National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for metal oxide coatings

  1. Thermal barrier and overlay coating systems comprising composite metal/metal oxide bond coating layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL); Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer coating systems comprising a composite metal/metal oxide bond coat layer. The coating systems may be used in gas turbines.

  2. Method of producing adherent metal oxide coatings on metallic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, Michael H. (Clifton Park, NY); Varrin, Jr., Robert D. (McLean, VA)

    2001-01-01

    Provided is a process of producing an adherent synthetic corrosion product (sludge) coating on metallic surfaces. The method involves a chemical reaction between a dry solid powder mixture of at least one reactive metal oxide with orthophosphoric acid to produce a coating in which the particles are bound together and the matrix is adherent to the metallic surface.

  3. Voltage oxide removal for plating: A new method of electroplating oxide coated metals in situ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutfeld, R. J. von; West, A. C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    A novel in situ method for electroplating oxide coated metals is described. Termed VORP, for voltage oxide removal for plating, the process utilizes a voltage pulse {approx}20-200 V, {approx}2 ms in duration, applied between working and counterelectrodes while both are immersed in a copper electrolyte. The pulse is almost immediately followed by galvanostatic plate-up. Adherent copper deposits up to {approx}4 {mu}m in height on stainless steel 316 coupons have been obtained. Temperature testing up to 260 deg. C in air does not affect the copper adhesion. A preliminary model for oxide removal is proposed utilizing concepts of dielectric breakdown.

  4. Oxidation Resistant, Cr Retaining, Electrically Conductive Coatings on Metallic Alloys for SOFC Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vladimir Gorokhovsky

    2008-03-31

    This report describes significant results from an on-going, collaborative effort to enable the use of inexpensive metallic alloys as interconnects in planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) through the use of advanced coating technologies. Arcomac Surface Engineering, LLC, under the leadership of Dr. Vladimir Gorokhovsky, is investigating filtered-arc and filtered-arc plasma-assisted hybrid coating deposition technologies to promote oxidation resistance, eliminate Cr volatility, and stabilize the electrical conductivity of both standard and specialty steel alloys of interest for SOFC metallic interconnect (IC) applications. Arcomac has successfully developed technologies and processes to deposit coatings with excellent adhesion, which have demonstrated a substantial increase in high temperature oxidation resistance, stabilization of low Area Specific Resistance values and significantly decrease Cr volatility. An extensive matrix of deposition processes, coating compositions and architectures was evaluated. Technical performance of coated and uncoated sample coupons during exposures to SOFC interconnect-relevant conditions is discussed, and promising future directions are considered. Cost analyses have been prepared based on assessment of plasma processing parameters, which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed surface engineering process for SOFC metallic IC applications.

  5. Synthesis of high {Tc} superconducting coatings and patterns by melt writing and oxidation of metallic precursor alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, W.; Vander Sande, J.B.

    1998-07-28

    A method is provided for fabrication of superconducting oxides and superconducting oxide composites and for joining superconductors to other materials. A coating of a molten alloy containing the metallic elements of the oxide is applied to a substrate surface and oxidized to form the superconducting oxide. A material can be contacted to the molten alloy which is subsequently oxidized joining the material to the resulting superconducting oxide coating. Substrates of varied composition and shape can be coated or joined by this method. 5 figs.

  6. Metal oxide coating of carbon supports for supercapacitor applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Tribby, Louis, J; Lakeman, Charles D. E.; Han, Sang M.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Fleig, Patrick F.

    2008-07-01

    The global market for wireless sensor networks in 2010 will be valued close to $10 B, or 200 M units. TPL, Inc. is a small Albuquerque based business that has positioned itself to be a leader in providing uninterruptible power supplies in this growing market with projected revenues expected to exceed $26 M in 5 years. This project focused on improving TPL, Inc.'s patent-pending EnerPak{trademark} device which converts small amounts of energy from the environment (e.g., vibrations, light or temperature differences) into electrical energy that can be used to charge small energy storage devices. A critical component of the EnerPak{trademark} is the supercapacitor that handles high power delivery for wireless communications; however, optimization and miniaturization of this critical component is required. This proposal aimed to produce prototype microsupercapacitors through the integration of novel materials and fabrication processes developed at New Mexico Technology Research Collaborative (NMTRC) member institutions. In particular, we focused on developing novel ruthenium oxide nanomaterials and placed them into carbon supports to significantly increase the energy density of the supercapacitor. These improvements were expected to reduce maintenance costs and expand the utility of the TPL, Inc.'s device, enabling New Mexico to become the leader in the growing global wireless power supply market. By dominating this niche, new customers were expected to be attracted to TPL, Inc. yielding new technical opportunities and increased job opportunities for New Mexico.

  7. Alloy Films Deposited by Electroplating as Precursors for Protective Oxide Coatings on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Metallic Interconnect Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Christopher; Gemmen, R.S.; Cross, Caleb

    2006-10-01

    The successful development of stainless steel interconnects for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) may be the materials breakthrough that makes SOFC technology truly commercial. Many of the ferritic stainless steels, however, suffer from a relatively high area specific resistance (ASR) after long exposure times at temperature and the Cr in the native oxide can evaporate and contaminate other cell components. Conductive coatings that resist oxide scale growth and chromium evaporation may prevent both of these problems. In the present study electrochemical deposition of binary alloys followed by oxidation of the alloy to form protective and conductive oxide layers is examined. Results are presented for the deposition of Mn/Co and Fe/Ni alloys via electroplating to form a precursor for spinel oxide coating formation. Analysis of the alloy coatings is done by SEM, EDS and XRD.

  8. Method for synthesis of high T[sub c] superconducting materials by oxidation and press coating of metallic precursor alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, W.; Vander Sande, J.B.

    1993-01-19

    A superconductor oxide composite is prepared using a press coating technique. The coated layers on various substrates exhibit good adhesion, textured microstructure, and improved J[sub c].

  9. Method for synthesis of high T.sub.c superconducting materials by oxidation and press coating of metallic precursor alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, Wei (Somerville, MA); Vander Sande, John B. (Newbury, MA)

    1993-01-01

    A superconductor oxide composite is prepared using a press coating technique. The coated layers on various substrates exhibit good adhesion, textured microstructure, and improved J.sub.c.

  10. Investigation of Some Transparent Metal Oxides as Damp Heat Protective Coating for CIGS Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, F. J.; Yan, F.; Zaaunbrecher, B.; To, B.; Perkins, J.; Noufi, R.

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the protective effectiveness of some transparent metal oxides (TMO) on CIGS solar cell coupons against damp heat (DH) exposure at 85oC and 85% relative humidity (RH). Sputter-deposited bilayer ZnO (BZO) with up to 0.5-um Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer and 0.2-um bilayer InZnO were used as 'inherent' part of device structure on CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG. Sputter-deposited 0.2-um ZnSnO and atomic layer deposited (ALD) 0.1-um Al2O3 were used as overcoat on typical BZO/CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG solar cells. The results were all negative -- all TMO-coated CIGS cells exhibited substantial degradation in DH. Combining the optical photographs, PL and EL imaging, SEM surface micro-morphology, coupled with XRD, I-V and QE measurements, the causes of the device degradations are attributed to hydrolytic corrosion, flaking, micro-cracking, and delamination induced by the DH moisture. Mechanical stress and decrease in crystallinity (grain size effect) could be additional degrading factors for thicker AZO grown on CdS/CIGS.

  11. Fiber metal interlayer improves ceramic coating performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarrabet, G.P.

    1994-11-01

    This article is a review of the use of a compliant fiber metal inner layer between a ceramic coating and metal. The material used is Zirconia with phase stabilizers of magnesium oxide, calcium oxide, and yttrium oxide. Design, fabrication, and testing of the stabilized zirconia is discussed.

  12. EURODISPLAY 2002 631 P-64: A Comparative Study of Metal Oxide Coated Indium-tin Oxide Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    over that of a conventional OLED without an oxide capped anode. 1. Introduction Organic light for Organic Light-emitting Diodes Chengfeng Qiu, Haiying Chen, Zhilang Xie, Man Wong and Hoi Sing Kwok Center of metals enhance while other oxides degrade the hole-injection and quantum efficiencies of organic light

  13. Protective coating on positive lithium-metal-oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Christopher S.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Kahaian, Arthur J.

    2006-05-23

    A positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell comprising a LiMn2-xMxO4 spinel structure in which M is one or more metal cations with an atomic number less than 52, such that the average oxidation state of the manganese ions is equal to or greater than 3.5, and in which 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.15, having one or more lithium spine oxide LiM'2O4 or lithiated spinel oxide Li1+yM'2O4 compounds on the surface thereof in which M' are cobalt cations and in which 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1.

  14. Evaluation of metallized paint coatings for composite spacecraft structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brzuskiewicz, J.E. )

    1990-04-01

    Thermal control coatings are needed to minimize temperature excursions of composite spacecraft structures in low earth orbit. Coatings prepared with combinations of metal flake and metal oxide pigments were prepared to obtain a range of solar absorptance and emittance properties. These coatings were subjected to screening tests to characterize their ultraviolet stability, atomic oxygen resistance and outgassing properties.

  15. Impact of Iron-Reducing Bacteria on Metals and Radionuclides Adsorbed to Humic-Coated Iron(III) Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgos, W. D.

    2005-02-01

    This is the final report for Grant No. DEFGO2-98ER62691 submitted to the DOE NABR Program. This research has focused on (1) the role of natural organic matter (NOM), quinines, and complexants in enhancing the biological reduction of solid-phase crystalline ferric oxides, (2) the effect of heavy metals (specifically zinc) and NOM on ferric oxide bioreduction, (3) the sorption of Me(II) [Cu(II), Fe(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II)] to ferric oxides and subsequent Me(II)-promoted phase transformations of the ferric oxides, and (4) the development of reaction-based biogeochemical models to numerically simulate our experimental results.

  16. Method of measuring metal coating adhesion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roper, John R. (Northglenn, CO)

    1985-01-01

    A method for measuring metal coating adhesion to a substrate material comprising the steps of preparing a test coupon of substrate material having the metal coating applied to one surface thereof, applying a second metal coating of gold or silver to opposite surfaces of the test coupon by hot hollow cathode process, applying a coating to one end of each of two pulling rod members, joining the coated ends of the pulling rod members to said opposite coated surfaces of the test coupon by a solid state bonding technique and finally applying instrumented static tensile loading to the pulling rod members until fracture of the metal coating adhesion to the substrate material occurs.

  17. Method for inhibiting oxidation of metal sulfide-containing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elsetinow, Alicia; Borda, Michael J.; Schoonen, Martin A.; Strongin, Daniel R.

    2006-12-26

    The present invention provides means for inhibiting the oxidation of a metal sulfide-containing material, such as ore mine waste rock or metal sulfide taiulings, by coating the metal sulfide-containing material with an oxidation-inhibiting two-tail lipid coating (12) thereon, thereby inhibiting oxidation of the metal sulfide-containing material in acid mine drainage conditions. The lipids may be selected from phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and combinations thereof.

  18. Coated Metal Articles and Method of Making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boller, Ernest R.; Eubank, Lowell D.

    2004-07-06

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  19. Coated metal articles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boller, Ernest R. (Van Buren Township, IN); Eubank, Lowell D. (Wilmington, DE)

    2004-07-06

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  20. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchheit, R.G.; Martinez, M.A.

    1998-05-26

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides is disclosed. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds. 1 fig.

  1. Corrosion control of metals by organic coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ooij, W.J. van; Bierwagen, G.P.; Skerry, B.S.; Mills, D.

    1999-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive treatment of the entire field of corrosion control of metals, from mechanisms and testing procedures to modification of metal surfaces and interfaces by silanes and plasma techniques. They discuss the new, sophisticated analytical tools, such as Time-of-Flight SIMS and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and all materials -- metals, pretreatments, and paint systems. The contents include: (1) Corrosion under organic coatings; (2) Mechanisms of corrosion control by organic coatings; (3) Metal pretreatments; (4) Techniques to study organic coating-metal interfaces; (5) Modification of metal surfaces and interfaces; (6) corrosion testing; (7) Adhesion testing; (8) Paint systems; (9) Conclusions and prospects references.

  2. Durability of Metallic Interconnects and Protective Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2009-12-15

    To build up a useful voltage, a number of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrically connected into series in a stack via interconnects, which are placed between adjacent cells. In addition to functioning as a bi-polar electrical connector, the interconnect also acts as a separator plate that separates the fuel at the anode side of one cell from the air at the cathode side on an adjacent cell. During SOFC operation at the high temperatures, the interconnects are thus simultaneously exposed to the oxidizing air at one side and a reducing fuel that can be either hydrogen or hydrocarbon at the other. Besides, they are in contact with adjacent components, such as electrodes or electrical contacts, seals, etc. With steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures into the low or intermediate range 600-850oC, oxidation resistant alloys are often used to construct interconnects. However, the metallic interconnects may degrade via interactions at their interfaces with surrounding environments or adjacent components, potentially affecting the stability and performance of interconnects and the SOFC stacks. Thus protection layers are applied to metallic interconnects that also intend to mitigate or prevent chromium migration into cells and the cell poisoning. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of materials for metallic interconnects, their degradation and coating protection.

  3. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  4. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  5. Protective coatings for metal alloys and methods incorporating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Ibanez, Sergio; Swartz, Scott L.

    2015-06-09

    An electrochemical device having one or more solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), each of the SOFCs including a cathode, an anode, and an electrolyte layer positioned between the cathode and anode; and at least one additional component comprising a metallic substrate having an electronically conductive, chromium-free perovskite coating deposited directly thereon. The perovskite coating has the formula ABO.sub.3, wherein A is a lanthanide element or Y, and B is a mixture of two or more transition elements, with the A site undoped by any alkaline earth element, and the perovskite coating exhibits limited or no ionic transport of oxygen.

  6. Volatile organometallic complexes suitable for use in chemical vapor depositions on metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giolando, Dean M.

    2003-09-30

    Novel ligated compounds of tin, titanium, and zinc are useful as metal oxide CVD precursor compounds without the detriments of extreme reactivity yet maintaining the ability to produce high quality metal oxide coating by contact with heated substrates.

  7. On Coating Durability of Polymer Coated Sheet Metal under Plastic Deformation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan

    2011-08-08

    Polymer coated sheet metal components find diverse applications in many industries. The manufacturing of the components generally involves forming of sheet metal into the desired shape and coating of the formed part with organic coating...

  8. Cerium Oxide Coating for Oxidation Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Award In order to produce power more efficiently and cleanly, the next generation of power plant boilers, turbines, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and other essential equipment...

  9. Thin film hydrous metal oxide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Stephens, Howard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Thin film (<100 nm) hydrous metal oxide catalysts are prepared by 1) synthesis of a hydrous metal oxide, 2) deposition of the hydrous metal oxide upon an inert support surface, 3) ion exchange with catalytically active metals, and 4) activating the hydrous metal oxide catalysts.

  10. Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A. C.; Riley, L. A.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ban, C.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-05-01

    This summarizes NREL's FY09 battery materials research activity in developing metal oxide nanostructured anodes to enable high-energy, durable and affordable li-ion batteries for HEVs and PHEVs.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of chromium oxide coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    an important role in enhancing both PVD-coated cutting tool performance and resistance to abrasive and erosiveMicrostructure and mechanical properties of chromium oxide coatings Xiaolu Pang Department 33620 (Received 2 August 2007; accepted 12 September 2007) Chromium oxide coatings were deposited on low

  12. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  13. Method of producing thermally sprayed metallic coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrnes, Larry Edward (Rochester Hills, MI); Kramer, Martin Stephen (Clarkston, MI); Neiser, Richard A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-08-26

    The cylinder walls of light metal engine blocks are thermally spray coated with a ferrous-based coating using an HVOF device. A ferrous-based wire is fed to the HVOF device to locate a tip end of the wire in a high temperature zone of the device. Jet flows of oxygen and gaseous fuel are fed to the high temperature zone and are combusted to generate heat to melt the tip end. The oxygen is oversupplied in relation to the gaseous fuel. The excess oxygen reacts with and burns a fraction of the ferrous-based feed wire in an exothermic reaction to generate substantial supplemental heat to the HVOF device. The molten/combusted metal is sprayed by the device onto the walls of the cylinder by the jet flow of gases.

  14. Polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for medical imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Suelin, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    One of the most versatile and safe materials used in medicine are polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. This dissertation describes several formulations for in vivo imaging applications. The paramagnetic polymer-coated ...

  15. Palladium-coated zirconium membranes for oxidative extraction of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, C.; Buxbaum, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Palladium-coated metal membranes are attractive choices for low pressure, high temperature hydrogen and hydrogen isotope extractions, e.g. from fusion blanket fluids. The authors present experimental data on hydrogen transport through palladium-coated zirconium membranes at 600 - 700/sup 0/K. The upstream hydrogen pressure range is 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup -6/ torr and an oxygen-containing gas flows over the downstream side of the membrane. Thus, the irreversible oxidation reaction drives the flux. Deuterium permeabilities in zirconium are 2.00x10/sup -6/exp(59/T)+-20% g-mol/m.s.Pa/sup 1/2/, similar to the values obtained from diffusivity and solubility measurements. Extrapolated deuterium absorptive sticking coefficients on palladium are about .05.

  16. Method for plating with metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1994-08-23

    A method is disclosed of plating hydrous metal oxides on at least one substrate, which method is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrate, and comprises reacting metallic ions in aqueous solution with an appropriate oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite or calcium sulfite with oxygen under suitable conditions of pH and concentration such that oxidation and precipitation of metal oxide are sufficiently slow to allow satisfactory plating of metal oxide on the substrate. 1 fig.

  17. Method for plating with metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH); Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH)

    1994-08-23

    A method of plating hydrous metal oxides on at least one substrate, which method is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrate, and comprises reacting metallic ions in aqueous solution with an appropriate oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite or calcium sulfite with oxygen under suitable conditions of pH and concentration such that oxidation and precipitation of metal oxide are sufficiently slow to allow satisfactory plating of metal oxide on the substrate.

  18. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  19. Characterization of Fe–Cr alloy metallic interconnects coated with LSMO using the aerosol deposition process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jian-Jia [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Fu, Yen-Pei, E-mail: ypfu@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Shoufeng, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jian-Yih [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Shoufeng, Hualien, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yung-Neng [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shyong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Jin-Cherng [Department of Physics, Fu Jen Catholic University, Xinzhuang, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lanthanum strontium manganite (LSMO) as the protective layer for metallic interconnects was successfully prepared by aerosol deposition method (AD). • The microstructure, electrical resistance and composition for LSMO-coated Fe–Cr alloys undergoing high temperature, long-hour oxidation were investigated. • The denser protective layer prepared by AD might effectively prohibit the growth of oxidized scale after long time running at 800 °C in air. - Abstract: A Fe–Cr alloy, used for metallic interconnects, was coated with a protective layer of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSMO) using the aerosol deposition method (AD). The effects of the LSMO protective layer, which was coated on the Fe–Cr interconnects using AD, on the area specific resistance (ASR) during high temperature oxidation and the Cr evaporation behaviors were systematically investigated in this paper. The microstructures, morphologies, and compositions of the oxidized scales that appeared on the LSMO-coated Fe–Cr alloy after annealing at 800 °C for 750 h in air were examined using SEM equipped with EDS. The EPMA mapping of the LSMO-coated Fe–Cr interconnects undergoing long term, high-temperature oxidation was used to explain the formation layers of the oxidized scale, which consists of (Mn,Cr){sub 3}O{sub 4} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. Moreover, the experimental results revealed that the AD process is a potential method for preparing denser protective layers with highly desirable electrical properties for metallic interconnects.

  20. Metallic coatings on silicon substrates, and methods of forming metallic coatings on silicon substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Hyde, Timothy A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fincke, James R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-03-11

    The invention includes methods of forming a metallic coating on a substrate which contains silicon. A metallic glass layer is formed over a silicon surface of the substrate. The invention includes methods of protecting a silicon substrate. The substrate is provided within a deposition chamber along with a deposition target. Material from the deposition target is deposited over at least a portion of the silicon substrate to form a protective layer or structure which contains metallic glass. The metallic glass comprises iron and one or more of B, Si, P and C. The invention includes structures which have a substrate containing silicon and a metallic layer over the substrate. The metallic layer contains less than or equal to about 2 weight % carbon and has a hardness of at least 9.2 GPa. The metallic layer can have an amorphous microstructure or can be devitrified to have a nanocrystalline microstructure.

  1. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel

    2012-07-03

    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  2. Aluminide coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henager, Jr; Charles, H [Kennewick, WA; Shin, Yongsoon [Richland, WA; Samuels, William D [Richland, WA

    2009-08-18

    Disclosed herein are aluminide coatings. In one embodiment coatings are used as a barrier coating to protect a metal substrate, such as a steel or a superalloy, from various chemical environments, including oxidizing, reducing and/or sulfidizing conditions. In addition, the disclosed coatings can be used, for example, to prevent the substantial diffusion of various elements, such as chromium, at elevated service temperatures. Related methods for preparing protective coatings on metal substrates are also described.

  3. Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

    2010-01-01

    using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash. In Arsenic Contaminationwater using  iron?oxide coated coal bottom ash  Johanna L.  using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash JOHANNA L. MATHIEU

  4. Assessment of ceramic coatings for metal fuel melting crucible

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Oh, Seok-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Lee, Chan-Bock

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a coating method and material for crucibles to prevent material interactions with the U-Zr/U-TRU-Zr fuels during the manufacturing of SFR fuels. Refractory coatings were applied to niobium substrates by vacuum plasma-spray coating method. Melt dipping tests conducted were the coated rods lowered into the fuel melt at 1600 C. degrees, and withdrawn and cooled outside the crucible in the inert atmosphere of the induction furnace. Melt dipping tests of the coated Nb rods indicated that plasma-sprayed Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating doesn't form significant reaction layer between fuel melt and coating layer. Melt dipping tests of the coated Nb rods showed that TiC, TaC, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings exhibited the promising performance among other ceramic coatings. These materials could be promising candidate materials for the reusable melt crucible of metal fuel for SFR. In addition, in order to develop the vacuum plasma-spray coating method for re-usable crucible of metal fuel slugs to be overcome the issue of thermal expansion mismatch between coating material and crucible, various combinations of coating conditions were investigated to find the bonding effect on the substrate in pursuit of more effective ways to withstand the thermal stresses. It is observed that most coating methods maintained sound coating state in U-Zr melt. (authors)

  5. Electrochemistry, Photoelectrochemistry And Photoelectron Spectroscopy Of Nanostructured Metal Oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Södergren, S

    1997-01-01

    Electrochemistry, Photoelectrochemistry And Photoelectron Spectroscopy Of Nanostructured Metal Oxides

  6. STRIP TEMPERATURE IN A METAL COATING LINE ANNEALING FURNACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuinness, Mark

    STRIP TEMPERATURE IN A METAL COATING LINE ANNEALING FURNACE Mark McGuinness1 and Stephen Taylor2 We Zincalume are produced in a range of dimensions, grades and coating weights. The steel strip is annealed prior to being coated, by heating to a predeter- mined temperature for a definite time. Annealing

  7. Modelling the dip coating process for hot metal castings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuinness, Mark

    Modelling the dip coating process for hot metal castings Mark J. McGuinness #3; A.J. Roberts y #12; List of Figures 2 6 Modelling Coating Growth 17 6.1 Simple Conduction Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 6.3 Linear Temperature Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 7 Estimates of Coating

  8. Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (TCO) coatings are deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Provides uniform coating of complex, 3D nanostructures such as electrodes for next-generation PV cells...

  9. Plasma sprayed and electrospark deposited zirconium metal diffusion barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollis, Kendall J; Pena, Maria I

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium metal coatings applied by plasma spraying and electrospark deposition (ESD) have been investigated for use as diffusion barrier coatings on low enrichment uranium fuel for research nuclear reactors. The coatings have been applied to both stainless steel as a surrogate and to simulated nuclear fuel uranium-molybdenum alloy substrates. Deposition parameter development accompanied by coating characterization has been performed. The structure of the plasma sprayed coating was shown to vary with transferred arc current during deposition. The structure of ESD coatings was shown to vary with the capacitance of the deposition equipment.

  10. Process for forming a metal compound coating on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, Donald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Wright, Steven A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A method of coating a substrate with a thin layer of a metal compound by forming a dispersion of an electrophoretically active organic colloid and a precursor of the metal compound in an electrolytic cell in which the substrate is an electrode. Upon application of an electric potential, the electrode is coated with a mixture of the organic colloid and the precursor to the metal compound, and the coated substrate is then heated in the presence of an atmosphere or vacuum to decompose the organic colloid and form a coating of either a combination of metal compound and carbon, or optionally forming a porous metal compound coating by heating to a temperature high enough to chemically react the carbon.

  11. Nanostructured transition metal oxides useful for water oxidation catalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz M; Jiao, Feng

    2013-12-24

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a nanostructured transition metal oxide capable of oxidizing two H.sub.2O molecules to obtain four protons. In some embodiments of the invention, the composition further comprises a porous matrix wherein the nanocluster of the transition metal oxide is embedded on and/or in the porous matrix.

  12. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1994-12-13

    A method is described for depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates. 1 figure.

  13. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH); Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH)

    1994-12-13

    A method of depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates.

  14. Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Mendoza, Daniel (Santa Fe, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-04-15

    Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone into metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and into the cooler plasma afterglow where it oxidizes, cools and condenses to form solid metal oxide nanoparticles.

  15. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, K.C.; Kodas, T.T.

    1994-01-11

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said substrate.

  16. Metal oxide composite dosimeter method and material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of measuring a radiation dose wherein a radiation responsive material consisting essentially of metal oxide is first exposed to ionizing radiation. The metal oxide is then stimulating with light thereby causing the radiation responsive material to photoluminesce. Photons emitted from the metal oxide as a result of photoluminescence may be counted to provide a measure of the ionizing radiation.

  17. Coating Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Tin Oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zettl, Alex

    , and Pt by electron-beam evaporation or electroless metal deposition.2,5,11 Single amine-functionalized CdSe, transparent coatings, heterojunction solar cells, and chemical sensors. The deposition techniques used for Sn

  18. Electrodes synthesized from carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal metal adlayer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Harris, Alexander

    2014-04-15

    High-surface-area carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin metal films and their method of manufacture are described. The preferred manufacturing process involves the initial oxidation of the carbon nanostructures followed by a surface preparation process involving immersion in a solution with the desired pH to create negative surface dipoles. The nanostructures are subsequently immersed in an alkaline solution containing a suitable quantity of non-noble metal ions which adsorb at surface reaction sites. The metal ions are then reduced via chemical or electrical means. The nanostructures are exposed to a solution containing a salt of one or more noble metals which replace adsorbed non-noble surface metal atoms by galvanic displacement. The process can be controlled and repeated to obtain a desired film coverage. The resulting coated nanostructures may be used, for example, as high-performance electrodes in supercapacitors, batteries, or other electric storage devices.

  19. The role of electroplated coatings in metal joining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dini, J.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Electroplated and electroless coatings often play an important role in soldering, brazing, and welding operations. Thin deposits applied to critical surfaces before the joining operations can provide the difference between success and failure. Diffusion welding applications sometimes require coatings to help promote joining. For some applications, electroplating by itself can be used to join metals that cannot be welded or brazed because of metallurgical incompatibility. The use of electroplated coatings for these various joining applications is reviewed here.

  20. Mechanisms, Models, and Simulations of Metal-Coated Fiber Consolidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    pro-gas turbine engines and other aerospace structures because cess.[6] Recent micromechanicalMechanisms, Models, and Simulations of Metal-Coated Fiber Consolidation R. VANCHEESWARAN, J of Ti-6Al-4V­coated SiC fibers contained in cylindrical canisters have revealed an unexpectedly high

  1. Reduction of Metal Oxide to Metal using Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ramana Reddy

    2012-04-12

    A novel pathway for the high efficiency production of metal from metal oxide means of electrolysis in ionic liquids at low temperature was investigated. The main emphasis was to eliminate the use of carbon and high temperature application in the reduction of metal oxides to metals. The emphasis of this research was to produce metals such as Zn, and Pb that are normally produced by the application of very high temperatures. The reduction of zinc oxide to zinc and lead oxide to lead were investigated. This study involved three steps in accomplishing the final goal of reduction of metal oxide to metal using ionic liquids: 1) Dissolution of metal oxide in an ionic liquid, 2) Determination of reduction potential using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 3) Reduction of the dissolved metal oxide. Ionic liquids provide additional advantage by offering a wide potential range for the deposition. In each and every step of the process, more than one process variable has been examined. Experimental results for electrochemical extraction of Zn from ZnO and Pb from PbO using eutectic mixtures of Urea ((NH2)2CO) and Choline chloride (HOC2H4N(CH3)3+Cl-) or (ChCl) in a molar ratio 2:1, varying voltage and temperatures were carried out. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of ionic liquids with and without metal oxide additions were conducted. FTIR and induction coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICPS) was used in the characterization of the metal oxide dissolved ionic liquid. Electrochemical experiments were conducted using EG&G potentiostat/galvanostat with three electrode cell systems. Cyclic voltammetry was used in the determination of reduction potentials for the deposition of metals. Chronoamperometric experiments were carried out in the potential range of -0.6V to -1.9V for lead and -1.4V to -1.9V for zinc. The deposits were characterized using XRD and SEM-EDS for phase, morphological and elemental analysis. The results showed that pure metal was deposited on the cathode. Successful extraction of metal from metal oxide dissolved in Urea/ChCl (2:1) was accomplished. The current efficiencies were relatively high in both the metal deposition processes with current efficiency greater than 86% for lead and 95% for zinc. This technology will advance the metal oxide reduction process by increasing the process efficiency and also eliminate the production of CO2 which makes this an environmentally benign technology for metal extraction.

  2. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-09-04

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

  3. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-15

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C.

  4. Oxidation resistant nanocrystalline MCrAl(Y) coatings and methods of forming such coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheruvu, Narayana S.; Wei, Ronghua

    2014-07-29

    The present disclosure relates to an oxidation resistant nanocrystalline coating and a method of forming an oxidation resistant nanocrystalline coating. An oxidation resistant coating comprising an MCrAl(Y) alloy may be deposited on a substrate, wherein M, includes iron, nickel, cobalt, or combinations thereof present greater than 50 wt % of the MCrAl(Y) alloy, chromium is present in the range of 15 wt % to 30 wt % of the MCrAl(Y) alloy, aluminum is present in the range of 6 wt % to 12 wt % of the MCrAl(Y) alloy and yttrium, is optionally present in the range of 0.1 wt % to 0.5 wt % of the MCrAl(Y) alloy. In addition, the coating may exhibit a grain size of 200 nm or less as deposited.

  5. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  6. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  7. Formation of selenide, sulfide or mixed selenide-sulfide films on metal or metal coated substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eser, Erten; Fields, Shannon

    2012-05-01

    A process and composition for preventing cracking in composite structures comprising a metal coated substrate and a selenide, sulfide or mixed selenide sulfide film. Specifically, cracking is prevented in the coating of molybdenum coated substrates upon which a copper, indium-gallium diselenide (CIGS) film is deposited. Cracking is inhibited by adding a Se passivating amount of oxygen to the Mo and limiting the amount of Se deposited on the Mo coating.

  8. Reproducibility of electrochemical noise data from coated metal systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierwagen, G.P.; Mills, D.J.; Tallman, D.E.; Skerry, B.S.

    1996-12-31

    The use of electrochemical noise (ECN) as a method to characterize the corrosion-protection properties of organic coatings on metal substrates was pioneered by Skerry and Eden, and since then has been used by others as a probe for coating metal corrosion studies. However, no statistical examination of the reproducibility of the data from such measurements has been published. In the data the authors present, they have done a systematic analysis of important experimental variables in such systems. They have examined the method for accuracy and reproducibility with respect to sample preparation, sample immersion, and metal substrate preparation. They have taken several marine coatings systems typical of US Navy use, prepared duplicate samples of coating metal systems, and examined them under the same immersion exposure. The variables they considered for reproducibility are paint application (in three-coat systems), metal panel preparation (grit-blasted steel), and immersion conditions. The authors present ECN data with respect to immersion time on the values of noise voltage standard deviation {sigma}{sub V}, noise current standard deviation {sigma}{sub I}, and the noise resistance R{sub n} as given by {sigma}{sub V}/{sigma}{sub I}. The variation among supposedly identical sample pairs in identical immersion monitored under identical conditions is presented. The statistics of the time records of the data are considered, and the variations with respect to specific coatings classes are also considered within the limits of the data. Based on these data, comments concerning ECN on coated metal systems as a predictive test method are presented along with special considerations that must be made to properly use the method for coating ranking and lifetime prediction.

  9. Three-Electrode Metal Oxide Reduction Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2005-06-28

    A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

  10. Three-electrode metal oxide reduction cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Groves, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2008-08-12

    A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

  11. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droege, Michael W. (Livermore, CA); Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Hair, Lucy M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels.

  12. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, M.W.; Coronado, P.R.; Hair, L.M.

    1995-03-07

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels. 6 figs.

  13. THE ROLE OF ACTIVE ELEMENTS AND OXIDE DISPERSIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF OXIDATION-RESISTANT ALLOYS AND COATINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allam, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    OXIDATION-RESISTANT ALLOYS AND COATINGS RECEIVED u I.AWRI: CRESISTANT ALLOYS AND COATINGS I.M. Allam, D.P. Whittle, andon MCrA1Y- type alloys and coatings. The present work was

  14. Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Gourishankar, Karthick (Downers Grove, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

  15. Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Search Title: Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation The invention is directed to a method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles, the method...

  16. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials | OSTI, US...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials Re-direct Destination: Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The...

  17. Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Presents...

  18. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New Medical Innovations Technology available for licensing: novel nanometer-sized metal oxide semiconductors that allow...

  19. Surface coating for prevention of metallic seed migration in tissues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyunseok; Park, Jong In; Lee, Won Seok; Park, Min; Son, Kwang-Jae; Bang, Young-bong; Choy, Young Bin E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr; Ye, Sung-Joon E-mail: sye@snu.ac.kr

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In radiotherapy, metallic implants often detach from their deposited sites and migrate to other locations. This undesirable migration could cause inadequate dose coverage for permanent brachytherapy and difficulties in image-guided radiation delivery for patients. To prevent migration of implanted seeds, the authors propose a potential strategy to use a biocompatible and tissue-adhesive material called polydopamine. Methods: In this study, nonradioactive dummy seeds that have the same geometry and composition as commercial I-125 seeds were coated in polydopamine. Using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the surface of the polydopamine-coated and noncoated seeds was characterized. The detachment stress between the two types of seeds and the tissue was measured. The efficacy of polydopamine-coated seed was investigated through in vitro migration tests by tracing the seed location after tissue implantation and shaking for given times. The cytotoxicity of the polydopamine coating was also evaluated. Results: The results of the coating characterization have shown that polydopamine was successfully coated on the surface of the seeds. In the adhesion test, the polydopamine-coated seeds had 2.1-fold greater detachment stress than noncoated seeds. From the in vitro test, it was determined that the polydopamine-coated seed migrated shorter distances than the noncoated seed. This difference was increased with a greater length of time after implantation. Conclusions: The authors suggest that polydopamine coating is an effective technique to prevent migration of implanted seeds, especially for permanent prostate brachytherapy.

  20. High surface area, electrically conductive nanocarbon-supported metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A; Han, Thomas Yong-Jin; Kuntz, Joshua D; Cervanted, Octavio; Gash, Alexander E; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H

    2014-03-04

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured transition metal oxides for energy storage devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jong Woung

    2012-01-01

    nanostructured transition metal oxides for energy storage devicesnanostructured transition metal oxides for energy storage devices

  2. Process for etching mixed metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Ginley, D.S.

    1994-10-18

    An etching process is described using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstrom range may be achieved by this method. 1 fig.

  3. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  4. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  5. Investigation of anti-Relaxation coatings for alkali-metal vapor cells using surface science techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seltzer, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    of Anti-Relaxation Coatings for Alkali-Metal Vapor Cellsanti-relaxation surface coatings in order to preserve atomicto the study of para?n coatings, in order to characterize

  6. Synthesis of transparent conducting oxide coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Martinson, Alex B. F.; Pellin, Michael J.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2010-05-04

    A method and system for preparing a light transmitting and electrically conductive oxide film. The method and system includes providing an atomic layer deposition system, providing a first precursor selected from the group of cyclopentadienyl indium, tetrakis (dimethylamino) tin and mixtures thereof, inputting to the deposition system the first precursor for reaction for a first selected time, providing a purge gas for a selected time, providing a second precursor comprised of an oxidizer, and optionally inputting a second precursor into the deposition system for reaction and alternating for a predetermined number of cycles each of the first precursor, the purge gas and the second precursor to produce the oxide film.

  7. Nondestructive evaluation of the oxidation stresses through thermal barrier coatings using Cr3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, David R.

    Nondestructive evaluation of the oxidation stresses through thermal barrier coatings using Cr3 The stresses in the aluminum oxide formed during high-temperature oxidation of a bond-coated superalloy are shown to be measurable through zirconia thermal barrier coatings. The basis for the measurements

  8. Versatile Applications of Nanostructured Metal Oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Li

    2014-05-29

    of nanopar- ticles becomes broader, an onion type morphology was observed, particles larger than RPEO segregate out, forming a silica-rich core surrounded by a lamellar or lamel- lar/hexagonal structure. This can be understood by the entropic contributions... , acids or bases, metal salts, enzymes, radical initia- tors and solvents. Heterogeneous catalysts typically are solids that do not dissolve. For example, supported metals, transition metal oxides and sulfides, solid acids and bases, immobilized enzymes...

  9. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The containment vessel is enclosed within an aqueous atmosphere that is above the supercritical temperature and pressure of the solvent of the metal alkoxide solution.

  10. Coated metal sintering carriers for fuel cell electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donelson, R.; Bryson, E.S.

    1998-11-10

    A carrier is described for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a water-based carbon paint, the water-based carbon paint comprising water, powdered graphite, an organic binder, a wetting agent, a dispersing agent and a defoaming agent.

  11. Coated metal sintering carriers for fuel cell electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donelson, Richard (Glen Waverly, AU); Bryson, E. S. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A carrier for conveying components of a fuel cell to be sintered through a sintering furnace. The carrier comprises a metal sheet coated with a water-based carbon paint, the water-based carbon paint comprising water, powdered graphite, an organic binder, a wetting agent, a dispersing agent and a defoaming agent.

  12. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  13. Creep resistant, metal-coated LiFeO[sub 2] anodes for molten carbonated fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khandkar, A.C.

    1994-08-23

    A porous, creep-resistant, metal-coated, LiFeO[sub 2] ceramic electrode for fuel cells is disclosed. The electrode is particularly useful for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) although it may have utilities in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as well. 11 figs.

  14. Creep resistant, metal-coated LiFeO.sub.2 anodes for molten carbonated fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khandkar, Ashok C. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1994-01-01

    A porous, creep-resistant, metal-coated, LiFeO.sub.2 ceramic electrode for fuel cells is disclosed. The electrode is particularly useful for molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) although it may have utilities in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as well.

  15. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  16. Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1992-01-01

    A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  17. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weeks, Jr., Joseph K. (Salt Lake City, UT); Gensse, Chantal (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1993-01-01

    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials.

  18. Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Senkov, Oleg N. (Moscow, ID)

    2000-01-01

    The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

  19. Mesoporous metal oxide microsphere electrode compositions and their methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Bi, Zhonghe; Bridges, Craig A; Brown, Gilbert M

    2014-12-16

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for treated mesoporous metal oxide microspheres electrodes. The compositions comprise (a) microspheres with an average diameter between 200 nanometers (nm) and 10 micrometers (.mu.m); (b) mesopores on the surface and interior of the microspheres, wherein the mesopores have an average diameter between 1 nm and 50 nm and the microspheres have a surface area between 50 m.sup.2/g and 500 m.sup.2/g, and wherein the composition has an electrical conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-7 S/cm at 25.degree. C. and 60 MPa. The methods of making comprise forming a mesoporous metal oxide microsphere composition and treating the mesoporous metal oxide microspheres by at least one method selected from the group consisting of: (i) annealing in a reducing atmosphere, (ii) doping with an aliovalent element, and (iii) coating with a coating composition.

  20. Annealing effects on microstructure and mechanical properties of chromium oxide coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    oxide coatings on low carbon steel substrates ware annealed at high temperatures in order to obtainAnnealing effects on microstructure and mechanical properties of chromium oxide coatings Xiaolu coatings were annealed at different temperatures and times. The influence of annealing temperature

  1. DOI: 10.1002/adem.200700057 Interfacial Microstructure of Chromium Oxide Coatings**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    PVD-coated tool cutting performance and resistance to abrasive and erosive wear.[13] Graded systemsDOI: 10.1002/adem.200700057 Interfacial Microstructure of Chromium Oxide Coatings** By Xiaolu Pang, Kewei Gao,* Huisheng Yang, Lijie Qiao, Yanbin Wang and A. A. Volinsky Chromium oxide coatings

  2. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1999-06-22

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing gas. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream. 1 fig.

  3. Ultrathin Metallic Coatings Can Induce Quantum Levitation between Nanosurfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathias Boström; Barry W. Ninham; Iver Brevik; Clas Persson; Drew F. Parsons; Bo E. Sernelius

    2012-06-05

    There is an attractive Casimir-Lifshitz force between two silica surfaces in a liquid (bromobenze or toluene). We demonstrate that adding an ultrathin (5-50{\\AA}) metallic nanocoating to one of the surfaces results in repulsive Casimir-Lifshitz forces above a critical separation. The onset of such quantum levitation comes at decreasing separations as the film thickness decreases. Remarkably the effect of retardation can turn attraction into repulsion. From that we explain how an ultrathin metallic coating may prevent nanoelectromechanical systems from crashing together.

  4. Spectroscopic studies of metal growth on oxides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Kai

    2000-01-01

    of metal clusters on well-defined oxide surfaces. In this work, the nucleation and growth modes of Ag on TiO?(110)(1x1) and (1x2) surfaces, Ag on ultra-thin Al?O? films, and Au on ultra-thin SiO? films were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM...

  5. Pressure-Induced Electronic Phase Transitions Transition Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islam, M. Saif

    Pressure-Induced Electronic Phase Transitions in Transition Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals by Brian Ross Maddox Electron correlation can affect profound changes transition in a transition metal monoxide. iv #12;The lanthanides (the 4f metals also known as rare-earths

  6. Exploiting Metal Coating of Carbon Nanotubes for Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Probes Yuya MURATA1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasegawa, Shuji

    Exploiting Metal Coating of Carbon Nanotubes for Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Probes Yuya MURATA1, 2005; published July 26, 2005) By exploiting the metal coating of carbon nanotube (CNT) tips for electrical nanoprobes. A CNT glued to a W tip was uniformly coated with a thin W layer 3­6 nm thick. Using

  7. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.

    1994-05-03

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques. 2 figures.

  8. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1994-01-01

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques.

  9. Method for producing nanostructured metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Simpson, Randall L.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Gash, Alexander

    2006-01-17

    A synthetic route for producing nanostructure metal-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing. This procedure employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-metal inorganic salts and environmentally friendly solvents such as water and ethanol. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by the addition of a proton scavenger, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively. Using this method synthesis of metal-oxide nanostructured materials have been carried out using inorganic salts, such as of Fe.sup.3+, Cr.sup.3+, Al.sup.3+, Ga.sup.3+, In.sup.3+, Hf.sup.4+, Sn.sup.4+, Zr.sup.4+, Nb.sup.5+, W.sup.6+, Pr.sup.3+, Er.sup.3+, Nd.sup.3+, Ce.sup.3+, U.sup.3+ and Y.sup.3+. The process is general and nanostructured metal-oxides from the following elements of the periodic table can be made: Groups 2 through 13, part of Group 14 (germanium, tin, lead), part of Group 15 (antimony, bismuth), part of Group 16 (polonium), and the lanthanides and actinides. The sol-gel processing allows for the addition of insoluble materials (e.g., metals or polymers) to the viscous sol, just before gelation, to produce a uniformly distributed nanocomposites upon gelation. As an example, energetic nanocomposites of Fe.sub.xO.sub.y gel with distributed Al metal are readily made. The compositions are stable, safe, and can be readily ignited to thermitic reaction.

  10. Thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Pittsburg, PA)

    2010-06-22

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

  11. "Metal-oxide gas sensors have been around for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diebold, Ulrike

    Publishing "Metal-oxide gas sensors have been around for over 40 years, but only now we have: Surface Studies of Gas Sensing Metal Oxides 21 February 2007 1. Could you explain the significance of your article to the non-specialist? Metal oxide-gas sensors are practical devices used in a variety of every

  12. Transition metal oxide improves overall efficiency and maintains performance with inexpensive metals.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that inserting a transition metal oxide (TMO) between the lead sulfide (PbS) quantum dot (QD) layer and the metalTransition metal oxide improves overall efficiency and maintains performance with inexpensive of performance. n-type TMOs consisting of molybdenum oxide (MoOx) and vanadium oxide (V2Ox) were used

  13. Reactor vessel using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Zeltner, Walter A. (Oregon, WI)

    1992-08-11

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane.

  14. Compact zwitterion-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for in vitro and in vivo imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, He

    We have recently developed compact and water-soluble zwitterionic dopamine sulfonate (ZDS) ligand coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for use in various biomedical applications. The defining ...

  15. Metal oxide and metal fluoride nanostructures and methods of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Stanislaus S. (Stony Brook, NY); Mao, Yuanbing (Los Angeles, CA)

    2009-08-18

    The present invention includes pure single-crystalline metal oxide and metal fluoride nanostructures, and methods of making same. These nanostructures include nanorods and nanoarrays.

  16. ADVANCED ELECTRON BEAM TECHNIQUES FOR METALLIC AND CERAMIC PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, Donald H.

    2013-01-01

    78848, 1978, ( 3) R. Kamo, 11 Ceramics for Diesel Engines,"Proceedings of Workshop on Ceramics for Advanced HeatBEAM TECHNIQUES FOR METALLIC AND CERAMIC PROTECTIVE COATING

  17. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Thomas, Ian M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A two-step hydrolysis-condensation method was developed to form metal oxide aerogels of any density, including densities of less than 0.003g/cm.sup.3 and greater than 0.27g/cm.sup.3. High purity metal alkoxide is reacted with water, alcohol solvent, and an additive to form a partially condensed metal intermediate. All solvent and reaction-generated alcohol is removed, and the intermediate is diluted with a nonalcoholic solvent. The intermediate can be stored for future use to make aerogels of any density. The aerogels are formed by reacting the intermediate with water, nonalcoholic solvent, and a catalyst, and extracting the nonalcoholic solvent directly. The resulting monolithic aerogels are hydrophobic and stable under atmospheric conditions, and exhibit good optical transparency, high clarity, and homogeneity. The aerogels have high thermal insulation capacity, high porosity, mechanical strength and stability, and require shorter gelation times than aerogels formed by conventional methods.

  18. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, T.M.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Thomas, I.M.

    1995-04-25

    A two-step hydrolysis-condensation method was developed to form metal oxide aerogels of any density, including densities of less than 0.003g/cm{sup 3} and greater than 0.27g/cm{sup 3}. High purity metal alkoxide is reacted with water, alcohol solvent, and an additive to form a partially condensed metal intermediate. All solvent and reaction-generated alcohol is removed, and the intermediate is diluted with a nonalcoholic solvent. The intermediate can be stored for future use to make aerogels of any density. The aerogels are formed by reacting the intermediate with water, nonalcoholic solvent, and a catalyst, and extracting the nonalcoholic solvent directly. The resulting monolithic aerogels are hydrophobic and stable under atmospheric conditions, and exhibit good optical transparency, high clarity, and homogeneity. The aerogels have high thermal insulation capacity, high porosity, mechanical strength and stability, and require shorter gelation times than aerogels formed by conventional methods. 8 figs.

  19. Promises and problems with metallic interconnects for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Peggy Y.; Huang, Keqin; Bakker, Wate T.

    1999-01-01

    METALLIC INTERCONNECTS FOR REDUCED TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUELto fuel cell stacks with multiple metallic interconnects.

  20. Method of applying a cerium diffusion coating to a metallic alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jablonski, Paul D. (Salem, OR); Alman, David E. (Benton, OR)

    2009-06-30

    A method of applying a cerium diffusion coating to a preferred nickel base alloy substrate has been discovered. A cerium oxide paste containing a halide activator is applied to the polished substrate and then dried. The workpiece is heated in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to diffuse cerium into the substrate. After cooling, any remaining cerium oxide is removed. The resulting cerium diffusion coating on the nickel base substrate demonstrates improved resistance to oxidation. Cerium coated alloys are particularly useful as components in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC).

  1. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek metal coating removal system consists of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER(R), and VAC-PAC(R). The system is designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M ROTO-PEEN tungsten carbide cutters, while the CORNER-CUTTER(R) uses solid needles for descaling activities. These are used with the VAC-PAC(R) vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure was minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended, since the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place may skew the results. It is feasible that dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  2. CO oxidation on gold-supported iron oxides: New insights into strong oxide–metal interactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Liang; Liu, Yun; Yang, Fan; Evans, Jaime; Rodriguez, José A.; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-14

    Very active FeOx–Au catalysts for CO oxidation are obtained after depositing nanoparticles of FeO, Fe3O4, and Fe2O3 on a Au(111) substrate. Neither FeO nor Fe2O3 is stable under the reaction conditions. Under an environment of CO/O2, they undergo oxidation (FeO) or reduction (Fe2O3) to yield nanoparticles of Fe3O4 that are not formed in a bulk phase. Using a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we show a strong oxide–metal interaction (SOMI) between Fe3O4 nanostructures and Au(111), which gives the oxide special properties, allows the formation of an active phase, and provides a unique interface to facilitate a catalytic reaction. This workmore »highlights the important role that the SOMI can play in enhancing the catalytic performance of the oxide component in metal–oxide catalysts.« less

  3. Obtaining composite Zr-Al-O coating on the surface of zirconium by microplasma oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gubaidulina, Tatiana A. E-mail: ostk@mail2000ru; Kuzmin, Oleg S. E-mail: ostk@mail2000ru; Fedorischva, Marina V. E-mail: kmp1980@mail.ru; Kalashnikov, Mark P. E-mail: kmp1980@mail.ru; Sergeev, Viktor P.

    2014-11-14

    The paper describes the application of the microplasma oxidation for production of Zr-Al-O composition on the surface of zirconium. Certification of a new-type power supply for depositing oxide ceramic coatings by microplasma oxidation was also carried out. The growth rate of Zr-Al-O coating amounted around 0.2 nm/s, which around 10 times exceeds that for depositing similar coatings using the similar equipment. We have studied the change of surface morphology and the chemical composition of the formed ceramic coating by means of EVO 50 scanning electron microscope and X-ray spectral analysis.

  4. P-7 / D. R. Cairns P-7: Wear Resistance of Indium Tin Oxide Coatings on Polyethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Darran

    P-7 / D. R. Cairns P-7: Wear Resistance of Indium Tin Oxide Coatings on Polyethylene Terephthalate The wear mechanisms of the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coated Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) topsheet). The bottom substrate is typically glass and the top sheet a polyester such as Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET

  5. Amorphous metal formulations and structured coatings for corrosion and wear resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-15

    A system for coating a surface comprising providing a source of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements and applying the amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements to the surface by a spray. Also a coating comprising a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements. An apparatus for producing a corrosion-resistant amorphous-metal coating on a structure comprises a deposition chamber, a deposition source in the deposition chamber that produces a deposition spray, the deposition source containing a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements, and a system that directs the deposition spray onto the structure.

  6. Amorphous metal formulations and structured coatings for corrosion and wear resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)

    2011-12-13

    A system for coating a surface comprising providing a source of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements and applying the amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements to the surface by a spray. Also a coating comprising a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements. An apparatus for producing a corrosion-resistant amorphous-metal coating on a structure comprises a deposition chamber, a deposition source in the deposition chamber that produces a deposition spray, the deposition source containing a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains more than 11 elements, and a system that directs the deposition spray onto the structure.

  7. Delamination of Ceramic Coatings with Embedded Metal Layers Matthew R. Begleyw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Delamination of Ceramic Coatings with Embedded Metal Layers Matthew R. Begleyw Mechanical plastically deformable layers embedded in an elastic coating upon debonding of a multilayer from its substrate. Such coatings are normally de- posited at high temperature and cooled to ambient, resulting in significant

  8. Low temperature formation of electrode having electrically conductive metal oxide surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Brown, Ian G. (Berkeley, CA); McLarnon, Frank R. (Orinda, CA); Kong, Fanping (Berkeley, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A low temperature process is disclosed for forming metal suboxides on substrates by cathodic arc deposition by either controlling the pressure of the oxygen present in the deposition chamber, or by controlling the density of the metal flux, or by a combination of such adjustments, to thereby control the ratio of oxide to metal in the deposited metal suboxide coating. The density of the metal flux may, in turn, be adjusted by controlling the discharge current of the arc, by adjusting the pulse length (duration of on cycle) of the arc, and by adjusting the frequency of the arc, or any combination of these parameters. In a preferred embodiment, a low temperature process is disclosed for forming an electrically conductive metal suboxide, such as, for example, an electrically conductive suboxide of titanium, on an electrode surface, such as the surface of a nickel oxide electrode, by such cathodic arc deposition and control of the deposition parameters. In the preferred embodiment, the process results in a titanium suboxide-coated nickel oxide electrode exhibiting reduced parasitic evolution of oxygen during charging of a cell made using such an electrode as the positive electrode, as well as exhibiting high oxygen overpotential, resulting in suppression of oxygen evolution at the electrode at full charge of the cell.

  9. Platinum-coated non-noble metal-noble metal core-shell electrocatalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang; Mo, Yibo; Vukmirovic, Miomir

    2015-04-14

    Core-shell particles encapsulated by a thin film of a catalytically active metal are described. The particles are preferably nanoparticles comprising a non-noble core with a noble metal shell which preferably do not include Pt. The non-noble metal-noble metal core-shell nanoparticles are encapsulated by a catalytically active metal which is preferably Pt. The core-shell nanoparticles are preferably formed by prolonged elevated-temperature annealing of nanoparticle alloys in an inert environment. This causes the noble metal component to surface segregate and form an atomically thin shell. The Pt overlayer is formed by a process involving the underpotential deposition of a monolayer of a non-noble metal followed by immersion in a solution comprising a Pt salt. A thin Pt layer forms via the galvanic displacement of non-noble surface atoms by more noble Pt atoms in the salt. The overall process is a robust and cost-efficient method for forming Pt-coated non-noble metal-noble metal core-shell nanoparticles.

  10. Metal oxide membranes for gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Webster, Elizabeth T. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Plainsboro, NJ)

    1994-01-01

    A method for permformation of a microporous ceramic membrane onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane having mean pore sizes less than 30 Angstroms and useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or gas separation.

  11. Metal oxide membranes for gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.; Webster, E.T.; Xu, Q.

    1994-08-30

    A method for formation of a microporous ceramic membrane onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane having mean pore sizes less than 30 Angstroms and useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or gas separation. 4 figs.

  12. Determination of Interfacial Adhesion Strength between Oxide Scale and Substrate for Metallic SOFC Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning N.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-01-21

    The interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of metallic interconnects in SOFC operating environments. It is necessary, therefore, to establish a methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the metallic interconnect substrate, and furthermore to design and optimize the interconnect material as well as the coating materials to meet the design life of an SOFC system. In this paper, we present an integrated experimental/analytical methodology for quantifying the interfacial adhesion strength between oxide scale and a ferritic stainless steel interconnect. Stair-stepping indentation tests are used in conjunction with subsequent finite element analyses to predict the interfacial strength between the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate.

  13. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weeks, J.K. Jr.; Gensse, C.

    1993-09-14

    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials. 8 figures.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide Nano...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    based Monolithic Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx...

  15. Defect Chemistry and Plasmon Physics of Colloidal Metal Oxide Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lounis, SD; Runnerstrorm, EL; Llordes, A; Milliron, DJ

    2014-05-01

    Plasmonic nanocrystals of highly doped metal oxides have seen rapid development in the past decade and represent a class of materials with unique optoelectronic properties. In this Perspective, we discuss doping mechanisms in metal oxides and the accompanying physics of free carrier scattering, both of which have implications in determining the properties of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in these nanocrystals. The balance between activation and compensation of dopants limits the free carrier concentration of the most common metal oxides, placing a ceiling on the LSPR frequency. Furthermore, because of ionized impurity scattering of the oscillating plasma by dopant ions, scattering must be treated in a fundamentally different way in semiconductor metal oxide materials when compared with conventional metals. Though these effects are well-understood in bulk metal oxides, further study is needed to understand their manifestation in nanocrystals and corresponding impact on plasmonic properties, and to develop materials that surpass current limitations in free carrier concentration.

  16. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  17. Oxidation and degradation of a plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, J.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Porter, W.D.

    1996-04-01

    The isothermal oxidation behavior of thermal barrier coating (TBC) specimens consisting of single-crystal superalloy substrates, vacuum plasma-sprayed Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y bond coatings and air plasma-sprayed 7.5 wt.% yttria stabilized zirconia top coatings was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis at 1150{degrees}C for up to 200 hours. Coating durability was assessed by furnace cycling at 1150{degrees}C. Coatings and reaction products were identified by x-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy.

  18. Graphene oxide/hydroxyapatite composite coatings fabricated by electrophoretic nanotechnology for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Yufeng

    Graphene oxide/hydroxyapatite composite coatings fabricated by electrophoretic nanotechnology April 2013 Accepted 27 September 2013 Available online 8 October 2013 A B S T R A C T Graphene oxide (GO and uncoated Ti substrate. Ă? 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Graphene oxide (GO

  19. Ceramic plasma-sprayed coating of melting crucibles for casting metal fuel slugs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.H. Kim; C.T. Lee; C.B. Lee; R.S. Fielding; J.R. Kennedy

    2013-10-01

    Thermal cycling and melt reaction studies of ceramic coatings plasma-sprayed on Nb substrates were carried out to evaluate the performance of barrier coatings for metallic fuel casting applications. Thermal cycling tests of the ceramic plasma-sprayed coatings to 1450 degrees C showed that HfN, TiC, ZrC, and Y2O3 coating had good cycling characteristics with few interconnected cracks even after 20 cycles. Interaction studies by 1550 degrees C melt dipping tests of the plasma-sprayed coatings also indicated that HfN and Y2O3 do not form significant reaction layer between U–20 wt.% Zr melt and the coating layer. Plasma-sprayed Y2O3 coating exhibited the most promising characteristics among HfN, TiC, ZrC, and Y2O3 coating.

  20. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Madison, WI)

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  1. Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-15

    A low temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as aluminum, titanium, tantalum or stainless steel is disclosed. The composition comprises tin and zinc; germanium as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of copper and antimony; and a grit, such as silicon carbide. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the germanium penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The germanium comprises less than approximately 10% by weight of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above approximately 300 C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

  2. Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01

    A low temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as aluminum, titanium, tantalum or stainless steel. The comosition comprises tin and zinc; germanium as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of copper and antimony; and a grit, such as silicon carbide. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the germanium penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The germanium comprises less than aproximatley 10% by weight of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above approximately 300.degree. C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

  3. Oxidized film structure and method of making epitaxial metal oxide structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gan, Shupan [Richland, WA; Liang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2003-02-25

    A stable oxidized structure and an improved method of making such a structure, including an improved method of making an interfacial template for growing a crystalline metal oxide structure, are disclosed. The improved method comprises the steps of providing a substrate with a clean surface and depositing a metal on the surface at a high temperature under a vacuum to form a metal-substrate compound layer on the surface with a thickness of less than one monolayer. The compound layer is then oxidized by exposing the compound layer to essentially oxygen at a low partial pressure and low temperature. The method may further comprise the step of annealing the surface while under a vacuum to further stabilize the oxidized film structure. A crystalline metal oxide structure may be subsequently epitaxially grown by using the oxidized film structure as an interfacial template and depositing on the interfacial template at least one layer of a crystalline metal oxide.

  4. Metal oxide/organic interface investigations for photovoltaic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pachoumi, Olympia

    2014-10-07

    the performance and stability of interfacial charge extraction layers for organic solar cells. Two novel ternary metal oxides, zinc-strontrium- oxide (ZnSrO) and zinc-barium-oxide (ZnBaO), were fabricated and their use as electron extraction layers in inverted...

  5. Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.

    2010-01-01

    using Iron-oxide Coated Coal Ash. In Arsenic Contaminationfrom aqueous solutions by fly ash. Water Res. 1993, 27(12),of Cations in Class F Fly Ash. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2003,

  6. Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, James A. (Star City, WV)

    1997-01-01

    Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

  7. Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, J.A.

    1997-12-02

    Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

  8. Formation of metal oxides by cathodic arc deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Rubin, M.; Wang, Z.; Raoux, S.; Kong, F.; Brown, I.G.

    1995-03-01

    Metal oxide thin films are of interest for a number of applications. Cathodic arc deposition, an established, industrially applied technique for formation of nitrides (e.g. TiN), can also be used for metal oxide thin film formation. A cathodic arc plasma source with desired cathode material is operated in an oxygen atmosphere, and metal oxides of various stoichiometric composition can be formed on different substrates. We report here on a series of experiments on metal oxide formation by cathodic arc deposition for different applications. Black copper oxide has been deposited on ALS components to increase the radiative heat transfer between the parts. Various metal oxides such as tungsten oxide, niobium oxide, nickel oxide and vanadium oxide have been deposited on ITO glass to form electrochromic films for window applications. Tantalum oxide films are of interest for replacing polymer electrolytes. Optical waveguide structures can be formed by refractive index variation using oxide multilayers. We have synthesized multilayers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si as possible basic structures for passive optoelectronic integrated circuits, and Al{sub 2-x}Er{sub x}O{sub 3} thin films with a variable Er concentration which is a potential component layer for the production of active optoelectronic integrated devices such as amplifiers or lasers at a wavelength of 1.53 {mu}m. Aluminum and chromium oxide films have been deposited on a number of substrates to impart improved corrosion resistance at high temperature. Titanium sub-oxides which are electrically conductive and corrosion resistant and stable in a number of aggressive environments have been deposited on various substrates. These sub-oxides are of great interest for use in electrochemical cells.

  9. Solution-mediated strategies for synthesizing metal oxides, borates and phosphides using nanocrystals as reactive precursors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henkes, Amanda Erin

    2009-05-15

    ) the solution-mediated diffusion of phosphorus into a nanocrystalline metal to form target metal phosphides. To form multi-metal oxides using the first strategy, metal oxide nanoparticle precursors are mixed in stoichiometric ratios in solution to form a...

  10. High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett

    2005-08-02

    This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (i) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (ii) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (iii) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

  11. NREL Demonstrates Efficient Solar Water Splitting by Metal Oxide Photoabsorber (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    New development demonstrates that inexpensive and robust metal oxide photoabsorbers hold great promise as photoanodes for water oxidation.

  12. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    Plated Metal Foils and Solar Collector Conference. U. S.Surfaces on Flat Plate Solar Collectors". Proceedings of 2ndSputtering for Depositing Solar Collector Coatings i i •

  13. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN)

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  14. Thermal contact conductance of metallic coated superconductor/copper interfaces at cryogenic temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ochterbeck, Jay Matthew

    1990-01-01

    THERMAL CONTACT CONDUCTANCE OF METALLIC COATED SUPERCONDUCTOR/COPPER INTERFACES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES A Thesis by JAY MATTHEW OCHTERBECK Submitted to the 0%ce of Graduate Studies of Texas AJrM IJniversity in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THERMAL CONTACT CONDUCTANCE OF METALLIC COATED SUPERCONDUCTOR/COPPER INTERFACES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES A Thesis JA'r '(IATTHEW OCHTERBECK Approved...

  15. Apparatus for coating a surface with a metal utilizing a plasma source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Ian G. (Berkeley, CA); MacGill, Robert A. (Richmond, CA); Galvin, James E. (Emeryville, CA)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and method for coating or layering a surface with a metal utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source. The apparatus includes a trigger mechanism for actuating the metal vacuum vapor arc plasma source in a pulsed mode at a predetermined rate. The surface or substrate to be coated or layered is supported in position with the plasma source in a vacuum chamber. The surface is electrically biased for a selected period of time during the pulsed mode of operation of the plasma source. Both the pulsing of the metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source and the electrical biasing of the surface are synchronized for selected periods of time.

  16. Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchangers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, R.G.; Stephens, H.P.; Stohl, F.V.

    1983-07-21

    In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

  17. Numerical studies on the effect of normal-metal coatings on the magnetization characteristics of type-II superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hampshire, Damian

    Numerical studies on the effect of normal-metal coatings on the magnetization characteristics; published 19 April 2005 Magnetic properties of superconductors coated with metals of arbitrary resistivity N in the coating is reduced, the initial vortex penetration field Hp N does not decrease monotonically from

  18. Effects of Metal Coating on Self-Assembled Monolayers on Gold. 1. Copper on Dodecanethiol and Octadecanethiol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myrick, Michael Lenn

    Effects of Metal Coating on Self-Assembled Monolayers on Gold. 1. Copper on Dodecanethiol on copper-coated SAMsconductedinourlaboratories.2 Inourpreviouswork, we fabricated gold-conjugated oligomer to characterize the SAM after the copper coating process. Prior studies on SAM/metal interfaces have been reported

  19. Synthesis and Oxidation Behavior of Platinum-Enriched ?+?' Bond Coatings on Ni-Based Superalloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ying [Tennessee Technological University; Ballard, D A [Tennessee Technological University; Stacy, J P [Tennessee Technological University; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Simple Pt-enriched {gamma}+{gamma}{prime} coatings were synthesized on Rene 142 and Rene N5 Ni-based superalloys by electroplating a thin layer of Pt followed by a diffusion treatment at 1150-1175 C. The Al content in the resulting {gamma}+{gamma}{prime} coating was in the range of 16-19 at.% on superalloys with 13-14 at.% Al. After oxidation testing, alumina scale adherence to these {gamma}+{gamma}{prime} coatings was not as uniform as to the {beta}-(Ni,Pt)Al coatings on the same superalloy substrates. To better understand the effect of Al, Pt and Hf concentrations on coating oxidation resistance, a number of Ni-Pt-Al cast alloys with {gamma}+{gamma}{prime} or {beta} phase were cyclically oxidized at 1100 C. The Hf-containing {gamma}+{gamma}{prime} alloys with 22 at.% Al and 10-30 at.% Pt exhibited similar oxidation resistance to the {beta} alloys with 50 at.% Al. An initial effort was made to increase the Al content in the Pt-enriched {gamma}+{gamma}{prime} coatings by introducing a short-term aluminizing process via chemical vapor deposition or pack cementation. However, too much Al was deposited, leading to the formation of {beta} or martensitic phase on the coating surface.

  20. Metal Oxide Thin Films Deposited from Metal Organic Precursors in Supercritical CO2 Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gougousi, Theodosia

    Metal Oxide Thin Films Deposited from Metal Organic Precursors in Supercritical CO2 Solutions and oxidizing agents are delivered in liquid and supercritical CO2. A cyclic deposition process is presented properties of supercritical CO2 can aid in the delivery of precursors and in the removal of byproducts

  1. Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 150-350 eV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    1 Uranium Oxide as a Highly Reflective Coating from 150-350 eV Richard L. Sandberg, David D. Allred.byu.edu ABSTRACT We present the measured reflectances (beamline 6.3.2, ALS at LBNL) of naturally oxidized uranium incidence. These show that uranium, as UO2, can fulfill its promise as the highest known single surface

  2. Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

  3. Magnetic Properties of Mesoporous and Nano-particulate Metal Oxides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Adrian H

    2009-01-01

    The magnetic properties of the first row transition metal oxides are wide and varied and have been studied extensively since the 1930’s. Observations that the magnetic properties of these material types change with the ...

  4. Charge, orbital and magnetic ordering in transition metal oxides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senn, Mark Stephen

    2013-06-29

    Neutron and x-ray diffraction has been used to study charge, orbital and magnetic ordering in some transition metal oxides. The long standing controversy regarding the nature of the ground state (Verwey structure) of the ...

  5. Metal oxides for efficient infrared to visible upconversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etchart, Isabelle

    2010-10-12

    Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy Metal Oxides for Efficient Infrared to Visible Upconversion Isabelle Etchart Corpus Christi College A dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Preface i... to the investigation of lanthanide-doped metal oxide hosts due to their good chemical, thermal and mechanical stabilities. Chapter 1 : General i ntroductio n 4 1 .4 . Previo us w ork In this thesis, we present results obtained on Y 2...

  6. Novel Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Coatings for Metal Alloys in Coal-fired Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Z. Zak Fang; H. Y. Sohn

    2009-08-31

    Intermetallic coatings (iron aluminide and nickel aluminide) were prepared by a novel reaction process. In the process, the aluminide coating is formed by an in-situ reaction between the aluminum powder fed through a plasma transferred arc (PTA) torch and the metal substrate (steel or Ni-base alloy). Subjected to the high temperature within an argon plasma zone, aluminum powder and the surface of the substrate melt and react to form the aluminide coatings. The prepared coatings were found to be aluminide phases that are porosity-free and metallurgically bonded to the substrate. The coatings also exhibit excellent high-temperature corrosion resistance under the conditions which simulate the steam-side and fire-side environments in coal-fired boilers. It is expected that the principle demonstrated in this process can be applied to the preparation of other intermetallic and alloy coatings.

  7. Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

  8. Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

    2000-01-01

    A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

  9. Displacement method and apparatus for reducing passivated metal powders and metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrell; Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN), Ripley; Edward B. (Knoxville, TN)

    2009-05-05

    A method of reducing target metal oxides and passivated metals to their metallic state. A reduction reaction is used, often combined with a flux agent to enhance separation of the reaction products. Thermal energy in the form of conventional furnace, infrared, or microwave heating may be applied in combination with the reduction reaction.

  10. Enhanced Half-Metallicity in Edge-Oxidized Zigzag Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hod, Oded

    Enhanced Half-Metallicity in Edge-Oxidized Zigzag Graphene Nanoribbons Oded Hod,* Vero´nica Barone theoretical study of the electronic properties and relative stabilities of edge-oxidized zigzag graphene with nanometer scale dimen- sions. Recently, a new type of graphene-based material was experimentally realized.12

  11. Metal-oxide-based energetic materials and synthesis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA), Simpson; Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2006-01-17

    A method of preparing energetic metal-oxide-based energetic materials using sol-gel chemistry has been invented. The wet chemical sol-gel processing provides an improvement in both safety and performance. Essentially, a metal-oxide oxidizer skeletal structure is prepared from hydrolyzable metals (metal salts or metal alkoxides) with fuel added to the sol prior to gelation or synthesized within the porosity metal-oxide gel matrix. With metal salt precursors a proton scavenger is used to destabilize the sol and induce gelation. With metal alkoxide precursors standard well-known sol-gel hydrolysis and condensation reactions are used. Drying is done by standard sol-gel practices, either by a slow evaporation of the liquid residing within the pores to produce a high density solid nanocomposite, or by supercritical extraction to produce a lower density, high porous nanocomposite. Other ingredients may be added to this basic nanostructure to change physical and chemical properties, which include organic constituents for binders or gas generators during reactions, burn rate modifiers, or spectral emitters.

  12. Durability of Hydrophobic Coatings for Superhydrophobic Aluminum Oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenner, Elliot [University of Pittsburgh; Barbier, Charlotte N [ORNL; D'Urso, Brian R [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Robust and easily produced Superhydrophobic surfaces are of great interest for mechanical applications, including drag reduction and MEMS. We produce novel superhydrophobic surfaces with several different coatings and tested the durability of each of these coatings with respect to long term immersion in water in order to determine the most long-lasting surface preparation. A pair of combinations of spin on polymers, surface features, and adhesion promoters was found that provide long term durability.

  13. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  14. Base metal alloys with self-healing native conductive oxides for electrical contact materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    growth. Such coatings can be applied readily by electroplating but this adds significantly to the cost be ameliorated by the application of a noble metal coating to the contact sur- face, thereby inhibiting scale wear and fretting can compromise the integrity of the coating, expos- ing the bare base metal

  15. Method of producing an oxide dispersion strengthened coating and micro-channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Bruce S; Chyu, Minking K; Alvin, Mary Anne; Gleeson, Brian M

    2013-12-17

    The disclosure provides a method for the production of composite particles utilizing a mechano chemical bonding process following by high energy ball milling on a powder mixture comprised of coating particles, first host particles, and second host particles. The composite particles formed have a grain size of less than one micron with grains generally characterized by a uniformly dispersed coating material and a mix of first material and second material intermetallics. The method disclosed is particularly useful for the fabrication of oxide dispersion strengthened coatings, for example using a powder mixture comprised of Y.sub.2O.sub.3, Cr, Ni, and Al. This particular powder mixture may be subjected to the MCB process for a period generally less than one hour following by high energy ball milling for a period as short as 2 hours. After application by cold spraying, the composite particles may be heat treated to generate an oxide-dispersion strengthened coating.

  16. On the oxidation of high-temperature alloys, and its role in failure of thermal barrier coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loeffel, Kaspar Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems are applied to superalloy turbine blades to provide thermal insulation and oxidation protection. A TBC system consists of (a) an outer oxide layer that imparts thermal insulation, and ...

  17. Ultrathin amorphous zinc-tin-oxide buffer layer for enhancing heterojunction interface quality in metal-oxide solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heo, Jaeyeong

    We demonstrate a tunable electron-blocking layer to enhance the performance of an Earth-abundant metal-oxide solar-cell material. A 5 nm thick amorphous ternary metal-oxide buffer layer reduces interface recombination, ...

  18. Oxidation resistant high temperature thermal cycling resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates and process for the production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, V.K.

    1990-08-21

    An oxidation resistant, high temperature thermal cycling resistant coated ceramic article for ceramic heat engine applications is disclosed. The substrate is a silicon-based material, i.e. a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based monolithic or composite material. The coating is a graded coating of at least two layers: an intermediate AlN or Al[sub x]N[sub y]O[sub z] layer and an aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. The composition of the coating changes gradually from that of the substrate to that of the AlN or Al[sub x]N[sub y]O[sub z] layer and further to the composition of the aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. Other layers may be deposited over the aluminum oxide layer. A CVD process for depositing the graded coating on the substrate is also disclosed.

  19. Oxidation resistant high temperature thermal cycling resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates and process for the production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod K. (Lexington, MA)

    1990-01-01

    An oxidation resistant, high temperature thermal cycling resistant coated ceramic article for ceramic heat engine applications. The substrate is a silicon-based material, i.e. a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based monolithic or composite material. The coating is a graded coating of at least two layers: an intermediate AlN or Al.sub.x N.sub.y O.sub.z layer and an aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. The composition of the coating changes gradually from that of the substrate to that of the AlN or Al.sub.x N.sub.y O.sub.z layer and further to the composition of the aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. Other layers may be deposited over the aluminum oxide layer. A CVD process for depositing the graded coating on the substrate is also disclosed.

  20. Coated graphite articles useful in metallurgical processes and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Bird, Eugene L. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    Graphite articles including crucibles and molds used in metallurgical processes involving the melting and the handling of molten metals and alloys that are reactive with carbon when in a molten state and at process temperatures up to about 2000.degree. C. are provided with a multiple-layer coating for inhibiting carbon diffusion from the graphite into the molten metal or alloys. The coating is provided by a first coating increment of a carbide-forming metal on selected surfaces of the graphite, a second coating increment of a carbide forming metal and a refractory metal oxide, and a third coating increment of a refractory metal oxide. The second coating increment provides thermal shock absorbing characteristics to prevent delamination of the coating during temperature cycling. A wash coat of unstabilized zirconia or titanium nitride can be applied onto the third coating increment to facilitate release of melts from the coating.

  1. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

  2. Methods of making metal oxide nanostructures and methods of controlling morphology of same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Stanislaus S; Hongjun, Zhou

    2012-11-27

    The present invention includes a method of producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure. The method comprises providing a metal salt solution and providing a basic solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal salt solution and the basic solution, wherein metal cations of the metal salt solution and hydroxide ions of the basic solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure.

  3. A Method for Coating Fibers in Oxide Composites Jared H. Weaver, James Yang, Carlos G. Levi, and Frank W. Zokw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zok, Frank

    A Method for Coating Fibers in Oxide Composites Jared H. Weaver, James Yang, Carlos G. Levi Rockwell Scientific Corporation, Thousand Oaks, CA 91360-2362 A method for applying monazite coatings onto an intermediate fugitive coating, followed by impregnation and pyrolysis of a monazite precursor solution

  4. Oxide-Nanoparticle Containing Coatings for High Temperature Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-01

    This factsheet describes a study whose objective is to examine the feasibility of using Electromagnetic Stirring (EMS) techniques in dispersing the oxide nanoparticles uniformly within the liquid steel.

  5. In situ fabrication of blue ceramic coatings on wrought Al Alloy 2024 by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Zhijiang; Nie Xueyuan; Hu, Henry; Hussein, Riyad O.

    2012-03-15

    In situ formation of ceramic coatings on 2024 Al alloy with a blue color was successfully achieved using a plasma electrolytic oxidation process working at atmospheric pressure. This novel blue ceramic coating overcomes the shortcomings of surface treatments resulting from conventional dyeing processes by depositing organic dyes into the porous structure of anodic film, which has poor resistance to abrasion and rapid fading when exposed to sunlight. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy were employed to characterize the microstructure of the blue ceramic coating. The fabricated ceramic coating was composed of CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3.} By controlling the working parameters, the distribution of the CoAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase on the surface can be adjusted, and plays a key role in the appearance of the coating. Electrochemical testing, thermal cycling method, and pin-on-disk sliding wear testing were employed to evaluate corrosion, thermal cycling, and wear resistance of the ceramic coatings. The results indicate that the blue ceramic coating has a similar polarization resistance to that of conventional anodic film and can significantly enhance the corrosion resistance of aluminum alloy. There are no destructive horizontal cracks observed within the blue ceramic coating when subjected to 120 times of thermal cycling, which heats the samples up to 573 K and followed by submersion in water at room temperature for 10 min. Compared with the aluminum substrate as well as a conventional anodic film coated aluminum sample, the wear resistance of the blue ceramic coating coated sample was significantly increased while the coefficient of friction was decreased from 0.34 to 0.14.

  6. Electrical characterization of native-oxide InAlPGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrical characterization of native-oxide InAlPŐGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures 8 December 2003; accepted 20 January 2004 InAIP native oxide/GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS of Schottky gates can lead to excessive gate leakage current and also restrict the forward gate bias to only

  7. Pentek metal coating removal system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek coating removal technology was tested and is being evaluated at Florida International University (FIU) as a baseline technology. In conjunction with FIU`s evaluation of efficiency and cost, this report covers evaluation conducted for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek coating removal system consisted of the ROTO-PEEN Scaler, CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign}, and VAC-PAC{reg_sign}. They are designed to remove coatings from steel, concrete, brick, and wood. The Scaler uses 3M Roto Peen tungsten carbide cutters while the CORNER-CUTTER{reg_sign} uses solid needles for descaling activities. These hand tools are used with the VAC-PAC{reg_sign} vacuum system to capture dust and debris as removal of the coating takes place. The safety and health evaluation during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each exposure is recommended because of the environment where the testing demonstration took place. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment of different construction. In addition, other areas of concern found were arm-hand vibration, whole-body, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout.

  8. Comparative study of metal or oxide capped indiumtin oxide anodes for organic light-emitting diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.1556184 I. INTRODUCTION Organic light-emitting diodes OLEDs 1 are challengingComparative study of metal or oxide capped indium­tin oxide anodes for organic light as anodes in organic light-emitting diodes based on N,N -diphenyl-N,N bis 3-methyl-phenyl-1,1 -biphenyl-4

  9. Apparatus for coating a surface with a metal utilizing a plasma source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, I.G.; MacGill, R.A.; Galvin, J.E.

    1991-05-07

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for coating or layering a surface with a metal utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source. The apparatus includes a trigger mechanism for actuating the metal vacuum vapor arc plasma source in a pulsed mode at a predetermined rate. The surface or substrate to be coated or layered is supported in position with the plasma source in a vacuum chamber. The surface is electrically biased for a selected period of time during the pulsed mode of operation of the plasma source. Both the pulsing of the metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source and the electrical biasing of the surface are synchronized for selected periods of time. 10 figures.

  10. Isothermal oxidation behavior and microstructure of plasma surface Ta coating on ?-TiAl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Jian; Zhang, Ping-Ze Wei, Dong-Bo; Wei, Xiang-Fei; Wang, Ya

    2014-12-15

    The oxidation behavior of ?-TiAl with Ta surface coating fabricated by double glow plasma surface alloying technology was investigated by thermogravimetric method. Oxidation experiments were carried out at 750 °C and 850 °C in air for 100 h. The modification layer was comprised of deposition layer and diffusion layer, which metallurgically adhered to the substrate. Tantalum element decreased with the case depth. The oxidation morphology was studied by a scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The results highlighted that in the oxidizing process of the oxidation, the phase containing Ta-richer may restrain diffusing outward of the element Al in the matrix. Ti diffused outward, and formed the TiO{sub 2} scales, while the middle layer was rich in Al, and formed the continuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales after oxidation, which was effective to prevent further infiltration of oxygen atoms, and as a result the oxidation resistance increased immensely. - Highlights: • A Ta modified coating was prepared on ?-TiAl using DGP surface alloying technology. • The modification layer metallurgically adhered to the substrate. • The bonding force is about 60 N, satisfying the demands of practical use. • The oxidation resistance increased immensely at 750 °C and 850 °C.

  11. Silica coated magnetite nanoparticles for removal of heavy metal ions from polluted waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dash, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic removal of Hg2+ and other heavy metal ions like Cd2+, Pb2+ etc. using silica coated magnetite particles from polluted waters is a current topic of active research to provide efficient water recycling and long term high quality water. The technique used to study the bonding characteristics of such kind of nanoparticles with the heavy metal ions is a very sensitive hyperfine specroscopy technique called the perturbed angular correlation technique (PAC).

  12. Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perkins, John (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David (Evergreen, CO); Taylor, Matthew (Golden, CO); Neuman, George A. (Holland, MI); Luten, Henry A. (Holland, MI); Forgette, Jeffrey A. (Hudsonville, MI); Anderson, John S. (Holland, MI)

    2010-07-13

    Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

  13. Superhydrophobic Metal-Oxide Thin Film Coatings - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With Livermore National Lab onSupercritical CO2Industrial Technologies

  14. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured transition metal oxides for energy storage devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jong Woung

    2012-01-01

    Figure 1.1. Ragone plot of various energy storage systems [metal oxides for energy storage devices A dissertationmetal oxides for energy storage devices by Jong Woung Kim

  15. Oxidation/Reduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: OxidationReduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Oxidation...

  16. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2006-11-14

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0oxidation state and with at least one ion being Ni, and where M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  17. Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

  18. Highly defective oxides as sinter resistant thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2005-08-16

    A thermal barrier coating material formed of a highly defective cubic matrix structure having a concentration of a stabilizer sufficiently high that the oxygen vacancies created by the stabilizer interact within the matrix to form multi-vacancies, thereby improving the sintering resistance of the material. The concentration of stabilizer within the cubic matrix structure is greater than that concentration of stabilizer necessary to give the matrix a peak ionic conductivity value. The concentration of stabilizer may be at least 30 wt. %. Embodiments include a cubic matrix of zirconia stabilized by at least 30-50 wt. % yttria, and a cubic matrix of hafnia stabilized by at least 30-50 wt. % gadolinia.

  19. All-alkoxide synthesis of strontium-containing metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A method for making strontium-containing metal-oxide ceramic thin films from a precursor liquid by mixing a strontium neo-pentoxide dissolved in an amine solvent and at least one metal alkoxide dissolved in a solvent, said at least one metal alkoxide selected from the group consisting of alkoxides of calcium, barium, bismuth, cadmium, lead, titanium, tantalum, hafnium, tungsten, niobium, zirconium, yttrium, lanthanum, antimony, chromium and thallium, depositing a thin film of the precursor liquid on a substrate, and heating the thin film in the presence of oxygen at between 550 and 700.degree. C.

  20. Long-term oxidation behavior of spinel-coated ferritic stainless steel for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Yang, Zhenguo; Xia, Guanguang; Nie, Zimin; Templeton, Joshua D.

    2013-06-01

    Long-term tests (>8,000 hours) indicate that AISI 441 ferritic stainless steel coated with a Mn-Co spinel protection layer is a promising candidate material system for IT-SOFC interconnect applications. While uncoated AISI 441 showed a substantial increase in area-specific electrical resistance (ASR), spinel-coated AISI 441 exhibited much lower ASR values (11-13 mOhm-cm2). Formation of an insulating silica sublayer beneath the native chromia-based scale was not observed, and the spinel coatings reduced the oxide scale growth rate and blocked outward diffusion of Cr from the alloy substrate. The structure of the scale formed under the spinel coatings during the long term tests differed from that typically observed on ferritic stainless steels after short term oxidation tests. While short term tests typically indicate a dual layer scale structure consisting of a chromia layer covered by a layer of Mn-Cr spinel, the scale grown during the long term tests consisted of a chromia matrix with discrete regions of Mn-Cr spinel distributed throughout the matrix. The presence of Ti in the chromia scale matrix and/or the presence of regions of Mn-Cr spinel within the scale may have increased the scale electrical conductivity, which would explain the fact that the observed ASR in the tests was lower than would be expected if the scale consisted of pure chromia.

  1. Control of cerium oxidation state through metal complex secondary structures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Levin, Jessica R.; Dorfner, Walter L.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Schelter, Eric J.

    2015-08-11

    A series of alkali metal cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes, Mx(py)y[Ce(PhNNPh)4], M = Li, Na, and K, x = 4 (Li and Na) or 5 (K), and y = 4 (Li), 8 (Na), or 7 (K), were synthesized to probe how a secondary coordination sphere would modulate electronic structures at a cerium cation. The resulting electronic structures of the heterobimetallic cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes were found to be strongly dependent on the identity of the alkali metal cations. When M = Li+ or Na+, the cerium(III) starting material was oxidized with concomitant reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine to aniline. Reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine was not observedmore »when M = K+, and the complex remained in the cerium(III) oxidation state. Oxidation of the cerium(III) diphenylhydrazido complex to the Ce(IV) diphenylhydrazido one was achieved through a simple cation exchange reaction of the alkali metals. As a result, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, electrochemistry, magnetic susceptibility, and DFT studies were used to probe the oxidation state and the electronic changes that occurred at the metal centre.« less

  2. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Gas Sensors and Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Mel

    Olfaction Metal Oxide Semiconductor Gas Sensors and Neural Networks M. W. Siegel Carnegie Mellon around a chemical plant, sniffing as it goes for gas leaks (or the vapors of liquid leaks), navigating perhaps directed to the offending pipe fissure or open valve by acoustic homing toward the source

  3. Metal complexes of substituted Gable porphyrins as oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, J.E.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Wagner, R.W.

    1996-01-02

    Transition metal complexes of Gable porphyrins are disclosed having two porphyrin rings connected through a linking group, and having on the porphyrin rings electron-withdrawing groups, such as halogen, nitro or cyano. These complexes are useful as catalysts for the oxidation of organic compounds, e.g. alkanes.

  4. Metal complexes of substituted Gable porphyrins as oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Wagner, Richard W. (Murrysville, PA)

    1996-01-01

    Transition metal complexes of Gable porphyrins having two porphyrin rings connected through a linking group, and having on the porphyrin rings electron-withdrawing groups, such as halogen, nitro or cyano. These complexes are useful as catalysts for the oxidation of organic compounds, e.g. alkanes.

  5. Oxidation resistant filler metals for direct brazing of structural ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1986-01-01

    A method of joining ceramics and metals to themselves and to one another is described using essentially pure trinickel aluminide and trinickel aluminide containing small amounts of carbon. This method produces strong joints that can withstand high service temperatures and oxidizing environments.

  6. UNCORRECTEDPROOF Please cite this article in press as: M. Grujicic et al., Selection of the spraying technologies for over-coating of metal-stampings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    of the spraying technologies for over-coating of metal-stampings with thermo-plastics for use in direct) xxx­xxx Selection of the spraying technologies for over-coating of metal-stampings with thermo The suitability of various polymer-powder spraying technologies for coating of metal-stampings used in polymer

  7. Reduction of Metal Oxides by Microwave Heating of Multi-walled...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reduction of Metal Oxides by Microwave Heating of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Microwave heating of a metal oxide in the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes may result in...

  8. Electrical excitation of colloidally synthesized quantum dots in metal oxide structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Vanessa Claire

    2010-01-01

    This thesis develops methods for integrating colloidally synthesized quantum dots (QDs) and metal oxides in optoelectronic devices, presents three distinct light emitting devices (LEDs) with metal oxides surrounding a QD ...

  9. High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of gamma-Ni+gamma'-Ni3Al Alloys and Coatings Modified with Pt and Reactive Elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nan Mu

    2007-12-01

    Materials for high-pressure turbine blades must be able to operate in the high-temperature gases (above 1000 C) emerging from the combustion chamber. Accordingly, the development of nickel-based superalloys has been constantly motivated by the need to have improved engine efficiency, reliability and service lifetime under the harsh conditions imposed by the turbine environment. However, the melting point of nickel (1455 C) provides a natural ceiling for the temperature capability of nickel-based superalloys. Thus, surface-engineered turbine components with modified diffusion coatings and overlay coatings are used. Theses coatings are capable of forming a compact and adherent oxide scale, which greatly impedes the further transport of reactants between the high-temperature gases and the underlying metal and thus reducing attack by the atmosphere. Typically, these coatings contain {beta}-NiAl as a principal constituent phase in order to have sufficient aluminum content to form an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale at elevated temperatures. The drawbacks to the currently-used {beta}-based coatings, such as phase instabilities, associated stresses induced by such phase instabilities, and extensive coating/substrate interdiffusion, are major motivations in this study to seek next-generation coatings. The high-temperature oxidation resistance of novel Pt + Hf-modified {gamma}-Ni + {gamma}-Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys and coatings were investigated in this study. Both early-stage and 4-days isothermal oxidation behavior of single-phase {gamma}-Ni and {gamma}{prime}-Ni{sub 3}Al alloys were assessed by examining the weight changes, oxide-scale structures, and elemental concentration profiles through the scales and subsurface alloy regions. It was found that Pt promotes Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation by suppressing the NiO growth on both {gamma}-Ni and {gamma}{prime}Ni{sub 3}Al single-phase alloys. This effect increases with increasing Pt content. Moreover, Pt exhibits this effect even at lower temperatures ({approx}970 C) in the very early stage of oxidation. It was also inferred that Pt enhances the diffusive flux of aluminum from the substrate to the scale/alloy interface. Relatively low levels of hafnium addition to Pt-free {gamma}{prime}-Ni{sub 3}Al increased the extent of external NiO formation due to non-protective HfO{sub 2} formation. Accordingly, this effect intensified with increasing Hf content from 0.2 to 0.5 at.%.

  10. Oxidation of Metals, Vol. 61, Nos. 3/4, April 2004 ( 2004) Thermal Conductivity, Phase Stability, and Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trice, Rodney W.

    . INTRODUCTION Thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs) have been used to protect gas-turbine- engine components since, and Oxidation Resistance of Y3Al5O12 (YAG)/Y2O3­ZrO2 (YSZ) Thermal-Barrier Coatings Y. J. Su, R. W. Trice,# K­aluminum garnet (YAG) into a typical YSZ TBC system. The thermal conductivity of as-sprayed YAG/YSZ coatings

  11. Finding Room for Improvement in Transition Metal Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kam, Kinson

    2012-01-01

    Metal Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Kinson C.storage using rechargeable lithium-ion batteries has become

  12. Nanotube Formation: Researchers Learn To Control The Dimensions Of Metal Oxide Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    made from metal oxides -- work that could lead to a technique for precisely conNanotube Formation: Researchers Learn To Control The Dimensions Of Metal Oxide Nanotubes Science their diameter and length. Based on metal oxides in combination with silicon and germanium, such single

  13. Catalytic oxidation of CO by platinum group metals: from ultrahigh vacuum to elevated pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    oxidation over platinum group metals has been investigated for some eight decades by many researchersCatalytic oxidation of CO by platinum group metals: from ultrahigh vacuum to elevated pressures A Catalytic oxidation of CO over platinum group metals (Pt, Ir, Rh and Pd) has been the subject of many

  14. Gasless sputtering: Opportunities for ultraclean metallization, coatings in space, and propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersson, Joakim; Anders, Andre

    2008-06-02

    Pulsed magnetron sputtering was demonstrated in high vacuum: no sputter gas was used at any time. Sustained self-sputtering was initiated by multiply charged ions from a short vacuum arc. Copper ion currents to an ion collector in excess of 30 A were measured, implying a plasma density of about 6x10{sup 18} m{sup -3}. This technology may prove useful for metal coatings free of noble gas inclusions and suggests that magnetrons could operate in the vacuum of space. In addition to coating objects in space, the momentum of the sputtered atoms and ions may be utilized in space thrusters.

  15. Investigation of anti-Relaxation coatings for alkali-metal vapor cells using surface science techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seltzer, S. J.; Michalak, D. J.; Donaldson, M. H.; Balabas, M. V.; Barber, S. K.; Bernasek, S. L.; Bouchiat, M.-A.; Hexemer, A.; Hibberd, A. M.; Jackson Kimball, D. F.; Jaye, C.; Karaulanov, T.; Narducci, F. A.; Rangwala, S. A.; Robinson, H. G.; Shmakov, A. K.; Voronov, D. L.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Pines, A.; Budker, D.

    2010-10-11

    Many technologies based on cells containing alkali-metal atomic vapor benefit from the use of antirelaxation surface coatings in order to preserve atomic spin polarization. In particular, paraffin has been used for this purpose for several decades and has been demonstrated to allow an atom to experience up to 10?000 collisions with the walls of its container without depolarizing, but the details of its operation remain poorly understood. We apply modern surface and bulk techniques to the study of paraffin coatings in order to characterize the properties that enable the effective preservation of alkali spin polarization. These methods include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, atomic force microscopy, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also compare the light-induced atomic desorption yields of several different paraffin materials. Experimental results include the determination that crystallinity of the coating material is unnecessary, and the detection of C=C double bonds present within a particular class of effective paraffin coatings. Further study should lead to the development of more robust paraffin antirelaxation coatings, as well as the design and synthesis of new classes of coating materials.

  16. Zirconia and Pyrochlore Oxides for Thermal Barrier Coatings in Gas Turbine Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    2014-04-12

    One of the important applications of yttria stabilized zirconia is as a thermal barrier coating for gas turbine engines. While yttria stabilized zirconia performs well in this function, the need for increased operating temperatures to achieve higher energy conversion efficiencies, requires the development of improved materials. To meet this challenge, some rare-earth zirconates that form the cubic fluorite derived pyrochlore structure are being developed for use in thermal barrier coatings due to their low thermal conductivity, excellent chemical stability and other suitable properties. In this paper, the thermal conductivities of current and prospective oxides for use in thermal barrier coatings are reviewed. The factors affecting the variations and differences in the thermal conductivities and the degradation behaviors of these materials are discussed.

  17. Cyclic catalytic upgrading of chemical species using metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, James H; Schutte, Erick J; Rolfe, Sara L

    2013-05-07

    Processes are disclosure which comprise alternately contacting an oxygen-carrying catalyst with a reducing substance, or a lower partial pressure of an oxidizing gas, and then with the oxidizing gas or a higher partial pressure of the oxidizing gas, whereby the catalyst is alternately reduced and then regenerated to an oxygenated state. In certain embodiments, the oxygen-carrying catalyst comprises at least one metal oxide-containing material containing a composition having the following formulas: (a) Ce.sub.xB.sub.yB'.sub.zB''O.sub..delta., wherein B=Ba, Sr, Ca, or Zr; B'=Mn, Co, and/or Fe; B''=Cu; 0.01metal oxides.

  18. On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

    2006-11-01

    Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

  19. Poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) block polymers for metal oxide templating

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schulze, Morgan W.; Sinturel, Christophe; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2015-09-01

    A series of poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (CEO) diblock copolymers were synthesized through tandem anionic polymerizations and heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation. Solvent-annealed CEO diblock films were used to template dense arrays of inorganic oxide nanodots via simple spin coating of an inorganic precursor solution atop the ordered film. The substantial chemical dissimilarity of the two blocks enables (i) selective inclusion of the inorganic precursor within the PEO domain and (ii) the formation of exceptionally small feature sizes due to a relatively large interaction parameter estimated from mean-field analysis of the order–disorder transition temperatures of compositionally symmetric samples. UV/ozone treatment following incorporation produces anmore »ordered arrangement of oxide nanodots and simultaneously removes the block polymer template. However, we report the smallest particles (6 ± 1 nm) templated from a selective precursor insertion method to date using a block polymer scaffold.« less

  20. Synthesis of metal-metal oxide catalysts and electrocatalysts using a metal cation adsorption/reduction and adatom replacement by more noble ones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Vukmirovic, Miomir; Sasaki, Kotaro

    2010-04-27

    The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen. The invention also relates to methods of making the metal-metal oxide composites.

  1. Compositions of corrosion-resistant Fe-based amorphous metals suitable for producing thermal spray coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C; Wong, Frank M.G.; Haslam, Jeffery J; Ji, Xiaoyan; Day, Sumner D; Blue, Craig A; Rivard, John D.K.; Aprigliano, Louis F; Kohler, Leslie K; Bayles, Robert; Lemieux, Edward J; Yang, Nancy; Perepezko, John H; Kaufman, Larry; Heuer, Arthur; Lavernia, Enrique J

    2013-09-03

    A method of coating a surface comprising providing a source of amorphous metal that contains manganese (1 to 3 atomic %), yttrium (0.1 to 10 atomic %), and silicon (0.3 to 3.1 atomic %) in the range of composition given in parentheses; and that contains the following elements in the specified range of composition given in parentheses: chromium (15 to 20 atomic %), molybdenum (2 to 15 atomic %), tungsten (1 to 3 atomic %), boron (5 to 16 atomic %), carbon (3 to 16 atomic %), and the balance iron; and applying said amorphous metal to the surface by a spray.

  2. Compositions of corrosion-resistant Fe-based amorphous metals suitable for producing thermal spray coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Wong, Frank M. G.; Haslam, Jeffery J.; Ji, Xiaoyan (Jane); Day, Sumner D.; Blue, Craig A.; Rivard, John D. K.; Aprigliano, Louis F.; Kohler, Leslie K.; Bayles, Robert; Lemieux, Edward J.; Yang, Nancy; Perepezko, John H.; Kaufman, Larry; Heuer, Arthur; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2013-07-09

    A method of coating a surface comprising providing a source of amorphous metal that contains manganese (1 to 3 atomic %), yttrium (0.1 to 10 atomic %), and silicon (0.3 to 3.1 atomic %) in the range of composition given in parentheses; and that contains the following elements in the specified range of composition given in parentheses: chromium (15 to 20 atomic %), molybdenum (2 to 15 atomic %), tungsten (1 to 3 atomic %), boron (5 to 16 atomic %), carbon (3 to 16 atomic %), and the balance iron; and applying said amorphous metal to the surface by a spray.

  3. For cermet inert anode containing oxide and metal phases useful for the electrolytic production of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

    2002-01-01

    A cermet inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a ceramic phase including an oxide of Ni, Fe and M, where M is at least one metal selected from Zn, Co, Al, Li, Cu, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, Hf and rare earths, preferably Zn and/or Co. Preferred ceramic compositions comprise Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO and ZnO or CoO. The cermet inert anode also comprises a metal phase such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. A preferred metal phase comprises Cu and Ag. The cermet inert anodes may be used in electrolytic reduction cells for the production of commercial purity aluminum as well as other metals.

  4. Transient thermal analysis of a translucent thermal barrier coating on a metal wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, R.

    1999-05-01

    A common ceramic used for thermal barrier coatings is zirconia, and it is partially transparent for radiative energy at wavelengths up to approximately 5 {micro}m. Hence, at elevated temperatures such as in a turbine engine combustor, the temperature distribution in a coating can be affected by absorption of incident radiation, by internal emission, and by scattering which is large for zirconia. Transient temperatures are needed of evaluating thermal stresses, and for translucent materials numerical procedures can be used to solve the transient energy equation coupled with radiative transfer relations. For radiation, both exact and approximate equations have been used. With general external conditions of convection and radiation for a translucent layer with diffuse surfaces, it was demonstrated in Siegel (1996) that the two-flux method compares well with more exact methods for predicting transient temperature distributions and heat fluxes, including large scattering as needed in a material such as zirconia. The two-flux differential equation for the internal radiative source is solved here with a Green`s function as in Siegel (1997), including two-band spectral property variations for zirconia. Finite difference relations are developed for transient temperatures in a translucent coating on a metal substrate. Illustrative results for heating a coated wall in a turbine engine combustor demonstrate transient heating behavior with translucent effects as compared with an opaque coating.

  5. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oakbrook, IL)

    2008-12-23

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0oxidation state and with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more ion with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  6. Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

    2004-01-20

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0oxidation state and with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more ion with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  7. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

    1999-06-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

  8. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kelly, Thomas F. (Madison, WI)

    1999-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains.

  9. Hydrocracking and hydroisomerization of long-chain alkanes and polyolefins over metal-promoted anion-modified transition metal oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatesh, Koppampatti R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Hu, Jianli (Cranbury, NJ); Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A method of cracking a feedstock by contacting the feedstock with a metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst in the presence of hydrogen gas. The metal oxide of the catalyst is one or more of ZrO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, TiO.sub.2 and SnO.sub.2, and the feedstock is principally chains of at least 20 carbon atoms. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of Pt, Ni, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, (Mn & Fe) or mixtures of them present between about 0.2% to about 15% by weight of the catalyst. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of SO.sub.4, WO.sub.3, or mixtures of them present between about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the catalyst.

  10. Hydrocracking and hydroisomerization of long-chain alkanes and polyolefins over metal-promoted anion-modified transition metal oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatesh, Koppampatti R.; Hu, Jianli; Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving

    1996-12-01

    A method is described for cracking a feedstock by contacting the feedstock with a metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst in the presence of hydrogen gas. The metal oxide of the catalyst is one or more of ZrO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2}, and the feedstock is principally chains of at least 20 carbon atoms. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of Pt, Ni, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, (Mn and Fe) or mixtures of them present between about 0.2% to about 15% by weight of the catalyst. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of SO{sub 4}, WO{sub 3}, or mixtures of them present between about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the catalyst.

  11. Metal/metal oxide doped oxide catalysts having high deNOx selectivity for lean NOx exhaust aftertreatment systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Paul W.

    2004-03-16

    A lean NOx catalyst and method of preparing the same is disclosed. The lean NOx catalyst includes a ceramic substrate, an oxide support material, preferably .gamma.-alumina, deposited on the substrate and a metal promoter or dopant introduced into the oxide support material. The metal promoters or dopants are selected from the group consisting of indium, gallium, tin, silver, germanium, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium, cerium, vanadium, oxides thereof, and combinations thereof. The .gamma.-alumina preferably has a pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 2.0 cc/g; a surface area of between about 80 to 350 m.sup.2 /g; an average pore size diameter of between about 3 to 30 nm; and an impurity level of less than or equal to 0.2 weight percent. In a preferred embodiment the .gamma.-alumina is prepared by a sol-gel method, with the metal doping of the .gamma.-alumina preferably accomplished using an incipient wetness impregnation technique.

  12. Polymer Coated Urea: Effect on Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Potato Agriculture Irrigated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production requires significant inputs of fertilizer N for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Abstract: Polymer Coated Urea: Effect on Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Potato Agriculture Irrigated-textured, well-drained soils where potatoes are commonly grown. Polymer coated controlled-release ureas (PCU

  13. Enhancement of oxidation resistance of graphite foams by polymer derived-silicon carbide coating for concentrated solar power applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, T.; Singh, D.; Singh, M.

    2015-05-01

    Graphite foam with extremely high thermal conductivity has been investigated to enhance heat transfer of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems. However, the use of graphite foam for elevated temperature applications (>600 °C) is limited due to poor oxidation resistance of graphite. In the present study, oxidation resistance of graphite foam coated with silicon carbide (SiC) was investigated. A pre-ceramic polymer derived coating (PDC) method was used to form a SiC coating on the graphite foams. Post coating deposition, the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The oxidation resistance of PDC-SiC coating was quantifiedmore »by measuring the weight of the samples at several measuring points. The experiments were conducted under static argon atmosphere in a furnace. After the experiments, oxidation rates (%/hour) were calculated to predict the lifetime of the graphite foams. The experimental results showed that the PDC-SiC coating could prevent the oxidation of graphite foam under static argon atmosphere up to 900 °C.« less

  14. Enhancement of oxidation resistance of graphite foams by polymer derived-silicon carbide coating for concentrated solar power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, T.; Singh, D.; Singh, M.

    2015-05-01

    Graphite foam with extremely high thermal conductivity has been investigated to enhance heat transfer of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems. However, the use of graphite foam for elevated temperature applications (>600 °C) is limited due to poor oxidation resistance of graphite. In the present study, oxidation resistance of graphite foam coated with silicon carbide (SiC) was investigated. A pre-ceramic polymer derived coating (PDC) method was used to form a SiC coating on the graphite foams. Post coating deposition, the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The oxidation resistance of PDC-SiC coating was quantified by measuring the weight of the samples at several measuring points. The experiments were conducted under static argon atmosphere in a furnace. After the experiments, oxidation rates (%/hour) were calculated to predict the lifetime of the graphite foams. The experimental results showed that the PDC-SiC coating could prevent the oxidation of graphite foam under static argon atmosphere up to 900 °C.

  15. Mechanism for high hydrogen storage capacity on metal-coated carbon nanotubes: A first principle analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jinlian; Xiao, Hong [Department of Physics and Institute for nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan Province 411105 (China)] [Department of Physics and Institute for nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan Province 411105 (China); Cao, Juexian, E-mail: jxcao@xtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute for nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan Province 411105 (China)] [Department of Physics and Institute for nanophysics and Rare-earth Luminescence, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan Province 411105 (China)

    2012-12-15

    The hydrogen adsorption and binding mechanism on metals (Ca, Sc, Ti and V) decorated single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are investigated using first principle calculations. Our results show that those metals coated on SWCNTs can uptake over 8 wt% hydrogen molecules with binding energy range -0.2--0.6 eV, promising potential high density hydrogen storage material. The binding mechanism is originated from the electrostatic Coulomb attraction, which is induced by the electric field due to the charge transfer from metal 4s to 3d. Moreover, we found that the interaction between the H{sub 2}-H{sub 2} further lowers the binding energy. - Graphical abstract: Five hydrogen molecules bound to individual Ca decorated (8, 0) SWCNT : a potential hydrogen-storage material. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each transition metal atom can adsorb more than four hydrogen molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interation between metal and hydrogen molecule is electrostatic coulomb attraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electric field is induced by the charge transfer from metal 4s to metal 3d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorbed hydrogen molecules which form supermolecule can further lower the binding energy.

  16. Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metz, Ricardo B.

    Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory-phase transition metal oxide cations can convert methane to methanol. Methane activation by MO+ is discussed reaction are also presented. Introduction The direct oxidation of methane to an easily transportable liquid

  17. Illumination induced charge separation at tetraphenyl-porphyrin/metal oxide interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapira, Yoram

    Illumination induced charge separation at tetraphenyl-porphyrin/metal oxide interfaces Y. Zidon were studied at tetraphenyl-porphyrin H2TPP /metal oxide interfaces by surface photovoltage spectroscopy. The thickness of the depleted Ti and Sn oxide layers was about 2 nm. Acceptorlike interface

  18. Zirconia and Pyrochlore Oxides for Thermal Barrier Coatings in Gas Turbine Engines

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    2014-04-12

    One of the important applications of yttria stabilized zirconia is as a thermal barrier coating for gas turbine engines. While yttria stabilized zirconia performs well in this function, the need for increased operating temperatures to achieve higher energy conversion efficiencies, requires the development of improved materials. To meet this challenge, some rare-earth zirconates that form the cubic fluorite derived pyrochlore structure are being developed for use in thermal barrier coatings due to their low thermal conductivity, excellent chemical stability and other suitable properties. In this paper, the thermal conductivities of current and prospective oxides for use in thermal barrier coatingsmore »are reviewed. The factors affecting the variations and differences in the thermal conductivities and the degradation behaviors of these materials are discussed.« less

  19. Probing the structural dependency of photoinduced properties of colloidal quantum dots using metal-oxide photo-active substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patty, Kira; Campbell, Quinn; Hamilton, Nathan; West, Robert G.; Sadeghi, Seyed M.; Mao, Chuanbin

    2014-09-21

    We used photoactive substrates consisting of about 1 nm coating of a metal oxide on glass substrates to investigate the impact of the structures of colloidal quantum dots on their photophysical and photochemical properties. We showed during irradiation these substrates can interact uniquely with such quantum dots, inducing distinct forms of photo-induced processes when they have different cores, shells, or ligands. In particular, our results showed that for certain types of core-shell quantum dot structures an ultrathin layer of a metal oxide can reduce suppression of quantum efficiency of the quantum dots happening when they undergo extensive photo-oxidation. This suggests the possibility of shrinking the sizes of quantum dots without significant enhancement of their non-radiative decay rates. We show that such quantum dots are not influenced significantly by Coulomb blockade or photoionization, while those without a shell can undergo a large amount of photo-induced fluorescence enhancement via such blockade when they are in touch with the metal oxide.

  20. Dense protective coatings, methods for their preparation and coated articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tulyani, Sonia; Bhatia, Tania; Smeggil, John G.

    2015-12-29

    A method for depositing a protective coating on a complex shaped substrate includes the steps of: (1) dipping a complex shaped substrate into a slurry to form a base coat thereon, the slurry comprising an aqueous solution, at least one refractory metal oxide, and at least one transient fluid additive present in an amount of about 0.1 percent to 10 percent by weight of the slurry; (2) curing the dipped substrate; (3) dipping the substrate into a precursor solution to form a top barrier coat thereon; and (4) heat treating the dipped, cured substrate to form a protective coating.

  1. Oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethane with O2 as oxidant on selected transition metal-loaded zeolites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    Oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethane with O2 as oxidant on selected transition metal Accepted 14 April 2009 Available online 17 May 2009 Keywords: Oxidative dehydrogenation Ethane Ethylene of ethane (ODHE) to ethylene were characterized. Acidic Ni-loaded Y zeolite exhibits an ethylene

  2. Hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seals, Roland D.

    2015-08-18

    The present disclosure relates generally to hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications. More specifically, the present disclosure relates to hardface coatings that include a network of titanium monoboride (TiB) needles or whiskers in a matrix, which are formed from titanium (Ti) and titanium diboride (TiB.sub.2) precursors by reactions enabled by the inherent energy provided by the process heat associated with coating deposition and, optionally, coating post-heat treatment. These hardface coatings are pyrophoric, thereby generating further reaction energy internally, and may be applied in a functionally graded manner. The hardface coatings may be deposited in the presence of a number of fluxing agents, beta stabilizers, densification aids, diffusional aids, and multimode particle size distributions to further enhance their performance characteristics.

  3. Cyclic catalytic upgrading of chemical species using metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, James H. (Boulder, CO); Schutte, Erick J. (Thornton, CO); Rolfe, Sara L. (Loveland, CO)

    2010-11-02

    Processes are disclosure which comprise alternately contacting an oxygen-carrying catalyst with a reducing substance, or a lower partial pressure of an oxidizing gas, and then with the oxidizing gas or a higher partial pressure of the oxidizing gas, whereby the catalyst is alternately reduced and then regenerated to an oxygenated state. In certain embodiments, the oxygen-carrying catalyst comprises at least one metal oxide-containing material containing a composition having one of the following formulas: (a) Ce.sub.xB.sub.yB'.sub.zB''O.sub..delta., wherein B=Ba, Sr, Ca, or Zr; B'=Mn, Co, or Fe; B''=Cu; 0.01

  4. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    for Depositing Solar Collector Coatings i i • Proceedingsof the AES Coatings for Solar Collectors Symposium. Atlanta.48. REFERENCES C. M. • "Coatings for Enhanced Photothermal

  5. Applications in the Nuclear Industry for Thermal Spray Amorphous Metal and Ceramic Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blink, J.; Farmer, J.; Choi, J.; Saw, C.

    2009-01-01

    jet cutting (left) and after coating with SAM2X5 (right).and applied as protective coatings on numerous prototypescor- rosion resistant coatings, and tunnel boring machine

  6. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    Sputtering for Depositing Solar Collector Coatings".Proceedings of the AES Coatings for Solar Collectorsanalysis is noted. This coating has some theoretical

  7. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    for Depositing Solar Collector Coatings". Proceedings of theSymposium on Coatings for Solar Collectors, . Louis,'MO,OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS Carl M. Lampert

  8. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    of the AES Coatings for Solar Collectors Symposium. Atlanta.Sputtering for Depositing Solar Collector Coatings".Symposium on Coatings for Solar Collectors, . Louis,'MO,

  9. ADVANCED ELECTRON BEAM TECHNIQUES FOR METALLIC AND CERAMIC PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, Donald H.

    2013-01-01

    Intermetallic Systems as Coatings for High TemperatureAdvanced Gas Turbine Coatings for Minimally Processed Coaland P. E. Hodge, "Thermal Barrier Coatings for Heat Engine

  10. Electrostatic Cooperativity of Hydroxyl Groups at Metal Oxide Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boily, Jean F.; Lins, Roberto D.

    2009-09-24

    The O-H bond distribution of hydroxyl groups at the {110} goethite (R-FeOOH) surface was investigated by molecular dynamics. This distribution was strongly affected by electrostatic interactions with neighboring oxo and hydroxo groups. The effects of proton surface loading, simulated by emplacing two protons at different distances of separation, were diverse and generated several sets of O-H bond distributions. DFT calculations of a representative molecular cluster were also carried out to demonstrate the impact of these effects on the orientation of oxygen lone pairs in neighboring oxo groups. These effects should have strong repercussions on O-H stretching vibrations of metal oxide surfaces.h

  11. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

    2004-01-13

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  12. Stability and Aggregation of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Natural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardinale, Bradley J.

    .g., sunscreens, paints, coatings, catalysts). A simplified con- ceptual model of a typical nanoparticle life

  13. Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: the effect of protective YSZ coating on electrical stability in dual environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2012-03-15

    Recently, compliant sealing glass has been proposed as a potential candidate sealant for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. In a previous paper, the thermal stability and chemical compatibility were reported for a compliant alkali-containing silicate glass sealed between anode supported YSZ bi-layer and YSZ-coated stainless steel interconnect. In this paper, we will report the electrical stability of the compliant glass under a DC load and dual environment at 700-800 degrees C. Apparent electrical resistivity was measured with a 4-point method for the glass sealed between two plain SS441 metal coupons or YSZ-coated aluminized substrates. The results showed instability with plain SS441 at 800 degrees C, but stable behavior of increasing resistivity with time was observed with the YSZ coated SS441. In addition, results of interfacial microstructure analysis with scanning electron microscopy will be correlated with the measured resistivity results. Overall, the YSZ coating demonstrated chemically stability with the alkali-containing compliant silicate sealing glass under electrical field and dual environments.

  14. Metal-based turn-on fluorescent probes for nitric oxide sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Mi Hee

    2006-01-01

    Chapter 1. Metal-Based Turn-On Fluorescent Probes for Sensing Nitric Oxide. Nitric oxide, a reactive free radical, regulates a variety of biological processes. The absence of tools to detect NO directly, rapidly, specifically ...

  15. Method of adhesion between an oxide layer and a metal layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jennison, Dwight R.; Bogicevic, Alexander; Kelber, Jeffry A.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2004-09-14

    A method of controlling the wetting characteristics and increasing the adhesion between a metal and an oxide layer. By introducing a negatively-charged species to the surface of an oxide layer, layer-by-layer growth of metal deposited onto the oxide surface is promoted, increasing the adhesion strength of the metal-oxide interface. The negatively-charged species can either be deposited onto the oxide surface or a compound can be deposited that dissociates on, or reacts with, the surface to form the negatively-charged species. The deposited metal adatoms can thereby bond laterally to the negatively-charged species as well as vertically to the oxide surface as well as react with the negatively charged species, be oxidized, and incorporated on or into the surface of the oxide.

  16. Bipolar plating of metal contacts onto oxide interconnection for solid oxide electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, A.O.

    1987-03-10

    Disclosed is a method of forming an adherent metal deposit on a conducting layer of a tube sealed at one end. The tube is immersed with the sealed end down into an aqueous solution containing ions of the metal to be deposited. An ionically conducting aqueous fluid is placed inside the tube and a direct current is passed from a cathode inside the tube to an anode outside the tube. Also disclosed is a multi-layered solid oxide fuel cell tube which consists of an inner porous ceramic support tube, a porous air electrode covering the support tube, a non-porous electrolyte covering a portion of the air electrode, a non-porous conducting interconnection covering the remaining portion of the electrode, and a metal deposit on the interconnection. 1 fig.

  17. Bipolar plating of metal contacts onto oxide interconnection for solid oxide electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA)

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of forming an adherent metal deposit on a conducting layer of a tube sealed at one end. The tube is immersed with the sealed end down into an aqueous solution containing ions of the metal to be deposited. An ionically conducting aqueous fluid is placed inside the tube and a direct current is passed from a cathode inside the tube to an anode outside the tube. Also disclosed is a multi-layered solid oxide fuel cell tube which consists of an inner porous ceramic support tube, a porous air electrode covering the support tube, a non-porous electrolyte covering a portion of the air electrode, a non-porous conducting interconnection covering the remaining portion of the electrode, and a metal deposit on the interconnection.

  18. Electrochemical lithiation and delithiation for control of magnetic properties of nanoscale transition metal oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sivakumar, Vikram

    2008-01-01

    Transition metal oxides comprise a fascinating class of materials displaying a variety of magnetic and electronic properties, ranging from half-metallic ferromagnets like CrO2, ferrimagnetic semiconductors like Fey's, and ...

  19. The Effects of Infrared-Blocking Pigments and Deck Venting on Stone-Coated Metal Residential Roofs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Field data show that stone-coated metal shakes and S-mission tile, which exploit the use of infraredblocking color pigments (IrBCPs), along with underside venting reduce the heat flow penetrating the conditioned space of a residence by 70% compared with the amount of heat flow penetrating roofs with conventional asphalt shingles. Stone-coated metal roof products are typically placed on battens and counter-battens and nailed through the battens to the roof deck. The design provides venting on the underside of the metal roof that reduces the heat flow penetrating a home. The Metal Construction Association (MCA) and its affiliate members installed stone-coated metal roofs with shake and S-mission tile profiles and a painted metal shake roof on a fully instrumented attic test assembly at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Measurements of roof, deck, attic, and ceiling temperatures; heat flows; solar reflectance; thermal emittance; and ambient weather were recorded for each of the test roofs and also for an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventional pigmented and direct nailed asphalt shingle roof. All attic assemblies had ridge and soffit venting; the ridge was open to the underside of the stone-coated metal roofs. A control assembly with a conventional asphalt shingle roof was used for comparing deck and ceiling heat transfer rates.

  20. Spillover-Assisted Hydrogen Evolution at Si-based Metal-Oxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Spillover-Assisted Hydrogen Evolution at Si-based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Photoelectrodes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spillover-Assisted Hydrogen...

  1. Project Profile: Thermochemical Heat Storage for CSP Based on Multivalent Metal Oxides

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    General Atomics (GA), under the Thermal Storage FOA, is developing a high-density thermochemical heat storage system based on solid metal oxides.

  2. Enhanced photoluminescence from single nitrogen-vacancy defects in nanodiamonds coated with metal-phenolic networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bray, Kerem; Gibson, Brant C; Shimoni, Olga; Aharonovich, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds are attracting major attention in the field of bio-sensing and biolabeling. In this work we demonstrate a robust approach to surface functionalize individual nanodiamonds with metal-phenolic networks that enhance the photoluminescence from single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers. We show that single NV centres in the coated nanodiamonds also exhibit shorter lifetimes, opening another channel for high resolution sensing. We propose that the nanodiamond encapsulation suppresses the non-radiative decay pathways of the NV color centers. Our results provide a versatile and assessable way to enhance photoluminescence from nanodiamond defects that can be used in a variety of sensing and imaging applications

  3. Individual grain boundary properties and overall performance of metal-organic-deposition coated conductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weigand, Marcus; Speller, Susannah; Hughes, Gareth; Rutter, Noel Anthony; Lozano-Perez, Sergio; Grovenor, Chris; Durrell, John H.

    2010-04-13

    . Berghuis, and J. E. Evetts, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3855 (1998). 18 J. H. Durrell, M. J. Hogg, F. Kahlmann, Z. H. Barber, M. G. Blamire, and J. E. Evetts, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 247006 (2003). 19 D. M. Feldmann, T. G. Holesinger, R. Feenstra, C. Can- toni, W... -co n] 1 3 A pr 20 10 Individual grain boundary properties and overall performance of metal-organic-deposition coated conductors M. Weigand,1 S. C. Speller,2 G. M. Hughes,2 N. A. Rutter,1 S. Lozano-Perez,2 C. R. M. Grovenor,2 and J. H. Durrell1, ? 1...

  4. Preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials by mechanical means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, Donald W. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0<.times.<0.5) is capable of accommodating very large current densities. By aligning the two-dimensional Cu--O layers which carry the current in the superconducting state in the a- and b-directions, i.e., within the basal plane, a high degree of crystalline axes alignment is provided between adjacent grains permitting the metal oxide material to accommodate high current densities. The orthorhombic crystalline particles have a tendency to lie down on one of the longer sides, i.e., on the a- or b-direction. Aligning the crystals in this orientation is accomplished by mechanical working of the material such as by extrusion, tape casting or slip casting, provided a single crystal powder is used as a starting material, to provide a highly oriented, e.g., approximately 90% of the crystal particles have a common orientation, superconducting matrix capable of supporting large current densities.

  5. Preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials by mechanical means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, D.W.

    1990-11-27

    A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]X] (where 0 < X < 0.5) is capable of accommodating very large current densities. By aligning the two-dimensional Cu-O layers which carry the current in the superconducting state in the a- and b-directions, i.e., within the basal plane, a high degree of crystalline axes alignment is provided between adjacent grains permitting the metal oxide material to accommodate high current densities. The orthorhombic crystalline particles have a tendency to lie down on one of the longer sides, i.e., on the a- or b-direction. Aligning the crystals in this orientation is accomplished by mechanical working of the material such as by extrusion, tape casting or slip casting, provided a single crystal powder is used as a starting material, to provide a highly oriented, e.g., approximately 90% of the crystal particles have a common orientation, superconducting matrix capable of supporting large current densities. 3 figs.

  6. Acoustic plane wave preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolt, Thomas L. (North Olmsted, OH); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1991-01-01

    A polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0metal oxide in the form of a ceramic slip which has not yet set, orientation of the crystal basal planes parallel with the direction of desired current flow is accomplished by an applied acoustic plane wave in the acoustic or ultrasonic frequency range (either progressive or standing) in applying a torque to each crystal particle. The ceramic slip is then set and fired by conventional methods to produce a conductor with preferentially oriented grains and substantially enhanced current carrying capacity.

  7. Synthesis of transition-metal phosphides from oxidic precursors by reduction in hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan Jie [Department of Catalytic Chemistry and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Wang Yao [Liaoning Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Technology and Equipments, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Qin Minglei; Yang Ying [Department of Catalytic Chemistry and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Li Xiang [Department of Catalytic Chemistry and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Liaoning Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Technology and Equipments, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Wang Anjie, E-mail: ajwang@dlut.edu.c [Department of Catalytic Chemistry and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Liaoning Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Technology and Equipments, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2009-06-15

    A series of transition metal phosphides, including MoP, WP, CoP, Co{sub 2}P, and Ni{sub 2}P, were synthesized from their oxidic precursors by means of hydrogen plasma reduction under mild conditions. The effects of reduction conditions, such as metal to phosphorus molar ratio, power input, and reduction time, on the synthesis of metal phosphides were investigated. The products were identified by means of XRD characterization. It is indicated that metal phosphides were readily synthesized stoichiometrically from their oxides in hydrogen plasma under mild conditions. - Graphical abstract: Metal phosphides were obtained stoichiometrically from their oxidic precursors by hydrogen plasma reaction under mild conditions.

  8. Synthesis of reduced graphene oxide/ZnO nanorods composites on graphene coated PET flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Lei, E-mail: leihuang@shnu.edu.cn; Guo, Guilue; Liu, Yang; Chang, Quanhong; Shi, Wangzhou

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO nanorods synthesized on CVD-graphene and rGO surfaces, respectively. • ZnO/CVD-graphene and ZnO/rGO form a distinctive porous 3D structure. • rGO/ZnO nanostructures possibility in energy storage devices. - Abstract: In this work, reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/ZnO nanorods composites were synthesized on graphene coated PET flexible substrates. Both chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films were prepared following by hydrothermal growth of vertical aligned ZnO nanorods. Reduced graphene sheets were then spun coated on the ZnO materials to form a three dimensional (3D) porous nanostructure. The morphologies of the ZnO/CVD graphene and ZnO/rGO were investigated by SEM, which shows that the ZnO nanorods grown on rGO are larger in diameters and have lower density compared with those grown on CVD graphene substrate. As a result of fact, the rough surface of nano-scale ZnO on rGO film allows rGO droplets to seep into the large voids of ZnO nanorods, then to form the rGO/ZnO hierarchical structure. By comparison of the different results, we conclude that rGO/ZnO 3D nanostructure is more desirable for the application of energy storage devices.

  9. High surface area silicon carbide-coated carbon aerogel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worsley, Marcus A; Kuntz, Joshua D; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr, Joe H

    2014-01-14

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust. Carbon aerogels can be coated with sol-gel silica and the silica can be converted to silicone carbide, improved the thermal stability of the carbon aerogel.

  10. NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDE CATALYSTS VIA BUILDING BLOCK SYNTHESES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig E. Barnes

    2013-03-05

    A broadly applicable methodology has been developed to prepare new single site catalysts on silica supports. This methodology requires of three critical components: a rigid building block that will be the main structural and compositional component of the support matrix; a family of linking reagents that will be used to insert active metals into the matrix as well as cross link building blocks into a three dimensional matrix; and a clean coupling reaction that will connect building blocks and linking agents together in a controlled fashion. The final piece of conceptual strategy at the center of this methodology involves dosing the building block with known amounts of linking agents so that the targeted connectivity of a linking center to surrounding building blocks is obtained. Achieving targeted connectivities around catalytically active metals in these building block matrices is a critical element of the strategy by which single site catalysts are obtained. This methodology has been demonstrated with a model system involving only silicon and then with two metal-containing systems (titanium and vanadium). The effect that connectivity has on the reactivity of atomically dispersed titanium sites in silica building block matrices has been investigated in the selective oxidation of phenols to benezoquinones. 2-connected titanium sites are found to be five times as active (i.e. initial turnover frequencies) than 4-connected titanium sites (i.e. framework titanium sites).

  11. Electrodepositionof Metal Alloyand Mixed Oxide Films Usinga Single-PrecursorTetranuclearCopper-NickelComplex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kounaves, Samuel P.

    coatings, nanostructurally designed materials with unique mechanical and electronic properties, methanol oxidation, and coal liquefactionJ '2The syn- thesis of bimetallic alloys and oxides is much more-known catalysts for some useful chemical processes ~'2'5and have superior corrosion properties when compared

  12. Corrosion resistant coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrobleski, Debra A. (Los Alamos, NM); Benicewicz, Brian C. (Los Alamos, NM); Thompson, Karen G. (Orlando, FL); Bryan, Coleman J. (Merritt Island, FL)

    1997-01-01

    A method of protecting a metal substrate from corrosion including coating a metal substrate of, e.g., steel, iron or aluminum, with a conductive polymer layer of, e.g., polyaniline, coating upon said metal substrate, and coating the conductive polymer-coated metal substrate with a layer of a topcoat upon the conductive polymer coating layer, is provided, together with the resultant coated article from said method.

  13. Corrosion resistant coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Benicewicz, B.C.; Thompson, K.G.; Bryan, C.J.

    1997-08-19

    A method of protecting a metal substrate from corrosion including coating a metal substrate of, e.g., steel, iron or aluminum, with a conductive polymer layer of, e.g., polyaniline, coating upon said metal substrate, and coating the conductive polymer-coated metal substrate with a layer of a topcoat upon the conductive polymer coating layer, is provided, together with the resultant coated article from said method.

  14. Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gongming

    2013-01-01

    be good catalysts for catalytic oxidation of small organicsolution, indicative of catalytic oxidation of urea presentactive catalytic species for water oxidation. The catalytic

  15. Strain-tolerant ceramic coated seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schienle, James L. (Phoenix, AZ); Strangman, Thomas E. (Phoenix, AZ)

    1994-01-01

    A metallic regenerator seal is provided having multi-layer coating comprising a NiCrAlY bond layer, a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) intermediate layer, and a ceramic high temperature solid lubricant surface layer comprising zinc oxide, calcium fluoride, and tin oxide. An array of discontinuous grooves is laser machined into the outer surface of the solid lubricant surface layer making the coating strain tolerant.

  16. Resonant Ultrasound Studies of Complex Transition Metal Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Henry Bass; Dr. J. R. Gladden

    2008-08-18

    Department of Energy EPSCoR The University of Mississippi Award: DE-FG02-04ER46121 Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy Studies of Complex Transition Metal Oxides The central thrust of this DOE funded research program has been to apply resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS), an elegant and efficient method for determining the elastic stiffness constants of a crystal, to the complex and poorly understood class of materials known as transition metal oxides (TMOs). Perhaps the most interesting and challenging feature of TMOs is their strongly correlated behavior in which spin, lattice, and charge degrees of freedom are strongly coupled. Elastic constants are a measure of the interatomic potentials in a crystal and are thus sensitive probes into the atomic environment. This sensitivity makes RUS an ideal tool to study the coupling of phase transition order parameters to lattice strains. The most significant result of the project has been the construction of a high temperature RUS apparatus capable of making elastic constant measurements at temperatures as high as 1000 degrees Celsius. We have designed and built novel acoustic transducers which can operate as high as 600 degrees Celsius based on lithium niobate piezoelectric elements. For measurement between 600 to 1000 C, a buffer rod system is used in which the samples under test and transducers are separated by a rod with low acoustic attenuation. The high temperature RUS system has been used to study the charge order (CO) transition in transition metal oxides for which we have discovered a new transition occurring about 35 C below the CO transition. While the CO transition exhibits a linear coupling between the strain and order parameter, this new precursor transition shows a different coupling indicating a fundamentally different mechanism. We have also begun a study, in collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, to study novel thermoelectric materials at elevated temperatures. These materials include silicon germanium with various doping and Zintl phase materials. Such materials show promise for increased figures of merit, vital to making thermolectrics competitive with traditional power generation mechanisms.

  17. Single-step preparation and consolidation of reduced early-transition-metal oxide/metal n-type thermoelectric composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaultois, Michael W; Douglas, Jason E; Sparks, Taylor D; Seshadri, Ram

    2015-01-01

    oxide/metal n-type thermoelectric composites Michael W.here as interesting thermoelectric materials. Numerous2.5 W m ?1 K ?1 . Thermoelectric properties of these n-type

  18. Non-equilibrium oxidation states of zirconium during early stages of metal oxidation Wen Ma, F. William Herbert, Sanjaya D. Senanayake, and Bilge Yildiz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yildiz, Bilge

    Non-equilibrium oxidation states of zirconium during early stages of metal oxidation Wen Ma, F.1116/1.4792068 The initial, thermal oxidation of zirconium at room temperature J. Appl. Phys. 96, 7126 (2004); 10 of zirconium during early stages of metal oxidation Wen Ma,1 F. William Herbert,1,2 Sanjaya D. Senanayake,3

  19. Oxidation catalysts comprising metal exchanged hexaaluminate wherein the metal is Sr, Pd, La, and/or Mn

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickham, David (Boulder, CO); Cook, Ronald (Lakewood, CO)

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides metal-exchanged hexaaluminate catalysts that exhibit good catalytic activity and/or stability at high temperatures for extended periods with retention of activity as combustion catalysts, and more generally as oxidation catalysts, that make them eminently suitable for use in methane combustion, particularly for use in natural gas fired gas turbines. The hexaaluminate catalysts of this invention are of particular interest for methane combustion processes for minimization of the generation of undesired levels (less than about 10 ppm) of NOx species. Metal exchanged hexaaluminate oxidation catalysts are also useful for oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC), particularly hydrocarbons. Metal exchanged hexaaluminate oxidation catalysts are further useful for partial oxidation, particularly at high temperatures, of reduced species, particularly hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes).

  20. Atomic Layer Deposition of Hafnium and Zirconium Oxides Using Metal Amide Precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atomic Layer Deposition of Hafnium and Zirconium Oxides Using Metal Amide Precursors Dennis M (ALD) of smooth and highly conformal films of hafnium and zirconium oxides was studied using six metal alkylamide precursors for hafnium and zirconium. Water was used as an oxygen source during these experiments

  1. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-22

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  2. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2014-09-16

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  3. Metal oxide morphology in argon-assisted glancing angle deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorge, J. B.; Taschuk, M. T.; Wakefield, N. G.; Sit, J. C.; Brett, M. J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V4 (Canada); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V4 (Canada) and NRC National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, AB T6G 2M9 (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Glancing angle deposition (GLAD) is a thin film deposition technique capable of fabricating columnar architectures such as posts, helices, and chevrons with control over nanoscale film features. Argon bombardment during deposition modifies the GLAD process, producing films with new morphologies which have shown promise for sensing and photonic devices. The authors report modification of column tilt angle, film density, and specific surface area for 12 different metal oxide and fluoride film materials deposited using Ar-assisted GLAD. For the vapor flux/ion beam geometry and materials studied here, with increasing argon flux, the column tilt increases, film density increases, and specific surface area decreases. With a better understanding of the nature of property modification and the mechanisms responsible, the Ar-assisted deposition process can be more effectively targeted towards specific applications, including birefringent thin films or photonic crystal square spirals.

  4. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    for Depositing Solar Collector Coatings i i • Proceedings ofSymposium on Coatings for Solar Collectors, St. Louis, MO,OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS Carl M. Lampert

  5. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    of the AES Coatings for Solar Collectors Symposium. Atlanta.Symposium on Coatings for Solar Collectors, St. Louis, MO,OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS Carl M. Lampert

  6. Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: the effect of protective alumina coating on electrical stability in dual environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2012-12-01

    An alkali-containing silicate glass was recently proposed as a potential sealant for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The glass contains appreciable amount of alkalis and retains its glassy microstructure at elevated temperatures over time. It is more compliant as compared to conventional glass-ceramics sealants and could potentially heal cracks during thermal cycling. In previous papers the thermal cycle stability, thermal stability and chemical compatibility were reported with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and YSZ-coated ferritic stainless steel interconnect. In this paper, we report the electrical stability of the compliant glass with aluminized AISI441 interconnect material under DC load in dual environment at 700-800oC. Apparent electrical resistivity was measured with a 4-point method for the glass sealed between two aluminized AISI441 metal coupons as well as plain AISI441 substrates. The results showed good electrical stability with the aluminized AISI441 substrate, while unstable behavior was observed for un-coated substrates. In addition, interfacial microstructure was examined with scanning electron microscopy and correlated with the measured resistivity results. Overall, the alumina coating demonstrated good chemical stability with the alkali-containing silicate sealing glass under DC loading.

  7. Nitric Oxide in Biological Denitrification: Fe/Cu Metalloenzyme and Metal Complex NOx Redox Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder, Imke

    Nitric Oxide in Biological Denitrification: Fe/Cu Metalloenzyme and Metal Complex NOx Redox Nitrite Reductase: 1204 2. Copper Nitrite Reductases 1206 B. Nitric Oxide Reductase 1208 1. Structure 1208 Nitric Oxide Sensors, Scavengers, and Delivery Agents 1227 IV. Concluding Remarks 1229 V. Acknowledgments

  8. ADVANCED ELECTRON BEAM TECHNIQUES FOR METALLIC AND CERAMIC PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, Donald H.

    2013-01-01

    W. Fairbanks, "Advanced Gas Turbine Coatings for MinimallyResistance Coatings for Gas Turbine Airfoils, 11 Final1980. (11) R. C. Krutenat, Gas Turbine Materials Conference

  9. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    Sputtering for Depositing Solar Collector Coatings".of the AES Coatings for Solar Collectors Symposium. Atlanta.Neutral Surfaces in Solar Collectors." Proceedings of ISES

  10. ADVANCED ELECTRON BEAM TECHNIQUES FOR METALLIC AND CERAMIC PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, Donald H.

    2013-01-01

    W. Fairbanks, "Advanced Gas Turbine Coatings for MinimallyResistance Coatings for Gas Turbine Airfoils, 11 Finaland current production gas turbine and diesel engines in an

  11. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    Sputtering for Depositing Solar Collector Coatings".of the AES Coatings for Solar Collectors Symposium. Atlanta.Surfaces on Flat Plate Solar Collectors". Proceedings of 2nd

  12. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    Surfaces on Flat Plate Solar Collectors". Proceedings of 2ndSputtering for Depositing Solar Collector Coatings i i •of the AES Coatings for Solar Collectors Symposium. Atlanta.

  13. Study of thin metal films and oxide materials for nanoelectronics applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Los Santos Valladares, Luis

    2012-01-10

    ions in a solution are moved by an electric field to coat a surface (Schlesinger & Paunovic, 2010). The process uses an electrical current to reduce cations of a desired material from a solution and coat a conductive object with a metal. Electroplating... ??Controlled electroplating and electromigration in nickel electrodes for nanogap formationâ?ť, Nanotechnology 21 (2010) 445304. 6. Luis De Los Santos V., Angel Bustamante D., Justin Llandro, Seiichi Suzuki, Thanos Mitrelias, Richard Bellido Q., Crispin H.W. Barnes and Yutaka...

  14. Electron diffraction from free-standing, metal-coated transmission gratings Glen Gronniger, Brett Barwick, and Herman Batelaana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Alex D.

    Electron diffraction from free-standing, metal-coated transmission gratings Glen Gronniger, Brett; published online 14 September 2005 Electron diffraction from a free-standing nanofabricated transmission to the development of 100-nm period silicon nitride transmission gratings with free-standing bars.2 Such gratings

  15. THE ROLE OF ACTIVE ELEMENTS AND OXIDE DISPERSIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF OXIDATION-RESISTANT ALLOYS AND COATINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allam, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    rate, and sec- ondly this oxide layer must remain adherentFormation of a compound oxide layer (11) between scale andof Y- or Hf-rich compound oxide layers at the oxide/alloy

  16. Method for heat treating and sintering metal oxides with microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A method for microwave sintering materials, primarily metal oxides, is described. Metal oxides do not normally absorb microwave radiation at temperatures ranging from about room temperature to several hundred degrees centrigrade are sintered with microwave radiation without the use of the heretofore required sintering aids. This sintering is achieved by enclosing a compact of the oxide material in a housing or capsule formed of a oxide which has microwave coupling properties at room temprature up to at least the microwave coupling temperature of the oxide material forming the compact. The heating of the housing effects the initial heating of the oxide material forming the compact by heat transference and then functions as a thermal insulator for the encased oxide material after the oxide material reaches a sufficient temperature to adequately absorb or couple with microwave radiation for heating thereof to sintering temperature.

  17. THE ROLE OF ACTIVE ELEMENTS AND OXIDE DISPERSIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF OXIDATION-RESISTANT ALLOYS AND COATINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allam, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    of the oxide and alloy and these lead to spallation of theleads to a uniform distribution of fine internal oxide

  18. Intermediate coating layer for high temperature rubbing seals for rotary regenerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schienle, James L. (Phoenix, AZ); Strangman, Thomas E. (Phoenix, AZ)

    1995-01-01

    A metallic regenerator seal is provided having multi-layer coating comprising a NiCrAlY bond layer, a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) intermediate layer, and a ceramic high temperature solid lubricant surface layer comprising zinc oxide, calcium fluoride, and tin oxide. Because of the YSZ intermediate layer, the coating is thermodynamically stable and resists swelling at high temperatures.

  19. Regenerable MgO promoted metal oxide oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Miller, Duane D.

    2014-08-19

    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier comprised of a plurality of metal oxide particles in contact with a plurality of MgO promoter particles. The MgO promoter particles increase the reaction rate and oxygen utilization of the metal oxide when contacting with a gaseous hydrocarbon at a temperature greater than about 725.degree. C. The promoted oxide solid is generally comprised of less than about 25 wt. % MgO, and may be prepared by physical mixing, incipient wetness impregnation, or other methods known in the art. The oxygen carrier exhibits a crystalline structure of the metal oxide and a crystalline structure of MgO under XRD crystallography, and retains these crystalline structures over subsequent redox cycles. In an embodiment, the metal oxide is Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, and the gaseous hydrocarbon is comprised of methane.

  20. Metal Oxide Nanostructured Materials for Optical and Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Michael Christopher

    2013-01-01

    of a Stack of Two Metal Micromeshes. The Journal of Physicalals 3, 601 (2004). M. T. Hill et al. Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides. Optics

  1. ADVANCED ELECTRON BEAM TECHNIQUES FOR METALLIC AND CERAMIC PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, Donald H.

    2013-01-01

    injection location, a "white" zirconia coating in thicknessgrained, leader type, zirconia structure similar to that

  2. Reactivity of biogenic manganese oxide for metal sequestration and photochemistry: Computational solid state physics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, K.D.; Sposito, G.

    2010-02-01

    Many microbes, including both bacteria and fungi, produce manganese (Mn) oxides by oxidizing soluble Mn(II) to form insoluble Mn(IV) oxide minerals, a kinetically much faster process than abiotic oxidation. These biogenic Mn oxides drive the Mn cycle, coupling it with diverse biogeochemical cycles and determining the bioavailability of environmental contaminants, mainly through strong adsorption and redox reactions. This mini review introduces recent findings based on quantum mechanical density functional theory that reveal the detailed mechanisms of toxic metal adsorption at Mn oxide surfaces and the remarkable role of Mn vacancies in the photochemistry of these minerals.

  3. ADVANCED ELECTRON BEAM TECHNIQUES FOR METALLIC AND CERAMIC PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, Donald H.

    2013-01-01

    Aircraft Commercial Conditions Oxidation Hot Corrosionaircraft gas turbine work for high temperature oxidation/corrosion

  4. Nanoscale Reinforced, Polymer Derived Ceramic Matrix Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajendra Bordia

    2009-07-31

    The goal of this project was to explore and develop a novel class of nanoscale reinforced ceramic coatings for high temperature (600-1000 C) corrosion protection of metallic components in a coal-fired environment. It was focused on developing coatings that are easy to process and low cost. The approach was to use high-yield preceramic polymers loaded with nano-size fillers. The complex interplay of the particles in the polymer, their role in controlling shrinkage and phase evolution during thermal treatment, resulting densification and microstructural evolution, mechanical properties and effectiveness as corrosion protection coatings were investigated. Fe-and Ni-based alloys currently used in coal-fired environments do not possess the requisite corrosion and oxidation resistance for next generation of advanced power systems. One example of this is the power plants that use ultra supercritical steam as the working fluid. The increase in thermal efficiency of the plant and decrease in pollutant emissions are only possible by changing the properties of steam from supercritical to ultra supercritical. However, the conditions, 650 C and 34.5 MPa, are too severe and result in higher rate of corrosion due to higher metal temperatures. Coating the metallic components with ceramics that are resistant to corrosion, oxidation and erosion, is an economical and immediate solution to this problem. Good high temperature corrosion protection ceramic coatings for metallic structures must have a set of properties that are difficult to achieve using established processing techniques. The required properties include ease of coating complex shapes, low processing temperatures, thermal expansion match with metallic structures and good mechanical and chemical properties. Nanoscale reinforced composite coatings in which the matrix is derived from preceramic polymers have the potential to meet these requirements. The research was focused on developing suitable material systems and processing techniques for these coatings. In addition, we investigated the effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties and oxidation protection ability of the coatings. Coatings were developed to provide oxidation protection to both ferritic and austentic alloys and Ni-based alloys. The coatings that we developed are based on low viscosity pre-ceramic polymers. Thus they can be easily applied to any shape by using a variety of techniques including dip-coating, spray-coating and painting. The polymers are loaded with a variety of nanoparticles. The nanoparticles have two primary roles: control of the final composition and phases (and hence the properties); and control of the shrinkage during thermal decomposition of the polymer. Thus the selection of the nanoparticles was the most critical aspect of this project. Based on the results of the processing studies, the performance of selected coatings in oxidizing conditions (both static and cyclic) was investigated.

  5. Production of crystalline refractory metal oxides containing colloidal metal precipitates and useful as solar-effective absorbers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narayan, Jagdish (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Yok (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    This invention is a new process for producing refractory crystalline oxides having improved or unusual properties. The process comprises the steps of forming a doped-metal crystal of the oxide; exposing the doped crystal in a bomb to a reducing atmosphere at superatmospheric pressure and a temperature effecting precipitation of the dopant metal in the crystal lattice of the oxide but insufficient to effect net diffusion of the metal out of the lattice; and then cooling the crystal. Preferably, the cooling step is effected by quenching. The process forms colloidal precipitates of the metal in the oxide lattice. The process may be used, for example, to produce thermally stable black MgO crystalline bodies containing magnetic colloidal precipitates consisting of about 99% Ni. The Ni-containing bodies are solar-selective absorbers, having a room-temperature absorptivity of about 0.96 over virtually all of the solar-energy spectrum and exhibiting an absorption edge in the region of 2 .mu.m. The process parameters can be varied to control the average size of the precipitates. The process can produce a black MgO crystalline body containing colloidal Ni precipitates, some of which have the face-centered-cubic structure and others of which have the body-centered cubic structure. The products of the process are metal-precipitate-containing refractory crystalline oxides which have improved or unique optical, mechanical, magnetic, and/or electronic properties.

  6. Extrusion of metal oxide superconducting wire, tube or ribbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dusek, Joseph T.

    1993-10-05

    A process for extruding a superconducting metal oxide composition YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x provides a wire (tube or ribbon) having a cohesive mass and a degree of flexibility together with enhanced electrical properties. Wire diameters in the range of 6-85 mils have been produced with smaller wires on the order of 10 mils in diameter exhibiting enhanced flexibility for forming braided, or multistrand, configurations for greater current carrying capacity. The composition for extrusion contains a polymeric binder to provide a cohesive mass to bind the particles together during the extrusion process with the binder subsequently removed at lower temperatures during sintering. The composition for extrusion further includes a deflocculent, an organic plasticizer and a solvent which also are subsequently removed during sintering. Electrically conductive tubing with an inner diameter of 52 mil and an outer diameter of 87-355 mil has also been produced. Flat ribbons have been produced in the range of 10-125 mil thick by 100-500 mil wide. The superconducting wire, tube or ribbon may include an outer ceramic insulating sheath co-extruded with the wire, tubing or ribbon.

  7. Method for the rapid synthesis of large quantities of metal oxide nanowires at low temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar (Louisville, KY); Vaddiraju, Sreeram (Mountain View, CA); Mozetic, Miran (Ljubljan, SI); Cvelbar, Uros (Idrija, SI)

    2009-09-22

    A process for the rapid synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles at low temperatures and methods which facilitate the fabrication of long metal oxide nanowires. The method is based on treatment of metals with oxygen plasma. Using oxygen plasma at low temperatures allows for rapid growth unlike other synthesis methods where nanomaterials take a long time to grow. Density of neutral oxygen atoms in plasma is a controlling factor for the yield of nanowires. The oxygen atom density window differs for different materials. By selecting the optimal oxygen atom density for various materials the yield can be maximized for nanowire synthesis of the metal.

  8. Fabrication of Metal/Oxide Nanostructures by Anodization Processes for Biosensor, Drug Delivery and Supercapacitor Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Po-Chun

    2014-01-13

    This dissertation proposed to initiate the research into the fabrication of metal/oxide nanostructures by anodization process for biosensor, drug delivery and supercapacitor applications by producing different nanostructures ...

  9. Design and construction of rigs for studying surface condensation and creating anodized metal oxide surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Wei-Yang

    2011-01-01

    This thesis details the design and construction of a rig for studying surface condensation and a rig for creating anodized metal oxides (AMOs). The condensation rig characterizes condensation for different surfaces; this ...

  10. Near-infrared photodetector consisting of J-aggregating cyanine dye and metal oxide thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osedach, Timothy P.

    We demonstrate a near-infrared photodetector that consists of a thin film of the J-aggregating cyanine dye, U3, and transparent metal-oxide charge transport layers. The high absorption coefficient of the U3 film, combined ...

  11. Low temperature lithographically patterned metal oxide transistors for large area electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Annie I. (Annie I-Jen), 1981-

    2011-01-01

    Optically transparent, wide bandgap metal oxide semiconductors are a promising candidate for large-area electronics technologies that require lightweight, temperature-sensitive flexible substrates. Because these thin films ...

  12. Alkane oxidation with porphyrins and metal complexes thereof having haloalkyl side chains

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijesekera, T.; Lyons, J.E.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Bhinde, M.V.

    1998-06-23

    Transition metal complexes of meso-haloalkylporphyrins are disclosed, wherein the haloalkyl groups contain 2 to 8 carbon atoms have been found to be highly effective catalysts for oxidation of alkanes and for the decomposition of hydroperoxides. 7 figs.

  13. Alkane oxidation with porphyrins and metal complexes thereof having haloalkyl side chains

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijesekera, Tilak (Glen Mills, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Bhinde, Manoj V. (Boothwyn, PA)

    1998-01-01

    Transition metal complexes of meso-haloalkylporphyrins, wherein the haloalkyl groups contain 2 to 8 carbon atoms have been found to be highly effective catalysts for oxidation of alkanes and for the decomposition of hydroperoxides.

  14. Thermal and Physical Properties of Plutonium Dioxide Produced from the Oxidation of Metal: a Data Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne, David M.

    2014-01-13

    The ARIES Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory removes plutonium metal from decommissioned nuclear weapons, and converts it to plutonium dioxide in a specially-designed Direct Metal Oxidation furnace. The plutonium dioxide is analyzed for specific surface area, particle size distribution, and moisture content. The purpose of these analyses is to certify that the plutonium dioxide powder meets or exceeds the specifications of the end-user, and the specifications for the packaging and transport of nuclear materials. Analytical results from plutonium dioxide from ARIES development activities, from ARIES production activities, from muffle furnace oxidation of metal, and from metal that was oxidized over a lengthy time interval in air at room temperature, are presented. The processes studied produce plutonium dioxide powder with distinct differences in measured properties, indicating the significant influence of oxidation conditions on physical properties.

  15. Water growth on metals and oxides: binding, dissociation and role of hydroxyl groups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salmeron, M.

    2008-01-01

    Note: In this paper the water structures formed are due toand correspond to a second water layer, not the first (seeWater growth on metals and oxides: binding, dissociation and

  16. Oxidation, Creep And Fatigue Properties of Bare and Coated 31V alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Jones, Samuel J.; Zhang, Ying; Maziasz, Philip J.; Pint, Bruce A.

    2014-12-06

    Increasing the efficiency of natural gas reciprocating engines will require materials with better mechanical and corrosion resistance at high temperatures. One solution to increase the lifetime of exhaust valves is to apply an aluminide coating to prevent corrosion assisted fatigue cracking, but the impact of the coating on the valve material mechanical properties needs to be assessed. Creep and high cycle fatigue (HCF) testing were conducted at 816°C on bare and slurry or pack-coated 31V alloy. After annealing according to the 31V standard heat treatment, the coated and bare creep specimens exhibited very similar creep rupture lives. The HCF behavior of the pack-coated alloy was close to the behavior of the bar alloy, but fatigue lifetimes of slurry-coated 31V specimens had higher variability. Aluminide coatings have the potential to improve the valve performance at high temperature, but the coating deposition process needs to be tailored for the substrate standard heat treatment.

  17. Pulsed plasma deposition of chromium oxide/chromium-cermet coatings D. Gall, R. Gampp,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Daniel

    are commercially used for op- tically selective surfaces of solar collectors.1­3 Usually, these coatings

  18. ADVANCED ELECTRON BEAM TECHNIQUES FOR METALLIC AND CERAMIC PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, Donald H.

    2013-01-01

    Gas Turbine Coatings for Minimally Processed Coal Derived Liquid Fuels," presented at the Conference on Advanced MaterialsCoatings for Gas Turbine Airfoils," AGARD LectureS es Publication, LS No. 106 Materials

  19. Process for the deposition of high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, V.K.

    1991-07-30

    A process is disclosed for depositing a high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coating on a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based substrate body. A gas mixture is passed over the substrate at about 900--1500 C and about 1 torr to about ambient pressure. The gas mixture includes one or more halide vapors with other suitable reactant gases. The partial pressure ratios, flow rates, and process times are sufficient to deposit a continuous, fully dense, adherent coating. The halide and other reactant gases are gradually varied during deposition so that the coating is a graded coating of at least two layers. Each layer is a graded layer changing in composition from the material over which it is deposited to the material of the layer and further to the material, if any, deposited thereon, so that no clearly defined compositional interfaces exist. The gases and their partial pressures are varied according to a predetermined time schedule and the halide and other reactant gases are selected so that the layers include (a) an adherent, continuous intermediate layer about 0.5-20 microns thick of an aluminum nitride or an aluminum oxynitride material, over and chemically bonded to the substrate body, and (b) an adherent, continuous first outer layer about 0.5-900 microns thick including an oxide of aluminum or zirconium over and chemically bonded to the intermediate layer.

  20. Process for the deposition of high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod K. (Lexington, MA)

    1991-01-01

    A process for depositing a high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coating on a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based substrate body. A gas mixture is passed over the substrate at about 900.degree.-1500.degree. C. and about 1 torr to about ambient pressure. The gas mixture includes one or more halide vapors with other suitable reactant gases. The partial pressure ratios, flow rates, and process times are sufficient to deposit a continuous, fully dense, adherent coating. The halide and other reactant gases are gradually varied during deposition so that the coating is a graded coating of at least two layers. Each layer is a graded layer changing in composition from the material over which it is deposited to the material of the layer and further to the material, if any, deposited thereon, so that no clearly defined compositional interfaces exist. The gases and their partial pressures are varied according to a predetermined time schedule and the halide and other reactant gases are selected so that the layers include (a) an adherent, continuous intermediate layer about 0.5-20 microns thick of an aluminum nitride or an aluminum oxynitride material, over and chemically bonded to the substrate body, and (b) an adherent, continuous first outer layer about 0.5-900 microns thick including an oxide of aluminum or zirconium over and chemically bonded to the intermediate layer.

  1. Long-term research in Japan: amorphous metals, metal oxide varistors, high-power semiconductors and superconducting generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hane, G.J.; Yorozu, M.; Sogabe, T.; Suzuki, S.

    1985-04-01

    The review revealed that significant activity is under way in the research of amorphous metals, but that little fundamental work is being pursued on metal oxide varistors and high-power semiconductors. Also, the investigation of long-term research program plans for superconducting generators reveals that activity is at a low level, pending the recommendations of a study currently being conducted through Japan's Central Electric Power Council.

  2. Theory of nitride oxide adsorption on transition metal (111) surfaces: a first-principles investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Weixue

    In this work, we report a density functional theory study of nitric oxide (NO) adsorption on close of NO adsorption on TM(111) surfaces in the submonolayer regime. 1. Introduction The catalytic reduction of NOxTheory of nitride oxide adsorption on transition metal (111) surfaces: a first

  3. Analytica Chimica Acta 573574 (2006) 913 Metal oxide thin films as sensing layers for ozone detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    Analytica Chimica Acta 573­574 (2006) 9­13 Metal oxide thin films as sensing layers for ozone. Their structural, electrical and ozone sensing properties were analyzed. Structural investigations carried out with ultraviolet light and subsequent oxidation in ozone atmosphere at room temperature. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All

  4. Mercury Removal from Aqueous Systems Using Commercial and Laboratory Prepared Metal Oxide Nanoparticles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Ishan

    2010-10-12

    Five commercial metal oxide nanoparticles (CuO, SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2 and Al2O3) have been individually screened for mercury removal in a batch reactor under bicarbonate buffered and non-buffered aqueous solutions (DI water). Copper oxide...

  5. Omnidirectional wavelength selective emitters/absorbers based on dielectric-filled anti-reflection coated two-dimensional metallic photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeng, Yi Xiang

    We demonstrate designs of dielectric-filled anti-reflection coated (ARC) two-dimensional (2D) metallic photonic crystals (MPhCs) capable of omnidirectional, polarization insensitive, wavelength selective emission/absorption. ...

  6. Arsenic remediation of drinking water using iron-oxide coated coal bottom ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MATHIEU, JOHANNA L.; GADGIL, ASHOK J.; ADDY, SUSAN E.A.; KOWOLIK, KRISTIN

    2010-06-01

    We describe laboratory and field results of a novel arsenic removal adsorbent called 'Arsenic Removal Using Bottom Ash' (ARUBA). ARUBA is prepared by coating particles of coal bottom ash, a waste material from coal fired power plants, with iron (hydr)oxide. The coating process is simple and conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Material costs for ARUBA are estimated to be low (~;;$0.08 per kg) and arsenic remediation with ARUBA has the potential to be affordable to resource-constrained communities. ARUBA is used for removing arsenic via a dispersal-and-removal process, and we envision that ARUBA would be used in community-scale water treatment centers. We show that ARUBA is able to reduce arsenic concentrations in contaminated Bangladesh groundwater to below the Bangladesh standard of 50 ppb. Using the Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.77) ARUBA's adsorption capacity in treating real groundwater is 2.6x10-6 mol/g (0.20 mg/g). Time-to-90percent (defined as the time interval for ARUBA to remove 90percent of the total amount of arsenic that is removed at equilibrium) is less than one hour. Reaction rates (pseudo-second-order kinetic model, R2>_ 0.99) increase from 2.4x105 to 7.2x105 g mol-1 min-1 as the groundwater arsenic concentration decreases from 560 to 170 ppb. We show that ARUBA's arsenic adsorption density (AAD), defined as the milligrams of arsenic removed at equilibrium per gram of ARUBA added, is linearly dependent on the initial arsenic concentration of the groundwater sample, for initial arsenic concentrations of up to 1600 ppb and an ARUBA dose of 4.0 g/L. This makes it easy to determine the amount of ARUBA required to treat a groundwater source when its arsenic concentration is known and less than 1600 ppb. Storing contaminated groundwater for two to three days before treatment is seen to significantly increase ARUBA's AAD. ARUBA can be separated from treated water by coagulation and clarification, which is expected to be less expensive than filtration of micron-scale particles, further contributing to the affordability of a community-scale water treatment center.

  7. Plasmonic transparent conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and films for optical sensing applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R; Wang, Congjun; Andio, Mark A

    2014-01-28

    The disclosure relates to a method of detecting a change in a chemical composition by contacting a doped oxide material with a monitored stream, illuminating the doped oxide material with incident light, collecting exiting light, monitoring an optical signal based on a comparison of the incident light and the exiting light, and detecting a shift in the optical signal. The doped metal oxide has a carrier concentration of at least 10.sup.18/cm.sup.3, a bandgap of at least 2 eV, and an electronic conductivity of at least 10.sup.1 S/cm, where parameters are specified at a temperature of 25.degree. C. The optical response of the doped oxide materials results from the high carrier concentration of the doped metal oxide, and the resulting impact of changing gas atmospheres on that relatively high carrier concentration. These changes in effective carrier densities of conducting metal oxide nanoparticles are postulated to be responsible for the change in measured optical absorption associated with free carriers. Exemplary doped metal oxides include but are not limited to Al-doped ZnO, Sn-doped In.sub.2O.sub.3, Nb-doped TiO.sub.2, and F-doped SnO.sub.2.

  8. Electronically conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and films for optical sensing applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R.; Wang, Congjun; Andio, Mark A

    2014-09-16

    The disclosure relates to a method of detecting a change in a chemical composition by contacting a conducting oxide material with a monitored stream, illuminating the conducting oxide material with incident light, collecting exiting light, monitoring an optical signal based on a comparison of the incident light and the exiting light, and detecting a shift in the optical signal. The conducting metal oxide has a carrier concentration of at least 10.sup.17/cm.sup.3, a bandgap of at least 2 eV, and an electronic conductivity of at least 10.sup.-1 S/cm, where parameters are specified at the gas stream temperature. The optical response of the conducting oxide materials is proposed to result from the high carrier concentration and electronic conductivity of the conducting metal oxide, and the resulting impact of changing gas atmospheres on that relatively high carrier concentration and electronic conductivity. These changes in effective carrier densities and electronic conductivity of conducting metal oxide films and nanoparticles are postulated to be responsible for the change in measured optical absorption associated with free carriers. Exemplary conducting metal oxides include but are not limited to Al-doped ZnO, Sn-doped In.sub.2O.sub.3, Nb-doped TiO.sub.2, and F-doped SnO.sub.2.

  9. Method of forming electrical pathways in indium-tin-oxide coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynes, Tony E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    An electrical device includes a substrate having an ITO coating thereon, a portion of which is conductive and defines at least one electrical pathway, and the balance of the ITO being insulative. The device is made by the following general steps: a. providing a substrate having a conductive ITO coating on at least one surface thereof; b. rendering a preselected portion of the coating of conductive ITO insulative, leaving the remaining portion of conductive ITO as at least one electrical pathway.

  10. Method of forming electrical pathways in indium-tin-oxide coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynes, Tony E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01

    An electrical device includes a substrate having an ITO coating thereon, a portion of which is conductive and defines at least one electrical pathway, and the balance of the ITO being insulative. The device is made by the following general steps: a. providing a substrate having a conductive ITO coating on at least one surface thereof; b. rendering a preselected portion of the coating of conductive ITO insulative, leaving the remaining portion of conductive ITO as at least one electrical pathway.

  11. Method of forming electrical pathways in indium-tin-oxide coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynes, T.E.

    1996-12-03

    An electrical device includes a substrate having an ITO coating thereon, a portion of which is conductive and defines at least one electrical pathway, and the balance of the ITO being insulative. The device is made by the following general steps: a. providing a substrate having a conductive ITO coating on at least one surface thereof; b. rendering a preselected portion of the coating of conductive ITO insulative, leaving the remaining portion of conductive ITO as at least one electrical pathway. 8 figs.

  12. Method of forming electrical pathways in indium-tin-oxide coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haynes, T.E.

    1997-03-04

    An electrical device includes a substrate having an ITO coating thereon, a portion of which is conductive and defines at least one electrical pathway, the balance of the ITO being insulative. The device is made by the following general steps: (a) providing a substrate having a conductive ITO coating on at least one surface thereof; (b) rendering a preselected portion of the coating of conductive ITO insulative, leaving the remaining portion of conductive ITO as at least one electrical pathway. 8 figs.

  13. Superconductors and Complex Transition Metal Oxides for Tunable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Tunable THz Plasmonic Metamaterials The outline of this presentation are: (1) Motivation - Non-tunability of metal metamaterials; (2) Superconductors for temperature tunable...

  14. Protective coating on stainless steel interconnect for SOFCs: Oxidation kinetics and electrical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xuan; Hou, Peggy Y.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2004-01-01

    PROTECTIVE COATING ON STAINLESS STEEL INTERCONNECT FORcoatings on commercial stainless steel alloys that allow forTABLES Table 1. Stainless steel composition in Weight%

  15. Chromium Vaporization Reduction by Nickel Coatings For SOEC Interconnect Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael V. Glazoff; Sergey N. Rashkeev; J. Stephen Herring

    2014-09-01

    The vaporization of Cr-rich volatile species from interconnect materials is a major source of degradation that limits the lifetime of planar solid oxide devices systems with metallic interconnects, including Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells, or SOECs. Some metallic coatings (Ni, Co, and Cu) significantly reduce the Cr release from interconnects and slow down the oxide scale growth on the steel substrate. To shed additional light upon the mechanisms of such protection and find a suitable coating material for ferritic stainless steel materials, we used a combination of first-principles calculations, thermodynamics, and diffusion modeling to investigate which factors determine the quality of the Ni metallic coating at stainless steel interconnector. We found that the Cr migration in Ni coating is determined by a delicate combination of the nickel oxidation, Cr diffusion, and phase transformation processes. Although the formation of Cr2O3 oxide is more exothermic than that of NiO, the kinetic rate of the chromia formation in the coating layer and its surface is significantly reduced by the low mobility of Cr in nickel oxide and in NiCr2O4 spinel. These results are in a good agreement with diffusion modeling for Cr diffusion through Ni coating layer on the ferritic 441 steel substrate.

  16. Reduction of VOC emissions from metal dip coating applications -- Canam Steel Corporation Point of Rocks, MD case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monfet, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of VOC emissions from metal dip coating applications is not an environmental constraint, it is an economic opportunity. This case study shows how the industry can reap economic benefits from VOC reductions while improving air quality. The Canam Steel Corporation plant located in Point of Rocks, MD operates dip tanks for primer application on fabricated steel joists and joist girders. This process is presently subject to a regulation that limits the paint VOC content to 3.5 pounds per gallon of coating less water. As a result of the high paint viscosity associated with that regulation, the paint thickness of the dipped steel is thicker than the customers` specifications. Most of the VOC emissions can therefore be associated with the excess of paint applied to the products rather than to the required thickness of the coating. The higher paint usage rate has more than environmental consequences, it increases the cost of the applied coating. The project is to reduce the paint usage by controlling the viscosity of the coating in the tank. Experimental results as well as actual mass balance calculations show that using a higher VOC content paint would reduce the overall VOC emissions. The author explained the project to the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) Air and Radiation Management Administration. First, the MDE agreed to develop a new RACT determination for fabricated steel dipping operations. The new regulation would limit the amount of VOC than can be emitted to dip coat a ton of fabricated steel. Second, the MDE agreed to allow experimentation of the higher VOC content paint as a pilot project for the new regulation. This paper demonstrates the need for a RACT determination specific to fabricated steel dipping operations.

  17. Oxidation, Creep And Fatigue Properties of Bare and Coated 31V alloy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N.; Jones, Samuel J.; Zhang, Ying; Maziasz, Philip J.; Pint, Bruce A.

    2014-12-06

    Increasing the efficiency of natural gas reciprocating engines will require materials with better mechanical and corrosion resistance at high temperatures. One solution to increase the lifetime of exhaust valves is to apply an aluminide coating to prevent corrosion assisted fatigue cracking, but the impact of the coating on the valve material mechanical properties needs to be assessed. Creep and high cycle fatigue (HCF) testing were conducted at 816°C on bare and slurry or pack-coated 31V alloy. After annealing according to the 31V standard heat treatment, the coated and bare creep specimens exhibited very similar creep rupture lives. The HCF behaviormore »of the pack-coated alloy was close to the behavior of the bar alloy, but fatigue lifetimes of slurry-coated 31V specimens had higher variability. Aluminide coatings have the potential to improve the valve performance at high temperature, but the coating deposition process needs to be tailored for the substrate standard heat treatment.« less

  18. Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gongming

    2013-01-01

    the reported solar conversion efficiency of hematitelead to a good solar conversion efficiency. 16, 24, 26, 27for urea oxidation, the solar conversion efficiency of TiO 2

  19. Spin and orbital ordering in ternary transition metal oxides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimber, Simon A. J.

    Spin and orbital orderings are amongst the most important phenomena in the solid state chemistry of oxides. Physical property and powder neutron and X-ray diffraction measurements are reported for a range of mostly low ...

  20. Metal catalyzed copolymerization processes involving carbon oxides as substrates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phelps, Andrea Lee

    2005-11-01

    Studies concerning two different copolymerization processes are detailed in this dissertation: propylene oxide/CO2 coupling to afford poly(propylene carbonate) and Nbutylaziridine/ CO coupling to afford poly-??-butylalanoid. ...

  1. Origin of complex impact craters on native oxide coated silicon surfaces Juha Samela* and Kai Nordlund

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordlund, Kai

    silicon oxide layer than on targets without the oxide layer. To explain the formation of these complex. The diameter of the simulated hillock structures in the silicon oxide layer is in agreement shows that the largest lateral momentum is induced in the silicon oxide layer during the impact; thus

  2. Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation of Protective Oxides and Thermal Barrier Coatings in High Hydrogen Content (HHC) - Fueled Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mumm, Daniel

    2013-08-31

    The overarching goal of this research program has been to evaluate the potential impacts of coal-derived syngas and high-hydrogen content fuels on the degradation of turbine hot-section components through attack of protective oxides and thermal barrier coatings. The primary focus of this research program has been to explore mechanisms underpinning the observed degradation processes, and connections to the combustion environments and characteristic non-combustible constituents. Based on the mechanistic understanding of how these emerging fuel streams affect materials degradation, the ultimate goal of the program is to advance the goals of the Advanced Turbine Program by developing materials design protocols leading to turbine hot-section components with improved resistance to service lifetime degradation under advanced fuels exposures. This research program has been focused on studying how: (1) differing combustion environments – relative to traditional natural gas fired systems – affect both the growth rate of thermally grown oxide (TGO) layers and the stability of these oxides and of protective thermal barrier coatings (TBCs); and (2) how low levels of fuel impurities and characteristic non-combustibles interact with surface oxides, for instance through the development of molten deposits that lead to hot corrosion of protective TBC coatings. The overall program has been comprised of six inter-related themes, each comprising a research thrust over the program period, including: (i) evaluating the role of syngas and high hydrogen content (HHC) combustion environments in modifying component surface temperatures, heat transfer to the TBC coatings, and thermal gradients within these coatings; (ii) understanding the instability of TBC coatings in the syngas and high hydrogen environment with regards to decomposition, phase changes and sintering; (iii) characterizing ash deposition, molten phase development and infiltration, and associated corrosive/thermo-chemical attack mechanisms; (iv) developing a mechanics-based analysis of the driving forces for crack growth and delamination, based on molten phase infiltration, misfit upon cooling, and loss of compliance; (v) understanding changes in TGO growth mechanisms associated with these emerging combustion product streams; and (vi) identifying degradation resistant alternative materials (including new compositions or bi-layer concepts) for use in mitigating the observed degradation modes. To address the materials stability concerns, this program integrated research thrusts aimed at: (1) Conducting tests in simulated syngas and HHC environments to evaluate materials evolution and degradation mechanisms; assessing thermally grown oxide development unique to HHC environmental exposures; carrying out high-resolution imaging and microanalysis to elucidate the evolution of surface deposits (molten phase formation and infiltration); exploring thermo-chemical instabilities; assessing thermo-mechanical drivers and thermal gradient effects on degradation; and quantitatively measuring stress evolution due to enhanced sintering and thermo-chemical instabilities induced in the coating. (2) Executing experiments to study the melting and infiltration of simulated ash deposits, and identifying reaction products and evolving phases associated with molten phase corrosion mechanisms; utilizing thermal spray techniques to fabricate test coupons with controlled microstructures to study mechanisms of instability and degradation; facilitating thermal gradient testing; and developing new materials systems for laboratory testing; (3) Correlating information on the resulting combustion environments to properly assess materials exposure conditions and guide the development of lab-scale simulations of material exposures; specification of representative syngas and high-hydrogen fuels with realistic levels of impurities and contaminants, to explore differences in heat transfer, surface degradation, and deposit formation; and facilitating combustion rig testing of materials test coupons.

  3. Band gap tuning in transition metal oxides by site-specific substitution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ho Nyung; Chisholm, Jr., Matthew F; Jellison, Jr., Gerald Earle; Singh, David J; Choi, Woo Seok

    2013-12-24

    A transition metal oxide insulator composition having a tuned band gap includes a transition metal oxide having a perovskite or a perovskite-like crystalline structure. The transition metal oxide includes at least one first element selected form the group of Bi, Ca, Ba, Sr, Li, Na, Mg, K, Pb, and Pr; and at least one second element selected from the group of Ti, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt. At least one correlated insulator is integrated into the crystalline structure, including REMO.sub.3, wherein RE is at least one Rare Earth element, and wherein M is at least one element selected from the group of Co, V, Cr, Ni, Mn, and Fe. The composition is characterized by a band gap of less of 4.5 eV.

  4. On The Oxidation Behavior of Titanium within Coated Nickel-Based Superalloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, R. J.; Krakow, R.; Eggeman, A. S.; Jones, C. N.; Murakami, H.; Rae, C. M. F.

    2015-04-22

    combustion temperatures in commercial gas turbines make thermal barrier coatings a necessity for both turbine blades and static vanes operating in the first stage of the turbine. Thus increasing the longevity of these coatings, limited by TBC spallation... ;47:780. [31] He Y, Jonas JJ. J Appl Cryst 2007;40:559. [32] Zhang Y, Haynes JA, Pint BA, Wright IG, Lee WY. Surf Coat Technol 2003;163- 164:19–24. [33] Chen MW, Glynn ML, Ott RT, Hufnagel TC, Hemker KJ. Acta Mater 2003;51:4279. 20 [34] Morawiec, A. J...

  5. Noble Metal Catalysts for Mercury Oxidation in Utility Flue Gas: Gold, Palladium and Platinum Formulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J

    2008-07-01

    The use of noble metals as catalysts for mercury oxidation in flue gas remains an area of active study. To date, field studies have focused on gold and palladium catalysts installed at pilot scale. In this article, we introduce bench-scale experimental results for gold, palladium and platinum catalysts tested in realistic simulated flue gas. Our initial results reveal some intriguing characteristics of catalytic mercury oxidation and provide insight for future research into this potentially important process.

  6. Tritium permeation experiments using reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel tube and erbium oxide coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takumi Chikada; Masashi Shimada; Robert Pawelko; Takayuki Terai; Takeo Muroga

    2013-09-01

    Low concentration tritium permeation experiments have been performed on uncoated F82H and Er2O3-coated tubular samples in the framework of the Japan-US TITAN collaborative program. Tritium permeability of the uncoated sample with 1.2 ppm tritium showed one order of magnitude lower than that with 100% deuterium. The permeability of the sample with 40 ppm tritium was more than twice higher than that of 1.2 ppm, indicating a surface contribution at the lower tritium concentration. The Er2O3-coated sample showed two orders of magnitude lower permeability than the uncoated sample, and lower permeability than that of the coated plate sample with 100% deuterium. It was also indicated that the memory effect of ion chambers in the primary and secondary circuits was caused by absorption of tritiated water vapor that was generated by isotope exchange reactions between tritium and surface water on the coating.

  7. Spinel-structured metal oxide on a substrate and method of making same by molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chambers, Scott A.

    2006-02-21

    A method of making a spinel-structured metal oxide on a substrate by molecular beam epitaxy, comprising the step of supplying activated oxygen, a first metal atom flux, and at least one other metal atom flux to the surface of the substrate, wherein the metal atom fluxes are individually controlled at the substrate so as to grow the spinel-structured metal oxide on the substrate and the metal oxide is substantially in a thermodynamically stable state during the growth of the metal oxide. A particular embodiment of the present invention encompasses a method of making a spinel-structured binary ferrite, including Co ferrite, without the need of a post-growth anneal to obtain the desired equilibrium state.

  8. Novel, band-controlled metal oxide compositions for semiconductor-mediated photocatalytic splitting of water to produce H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Narendra M.

    2013-02-05

    Semiconductor-mediated photo-catalytic dissociation of water offers a unique opportunity for the production of H{sub 2}, a sustainable source of energy. More efficient and chemically stable photo-catalysts, however, remain a vital requirement for commercial viability of this process. The recent research in my group has focused on the synthesis of several new metal oxide (MO) photo-catalysts, such as: LaInO{sub 3}, GaFeO{sub 3}, InVO{sub 4}, In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} and nanotubular TiO{sub 2}. These samples of controlled grain morphology have been synthesized by using different synthesis protocols and with and without coating of a noble metal co-catalyst. The doping of an impurity, either at cationic or at anionic lattice site, has helped in the tailoring of band structure and making these oxides visible-light-sensitive. Our study has revealed that the surface characteristics, grain morphology, band structure, and doping-induced lattice imperfections control the photo-physical properties and overall photo-catalytic water splitting activity of these metal/MO composites [1-6]. We have demonstrated that, besides promoting certain charge-transfer steps, metal-semiconductor interfaces influence the adsorption of water molecules and their subsequent interaction with photo-generated electron-hole pair at the catalyst surface. The role played by the above-mentioned micro-structural properties in photo-catalytic water splitting process will be discussed.

  9. Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.; Littlejohn, D.; Shi, Y.

    1997-08-19

    The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH{sub 3}. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: (a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20 and 90 C to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution. 34 figs.

  10. Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Littlejohn, David (Oakland, CA); Shi, Yao (Berkeley, CA)

    1997-08-19

    The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH.sub.3. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20.degree. and 90.degree. C. to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution.

  11. The evaluation of the corrosion resistance of metallic substrates protected by a hydrophobic coating 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Daniel G

    1996-01-01

    . Consequently, one particular use for hydrophobic materials is in the area of corrosion protection. When applied as a coating material, hydrophobic polymers, theoretically, should provide excellent protection against corrosive environments. In order to ascertain...

  12. Fabrication of Transparent-Conducting-Oxide-Coated Inverse Opals as Mesostructured Architectures for Electrocatalysis Applications: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -doped indium oxide (ITO) via atomic layer deposition (ALD). We demonstrate the utility of the resulting, photocatalysis, and dye- sensitized solar cells. KEYWORDS: nickel oxide, water oxidation, atomic-layer deposition- layer deposition (ALD); the advantage of this protocol is that it is not necessary to devise ways

  13. Process for diffusing metallic coatings into ceramics to improve their voltage withstanding capabilities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, H. Craig (Clearwater, FL); Zuhr, Herbert F. (St. Petersburg, FL)

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a method for diffusing a coating of manganese powder and titanium powder into a ceramic to improve its voltage hold off withstanding capability. The powder coated ceramic is fired for from about 30 to about 90 minutes within about one atmosphere of wet hydrogen at a temperature within the range of from about 1450.degree. to about 1520.degree. C to cause the mixture to penetrate into the ceramic to a depth on the order of a millimeter.

  14. Effect of edge roughness on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbon channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Matthew

    Effect of edge roughness on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbon channel metal-oxide-semiconductor on transport in graphene nanoribbon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors MOSFETs are reported of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2839330 Graphene has recently generated considerable interest as a semiconductor

  15. Process for making surfactant capped metal oxide nanocrystals, and products produced by the process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Rockenberger, Joerg

    2006-01-10

    Disclosed is a process for making surfactant capped nanocrystals of metal oxides which are dispersable in organic solvents. The process comprises decomposing a metal cupferron complex of the formula MXCupX, wherein M is a metal, and Cup is a N-substituted N-Nitroso hydroxylamine, in the presence of a coordinating surfactant, the reaction being conducted at a temperature ranging from about 150 to about 400.degree. C., for a period of time sufficient to complete the reaction. Also disclosed are compounds made by the process.

  16. High temperature solar selective coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Cheryl E

    2014-11-25

    Improved solar collectors (40) comprising glass tubing (42) attached to bellows (44) by airtight seals (56) enclose solar absorber tubes (50) inside an annular evacuated space (54. The exterior surfaces of the solar absorber tubes (50) are coated with improved solar selective coatings {48} which provide higher absorbance, lower emittance and resistance to atmospheric oxidation at elevated temperatures. The coatings are multilayered structures comprising solar absorbent layers (26) applied to the meta surface of the absorber tubes (50), typically stainless steel, topped with antireflective Savers (28) comprising at least two layers 30, 32) of refractory metal or metalloid oxides (such as titania and silica) with substantially differing indices of refraction in adjacent layers. Optionally, at least one layer of a noble metal such as platinum can be included between some of the layers. The absorbent layers cars include cermet materials comprising particles of metal compounds is a matrix, which can contain oxides of refractory metals or metalloids such as silicon. Reflective layers within the coating layers can comprise refractory metal silicides and related compounds characterized by the formulas TiSi. Ti.sub.3SiC.sub.2, TiAlSi, TiAN and similar compounds for Zr and Hf. The titania can be characterized by the formulas TiO.sub.2, Ti.sub.3O.sub.5. TiOx or TiO.sub.xN.sub.1-x with x 0 to 1. The silica can be at least one of SiO.sub.2, SiO.sub.2x or SiO.sub.2xN.sub.1-x with x=0 to 1.

  17. Coating system to permit direct brazing of ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cadden, Charles H. (Danville, CA); Hosking, F. Michael (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    This invention relates to a method for preparing the surface of a ceramic component that enables direct brazing using a non-active braze alloy. The present invention also relates to a method for directly brazing a ceramic component to a ceramic or metal member using this method of surface preparation, and to articles produced by using this brazing method. The ceramic can be high purity alumina. The method comprises applying a first coating of a silicon-bearing oxide material (e.g. silicon dioxide or mullite (3Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.2SiO.sub.2) to the ceramic. Next, a thin coating of active metal (e.g. Ti or V) is applied. Finally, a thicker coating of a non-active metal (e.g. Au or Cu) is applied. The coatings can be applied by physical vapor deposition (PVD). Alternatively, the active and non-active metals can be co-deposited (e.g. by sputtering a target made of mullite). After all of the coatings have been applied, the ceramic can be fired at a high temperature in a non-oxidizing environment to promote diffusion, and to enhance bonding of the coatings to the substrate. After firing, the metallized ceramic component can be brazed to other components using a conventional non-active braze alloy. Alternatively, the firing and brazing steps can be combined into a single step. This process can replace the need to perform a "moly-manganese" metallization step.

  18. Inorganic Metal Oxide/Organic Polymer Nanocomposites And Method Thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gash, Alexander E. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA); Simpson, Randy (Livermore, CA)

    2004-11-16

    A synthetic method for preparation of hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposites is disclosed herein. The method employs the use of stable metal in organic salts and organic solvents as well as an organic polymer with good solubility in the solvent system to produce novel nanocomposite energetic materials. In addition, fuel metal powders (particularly those that are oxophilic) can be incorporated into composition. This material has been characterized by thermal methods, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), N.sub.2 adsoprtion/desorption methods, and Fourier-Transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy. According to these characterization methods the organic polymer phase fills the nanopores of the material, providing superb mixing of the component phases in the energetic nanocomposite.

  19. Inorganic metal oxide/organic polymer nanocomposites and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Joe H.; Simpson, Randy

    2004-03-30

    A synthetic method for preparation of hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposites is disclosed herein. The method employs the use of stable metal inorganic salts and organic solvents as well as an organic polymer with good solubility in the solvent system to produce novel nanocomposite energetic materials. In addition, fuel metal powders (particularly those that are oxophillic) can be incorporated into composition. This material has been characterized by thermal methods, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), N.sub.2 adsoprtion/desorption methods, and Fourier-Transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy. According to these characterization methods the organic polymer phase fills the nanopores of the composite material, providing superb mixing of the component phases in the energetic nanocomposite.

  20. Evaluation of Novel Ceria-Supported Metal Oxides As Oxygen Carriers for Chemical-Looping Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    for copper-based materials, and at 950 °C for iron- and manganese-based materials. Methane or syngas (50% COEvaluation of Novel Ceria-Supported Metal Oxides As Oxygen Carriers for Chemical-Looping Combustion of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goteborg, Sweden

  1. A generalized kinetic model for the formation and growth of single-walled metal oxide nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    A generalized kinetic model for the formation and growth of single-walled metal oxide nanotubes G,n a School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA b School of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA c

  2. Ternary Self-Assembly of Ordered Metal Oxide Graphene Nanocomposites for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    , or polymer-based nanocomposites.4,5,16,17 Recently, a range of nanoscale building blocks, including carbon to achieve similar control is to use amphiphilic polymer or surfactant to direct the self-assembly of nanostructured metal oxides, semiconductors, and polymer materials.11 15 There has been a growing in- terest

  3. Electrochromic nickel oxide simultaneously doped with lithium and a metal dopant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillaspie, Dane T; Weir, Douglas G

    2014-04-01

    An electrochromic device comprising a counter electrode layer comprised of lithium metal oxide which provides a high transmission in the fully intercalated state and which is capable of long-term stability, is disclosed. Methods of making an electrochromic device comprising such a counter electrode are also disclosed.

  4. AC conductivity of nanoporous metal-oxide photoanodes for solar energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konezny, Steven J.

    AC conductivity of nanoporous metal-oxide photoanodes for solar energy conversion Steven J. Konezny% solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiency) exploited the large surface area of nanoporous thin for solar photoconversion is analyzed using a model based on fluctuation-induced tunneling conduction (FITC

  5. ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRON EXCITATION SPECTRA IN HEAVY RARE EARTH METALS, HYDRIDES AND OXIDES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    397 ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRON EXCITATION SPECTRA IN HEAVY RARE EARTH METALS, HYDRIDES AND OXIDES C thin evaporated foils of heavy rare earths (Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) in three different chemical of high energy incident electrons (75 keV) transmitted through thin foils of yttric rare earth elements

  6. Improved oxidation resistance of organic/inorganic composite atomic layer deposition coated cellulose nanocrystal aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Sean W.; Matthews, David J.; Conley, John F., E-mail: jconley@eecs.oregonstate.edu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1148 Kelley Engineering Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Buesch, Christian; Simonsen, John [Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 119 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) aerogels are coated with thin conformal layers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using atomic layer deposition to form hybrid organic/inorganic nanocomposites. Electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} penetrated more than 1500??m into the aerogel for extended precursor pulse and exposure/purge times. The measured profile of coated fiber radius versus depth from the aerogel surface agrees well with simulations of precursor penetration depth in modeled aerogel structures. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated CNC aerogel nanocomposites do not show significant thermal degradation below 295?°C as compared with 175?°C for uncoated CNC aerogels, an improvement of over 100?°C.

  7. Bond Coating Performance of Thermal Barrier Coatings for Industrial Gas Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Ian G; Pint, Bruce A

    2005-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings are intended to work in conjunction with internal cooling schemes to reduce the metal temperature of critical hot gas path components in gas turbine engines. The thermal resistance is typically provided by a 100--250 {mu}m thick layer of ceramic (most usually zirconia stabilized with an addition of 7--8 wt% of yttria), and this is deposited on to an approximately 50 {mu} thick, metallic bond coating that is intended to anchor the ceramic to the metallic surface, to provide some degree of mechanical compliance, and to act as a reservoir of protective scale-forming elements (Al) to protect the underlying superalloy from high-temperature corrosion. A feature of importance to the durability of thermal barrier coatings is the early establishment of a continuous, protective oxide layer (preferably {alpha}-alumina) at the bond coating-ceramic interface. Because zirconia is permeable to oxygen, this oxide layer continues to grow during service. Some superalloys are inherently resistant to high-temperature oxidation, so a separate bond coating may not be needed in those cases. Thermal barrier coatings have been in service in aeroengines for a number of years, and the use of this technology for increasing the durability and/or efficiency of industrial gas turbines is currently of significant interest. The data presented were taken from an investigation of routes to optimize bond coating performance, and the focus of the paper is on the influences of reactive elements and Pt on the oxidation behaviour of NiAl-based alloys determined in studies using cast versions of bond coating compositions.

  8. Nanoparticles as Reactive Precursors: Synthesis of Alloys, Intermetallic Compounds, and Multi-Metal Oxides Through Low-Temperature Annealing and Conversion Chemistry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, John C.

    2010-07-14

    and intermetallic compounds at or below 600 degrees C. This method was further extended to synthesizing multi-metal oxide systems by annealing metal oxide nanoparticle composites hundreds of degrees lower than more traditional methods. Nanoparticles of Pt (supported...

  9. Investigation of some new hydro(solvo)thermal synthesis routes to nanostructured mixed-metal oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnett, David L.; Harunsani, Mohammad H.; Kashtiban, Reza J.; Playford, Helen Y.; Sloan, Jeremy; Hannon, Alex C.; Walton, Richard I.

    2014-06-01

    We present a study of two new solvothermal synthesis approaches to mixed-metal oxide materials and structural characterisation of the products formed. The solvothermal oxidation of metallic gallium by a diethanolamine solution of iron(II) chloride at 240 °C produces a crystalline sample of a spinel-structured material, made up of nano-scale particles typically 20 nm in dimension. XANES spectroscopy at the K-edge shows that the material contains predominantly Fe{sup 2+} in an octahedral environment, but that a small amount of Fe{sup 3+} is also present. Careful analysis using transmission electron microscopy and powder neutron diffraction shows that the sample is actually a mixture of two spinel materials: predominantly (>97%) an Fe{sup 2+} phase Ga{sub 1.8}Fe{sub 1.2}O{sub 3.9}, but with a minor impurity phase that is iron-rich. In contrast, the hydrothermal reaction of titanium bis(ammonium lactato)dihydroxide in water with increasing amounts of Sn(IV) acetate allows nanocrystalline samples of the SnO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} solid solution to be prepared directly, as proved by powder XRD and Raman spectroscopy. - Graphical abstract: New solvothermal synthesis approaches to spinel and rutile mixed-metal oxides are reported. - Highlights: • Solvothermal oxidation of gallium metal in organic iron(II) solution gives a novel iron gallate spinel. • Hydrothermal reaction of titanium(IV) complex and tin(IV) acetate produces the complete SnO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} solid solution. • Nanostructured mixed-metal oxide phases are produced directly from solution.

  10. Hydroxyl radical oxidation of phospholipid-coated NaCl particles.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dilbeck, Christopher W; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2013-01-01

    Chem. Chem. Phys. , 2013, Hydroxyl radical oxidation ofsuch as ozone and hydroxyl (OH) radicals. Laboratory studiescalculated concentration of hydroxyl radicals, generated by

  11. Metal Current Collector Protected by Oxide Film - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matter ByMentor-ProtegeFrom the Director HereMetal Current

  12. Rare earth zirconium oxide buffer layers on metal substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Robert K. (Knoxville, TN); Paranthaman, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Chirayil, Thomas G. (Knoxville, TN); Lee, Dominic F. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN); Feenstra, Roeland (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0metal-organic decomposition. The laminate article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  13. Method for preparing hydride configurations and reactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1988-08-16

    A method for preparing highly hydrogen-reactive surfaces on metals which normally require substantial heating, high pressures, or an extended induction period, which involves pretreatment of said surfaces with either a non-oxidizing acid or hydrogen gas to form a hydrogen-bearing coating on said surfaces, and subsequently heating said coated metal in the absence of moisture and oxygen for a period sufficient to decompose said coating and cooling said metal to room temperature. Surfaces so treated will react almost instantaneously with hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure. The method is particularly applicable to uranium, thorium, and lanthanide metals.

  14. Oxidation induced amorphous stabilization of the subsurface region in Zr-Cu metallic glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, K. R. [Light Metal Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 797 Changwondaero, Seongsan-gu, Changwon, Gyeongnam 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Park, J. M. [Materials Research Center, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT) San 14-1, Nongseo-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-712 (Korea, Republic of); Park, S. H.; Na, M. Y.; Kim, K. C.; Kim, D. H., E-mail: dohkim@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Non-crystalline Materials, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, W. T. [Department of Optical Engineering, Cheongju University, 36 Naedock-dong, Cheongju 360-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-20

    In the present study, we demonstrate that selective surface oxidation of Zr{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} metallic glass can stabilize the amorphous structure in the subsurface region of the matrix. The oxidation proceeds by selective oxidation of Zr, forming monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} layer on the surface, and the subsurface layer becomes Cu-enriched due to back diffusion of Cu atoms from the oxide layer. Interestingly, in this system, the composition change in the subsurface region leads to enhancement of glass stability, forming of a double layered surface structure consisted of inner amorphous layer and outer monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} layer even when the remaining matrix is completely crystallized.

  15. Optimized upper bound analysis of polymer coated metal rod extrusion through conical die 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Ritesh Lalit

    2007-09-17

    Extrusion is a metal forming process used extensively in industry to produce different structural, mechanical, electrical, architectural, automotive and aerospace application parts. Currently after extrusion, the rod is ...

  16. Evaluation of Residual Stress Levels in Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings using a Curvature Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean, J.; Gu, T.; Clyne, T. W.

    2014-11-09

    of the residual substrate was obtained, via SEM microscopy of polished cross-sections. 2.3. Curvature measurement Residual stress in coatings formed on such thin strips will tend to give rise to curvature, which can be measured in order to obtain information about... plasma channels through to the substrate, combination of themetalwith oxygen in the vapour phase and melting of surrounding regions, followed by rapid condensation and solidification, and the creation of porosity and micro-cracks. Furthermore, even...

  17. Electrical conductivity in oxygen-deficient phases of transition metal oxides from first-principles calculations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bondi, Robert James; Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Marinella, Matthew

    2013-09-01

    Density-functional theory calculations, ab-initio molecular dynamics, and the Kubo-Greenwood formula are applied to predict electrical conductivity in Ta2Ox (0x5) as a function of composition, phase, and temperature, where additional focus is given to various oxidation states of the O monovacancy (VOn; n=0,1+,2+). Our calculations of DC conductivity at 300K agree well with experimental measurements taken on Ta2Ox thin films and bulk Ta2O5 powder-sintered pellets, although simulation accuracy can be improved for the most insulating, stoichiometric compositions. Our conductivity calculations and further interrogation of the O-deficient Ta2O5 electronic structure provide further theoretical basis to substantiate VO0 as a donor dopant in Ta2O5 and other metal oxides. Furthermore, this dopant-like behavior appears specific to neutral VO cases in both Ta2O5 and TiO2 and was not observed in other oxidation states. This suggests that reduction and oxidation reactions may effectively act as donor activation and deactivation mechanisms, respectively, for VO0 in transition metal oxides.

  18. A method for characterizing and improving the damage resistance of the outer metallic coating on IFE Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Landon J.

    2009-01-01

    a collision-free path to roll during coating to avoid staticcups for coating shells and tilted to make shells roll whencups for coating shells and tilted to make shells roll when

  19. Lipidoid-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Efficient DNA and siRNA delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Shan

    The safe, targeted and effective delivery of gene therapeutics remains a significant barrier to their broad clinical application. Here we develop a magnetic nucleic acid delivery system composed of iron oxide nanoparticles ...

  20. Graphene-oxide-coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as high voltage cathode for lithium ion batteries with high energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    Graphene-oxide-coated LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 as high voltage cathode for lithium ion batteries with high Since Sony rst commercialized lithium ion batteries in the early 1990s, the market for lithium ion of the great success of lithium ion battery technology developed for portable electronic devices, higher

  1. Modeling of surface oxidation and oxidation induced damage in metal matrix composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Xinzheng

    1995-01-01

    of the moving interface problem. In addition to the surface oxidation formulation, a one-way coupled thermomechanical analysis of a unidirectional SiC/Ti-15-3 composite undergoing simple tension is performed and the critical applied load for surface crack...

  2. Experimental demonstration of an on-chip polarization splitter in a submicron asymmetric dielectric-coated metal slit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jianjun, E-mail: jjchern@pku.edu.cn; Sun, Chengwei; Gong, Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Li, Hongyun [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-06-09

    A submicron asymmetric dielectric-coated metal slit with a Fabry–Perot (FP) nano-resonator is experimentally fabricated to realize an ultra-small on-chip polarization splitter. In the hybrid plasmonic structure, both of the transverse-electric (TE) and transverse-magnetic (TM) modes can be efficiently generated on the front metal surface. Based on the quite different resonant conditions and the different field confinements of the two orthogonal polarization modes in the FP resonator, the TM and TE modes are generated to propagate in the opposite directions along the metal surface. In this device, there are no coupling waveguide regions, and the excitation and the splitting of the TE and TM modes are integrated into the same asymmetric nano-slit. This considerably shrinks the device dimension to only about 850?nm (about one wavelength). In such a submicron asymmetric slit, the measured extinction ratios for the two opposite directions can reach up to (?{sub L}/?{sub R}){sup TM}???1:14 and (?{sub L}/?{sub R}){sup TE}???11:1 at ??=?820?nm. This on-chip submicron polarization splitter is of importance in highly integrated photonic circuits.

  3. Metal ferrite spinel energy storage devices and methods for making and using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Alan W. (Niwot, CO); Perkins, Christopher (Boulder, CO); Scheffe, Jonathan (Westminster, CO); George, Steven M. (Boulder, CO); Lichty, Paul (Westminster, CO)

    2012-05-29

    1-100 nm metal ferrite spinel coatings are provided on substrates, preferably by using an atomic layer deposition process. The coatings are able to store energy such as solar energy, and to release that stored energy, via a redox reaction. The coating is first thermally or chemically reduced. The reduced coating is then oxidized in a second step to release energy and/or hydrogen, carbon monoxide or other reduced species.

  4. Metal ferrite spinel energy storage devices and methods for making and using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Alan W.; Perkins, Christopher; Scheffe, Jonathan; George, Steven M.; Lichty, Paul

    2013-03-19

    1-100 nm metal ferrite spinel coatings are provided on substrates, preferably by using an atomic layer deposition process. The coatings are able to store energy such as solar energy, and to release that stored energy, via a redox reaction. The coating is first thermally or chemically reduced. The reduced coating is then oxidized in a second step to release energy and/or hydrogen, carbon monoxide or other reduced species.

  5. Preparation and Exceptional Lithium Anodic Performance of Porous Carbon-Coated ZnO Quantum Dots Derived from a Metal-Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    batteries. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs), a fast-developing technology area in electric energy storage be used in LIBs. As an example, metal oxides can potentially be substituted for graphite (370 mA h g-1

  6. Oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethane with O[subscript 2] as oxidant on selected transition metal-loaded zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Xufeng; Hoel, Cathleen A.; Sachtler, Wolfgang M.H.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.; Weitz, Eric

    2009-09-14

    Ni-, Cu-, and Fe-loaded acidic and basic Y zeolites were synthesized, and their catalytic properties for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane (ODHE) to ethylene were characterized. Acidic Ni-loaded Y zeolite exhibits an ethylene productivity of up to 108 g{sub C{sub 2}H{sub 4}}g{sub cat}{sup -1} h{sup -1} with a selectivity of {approx}75%. Acidic Cu- and Fe-loaded Y zeolites have an ethylene productivity of up to 0.37 g{sub C{sub 2}H{sub 4}}g{sub cat}{sup -1} h{sup -1} and a selectivity of {approx}50%. For the same metal, the acidity of the zeolite favors both ODHE productivity and ethylene selectivity. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) studies show that Ni, present in particles on Ni/HY during the ODHE catalytic process, contains both Ni-Ni and Ni-O bonds, and that the ratio of oxidized Ni versus metallic Ni increases with the temperature. The insights these studies provide into the ODHE reaction mechanism are discussed.

  7. Inert anode containing oxides of nickel, iron and zinc useful for the electrolytic production of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA)

    2002-01-01

    An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO: 0.2 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.8 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.3 ZnO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

  8. Inert anode containing oxides of nickel iron and cobalt useful for the electrolytic production of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

    2002-01-01

    An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO: 0.15 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.85 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.45 CoO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

  9. Composite materials with metal oxide attached to lead chalcogenide nanocrystal quantum dots with linkers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fuke, Nobuhiro; Koposov, Alexey Y; Sykora, Milan; Hoch, Laura

    2014-12-16

    Composite materials useful for devices such as photoelectrochemical solar cells include a substrate, a metal oxide film on the substrate, nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQDs) of lead sulfide, lead selenide, and lead telluride, and linkers that attach the NQDs to the metal oxide film. Suitable linkers preserve the 1s absorption peak of the NQDs. A suitable linker has a general structure A-B-C where A is a chemical group adapted for binding to a MO.sub.x and C is a chemical group adapted for binding to a NQD and B is a divalent, rigid, or semi-rigid organic spacer moiety. Other linkers that preserve the 1s absorption peak may also be used.

  10. Molecular receptors in metal oxide sol-gel materials prepared via molecular imprinting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sasaki, Darryl Y. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Daitch, Charles E. (Charlottesville, VA); Shea, Kenneth J. (Irvine, CA); Rush, Daniel J. (Philadelphia, PA)

    2000-01-01

    A method is provided for molecularly imprinting the surface of a sol-gel material, by forming a solution comprised of a sol-gel material, a solvent, an imprinting molecule, and a functionalizing siloxane monomer of the form Si(OR).sub.3-n X.sub.n, wherein n is an integer between zero and three and X is a functional group capable of reacting with the imprinting molecule, evaporating the solvent, and removing the imprinting molecule to form the molecularly imprinted metal oxide sol-gel material. The use of metal oxide sol-gels allows the material porosity, pore size, density, surface area, hardness, electrostatic charge, polarity, optical density, and surface hydrophobicity to be tailored and be employed as sensors and in catalytic and separations operations.

  11. Tubular solid oxide fuel cells with porous metal supports and ceramic interconnections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Kevin (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2012-05-08

    An intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell structure capable of operating at from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. having a very thin porous hollow elongated metallic support tube having a thickness from 0.10 mm to 1.0 mm, preferably 0.10 mm to 0.35 mm, a porosity of from 25 vol. % to 50 vol. % and a tensile strength from 700 GPa to 900 GPa, which metallic tube supports a reduced thickness air electrode having a thickness from 0.010 mm to 0.2 mm, a solid oxide electrolyte, a cermet fuel electrode, a ceramic interconnection and an electrically conductive cell to cell contact layer.

  12. NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDES FOR ANODES OF LI-ION RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Au, M.

    2009-12-04

    The aligned nanorods of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and nanoporous hollow spheres (NHS) of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated as the anodes for Li-ion rechargeable batteries. The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods demonstrated 1433 mAh/g reversible capacity. The NHS of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} delivered 400 mAh/g and 250 mAh/g capacities respectively in multiple galvonastatic discharge-charge cycles. It was found that high capacity of NHS of metal oxides is sustainable attributed to their unique structure that maintains material integrity during cycling. The nanostructured metal oxides exhibit great potential as the new anode materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries with high energy density, low cost and inherent safety.

  13. ADVANCED ELECTRON BEAM TECHNIQUES FOR METALLIC AND CERAMIC PROTECTIVE COATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, Donald H.

    2013-01-01

    of Super alloys for Gas Turbine Engines, 11 J, Metals, 22,industrial and utility gas turbine engines will probably beof diesel and gas turbine engines to operate successfully on

  14. Combinatorial approach for development of new metal oxides materials for all oxide photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shimanovich, Klimentiy

    2015-01-01

    The combinatorial approach to all oxide material and device research is based on the synthesis of hundreds of related materials in a single experiment. This approach requires the development of new tools to rapidly characterize these materials libraries and new techniques to analyze the resulting data. The research presented here is intended to make a contribution towards meeting this demand, and thereby advance the pace of materials research. In many cases photovoltaic determinations are well-suited for high throughput methodologies, enabling direct quantitative analysis of properties whose implementation I demonstrate my thesis. This thesis focuses on the development and utilization of high throughput and combinatorial methods that have incorporated, or are associated with, the all-oxide photovoltaic field. The development of new absorbers often requires novel buffer layers, contact materials, and interface engineering. The importance and contribution of the combinatorial material science approach for the d...

  15. FY05 HPCRM Annual Report: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Based Amorphous Metal Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J; Choi, J; Haslam, J; Day, S; Yang, N; Headley, T; Lucadamo, G; Yio, J; Chames, J; Gardea, A; Clift, M; Blue, G; Peters, W; Rivard, J; Harper, D; Swank, D; Bayles, R; Lemieux, E; Brown, R; Wolejsza, T; Aprigliano, L; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Aprigliano, L; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Lavernia, E; Schoenung, J; Ajdelsztajn, L; Dannenberg, J; Graeve, O; Lewandowski, J; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Boudreau, J

    2007-09-20

    New corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals have been identified from published data or developed through combinatorial synthesis, and tested to determine their relative corrosion resistance. Many of these materials can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in some very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Two Fe-based amorphous metal formulations have been found that appear to have corrosion resistance comparable to, or better than that of Ni-based Alloy C-22, based on breakdown potential and corrosion rate. Both Cr and Mo provide corrosion resistance, B enables glass formation, and Y lowers critical cooling rate (CCR). SAM1651 has yttrium added, and has a nominal critical cooling rate of only 80 Kelvin per second, while SAM2X7 (similar to SAM2X5) has no yttrium, and a relatively high critical cooling rate of 610 Kelvin per second. Both amorphous metal formulations have strengths and weaknesses. SAM1651 (yttrium added) has a low critical cooling rate (CCR), which enables it to be rendered as a completely amorphous thermal spray coating. Unfortunately, it is relatively difficult to atomize, with powders being irregular in shape. This causes the powder to be difficult to pneumatically convey during thermal spray deposition. Gas atomized SAM1651 powder has required cryogenic milling to eliminate irregularities that make flow difficult. SAM2X5 (no yttrium) has a high critical cooling rate, which has caused problems associated with devitrification. SAM2X5 can be gas atomized to produce spherical powders of SAM2X5, which enable more facile thermal spray deposition. The reference material, nickel-based Alloy C-22, is an outstanding corrosion-resistant engineering material. Even so, crevice corrosion has been observed with C-22 in hot sodium chloride environments without buffer or inhibitor. Comparable metallic alloys such as SAM2X5 and SAM1651 may also experience crevice corrosion under sufficiently harsh conditions. Accelerated crevice corrosion tests are now being conducted to intentionally induce crevice corrosion, and to determine those environmental conditions where such localized attack occurs. Such materials are extremely hard, and provide enhanced resistance to abrasion and gouges (stress risers) from backfill operations, and possibly even tunnel boring. The hardness of Type 316L Stainless Steel is approximately 150 VHN, that of Alloy C-22 is approximately 250 VHN, and that of HVOF SAM2X5 ranges from 1100-1300 VHN. These new materials provide a viable coating option for repository engineers. SAM2X5 and SAM1651 coatings can be applied with thermal spray processes without any significant loss of corrosion resistance. Both Alloy C-22 and Type 316L stainless lose their resistance to corrosion during thermal spraying. Containers for the transportation, storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) with corrosion resistant coatings are envisioned. For example, an enhanced multi-purpose container (MPC) could be made with such coatings, leveraging existing experience in the fabrication of such containers. These coating materials could be used to protect the final closure weld on SNF/HLW disposal containers, eliminate need for stress mitigation. Integral drip shield could be produced by directly spraying it onto the disposal container, thereby eliminating the need for an expensive titanium drip shield. In specific areas where crevice corrosion is anticipated, such as the contact point between the disposal container and pallet, HVOF coatings could be used to buildup thickness, thereby selectively adding corrosion life where it is needed. Both SAM2X5 & SAM1651 have high boron content which enable them to absorb neutrons and therefore be used for criticality control in baskets. Alloy C-22 and 316L have no neutron absorber, and cannot be used for such functions. Borated stainless steel and G

  16. Study of metallic powder behavior in very low pressure plasma spraying (VLPPS) — Application to the manufacturing of titanium–aluminum coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vautherin, B.; Planche, M.-P.; Montavon, G.; Lapostolle, F.; Quet, A.; Bianchi, L.

    2015-08-28

    In this study, metallic materials made of aluminum and titanium were manufactured implementing very low pressure plasma spraying (VLPPS). Aluminum was selected at first as a demonstrative material due to its rather low vaporization enthalpy (i.e., 381.9 kJ·mol?ą). Developments were then carried out with titanium which exhibits a higher vaporization enthalpy (i.e., 563.6 kJ·mol?ą). Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was implemented to analyze the behavior of each solid precursor (metallic powders) when it is injected into the plasma jet under very low pressure (i.e., in the 150 Pa range). Besides, aluminum, titanium and titanium–aluminum coatings were deposited in the same conditions implementing a stick-cathode plasma torch operated at 50 kW, maximum power. Coating phase compositions were identified by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Coating elementary compositions were quantified by Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. The coating structures were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The coating void content was determined by Ultra-Small Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS). The coatings exhibit a two-scale structure corresponding to condensed vapors (smaller scale) and solidified areas (larger scale). Titanium–aluminum sprayed coatings, with various Ti/Al atomic ratios, are constituted of three phases: metastable ?-Ti, Al and metastable ??-Ti?Al. This latter is formed at elevated temperature in the plasma flow, before being condensed. Its rather small fraction, impeded by the rather small amount of vaporized Ti, does not allow modifying however the coating hardness.

  17. Temperature threshold for nanorod structuring of metal and oxide films grown by glancing angle deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deniz, Derya; Lad, Robert J.

    2011-01-15

    Thin films of tin (Sn), aluminum (Al), gold (Au), ruthenium (Ru), tungsten (W), ruthenium dioxide (RuO{sub 2}), tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}), and tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) were grown by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) to determine the nanostructuring temperature threshold, {Theta}{sub T}, above which adatom surface diffusion becomes large enough such that nanorod morphology is no longer formed during growth. The threshold was found to be lower in metals compared to oxides. Films were grown using both dc and pulsed dc magnetron sputtering with continuous substrate rotation over the temperature range from 291 to 866 K. Film morphologies, structures, and compositions were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Films were also grown in a conventional configuration for comparison. For elemental metals, nanorod structuring occurs for films with melting points higher than that of Al (933 K) when grown at room temperature with a rotation rate of {approx}5 rpm, corresponding to a value of {Theta}{sub T}{approx_equal}0.33{+-}0.01. For the oxide films, a value of {Theta}{sub T}{approx_equal}0.5 was found, above which GLAD nanorod structuring does not occur. The existence of a nanostructuring temperature threshold in both metal and oxide GLAD films can be attributed to greater adatom mobilities as temperature is increased resulting in nonkinetically limited film nucleation and growth processes.

  18. Effect of electron collecting metal oxide layer in normal and inverted structure polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, A.; Liu, X.; Sun, Y. C.; Djuriši?, A. B. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, P. R. (China); Ng, A. M. C. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, P. R. China and Nanostructure Institute for Energy and Environmental Research, Division of Physical Sciences, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen (China); Chan, W. K. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, P. R. (China)

    2013-12-04

    We performed a systematic study of the effect of electron collecting metal oxide layer on the performance of P3HT: PCBM solar cells. Zinc oxide (ZnO) or titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) buffer layers were prepared by either e-beam evaporation or solution processing method. We also compared the photovoltaic performance of inserting the buffer layer between indium tin oxide (ITO) and the polymer layer for the inverted structure (ITO/ ZnO or TiO{sub 2}/P3HT:PCBM/V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Au) as well as inserting the buffers layers between the polymer and the aluminum electrode for the conventional structure (ITO/V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/P3HT:PCBM/ZnO or TiO{sub 2}/Al). The results are shown in detail.

  19. Synthesis of silica coated zinc oxide–poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) matrix and its UV shielding evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Mohankandhasamy; Kim, Yu Jun; Gao, Haiyan; Yi, Dong Kee; An, Jeong Ho

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Well layer thickness controlled silica shell was made on ZnO nanoparticles. • PEAA, an interfacial agent is used to make nanocomposite–polymer matrix by twin-screw extruder. • Si-ZnO/PEAA matrix is highly stable and UV protective as compared to ZnO/PEAA matrix. • Nanoparticle embedded polymer matrix is suggested to make UV shielding fabrics with Nylon4. - Abstract: Silica coated zinc oxide nanoparticles (Si-ZnO NPs) (7 nm thick) were synthesized successfully and melt blended with poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (PEAA resin) to improving ultraviolet (UV) shielding of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). The photostability of both the ZnO NPs and Si-ZnO NPs were analyzed by the difference in photoluminescence (PL) and by methylene blue (MB) degradation. Photo-degradation studies confirmed that Si-ZnO NPs are highly photostable compared to ZnO NPs. The melt blended matrices were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy interfaced with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FE-SEM-EDX). The UV shielding property was analyzed from the transmittance spectra of UV–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy. The results confirmed fine dispersion of thick Si-ZnO NPs in the entire resin matrix. Moreover, the Si-ZnO/PEAA showed about 97% UV shielding properties than the ZnO/PEAA.

  20. Method of synthesizing a plurality of reactants and producing thin films of electro-optically active transition metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.; Ruth, M.R.

    1985-08-16

    A method of synthesizing a plurality of reactants by inducing a reaction by plasma deposition among the reactants. The plasma reaction is effective for consolidating the reactants and producing thin films of electro-optically active transition metal oxides.

  1. Modelling of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of metallic and oxide fuels for sodium fast reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karahan, Aydin

    2009-01-01

    A robust and reliable code to model the irradiation behavior of metal and oxide fuels in sodium cooled fast reactors is developed. Modeling capability was enhanced by adopting a non-empirical mechanistic approach to the ...

  2. Evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of hydrated metal oxide nanoparticles by INS techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Elinor; Ross, Dr. Nancy; Parker, Stewart F.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution we will present a detailed methodology for the elucidation of the following aspects of the thermodynamic properties of hydrated metal oxide nanoparticles from high-resolution, low-temperature inelastic neutron scattering (INS) data: (i) the isochoric heat capacity and entropy of the hydration layers both chemi- and physisorbed to the particle surface; (ii) the magnetic contribution to the heat capacity of the nanoparticles. This will include the calculation of the vibrational density of states (VDOS) from the raw INS spectra, and the subsequent extraction of the thermodynamic data from the VDOS. This technique will be described in terms of a worked example namely, cobalt oxide (Co3O4 and CoO). To complement this evaluation of the physical properties of metal oxide nanoparticle systems, we will emphasise the importance of high-resolution, high-energy INS for the determination of the structure and dynamics of the water species, namely molecular (H2O) and dissociated water (OH, hydroxyl), confined to the oxide surfaces. For this component of the chapter we will focus on INS investigations of hydrated isostructural rutile (a-TiO2) and cassiterite (SnO2) nanoparticles. We will complete this discussion of nanoparticle analysis by including an appraisal of the INS instrumentation employed in such studies with particular focus on TOSCA [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), U.K.] and the newly developed spectrometer SEQUOIA [SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), U.S.A].

  3. Surface modification, organometallic and polyaryl polymer coatings, and flame spray technologies for preventing corrosion of metals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T.

    1995-07-01

    To improve adherent properties of electrogalvanized steel (EGS) to polymeric topcoats, the surfaces of EGS were modified by polyelectrolyte-modified zinc phosphating solution. The electrochemical reaction between phosphating solution and EGS led to the complete coverage with fully grown hopeite crystals after only 5 sec treatment, thereby improving adhesion to topcoating and providing protection of EGS against corrosion. To evaluate the ability of polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) polyaryl thermoplastic coatings to protect zinc phosphate (Zn{center_dot}Ph)treated steels from corrosion in a wet, harsh environment ( 1.0 wt % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 3.0 wt % NaCl and 96.0 wt % water at temperatures from 25{degrees} to 200{degree}C), we exposed them in an autoclave to attempt heating-cooling cyclic fatigue tests (1 cycle = 12 hr at 200{degrees}C + 12 hr at 25{degrees}C) up to 90 times. The major chemical reaction at the interface between the PPS and Zn in the Zn-Ph layer during cycling led to the formation of ZnS reaction product, which enhanced the Zn-Ph-to-PPS adhesive bond; correspondingly, there were no signs of peeling and separation of the coating after 90 cycles. organometallosiloxane polymer (OMSP) was synthesized through the hydrolysis-condensation reaction of the mixed precursor solutions of the N-[3-(triethoxysily)propyl]-4,5,-dihydroimidazole and {Beta}-trimethoxysilylethyl-2-pyridine sols in liquor medium and the metal alkoxides and metallocene dichloride dissolved in water or tetrahydrofurane. The OMSP films (thickness, 0. 5 to 1. 0 {mu}m) deposited by simple dip-withdrawing coating methods to aluminum alloys displayed the impedance of > 10{sup 6} ohm-cm {sup 2} after exposure for 40 days in 0.5 N NaCl solution at 25{degrees}C and the 3000 hr-salt spray resistance. Using a flame spray coating process, the methacrylic acid-modified polyethylene copolymer was overlaid onto cold rolled steel surfaces.

  4. Composite neutron absorbing coatings for nuclear criticality control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Richard N.; Swank, W. David; Mizia, Ronald E.

    2005-07-19

    Thermal neutron absorbing composite coating materials and methods of applying such coating materials to spent nuclear fuel storage systems are provided. A composite neutron absorbing coating applied to a substrate surface includes a neutron absorbing layer overlying at least a portion of the substrate surface, and a corrosion resistant top coat layer overlying at least a portion of the neutron absorbing layer. An optional bond coat layer can be formed on the substrate surface prior to forming the neutron absorbing layer. The neutron absorbing layer can include a neutron absorbing material, such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium phosphate, dispersed in a metal alloy matrix. The coating layers may be formed by a plasma spray process or a high velocity oxygen fuel process.

  5. Co-Al mixed metal oxides/carbon nanotubes nanocomposite prepared via a precursor route and enhanced catalytic property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Guoli; Wang Hui; Xiang Xu; Li Feng

    2013-01-15

    The present work reported the synthesis of Co-Al mixed metal oxides/carbon nanotubes (CoAl-MMO/CNT) nanocomposite from Co-Al layered double hydroxide/CNTs composite precursor (CoAl-LDH/CNT). The materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), low temperature nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiments, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA), Raman spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results revealed that in CoAl-MMO/CNT nanocomposite, the nanoparticles of cobalt oxide (CoO) and Co-containing spinel-type complex metal oxides could be well-dispersed on the surface of CNTs, thus forming the heterostructure of CoAl-MMO and CNTs. Furthermore, as-synthesized CoAl-MMO/CNT nanocomposite was utilized as additives for catalytic thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP). Compared to those for pure AP and CoAl-MMO, the peak temperature of AP decomposition for CoAl-MMO/CNT was significantly decreased, which is attributed to the novel heterostructure and synergistic effect of multi-component metal oxides of nanocomposite. - Graphical abstract: Hybrid Co-Al mixed metal oxides/carbon nanotubes nanocomposite showed the enhanced catalytic activity in the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate, as compared to carbon nanotubes and pure Co-Al mixed metal oxides. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-Al mixed metal oxides/carbon nanotubes nanocomposite was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-Al mixed metal oxides consisted of cobalt oxide and Co-containing spinels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocomposite exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the decomposition of AP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The superior catalytic property is related to novel heterostructure and composition.

  6. High efficiency, oxidation resistant radio frequency susceptor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M.; Klett, James W.

    2004-10-26

    An article and method of producing an article for converting energy from one form to another having a pitch-derived graphitic foam carbon foam substrate and a single layer coating applied to all exposed surfaces wherein the coating is either silicon carbide or carbides formed from a Group IVA metal. The article is used as fully coated carbon foam susceptors that more effectively absorb radio frequency (RF) band energy and more effectively convert the RF energy into thermal band energy or sensible heat. The essentially non-permeable coatings also serve as corrosion or oxidation resistant barriers.

  7. Synthesis and structural, magnetic, thermal, and transport properties of several transition metal oxides and aresnides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Supriyo

    2010-05-16

    Oxide compounds containing the transition metal vanadium (V) have attracted a lot of attention in the field of condensed matter physics owing to their exhibition of interesting properties including metal-insulator transitons, structural transitions, ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic orderings, and heavy fermion behavior. Binary vanadium oxides V{sub n}O{sub 2n-1} where 2 {le} n {le} 9 have triclinic structures and exhibit metal-insulator and antiferromagnetic transitions. The only exception is V{sub 7}O{sub 13} which remains metallic down to 4 K. The ternary vanadium oxide LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4} has the normal spinel structure, is metallic, does not undergo magnetic ordering and exhibits heavy fermion behavior below 10 K. CaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} has an orthorhombic structure with the vanadium spins forming zigzag chains and has been suggested to be a model system to study the gapless chiral phase. These provide great motivation for further investigation of some known vanadium compounds as well as to explore new vanadium compounds in search of new physics. This thesis consists, in part, of experimental studies involving sample preparation and magnetic, transport, thermal, and x-ray measurements on some strongly correlated eletron systems containing the transition metal vanadium. The compounds studied are LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4}, YV{sub 4}O{sub 8}, and YbV{sub 4}O{sub 8}. The recent discovery of superconductivity in RFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} (R = La, Ce, Pr, Gd, Tb, Dy, Sm, and Nd), and AFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (A = Ba, Sr, Ca, and Eu) doped with K, Na, or Cs at the A site with relatively high T{sub c} has sparked tremendous activities in the condensed matter physics community and a renewed interest in the area of superconductivity as occurred following the discovery of the layered cuprate high T{sub c} superconductors in 1986. To discover more superconductors with hopefully higher T{sub c}'s, it is extremely important to investigate compounds having crystal structures related to the compounds showing high T{sub c} superconductivity. Along with the vanadium oxide compounds described before, this thesis describes our investigations of magnetic, structural, thermal and transport properties of EuPd{sub 2}Sb{sub 2} single crystals which have a crystal structure closely related to the AFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} compounds and also a study of the reaction kinetics of the formation of LaFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x}.

  8. System and process for aluminization of metal-containing substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chou, Yeong-Shyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W

    2015-11-03

    A system and method are detailed for aluminizing surfaces of metallic substrates, parts, and components with a protective alumina layer in-situ. Aluminum (Al) foil sandwiched between the metallic components and a refractory material when heated in an oxidizing gas under a compression load at a selected temperature forms the protective alumina coating on the surface of the metallic components. The alumina coating minimizes evaporation of volatile metals from the metallic substrates, parts, and components in assembled devices during operation at high temperature that can degrade performance.

  9. Transfer printing of patterned metal films using parylene C coated surfaces J. Bavier a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    and then transfer printed onto either polyethylene naphthalene (PEN), polycarbonate (PC) or Kapton substrates conductivity values. The rheology of these inks is very important in terms of their printability. Fluid features with rough surfaces and lower conductivity than what is achievable with evaporated or bulk metal

  10. Hydrocarbon reaction with HF-cleaned Si(lOQ) and effects on metal-oxide-semiconductor device quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Hydrocarbon reaction with HF-cleaned Si(lOQ) and effects on metal-oxide-semiconductor device-cleaned Si( 100) towards hydrocarbon adsorption is examined by surface analysis; most hydrocarbons adsorb oxidation after HF treatment.4'5 In this letter, passivation against hydrocarbon contamination is studied

  11. Gas Carburization of Thin-Walled Austenitic Stainless Steel Formed via the Reduction of Metal Oxide Extrusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Gas Carburization of Thin-Walled Austenitic Stainless Steel Formed via the Reduction of Metal Oxide with constant carbon composition. In the case of stainless steels, the protective layer of chrome oxide must the surface hardness of steel by introducing a carbon-rich gas environment to a specimen at an elevated

  12. Small cell experiments for electrolytic reduction of uranium oxides to uranium metal using fluoride salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, P.A.; Adcock, P.W.; Coroneos, A.C.; Hendrix, D.E. )

    1994-08-01

    Electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide was proposed for the preparation of uranium metal feed for the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. A laboratory cell of 25-cm ID was operated to obtain additional information in areas important to design and operation of a pilot plant cell. Reproducible test results and useful operating and control procedures were demonstrated. About 20 kg of uranium metal of acceptable purity were prepared. A good supply of dissolved UO[sub 2] feed at the anode is the most important controlling requirement for efficient cell operation. A large fraction of the cell current is nonproductive in that it does not produce a metal product nor consume carbon anodes. All useful test conditions gave some reduction of UF[sub 4] to produce CF[sub 4] in addition to the reduction of UO[sub 2], but the fraction of metal from the reduction of UF[sub 4] can be decreased by increasing the concentration of dissolved UO[sub 2]. Operation of large continuous cells would probably be limited to current efficiencies of less than 60 pct, and more than 20 pct of the metal would result from the reduction of UF[sub 4].

  13. Variation of the shape and morphological properties of silica and metal oxide powders by electro homogeneous precipitation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sisson, Warren G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Brunson, Ronald R. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing irreversible linear aggregates (fibrils) of metal oxide powders by utilizing static or pulsed DC electrical fields across a relatively non-conducting liquid solvent in which organometal compounds or silicon alkoxides have been dissolved. The electric field is applied to the relatively non-conducting solution throughout the particle formation and growth process promoting the formation of either linear aggregates (fibrils) or spherical shaped particles as desired. Thus the present invention provides a physical method for altering the size, shape and porosity of precursor hydrous metal oxide or hydrous silicon oxide powders for the development of advanced ceramics with improved strength and insulating capacity.

  14. Two dimensional metallic photonic crystals for light trapping and anti-reflective coatings in thermophotovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shemelya, Corey; DeMeo, Dante F.; Vandervelde, Thomas E. [The Renewable Energy and Applied Photonics Laboratories, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

    2014-01-13

    We report the development of a front-side contact design for thermophotovoltaics that utilizes metallic photonic crystals (PhCs). While this front-side grid replacement covers more surface area of the semiconductor, a higher percentage of photons is shown to be converted to usable power in the photodiode. This leads to a 30% increase in the short-circuit current of the gallium antimonide thermophotovoltaic cell.

  15. High Temperature Strength of YSZ Joints Brazed with Palladium Silver Copper Oxide Filler Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darsell, Jens T.; Weil, K. Scott

    2010-06-09

    The Ag-CuOx system is being investigated as potential filler metals for use in air brazing high-temperature electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells and gas concentrators. The current study examines the effects of palladium addition on the high temperature joint strength of specimens prepared from yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) bars brazed with the binary Ag-CuOx, and 15Pd-Ag-CuO. It was found that while the binary Ag-CuOx system exhibits stronger room temperature strength than the 15Pd system the strength is reduced to values equivalent of the 15Pd system at 800°C. The 15Pd system exhibits a lower ambient temperature strength that is retained at 800°C. In both systems the failure mechanism at high temperature appears to be peeling of the noble metal component from the oxide phases and tearing through the noble metal phase whereas sufficient adhesion is retained at lower temperatures to cause fracture of the YSZ substrate.

  16. The Influence of Ni-Coated TiC on Laser-Deposited IN625 Metal Matrix Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    The In?uence of Ni-Coated TiC on Laser-Deposited IN625 Metalwith Ni-coated and uncoated TiC reinforcement particles toand spatial distribution of TiC particles in the deposited

  17. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  18. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  19. Correlation effects in (111) bilayers of perovskite transition-metal oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, Satoshi; Zhu, Wenguang; Nomura, Yusuke; Arita, R.; Xiao, Di; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the correlation-induced Mott, magnetic, and topological phase transitions in artificial (111) bilayers of perovskite transition-metal oxides LaAuO3 and SrIrO3 for which the previous density-functional theory calculations predicted topological insulating states. Using the dynamical-mean-field theory with realistic band structures and Coulomb interactions, LaAuO3 bilayer is shown to be far away from a Mott insulating regime, and a topological-insulating state is robust. On the other hand, SrIrO3 bilayer is on the verge of an orbital-selective topological Mott transition and turns to a trivial insulator by an antiferromagnetic ordering. Oxide bilayers thus provide a novel class of topological materials for which the interplay between the spin-orbit coupling and electron-electron interactions is a fundamental ingredient.

  20. Visible-light-induced instability in amorphous metal-oxide based TFTs for transparent electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ha, Tae-Jun

    2014-10-15

    We investigate the origin of visible-light-induced instability in amorphous metal-oxide based thin film transistors (oxide-TFTs) for transparent electronics by exploring the shift in threshold voltage (V{sub th}). A large hysteresis window in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs possessing large optical band-gap (?3 eV) was observed in a visible-light illuminated condition whereas no hysteresis window was shown in a dark measuring condition. We also report the instability caused by photo irradiation and prolonged gate bias stress in oxide-TFTs. Larger V{sub th} shift was observed after photo-induced stress combined with a negative gate bias than the sum of that after only illumination stress and only negative gate bias stress. Such results can be explained by trapped charges at the interface of semiconductor/dielectric and/or in the gate dielectric which play a role in a screen effect on the electric field applied by gate voltage, for which we propose that the localized-states-assisted transitions by visible-light absorption can be responsible.

  1. Low temperature photochemical vapor deposition of alloy and mixed metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for formation of an alloy thin film, or a mixed metal oxide thin film, on a substrate at relatively low temperatures. Precursor vapor(s) containing the desired thin film constituents is positioned adjacent to the substrate and irradiated by light having wavelengths in a selected wavelength range, to dissociate the gas(es) and provide atoms or molecules containing only the desired constituents. These gases then deposit at relatively low temperatures as a thin film on the substrate. The precursor vapor(s) is formed by vaporization of one or more precursor materials, where the vaporization temperature(s) is selected to control the ratio of concentration of metals present in the precursor vapor(s) and/or the total precursor vapor pressure.

  2. Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cellmembranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

    2004-01-02

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) membranes were developed in which zirconia-based electrolyte thin films were supported by a composite metal/ceramic electrode, and were subjected to rapid thermal cycling between 200 and 800 C. The effects of this cycling on membrane performance were evaluated. The membranes, not yet optimized for performance, showed a peak power density of 350mW/cm2at 900 C in laboratory-sized SOFCs that was not affected by the thermal cycling. This resistance to cycling degradation is attributed to the close matching of thermal expansion coefficient of the cermet support electrode with that of the zirconia electrolyte.

  3. Method and system for producing lower alcohols. [Heteropolyatomic lead salt coated with alkali metal formate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.; Heiberger, J.J.

    1983-09-26

    It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved catalyst for the reaction of carbon monoxide with water to produce methanol and other lower alcohols. It is a further object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol in which ethanol is also directly produced. It is another object to provide a process for the production of mixtures of methanol with ethanol and propanol from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. It is likewise an object to provide a system for the catalytic production of lower alcohols from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. In accordance with the present invention, a catalyst is provided for the reaction of carbon monoxide and water to produce lower alcohols. The catalyst includes a lead heteropolyatomic salt in mixture with a metal formate or a precursor to a metal formate.

  4. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2003-10-14

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  5. Solar selective absorption coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahoney, Alan R. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, F. Edward (Horseheads, NY)

    2004-08-31

    A new class of solar selective absorption coatings are disclosed. These coatings comprise a structured metallic overlayer such that the overlayer has a sub-micron structure designed to efficiently absorb solar radiation, while retaining low thermal emissivity for infrared thermal radiation. A sol-gel layer protects the structured metallic overlayer from mechanical, thermal, and environmental degradation. Processes for producing such solar selective absorption coatings are also disclosed.

  6. The behavior of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cermet (ceramic-metal composite) anode under reaction conditions depends significantly on the structure, morphology and atomic scale interactions between the metal and the ceramic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The behavior of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cermet (ceramic-metal composite) anode under for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes Vaneet Sharma Advisors: Peter A. Crozier and Renu Sharma November 3, 2011

  7. Initial Assessment of Environmental Barrier Coatings for the Prometheus Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Frederick

    2005-12-15

    Depending upon final design and materials selections, a variety of engineering solutions may need to be considered to avoid chemical degradation of components in a notional space nuclear power plant (SNPP). Coatings are one engineered approach that was considered. A comprehensive review of protective coating technology for various space-reactor structural materials is presented, including refractory metal alloys [molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), rhenium (Re), tantalum (Ta), and niobium (Nb)], nickel (Ni)-base superalloys, and silicon carbide (Sic). A summary description of some common deposition techniques is included. A literature survey identified coatings based on silicides or iridium/rhenium as the primary methods for environmental protection of refractory metal alloys. Modified aluminide coatings have been identified for superalloys and multilayer ceramic coatings for protection of Sic. All reviewed research focused on protecting structural materials from extreme temperatures in highly oxidizing conditions. Thermodynamic analyses indicate that some of these coatings may not be protective in the high-temperature, impure-He environment expected in a Prometheus reactor system. Further research is proposed to determine extensibility of these coating materials to less-oxidizing or neutral environments.

  8. Channel cracks in atomic-layer and molecular-layer deposited multilayer thin film coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Rong, E-mail: rlongmech@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Dunn, Martin L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

    2014-06-21

    Metal oxide thin film coatings produced by atomic layer deposition have been shown to be an effective permeation barrier. The primary failure mode of such coatings under tensile loads is the propagation of channel cracks that penetrate vertically into the coating films. Recently, multi-layer structures that combine the metal oxide material with relatively soft polymeric layers produced by molecular layer deposition have been proposed to create composite thin films with desired properties, including potentially enhanced resistance to fracture. In this paper, we study the effects of layer geometry and material properties on the critical strain for channel crack propagation in the multi-layer composite films. Using finite element simulations and a thin-film fracture mechanics formalism, we show that if the fracture energy of the polymeric layer is lower than that of the metal oxide layer, the channel crack tends to penetrate through the entire composite film, and dividing the metal oxide and polymeric materials into thinner layers leads to a smaller critical strain. However, if the fracture energy of the polymeric material is high so that cracks only run through the metal oxide layers, more layers can result in a larger critical strain. For intermediate fracture energy of the polymer material, we developed a design map that identifies the optimal structure for given fracture energies and thicknesses of the metal oxide and polymeric layers. These results can facilitate the design of mechanically robust permeation barriers, an important component for the development of flexible electronics.

  9. Characterization of a Fe/Y[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] metal/oxide interface using neutron and x-ray scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, E. B.

    The structure of metal/oxide interfaces is important to the radiation resistance of oxide dispersion-strengthened steels. We find evidence of gradual variations in stoichiometry and magnetization across a Fe/Y[subscript ...

  10. Effect of pre-oxidation and environmental aging on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealing glass with metallic interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2008-09-15

    A novel high-temperature alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass was used to join two ferritic stainless steel coupons for strength evaluation. The steel coupons were pre-oxidized at elevated temperatures to promote thick oxide layers to simulate long-term exposure conditions. In addition, seals to as-received metal coupons were also tested after aging in oxidizing or reducing environments to simulate the actual SOFC environment. Room temperature tensile testing showed strength degradation when using pre-oxidized coupons, and more extensive degradation after aging in air. Fracture surface and microstructural analysis confirmed that the cause of degradation was formation of SrCrO4 at the outer sealing edges exposed to air.

  11. Water growth on metals and oxides: binding, dissociation and role of hydroxyl groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salmeron, M.; Bluhm, H.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Ketteler, G.; Shimizu, T.K.; Mugarza, A.; Deng, Xingyi; Herranz, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Nilsson, A.

    2008-09-01

    The authors discuss the role of the presence of dangling H bonds from water or from surface hydroxyl species on the wetting behavior of surfaces. Using Scanning Tunneling and Atomic Force Microscopies, and Photoelectron Spectroscopy, they have examined a variety of surfaces, including mica, oxides, and pure metals. They find that in all cases, the availability of free, dangling H-bonds at the surface is crucial for the subsequent growth of wetting water films. In the case of mica electrostatic forces and H-bonding to surface O atoms determine the water orientation in the first layer and also in subsequent layers with a strong influence in its wetting characteristics. In the case of oxides like TiO{sub 2}, Cu{sub 2}O, SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, surface hydroxyls form readily on defects upon exposure to water vapor and help nucleate the subsequent growth of molecular water films. On pure metals, such as Pt, Pd, and Ru, the structure of the first water layer and whether or not it exhibits dangling H bonds is again crucial. Dangling H-bonds are provided by molecules with their plane oriented vertically, or by OH groups formed by the partial dissociation of water. By tying the two II atoms of the water molecules into strong H-bonds with pre-adsorbed O on Ru can also quench the wettability of the surface.

  12. Sodiation kinetics of metal oxide conversion electrodes: A comparative study with lithiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Kai; Lin, Feng; Zhu, Yizhou; Yu, Xiqian; Li, Jing; Lin, Ruoqian; Nordlund, Dennis; Weng, Tsu Chien; Richards, Ryan M.; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Doeff, Marca M.; Stach, Eric A.; Mo, Yifei; Xin, Huolin L.; Su, Dong

    2015-08-19

    The development of sodium ion batteries (NIBs) can provide an alternative to lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for sustainable, low-cost energy storage. However, due to the larger size and higher m/e ratio of the sodium ion compared to lithium, sodiation reactions of candidate electrodes are expected to differ in significant ways from the corresponding lithium ones. In this work, we investigated the sodiation mechanism of a typical transition metal-oxide, NiO, through a set of correlated techniques, including electrochemical and synchrotron studies, real-time electron microscopy observation, and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We found that a crystalline Na?O reaction layer that was formed at the beginning of sodiation plays an important role in blocking the further transport of sodium ions. In addition, sodiation in NiO exhibits a “shrinking-core” mode that results from a layer-by-layer reaction, as identified by ab initio MD simulations. For lithiation, however, the formation of Li anti-site defects significantly distorts the local NiO lattice that facilitates Li insertion, thus enhancing the overall reaction rate. These observations delineate the mechanistic difference between sodiation and lithiation in metal-oxide conversion materials. More importantly, our findings identify the importance of understanding the role of reaction layers on the functioning of electrodes and thus provide critical insights into further optimizing NIB materials through surface engineering.

  13. Sodiation kinetics of metal oxide conversion electrodes: A comparative study with lithiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Kai; Lin, Feng; Zhu, Yizhou; Yu, Xiqian; Li, Jing; Lin, Ruoqian; Nordlund, Dennis; Weng, Tsu Chien; Richards, Ryan M.; Yang, Xiao -Qing; et al

    2015-08-19

    The development of sodium ion batteries (NIBs) can provide an alternative to lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for sustainable, low-cost energy storage. However, due to the larger size and higher m/e ratio of the sodium ion compared to lithium, sodiation reactions of candidate electrodes are expected to differ in significant ways from the corresponding lithium ones. In this work, we investigated the sodiation mechanism of a typical transition metal-oxide, NiO, through a set of correlated techniques, including electrochemical and synchrotron studies, real-time electron microscopy observation, and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We found that a crystalline Na?O reaction layer thatmore »was formed at the beginning of sodiation plays an important role in blocking the further transport of sodium ions. In addition, sodiation in NiO exhibits a “shrinking-core” mode that results from a layer-by-layer reaction, as identified by ab initio MD simulations. For lithiation, however, the formation of Li anti-site defects significantly distorts the local NiO lattice that facilitates Li insertion, thus enhancing the overall reaction rate. These observations delineate the mechanistic difference between sodiation and lithiation in metal-oxide conversion materials. More importantly, our findings identify the importance of understanding the role of reaction layers on the functioning of electrodes and thus provide critical insights into further optimizing NIB materials through surface engineering.« less

  14. Method of nitriding refractory metal articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Omatete, Ogbemi O. (Lagos, NG); Young, Albert C. (Flushing, NY)

    1994-01-01

    A method of nitriding a refractory-nitride forming metal or metalloid articles and composite articles. A consolidated metal or metalloid article or composite is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid or composite to an article or composite of refractory nitride. In addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  15. Disposition of Uranium -233 (sup 233U) in Plutonium Metal and Oxide at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freiboth, Cameron J.; Gibbs, Frank E.

    2000-03-01

    This report documents the position that the concentration of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) in plutonium metal and oxide currently stored at the DOE Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is well below the maximum permissible stabilization, packaging, shipping and storage limits. The {sup 233}U stabilization, packaging and storage limit is 0.5 weight percent (wt%), which is also the shipping limit maximum. These two plutonium products (metal and oxide) are scheduled for processing through the Building 371 Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (PuSPS). This justification is supported by written technical reports, personnel interviews, and nuclear material inventories, as compiled in the ''History of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant In Support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program'' RS-090-056, April 1, 1999. Relevant data from this report is summarized for application to the PuSPS metal and oxide processing campaigns.

  16. Heterojunction metal-oxide-metal Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au single nanowire device for spintronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, K. M. Punnoose, Alex; Hanna, Charles; Padture, Nitin P.

    2015-05-07

    In this report, we present the synthesis of heterojunction magnetite nanowires in alumina template and describe magnetic and electrical properties from a single nanowire device for spintronics applications. Heterojunction Au-Fe-Au nanowire arrays were electrodeposited in porous aluminum oxide templates, and an extensive and controlled heat treatment process converted Fe segment to nanocrystalline cubic magnetite phase with well-defined Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} interfaces as confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic measurements revealed Verwey transition shoulder around 120?K and a room temperature coercive field of 90?Oe. Current–voltage (I-V) characteristics of a single Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au nanowire have exhibited Ohmic behavior. Anomalous positive magnetoresistance of about 0.5% is observed on a single nanowire, which is attributed to the high spin polarization in nanowire device with pure Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase and nanocontact barrier. This work demonstrates the ability to preserve the pristine Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and well defined electrode contact metal (Au)–magnetite interface, which helps in attaining high spin polarized current.

  17. Method and apparatus for preparation of spherical metal carbonates and lithium metal oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Sun-Ho (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

    2008-10-14

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling. Another aspect of the invention includes materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Co.sub..beta.Mn.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.yF- .sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti), where the x is between 0 and 0.2, the .alpha. between 0 and 1, the .beta. between 0 and 1, the .gamma. between 0 and 2, the .delta. between about 0 and about 0.2, the y is between 2 and 4, and the z is between 0 and 0.5.

  18. X-Ray Absorption Studies of Vanadium-Containing Metal Oxide Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohn, Keith, L.

    2006-01-09

    Metal oxide nanocrystals offer significant potential for use as catalysts or catalyst supports due to their high surface areas and unique chemical properties that result from the high number of exposed corners and edges. However, little is known about the catalytic activity of these materials, especially as oxidation catalysts. This research focused on the preparation, characterization and use of vanadium-containing nanocrystals as selective oxidation catalysts. Three vanadium-containing nanocrystals were prepared using a modified sol-gel procedure: V/MgO, V/SiO2, and vanadium phosphate (VPO). These represent active oxidation catalysts for a number of industrially relevant reactions. The catalysts were characterized by x-ray diffraction and Raman, UV-VIS, infrared and x-ray absorption spectroscopies with the goal of determining the primary structural and chemical differences between nanocrystals and microcrystals. The catalytic activity of these catalysts was also studied in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and methanol oxidation to formaldehyde. V/MgO nanocrystals were investigated for activity in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and compared to conventional V/MgO catalysts. Characterization of V/MgO catalysts using Raman spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that both types of catalysts contained magnesium orthovanadate at vanadium loadings below 15 weight%, but above that loading, magnesium pyrovanadate may have been present. In general, MgO nanocrystals had roughly half the crystal size and double the surface area of the conventional MgO. In oxidative dehydrogenation of butane, nanocrystalline V/MgO gave higher selectivity to butene than conventional V/MgO at the same conversion. This difference was attributed to differences in vanadium domain size resulting from the higher surface areas of the nanocrystalline support, since characterization suggested that similar vanadium phases were present on both types of catalysts. Experiments in methanol oxidation were used to probe the chemical differences between sol-gel prepared and conventionally prepared metal oxides. Both V/MgO and V/SiO2 were studied. For both catalysts, similar product selectivities were noted for either preparation method, suggesting similar acid/base and redox properties for the catalysts. At lower weight loadings (<5%), activity was also similar, but at higher weight loadings the sol-gel prepared catalysts were more active. This was attributed to the greater dispersion of vanadium on sol-gel prepared catalysts, and it was suggested that small vanadium oxide domains were more active in methanol oxidation than polymeric and bulk domains. A novel sol-gel method was developed for preparation of VPO catalysts, which are used industrially in butane oxidation to maleic anhydride. In this method vanadium (V) triisopropoxide was reacted with orthophosphoric acid in THF to form a gel. Drying this gel under air resulted in an intercalated VOPO4 compound, where solvent molecules were trapped between layers of the vanadium phosphate compound. Higher surface areas could be achieved by drying this gel at high pressure in an autoclave. The amount of solvent (THF) placed in the autoclave was important in this process. Low amounts of solvent led to a lower surface area, as the solvent evaporated before reaching the critical point and collapsed the gel's pores. In addition, vanadium reduction occurred in the autoclave due to reaction of isopropanol with the vanadium phosphate. Higher amounts of THF reduced the concentration of isopropanol, leading to less reduction. Surfaces areas in excess of 100 m2/g were achieved with this method, and the product was confirmed through XPS and IR to be VOHPO4*0.5H2O, the common precursor for industrial VPO catalysts. Furthermore, this product displayed a platelet morphology, which is desirable for butane oxidation. Further work showed that this material could be transformed to (VO)2P2O7 (the industrial catalyst for butane oxidation to maleic anhydride) by heating under nitrogen without losing much surface are

  19. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  20. Kinetic Consequences of Chemisorbed Oxygen Atoms during Methane Oxidation on Group VIII Metal Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Ya Huei

    2011-01-01

    Chin, Y-H. ; Resasco, D.E. Catalytic Oxidation of methane onreactions in catalytic partial oxidation, reforming, andoccurrence of direct catalytic partial oxidation of methane

  1. Hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol: Importance of metal–oxide and metal–carbide interfaces in the activation of CO2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, José A.; Liu, Ping; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; White, Michael G.; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2015-09-30

    In this study, the high thermochemical stability of CO2 makes it very difficult to achieve the catalytic conversion of the molecule into alcohols or other hydrocarbon compounds, which can be used as fuels or the starting point for the generation of fine chemicals. Pure metals and bimetallic systems used for the CO2 ? CH3OH conversion usually bind CO2 too weakly and, thus, show low catalytic activity. Here, we discuss a series of recent studies that illustrate the advantages of metal–oxide and metal–carbide interfaces when aiming at the conversion of CO2 into methanol. CeOx/Cu(111), Cu/CeOx/TiO2(110), and Au/CeOx/TiO2(110) exhibit an activity formore »the CO2 ? CH3OH conversion that is 2–3 orders of magnitude higher than that of a benchmark Cu(111) catalyst. In the Cu–ceria and Au–ceria interfaces, the multifunctional combination of metal and oxide centers leads to complementary chemical properties that open active reaction pathways for methanol synthesis. Efficient catalysts are also generated after depositing Cu and Au on TiC(001). In these cases, strong metal–support interactions modify the electronic properties of the admetals and make them active for the binding of CO2 and its subsequent transformation into CH3OH at the metal–carbide interfaces.« less

  2. Low Temperature Deposition of Metal Oxide Thin Films in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide using Metal-organic Precursors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gougousi, Theodosia

    Semiconductor (CMOS) devices, [1,2] magnetic tunnel junctions, [3] and optical coatings.[4] Conventional such as electroplating, [6,7] electroless deposition, [8,9] and in supercritical carbon dioxide for the deposition

  3. Material and system for catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide in an exhaust stream of a combustion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Lott, Stephen E. (Edgewood, NM); Lockwood, Steven J. (Albuquerque, NM); McLaughlin, Linda I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A catalytic material of activated hydrous metal oxide doped with platinum, palladium, or a combination of these, and optionally containing an alkali or alkaline earth metal, that is effective for NO.sub.X reduction in an oxidizing exhaust stream from a combustion process is disclosed. A device for reduction of nitrogen oxides in an exhaust stream, particularly an automotive exhaust stream, the device having a substrate coated with the activated noble-metal doped hydrous metal oxide of the invention is also provided.

  4. Methane Activation by Transition-Metal Oxides, MOx (M ) Cr, Mo, W; x ) 1, 2, 3) Xin Xu,# Francesco Faglioni, and William A. Goddard, III*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Methane Activation by Transition-Metal Oxides, MOx (M ) Cr, Mo, W; x ) 1, 2, 3) Xin Xu,# Francesco, 2002 Recent experiments on the dehydrogenation-aromatization of methane (DHAM) to form benzene using a MoO3/HZSM-5 catalyst stimulated us to examine methane activation by the transition-metal oxide

  5. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels having densities less than 0.02 g/cc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Thomas, Ian M. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A two-step method is described for making transparent aerogels which have a density of less than 0.003 g/cm.sup.3 to those with a density of more than 0.8 g/cm.sup.3, by a sol/gel process and supercritical extraction. Condensed metal oxide intermediate made with purified reagents can be diluted to produce stable aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 g/cm.sup.3. High temperature, direct supercritical extraction of the liquid phase of the gel produces hydrophobic aerogels which are stable at atmospheric moisture conditions. Monolithic, homogeneous silica aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 to higher than 0.8 g/cm.sup.3, with high thermal insulation capacity, improved mechanical strength and good optical transparency, are described.

  6. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels having densities less than 0. 02 g/cc

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, T.M.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Thomas, I.M.

    1994-01-04

    A two-step method is described for making transparent aerogels which have a density of less than 0.003 g/cm[sup 3] to those with a density of more than 0.8 g/cm[sup 3], by a sol/gel process and supercritical extraction. Condensed metal oxide intermediate made with purified reagents can be diluted to produce stable aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 g/cm[sup 3]. High temperature, direct supercritical extraction of the liquid phase of the gel produces hydrophobic aerogels which are stable at atmospheric moisture conditions. Monolithic, homogeneous silica aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 to higher than 0.8 g/cm[sup 3], with high thermal insulation capacity, improved mechanical strength and good optical transparency, are described. 7 figures.

  7. Transient radiation hardened CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) operational amplifiers. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trombley, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    General strategies are developed for designing radiation hardened bulk and silicon on insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) operational amplifiers. Comparisons are made between each technology concerning photocurrent mechanisms and the inherent advantages of SOI CMOS. Methods are presented for analysing circuit designs and minimizing the net photocurrent responses. Analysis is performed on standard operational amplifier circuits and subcircuits to demonstrate the usefulness of these methods. Radiation hardening topics discussed include superior radiation hardened topologies, photocurrent compensation and its limitations, and methods to ensure a preferred direction of photocurrent response. Several operational amplifier subcircuits are compared for their hardness characteristics. Folded cascode and three-stage operational amplifiers were fabricated on an SOI CMOS test chip supported by Texas Instruments, Incorporated. At the time of publication, the circuit operation was verified but radiation data were not yet available.

  8. Thermal barrier characteristics of partially stabilized zirconia coatings on INCOLOY alloy 909; A controlled expansion alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, G.D. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on INCOLOY{sup 1} alloy 909 which is a low-expansion alloy used in critical seal and shaft applications within the gas turbine engine. However, because of its poor oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures, the maximum service temperature is limited. Since its coefficient of expansion is similar to that of partially stabilized zirconia for temperatures to 1200{degrees}F (649{degrees}C), it has been proposed to use this metal-ceramic combination for dimensionally critical, air-cooled jet engine components. This coating system should extend temperature limitations by reducing metal temperatures and providing oxidation resistance. The performance advantage offered by a thermal barrier coating has been investigated at temperatures up to 2000{degrees}F (1093{degrees}C) and the results are presented in this paper. Metal temperatures and heat flow rates of coated and bare specimens are compared for two air-cooling flow rates.

  9. HIGHWAY INFRASTRUCTURE FOCUS AREA NEXT-GENERATION INFRASTRUCTURE MATERIALS VOLUME I - TECHNICAL PROPOSAL & MANAGEMENTENHANCEMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE WITH IRON-BASED AMORPHOUS-METAL AND CERAMIC COATINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C

    2007-12-04

    The infrastructure for transportation in the United States allows for a high level of mobility and freight activity for the current population of 300 million residents, and several million business establishments. According to a Department of Transportation study, more than 230 million motor vehicles, ships, airplanes, and railroads cars were used on 6.4 million kilometers (4 million miles) of highways, railroads, airports, and waterways in 1998. Pipelines and storage tanks were considered to be part of this deteriorating infrastructure. The annual direct cost of corrosion in the infrastructure category was estimated to be approximately $22.6 billion in 1998. There were 583,000 bridges in the United States in 1998. Of this total, 200,000 bridges were steel, 235,000 were conventional reinforced concrete, 108,000 bridges were constructed using pre-stressed concrete, and the balance was made using other materials of construction. Approximately 15 percent of the bridges accounted for at this point in time were structurally deficient, primarily due to corrosion of steel and steel reinforcement. Iron-based amorphous metals, including SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been developed, and have very good corrosion resistance. These materials have been prepared as a melt-spun ribbons, as well as gas atomized powders and thermal-spray coatings. During electrochemical testing in several environments, including seawater at 90 C, the passive film stabilities of these materials were found to be comparable to that of more expensive high-performance alloys, based on electrochemical measurements of the passive film breakdown potential and general corrosion rates. These materials also performed very well in standard salt fog tests. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provided corrosion resistance, and boron (B) enabled glass formation. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal made it an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. These amorphous alloys appear to maintain their corrosion resistance up to the glass transition temperature. Visionary research is proposed to extend the application of corrosion-resistant iron-based amorphous metal coatings, and variants of these coatings, to protection of the Nation's transportation infrastructure. Specific objectives of the proposed work are: (1) fabrication of appropriate test samples for evaluation of concept; (2) collection of production and test data for coated steel reinforcement bars, enabling systematic comparison of various coating options, based upon performance and economic considerations; and (3) construction and testing of concrete structures with coated steel reinforcement bars, thereby demonstrating the value of amorphous-metal coatings. The benefits of ceramic coatings as thermal barriers will also be addressed.

  10. Microstructure of cosputter-deposited metal-and oxide-MoS2 solid lubricant thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marks, Laurence D.

    Microstructure of cosputter-deposited metal- and oxide-MoS2 solid lubricant thin films M. R of cosputtering small amounts of Ni (3%, 9%) and SbOx (20%) on the final microstructure of MoS2 lubricant thin performance is discussed. I. INTRODUCTION Sputter-deposited films of MoS2 have been used as solid lubricants

  11. Mechanisms of poron Adsorption on Metal Oxides. C.V. TONER, IV and D.l. SPARKS, Univ. of Delaware.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Mechanisms of poron Adsorption on Metal Oxides. C.V. TONER, IV· and D.l. SPARKS, Univ. of Delaware in the soil solution. Yet the reaction mechanism has not been firmly established. Pressure-jump relaxation kjnetic experiments were conducted to determine the mechanism ,of borate adsorption on alUlllina (1 Al~03

  12. Devices and chemical sensing applications of metal oxide nanowires Guozhen Shen,* Po-Chiang Chen, Koungmin Ryu and Chongwu Zhou*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    . Finally, we will conclude this review with some perspectives and outlook on the future developments, nanogenerators, solar cells and photo- catalysts, and field nanoemitters. In the third part, we will discuss with some perspectives and outlook on the future developments in the metal oxide nanowire research area. 2

  13. Real-Time Observation of Atomic Layer Deposition Inhibition: Metal Oxide Growth on Self-Assembled Alkanethiols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Real-Time Observation of Atomic Layer Deposition Inhibition: Metal Oxide Growth on Self each atomic layer deposition (ALD) cycle to an analytical island-growth model that enables moderately optimized conditions. KEYWORDS: atomic layer deposition, self-assembled monolayers, quartz crystal

  14. INFLUENCE OF OXIDE GROWTH AND METAL CREEP ON STRAIN DEVELOPMENT IN THE STEAM-SIDE OXIDE IN BOILER TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Wright, Ian G [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    This effort is concerned with developing a quantitative description of the exfoliation behavior of oxide scales grown inside steam tubes in a pressure boiler. Consideration of the development of stress/strain in growing oxides has included expansion mismatch-induced strains during thermal cycling as well as inelastic mechanical effects from oxide/alloy creep phenomena and volume change from oxide growth. The magnitude of the parameters used has been closely matched to actual boiler operating practice. The creep model used was validated against published data. Representation of oxide growth-induced strain was found to be a difficult challenge because the processes involved are not fully understood. In addition to the traditional uniaxial (radial) and dilatational models, lateral growth models are discussed in the context of experimentally-derived criteria, such as the level of elastic strains involved in oxide exfoliation. It was found that strain variation in the oxide cannot be neglected.

  15. Variation of the shape and morphological properties of silica and metal oxide powders by electro homogeneous precipitation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Sisson, W.G.; Brunson, R.R.

    1997-02-18

    The present invention provides a method for preparing irreversible linear aggregates (fibrils) of metal oxide powders by utilizing static or pulsed DC electrical fields across a relatively non-conducting liquid solvent in which organometal compounds or silicon alkoxides have been dissolved. The electric field is applied to the relatively non-conducting solution throughout the particle formation and growth process promoting the formation of either linear aggregates (fibrils) or spherical shaped particles as desired. Thus the present invention provides a physical method for altering the size, shape and porosity of precursor hydrous metal oxide or hydrous silicon oxide powders for the development of advanced ceramics with improved strength and insulating capacity. 3 figs.

  16. HIGH-PERFORMANCE COATING MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion, erosion, oxidation, and fouling by scale deposits impose critical issues in selecting the metal components used at geothermal power plants operating at brine temperatures up to 300 C. Replacing these components is very costly and time consuming. Currently, components made of titanium alloy and stainless steel commonly are employed for dealing with these problems. However, another major consideration in using these metals is not only that they are considerably more expensive than carbon steel, but also the susceptibility of corrosion-preventing passive oxide layers that develop on their outermost surface sites to reactions with brine-induced scales, such as silicate, silica, and calcite. Such reactions lead to the formation of strong interfacial bonds between the scales and oxide layers, causing the accumulation of multiple layers of scales, and the impairment of the plant component's function and efficacy; furthermore, a substantial amount of time is entailed in removing them. This cleaning operation essential for reusing the components is one of the factors causing the increase in the plant's maintenance costs. If inexpensive carbon steel components could be coated and lined with cost-effective high-hydrothermal temperature stable, anti-corrosion, -oxidation, and -fouling materials, this would improve the power plant's economic factors by engendering a considerable reduction in capital investment, and a decrease in the costs of operations and maintenance through optimized maintenance schedules.

  17. Method for producing electricity from a fuel cell having solid-oxide ionic electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mason, David M. (Los Altos, CA)

    1984-01-01

    Stabilized quadrivalent cation oxide electrolytes are employed in fuel cells at elevated temperatures with a carbon and/or hydrogen containing fuel anode and an oxygen cathode. The fuel cell is operated at elevated temperatures with conductive metallic coatings as electrodes and desirably having the electrolyte surface blackened. Of particular interest as the quadrivalent oxide is zirconia.

  18. Metal-ion catalyzed oxidation of a G-agent simulant by oxone. Final report Oct 89-Dec 90

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie, D.R.; Ward, J.R.

    1992-07-01

    By means of the ability of oxone to oxidize sulphur, oxone has been shown to be a rapid decontaminant for mustard or VX. G-agents, such as sarin or soman, are difficult to oxidize, and all means to decontaminate sarin or soman are based on hydrolysis. To see if oxone might have utility as a general decontaminant, experiments were run to see if the ability of oxone to destroy organophosphorus esters could be enhanced with transition-metal catalysts. Hydrolysis of the G-agent simulant diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) was promoted in oxone solution by the presence of such low valent metal ions as cobalt (II), chromium (III), or manganese (II). The reaction is initiated by radical formation from decomposition of HO-SO3. Radical chains may be terminated by dimerization of S04-, other reactions forming 02, or by reduction of the radical to S04= by low valent metal ion. The radical can also reduce the oxidized metal ion back to the original low valent state, thereby providing a path for turnover of the metal ion. The relatively slow rate and the potential for contaminants in field application that could react with the SO4- radicals make it unlikely that metal ion catalysis of oxone decomposition will prove to be a useful decontaminant. Decontamination, NMR, Chemical agents, Metal-ion catalysis, Chromium (III), DIMP, Oxone, Kinetics. This paper describes the effect of a crystal field, according to site symmetry, upon the magnetic quantum-level structure of an atomic ion, as expressed in electric dipole transitions (a corresponding treatment for magnetic dipole transitions, in the original German, is not included). Crystal field Magnetic quantum numbers Atomic ion.

  19. Vanadium Carbide Coating Process

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Traditional methods of coating steel surfaces with a layer of hard metal carbide require large capital investment, produce toxic and hazardous gases, are costly to operate, and require multiple...

  20. Transformability of t-ZrO{sub 2} and lattice parameters in plasma sprayed rare-earth oxides stabilized zirconia coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khor, K.A.; Yang, J.

    1997-11-01

    Coatings of zirconia alloys are mostly used in high-temperature environments as thermal barrier coatings (TBC) to fight hostile working environments and boost energy efficiency. CaO, MgO and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} are added into zirconia to stabilize the cubic and tetragonal forms and prevent catastrophic cracking as a result of the volume changes on t {r_arrow} m transformation. However, zirconia fully stabilized with either CaO or MgO has been shown to be destabilized on thermal cycling over 1,000 C. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} stabilized ZrO{sub 2} is stable towards vaporization at high temperature (1,200 C). However, it also encounters the problem of destabilization when it is attacked by the mineral constituents in fuel oil. The destabilization resulted in a detrimental volume change of 3--5%, which can lead to failure, especially if thermal cycling across the transformation temperature takes place. Previous studies on the rare-earth oxide-zirconia system used solid state reaction of mixed powders that are likely to yield chemical inhomogeneities. Recent studies on rapid solidified ZrO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and rare earth oxides stabilized zirconia systems by a hammer and anvil apparatus, which claims to be capable of obtaining compositional homogeneities, suggest the formation of a t{prime} phase that is non-transformable.

  1. Fluorescence-based detection methodologies for nitric oxide using transition metal scaffolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hilderbrand, Scott A. (Scott Alan), 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Chapter 1. Fluorescence-Based Detection Methodologies for Nitric Oxide: A Review. Chapter 2. Cobalt Chemistry with Mixed Aminotroponimine Salicylaldimine Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization, and Nitric Oxide Reactivity. ...

  2. Rapid low-temperature processing of metal-oxide thin film transistors with combined far ultraviolet and thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leppäniemi, J. Ojanperä, K.; Kololuoma, T.; Huttunen, O.-H.; Majumdar, H.; Alastalo, A.; Dahl, J.; Tuominen, M.; Laukkanen, P.

    2014-09-15

    We propose a combined far ultraviolet (FUV) and thermal annealing method of metal-nitrate-based precursor solutions that allows efficient conversion of the precursor to metal-oxide semiconductor (indium zinc oxide, IZO, and indium oxide, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) both at low-temperature and in short processing time. The combined annealing method enables a reduction of more than 100?°C in annealing temperature when compared to thermally annealed reference thin-film transistor (TFT) devices of similar performance. Amorphous IZO films annealed at 250?°C with FUV for 5?min yield enhancement-mode TFTs with saturation mobility of ?1?cm{sup 2}/(V·s). Amorphous In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films annealed for 15?min with FUV at temperatures of 180?°C and 200?°C yield TFTs with low-hysteresis and saturation mobility of 3.2?cm{sup 2}/(V·s) and 7.5?cm{sup 2}/(V·s), respectively. The precursor condensation process is clarified with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Introducing the FUV irradiation at 160?nm expedites the condensation process via in situ hydroxyl radical generation that results in the rapid formation of a continuous metal-oxygen-metal structure in the film. The results of this paper are relevant in order to upscale printed electronics fabrication to production-scale roll-to-roll environments.

  3. Method for providing uranium with a protective copper coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waldrop, Forrest B. (Powell, TN); Jones, Edward (Knoxville, TN)

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for providing uranium metal with a protective coating of copper. Uranium metal is subjected to a conventional cleaning operation wherein oxides and other surface contaminants are removed, followed by etching and pickling operations. The copper coating is provided by first electrodepositing a thin and relatively porous flash layer of copper on the uranium in a copper cyanide bath. The resulting copper-layered article is then heated in an air or inert atmosphere to volatilize and drive off the volatile material underlying the copper flash layer. After the heating step an adherent and essentially non-porous layer of copper is electro-deposited on the flash layer of copper to provide an adherent, multi-layer copper coating which is essentially impervious to corrosion by most gases.

  4. Coated conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arendt, Paul N.; Foltyn, Stephen R.; Stan, Liliana; Usov, Igor O.; Wang, Haiyan

    2010-06-15

    Articles are provided including a base substrate having a layer of an IBAD oriented material thereon, and, a layer of barium-containing material selected from the group consisting of barium zirconate, barium hafnate, barium titanate, barium strontium titanate, barium dysprosium zirconate, barium neodymium zirconate and barium samarium zirconate, or a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates upon the layer of an IBAD oriented material. Such articles can further include thin films of high temperature superconductive oxides such as YBCO upon the layer of barium-containing material selected from the group consisting of barium zirconate, barium hafnate, barium titanate, barium strontium titanate, barium dysprosium zirconate, barium neodymium zirconate and barium samarium zirconate, or a cubic metal oxide material selected from the group consisting of rare earth zirconates and rare earth hafnates.

  5. Electric double layer at metal oxide surfaces: Static properties of the cassiterite - Water Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlcek, Lukas; Zhang, Zhan; Machesky, Michael L.; Wesolowski, David J

    2007-04-01

    The structure of water at the (110) surface of cassiterite ({alpha}-SnO{sub 2}) at ambient conditions was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations and X-ray crystal truncation rod experiments and interpreted with the help of the revised MUSIC model of surface protonation. The interactions of the metal oxide in the simulations were described by a recently developed classical force field based on the SPC/E model of water. Two extreme cases of completely hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated surfaces were considered along with a mixed surface with 50% dissociation. To study the dependence of the surface properties on pH, neutral and negatively charged variants of the surfaces were constructed. Axial and lateral density distributions of water for different types of surfaces were compared to each other and to experimental axial density distributions found by X-ray experiments. Although significant differences were found between the structures of the studied interfaces, the axial distances between Sn and O atoms are very similar and therefore could not be clearly distinguished by the diffraction technique. The explanation of structures observed in the density distributions was provided by a detailed analysis of hydrogen bonding in the interfacial region. It revealed qualitatively different hydrating patterns formed at neutral hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated surfaces and suggested a preference for the dissociative adsorption of water. At negatively charged surfaces, however, the situation can be reversed by the electric field stabilizing a hydrogen bond network similar to that found at the neutral nonhydroxylated surface. Comparison with previously studied rutile ({alpha}-TiO{sub 2}) surfaces provided insight into the differences between the hydration of these two metal oxides, and an important role was ascribed to their different lattice parameters. A link to macroscopic properties was provided by the revised MUSIC surface protonation model. Explicit use of the Sn-O bond lengths based on ab initio calculations and H-bond configurations as inputs led to the prediction of a pH of zero net-proton induced surface charge (pH{sub pzc}) that agrees very well with those determined experimentally (about 4.4 at 298 K).

  6. Electric double layer at metal oxide surfaces:static properties of the cassiterite-water interface.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlcek, L.; Zhang, Z.; Machesky, M .L.; Fenter, P.; Rosenqvist, J.; Wesolowski, D. J.; Anovitz, L. M.; Predota, M.; Cummings, P. T.; Vanderbilt Univ.; ORNL; Univ. of South Bohimia; Illinois State Water Survey

    2007-03-24

    The structure of water at the (110) surface of cassiterite ({alpha}-SnO{sub 2}) at ambient conditions was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations and X-ray crystal truncation rod experiments and interpreted with the help of the revised MUSIC model of surface protonation. The interactions of the metal oxide in the simulations were described by a recently developed classical force field based on the SPC/E model of water. Two extreme cases of completely hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated surfaces were considered along with a mixed surface with 50% dissociation. To study the dependence of the surface properties on pH, neutral and negatively charged variants of the surfaces were constructed. Axial and lateral density distributions of water for different types of surfaces were compared to each other and to experimental axial density distributions found by X-ray experiments. Although significant differences were found between the structures of the studied interfaces, the axial distances between Sn and O atoms are very similar and therefore could not be clearly distinguished by the diffraction technique. The explanation of structures observed in the density distributions was provided by a detailed analysis of hydrogen bonding in the interfacial region. It revealed qualitatively different hydrating patterns formed at neutral hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated surfaces and suggested a preference for the dissociative adsorption of water. At negatively charged surfaces, however, the situation can be reversed by the electric field stabilizing a hydrogen bond network similar to that found at the neutral nonhydroxylated surface. Comparison with previously studied rutile ({alpha}-TiO{sub 2}) surfaces provided insight into the differences between the hydration of these two metal oxides, and an important role was ascribed to their different lattice parameters. A link to macroscopic properties was provided by the revised MUSIC surface protonation model. Explicit use of the Sn-O bond lengths based on ab initio calculations and H-bond configurations as inputs led to the prediction of a pH of zero net-proton induced surface charge (pH{sub pzc}) that agrees very well with those determined experimentally (about 4.4 at 298 K).

  7. Final Scientific/Technical Report "Arc Tube Coating System for Color Consistency"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buelow, Roger; Jenson, Chris; Kazenski, Keith

    2013-03-21

    DOE has enabled the use of coating materials using low cost application methods on light sources to positively affect the output of those sources. The coatings and light source combinations have shown increased lumen output of LED fixtures (1.5%-2.0%), LED arrays (1.4%) and LED powered remote phosphor systems â?? Philips L-Prize lamp (0.9%). We have also demonstrated lifetime enhancements (3000 hrs vs 8000 hrs) and shifting to higher CRI (51 to 65) in metal halide high intensity discharge lamps with metal oxide coatings. The coatings on LEDs and LED products are significant as the market is moving increasingly more towards LED technology. Enhancements in LED performance are demonstrated in this work through the use of available materials and low cost application processes. EFOI used low refractive index fluoropolymers and low cost dipping processes for application of the material to surfaces related to light transmission of LEDs and LED products. Materials included Teflon AF, an amorphous fluorinated polymer and fluorinated acrylic monomers. The DOE SSL Roadmap sets goals for LED performance moving into the future. EFOIâ??s coating technology is a means to shift the performance curve for LEDs. This is not limited to one type of LED, but is relevant across LED technologies. The metal halide work included the use of sol-gel solutions resulting in silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide coatings on the quartz substrates of the metal halide arc tubes. The coatings were applied using low cost dipping processes.

  8. Comprehensive study and design of scaled metal/high-k/Ge gate stacks with ultrathin aluminum oxide interlayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asahara, Ryohei; Hideshima, Iori; Oka, Hiroshi; Minoura, Yuya; Hosoi, Takuji Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji; Ogawa, Shingo; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden

    2015-06-08

    Advanced metal/high-k/Ge gate stacks with a sub-nm equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) and improved interface properties were demonstrated by controlling interface reactions using ultrathin aluminum oxide (AlO{sub x}) interlayers. A step-by-step in situ procedure by deposition of AlO{sub x} and hafnium oxide (HfO{sub x}) layers on Ge and subsequent plasma oxidation was conducted to fabricate Pt/HfO{sub 2}/AlO{sub x}/GeO{sub x}/Ge stacked structures. Comprehensive study by means of physical and electrical characterizations revealed distinct impacts of AlO{sub x} interlayers, plasma oxidation, and metal electrodes serving as capping layers on EOT scaling, improved interface quality, and thermal stability of the stacks. Aggressive EOT scaling down to 0.56?nm and very low interface state density of 2.4?×?10{sup 11?}cm{sup ?2}eV{sup ?1} with a sub-nm EOT and sufficient thermal stability were achieved by systematic process optimization.

  9. Ultra-stable Molecule-Surface Architectures at Metal Oxides: Structure, Bonding, and Electron-transfer Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamers, Robert John

    2013-12-07

    Research funded by this project focused on the development of improved strategies for functionalization of metal oxides to enhance charge?transfer processes relevant to solar energy conversion. Initial studies included Fe2O3, WO3, TiO2, SnO2, and ZnO as model oxide systems; these systems were chosen due to differences in metal oxidation state and chemical bonding types in these oxides. Later studies focused largely on SnO2 and ZnO, as these materials show particularly promising surface chemistry, have high electron mobility, and can be readily grown in both spherical nanoparticles and as elongated nanorods. New molecules were synthesized that allowed the direct chemical assembly of novel nanoparticle ?dyadic? structures in which two different oxide materials are chemically joined, leading to an interface that enhances the separation of of charge upon illumination. We demonstrated that such junctions enhance photocatalytic efficiency using model organic compounds. A separate effort focused on novel approaches to linking dye molecules to SnO2 and ZnO as a way to enhance solar conversion efficiency. A novel type of surface binding through

  10. High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference...

  11. Doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2014-02-18

    A supported oxidation catalyst includes a support having a metal oxide or metal salt, and mixed metal particles thereon. The mixed metal particles include first particles including a palladium compound, and second particles including a precious metal group (PMG) metal or PMG metal compound, wherein the PMG metal is not palladium. The oxidation catalyst may also be used as a gas sensor.

  12. SURFACE DAMAGE OF OXIDIZED METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE LAMINATES UNDER TRANSVERSE TENSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of surface cracks in the oxide layer is assumed. The critical value of the applied mechanical load, which the oxide layer, caused by the diffusion of oxygen, on the stress field is considered. 1. INTRODUCTION a brittle oxide layer on the titanium alloy develops. This oxide layer initiates and accelerates damage

  13. Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2013-12-01

    Since the industrial revolution, detection and monitoring of toxic matter, chemical wastes, and air pollutants has become an important environmental issue. Thus, it leads to the development of chemical sensors for various environmental applications. The recent disastrous oil spills over the near-surface of ocean due to the offshore drilling emphasize the use of chemical sensors for prevention and monitoring of the processes that might lead to these mishaps.1, 2 Chemical sensors operated on a simple principle that the sensing platform undergoes a detectable change when exposed to the target substance to be sensed. Among all the types of chemical sensors, solid state gas sensors have attracted a great deal of attention due to their advantages such as high sensitivity, greater selectivity, portability, high stability and low cost.3, 4 Especially, semiconducting metal oxides such as SnO2, TiO2, and WO3 have been widely used as the active sensing platforms in solid state gas sensors.5 For the enhanced properties of solid state gas sensors, finding new sensing materials or development of existing materials will be needed. Thus, nanostructured materials such as nanotubes,6-8 nanowires,9-11 nanorods,12-15 nanobelts,16, 17 and nano-scale thin films18-23 have been synthesized and studied for chemical sensing applications.

  14. Final LDRD report : metal oxide films, nanostructures, and heterostructures for solar hydrogen production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kronawitter, Coleman X.; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2012-01-01

    The distinction between electricity and fuel use in analyses of global power consumption statistics highlights the critical importance of establishing efficient synthesis techniques for solar fuels-those chemicals whose bond energies are obtained through conversion processes driven by solar energy. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes show potential for the production of solar fuels because of their demonstrated versatility in facilitating optoelectronic and chemical conversion processes. Tandem PEC-photovoltaic modular configurations for the generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight (solar water splitting) provide an opportunity to develop a low-cost and efficient energy conversion scheme. The critical component in devices of this type is the PEC photoelectrode, which must be optically absorptive, chemically stable, and possess the required electronic band alignment with the electrochemical scale for its charge carriers to have sufficient potential to drive the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. After many decades of investigation, the primary technological obstacle remains the development of photoelectrode structures capable of efficient conversion of light with visible frequencies, which is abundant in the solar spectrum. Metal oxides represent one of the few material classes that can be made photoactive and remain stable to perform the required functions.

  15. Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Conry, Thomas; Wilcox, James

    2010-03-05

    Recent work in our laboratory has been directed towards development of mixed layered transition metal oxides with general composition Li[Ni, Co, M, Mn]O2 (M=Al, Ti) for Li ion battery cathodes. Compounds such as Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 (often called NMCs) are currently being commercialized for use in consumer electronic batteries, but the high cobalt content makes them too expensive for vehicular applications such as electric vehicles (EV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). To reduce materials costs, we have explored partial or full substitution of Co with Al, Ti, and Fe. Fe substitution generally decreases capacity and results in poorer rate and cycling behavior. Interestingly, low levels of substitution with Al or Ti improve aspects of performance with minimal impact on energy densities, for some formulations. High levels of Al substitution compromise specific capacity, however, so further improvements require that the Ni and Mn content be increased and Co correspondingly decreased. Low levels of Al or Ti substitution can then be used offset negative effects induced by the higher Ni content. The structural and electrochemical characterization of substituted NMCs is presented in this paper.

  16. Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen is the main fuel for all types of fuel cells except direct methanol fuel cells. Hydrogen can be generated from all manner of fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, diesel, gasoline, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates (e.g., methanol, ethanol, butanol, etc.). Impurities in the fuel can cause significant performance problems and sulfur, in particular, can decrease the cell performance of fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In the SOFC, the high (800-1000°C) operating temperature yields advantages (e.g., internal fuel reforming) and disadvantages (e.g., material selection and degradation problems). Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC from ~1000 şC to ~750 şC may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

  17. Close-To-Practice Assessment Of Meat Freshness With Metal Oxide Sensor Microarray Electronic Nose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musatov, V. Yu.; Sysoev, V. V.; Sommer, M.; Kiselev, I.

    2009-05-23

    In this report we estimate the ability of KAMINA e-nose, based on a metal oxide sensor (MOS) microarray and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) pattern recognition, to evaluate meat freshness. The received results show that, 1) one or two exposures of standard meat samples to the e-nose are enough for the instrument to recognize the fresh meat prepared by the same supplier with 100% probability; 2) the meat samples of two kinds, stored at 4 deg. C and 25 deg. C, are mutually recognized at early stages of decay with the help of the LDA model built independently under the e-nose training to each kind of meat; 3) the 3-4 training cycles of exposure to meat from different suppliers are necessary for the e-nose to build a reliable LDA model accounting for the supplier factor. This study approves that the MOS e-nose is ready to be currently utilised in food industry for evaluation of product freshness. The e-nose performance is characterized by low training cost, a confident recognition power of various product decay conditions and easy adjustment to changing conditions.

  18. Time-Resolved XAFS Spectroscopic Studies of B-H and N-H Oxidative Addition to Transition Metal Catalysts Relevant to Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitterwolf, Thomas E.

    2014-12-09

    Successful catalytic dehydrogenation of aminoborane, H3NBH3, prompted questions as to the potential role of N-H oxidative addition in the mechanisms of these processes. N-H oxidative addition reactions are rare, and in all cases appear to involve initial dative bonding to the metal by the amine lone pairs followed by transfer of a proton to the basic metal. Aminoborane and its trimethylborane derivative block this mechanism and, in principle, should permit authentic N-H oxidative attrition to occur. Extensive experimental work failed to confirm this hypothesis. In all cases either B-H complexation or oxidative addition of solvent C-H bonds dominate the chemistry.

  19. Preventing and Reversing Vacuum-Induced Optical Losses in High-Finesse Tantalum (V) Oxide Mirror Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gangloff, Dorian; Wu, Tailin; Bylinskii, Alexei; Braverman, Boris; Gutierrez, Michael; Nichols, Rosanna; Li, Junru; Aichholz, Kai; Cetina, Marko; Karpa, Leon; Jelenkovi?, Branislav; Chuang, Isaac; Vuleti?, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    We study the vacuum-induced degradation of high-finesse optical cavities with mirror coatings composed of SiO$_2$-Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$ dielectric stacks, and present methods to protect these coatings and to recover their initial quality factor. For separate coatings with reflectivities centered at 370 nm and 422 nm, a vacuum-induced continuous increase in optical loss occurs if the surface-layer coating is made of Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$, while it does not occur if it is made of SiO$_2$. The incurred optical loss can be reversed by filling the vacuum chamber with oxygen at atmospheric pressure, and the recovery rate can be strongly accelerated by continuous laser illumination at 422 nm. Both the degradation and the recovery processes depend strongly on temperature. We find that a 1 nm-thick layer of SiO$_2$ passivating the Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$ surface layer is sufficient to reduce the degradation rate by more than a factor of 10, strongly supporting surface oxygen depletion as the primary degradation mechanism.

  20. Multilayered thermal insulation formed of zirconia bonded layers of zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1988-09-13

    A multilayered thermal insulating composite is formed of a first layer of zirconia-bonded zirconia fibers for utilization near the hot phase or surface of a furnace or the like. A second layer of zirconia-bonded metal oxide fibers is attached to the zirconia fiber layer by a transition layer formed of intermingled zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers. The thermal insulation is fabricated by vacuum molding with the layers being sequentially applied from aqueous solutions containing the fibers to a configured mandrel. A portion of the solution containing the fibers forming the first layer is intermixed with the solution containing the fibers of the second layer for forming the layer of mixed fibers. The two layers of fibers joined together by the transition layer are saturated with a solution of zirconium oxynitrate which provides a zirconia matrix for the composite when the fibers are sintered together at their nexi.

  1. Multilayered thermal insulation formed of zirconia bonded layers of zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrenn, Jr., George E. (Clinton, TN); Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Farragut, TN)

    1988-01-01

    A multilayered thermal insulating composite is formed of a first layer of zirconia-bonded zirconia fibers for utilization near the hot phase or surface of a furnace or the like. A second layer of zirconia-bonded metal oxide fibers is attached to the zirconia fiber layer by a transition layer formed of intermingled zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers. The thermal insulation is fabricated by vacuum molding with the layers being sequentially applied from aqueous solutions containing the fibers to a configured mandrel. A portion of the solution containing the fibers forming the first layer is intermixed with the solution containing the fibers of the second layer for forming the layer of mixed fibers. The two layers of fibers joined together by the transition layer are saturated with a solution of zirconium oxynitrate which provides a zirconia matrix for the composite when the fibers are sintered together at their nexi.

  2. Identifying the Role of N-Heteroatom Location in the Activity of Metal Catalysts for Alcohol Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan-Thaw, Carine E. [Universita di Milano, Italy; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Villa, Alberto [Universita di Milano, Italy; Prati, Laura [Universita di Milano, Italy

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on understanding how the bonding of nitrogen heteroatoms contained on/in a activated carbon support influence the stability and reactivity of a supported Pd catalyst for the oxidation of alcohols in solution. The results show that simply adding N groups via solution chemistry is insufficient to improve catalytic properties. Instead a strongly bound N moiety is required to activate the catalyst and stabilize the metal particles.

  3. 46 (2009-6) Effect of Surface Roughness on Emittance Spectra of Metal-coated Silicon Microcavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    to the electromagnetic resonance mode. When InGaAsSb PV cell is assumed, theoretical conversion efficiency becomes 31-372 infrared heat lamp sample & sample holder vacuum chamber IR spectrometer silver-coated mirror sapphire window lock-in amplifiervacuum pumping system data logger radiation oval mirror RP TMP radiation

  4. Modification of polymer velvet cathode via metallic Mo coating for enhancement of high-current electron emission performances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Ying; Wang, Bing; Yi, Yong; Xia, Liansheng; Zhang, Huang

    2013-09-15

    The effect of surface Mo coating on the high-current electron emission performances for polymer velvet cathode has been investigated in a diode with A-K gap of 11.5 cm by the combination of time-resolved electrical diagnostic and temporal pressure variation. Compared with uncoated polymer velvet cathode under the single-pulsed emission mode, the Mo-coated one shows lower outgassing levels (?0.40 Pa L), slower cathode plasma expansion velocity (?2.30 cm/?s), and higher emission stability as evidences by the change in cathode current, temporal pressure variation, and diode perveance. Moreover, after Mo coating, the emission consistency of the polymer velvet cathode between two adjacent pulses is significantly improved in double-pulsed emission mode with ?500 ns interval between two pulses, which further confirms the effectiveness of Mo coating for enhancement of electron emission performance of polymer velvet cathodes. These results should be of interest to the high-repetitive high-power microwave systems with cold cathodes.

  5. Ceramic wash-coat for catalyst support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Subramanian, Ramesh; Sabol, Stephen M.

    2012-08-14

    Abstract A wash-coat (16) for use as a support for an active catalyst species (18) and a catalytic combustor component (10) incorporating such wash-coat. The wash-coat is a solid solution of alumina or alumina-based material (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-0-3 wt % La.sub.2O.sub.3) and a further oxide exhibiting a coefficient of thermal expansion that is lower than that exhibited by alumina. The further oxide may be silicon dioxide (2-30 wt % SiO.sub.2), zirconia silicate (2-30 wt % ZrSiO.sub.4), neodymium oxide (0-4 wt %), titania (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-3-40% TiO.sub.2) or alumina-based magnesium aluminate spinel (Al.sub.2O.sub.3-25 wt % MgO) in various embodiments. The active catalyst species may be palladium and a second metal in a concentration of 10-50% of the concentration of the palladium.

  6. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide film on a textured metallic substrate and articles formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christen, David K. (Oak Ridge, TN); He, Qing (Bloomington, MN)

    2003-04-29

    The present invention provides a biaxially textured laminate article having a polycrystalline biaxially textured metallic substrate with an electrically conductive oxide layer epitaxially deposited thereon and methods for producing same. In one embodiment a biaxially texture Ni substrate has a layer of LaNiO.sub.3 deposited thereon. An initial layer of electrically conductive oxide buffer is epitaxially deposited using a sputtering technique using a sputtering gas which is an inert or forming gas. A subsequent layer of an electrically conductive oxide layer is then epitaxially deposited onto the initial layer using a sputtering gas comprising oxygen. The present invention will enable the formation of biaxially textured devices which include HTS wires and interconnects, large area or long length ferromagnetic and/or ferroelectric memory devices, large area or long length, flexible light emitting semiconductors, ferroelectric tapes, and electrodes.

  7. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide film on a textured metallic substrate and articles formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christen, David K. (Oak Ridge, TN); He, Qing (Bloomington, MN)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a biaxially textured laminate article having a polycrystalline biaxially textured metallic substrate with an electrically conductive oxide layer epitaxially deposited thereon and methods for producing same. In one embodiment a biaxially texture Ni substrate has a layer of LaNiO.sub.3 deposited thereon. An initial layer of electrically conductive oxide buffer is epitaxially deposited using a sputtering technique using a sputtering gas which is an inert or forming gas. A subsequent layer of an electrically conductive oxide layer is then epitaxially deposited onto the initial layer using a sputtering gas comprising oxygen. The present invention will enable the formation of biaxially textured devices which include HTS wires and interconnects, large area or long length ferromagnetic and/or ferroelectric memory devices, large area or long length, flexible light emitting semiconductors, ferroelectric tapes, and electrodes.

  8. Synthesis of Mixed Metal Oxides for Hydrodeoxygenation of Pyrolysis Oil for Alternative Fuels Sarah McNew, Tiorra Ross and Carsten Sievers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Synthesis of Mixed Metal Oxides for Hydrodeoxygenation of Pyrolysis Oil for Alternative Fuels Sarah alternative feedstocks · Alternative fuels must be: · Compatible with current infrastructure · Sustainable to traditional petroleum based fuels · Differences associated with oxygen · Removal of some oxygen is necessary

  9. Validation of MCNP6.1 for Criticality Safety of Pu-Metal, -Solution, and -Oxide Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiedrowski, Brian C.; Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd; Favorite, Jeffrey A.; Kahler, III, Albert C.; Kersting, Alyssa R.; Parsons, Donald K.; Walker, Jessie L.

    2014-05-13

    Guidance is offered to the Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Criticality Safety division towards developing an Upper Subcritical Limit (USL) for MCNP6.1 calculations with ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data for three classes of problems: Pu-metal, -solution, and -oxide systems. A benchmark suite containing 1,086 benchmarks is prepared, and a sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) method with a generalized linear least squares (GLLS) data adjustment is used to reject outliers, bringing the total to 959 usable benchmarks. For each class of problem, S/U methods are used to select relevant experimental benchmarks, and the calculational margin is computed using extreme value theory. A portion of the margin of sub criticality is defined considering both a detection limit for errors in codes and data and uncertainty/variability in the nuclear data library. The latter employs S/U methods with a GLLS data adjustment to find representative nuclear data covariances constrained by integral experiments, which are then used to compute uncertainties in keff from nuclear data. The USLs for the classes of problems are as follows: Pu metal, 0.980; Pu solutions, 0.973; dry Pu oxides, 0.978; dilute Pu oxide-water mixes, 0.970; and intermediate-spectrum Pu oxide-water mixes, 0.953.

  10. Geochemical, metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into trace metal utilization by methane-oxidizing microbial consortia in sulphidic marine sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, DR. Jennifer; Yu, DR. Hang; Steele, Joshua; Dawson, Katherine; Sun, S; Chourey, Karuna; Pan, Chongle; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Orphan, V

    2013-01-01

    Microbes have obligate requirements for trace metals in metalloenzymes that catalyse important biogeochemical reactions. In anoxic methane- and sulphiderich environments, microbes may have unique adaptations for metal acquisition and utilization because of decreased bioavailability as a result of metal sulphide precipitation. However, micronutrient cycling is largely unexplored in cold ( 10 C) and sulphidic (> 1 mM H2S) deep-sea methane seep ecosystems. We investigated trace metal geochemistry and microbial metal utilization in methane seeps offshore Oregon and California, USA, and report dissolved concentrations of nickel (0.5 270 nM), cobalt (0.5 6 nM), molybdenum (10 5600 nM) and tungsten (0.3 8 nM) in Hydrate Ridge sediment porewaters. Despite low levels of cobalt and tungsten, metagenomic and metaproteomic data suggest that microbial consortia catalysing anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) utilize both scarce micronutrients in addition to nickel and molybdenum. Genetic machinery for cobalt-containing vitamin B12 biosynthesis was present in both anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulphate-reducing bacteria. Proteins affiliated with the tungsten-containing form of formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase were expressed in ANME from two seep ecosystems, the first evidence for expression of a tungstoenzyme in psychrophilic microorganisms. Overall, our data suggest that AOM consortia use specialized biochemical strategies to overcome the challenges of metal availability in sulphidic environments.

  11. Geochemical, metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into trace metal utilization by methane-oxidizing microbial consortia in sulfidic marine sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, DR. Jennifer; Yu, DR. Hang; Steele, Joshua; Dawson, Katherine; Sun, S; Chourey, Karuna; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Orphan, V

    2014-01-01

    Microbes have obligate requirements for trace metals in metalloenzymes that catalyze important biogeochemical reactions. In anoxic methane- and sulfide-rich environments, microbes may have unique adaptations for metal acquisition and utilization due to decreased bioavailability as a result of metal sulfide precipitation. However, micronutrient cycling is largely unexplored in cold ( 10 C) and sulfidic (>1 mM H2S) deep-sea methane seep ecosystems. We investigated trace metal geochemistry and microbial metal utilization in methane seeps offshore Oregon and California, USA, and report dissolved concentrations of nickel (0.5-270 nM), cobalt (0.5-6 nM), molybdenum (10-5,600 nM) and tungsten (0.3-8 nM) in Hydrate Ridge sediment porewaters. Despite low levels of cobalt and tungsten, metagenomic and metaproteomic data suggest that microbial consortia catalyzing anaerobic oxidation of methane utilize both scarce micronutrients in addition to nickel and molybdenum. Genetic machinery for cobalt-containing vitamin B12 biosynthesis was present in both anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Proteins affiliated with the tungsten-containing form of formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase were expressed in ANME from two seep ecosystems, the first evidence for expression of a tungstoenzyme in psychrotolerant microorganisms. Finally, our data suggest that chemical speciation of metals in highly sulfidic porewaters may exert a stronger influence on microbial bioavailability than total concentration

  12. New sol-gel synthetic route to transition and main-group metal oxide aerogels using inorganic salt precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gash, A E; Tillotson, T M; Satcher Jr, J H; Hrubesh, L W; Simpson, R L

    2000-09-12

    We have developed a new sol-gel route to synthesize several transition and main-group metal oxide aerogels. The approach is straightforward, inexpensive, versatile, and it produces monolithic microporous materials with high surface areas. Specifically, we report the use of epoxides as gelation agents for the sol-gel synthesis of chromia aerogels and xerogels from simple Cr(III) inorganic salts. The dependence of both gel formation and its rate was studied by varying the solvent used, the Cr(III) precursor salt, the epoxide/Cr(III) ratio, as well as the type of epoxide employed. All of these variables were shown to affect the rate of gel formation and provide a convenient control of this parameter. Dried chromia aerogels were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analyses, results of which will be presented. Our studies have shown that rigid monolithic gels can be prepared from many different metal ions salts, provided the formal oxidation state of the metal ion is greater than or equal to +3. Conversely, when di-valent transition metal salts are used precipitated solids are the products.

  13. Synthesis of Functionalized Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles from a Common Precursor and their Application as Heavy Metal and Actinide Sorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Marvin G.; Warner, Cynthia L.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Davidson, Joseph D.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Nash, Michael A.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2009-10-12

    We describe the use of a simple and versatile technique to generate a series of ligand stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles containing different ? functionalities with specificities toward heavy metals and actinides at the periphery of the stabilizing ligand shell from a common, easy to synthesize precursor nanoparticle. The resulting nanoparticles are designed to contain affinity ligands that make them excellent sorbent materials for a variety of heavy metals from contaminated aqueous systems such as river water and ground water as well as actinides from clinical samples such as blood and urine. Functionalized superparamagnetic nanoparticles make ideal reagents for extraction of heavy metal and actinide contaminants from environmental and clinical samples since they are easily removed from the media once bound to the contaminant by simply applying a magnetic field. In addition, these engineered nanomaterials have an inherently high active surface area (often > 100 m2/g) making them ideal sorbent materials for these types of applications

  14. Schottky barrier height reduction for holes by Fermi level depinning using metal/nickel oxide/silicon contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, Raisul, E-mail: raisul@stanford.edu; Shine, Gautam; Saraswat, Krishna C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-11-03

    We report the experimental demonstration of Fermi level depinning using nickel oxide (NiO) as the insulator material in metal-insulator-semiconductor (M-I-S) contacts. Using this contact, we show less than 0.1?eV barrier height for holes in platinum/NiO/silicon (Pt/NiO/p-Si) contact. Overall, the pinning factor was improved from 0.08 (metal/Si) to 0.26 (metal/NiO/Si). The experimental results show good agreement with that obtained from theoretical calculation. NiO offers high conduction band offset and low valence band offset with Si. By reducing Schottky barrier height, this contact can be used as a carrier selective contact allowing hole transport but blocking electron transport, which is important for high efficiency in photonic applications such as photovoltaics and optical detectors.

  15. Modified cermet fuel electrodes for solid oxide electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Spengler, Charles J. (Murrysville, PA)

    1991-01-01

    An exterior porous electrode (10), bonded to a solid oxygen ion conducting electrolyte (13) which is in contact with an interior electrode (14), contains coarse metal particles (12) of nickel and/or cobalt, having diameters from 3 micrometers to 35 micrometers, where the coarse particles are coated with a separate, porous, multiphase layer (17) containing fine metal particles of nickel and/or cobalt (18), having diameters from 0.05 micrometers to 1.75 micrometers and conductive oxide (19) selected from cerium oxide, doped cerium oxide, strontium titanate, doped strontium titanate and mixtures thereof.

  16. High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

  17. Operation of mixed conducting metal oxide membrane systems under transient conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA)

    2008-12-23

    Method of operating an oxygen-permeable mixed conducting membrane having an oxidant feed side, an oxidant feed surface, a permeate side, and a permeate surface, which method comprises controlling the differential strain between the permeate surface and the oxidant feed surface at a value below a selected maximum value by varying the oxygen partial pressure on either or both of the oxidant feed side and the permeate side of the membrane.

  18. Finding Room for Improvement in Transition Metal Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kam, Kinson

    2012-01-01

    Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Kinson C. Kam andusing rechargeable lithium-ion batteries has become an

  19. New Generation of MoSx Based Solid Lubricant Coatings: Recent Developments and Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haider, Julfikar; Hashmi, M. S. J.

    2011-01-17

    In recent times, there is a growing interest in applying Molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub x}) solid lubricant coatings on components to improve the tribological performance (i.e. lower friction coefficient and wear rate). The tribological performance of MoS{sub x} coating is strongly dependent on coating properties and tribological environment. MoS{sub x} coatings are highly successful in certain applications such as in space/vacuum technology, but its effectiveness is questioned in other terrestrial applications such as in cutting tool industry due to its lower hardness and poor oxidation resistance leading to shorter life. In order to circumvent this drawback, the paper identifies that current research is being concentrated on developing MoS{sub x} based coatings using three different approaches: (1) Metal or compound addition in MoS{sub x} coating (2)MoS{sub x} layer on hard coating and (3)MoS{sub x} addition in hard coating matrix. Although the primary objective is same in all three cases, the third approach is considered to be more effective in improving the tribological properties of the coating. Finally, the potential applications of MoS{sub x} based coatings in different industrial sectors have been briefly outlined.

  20. Growth of CrO[subscript 2] coated single crystalline (SnO[subscript 2]) tin oxide nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miao, Guo-Xing

    Single crystalline tin oxide (SnO[subscript 2]) nanowires have been synthesized by carbothermal reduction of SnO[subscript 2] nanopowder followed by thermal evaporation of the reduced precursor and growth via the ...