar energy to electricity and methods for manufacturing such blends  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte that is designed to achieve better charge transfer across the conductive film/polymer electrolyte interface of the electrochemical photovoltaic cell. The highly conductive polymer is preferably polypyrrole or poly-N-p-nitrophenylpyrrole and the solid polymer electrolyte is preferably polyethylene oxide or polypropylene oxide.

Skotheim, Terje (East Patchogue, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Performance of Titanium-Oxide/Polymer Insulation in Bi-2212/Ag-alloy Round Wire Wound Superconducting Coils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conductor insulation is one of the key components needed to make Ag-alloy clad Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (Bi-2212/Ag) superconducting round wire (RW) successful for high field magnet applications as dielectric standoff and high winding current densities (Jw) directly depend on it. In this study, a TiO2/polymer insulation coating developed by nGimat LLC was applied to test samples and a high field test coil. The insulation was investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dielectric properties measurement, and transport critical current (Ic) properties measurement. About 29% of the insulation by weight is polymer. When the Bi-2212/Ag wire is full heat treated, this decomposes with slow heating to 400{\\deg}C in pure O2. After the full reaction, we found that the TiO2 did not degrade the critical current properties, adhered well to the conductor, and provided a breakdown voltage of >100 V, which allowed the test coil to survive quenching in 31.2 T background field, while providing a 2.6 T field increment. For Bi-2212/Ag RW with a typical diameter of 1.0-1.5 mm, this ~15 um thick insulation allows a very high coil packing factor of ~0.74, whereas earlier alumino-silicate braid insulation only allows packing factors of 0.38-0.48.

Peng Chen; Ulf P Trociewitz; Matthieu Dalban-Canassy; Jianyi Jiang; Eric E Hellstrom; David C Larbalestier

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

284

Interplay between electronic structure and catalytic activity in transition metal oxide model system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The efficiency of many energy storage and conversion technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and hydrogen production from water splitting, is limited by the slow kinetics of the oxygen ...

Suntivich, Jin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

complete Fe30Cr+6AT-supported SOFC membrane after firing atof Fe-Cr ferritic steels as SOFC interconnect material," inmass production route for metallic SOFC-interconnectors," in

Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Reactions at the silver/polymer interface: a review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the possible solutions for improving mirrors for long-life, inexpensive solar concentrators is to coat the reactive mirror material with a polymer. Polymer-coated reflectors may improve optical efficiency and reduce the cost of solar mirrors. Because the mirror/polymer interface may have long-term instabilities in a solar-stressed environment, it is necessary to isolate the effects attributable to the bulk materials from those of the interface. Actual failure mechanisms are unknown but we present several possible explanations for failure of the polymer/mirror interface. The purpose of the paper is to review the literature on one of the systems of great current interest, the silver/polymer interface. First, the components of this interface are considered separately. Studies of reactions of environmental gases with silver are summarized. Then, several candidate fluoropolymers and polymethylmethacrylate are considered independently of the metal. The thermal, photo, and oxidative degradation reactions are briefly outlined. Finally, the limited data actually obtained on the silver/polymer interface are summarized. Results obtained on the silver/Teflon-FEP interface are emphasized because its use for thermal control panels in the space program resulted in extensive study. 117 references.

Schissel, P.; Czanderna, A.W.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Study of Metal-oxide Composites Prepared by Ball Milling and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol Route Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using Copper Nitrate Solution · AlGaAs-Based Optical ... Defect Energetics and Fission Product Transport in ZrC ... Enhancing Mineral Beneficiation by High Intensity Power Ultrasound.

288

The detection of nitric oxide and its reactivity with transition metal thiolate complexes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule that is essential for life and regulates both beneficial and harmful processes. Because this gaseous radical influences many aspects of health and disease, we wish to explore the relationship ...

Tennyson, Andrew Gregory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on transition metal oxide catalysts for high temperature fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with its high energy conversion efficiency, low emissions, silent operation and its ability to utilize commercial fuels has the potential to create a large impact on the energy landscape. ...

La O', Gerardo Jose Cordova

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Comparison between chemical vapor deposited and physical vapor deposited WSi{sub 2} metal gate for InGaAs n-metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We compare chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and physical vapor deposition (PVD) WSi{sub 2} metal gate process for In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As n-metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors using 10 and 6.5 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as dielectric layer. The CVD-processed metal gate device with 6.5 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows enhanced transistor performance such as drive current, maximum transconductance and maximum effective mobility. These values are relatively better than the PVD-processed counterpart device with improvement of 51.8%, 46.4%, and 47.8%, respectively. The improvement for the performance of the CVD-processed metal gate device is due to the fluorine passivation at the oxide/semiconductor interface and a nondestructive deposition process.

Ong, B. S.; Pey, K. L. [Advanced Materials for Micro and Nano-Systems, Singapore-MIT Alliance, Singapore 637460 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ong, C. Y.; Tan, C. S. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Antoniadis, D. A. [Advanced Materials for Micro and Nano-Systems, Singapore-MIT Alliance, Singapore 637460 (Singapore); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Fitzgerald, E. A. [Advanced Materials for Micro and Nano-Systems, Singapore-MIT Alliance, Singapore 637460 (Singapore); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2011-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

291

Electroless metal plating of plastics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

Krause, L.J.

1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

292

Electrical Contacts between Cathodes and Metallic Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To minimize electrical resistance, contact layers are often included between interconnects and electrodes during construction of a SOFC stack. In this work, simulated cathode/interconnect structures were used to investigate the effects of different contact materials on the contact resistance between a LSF cathode and a Crofer22 APU interconnect.. The results from the resistance measurements are reported and correlated to interfacial interactions occurring between the metallic interconnect and the contact materials, particularly perovskites. The materials requirements for the contact layers between cathodes and metallic interconnects in intermediate temperature SOFCs are also discussed.

Yang, Z Gary; Xia, Gordon; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2006-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

293

Porphyrin coordination polymer nanospheres and nanorods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A porphyrin coordination polymer nanostructure comprising a network of pyridyl porphyrin molecules and coordinating metal ions coordinatively bound through the pyridyl groups. In some embodiments, the porphyrins are metalloporphyrins. A variety of nanostructures are formed by the network polymer, including nanospheres, polygonal nanostructures, nanorods, and nanofibers, depending on a variety of factors including coordination metal ion, porphyrin type, metal of the metalloporphyrin, and degree of agitation during nanostructure formation. Reduction of coordinating metal ions may be used to form metal nanoparticles on the coordination polymer nanostructure.

Wang, Zhongchun; Shelnutt, John A.; Medforth, Craig J.

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

294

Organosiloxane-grafted natural polymer coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new family of polysaccharide graft polymers are provided as corrosion resistant coatings having antimicrobial properties which are useful on light metals such as aluminum, magnesium, zinc, steel and their alloys. Methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers are also included. The methods of making the polysaccharide graft polymers involve reacting a polysaccharide source with an antimicrobial agent under conditions of hydrolysis-condensation.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

J8: Micro Fabrication of Metallic and Oxide Glasses for Terahertz ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

C19: Dissolution Behavior of Cu Under Bump Metallization in Ball Grid Array Structure ... E11: Evolution of the Grain Boundary Character Distribution During Grain ... for High Volume and Fast Turnaround Automated Inline TEM Sample Preparation .... H2: Triboluminescent Smart Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring.

296

Accelerated Publication: Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with Al2O3/Ga2O3(Gd2O3) as gate dielectric  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ga"2O"3(Gd"2O"3) [GGO] 3.5nm-thick, with an in situ Al"2O"3 cap 1.5nm thick, has been directly deposited on Ge substrate without employing interfacial passivation layers. The equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of the gate stack is 1.38-nm. The metal-oxide-semiconductor ... Keywords: EOT, Germanium, High-? dielectric, MOS

L. K. Chu; T. H. Chiang; T. D. Lin; Y. J. Lee; R. L. Chu; J. Kwo; M. Hong

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed. 16 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

299

Bulk Metallic Glasses XI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 15, 2013 ... A Bulk Metallic Glass with Record-breaking Damage Tolerance ... Oxidation on the Surface Characteristics of Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glasses.

300

High temperature polymer concrete  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is concerned with a polymer concrete composition, which is a two-component composition useful with many bases including metal. Component A, the aggregate composition, is broadly composed of silica, silica flour, portland cement, and acrylamide, whereas Component B, which is primarily vinyl and acrylyl reactive monomers, is a liquid system.

Fontana, J.J.; Reams, W.

1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

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301

Spectroscopic investigations of small molecule interactions on metal oxide surfaces. Progress report, September 1, 1979-October 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Significant advances were made over the past year in surveying with angle integrated uv photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) the interactions of general classes of chemically important small molecules with metal oxide surfaces, and in elucidating in detail the geometric and electronic structures of the small molecule-surface complexes observed by angle resolved UPS. Progress can be divided into several areas: (1) a detailed understanding of the unique active site structures associated with the interaction of CO with ZnO utilizing angle integrated and angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy; (2) initiating survey studies into new small molecule systems with emphasis on hydrogen and ethylene; (3) successful construction and testing of a high resoltuion electron energy loss spectrometer (HREELS).

Solomon, E.I.; McFeeley, F.R.

1980-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

302

Use of impure inert gases in the controlled heating and cooling of mixed conducting metal oxide materials  

SciTech Connect

Method for processing an article comprising mixed conducting metal oxide material. The method comprises contacting the article with an oxygen-containing gas and either reducing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a cooling period or increasing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a heating period; during the cooling period, reducing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the cooling period and increasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is reduced during at least a portion of the cooling period; and during the heating period, increasing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the heating period and decreasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is increased during at least a portion of the heating period.

Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Bernhart, John Charles (Fleetwood, PA)

2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

303

Functionalized Graphene Sheets as Molecular Templates for Controlled Nucleation and Self-Assembly of Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Graphene sheets have been extensively studied as a key functional component of graphene-based nanocomposites for electronics, energy, catalysis,and sensing applications. However, fundamental understanding of the interfacial binding and nucleation processes at graphene surfaces remains lacking, and the range of controlled structures that can be produced are limited. Here, by using a combination of theoretical and experimental approaches, we demonstrate that functionalized graphene sheets (FGS) can function as a new class of molecular templates to direct nucleation and self-assembly and produce novel, three-dimensional nanocomposite materials. Two key aspects are demonstrated: First, the functional groups on FGS surface determine the nucleation energy, and thus control the nucleation sites and nucleation density, as well as the preferred crystalline phases. Second, FGS can function as a template to direct the self-assembly of surfactant micelles and produce ordered, mesoporous arrays of crystalline metal oxides and composites.

Li, Xiaolin; Qi, Wen N.; Mei, Donghai; Sushko, Maria L.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Liu, Jun

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

304

Method for improving the oxidation-resistance of metal substrates coated with thermal barrier coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described.

Thompson, Anthony Mark (Niskayuna, NY); Gray, Dennis Michael (Delanson, NY); Jackson, Melvin Robert (Niskayuna, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Design and construction of a radiation resistant quadrupole using metal oxide insulated CICC  

SciTech Connect

The construction of a engineering test model of a radiation resistant quadrupole is described. The cold-iron quadrupole uses coils fabricated from metal-oixide (synthetic spinel) insulated Cable-In-Conduit-Conductor (CICC). The superconductor is NbTi in a copper matrix. The quadrupole is designed to produce a pole-tip field of 2 T with an operating current of 7,000 A.

Albert F. Zeller

2012-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

306

Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

SOFC from ~1000 șC to ~750 șC may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Multi-resolution Modeling of the Dynamic Loading of Metal Matrix ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites ... Fabrication of Metal Matrix Composites via Spark Plasma Sintering for Nuclear Energy Application.

308

Titanium Based Metal-matrix Composites via In-situ Nitridation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites ... Fabrication of Metal Matrix Composites via Spark Plasma Sintering for Nuclear Energy Application.

309

Characterisation of Al-AC8H/Al2O3p Metal Matrix Composites ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites ... Fabrication of Metal Matrix Composites via Spark Plasma Sintering for Nuclear Energy Application.

310

Creation of Exotic Features in Metal Oxides by Surface Treatment for Enhanced Gas Sensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

followed by oxidation in a well-defined pO2 regime near the M-MOx proximity line by a suitable buffer gas Model. Fig. 4. Thermodynamic criteria for several M/MOx coexistence and practical pO2 regimes for phase as a function of temperature for several M-MOx pairs. By manipulating the ambient pO2 across these lines, one

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

311

Au/MxOy/TiO2 catalysts for CO oxidation: promotional effect of main-group, transition, and rare-earth metal oxide additives.  

SciTech Connect

Au/TiO2 catalysts are active for CO oxidation, but they suffer from high-temperature sintering of the gold particles, and few attempts have been made to promote or stabilize Au/TiO2. Our recent communication addressed these issues by loading gold onto Al2O3/TiO2 prepared via surface-sol-gel processing of Al(sec-OC4H9)3 on TiO2. In our current full paper, Au/Al2O3/TiO2 catalysts were prepared alternatively by thermal decomposition of Al(NO3)3 on TiO2 followed by loading gold, and the influences of the decomposition temperature and Al2O3 content were systematically surveyed. This facile method was subsequently extended to the preparation of a battery of metal oxide-modified Au/TiO2 catalysts virtually not reported. It was found that Au/TiO2 modified by CaO, NiO, ZnO, Ga2O3, Y2O3, ZrO2, La2O3, Pr2O3, Nd2O3, Sm2O3, Eu2O3, Gd2O3, Dy2O3, Ho2O3, Er2O3, or Yb2O3 could retain significant activity at ambient temperature even after aging in O2-He at 500 C, whereas unmodified Au/TiO2 lost its activity. Moreover, some 200 C-calcined promoted catalysts showed high activity even at about -100 C. The deactivation and regeneration of some of these new catalysts were studied. This work furnished novel catalysts for further fundamental and applied research.

Ma, Zhen [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Photo-oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

313

Melanin as a target for melanoma chemotherapy: Pro-oxidant effect of oxygen and metals on melanoma viability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

La Jolla, CA, USA). Indium tin oxide plates were purchasedand hydrophilic indium tin oxide (ITO). While the magnitude

Farmer, Patrick J; Gidanian, S; Shahandeh, B; Di Bilio, A J; Tohidian, N; Meyskens, F L

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Reducing the deactivation of Ni-metal during the catalytic partial oxidation of a surrogate diesel fuel mixture  

SciTech Connect

Ni catalysts are active and selective for the conversion of hydrocarbon into synthesis gas. However, conventional supported Ni catalysts rapidly deactivate at the high temperatures required for partial oxidation of diesel fuel by sintering and metal vaporization, as well as by carbon deposition and sulfur poisoning. Thus, to reduce deactivation Ni (3 wt%) was substituted into the structures of Ba-hexaaluminate (BNHA) and La–Sr–Zr pyrochlore (LSZN), and their activity was compared to a supported Ni/Al2O3 for the catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) of a surrogate diesel fuel. Characterization by XRD showed a single phase #2;-alumina for the hexaaluminate, while LSZN had a pyrochlore structure with a defect SrZrO3 perovskite phase. Temperature programmed reduction experiments confirmed Ni was reducible in all catalysts. XANES results confirmed that Ni atoms were substituted into the hexaaluminate and pyrochlore structures, as spectra for each catalyst showed different coordination environments for Ni compared to a NiO standard. During CPOX activity tests (T = 900 ?C and WHSV= 50,000 scc/gcat/h), the LSZN pyrochlore produced stable H2 and CO yields in the presence of 5 wt% 1-methylnaphthalene and 50ppmw dibenzothiophene/n-tetradecane for 2 h, while both Ni/Al2O3 and BNHA catalysts were irreversibly deactivated by this mixture over the same time. Activity loss was strongly linked to carbon formation.

Haynes, D.; Campos, A.; Smith, M.; Berry, D.; Shekhawat, D.; Spivey, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Conductive polymer-based material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are polymer-based coatings and materials comprising (i) a polymeric composition including a polymer having side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, at least two of the side chains being substituted with a heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof; and (ii) a plurality of metal species distributed within the polymer. At least a portion of the heteroatoms may form part of a chelation complex with some or all of the metal species. In many embodiments, the metal species are present in a sufficient concentration to provide a conductive material, e.g., as a conductive coating on a substrate. The conductive materials may be useful as the thin film conducting or semi-conducting layers in organic electronic devices such as organic electroluminescent devices and organic thin film transistors.

McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Koren, Amy B. (Lansing, MI); Dourado, Sunil K. (Ann Arbor, MI); Dulebohn, Joel I. (Lansing, MI); Hanchar, Robert J. (Charlotte, MI)

2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

316

Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Strained Ge channel p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors grown on Siâ?â??xGex/Si virtual substrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have fabricated strained Ge channel p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (p-MOSFETs) on Siâ??.â??Geâ??.â?? virtual substrates. The poor interface between silicon dioxide (SiOâ??) and the Ge channel ...

Lee, Minjoo L.

318

Determining the Behavior of RuO(x) Nanoparticles in Mixed-Metal Oxides:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanism of Ethanol Synthesis from Syngas on Rh(111) Understanding of Mechanism of Ethanol Synthesis from Syngas on Rh(111) Understanding of ethanol decomposition on Rh(1 1 1) from density functional theory and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations Theoretical perspective of alcohol decomposition and synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation