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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said substrate.

Ott, K.C.; Kodas, T.T.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

2

Cyclic catalytic upgrading of chemical species using metal oxide materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Processes are disclosure which comprise alternately contacting an oxygen-carrying catalyst with a reducing substance, or a lower partial pressure of an oxidizing gas, and then with the oxidizing gas or a higher partial pressure of the oxidizing gas, whereby the catalyst is alternately reduced and then regenerated to an oxygenated state. In certain embodiments, the oxygen-carrying catalyst comprises at least one metal oxide-containing material containing a composition having the following formulas: (a) Ce.sub.xB.sub.yB'.sub.zB''O.sub..delta., wherein B=Ba, Sr, Ca, or Zr; B'=Mn, Co, and/or Fe; B''=Cu; 0.01metal oxides.

White, James H; Schutte, Erick J; Rolfe, Sara L

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

3

Cyclic catalytic upgrading of chemical species using metal oxide materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Processes are disclosure which comprise alternately contacting an oxygen-carrying catalyst with a reducing substance, or a lower partial pressure of an oxidizing gas, and then with the oxidizing gas or a higher partial pressure of the oxidizing gas, whereby the catalyst is alternately reduced and then regenerated to an oxygenated state. In certain embodiments, the oxygen-carrying catalyst comprises at least one metal oxide-containing material containing a composition having one of the following formulas: (a) Ce.sub.xB.sub.yB'.sub.zB''O.sub..delta., wherein B=Ba, Sr, Ca, or Zr; B'=Mn, Co, or Fe; B''=Cu; 0.01

White, James H. (Boulder, CO); Schutte, Erick J. (Thornton, CO); Rolfe, Sara L. (Loveland, CO)

2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

4

Evaluation of Novel Ceria-Supported Metal Oxides As Oxygen Carriers for Chemical-Looping Combustion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaluation of Novel Ceria-Supported Metal Oxides As Oxygen Carriers for Chemical-Looping Combustion of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goteborg, Sweden States § Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goteborg

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

5

Volatile organometallic complexes suitable for use in chemical vapor depositions on metal oxide films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel ligated compounds of tin, titanium, and zinc are useful as metal oxide CVD precursor compounds without the detriments of extreme reactivity yet maintaining the ability to produce high quality metal oxide coating by contact with heated substrates.

Giolando, Dean M.

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

6

Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors by Molecular Beam Epitaxy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the industrial revolution, detection and monitoring of toxic matter, chemical wastes, and air pollutants has become an important environmental issue. Thus, it leads to the development of chemical sensors for various environmental applications. The recent disastrous oil spills over the near-surface of ocean due to the offshore drilling emphasize the use of chemical sensors for prevention and monitoring of the processes that might lead to these mishaps.1, 2 Chemical sensors operated on a simple principle that the sensing platform undergoes a detectable change when exposed to the target substance to be sensed. Among all the types of chemical sensors, solid state gas sensors have attracted a great deal of attention due to their advantages such as high sensitivity, greater selectivity, portability, high stability and low cost.3, 4 Especially, semiconducting metal oxides such as SnO2, TiO2, and WO3 have been widely used as the active sensing platforms in solid state gas sensors.5 For the enhanced properties of solid state gas sensors, finding new sensing materials or development of existing materials will be needed. Thus, nanostructured materials such as nanotubes,6-8 nanowires,9-11 nanorods,12-15 nanobelts,16, 17 and nano-scale thin films18-23 have been synthesized and studied for chemical sensing applications.

Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Regenerable MgO promoted metal oxide oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier comprised of a plurality of metal oxide particles in contact with a plurality of MgO promoter particles. The MgO promoter particles increase the reaction rate and oxygen utilization of the metal oxide when contacting with a gaseous hydrocarbon at a temperature greater than about 725.degree. C. The promoted oxide solid is generally comprised of less than about 25 wt. % MgO, and may be prepared by physical mixing, incipient wetness impregnation, or other methods known in the art. The oxygen carrier exhibits a crystalline structure of the metal oxide and a crystalline structure of MgO under XRD crystallography, and retains these crystalline structures over subsequent redox cycles. In an embodiment, the metal oxide is Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, and the gaseous hydrocarbon is comprised of methane.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Miller, Duane D.

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

8

Metal oxide films on metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Method of producing adherent metal oxide coatings on metallic surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Provided is a process of producing an adherent synthetic corrosion product (sludge) coating on metallic surfaces. The method involves a chemical reaction between a dry solid powder mixture of at least one reactive metal oxide with orthophosphoric acid to produce a coating in which the particles are bound together and the matrix is adherent to the metallic surface.

Lane, Michael H. (Clifton Park, NY); Varrin, Jr., Robert D. (McLean, VA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Project Profile: High Performance Reduction/Oxidation Metal Oxides...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

High Performance ReductionOxidation Metal Oxides for Thermochemical Energy Storage Project Profile: High Performance ReductionOxidation Metal Oxides for Thermochemical Energy...

13

Extracting metals directly from metal oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

14

Extracting metals directly from metal oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NO x Emission Control Catalysts Pu-Xian Gao Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering & Institute of...

16

Slag Metal Reactions in Binary CaF2-Metal Oxide Welding Fluxes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Slag Metal Reactions in Binary CaF2-Metal Oxide Welding Fluxes Some otherwise chemically stable fluxes may decompose into suboxides in the presence of welding arcs, thereby providing higher levels of 0 2 in weld metal than those oxides which do not form suboxides ABSTRACT. The stability of metal

Eagar, Thomas W.

17

Decontamination of metals using chemical etching  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to chemical etching process for reclaiming contaminated equipment wherein a reduction-oxidation system is included in a solution of nitric acid to contact the metal to be decontaminated and effect reduction of the reduction-oxidation system, and includes disposing a pair of electrodes in the reduced solution to permit passage of an electrical current between said electrodes and effect oxidation of the reduction-oxidation system to thereby regenerate the solution and provide decontaminated equipment that is essentially radioactive contamination-free.

Lerch, Ronald E. (Kennewick, WA); Partridge, Jerry A. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Enhancement of Bacterial Transport in Aerobic and Anaerobic Environments: Assessing the Effect of Metal Oxide Chemical Heterogeneities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of our research was to understand the fundamental processes that control microbial transport in physically and chemically heterogeneous aquifers and from this enhanced understanding determine the requirements for successful, field-scale delivery of microorganisms to metal contaminated subsurface sites. Our specific research goals were to determine; (1) the circumstances under which the preferential adsorption of bacteria to Fe, Mn, and Al oxyhydroxides influences field-scale bacterial transport, (2) the extent to which the adhesion properties of bacterial cells affect field-scale bacterial transport, (3) whether microbial Fe(III) reduction can enhance field-scale transport of Fe reducing bacteria (IRB) and other microorganisms and (4) the effect of field-scale physical and chemical heterogeneity on all three processes. Some of the spin-offs from this basic research that can improve biostimulation and bioaugmentation remediation efforts at contaminated DOE sites have included; (1) new bacterial tracking tools for viable bacteria; (2) an integrated protocol which combines subsurface characterization, laboratory-scale experimentation, and scale-up techniques to accurately predict field-scale bacterial transport; and (3) innovative and inexpensive field equipment and methods that can be employed to enhance Fe(III) reduction and microbial transport and to target microbial deposition under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

T.C. Onstott

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

19

Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This summarizes NREL's FY09 battery materials research activity in developing metal oxide nanostructured anodes to enable high-energy, durable and affordable li-ion batteries for HEVs and PHEVs.

Dillon, A. C.; Riley, L. A.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ban, C.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Pesaran, A.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

Estochen, E.

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Metal oxide nanostructures with hierarchical morphology  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates generally to metal oxide materials with varied symmetrical nanostructure morphologies. In particular, the present invention provides metal oxide materials comprising one or more metallic oxides with three-dimensionally ordered nanostructural morphologies, including hierarchical morphologies. The present invention also provides methods for producing such metal oxide materials.

Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Yu (Saline, MI); Banerjee, Debasish (Ann Arbor, MI)

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

22

Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques. 2 figures.

Anderson, M.A.

1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

24

NANO - "Green" metal oxides ... | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

"Green" metal oxides ... Water and nano-sized particles isolated from trees, plants and algae are the ingredients of a new recipe for low-cost metal oxides that are widely used in...

25

Spectroscopic studies of metal growth on oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Chemistry SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF METAL GROWTH ON OXIDES A Thesis by KAI LUO Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style a d content by: avid W. Goodman.... , Jilin University, P. R. China Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr, David W. Goodman Metal/oxide chemistry and metal cluster growth on oxides are fundamental to our understanding of the catalytic activity and selectivity of metal catalysts, thus...

Luo, Kai

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Nanostructured transition metal oxides useful for water oxidation catalysis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides for a composition comprising a nanostructured transition metal oxide capable of oxidizing two H.sub.2O molecules to obtain four protons. In some embodiments of the invention, the composition further comprises a porous matrix wherein the nanocluster of the transition metal oxide is embedded on and/or in the porous matrix.

Frei, Heinz M; Jiao, Feng

2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

27

A chemical approach to understanding oxide surfaces James A. Enterkin a,b,c  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A chemical approach to understanding oxide surfaces James A. Enterkin a,b,c , Andres E. Becerra-Toledo d , Kenneth R. Poeppelmeier a,b,c , Laurence D. Marks c,d, a Chemical Sciences and Engineering Keywords: Bond valence sum Coordination Chemical bond Surface structure Metal oxide Chemical bonding has

Marks, Laurence D.

28

Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone into metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and into the cooler plasma afterglow where it oxidizes, cools and condenses to form solid metal oxide nanoparticles.

Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Mendoza, Daniel (Santa Fe, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

29

THE MICROSTRUCTURAL LOCATION OF THE INTERGRANULAR METAL OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I• I ntroduct Ion Metal oxide varistors are ceramic semi-SECTION M METAL' OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTORTHE INTERGRANULAR METAL OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR

Clarke, D. E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Metal-oxide-based energetic materials and synthesis thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of preparing energetic metal-oxide-based energetic materials using sol-gel chemistry has been invented. The wet chemical sol-gel processing provides an improvement in both safety and performance. Essentially, a metal-oxide oxidizer skeletal structure is prepared from hydrolyzable metals (metal salts or metal alkoxides) with fuel added to the sol prior to gelation or synthesized within the porosity metal-oxide gel matrix. With metal salt precursors a proton scavenger is used to destabilize the sol and induce gelation. With metal alkoxide precursors standard well-known sol-gel hydrolysis and condensation reactions are used. Drying is done by standard sol-gel practices, either by a slow evaporation of the liquid residing within the pores to produce a high density solid nanocomposite, or by supercritical extraction to produce a lower density, high porous nanocomposite. Other ingredients may be added to this basic nanostructure to change physical and chemical properties, which include organic constituents for binders or gas generators during reactions, burn rate modifiers, or spectral emitters.

Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA), Simpson; Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

31

Solubility Behavior and Phase Stability of Transition Metal Oxides in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solubility behavior of transition metal oxides in high temperature water is interpreted by recognizing three types of chemical reaction equilibria: metal oxide hydration/dehydration, metal oxide dissolution and metal ion hydroxocomplex formation. The equilibria are quantified using thermodynamic concepts and the thermochemical properties of the metal oxides/ions representative of the most common constituents of construction metal alloys, i.e., element shaving atomic numbers between Z = 22 (Ti) and Z = 30 (Zn), are summarized on the basis of metal oxide solubility studies conducted in the laboratory. Particular attention is devoted to the uncharged metal ion hydrocomplex, M{sup Z}(OH){sub Z}(aq), since its thermochemical properties define minimum solubilities of the metal oxide at a given temperature. Experimentally-extracted values of standard partial molal entropy (S{sup 0}) for the transition metal ion neutral hydroxocomplex are shown to be influenced by ligand field stabilization energies and complex symmetry.

S.E. Ziemniak

2000-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

32

Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

33

Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

34

Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels.

Droege, Michael W. (Livermore, CA); Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Hair, Lucy M. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels. 6 figs.

Droege, M.W.; Coronado, P.R.; Hair, L.M.

1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

36

Three-Electrode Metal Oxide Reduction Cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

37

Three-electrode metal oxide reduction cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Groves, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

38

Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Presents...

39

Understanding Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal Nanoparticles by Correlation with Atomic Resolution Electron Understanding Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal...

40

High surface area, electrically conductive nanocarbon-supported metal oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust.

Worsley, Marcus A; Han, Thomas Yong-Jin; Kuntz, Joshua D; Cervanted, Octavio; Gash, Alexander E; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Process for etching mixed metal oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An etching process is described using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstrom range may be achieved by this method. 1 fig.

Ashby, C.I.H.; Ginley, D.S.

1994-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

43

Process for etching mixed metal oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An etching process using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstom range may be achieved by this method.

Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The containment vessel is enclosed within an aqueous atmosphere that is above the supercritical temperature and pressure of the solvent of the metal alkoxide solution.

Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Oxidative stress and oxidative damage in chemical carcinogenesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are induced through a variety of endogenous and exogenous sources. Overwhelming of antioxidant and DNA repair mechanisms in the cell by ROS may result in oxidative stress and oxidative damage to the cell. This resulting oxidative stress can damage critical cellular macromolecules and/or modulate gene expression pathways. Cancer induction by chemical and physical agents involves a multi-step process. This process includes multiple molecular and cellular events to transform a normal cell to a malignant neoplastic cell. Oxidative damage resulting from ROS generation can participate in all stages of the cancer process. An association of ROS generation and human cancer induction has been shown. It appears that oxidative stress may both cause as well as modify the cancer process. Recently association between polymorphisms in oxidative DNA repair genes and antioxidant genes (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and human cancer susceptibility has been shown.

Klaunig, James E., E-mail: jklauni@indiana.edu; Wang Zemin; Pu Xinzhu; Zhou Shaoyu

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi2-yHyO.xM'O2.(1-x)Li1-zHzMO2 in which 0metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi2-yHy.xM'O2.(1-x)Li1-zHzMO2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi2M'O3.(1-x)LiMO2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

47

Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Senkov, Oleg N. (Moscow, ID)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Modeling of surface oxidation and oxidation induced damage in metal matrix composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surface oxidation in metal matrix composites (MMC's) is modeled by Fickian diffusion of oxygen in both the oxide layer and metal matrix. The oxidation process and the resulting immobilized oxygen at the interface is accounted for by the introduction...

Ma, Xinzheng

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing gas. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream. 1 fig.

Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.

1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

50

Metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low cost, colloidal deposition methods have been utilized to produce novel solid oxide fuel cell structures on metal alloy support electrodes. YSZ films were deposited on iron-chrome supports on top of a thin Ni/YSZ catalytic layer, and sintered at 1350 degrees C, in a reducing atmosphere. Dense, 20??m YSZ electrolyte films were obtained on highly porous stainless steel substrates.

Villarreal, I.; Jacobson, C.; Leming, A.; Matus, Y.; Visco, S.; De Jonghe, L.

2003-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

51

Method for producing nanostructured metal-oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A synthetic route for producing nanostructure metal-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing. This procedure employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-metal inorganic salts and environmentally friendly solvents such as water and ethanol. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by the addition of a proton scavenger, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively. Using this method synthesis of metal-oxide nanostructured materials have been carried out using inorganic salts, such as of Fe3+, Cr3+, Al3+, Ga3+, In3+, Hf4+, Sn4+, Zr4+, Nb5+, W6+, Pr3+, Er3+, Nd3+, Ce3+, U3+ and Y3+. The process is general and nanostructured metal-oxides from the following elements of the periodic table can be made: Groups 2 through 13, part of Group 14 (germanium, tin, lead), part of Group 15 (antimony, bismuth), part of Group 16 (polonium), and the lanthanides and actinides. The sol-gel processing allows for the addition of insoluble materials (e.g., metals or polymers) to the viscous sol, just before gelation, to produce a uniformly distributed nanocomposites upon gelation. As an example, energetic nanocomposites of FexOy gel with distributed Al metal are readily made. The compositions are stable, safe, and can be readily ignited to thermitic reaction.

Tillotson, Thomas M.; Simpson, Randall L.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Gash, Alexander

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

52

Growth of magnesium oxide thin lms using single molecular precursors by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Growth of magnesium oxide thin ®lms using single molecular precursors by metal±organic chemical precursors; Silicon; Sapphire 1. Introduction Magnesium oxide (MgO) thin ®lms have attracted much attention MgO ®lms on Si(100) above 6508C by thermal CVD. Murayama and Shionoya [12] used magnesium 2

Boo, Jin-Hyo

53

Pressurized molten ferrous metal chemical reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research is in progress to develop a liquid ferrous metal chemical reactor to produce valuable products from petroleum refining waste and to achieve totally contained destruction of toxic chemicals. The work is an extension of the Hymelt{trademark} Process (patent pending) developed by the Ashland Petroleum Company. Materials to be processed, such as hydrocarbons, are fed into a crucible of molten iron at 1,600 C. The material decomposes, evolving hydrogen gas and combining carbon with the iron to form molten steel. Research is being pursued as a collaborative effort to Ashland Petroleum Company, Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Houston Advanced Research Center, and others.

Randolph, H.W.; Malone, D.P.; Margrave, J.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)]|[Ashland Petroleum Co., Houston, TX (United States)]|[Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Thermal barrier and overlay coating systems comprising composite metal/metal oxide bond coating layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention generally describes multilayer coating systems comprising a composite metal/metal oxide bond coat layer. The coating systems may be used in gas turbines.

Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL); Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Hydrous metal oxide catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes work performed at Sandia under a CRADA with Shell Development of Houston, Texas aimed at developing hydrous metal oxide (HMO) catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons. Autoxidation as well as selective oxidation of 1-octene was studied in the presence of HMO catalysts based on known oxidation catalysts. The desired reactions were the conversion of olefin to epoxides, alcohols, and ketones, HMOs seem to inhibit autoxidation reactions, perhaps by reacting with peroxides or radicals. Attempts to use HMOs and metal loaded HMOs as epoxidation catalysts were unsuccessful, although their utility for this reaction was not entirely ruled out. Likewise, alcohol formation from olefins in the presence of HMO catalysts was not achieved. However, this work led to the discovery that acidified HMOs can lead to carbocation reactions of hydrocarbons such as cracking. An HMO catalyst containing Rh and Cu that promotes the reaction of {alpha}-olefins with oxygen to form methyl ketones was identified. Although the activity of the catalyst is relatively low and isomerization reactions of the olefin simultaneously occur, results indicate that these problems may be addressed by eliminating mass transfer limitations. Other suggestions for improving the catalyst are also made. 57 refs.

Miller, J.E.; Dosch, R.G.; McLaughlin, L.I. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Process Research Dept.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula given in the patent where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula 1 is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula 1 and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

Erbil, A.

1989-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

57

Versatile Applications of Nanostructured Metal Oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1998, 396, 152. [4] S. Guldin, S. Hüttner, M. Kolle, M. E. Welland, P. Müller-Buschbaum, R. H. Friend, U. Steiner, N. Tétreault, Dye-sensitized solar cell based on a three- dimensional photonic crystal, Nano Lett. 2010, 10, 2303. [5] R. L. Puurunen... and technological fields, in- cluding catalysis, sensors, energy devices (batteries, solar cells and fuel cells), optics and biomedicine.[11] Nanoporous metal oxides have therefore gained tremendous in- terest during the past decades. They show greatly improved...

Li, Li

2014-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

58

Method for producing metal oxide aerogels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-step hydrolysis-condensation method was developed to form metal oxide aerogels of any density, including densities of less than 0.003g/cm{sup 3} and greater than 0.27g/cm{sup 3}. High purity metal alkoxide is reacted with water, alcohol solvent, and an additive to form a partially condensed metal intermediate. All solvent and reaction-generated alcohol is removed, and the intermediate is diluted with a nonalcoholic solvent. The intermediate can be stored for future use to make aerogels of any density. The aerogels are formed by reacting the intermediate with water, nonalcoholic solvent, and a catalyst, and extracting the nonalcoholic solvent directly. The resulting monolithic aerogels are hydrophobic and stable under atmospheric conditions, and exhibit good optical transparency, high clarity, and homogeneity. The aerogels have high thermal insulation capacity, high porosity, mechanical strength and stability, and require shorter gelation times than aerogels formed by conventional methods. 8 figs.

Tillotson, T.M.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Thomas, I.M.

1995-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

59

Method for producing metal oxide aerogels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two-step hydrolysis-condensation method was developed to form metal oxide aerogels of any density, including densities of less than 0.003g/cm.sup.3 and greater than 0.27g/cm.sup.3. High purity metal alkoxide is reacted with water, alcohol solvent, and an additive to form a partially condensed metal intermediate. All solvent and reaction-generated alcohol is removed, and the intermediate is diluted with a nonalcoholic solvent. The intermediate can be stored for future use to make aerogels of any density. The aerogels are formed by reacting the intermediate with water, nonalcoholic solvent, and a catalyst, and extracting the nonalcoholic solvent directly. The resulting monolithic aerogels are hydrophobic and stable under atmospheric conditions, and exhibit good optical transparency, high clarity, and homogeneity. The aerogels have high thermal insulation capacity, high porosity, mechanical strength and stability, and require shorter gelation times than aerogels formed by conventional methods.

Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Thomas, Ian M. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Metal oxide membranes for gas separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for formation of a microporous ceramic membrane onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane having mean pore sizes less than 30 Angstroms and useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or gas separation. 4 figs.

Anderson, M.A.; Webster, E.T.; Xu, Q.

1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Metal oxide membranes for gas separation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for permformation of a microporous ceramic membrane onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane having mean pore sizes less than 30 Angstroms and useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or gas separation.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Webster, Elizabeth T. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Plainsboro, NJ)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Synergetic effects of mixed copper-iron oxides oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean energy production from fuels. CLC produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}-streams without a significant energy penalty. Development of efficient oxygen carriers is essential to successfully operate a CLC system. Copper and iron oxides are promising candidates for CLC. Copper oxide possesses high reactivity but it has issues with particle agglomeration due to its low melting point. Even though iron oxide is an inexpensive oxygen carrier it has a slower reactivity. In this study, mixed metal oxide carriers containing iron and copper oxides were evaluated for coal and methane CLC. The components of CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were optimized to obtain good reactivity while maintaining physical and chemical stability during cyclic reactions for methane-CLC and solid-fuel CLC. Compared with single metal oxygen carriers, the optimized Cu–Fe mixed oxide oxygen carriers demonstrated high reaction rate, better combustion conversion, greater oxygen usage and improved physical stability. Thermodynamic calculations, XRD, TGA, flow reactor studies and TPR experiments suggested that there is a strong interaction between CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contributing to a synergistic effect during CLC reactions. The amount of oxygen release of the mixed oxide carrier in the absence of a fuel was similar to that of the single metal oxides. However, in the presence of fuels, the oxygen consumption and the reaction profiles of the mixed oxide carriers were significantly better than that of the single metal oxides. The nature of the fuel not only influenced the reactivity, but also the final reduction status of the oxygen carriers during chemical looping combustion. Cu oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced metallic copper with both coal and methane. Fe oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced Fe metal with methane but it was reduced to only FeO with coal. Possible mechanisms of how the presence of CuO enhances the reduction of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} are discussed.

Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as aluminum, titanium, tantalum or stainless steel. The comosition comprises tin and zinc; germanium as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of copper and antimony; and a grit, such as silicon carbide. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the germanium penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The germanium comprises less than aproximatley 10% by weight of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above approximately 300.degree. C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as aluminum, titanium, tantalum or stainless steel is disclosed. The composition comprises tin and zinc; germanium as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of copper and antimony; and a grit, such as silicon carbide. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the germanium penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The germanium comprises less than approximately 10% by weight of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above approximately 300 C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

Kronberg, J.W.

1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

Transition metal oxide improves overall efficiency and maintains performance with inexpensive metals.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

metals. A research team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has demonstrated Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. 1617 Cole BoulevardTransition metal oxide improves overall efficiency and maintains performance with inexpensive

66

Transition metal-promoted oxygen ion conductors as oxidation catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel metal oxide composite catalyst for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons was prepared by combining oxygen ion conducting materials with active transition metals. The oxygen ion conductors used were typical fluorite-type oxides, such as ceria, zirconia, and others. Active base metal catalysts, such as copper, were used as additives to promote the catalytic properties of oxygen ion conductors. The intimate contact of the two kinds of materials gave rise to a highly active oxidation catalyst. On Cu-Ce-O composite catalysts, 95% of carbon monoxide was oxidized by air at {approximately} 100 C. Complete methane oxidation on the same catalyst took place at {approximately} 550 C. When the stoichiometric amount of sulfur dioxide was sued to oxidize carbon monoxide, 96% of sulfur dioxide was reduced to elemental sulfur at temperatures above 460 C with 99% of sulfur dioxide conversion. This type of composite catalyst also showed excellent resistance to water poisoning.

Liu, W.; Sarofim, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

67

Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

Poston, James A. (Star City, WV)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Route to transition metal carbide nanoparticles through cyanamide and metal oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have designed an efficient route to the synthesis of transition metal carbide nanoparticles starting from an organic reagent cyanamide and transition metal oxides. Four technologically important metal carbide nanoparticles such as tungsten carbide, niobium carbide, tantalum carbide and vanadium carbide were synthesized successfully at moderate temperatures. It is found that cyanamide is an efficient carburization reagent and that the metal oxides are completely transmitted into the corresponding carbide nanoparticles. A possible mechanism is proposed to explain the results of the reaction between cyanamide and the metal oxides.

Li, P.G. [Department of Physics, Center for Optoelectronics Materials and Devices, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Xiasha College Park, Hangzhou 310018 (China)], E-mail: peigangiphy@yahoo.com.cn; Lei, M.; Tang, W.H. [Department of Physics, Center for Optoelectronics Materials and Devices, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Xiasha College Park, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

REVIEW ARTICLE Heavy Metal Pollutants and Chemical Ecology: Exploring  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REVIEW ARTICLE Heavy Metal Pollutants and Chemical Ecology: Exploring New Frontiers Robert S. Boyd to be learned about how heavy metal pollution impacts organisms, and that exciting new research frontiers as pollutants (Han et al. 2002), including Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Much research on heavy metal

Boyd, Robert S.

70

NREL Demonstrates Efficient Solar Water Splitting by Metal Oxide Photoabsorber (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New development demonstrates that inexpensive and robust metal oxide photoabsorbers hold great promise as photoanodes for water oxidation.

Not Available

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed. 2 figs.

Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Byers, C.H.

1992-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

75

Plasmonic transparent conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and films for optical sensing applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates to a method of detecting a change in a chemical composition by contacting a doped oxide material with a monitored stream, illuminating the doped oxide material with incident light, collecting exiting light, monitoring an optical signal based on a comparison of the incident light and the exiting light, and detecting a shift in the optical signal. The doped metal oxide has a carrier concentration of at least 10.sup.18/cm.sup.3, a bandgap of at least 2 eV, and an electronic conductivity of at least 10.sup.1 S/cm, where parameters are specified at a temperature of 25.degree. C. The optical response of the doped oxide materials results from the high carrier concentration of the doped metal oxide, and the resulting impact of changing gas atmospheres on that relatively high carrier concentration. These changes in effective carrier densities of conducting metal oxide nanoparticles are postulated to be responsible for the change in measured optical absorption associated with free carriers. Exemplary doped metal oxides include but are not limited to Al-doped ZnO, Sn-doped In.sub.2O.sub.3, Nb-doped TiO.sub.2, and F-doped SnO.sub.2.

Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R; Wang, Congjun; Andio, Mark A

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

76

Electronically conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and films for optical sensing applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates to a method of detecting a change in a chemical composition by contacting a conducting oxide material with a monitored stream, illuminating the conducting oxide material with incident light, collecting exiting light, monitoring an optical signal based on a comparison of the incident light and the exiting light, and detecting a shift in the optical signal. The conducting metal oxide has a carrier concentration of at least 10.sup.17/cm.sup.3, a bandgap of at least 2 eV, and an electronic conductivity of at least 10.sup.-1 S/cm, where parameters are specified at the gas stream temperature. The optical response of the conducting oxide materials is proposed to result from the high carrier concentration and electronic conductivity of the conducting metal oxide, and the resulting impact of changing gas atmospheres on that relatively high carrier concentration and electronic conductivity. These changes in effective carrier densities and electronic conductivity of conducting metal oxide films and nanoparticles are postulated to be responsible for the change in measured optical absorption associated with free carriers. Exemplary conducting metal oxides include but are not limited to Al-doped ZnO, Sn-doped In.sub.2O.sub.3, Nb-doped TiO.sub.2, and F-doped SnO.sub.2.

Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R.; Wang, Congjun; Andio, Mark A

2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

77

Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

area metal oxide: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Science Websites Summary: have generated considerable interest for applications such as thin film displays with improved color of a metal oxide-based QD-LED structure10 injection...

79

Plutonium metal and oxide container weld development and qualification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Welds were qualified for a container system to be used for long-term storage of plutonium metal and oxide. Inner and outer containers are formed of standard tubing with stamped end pieces gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) welded onto both ends. The weld qualification identified GTA parameters to produce a robust weld that meets the requirements of the Department of Energy standard DOE-STD-3013-94, ``Criteria for the Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides.``

Fernandez, R.; Horrell, D.R.; Hoth, C.W.; Pierce, S.W.; Rink, N.A.; Rivera, Y.M.; Sandoval, V.D.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Noble metal catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of precious metals and platinum group metals as catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas is an active area of study. To date, field studies have recently focused on gold and palladium catalysts installed at pilot-scale. In this work, we introduce bench-scale results for gold, platinum, and palladium catalysts tested in realistic simulated flue gas. Initial results reveal intriguing characteristics of catalytic mercury oxidation and provide insight for future research.

Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Chemical Dynamics at Metal Surfaces: The Role of Electronic Excitation...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Chemical Dynamics at Metal Surfaces: The Role of Electronic Excitations Mar 06 2015 11:00 AM - 12:00 PM John Tully, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut Joint Institute for...

84

Enhanced Half-Metallicity in Edge-Oxidized Zigzag Graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enhanced Half-Metallicity in Edge-Oxidized Zigzag Graphene Nanoribbons Oded Hod,* Vero´nica Barone theoretical study of the electronic properties and relative stabilities of edge-oxidized zigzag graphene with nanometer scale dimen- sions. Recently, a new type of graphene-based material was experimentally realized.12

Hod, Oded

85

CHEMISTRY OF SO{sub 2} ON MODEL METAL AND OXIDE CATALYSTS: PHOTOEMISSION AND XANES STUDIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-resolution synchrotron based photoemission and x-ray absorption spectroscopy have been used to study the interaction of SO{sub 2} with a series of metals and oxides. The chemistry of SO{sub 2} on metal surfaces is rich. At low coverages, the molecule fully decomposes into atomic S and O. At large coverages, the formation of SO{sub 3} and SO{sub 4} takes place. The following sequence was found for the reactivity of the metals towards SO{sub 2}: Pt {approx} Rh < Ru < Mo << Zn, Sn, Cs. Alloying can be useful for reducing the chemical affinity of a metal for SO{sub 2} and controlling S poisoning. Pd atoms bonded to Rh and Pt atoms bonded to Sn interact weakly with SO{sub 2}. In general, SO{sub 2} mainly reacts with the O centers of metal oxides. SO{sub 4} is formed on CeO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} on ZnO. On these systems there is no decomposition of SO{sub 2}. Dissociation of the molecule is observed after introducing a large amount of Ce{sup 3+} sites in ceria, or after depositing Cu or alkali metals on the oxide surfaces. These promote the catalytic activity of the oxides during the destruction of SO{sub 2}.

RODRIGUEZ,J.A.; JIRSAK,T.; CHATURVEDI,S.; HRBEK,J.; FREITAG,A.; LARESE,J.Z.

2000-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

86

Characterization of metal oxide layers grown on CVD graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growth of a fully oxidized aluminum oxide layer with low surface roughness on graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated. This is accomplished by the deposition of a 0.2 nm thick titanium seed layer on the graphene prior to the deposition of the aluminum under ultra high vacuum conditions, which was subsequently oxidized. The stoichiometry and surface roughness of the oxide layers were measured for a range of titanium and aluminum depositions utilizing ex situ x-ray photoelectron spectrometry and atomic force microscopy. These fully oxidized films are expected to produce good dielectric layers for use in graphene based electronic devices.

Matsubayashi, Akitomo; Abel, Joseph; Prasad Sinha, Dhiraj; Lee, Ji Ung; LaBella, Vincent P. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

87

Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Methods of making metal oxide nanostructures and methods of controlling morphology of same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention includes a method of producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure. The method comprises providing a metal salt solution and providing a basic solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal salt solution and the basic solution, wherein metal cations of the metal salt solution and hydroxide ions of the basic solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure.

Wong, Stanislaus S; Hongjun, Zhou

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

89

Composite materials with metal oxide attached to lead chalcogenide nanocrystal quantum dots with linkers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Composite materials useful for devices such as photoelectrochemical solar cells include a substrate, a metal oxide film on the substrate, nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQDs) of lead sulfide, lead selenide, and lead telluride, and linkers that attach the NQDs to the metal oxide film. Suitable linkers preserve the 1s absorption peak of the NQDs. A suitable linker has a general structure A-B-C where A is a chemical group adapted for binding to a MO.sub.x and C is a chemical group adapted for binding to a NQD and B is a divalent, rigid, or semi-rigid organic spacer moiety. Other linkers that preserve the 1s absorption peak may also be used.

Fuke, Nobuhiro; Koposov, Alexey Y; Sykora, Milan; Hoch, Laura

2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

90

Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An aluminum oxide film is deposited on a heated substrate by CVD from one or more alkylaluminum alkoxide compounds having composition R.sub.n Al.sub.2 (OR').sub.6-n, wherein R and R' are alkyl groups and n is in the range of 1 to 5.

Gordon, Roy (Cambridge, MA); Kramer, Keith (Cleveland, OH); Liu, Xinye (Cambridge, MA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Modifications of the surface properties of metals by oxide overlayers: 1, Oxidized zirconium deposited on the Pt(100) single crystal surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metallic zirconium was deposited on a single crystal Pt(100) surface by thermal evaporation in UHV conditions. The deposit was oxidized by exposure to oxygen immediately after deposition. Oxidized zirconium was found to grow on the platinum ace by the layer-by-layer mechanism. The adsorption of carbon monoxide on the surface was studied as a function of the zirconium coverage. The results show that oxidized zirconium forms a chemically inert layer which blocks the adsorptive sites of the underlying platinum substrate. The properties of the free Pt surface were unaffected by the presence of the oxidized zirconium layer.

Bardi, U.; Ross, P.N.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Sorption of heavy metal ions on new metal-ligand complexes chemically derived from Lycopodium clavatum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution has been investigated as a function of pH using a novel exchanger system whereby Lycopodium clavatum is functionalized with carboxylate and glyoxime metal-ligand complexes. The new ligand exchangers were prepared using a reaction of diaminosporopollenin with various metal-ligand complexes of glyoxime and monocarboxylic acid. The sorptive behavior of these metal-ligand exchangers and the possibilities to remove and to recover selectively heavy metal cations using these systems are discussed on the basis of their chemical natures and their complexing properties.

Pehlivan, E.; Ersoz, M.; Yildiz, S. [Univ. of Selcuk, Konya (Turkey); Duncan, H.J. [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Criteria for safe storage of plutonium metals and oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This standard establishes safety criteria for safe storage of plutonium metals and plutonium oxides at DOE facilities; materials packaged to meet these criteria should not need subsequent repackaging to ensure safe storage for at least 50 years or until final disposition. The standard applied to Pu metals, selected alloys (eg., Ga and Al alloys), and stabilized oxides containing at least 50 wt % Pu; it does not apply to Pu-bearing liquids, process residues, waste, sealed weapon components, or material containing more than 3 wt % {sup 238}Pu. Requirements for a Pu storage facility and safeguards and security considerations are not stressed as they are addressed in detail by other DOE orders.

Not Available

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Carbon monoxide oxidation over three different states of copper: Development of a model metal oxide catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide oxidation was performed over the three different oxidation states of copper -- metallic (Cu), copper (I) oxide (Cu{sub 2}O), and copper (II) oxide (CuO) as a test case for developing a model metal oxide catalyst amenable to study by the methods of modern surface science and catalysis. Copper was deposited and oxidized on oxidized supports of aluminum, silicon, molybdenum, tantalum, stainless steel, and iron as well as on graphite. The catalytic activity was found to decrease with increasing oxidation state (Cu > Cu{sub 2}O > CuO) and the activation energy increased with increasing oxidation state (Cu, 9 kcal/mol < Cu{sub 2}O, 14 kcal/mol < CuO, 17 kcal/mol). Reaction mechanisms were determined for the different oxidation states. Lastly, NO reduction by CO was studied. A Cu and CuO catalyst were exposed to an equal mixture of CO and NO at 300--350 C to observe the production of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. At the end of each reaction, the catalyst was found to be Cu{sub 2}O. There is a need to study the kinetics of this reaction over the different oxidation states of copper.

Jernigan, G.G. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials and Chemical Sciences Div.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Metal current collect protected by oxide film  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive current collects and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical devices having as current interconnects a ferritic steel felt or screen coated with a protective oxide film.

Jacobson, Craig P. (Lafayette, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2004-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

96

Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

Perkins, John (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David (Evergreen, CO); Taylor, Matthew (Golden, CO); Neuman, George A. (Holland, MI); Luten, Henry A. (Holland, MI); Forgette, Jeffrey A. (Hudsonville, MI); Anderson, John S. (Holland, MI)

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

97

Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured transition metal oxides for energy storage devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Figure 1.1. Ragone plot of various energy storage systems [metal oxides for energy storage devices A dissertationmetal oxides for energy storage devices by Jong Woung Kim

Kim, Jong Woung

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

All-alkoxide synthesis of strontium-containing metal oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for making strontium-containing metal-oxide ceramic thin films from a precursor liquid by mixing a strontium neo-pentoxide dissolved in an amine solvent and at least one metal alkoxide dissolved in a solvent, said at least one metal alkoxide selected from the group consisting of alkoxides of calcium, barium, bismuth, cadmium, lead, titanium, tantalum, hafnium, tungsten, niobium, zirconium, yttrium, lanthanum, antimony, chromium and thallium, depositing a thin film of the precursor liquid on a substrate, and heating the thin film in the presence of oxygen at between 550 and 700.degree. C.

Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

EURODISPLAY 2002 631 P-64: A Comparative Study of Metal Oxide Coated Indium-tin Oxide Anodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EURODISPLAY 2002 631 P-64: A Comparative Study of Metal Oxide Coated Indium-tin Oxide Anodes and Technology Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract Indium-tin oxide anodes capped with certain oxides-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The oxides of tin, zinc, praseodymium, yttrium, gallium, terbium and titanium have been

100

Metal complexes of substituted Gable porphyrins as oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Transition metal complexes of Gable porphyrins having two porphyrin rings connected through a linking group, and having on the porphyrin rings electron-withdrawing groups, such as halogen, nitro or cyano. These complexes are useful as catalysts for the oxidation of organic compounds, e.g. alkanes.

Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Wagner, Richard W. (Murrysville, PA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Metal complexes of substituted Gable porphyrins as oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Transition metal complexes of Gable porphyrins are disclosed having two porphyrin rings connected through a linking group, and having on the porphyrin rings electron-withdrawing groups, such as halogen, nitro or cyano. These complexes are useful as catalysts for the oxidation of organic compounds, e.g. alkanes.

Lyons, J.E.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Wagner, R.W.

1996-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

102

Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel Olivier Herbineta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate Olivier Herbineta , William of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO2 production from

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

103

Chemical solution deposition of ferroelectric yttrium-doped hafnium oxide films on platinum electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ferroelectric hafnium oxide films were fabricated by chemical solution deposition with a remnant polarization of >13 ?C/cm{sup 2}. The samples were prepared with 5.2?mol.?% yttrium-doping and the thickness varied from 18?nm to 70?nm. The hafnium oxide layer was integrated into a metal-insulator-metal capacitor using platinum electrodes. Due to the processing procedure, no thickness dependence of the ferroelectric properties was observed. To confirm the ferroelectric nature of the deposited samples, polarization, capacitance, and piezoelectric displacement measurements were performed. However, no evidence of the orthorhombic phase was found which has been proposed to be the non-centrosymmetric, ferroelectric phase in HfO{sub 2}.

Starschich, S.; Griesche, D.; Schneller, T.; Böttger, U. [Institut für Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik 2, RWTH Aachen University, Sommerfeldstraße 24, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Waser, R. [Institut für Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik 2, RWTH Aachen University, Sommerfeldstraße 24, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Peter Grünberg Institut 7, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

104

Electrical excitation of colloidally synthesized quantum dots in metal oxide structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis develops methods for integrating colloidally synthesized quantum dots (QDs) and metal oxides in optoelectronic devices, presents three distinct light emitting devices (LEDs) with metal oxides surrounding a QD ...

Wood, Vanessa Claire

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Finding Room for Improvement in Transition Metal Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transition metal oxides. Acknowledgment This work was supported by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,

Kam, Kinson

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Production of Oxygen Gas and Liquid Metal by Electrochemical Decomposition of Molten Iron Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the moon and on Mars for the generation of oxygen along with the production of structural metalsProduction of Oxygen Gas and Liquid Metal by Electrochemical Decomposition of Molten Iron Oxide) is the electrolytic decomposition of a metal oxide, most preferably into liquid metal and oxygen gas. The successful

Sadoway, Donald Robert

107

Influence of uranium hydride oxidation on uranium metal behaviour  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work addresses concerns that the rapid, exothermic oxidation of active uranium hydride in air could stimulate an exothermic reaction (burning) involving any adjacent uranium metal, so as to increase the potential hazard arising from a hydride reaction. The effect of the thermal reaction of active uranium hydride, especially in contact with uranium metal, does not increase in proportion with hydride mass, particularly when considering large quantities of hydride. Whether uranium metal continues to burn in the long term is a function of the uranium metal and its surroundings. The source of the initial heat input to the uranium, if sufficient to cause ignition, is not important. Sustained burning of uranium requires the rate of heat generation to be sufficient to offset the total rate of heat loss so as to maintain an elevated temperature. For dense uranium, this is very difficult to achieve in naturally occurring circumstances. Areas of the uranium surface can lose heat but not generate heat. Heat can be lost by conduction, through contact with other materials, and by convection and radiation, e.g. from areas where the uranium surface is covered with a layer of oxidised material, such as burned-out hydride or from fuel cladding. These rates of heat loss are highly significant in relation to the rate of heat generation by sustained oxidation of uranium in air. Finite volume modelling has been used to examine the behaviour of a magnesium-clad uranium metal fuel element within a bottle surrounded by other un-bottled fuel elements. In the event that the bottle is breached, suddenly, in air, it can be concluded that the bulk uranium metal oxidation reaction will not reach a self-sustaining level and the mass of uranium oxidised will likely to be small in relation to mass of uranium hydride oxidised. (authors)

Patel, N.; Hambley, D. [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom); Clarke, S.A. [Sellafield Ltd (United Kingdom); Simpson, K.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Development of a liquid ferrous metal chemical reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research is in progress to develop a liquid ferrous metal chemical reactor to produce valuable products from petroleum refining waste and to achieve totally contained destruction of toxic chemicals. The work is an extension of a patented HyMelt process developed by the Ashland Petroleum Company. Materials to be processed, such as hydrocarbons, are fed into a crucible of molten iron at 1,650 degrees centigrade. The material decomposes, evolving hydrogen gas and combining carbon with the iron to form molten steel. Research is being doe to develop a continuous process by (1) solving problems of carbonization of feed before it enters the molten metal and (2) using physics and chemistry of oxygen sparging to remove the carbon from the melt as carbon dioxide gas. Research is being pursued as a collaborative effort of Ashland Petroleum Company, Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Houston Advanced Research center, and others.

Randolph, H.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken SC (United States); Malone, D.P. [Ashland Petroleum Co., Houston, TX (United States). Research and Development Dept.; Margrave, J.L. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Synthesis of metal-metal oxide catalysts and electrocatalysts using a metal cation adsorption/reduction and adatom replacement by more noble ones  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen. The invention also relates to methods of making the metal-metal oxide composites.

Adzic, Radoslav; Vukmirovic, Miomir; Sasaki, Kotaro

2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

110

Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains.

Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kelly, Thomas F. (Madison, WI)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO2.(1-x)Li2M'O3 in which 0oxidation state and with at least one ion being Ni, and where M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

2006-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

113

Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0oxidation state and with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more ion with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

2004-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

114

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0oxidation state and with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more ion with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oakbrook, IL)

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

115

Activation of Noble Metals on Metal-Carbide Surfaces: Novel Catalysts for CO Oxidation, Desulfurization and Hydrogenation Reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This perspective article focuses on the physical and chemical properties of highly active catalysts for CO oxidation, desulfurization and hydrogenation reactions generated by depositing noble metals on metal-carbide surfaces. To rationalize structure-reactivity relationships for these novel catalysts, well-defined systems are required. High-resolution photoemission, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and first-principles periodic density-functional (DF) calculations have been used to study the interaction of metals of Groups 9, 10 and 11 with MC(001) (M = Ti, Zr, V, Mo) surfaces. DF calculations give adsorption energies that range from 2 eV (Cu, Ag, Au) to 6 eV (Co, Rh, Ir). STM images show that Au, Cu, Ni and Pt grow on the carbide substrates forming two-dimensional islands at very low coverage, and three-dimensional islands at medium and large coverages. In many systems, the results of DF calculations point to the preferential formation of admetal-C bonds with significant electronic perturbations in the admetal. TiC(001) and ZrC(001) transfer some electron density to the admetals facilitating bonding of the adatom with electron-acceptor molecules (CO, O{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, thiophene, etc.). For example, the Cu/TiC(001) and Au/TiC(001) systems are able to cleave both S-O bonds of SO{sub 2} at a temperature as low as 150 K, displaying a reactivity much larger than that of TiC(001) or extended surfaces of bulk copper and gold. At temperatures below 200 K, Au/TiC is able to dissociate O{sub 2} and perform the 2CO + O{sub 2} {yields} 2CO{sub 2} reaction. Furthermore, in spite of the very poor hydrodesulfurization performance of TiC(001) or Au(111), a Au/TiC(001) surface displays an activity for the hydrodesulfurization of thiophene higher than that of conventional Ni/MoS{sub x} catalysts. In general, the Au/TiC system is more chemically active than systems generated by depositing Au nanoparticles on oxide surfaces. Thus, metal carbides are excellent supports for enhancing the chemical reactivity of noble metals.

Rodriguez J. A.; Illas, F.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Hydrocracking and hydroisomerization of long-chain alkanes and polyolefins over metal-promoted anion-modified transition metal oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for cracking a feedstock by contacting the feedstock with a metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst in the presence of hydrogen gas. The metal oxide of the catalyst is one or more of ZrO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2}, and the feedstock is principally chains of at least 20 carbon atoms. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of Pt, Ni, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, (Mn and Fe) or mixtures of them present between about 0.2% to about 15% by weight of the catalyst. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of SO{sub 4}, WO{sub 3}, or mixtures of them present between about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the catalyst.

Venkatesh, Koppampatti R.; Hu, Jianli; Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Metal/metal oxide doped oxide catalysts having high deNOx selectivity for lean NOx exhaust aftertreatment systems  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A lean NOx catalyst and method of preparing the same is disclosed. The lean NOx catalyst includes a ceramic substrate, an oxide support material, preferably .gamma.-alumina, deposited on the substrate and a metal promoter or dopant introduced into the oxide support material. The metal promoters or dopants are selected from the group consisting of indium, gallium, tin, silver, germanium, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium, cerium, vanadium, oxides thereof, and combinations thereof. The .gamma.-alumina preferably has a pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 2.0 cc/g; a surface area of between about 80 to 350 m.sup.2 /g; an average pore size diameter of between about 3 to 30 nm; and an impurity level of less than or equal to 0.2 weight percent. In a preferred embodiment the .gamma.-alumina is prepared by a sol-gel method, with the metal doping of the .gamma.-alumina preferably accomplished using an incipient wetness impregnation technique.

Park, Paul W.

2004-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

118

Electrodepositionof Metal Alloyand Mixed Oxide Films Usinga Single-PrecursorTetranuclearCopper-NickelComplex  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Compositionally uniform mixed metals, metal oxides, and alloys are used extensively as corrosion protective and catalysts. I-~For example, nickel-containing oxides and alloys are used for oxidative protection of very. Although Cu-Ni alloy deposition has been stud- ied for many years, none of the previous approaches has led

Kounaves, Samuel P.

119

Interfacial oxide re-growth in thin film metal oxide III-V semiconductor systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaAs and HfO{sub 2}/GaAs interfaces after atomic layer deposition are studied using in situ monochromatic x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Samples are deliberately exposed to atmospheric conditions and interfacial oxide re-growth is observed. The extent of this re-growth is found to depend on the dielectric material and the exposure temperature. Comparisons with previous studies show that ex situ characterization can result in misleading conclusions about the interface reactions occurring during the metal oxide deposition process.

McDonnell, S.; Dong, H.; Hawkins, J. M.; Brennan, B.; Milojevic, M.; Aguirre-Tostado, F. S.; Zhernokletov, D. M.; Hinkle, C. L.; Kim, J.; Wallace, R. M.

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

120

Oxidizer gels for detoxification of chemical and biological agents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gel composition containing oxidizing agents and thickening or gelling agents is used to detoxify chemical and biological agents by application directly to a contaminated area. The gelling agent is a colloidal material, such as silica, alumina, or alumino-silicate clays, which forms a viscous gel that does not flow when applied to tilted or contoured surfaces. Aqueous or organic solutions of oxidizing agents can be readily gelled with less than about 30% colloidal material. Gel preparation is simple and suitable for field implementation, as the gels can be prepared at the site of decontamination and applied quickly and uniformly over an area by a sprayer. After decontamination, the residue can be washed away or vacuumed up for disposal.

Hoffman, Dennis M. (Livermore, CA); McGuire, Raymond R. (Brentwood, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Stochastic chemical enrichment in metal-poor systems I. Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A stochastic model of the chemical enrichment of metal-poor systems by core-collapse (Type II) supernovae is presented, allowing for large-scale mixing of the enriched material by turbulent motions and cloud collisions in the interstellar medium. Infall of pristine material is taken into account by following the evolution of the gas density in the medium. Analytical expressions were derived for the number of stars enriched by a given number of supernovae, as well as for the amount of mass with which the ejected material from a supernova is mixed before being locked up in a subsequently formed star. It is shown that for reasonable values of the gas density (~0.1 cm-3) and of the supernova rate (~0.25 kpc-3 Myr-1) of the Galactic halo, the resulting metallicity distributions of the extreme Population II stars show a distinct cut-off at [Fe/H] ~= -4. In fact, by assuming no low-mass Population III stars were able to form out of the primordial interstellar medium, the derived fraction of stars below [Fe/H] = -4 is in agreement with observations. Moreover, the probability is high that even the most metal-poor stars observed to date have been enriched by several contributing supernovae. This partly explains the relatively small star-to-star scatter in many chemical-abundance ratios for stars down to [Fe/H] = -4, as recently found in several observational studies. Contribution from the thermonuclear (Type Ia) supernovae is found to be negligible over almost the entire extremely metal-poor regime. (***abridged***)

T. Karlsson

2005-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

122

Ultra-stable Molecule-Surface Architectures at Metal Oxides: Structure, Bonding, and Electron-transfer Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research funded by this project focused on the development of improved strategies for functionalization of metal oxides to enhance charge?transfer processes relevant to solar energy conversion. Initial studies included Fe2O3, WO3, TiO2, SnO2, and ZnO as model oxide systems; these systems were chosen due to differences in metal oxidation state and chemical bonding types in these oxides. Later studies focused largely on SnO2 and ZnO, as these materials show particularly promising surface chemistry, have high electron mobility, and can be readily grown in both spherical nanoparticles and as elongated nanorods. New molecules were synthesized that allowed the direct chemical assembly of novel nanoparticle ?dyadic? structures in which two different oxide materials are chemically joined, leading to an interface that enhances the separation of of charge upon illumination. We demonstrated that such junctions enhance photocatalytic efficiency using model organic compounds. A separate effort focused on novel approaches to linking dye molecules to SnO2 and ZnO as a way to enhance solar conversion efficiency. A novel type of surface binding through

Hamers, Robert John

2013-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

123

Determination of chemical properties of a supported copper oxide catalyst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

other between tho moroury oondensation pump and the adsorption system, ~~~o + QLQ]gJdi~ x The oathetometer was used for moasur1ng tho levels of mexoury in manomsters Ni and K, It had a soals of l00 aontimstors, 4 toles- oope and a vernier vere... of the requirements for the degree o NASTY OF SCIENCE Nay'p 1955 Ma)or Suhfeott Chemioal Engineering DETERPHEATION CF CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OP A SUPPORTED COPPER OXIDE CATALYST A Thesis Asok Bandyopadhyay Approved as to style and oontent by& Chairman...

Bandyopadhyay, Asok

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

124

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

125

Superhydrophobic Metal-Oxide Thin Film Coatings - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystalline Gallium OxideSuminDeposition of Metal FilmsIndustrial

126

Ductility and chemical reactions at the interface between nickel and magnesium oxide single crystals.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??An investigation was conducted on the interaction between nickel metal and single crystals of magnesium oxide. The nickel was cleaned with purified hydrogen gas at… (more)

Hasselman, Didericus Petrus Hermannus

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

THE MICROSTRUCTURAL LOCATION OF THE INTERGRANULAR METAL OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR MICROSI'RUCTIJRALMETAL OXIDE PHASE IN A ZINC OXIDE VARISTOR David R. Clarke

Clarke, D. E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

In-situ ductile metal/bulk metallic glass matrix composites formed by chemical partitioning  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite metal object comprises ductile crystalline metal particles in an amorphous metal matrix. An alloy is heated above its liquidus temperature. Upon cooling from the high temperature melt, the alloy chemically partitions, forming dendrites in the melt. Upon cooling the remaining liquid below the glass transition temperature it freezes to the amorphous state, producing a two-phase microstructure containing crystalline particles in an amorphous metal matrix. The ductile metal particles have a size in the range of from 0.1 to 15 micrometers and spacing in the range of from 0.1 to 20 micrometers. Preferably, the particle size is in the range of from 0.5 to 8 micrometers and spacing is in the range of from 1 to 10 micrometers. The volume proportion of particles is in the range of from 5 to 50% and preferably 15 to 35%. Differential cooling can produce oriented dendrites of ductile metal phase in an amorphous matrix. Examples are given in the Zr--Ti--Cu--Ni--Be alloy bulk glass forming system with added niobium.

Kim, Choong Paul (Northridge, CA); Hays, Charles C. (Pasadena, CA); Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA)

2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

129

Metal-based turn-on fluorescent probes for nitric oxide sensing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 1. Metal-Based Turn-On Fluorescent Probes for Sensing Nitric Oxide. Nitric oxide, a reactive free radical, regulates a variety of biological processes. The absence of tools to detect NO directly, rapidly, specifically ...

Lim, Mi Hee

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkaline-earth metal oxides Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

differ in the nature of the angle... ). Weidner and Hamaya (1983) observed that the transition-metal oxides and the alkaline-earth oxides fail... ... Source: Price, G. David -...

131

Electrochemical lithiation and delithiation for control of magnetic properties of nanoscale transition metal oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transition metal oxides comprise a fascinating class of materials displaying a variety of magnetic and electronic properties, ranging from half-metallic ferromagnets like CrO2, ferrimagnetic semiconductors like Fey's, and ...

Sivakumar, Vikram

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Bipolar plating of metal contacts onto oxide interconnection for solid oxide electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method of forming an adherent metal deposit on a conducting layer of a tube sealed at one end. The tube is immersed with the sealed end down into an aqueous solution containing ions of the metal to be deposited. An ionically conducting aqueous fluid is placed inside the tube and a direct current is passed from a cathode inside the tube to an anode outside the tube. Also disclosed is a multi-layered solid oxide fuel cell tube which consists of an inner porous ceramic support tube, a porous air electrode covering the support tube, a non-porous electrolyte covering a portion of the air electrode, a non-porous conducting interconnection covering the remaining portion of the electrode, and a metal deposit on the interconnection.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

E-Print Network 3.0 - active complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ion-implanted p and n dopants in germanium Summary: wavelength spectrum allowing optoelectronic integra- tion to enhance complementary-metal-oxide- semiconductor... lim- its in...

134

E-Print Network 3.0 - area metal-oxide-semiconductor electron...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

inversion layer mobility Joo-Hiuk Son,a) Seongtae... measured absorption of terahertz radiation pulses by metal-oxide-semiconductor MOS inversion layers... of the...

135

activated carbon chemically: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A: Chemical 118 (1997) 215-222 Chemical activities of graphitic carbon spheres Materials Science Websites Summary: the MVOCC process 8. Transition-metal oxides andor rare...

136

Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2007-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

137

Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO2 production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

138

Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran and co-workers for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet-stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels. (author)

Herbinet, Olivier; Pitz, William J.; Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Keywords: Methyl decanoate; Methyl decenoate; Surrogate; Oxidation; Biodiesel fuels; Kinetic modeling; Engine; Low

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

140

NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDE CATALYSTS VIA BUILDING BLOCK SYNTHESES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A broadly applicable methodology has been developed to prepare new single site catalysts on silica supports. This methodology requires of three critical components: a rigid building block that will be the main structural and compositional component of the support matrix; a family of linking reagents that will be used to insert active metals into the matrix as well as cross link building blocks into a three dimensional matrix; and a clean coupling reaction that will connect building blocks and linking agents together in a controlled fashion. The final piece of conceptual strategy at the center of this methodology involves dosing the building block with known amounts of linking agents so that the targeted connectivity of a linking center to surrounding building blocks is obtained. Achieving targeted connectivities around catalytically active metals in these building block matrices is a critical element of the strategy by which single site catalysts are obtained. This methodology has been demonstrated with a model system involving only silicon and then with two metal-containing systems (titanium and vanadium). The effect that connectivity has on the reactivity of atomically dispersed titanium sites in silica building block matrices has been investigated in the selective oxidation of phenols to benezoquinones. 2-connected titanium sites are found to be five times as active (i.e. initial turnover frequencies) than 4-connected titanium sites (i.e. framework titanium sites).

Craig E. Barnes

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Total oxidation of carbon monoxide and methane over transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalysts. I. Catalyst composition and activity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A novel metal oxide composite catalyst for the total oxidation of carbon monoxide and methane was prepared by combining fluorite oxides with active transition metals. The fluorite oxides, such as ceria and zirconia, are oxygen-ion-conducting materials having catalytic properties usually at high temperatures. Active base metal catalysts, such as copper, were used as additives to promote the catalytic properties of these oxides. The contact of the two types of materials gave rise to a high active oxidation catalyst. At a space velocity of about 42,000 h{sup {minus}1}, complete carbon monoxide oxidation in air occurred at room temperature on the Au{sub 0.05}[Ce(La)]{sub 0.95}L{sub x} catalyst and at ca. 100{degrees}C on Cu-Ce-O composite catalysts. At the same space velocity, total oxidation of methane on the Cu-Ce-O catalyst doped with La{sub 2}O{sub 3} or SrO took place at ca. 550{degrees}C. The specific carbon monoxide oxidation activity of the Cu-Ce-O catalyst was several orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional copper-based catalysts and comparable or superior to platinum catalysts. This type of composite catalyst also showed excellent resistance to water vapor poisoning. The enhanced catalyst activity and stability resulted from strong interaction of the transition metal and fluorite oxide materials. 44 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, F. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)] [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Studies on supported metal oxide-oxide support interactions (an incorporation model)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

XRD, XPS, SSIMS, LRS, and FT-IR are used to explore the valency, composition and structure of the dispersed metal oxide species on supports with different structures, i.e., on ceria and {gamma}-alumina. The results indicated that the dispersion of various ionic compounds are proceeded by the incorporation of the metal cations into the surface vacant sites on the support provided that the loading amounts of the compounds are not higher than their dispersion capacities. The key factors determining the dispersion capacities of the ionic compounds are: (1) the surface structure of the support which determines the size and number of the vacant sites available. (2) the valency of the dispersed ionic compound and the size of the anion, from which the shielding effect of the capping anion(s) can be evaluated, and (3) the sizes of the dispersed cations and the vacant sites on the surface, from which the sites can be used for incorporation can be identified. The Quantitative results deduced from the incorporation model and from the independent experiments are consistent, providing further evidence that the model captures the essentials of the interactions between the dispersed metal oxide and support.

Yi Chen; Lin Dong; Y.S. Jin; Bing Xu; Weijie Ji [Nanjing Univ. (China)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

143

Oxidation catalysts comprising metal exchanged hexaaluminate wherein the metal is Sr, Pd, La, and/or Mn  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides metal-exchanged hexaaluminate catalysts that exhibit good catalytic activity and/or stability at high temperatures for extended periods with retention of activity as combustion catalysts, and more generally as oxidation catalysts, that make them eminently suitable for use in methane combustion, particularly for use in natural gas fired gas turbines. The hexaaluminate catalysts of this invention are of particular interest for methane combustion processes for minimization of the generation of undesired levels (less than about 10 ppm) of NOx species. Metal exchanged hexaaluminate oxidation catalysts are also useful for oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC), particularly hydrocarbons. Metal exchanged hexaaluminate oxidation catalysts are further useful for partial oxidation, particularly at high temperatures, of reduced species, particularly hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes).

Wickham, David (Boulder, CO); Cook, Ronald (Lakewood, CO)

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

144

Method of dissolving metal oxides with di- or polyphosphonic acid and a redundant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of dissolving metal oxides using a mixture of a di- or polyphosphonic acid and a reductant wherein each is present in a sufficient amount to provide a synergistic effect with respect to the dissolution of metal oxides and optionally containing corrosion inhibitors and pH adjusting agents.

Horwitz, Earl P. (Argonne, IL); Chiarizia, Renato (Argonne, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

146

Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

147

Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene Triple Junction Points. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene...

148

Nondestructive characterization of a TiN metal gate: Chemical and structural properties by means of standing-wave hard x-ray  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nondestructive characterization of a TiN metal gate: Chemical and structural properties by means (HXPS, HAXPES) is applied to a thick (100 A° ) film of a metal gate TiN grown on top of a Si/MoSi2 of TiN, as well as the buried interface between TiN and the native oxide on top of the mirror

Fadley, Charles

149

Superconductors and Complex Transition Metal Oxides for Tunable THz Plasmonic Metamaterials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The outline of this presentation are: (1) Motivation - Non-tunability of metal metamaterials; (2) Superconductors for temperature tunable metamaterials; (3) Ultrafast optical switching in superconductor metamaterials; (4) Controlling the conductivity with infrared pump beam; (5) Complex metal oxides as active substrates - Strontium Titanate; and (6) Conclusion. Conclusions are: (1) High Tc superconductors good for tunable and ultrafast metamaterials; (2) Large frequency and amplitude tunability in ultrathin superconductor films; (3) Such tunable properties cannot be accessed using metals; (4) Complex metal oxides can be used as active substrates - large tunability; (5) Complex oxides fail to address the issue of radiation losses in THz metamaterials.

Singh, Ranjan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xiong, Jie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azad, Md A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Hao [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trugman, Stuart A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Houtong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

150

Surface phases and their influence on metal-oxide interfaces. Progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is concerned with adsorbed monolayers on metal surfaces and their effects on oxidation kinetics and metal-oxide adhesion; proposed work is a study of metallurgy of 2-dimensional systems with emphasis on binary adsorbed layers. Experimental techniques which can be used include electron diffraction, atomic force and tunneling microscopy, environmental SEM, and secondary electron spectroscopies. Intention is to try to extract information on adsorbate interactions through comparison with model predictions; initially simple pair interaction potentials will be used. Atomic steps on single crystal surfaces, which affect nucleation/growth of overlayers, will be extended to metal oxide systems to form atomic step arrays as preferential sites for surface nucleation of oxides etc. Adsorbed (or segregated) monolayers at metal/oxide interfaces also affect adhesion and further oxidation. S and O adsorption on Ni and NiFe alloy surfaces were studied and are discussed.

Blakely, J.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Transition metal-catalyzed oxidation of atmospheric sulfur: Global implications for the sulfur budget  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

processes, volca- noes) or produced within the atmosphere by oxidation of re- duced sulfur speciesTransition metal-catalyzed oxidation of atmospheric sulfur: Global implications for the sulfur importance of sulfate production by Fe(III)- and Mn(II)-catalyzed oxidation of S(IV) by O2. We scale

Alexander, Becky

152

Copper-induced oxidative stress in three-spined stickleback : relationship with hepatic metal levels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

contamination of aquatic ecosystems by heavy metals. Among them, copper is a widespread pollutant found, 1999). Although this metal is a required element, high concentrations appear to be toxic to freshwater1 Copper-induced oxidative stress in three-spined stickleback : relationship with hepatic metal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

Gate Metal-Induced Diffusion and Interface Reactions in Hf Oxide Films on Si  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When metal electrodes are deposited on a high-{kappa} metal-oxide/SiO{sub 2}/Si stack, chemical interactions may occur both at the metal/high-{kappa} and the high-{kappa}/Si interfaces, causing changes in electrical performance. We report here results from medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) and x-ray photoelectron (XPS) studies of oxygen and silicon transport and interfacial layer reactions in multilayer gate stacks. Our results show that Ti deposition on HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si stacks causes reduction of the SiO{sub 2} interfacial layer and (to a lesser extent) the HfO{sub 2} layer. Silicon atoms initially present in the interfacial SiO{sub 2} layer incorporate into the bottom of the high-{kappa} layer. Some evidence for titanium-silicon interdiffusion through the high-{kappa} film in the presence of a titanium gate in crystalline HfO{sub 2} films is also reported.

Goncharova, Lyudmila V.; Dalponte, Mateus; Celik, Ozgur; Garfunkel, Eric; Gustafsson, Torgny [Departments of Physics and Chemistry, and Laboratory for Surface Modification, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Lysaght, Pat S.; Bersuker, Gennadi I. [Sematech, Austin, Texas 78741 (United States)

2007-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

154

Spectroscopic Studies of O-Vacancy Defects in Transition Metal Oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dielectrics comprised of nano-crystalline HfO{sub 2} in gate stacks with thin SiO{sub 2}/SiON interfacial transition regions display significant asymmetries with respect to trapping of Si substrate injected holes and electrons. Based on spectroscopic studies, and guided by ab initio theory, electron and hole traps in HfO{sub 2} and other transition metal elemental oxides are assigned to O-atom divacancies clustered at internal grain boundaries of nano-crystalline films. Engineering solutions in which grain boundary defects are suppressed include: (i) ultra-thin, <2 nm, HfO{sub 2} fims, (ii) chemically phase separated high HfO2 content silicate films, and (iii) non-crystalline Zr/Hf Si oxynitride films.

Lucovsky, G.; Luning, J.; Fleming, L.B.; Ulrich, M.D.; Rowe, J.E.; Seo, H.; Lee, S.; Lysaght, P.; Bersuker, G.

2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

155

Preparation of amorphous electrochromic tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary experiments have been performed to probe the feasibility of using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE--CVD) to prepare electrochromic thin films of tungsten oxide and molybdenum oxide by plasma reaction of WF/sub 6/, W(CO)/sub 6/, and Mo(CO)/sub 6/ with oxygen. Thin films produced in a 300 W, electrodeless, radio-frequency (rf), capacitive discharge were found to be electrochromic when tested with either liquid or solid electrolytes. Optical spectroscopy was performed on two electrochromic coatings after Li/sup +/ ion insertion from a propylene carbonate liquid electrolyte. Broad absorption peaks at --900 nm for WO/sub 3/ and 600 nm for MoO/sub 3/ were observed. Optical results for PE--CVD MoO/sub 3/ films differ from those reported for evaporated MoO/sub 3/ films which have an absorption peak at --800 nm. The shorter wavelength absorption in the PE--CVD MoO/sub 3/ films offers the potential for fabricating electrochromic devices with higher contrast ratios and less color change. Optical emission spectroscopy, Auger, and x-ray diffraction analyses indicate these thin film deposits to be predominantly amorphous tungsten and molybdenum oxides.

Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sealed on all edges with epoxy resin except for a workingsealed on all edges with epoxy resin except for a workingsealed on all edges with epoxy resin except for a working

Wang, Gongming

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrogen generation, and can be possibly applied to other applications such as nanostructured tandem photovoltaic

Wang, Gongming

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for onboard Vehicular Hydrogen Storage, 2006, US Departmenttheir potential use as hydrogen storage materials. Recently,of Energy targets for hydrogen storage in transportation

Wang, Gongming

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

purity hydrogen gas (Praxair). Material Characterization:hydrogen gas (99.999%, Praxair). The white TiO 2 nanowirepurity N 2 (99.998%, Praxair). The initial oxygen content

Wang, Gongming

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

splitting, dye-sensitized solar cells and photocatalysis. Byhybrid devices such as dye sensitized solar cell-PEC hybrid

Wang, Gongming

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the widespread use of hydrogen powered fuel cells is theHydrogen is an energy carrier, which combines oxygen in a fuel cell

Wang, Gongming

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Final LDRD report : metal oxide films, nanostructures, and heterostructures for solar hydrogen production.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The distinction between electricity and fuel use in analyses of global power consumption statistics highlights the critical importance of establishing efficient synthesis techniques for solar fuels-those chemicals whose bond energies are obtained through conversion processes driven by solar energy. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes show potential for the production of solar fuels because of their demonstrated versatility in facilitating optoelectronic and chemical conversion processes. Tandem PEC-photovoltaic modular configurations for the generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight (solar water splitting) provide an opportunity to develop a low-cost and efficient energy conversion scheme. The critical component in devices of this type is the PEC photoelectrode, which must be optically absorptive, chemically stable, and possess the required electronic band alignment with the electrochemical scale for its charge carriers to have sufficient potential to drive the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. After many decades of investigation, the primary technological obstacle remains the development of photoelectrode structures capable of efficient conversion of light with visible frequencies, which is abundant in the solar spectrum. Metal oxides represent one of the few material classes that can be made photoactive and remain stable to perform the required functions.

Kronawitter, Coleman X. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Mao, Samuel S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Reactivity of biogenic manganese oxide for metal sequestration and photochemistry: Computational solid state physics study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many microbes, including both bacteria and fungi, produce manganese (Mn) oxides by oxidizing soluble Mn(II) to form insoluble Mn(IV) oxide minerals, a kinetically much faster process than abiotic oxidation. These biogenic Mn oxides drive the Mn cycle, coupling it with diverse biogeochemical cycles and determining the bioavailability of environmental contaminants, mainly through strong adsorption and redox reactions. This mini review introduces recent findings based on quantum mechanical density functional theory that reveal the detailed mechanisms of toxic metal adsorption at Mn oxide surfaces and the remarkable role of Mn vacancies in the photochemistry of these minerals.

Kwon, K.D.; Sposito, G.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Production of crystalline refractory metal oxides containing colloidal metal precipitates and useful as solar-effective absorbers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is a new process for producing refractory crystalline oxides having improved or unusual properties. The process comprises the steps of forming a doped-metal crystal of the oxide; exposing the doped crystal in a bomb to a reducing atmosphere at superatmospheric pressure and a temperature effecting precipitation of the dopant metal in the crystal lattice of the oxide but insufficient to effect net diffusion of the metal out of the lattice; and then cooling the crystal. Preferably, the cooling step is effected by quenching. The process forms colloidal precipitates of the metal in the oxide lattice. The process may be used, for example, to produce thermally stable black MgO crystalline bodies containing magnetic colloidal precipitates consisting of about 99% Ni. The Ni-containing bodies are solar-selective absorbers, having a room-temperature absorptivity of about 0.96 over virtually all of the solar-energy spectrum and exhibiting an absorption edge in the region of 2 .mu.m. The process parameters can be varied to control the average size of the precipitates. The process can produce a black MgO crystalline body containing colloidal Ni precipitates, some of which have the face-centered-cubic structure and others of which have the body-centered cubic structure. The products of the process are metal-precipitate-containing refractory crystalline oxides which have improved or unique optical, mechanical, magnetic, and/or electronic properties.

Narayan, Jagdish (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Yok (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

ELECTRONIC AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PD IN BIMETALLIC SYSTEMS: HOW MUCH DO WE KNOW ABOUT HETERONUCLEAR METAL-METAL BONDING?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental and theoretical studies described above illustrate the complex nature of the heteronuclear metal-metal bond. In many cases, bimetallic bonding induces a significant redistribution of charge around the bonded metals. This redistribution of charge is usually linked to the strength of the bimetallic bond, affects the position of the core and valence levels of the metals, and can determine the chemical reactivity of the system under study. New concepts are emerging [22,23,34,36] and eventually the coupling of experiment and theory can be useful for designing more efficient bimetallic catalysts [98,106,107].

RODRIGUEZ,J.A.

2001-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

166

Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for Improved Performance. Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for Improved Performance. Abstract: We report on CdSCdTe photovoltaic devices...

167

Near-infrared photodetector consisting of J-aggregating cyanine dye and metal oxide thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate a near-infrared photodetector that consists of a thin film of the J-aggregating cyanine dye, U3, and transparent metal-oxide charge transport layers. The high absorption coefficient of the U3 film, combined ...

Osedach, Timothy P.

168

Alkane oxidation with porphyrins and metal complexes thereof having haloalkyl side chains  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Transition metal complexes of meso-haloalkylporphyrins are disclosed, wherein the haloalkyl groups contain 2 to 8 carbon atoms have been found to be highly effective catalysts for oxidation of alkanes and for the decomposition of hydroperoxides. 7 figs.

Wijesekera, T.; Lyons, J.E.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Bhinde, M.V.

1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

169

Low temperature lithographically patterned metal oxide transistors for large area electronics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optically transparent, wide bandgap metal oxide semiconductors are a promising candidate for large-area electronics technologies that require lightweight, temperature-sensitive flexible substrates. Because these thin films ...

Wang, Annie I. (Annie I-Jen), 1981-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Alkane oxidation with porphyrins and metal complexes thereof having haloalkyl side chains  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Transition metal complexes of meso-haloalkylporphyrins, wherein the haloalkyl groups contain 2 to 8 carbon atoms have been found to be highly effective catalysts for oxidation of alkanes and for the decomposition of hydroperoxides.

Wijesekera, Tilak (Glen Mills, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Bhinde, Manoj V. (Boothwyn, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Thermal conversion of biomass to valuable fuels, chemical feedstocks and chemicals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A continuous process for the conversion of biomass to form a chemical feedstock is described. The biomass and an exogenous metal oxide, preferably calcium oxide, or metal oxide precursor are continuously fed into a reaction chamber that is operated at a temperature of at least 1400.degree. C. to form reaction products including metal carbide. The metal oxide or metal oxide precursor is capable of forming a hydrolizable metal carbide. The reaction products are quenched to a temperature of 800.degree. C. or less. The resulting metal carbide is separated from the reaction products or, alternatively, when quenched with water, hydolyzed to provide a recoverable hydrocarbon gas feedstock.

Peters, William A. (Lexington, MA); Howard, Jack B. (Winchester, MA); Modestino, Anthony J. (Hanson, MA); Vogel, Fredreric (Villigen PSI, CH); Steffin, Carsten R. (Herne, DE)

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

172

Characterization of a Fe/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} metal/oxide interface using neutron and x-ray scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structure of metal/oxide interfaces is important to the radiation resistance of oxide dispersion-strengthened steels. We find evidence of gradual variations in stoichiometry and magnetization across a Fe/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} metal/oxide heterophase interface using neutron and x-ray reflectometry. These findings suggest that the Fe/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface is a transitional zone approximately ?64?Å-thick containing mixtures or compounds of Fe, Y, and O. Our results illustrate the complex chemical and magnetic nature of Fe/oxide interfaces and demonstrate the utility of combined neutron and x-ray techniques as tools for characterizing them.

Watkins, E. B.; Majewski, J., E-mail: demkowicz@mit.edu, E-mail: jarek@lanl.gov [Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Kashinath, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Computational Modeling Technology, Aramco Research Center—Boston, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Wang, P. [Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon, 97006 (United States); Baldwin, J. K. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Demkowicz, M. J., E-mail: demkowicz@mit.edu, E-mail: jarek@lanl.gov [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

173

Geochemical, metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into trace metal utilization by methane-oxidizing microbial consortia in sulfidic marine sediments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microbes have obligate requirements for trace metals in metalloenzymes that catalyze important biogeochemical reactions. In anoxic methane- and sulfide-rich environments, microbes may have unique adaptations for metal acquisition and utilization due to decreased bioavailability as a result of metal sulfide precipitation. However, micronutrient cycling is largely unexplored in cold ( 10 C) and sulfidic (>1 mM H2S) deep-sea methane seep ecosystems. We investigated trace metal geochemistry and microbial metal utilization in methane seeps offshore Oregon and California, USA, and report dissolved concentrations of nickel (0.5-270 nM), cobalt (0.5-6 nM), molybdenum (10-5,600 nM) and tungsten (0.3-8 nM) in Hydrate Ridge sediment porewaters. Despite low levels of cobalt and tungsten, metagenomic and metaproteomic data suggest that microbial consortia catalyzing anaerobic oxidation of methane utilize both scarce micronutrients in addition to nickel and molybdenum. Genetic machinery for cobalt-containing vitamin B12 biosynthesis was present in both anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Proteins affiliated with the tungsten-containing form of formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase were expressed in ANME from two seep ecosystems, the first evidence for expression of a tungstoenzyme in psychrotolerant microorganisms. Finally, our data suggest that chemical speciation of metals in highly sulfidic porewaters may exert a stronger influence on microbial bioavailability than total concentration

Glass, DR. Jennifer [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena; Yu, DR. Hang [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena; Steele, Joshua [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena; Dawson, Katherine [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena; Sun, S [University of California, San Diego; Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL; Orphan, V [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of conductive polymers for use in novel photovoltaic device architectures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), (PEDOT), deposited via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) has been investigated for use in organic electronic devices. The oCVD process as well as the ...

Howden, Rachel M. (Rachel Mary)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Synthesis of high T.sub.C superconducting coatings and patterns by melt writing and oxidation of metallic precursor alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for fabrication of superconducting oxides and superconducting oxide composites and for joining superconductors to other materials. A coating of a molten alloy containing the metallic elements of the oxide is applied to a substrate surface and oxidized to form the superconducting oxide. A material can be contacted to the molten alloy which is subsequently oxidized joining the material to the resulting superconducting oxide coating. Substrates of varied composition and shape can be coated or joined by this method.

Gao, Wei (Somerville, MA); Vander Sande, John B. (Newbury, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

The physical and chemical aspects of the leaching behavior of metals from portland cement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF THE LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF METALS FROM PORTLAND CEMENT A Thesis by RICARDO CORYE DAVIS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Chemistry THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL ASPECTS OF THE LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF METALS FROM PORTLAND CEMENT A Thesis by RICARDO CORYE DAVIS Approved as to style and content by: David L. Cocke (Co...

Davis, Ricardo Corye

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide Sasha of a colloidal suspension of exfoliated graphene oxide sheets in water with hydrazine hydrate results at the nanoscale if graphite can be exfoliated into thin nanoplatelets, and even down to the single graphene sheet

178

Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Arsenic, Lead, Chromium, and Cadmium in a Metal-contaminated Histosol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemical and mineralogical forms of As, Pb, Cr, and Cd were studied in a metal-contaminated organic soil (Histosol) that received runoff and seepage water from a site that was once occupied by a lead smelter. Soil samples were collected from different depth intervals during both wet and dry seasons and analyzed using bulk powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), synchrotron-based micro X-ray diffraction ({mu}-XRD), and micro X-ray fluorescence ({mu}-SXRF) spectroscopy. There was a clear pattern of mineral distribution with depth that indicated the presence of an intense redox gradient. The oxidized reddish brown surface layer (0-10 cm) was dominated by goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH) and poorly crystalline akaganeite ({beta}-FeOOH). Lead and arsenic were highly associated with these Fe oxides, possibly by forming inner-sphere surface complexes. Gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O) was abundant in the layer as well, particularly for samples collected during dry periods. Fe(II)-containing minerals, such as magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and siderite (FeCO{sub 3}), were identified in the intermediate layers (10-30 cm) where the reductive dissolution of Fe(III) oxides occurred. A number of high-temperature minerals, such as mullite (3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {center_dot} 2Si{sub 2}O), corundum ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and wustite (FeO) were identified in the subsurface and they probably formed as a result of a burning event. Several sulfide minerals were identified in the most reduced layers at depths > 30 cm. They included realgar (AsS), alacranite (As{sub 4}S{sub 4}), galena (PbS), and sphalerite (Zn, Fe{sup 2+})S, and a series of Fe sulfides, including greigite (Fe{sup 2+}Fe{sub 2}{sup 3+} S{sub 4}), pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 1-x}S), mackinawite (FeS), marcasite (FeS{sub 2}), and pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). Most of these minerals occurred as almost pure phases in sub-millimeter aggregates and appeared to be secondary phases that had precipitated from solution. Despite the elevated levels of Cd in the soil, no specific Cd phases were identified. The complex mineralogy has important implications for risk assessment and the design of in-situ remediation strategies for this and similar metal-contaminated sites.

Gao, X.; Schulze, D

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Photoelectron Imaging Spectroscopic Investigations of Transition Metal Silicides and Oxides.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This dissertation presents the experimental progress in the use of photoelectron imaging spectroscopy to probe the electronic structure of negatively charged transition metal silicides and… (more)

Gunaratne, K. Don

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Metal Hydride Chemical Heat Pumps for Industrial Use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydriding alloys are intermetallic absorbent compounds which have the remarkable quality of absorbing very large quantities of hydrogen gas per unit volume of metallic powder. The absorption and desorption of hydrogen are exothermic and endothermic...

Ally, M. R.; Rebello, W. J.; Rosso, M. J., Jr.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Tiegs, T.N.

1992-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

182

Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Fabrication of superconducting metal-oxide textiles by heating impregnated polymeric material in a weakly oxidizing atmosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for producing crystalline fibers, textiles or shapes comprised of YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]x] where x varies from about 0 to about 0.4, said process comprising: (a) impregnating a preformed organic polymeric material with three metal compounds to provide metal elements in said material in substantially the atomic ratio occurring in said YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]x]; (b) heating said impregnated material in a weakly oxidizing atmosphere containing from about 0.05% to about 2% oxygen by volume to a temperature sufficiently high to at least partially pyrolize and oxidize said organic material and at least partially oxidize said metal compounds substantially without ignition of said organic material and without formation of a molten phase or reaching a decomposition temperature of said YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]x]; and (c) cooling the resulting material in at least a moderately oxidizing atmosphere to room temperature so as to obtain said fibers, textiles or shapes.

Van den Sype, J.S.

1993-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

184

Surface Oxidation and Dissolution of Metal Nanocatalysts in Acid Medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to study the degradation and dealloying in nanocatalysts. The results on the degradation of Pt nanoparticles under different potential regimes demonstrate that the dissolution depends on the potential path to which the nanocatalyst is exposed. Metal atoms...

Callejas-Tovar, Juan

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

185

Nonlithographic Patterning and Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,14 Recent innovative techniques such as the cooling of laser ablated Si in supercritical CO2 and metal on the design and performance of many types of devices, including batteries, solar cells, detectors nanowire arrays for solar cell applications has also been demonstrated with promising results, owing

Li, Xiuling

186

Band gap tuning in transition metal oxides by site-specific substitution  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A transition metal oxide insulator composition having a tuned band gap includes a transition metal oxide having a perovskite or a perovskite-like crystalline structure. The transition metal oxide includes at least one first element selected form the group of Bi, Ca, Ba, Sr, Li, Na, Mg, K, Pb, and Pr; and at least one second element selected from the group of Ti, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt. At least one correlated insulator is integrated into the crystalline structure, including REMO.sub.3, wherein RE is at least one Rare Earth element, and wherein M is at least one element selected from the group of Co, V, Cr, Ni, Mn, and Fe. The composition is characterized by a band gap of less of 4.5 eV.

Lee, Ho Nyung; Chisholm, Jr., Matthew F; Jellison, Jr., Gerald Earle; Singh, David J; Choi, Woo Seok

2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

187

Mesoporous metal oxide microsphere electrode compositions and their methods of making  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Compositions and methods of making are provided for treated mesoporous metal oxide microspheres electrodes. The compositions comprise (a) microspheres with an average diameter between 200 nanometers (nm) and 10 micrometers (.mu.m); (b) mesopores on the surface and interior of the microspheres, wherein the mesopores have an average diameter between 1 nm and 50 nm and the microspheres have a surface area between 50 m.sup.2/g and 500 m.sup.2/g, and wherein the composition has an electrical conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-7 S/cm at 25.degree. C. and 60 MPa. The methods of making comprise forming a mesoporous metal oxide microsphere composition and treating the mesoporous metal oxide microspheres by at least one method selected from the group consisting of: (i) annealing in a reducing atmosphere, (ii) doping with an aliovalent element, and (iii) coating with a coating composition.

Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Bi, Zhonghe; Bridges, Craig A; Brown, Gilbert M

2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

188

Determination of Interfacial Adhesion Strength between Oxide Scale and Substrate for Metallic SOFC Interconnects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of metallic interconnects in SOFC operating environments. It is necessary, therefore, to establish a methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the metallic interconnect substrate, and furthermore to design and optimize the interconnect material as well as the coating materials to meet the design life of an SOFC system. In this paper, we present an integrated experimental/analytical methodology for quantifying the interfacial adhesion strength between oxide scale and a ferritic stainless steel interconnect. Stair-stepping indentation tests are used in conjunction with subsequent finite element analyses to predict the interfacial strength between the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate.

Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning N.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

189

Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures or organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides, e.g., transition metal carbonyl such as nickel carbonyl, and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit.

Mullendore, Arthur W. (Sandia Park, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Noble Metal Catalysts for Mercury Oxidation in Utility Flue Gas: Gold, Palladium and Platinum Formulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of noble metals as catalysts for mercury oxidation in flue gas remains an area of active study. To date, field studies have focused on gold and palladium catalysts installed at pilot scale. In this article, we introduce bench-scale experimental results for gold, palladium and platinum catalysts tested in realistic simulated flue gas. Our initial results reveal some intriguing characteristics of catalytic mercury oxidation and provide insight for future research into this potentially important process.

Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Structure formation upon reactive direct current magnetron sputtering of transition metal oxide films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comparative study of reactive direct current magnetron sputtering for different transition metal oxides reveals crystalline films at room temperature for group 4 and amorphous films for groups 5 and 6. This observation cannot be explained by the known growth laws and is attributed to the impact of energetic particles, originating from the oxidized target, on the growing film. This scenario is supported by measured target characteristics, the evolution of deposition stress of the films, and the observed backsputtering.

Ngaruiya, J.M.; Kappertz, O.; Mohamed, S.H.; Wuttig, M. [I. Physikalisches Institut der RWTH Aachen, D-52056 Aachen, Germany and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Box 62000 Nairobi (Kenya); I. Physikalisches Institut der RWTH Aachen, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

2004-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

192

Spinel-structured metal oxide on a substrate and method of making same by molecular beam epitaxy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of making a spinel-structured metal oxide on a substrate by molecular beam epitaxy, comprising the step of supplying activated oxygen, a first metal atom flux, and at least one other metal atom flux to the surface of the substrate, wherein the metal atom fluxes are individually controlled at the substrate so as to grow the spinel-structured metal oxide on the substrate and the metal oxide is substantially in a thermodynamically stable state during the growth of the metal oxide. A particular embodiment of the present invention encompasses a method of making a spinel-structured binary ferrite, including Co ferrite, without the need of a post-growth anneal to obtain the desired equilibrium state.

Chambers, Scott A.

2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

193

Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH.sub.3. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20.degree. and 90.degree. C. to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Littlejohn, David (Oakland, CA); Shi, Yao (Berkeley, CA)

1997-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

194

Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH{sub 3}. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: (a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20 and 90 C to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution. 34 figs.

Chang, S.G.; Littlejohn, D.; Shi, Y.

1997-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

195

Chemical probes of metal cluster structure--Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical reactivity is one of the few methods currently available for investigating the geometrical structure of isolated transition metal clusters. In this paper we summarize what is currently known about the structures of clusters of four transition metals, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu, in the size range from 13 to 180 atoms. Chemical probes used to determine structural information include reactions with H{sub 2}(D{sub 2}), H{sub 2}0, NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}. Measurements at both low coverage and at saturation are discussed.

Parks, E.K.; Zhu, L.; Ho, J.; Riley, S.J.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Chemical probes of metal cluster structure--Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical reactivity is one of the few methods currently available for investigating the geometrical structure of isolated transition metal clusters. In this paper we summarize what is currently known about the structures of clusters of four transition metals, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu, in the size range from 13 to 180 atoms. Chemical probes used to determine structural information include reactions with H{sub 2}(D{sub 2}), H{sub 2}0, NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2}. Measurements at both low coverage and at saturation are discussed.

Parks, E.K.; Zhu, L.; Ho, J.; Riley, S.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the local structure of heavy metal ions incorporated into electrodeposited nickel oxide films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The incorporation of heavy metal ions into simulated corrosion films has been investigated using spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. The films were formed by electrodeposition of the appropriate oxide (hydroxide) onto a graphite substrate. Synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to determine the structure and composition of the host oxide film, as well as the local structure of the impurity ion. Results on the incorporation of Ce and Sr into surface films of Ni(OH){sub 2} and NiOOH are reported. Cathodically deposited Ni(OH){sub 2} was found to be mainly in the alpha form while anodically prepared NiOOH showed the presence of Ni{sup +2} and Ni{sup +4}. Cerium incorporated into Ni(OH){sub 2} exists as mixed Ce{sup +3} and Ce{sup +4} phases; a Ce{sup +4} species was found when Ce was codeposited with NiOOH. The structure of the Ce{sup +4} phase in anodic films appears similar to a Ce(OH){sub 4} standard. However, XAS, X-ray diffraction, and laser Raman measurements indicate that the latter chemical formulation is probably incorrect and that the material is really a disordered form of hydrous cerium oxide. The local structure of this material is similar to CeO{sub 2} but has much higher structural disorder. The significance of this finding on the question of the structure of Ce-based corrosion inhibitors in aluminum oxide films is pointed out. Moreover, the authors found it possible to form pure Ce oxide (hydroxide) films on graphite by both cathodic and anodic electrodeposition; their structures have also been elucidated. Strontium incorporated into nickel oxide films consists of Sr{sup +2} which is coordinated to oxygen atoms and is likely to exist as small domains of coprecipitated material.

Balasubramanian, M.; Melendres, C.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.; Mansour, A.N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bethesda, MD (United States). Carderock Div.] [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bethesda, MD (United States). Carderock Div.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Metal oxide/organic interface investigations for photovoltaic devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

summarises work I have carried out as a PhD student of the Optoelectronics Group at Cavendish Laboratory of the University of Cambridge since October 2010. I am thankful to the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and the A.G. Leventis... are often used in many other optoelectronic devices such as photovoltaics and light emitting diodes. Sufficiently conducting oxides with the appropriate electron affinities and ionisation potentials, can be employed as charge transport and injection layers...

Pachoumi, Olympia

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

199

Inorganic Metal Oxide/Organic Polymer Nanocomposites And Method Thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A synthetic method for preparation of hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposites is disclosed herein. The method employs the use of stable metal in organic salts and organic solvents as well as an organic polymer with good solubility in the solvent system to produce novel nanocomposite energetic materials. In addition, fuel metal powders (particularly those that are oxophilic) can be incorporated into composition. This material has been characterized by thermal methods, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), N.sub.2 adsoprtion/desorption methods, and Fourier-Transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy. According to these characterization methods the organic polymer phase fills the nanopores of the material, providing superb mixing of the component phases in the energetic nanocomposite.

Gash, Alexander E. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA); Simpson, Randy (Livermore, CA)

2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

200

Inorganic metal oxide/organic polymer nanocomposites and method thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A synthetic method for preparation of hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposites is disclosed herein. The method employs the use of stable metal inorganic salts and organic solvents as well as an organic polymer with good solubility in the solvent system to produce novel nanocomposite energetic materials. In addition, fuel metal powders (particularly those that are oxophillic) can be incorporated into composition. This material has been characterized by thermal methods, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), N.sub.2 adsoprtion/desorption methods, and Fourier-Transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy. According to these characterization methods the organic polymer phase fills the nanopores of the composite material, providing superb mixing of the component phases in the energetic nanocomposite.

Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Joe H.; Simpson, Randy

2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Stabilization of Layered Metal Oxides | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage » SearchEnergyDepartmentScopingOverview * Analyzer IDepartmentLayered Metal

202

Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory Ricardo B. Metz Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 USA Abstract Gas such as methanol has attracted great experimental and theoretical interest due to its importance as an industrial

Metz, Ricardo B.

203

Surfactant Organic Molecules Restore Magnetism in Metal-Oxide Nanoparticle Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Surfactant Organic Molecules Restore Magnetism in Metal-Oxide Nanoparticle Surfaces Juan Salafranca, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: The properties of magnetic nanoparticles tend to be depressed by the unavoidable presence of a magnetically inactive surface layer. However

Pennycook, Steve

204

Nanotube Formation: Researchers Learn To Control The Dimensions Of Metal Oxide Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanotube Formation: Researchers Learn To Control The Dimensions Of Metal Oxide Nanotubes ScienceDaily (Aug. 29, 2007) -- Moving beyond carbon nanotubes, researchers are developing insights-walled inorganic nanotubes could be useful in a range of nanotechnology applications that require precise control

Nair, Sankar

205

Understanding the NMR shifts in paramagnetic transition metal oxides using density functional theory calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

obvious. In this paper, we show by means of density functional theory DFT calcula- tions that a rationalUnderstanding the NMR shifts in paramagnetic transition metal oxides using density functional functional theory DFT calculations in the generalized gradient approximation. For each compound, we calculate

Ceder, Gerbrand

206

Oxidative stress in pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings from metal contaminated environments in northern Sweden  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metals have been shown to induce oxidative stress in animals. One of the most metal polluted terrestrial environments in Sweden is the surroundings of a sulfide ore smelter plant located in the northern part of the country. Pied flycatcher nestlings (Ficedula hypoleuca) that grew up close to the industry had accumulated amounts of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead, iron and zinc in their liver tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate if pied flycatcher nestlings in the pollution gradient of the industry were affected by oxidative stress using antioxidant molecules and enzyme activities. The antioxidant assays were also evaluated in search for useful biomarkers in pied flycatchers. This study indicated that nestlings in metal contaminated areas showed signs of oxidative stress evidenced by up regulated hepatic antioxidant defense given as increased glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities and slightly but not significantly elevated lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Stepwise linear regression indicated that lipid peroxidation and CAT activities were influenced mostly by iron, but iron and lead influenced the CAT activity to a higher degree. Positive relationships were found between GST and lead as well as GR activities and cadmium. We conclude that GR, CAT, GST activities and lipid peroxidation levels may function as useful biomarkers for oxidative stress in free-living pied flycatcher nestlings exposed to metal contaminated environments.

Berglund, A.M.M. [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden)], E-mail: asa.berglund@emg.umu.se; Sturve, J.; Foerlin, L. [Department of Zoology, Goeteborg University, Box 463, SE-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Nyholm, N.E.I. [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

Self-assembly of oxide-supported metal clusters into ring-like Kristoffer Meinander,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Self-assembly of oxide-supported metal clusters into ring-like structures Kristoffer Meinander, Kai, Finland Abstract Self-assembly is a phenomenon that continuously occurs at the nanoscale, as atoms form of these organized systems, but the precise mechanism, with which this self-assembly progresses, is seldom known

Nordlund, Kai

208

Electrochromic nickel oxide simultaneously doped with lithium and a metal dopant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochromic device comprising a counter electrode layer comprised of lithium metal oxide which provides a high transmission in the fully intercalated state and which is capable of long-term stability, is disclosed. Methods of making an electrochromic device comprising such a counter electrode are also disclosed.

Gillaspie, Dane T; Weir, Douglas G

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Criteria for Preparing and Packaging Plutonium Metals and Oxides for Long-Term Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Standard provides criteria for packaging of plutonium metals and stabilized oxides for storage periods of at least 50 years. To meet the criteria, plutonium-bearing materials must be in stable forms and be packaged in containers designed to maintain their integrity both under normal storage conditions and during anticipated handling accidents.

NONE

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

High density adsorbed oxygen on Rh,,111... and enhanced routes to metallic oxidation using atomic oxygen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High density adsorbed oxygen on Rh,,111... and enhanced routes to metallic oxidation using atomic oxygen K. D. Gibson, Mark Viste, Errol C. Sanchez, and S. J. Sibener The James Franck Institute; accepted 30 November 1998 Exposure of Rh 111 to atomic oxygen leads to the facile formation of a full

Sibener, Steven

211

AC conductivity of nanoporous metal-oxide photoanodes for solar energy conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AC conductivity of nanoporous metal-oxide photoanodes for solar energy conversion Steven J. Konezny% solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiency) exploited the large surface area of nanoporous thin for solar photoconversion is analyzed using a model based on fluctuation-induced tunneling conduction (FITC

Konezny, Steven J.

212

Chemical Reaction of Metal-Carbon Binary Cluster Anions by FT-ICR Mass Spectrometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

45 48 51 54 57 60 Number of Carbon Atoms Intensity(arbitrary) (a) as injected (b) SWIFTed (c) NO 1sChemical Reaction of Metal-Carbon Binary Cluster Anions by FT-ICR Mass Spectrometer S. Maruyama, M- fullerene and single walled carbon nanotubes are investigated through experimental studies of interaction

Maruyama, Shigeo

213

Synthesis of high {Tc} superconducting coatings and patterns by melt writing and oxidation of metallic precursor alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for fabrication of superconducting oxides and superconducting oxide composites and for joining superconductors to other materials. A coating of a molten alloy containing the metallic elements of the oxide is applied to a substrate surface and oxidized to form the superconducting oxide. A material can be contacted to the molten alloy which is subsequently oxidized joining the material to the resulting superconducting oxide coating. Substrates of varied composition and shape can be coated or joined by this method. 5 figs.

Gao, W.; Vander Sande, J.B.

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

214

Metal Current Collector Protected by Oxide Film - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces andMapping theEnergy StorageAdvanced Materials Advanced Materials FindMetal

215

Fast 8 kV metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor switch R. E. Continetti, D. R. Cyr,al and D. M. Neumarkb)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

V. A key to this approach is the use of a metal-oxide varistor (MOV) to clamp the voltage acrossa givenFast 8 kV metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor switch R. E. Continetti, D. R. Cyr transformer-isolatedpower metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors in seriesis described

Neumark, Daniel M.

216

Method of making a catalytic metal oxide selective for the conversion of a gas and a coating system for the selective oxidation of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described of making a catalytic metal oxide selective to catalyzing the conversion of given gas species, comprising: intimately supporting a solid film of catalytic metal oxide on an electrically conducting material, said film having an exposed outer surface spaced no greater than 1,000 angstroms from said conducting material and said conducting material being matched to the composition of said oxide to change the electron state of the exposed outer surface to promote a reaction between given gas species and said oxide, said metal oxide being selected from the group consisting of TiO[sub 2], SnO[sub 2], FeO, SrTiO[sub 3], and CoO, and said conducting material being selected from the group consisting of Au, Pt, TiN, Pd, Rh, Ni, and Co.

Logothetis, E.M.; Soltis, R.E.

1993-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

217

Department of Chemical Engineering Fall 2012 Separation and Removal of Metal Spall Particulates from a High-Purity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to Air Products facility in Allentown, PA to gather specific process details Customer needs matrixPENNSTATE Department of Chemical Engineering Fall 2012 Separation and Removal of Metal Spall known as metal spalling is occurring in a gas production technology. Metal spalling is defined

Demirel, Melik C.

218

Photonic crystal membrane reflectors by magnetic field-guided metal-assisted chemical etching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) is a simple etching method that uses metal as the catalyst for anisotropic etching of semiconductors. However, producing nano-structures using MacEtch from discrete metal patterns, in contrast to interconnected ones, has been challenging because of the difficulties in keeping the discrete metal features in close contact with the semiconductor. We report the use of magnetic field-guided MacEtch (h-MacEtch) to fabricate periodic nanohole arrays in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers for high reflectance photonic crystal membrane reflectors. This study demonstrates that h-MacEtch can be used in place of conventional dry etching to produce ordered nanohole arrays for photonic devices.

Balasundaram, Karthik; Mohseni, Parsian K.; Li, Xiuling, E-mail: wzhou@uta.edu, E-mail: xiuling@illinois.edu [Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Shuai, Yi-Chen; Zhao, Deyin; Zhou, Weidong, E-mail: wzhou@uta.edu, E-mail: xiuling@illinois.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, NanoFAB Center, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, NanoFAB Center, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States)

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

219

Metal oxide coating of carbon supports for supercapacitor applications.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The global market for wireless sensor networks in 2010 will be valued close to $10 B, or 200 M units. TPL, Inc. is a small Albuquerque based business that has positioned itself to be a leader in providing uninterruptible power supplies in this growing market with projected revenues expected to exceed $26 M in 5 years. This project focused on improving TPL, Inc.'s patent-pending EnerPak{trademark} device which converts small amounts of energy from the environment (e.g., vibrations, light or temperature differences) into electrical energy that can be used to charge small energy storage devices. A critical component of the EnerPak{trademark} is the supercapacitor that handles high power delivery for wireless communications; however, optimization and miniaturization of this critical component is required. This proposal aimed to produce prototype microsupercapacitors through the integration of novel materials and fabrication processes developed at New Mexico Technology Research Collaborative (NMTRC) member institutions. In particular, we focused on developing novel ruthenium oxide nanomaterials and placed them into carbon supports to significantly increase the energy density of the supercapacitor. These improvements were expected to reduce maintenance costs and expand the utility of the TPL, Inc.'s device, enabling New Mexico to become the leader in the growing global wireless power supply market. By dominating this niche, new customers were expected to be attracted to TPL, Inc. yielding new technical opportunities and increased job opportunities for New Mexico.

Boyle, Timothy J.; Tribby, Louis, J (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Lakeman, Charles D. E. (TPL, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Han, Sang M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Lambert, Timothy N.; Fleig, Patrick F. (TPL, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Electrical conductivity in oxygen-deficient phases of transition metal oxides from first-principles calculations.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Density-functional theory calculations, ab-initio molecular dynamics, and the Kubo-Greenwood formula are applied to predict electrical conductivity in Ta2Ox (0x5) as a function of composition, phase, and temperature, where additional focus is given to various oxidation states of the O monovacancy (VOn; n=0,1+,2+). Our calculations of DC conductivity at 300K agree well with experimental measurements taken on Ta2Ox thin films and bulk Ta2O5 powder-sintered pellets, although simulation accuracy can be improved for the most insulating, stoichiometric compositions. Our conductivity calculations and further interrogation of the O-deficient Ta2O5 electronic structure provide further theoretical basis to substantiate VO0 as a donor dopant in Ta2O5 and other metal oxides. Furthermore, this dopant-like behavior appears specific to neutral VO cases in both Ta2O5 and TiO2 and was not observed in other oxidation states. This suggests that reduction and oxidation reactions may effectively act as donor activation and deactivation mechanisms, respectively, for VO0 in transition metal oxides.

Bondi, Robert James; Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Marinella, Matthew

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M{sub x}Z{sub y}Mn{sub (1{minus}y)}O{sub 2}, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell. 11 figs.

Doeff, M.M.; Peng, M.Y.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.C.

1996-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

222

Final Report: Catalytic Hydrocarbon Reactions over Supported Metal Oxides, August 1, 1995 - July 31, 1999  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research program focused on the catalysis of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) over molybdenum-based catalysts and how catalyst composition, redox ability, structure and neighboring sites control the catalytic properties of metal oxides. We sought to understand the catalytic features/sites that control hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, and isomerization during HDS. Unprompted silica-supported molybdenum oxides and molybdenum sulfides were studied. Model catalyst systems were prepared from organometallic precursors or cluster compounds to generate supported structures that feature Mo(II) and Mo(IV) cations that are isolated or in ensembles and that have either Mo-O or Mo-S bonds. Conventional MOS{sub 2} catalysts, which contain both edge and rim sites, were be studied. Finally, single-layer MOS{sub 2} structures were also prepared from 2H-MoS{sub 2} powder so that the model systems could be compared against a disulfide catalyst that only involves rim sites. Catalytic reactions for thiophene and tetrahydrothione were studied over the various catalysts. Oxidation states were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X-ray crystallography was used to characterize and follow changes in the MOS{sub 2} structures. The program on metal oxides prepared supported oxides that have a specific structure and oxidation state to serve as model templates for the more complex commercial catalysts and then employed these structures in reaction studies. This focus area examined the relationships between structure and cation redox characteristics in oxidation catalysis. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the cations and reaction intermediates.

Ekerdt, John G.

1999-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

223

Tubular solid oxide fuel cells with porous metal supports and ceramic interconnections  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell structure capable of operating at from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. having a very thin porous hollow elongated metallic support tube having a thickness from 0.10 mm to 1.0 mm, preferably 0.10 mm to 0.35 mm, a porosity of from 25 vol. % to 50 vol. % and a tensile strength from 700 GPa to 900 GPa, which metallic tube supports a reduced thickness air electrode having a thickness from 0.010 mm to 0.2 mm, a solid oxide electrolyte, a cermet fuel electrode, a ceramic interconnection and an electrically conductive cell to cell contact layer.

Huang, Kevin (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

224

The steady-state thermal-hydraulic performance of 3500 MWth metal and oxide fueled LMRs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal-hydraulic performance of a 3500 MWth metal and oxide fueled LMR is reported. Orifice zones are defined and coolant flowrates are given for use in safety analyses. The flux calculations were carried out in three-dimensional hexagonal-Z geometry using a finite differenced diffusion theory code. The heating calculations included the transport and deposition of gamma energy. The assembly temperature calculations were performed using a subchannel code.

Vilim, R.B.; Hill, R.N.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Surface Science Letters Bulk-defect dependent adsorption on a metal oxide surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-6028(01)01067-6 #12;Titanium dioxide is a wide-band gap semicon- ductor (Egap 3 eV) that can easily be reducedSurface Science Letters Bulk-defect dependent adsorption on a metal oxide surface: S/TiO2(1 1 0) E Abstract The adsorption of molecular sulfur on TiO2(1 1 0)(1 Ã? 1) has been studied with scanning tunneling

Diebold, Ulrike

226

The interactions between transition metal nanoparticles and their metal-oxide supports are often critical for heterogeneous metal nanoparticle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for selective hydrogenations (2, 3), oxidations (3­5), and the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction (3, 6). Several to saturation kinetics, with added water affecting the kinetics of the RDS. We explored potential mechanistic oxygen from the support (21, 27). Perhaps most importantly, as Fig. 1A shows, water dramatically

Napp, Nils

227

Plasmonic transparent conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and nanoparticle films for optical sensing applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to monitor gas species selectively, sensitively, and reliably in extreme temperatures and harsh conditions is critically important for more efficient energy production using conventional fossil energy based production technologies, enabling advanced technologies for fossil based power plants of the future, and improving efficiency in domestic manufacturing industries. Optical waveguide based sensing platforms have become increasingly important but a need exists for materials that exhibit useful changes in optical properties in response to changing gas atmospheres at high temperatures. In this manuscript, the onset of a near-IR absorption associated with an increase in free carrier density in doped metal oxide nanoparticles to form so-called conducting metal oxides is discussed in the context of results obtained for undoped and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticle based films. Detailed film characterization results are presented along with measured changes in optical absorption resulting from various high temperature treatments in a range of gas atmospheres. Optical property changes are also discussed in the context of a simple model for optical absorption in conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and thin films. The combination of experimental results and theoretical modeling presented here suggests that such materials have potential for high temperature optical gas sensing applications. Simulated sensing experiments were performed at 500 °C and a useful, rapid, and reproducible near-IR optical sensing response to H{sub 2} confirms that this class of materials shows great promise for optical gas sensing.

Ohodnicki, Paul R., Jr.; Wang, Congjun; Andio, Mark

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

228

Protective coating on positive lithium-metal-oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell comprising a LiMn2-xMxO4 spinel structure in which M is one or more metal cations with an atomic number less than 52, such that the average oxidation state of the manganese ions is equal to or greater than 3.5, and in which 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.15, having one or more lithium spine oxide LiM'2O4 or lithiated spinel oxide Li1+yM'2O4 compounds on the surface thereof in which M' are cobalt cations and in which 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1.

Johnson, Christopher S.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Kahaian, Arthur J.

2006-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

229

Modelling of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of metallic and oxide fuels for sodium fast reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A robust and reliable code to model the irradiation behavior of metal and oxide fuels in sodium cooled fast reactors is developed. Modeling capability was enhanced by adopting a non-empirical mechanistic approach to the ...

Karahan, Aydin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

CO Oxidation on Pt-Group Metals from Ultrahigh Vacuum to Near Atmospheric Pressures. 2. Palladium and Platinum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

paper.1 Figure 1b shows the corresponding polarization modulation infrared reflection absorptionCO Oxidation on Pt-Group Metals from Ultrahigh Vacuum to Near Atmospheric Pressures. 2. Palladium

Goodman, Wayne

231

Evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of hydrated metal oxide nanoparticles by INS techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this contribution we will present a detailed methodology for the elucidation of the following aspects of the thermodynamic properties of hydrated metal oxide nanoparticles from high-resolution, low-temperature inelastic neutron scattering (INS) data: (i) the isochoric heat capacity and entropy of the hydration layers both chemi- and physisorbed to the particle surface; (ii) the magnetic contribution to the heat capacity of the nanoparticles. This will include the calculation of the vibrational density of states (VDOS) from the raw INS spectra, and the subsequent extraction of the thermodynamic data from the VDOS. This technique will be described in terms of a worked example namely, cobalt oxide (Co3O4 and CoO). To complement this evaluation of the physical properties of metal oxide nanoparticle systems, we will emphasise the importance of high-resolution, high-energy INS for the determination of the structure and dynamics of the water species, namely molecular (H2O) and dissociated water (OH, hydroxyl), confined to the oxide surfaces. For this component of the chapter we will focus on INS investigations of hydrated isostructural rutile (a-TiO2) and cassiterite (SnO2) nanoparticles. We will complete this discussion of nanoparticle analysis by including an appraisal of the INS instrumentation employed in such studies with particular focus on TOSCA [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), U.K.] and the newly developed spectrometer SEQUOIA [SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), U.S.A].

Spencer, Elinor [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University] [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Ross, Dr. Nancy [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University] [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Parker, Stewart F. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (ISIS)] [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (ISIS); Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Surface effects and phase stability in metal oxides nanoparticles under visible irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The light induced phase transformation between stable phases of metal oxides nanoparticles is analyzed. The surrounding atmosphere as well as the defect density at the surface play a fundamental role. It has been found that in oxygen poor chamber atmosphere the phase transformation is favored, while the phase transition cannot be achieved if the defects at the surface are properly passivated. The phase transition is activated by intragap irradiation, able to activate the F- center at the surface connected to oxygen vacancies, and promoting the activation of the surface and the nucleation of neighboring crystallites. The phase transition was studied in Titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) and in Iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}): Maghemite is subjected to a phase transformation to ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (hematite), Anatase nanoparticles converts to Rutile. The general mechanism of the phase transition and, more in general, the possibility to optically control the surface activity of metal oxides is discussed.

Ricci, Pier Carlo, E-mail: carlo.ricci@dsf.unica.it; Carbonaro, C. M., E-mail: carlo.ricci@dsf.unica.it; Corpino, R., E-mail: carlo.ricci@dsf.unica.it; Chiriu, D., E-mail: carlo.ricci@dsf.unica.it; Stagi, L., E-mail: carlo.ricci@dsf.unica.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá degli Studi di Cagliari, S.P. Monserrato-Sestu Km 0,700, 09042 Monserrato (Canada) (Italy)

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

233

The state of permanganate with relation to in situ chemical oxidation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO) with permanganate had its beginnings over 10 years ago. Since that time, many sites have been successfully treated for organic compounds including chlorinated ethenes (perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, etc.) phenols, explosives such as RDX, and many other organics. The successful application of ISCO with permanganate requires the integration of many site-specific factors into the remedial design. ISCO with permanganate is an effective technology, not only for its oxidative properties and persistence, but also for its application flexibility to remediate soil and groundwater. The merits of any type of treatment technology can be assessed in terms of effectiveness, ease of use, reaction rate, and cost. The use of permanganate for in situ chemical oxidation results in the complete mineralization of TCE and PCE and can result in treatment levels below detection limits. Permanganate is a single component oxidizer, which is easily handled, mixed and distributed to the subsurface. Permanganate is also inexpensive to design and implement as compared to other technologies. This presentation will provide a general overview of the application and safety aspects of ISCO with permanganate. This paper will discuss the advantages and limitations of this technology, typical cost ranges, site evaluation and application technologies. (authors)

Veronda, Brenda; Dingens, Matthew [Carus Corporation, 315 5th Street, Peru, IL 61354 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Particle size effects of methylcyclopentane hydrogenolysis and SMSI in lanthanide oxide-supported 1%-platinum metal catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PARTICLE SIZE EFFECTS OF METHYLCYCLOPENTANE HYDROGENOLYSIS AND SMSI IN LANTHANIDE OXIDE-SUPPORTED 1%-PLATINUM METAL CATALYSTS A Thesis by KYTE HAMILTON TERHUNE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1985 Major Subject: Chemistry PARTICLE SIZE EFFECTS OF METHYLCYCLOPENTANE HYDROGENOLYSIS AND SMSI IN LANTHANIDE OXIDE-SUPPORTED 1%-PLATINUM METAL CATALYSTS A Thesis by KYTE HAMILTON TERHUNE...

Terhune, Kyte Hamilton

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Final Technical Report - High-Performance, Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Tubes for Production of Ethylene adn Other Industrial Chemicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was undertaken by Michigan Technological University and Special Metals Corporation to develop creep-resistant, coking-resistant oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) tubes for use in industrial-scale ethylene pyrolysis and steam methane reforming operations. Ethylene pyrolysis tubes are exposed to some of the most severe service conditions for metallic materials found anywhere in the chemical process industries, including elevated temperatures, oxidizing atmospheres and high carbon potentials. During service, hard deposits of carbon (coke) build up on the inner wall of the tube, reducing heat transfer and restricting the flow of the hydrocarbon feedstocks. About every 20 to 60 days, the reactor must be taken off-line and decoked by burning out the accumulated carbon. This decoking costs on the order of $9 million per year per ethylene plant, accelerates tube degradation, and requires that tubes be replaced about every 5 years. The technology developed under this program seeks to reduce the energy and economic cost of coking by creating novel bimetallic tubes offering a combination of improved coking resistance, creep resistance and fabricability not available in current single-alloy tubes. The inner core of this tube consists of Incoloy(R) MA956, a commercial ferritic Fe-Cr-Al alloy offering a 50% reduction in coke buildup combined with improved carburization resistance. The outer sheath consists of a new material - oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Alloy 803(R) developed under the program. This new alloy retains the good fireside environmental resistance of Alloy 803, a commercial wrought alloy currently used for ethylene production, and provides an austenitic casing to alleviate the inherently-limited fabricability of the ferritic Incoloy(R) MA956 core. To provide mechanical compatibility between the two alloys and maximize creep resistance of the bimetallic tube, both the inner Incoloy(R) MA956 and the outer ODS Alloy 803 are oxide dispersion strengthened materials produced using mechanical alloying technology. To minimize cost, the bimetallic tube is produced by direct powder co-extrusion. This technology has potential for domestic energy savings of up to 4.1 trillion BTU/year (4.3 x 1015J/year) and a reduction of 370,000 tons (340,000 tonnes) of CO2 emissions in short-residence-time ethylene furnaces. This represents an energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction of about 3.3%. If the technology is also applied to other types of ethylene pyrolysis furnaces, total energy savings and CO2 emissions reductions could increase by up to five times. The work involved: Developing powder and consolidation processing protocols to produce an oxide-dispersion strengthened variant of Alloy 803 exhibiting creep strength comparable to Incoloy? Alloy MA956, Developing a direct powder co-extrusion protocol for fabricating co-extruded bimetallic Incoloy? Alloy MA956 / ODS Alloy 803 tubes, Characterizing the properties of the ODS Alloy 803 material, the welding characteristics of the bimetallic tubes, and the coking characteristics of the Incoloy? MA956 alloy, and Documenting the potential energy savings and user requirements for these bimetallic pyrolysis furnace tubes. The project demonstrated that oxide dispersion strengthened Alloy 803 can be produced successfully using conventional mechanical alloying technology. The oxide dispersion strengthened bimetallic radiant coil technology explored under this program has significant potential for energy savings and productivity improvements for domestic ethylene producers. In today's competitive market, however, domestic furnace manufacturers and ethylene producers appear reluctant to pay any cost premium for higher-performance coil materials offering either higher temperature capabilities or longer service life. Interest in oxide dispersion strengthened radiant coils is likely to increase if furnace and ethylene producers begin to focus more on increasing tube wall temperatures to improve productivity.

McKimpson, Marvin G.

2006-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

236

Synthesis and structural, magnetic, thermal, and transport properties of several transition metal oxides and aresnides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxide compounds containing the transition metal vanadium (V) have attracted a lot of attention in the field of condensed matter physics owing to their exhibition of interesting properties including metal-insulator transitons, structural transitions, ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic orderings, and heavy fermion behavior. Binary vanadium oxides V{sub n}O{sub 2n-1} where 2 {le} n {le} 9 have triclinic structures and exhibit metal-insulator and antiferromagnetic transitions. The only exception is V{sub 7}O{sub 13} which remains metallic down to 4 K. The ternary vanadium oxide LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4} has the normal spinel structure, is metallic, does not undergo magnetic ordering and exhibits heavy fermion behavior below 10 K. CaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} has an orthorhombic structure with the vanadium spins forming zigzag chains and has been suggested to be a model system to study the gapless chiral phase. These provide great motivation for further investigation of some known vanadium compounds as well as to explore new vanadium compounds in search of new physics. This thesis consists, in part, of experimental studies involving sample preparation and magnetic, transport, thermal, and x-ray measurements on some strongly correlated eletron systems containing the transition metal vanadium. The compounds studied are LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4}, YV{sub 4}O{sub 8}, and YbV{sub 4}O{sub 8}. The recent discovery of superconductivity in RFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} (R = La, Ce, Pr, Gd, Tb, Dy, Sm, and Nd), and AFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (A = Ba, Sr, Ca, and Eu) doped with K, Na, or Cs at the A site with relatively high T{sub c} has sparked tremendous activities in the condensed matter physics community and a renewed interest in the area of superconductivity as occurred following the discovery of the layered cuprate high T{sub c} superconductors in 1986. To discover more superconductors with hopefully higher T{sub c}'s, it is extremely important to investigate compounds having crystal structures related to the compounds showing high T{sub c} superconductivity. Along with the vanadium oxide compounds described before, this thesis describes our investigations of magnetic, structural, thermal and transport properties of EuPd{sub 2}Sb{sub 2} single crystals which have a crystal structure closely related to the AFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} compounds and also a study of the reaction kinetics of the formation of LaFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x}.

Das, Supriyo

2010-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

237

Using alternative chemicals in the flotation of heavy metals from lead mill tailings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) investigated alternative chemicals for the flotation of heavy metal values from southeast Missouri lead mill tailings. The objectives of the study were to lower the Pb remaining in the reprocessed tailings to <500 ppm, concentrate the metal values, and lower the overall toxicity of the flotation reagent scheme. Due to the high toxicity of classic flotation chemicals, collectorless flotation, as well as nontoxic or less-toxic chemicals, was studied for use in the flotation process. The investigation centered on the National tailings pile in Flat River, MO. Advantages to using alternative chemicals for the flotation process are presented. Novel reagent schemes are discussed for the treatment of the tailings. Various nontoxic or less-toxic oils were tested, and a substitute for sodium sulfide was investigated. Using a food additive oil, soda ash, and a frother as the reagent scheme, froth flotation recovered 89% of the Pb values. Further scavenging lowered the Pb remaining in the reprocessed tailings to <500 ppm. A less-toxic substitute for sodium cyanide was also studied for use in the cleaner flotation stages. Preliminary results indicate that the food additive oil, canola oil, to be as effective as classic sulfide flotation reagents.

Benn, F.W. [Bureau of Mines, Rolla, MO (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Respiration of metal (hydr)oxides by Shewanella and Geobacter: a key role for multihaem c-type cytochromes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dissimilatory reduction of metal (e.g. Fe, Mn) (hydr)oxides represents a challenge for microorganisms, as their cell envelopes are impermeable to metal (hydr)oxides that are poorly soluble in water. To overcome this physical barrier, the Gram-negative bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Geobactersulfurreducens have developed electron transfer (ET) strategies that require multihaem c-type cytochromes (c-Cyts). In S. oneidensis MR-1, multihaem c-Cyts CymA and MtrA are believed to transfer electrons from the inner membrane quinone/quinol pool through the periplasm to the outer membrane. The type II secretion system of S. oneidensis MR-1 has been implicated in the reduction of metal (hydr)oxides, most likely by translocating decahaem c-Cyts MtrC and OmcA across outer membrane to the surface of bacterial cells where they form a protein complex. The extracellular MtrC and OmcA can directly reduce solid metal (hydr)oxides. Likewise, outer membrane multihaem c-Cyts OmcE and OmcS of G. sulfurreducens are suggested to transfer electrons from outer membrane to type IV pili that are hypothesized to relay the electrons to solid metal (hydr)oxides. Thus, multihaem c-Cyts play critical roles in S. oneidensis MR-1-and G. sulfurreducens-mediated dissimilatory reduction of solid metal (hydr)oxides by facilitating ET across the bacterial cell envelope.

Shi, Liang; Squier, Thomas C.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Low-Metallicity Inhibition of Type Ia Supernovae and Galactic and Cosmic Chemical Evolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce a metallicity dependence of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate into the Galactic and cosmic chemical evolution models. In our SN Ia progenitor scenario, the accreting white dwarf (WD) blows a strong wind to reach the Chandrasekhar mass limit. If the iron abundance of the progenitors is as low as [Fe/H] 1-2, SNe Ia can be found only in the environments where the timescale of metal enrichment is sufficiently short as in starburst galaxies and ellipticals. The low-metallicity inhibition of SNe Ia can shed new light on the following issues: 1) The limited metallicity range of the SN Ia progenitors would imply that ``evolution effects'' are relatively small for the use of high redshift SNe Ia to determine the cosmological parameters. 2) WDs of halo populations are poor producers of SNe Ia, so that the WD contribution to the halo mass is not constrained from the iron abundance in the halo. 3) The abundance patterns of globular clusters and field stars in the Galactic halo lack of SN Ia signatures in spite of their age difference of several Gyrs, which can be explained by the low-metallicity inhibition of SNe Ia. 4) It could also explain why the SN Ia contamination is not seen in the damped Ly\\alpha systems for over a wide range of redshift.

Chiaki Kobayashi; Takuji Tsujimoto; Ken'ich Nomoto; Izumi Hachisu; Mariko Kato

1998-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

240

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY, VOL. 10, NO. 3, MAY 2011 499 TiSi2 Nanocrystal Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY, VOL. 10, NO. 3, MAY 2011 499 TiSi2 Nanocrystal Metal Oxide memory window, faster writing and erasing, and longer retention lifetime as a result of the metallic property of the silicide NCs. Due to thermally stable, CMOS compatible properties, TiSi2 NCs are highly

Yang, Zheng

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241

High Performance Ceramic Interconnect Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs): Ca- and Transition Metal-doped Yttrium Chromite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of transition metal substitution on thermal and electrical properties of Ca-doped yttrium chromite was investigated in relation to use as a ceramic interconnect in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). 10 at% Co, 4 at% Ni, and 1 at% Cu substitution on B-site of 20 at% Ca-doped yttrium chromite led to a close match of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) with that of 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), and a single phase Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 remained stable between 25 and 1100 degree C over a wide oxygen partial pressure range. Doping with Cu significantly facilitated densification of yttrium chromite. Ni dopant improved both electrical conductivity and dimensional stability in reducing environments, likely through diminishing the oxygen vacancy formation. Substitution with Co substantially enhanced electrical conductivity in oxidizing atmosphere, which was attributed to an increase in charge carrier density and hopping mobility. Electrical conductivity of Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 at 900 degree C is 57 S/cm in air and 11 S/cm in fuel (pO2=5×10^-17 atm) environments. Chemical compatibility of doped yttrium chromite with other cell components was verified at the processing temperatures. Based on the chemical and dimensional stability, sinterability, and thermal and electrical properties, Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 is suggested as a promising SOFC ceramic interconnect to potentially overcome technical limitations of conventional acceptor-doped lanthanum chromites.

Yoon, Kyung J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

Sallis, S.; Williams, D. S. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Butler, K. T.; Walsh, A. [Center for Sustainable Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Quackenbush, N. F. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Junda, M.; Podraza, N. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); White, B. E.; Piper, L. F. J., E-mail: lpiper@binghamton.edu [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States)

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

243

Manganese Doping of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Tailoring Surface Reactivity for a Regenerable Heavy Metal Sorbent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for tuning the analyte affinity of magnetic, inorganic nanostructured sorbents for heavy metal contaminants is described. The manganese-doped iron oxide nanoparticle sorbents have a remarkably high affinity compared to the precursor material. Sorbent affinity can be tuned toward an analyte of interest simply by adjustment of the dopant quantity. The results show that following the Mn doping process there is a large increase in affinity and capacity for heavy metals (i.e., Co, Ni, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Tl). Capacity measurements were carried out for the removal of cadmium from river water and showed significantly higher loading than the relevant commercial sorbents tested for comparison. The reduction in Cd concentration from 100 ppb spiked river water to 1 ppb (less than the EPA drinking water limit of 5 ppb for Cd) was achieved following treatment with the Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles. The Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were able to load 1 ppm of Cd followed by complete stripping and recovery of the Cd with a mild acid wash. The Cd loading and stripping is shown to be consistent through multiple cycles with no loss of sorbent performance.

Warner, Cynthia L.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Mackie, Katherine E.; Neiner, Doinita; Saraf, Laxmikant; Droubay, Timothy C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Addleman, Raymond S.

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

244

On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Variation of the shape and morphological properties of silica and metal oxide powders by electro homogeneous precipitation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method for preparing irreversible linear aggregates (fibrils) of metal oxide powders by utilizing static or pulsed DC electrical fields across a relatively non-conducting liquid solvent in which organometal compounds or silicon alkoxides have been dissolved. The electric field is applied to the relatively non-conducting solution throughout the particle formation and growth process promoting the formation of either linear aggregates (fibrils) or spherical shaped particles as desired. Thus the present invention provides a physical method for altering the size, shape and porosity of precursor hydrous metal oxide or hydrous silicon oxide powders for the development of advanced ceramics with improved strength and insulating capacity.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sisson, Warren G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Brunson, Ronald R. (Lenoir City, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Effects of anneals in ammonia on the interface trap density near the band edges in 4Hsilicon carbide metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­silicon carbide metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors Gilyong Chung, Chin Che Tin, and John R. Williamsa) Physics. Silicon carbide is the only wide band gap semiconductor that has a native oxide, and metal temperature capacitance­voltage measurements are reported for SiO2/4H­SiC n and p type metal

Pantelides, Sokrates T.

247

Electro-Ionics at metal oxide interfaces Hellsing (520720), Winkler, Wahnstrm, Olsson, Knee, Granath CURRICULUM VITAE Bo Hellsing (520720-3950)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electro-Ionics at metal oxide interfaces Hellsing (520720), Winkler, Wahnström, Olsson, Knee: Electronic properties of Metal Quantum Wells and Varistor Materials" PhD: Asier Eiguren (2003), "Electron Chis (May 2006), "Electron and #12;Electro-Ionics at metal oxide interfaces Hellsing (520720), Winkler

Hellsing, Bo

248

Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines.

Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

249

Life cycle cost study for coated conductor manufacture by metal organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to calculate the cost of producing high temperature superconducting wire by the Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) process. The technology status is reviewed from the literature and a plant conceptual design is assumed for the cost calculation. The critical issues discussed are the high cost of the metal organic precursors, the material utilization efficiency and the capability of the final product as measured by the critical current density achieved. Capital, operating and material costs are estimated and summed as the basis for calculating the cost per unit length of wire. Sensitivity analyses of key assumptions are examined to determine their effects on the final wire cost. Additionally, the cost of wire on the basis of cost per kiloampere per meter is calculated for operation at lower temperatures than the liquid nitrogen boiling temperature. It is concluded that this process should not be ruled out on the basis of high cost of precursors alone.

Chapman, J.N.

1999-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

250

Correlation effects in (111) bilayers of perovskite transition-metal oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the correlation-induced Mott, magnetic, and topological phase transitions in artificial (111) bilayers of perovskite transition-metal oxides LaAuO3 and SrIrO3 for which the previous density-functional theory calculations predicted topological insulating states. Using the dynamical-mean-field theory with realistic band structures and Coulomb interactions, LaAuO3 bilayer is shown to be far away from a Mott insulating regime, and a topological-insulating state is robust. On the other hand, SrIrO3 bilayer is on the verge of an orbital-selective topological Mott transition and turns to a trivial insulator by an antiferromagnetic ordering. Oxide bilayers thus provide a novel class of topological materials for which the interplay between the spin-orbit coupling and electron-electron interactions is a fundamental ingredient.

Okamoto, Satoshi [ORNL] [ORNL; Zhu, Wenguang [University of Science and Technology of China] [University of Science and Technology of China; Nomura, Yusuke [University of Tokyo, Japan] [University of Tokyo, Japan; Arita, R. [University of Tokyo, Japan] [University of Tokyo, Japan; Xiao, Di [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)] [Carnegie Mellon University (CMU); Nagaosa, Naoto [University of Tokyo, Japan] [University of Tokyo, Japan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Strain induced electronic structure changes in magnetic transition metal oxides thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show that the angular dependence of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) is strongly sensitive to strain-induced electronic structure changes in magnetic transition metal oxides. We observe a pronounced dependence of the XMCD spectral shape on the experimental geometry as well as nonvanishing XMCD with distinct spectral features in transverse geometry in compressively strained MnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} films. The angular dependent XMCD can be described as a sum over an isotropic and anisotropic contribution, the latter linearly proportional to the axial distortion due to strain. The XMCD spectra are well reproduced by atomic multiplet calculations.

van der Laan, G.; Chopdekar, R.V.; Suzuki, Y.; Arenholz, E.

2010-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

252

Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cellmembranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) membranes were developed in which zirconia-based electrolyte thin films were supported by a composite metal/ceramic electrode, and were subjected to rapid thermal cycling between 200 and 800 C. The effects of this cycling on membrane performance were evaluated. The membranes, not yet optimized for performance, showed a peak power density of 350mW/cm2at 900 C in laboratory-sized SOFCs that was not affected by the thermal cycling. This resistance to cycling degradation is attributed to the close matching of thermal expansion coefficient of the cermet support electrode with that of the zirconia electrolyte.

Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

2004-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

253

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon fuels must be reformed in a series of steps to provide hydrogen for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Preferential oxidation (PROX) is one method to reduce the CO concentration to less than 10 ppm in the presence of {approx}40% H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and steam. This will prevent CO poisoning of the PEMFC anode. Structured supports, such as ceramic monoliths, can be used for the PROX reaction. Alternatively, metal foams offer a number of advantages over the traditional ceramic monolith.

Paul Chin; Xiaolei Sun; George W. Roberts; Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Sourabh Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr; Richard W. Rice; James J. Spivey

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Chemical Synthesis of Nano-Sized particles of Lead Oxide and their Characterization Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The quantum dots of semiconductor display novel and interesting phenomena that have not been in the bulk material. The color tunability is one of the most attractive characteristics in II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles such as CdS, ZnS, CdSe, ZnSe and PbO. In this work, the semiconductor lead oxide nanoparticles are prepared by chemical method. The average particle size, specific surface area, crystallinity index are estimated from XRD analysis. The structural, functional groups and optical characters are analyzed with using of SEM, FTIR and UV- Visible techniques. The optical band gap value has also been determined.

M. Alagar; T. Theivasanthi; A. Kubera Raja

2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

255

Synthesis of transition metal nitride by nitridation of metastable oxide precursor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metastable transition metal oxides were used as precursors to synthesize transition metal nitrides at low temperature. Amorphous MoO{sub 2} was prepared by reduction of (NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24} solution with hydrazine. As-synthesized amorphous MoO{sub 2} was transformed into fcc {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N at 400 Degree-Sign C and then into hexagonal {delta}-MoN by further increasing the temperature to 600 Degree-Sign C under a NH{sub 3} flow. The nitridation temperature employed here is much lower than that employed in nitridation of crystalline materials, and the amorphous materials underwent a unique nitridation process. Besides this, the bimetallic nitride Ni{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}N was also synthesized by nitridating amorphous bimetallic precursor. These results suggested that the nitridation of amorphous precursor possessed potential to be a general method for synthesizing many interstitial metallic compounds, such as nitrides and carbides at low temperature. - graphical abstract: Amorphous oxide was used as new precursor to prepare nitride at low temperature. Pure {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N and {delta}-MoN were obtained at 400 Degree-Sign C and at 600 Degree-Sign C, respectively. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We bring out a new method to synthesize transition metal nitrides at low temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both mono- and bimetallic molybdenum nitrides were synthesized at a mild condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation of two different molybdenum nitrides {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N and {delta}-MoN can be controlled from the same metastable precursor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nitridation temperature was much lower than that reported from crystalline precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The metastable precursor had different reaction process in comparison with crystalline precursor.

Wang, Huamin; Wu, Zijie; Kong, Jing [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang, Zhiqiang, E-mail: zqwang@mail.nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China) [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Water Environment and Resources, Tianjin Normal University, No. 393 Binshui Road, Xiqing Dist., Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhang, Minghui, E-mail: zhangmh@nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

III-nitride quantum cascade detector grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantum cascade (QC) detectors in the GaN/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N material system grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition are designed, fabricated, and characterized. Only two material compositions, i.e., GaN as wells and Al{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}N as barriers are used in the active layers. The QC detectors operates around 4??m, with a peak responsivity of up to ?100??A/W and a detectivity of up to 10{sup 8} Jones at the background limited infrared performance temperature around 140?K.

Song, Yu, E-mail: yusong@princeton.edu; Huang, Tzu-Yung; Badami, Pranav; Gmachl, Claire [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Bhat, Rajaram; Zah, Chung-En [Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York 14831 (United States)

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

257

Chemical Engineering Division fuel cycle programs. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1979. [Pyrochemical/dry processing; waste encapsulation in metal; transport in geologic media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For pyrochemical and dry processing materials development included exposure to molten metal and salt of Mo-0.5% Ti-0.07% Ti-0.01% C, Mo-30% W, SiC, Si/sub 2/ON/sub 2/, ZrB/sub 2/-SiC, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, HfB/sub 2/, Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/, nickel nitrate-infiltrated W, W-coated Mo, and W-metallized alumina-yttria. Work on Th-U salt transport processing included solubility of Th in liquid Cd, defining the Cd-Th and Cd-Mg-Th phase diagrams, ThO/sub 2/ reduction experiments, and electrolysis of CaO in molten salt. Work on pyrochemical processes and associated hardware for coprocessing U and Pu in spent FBR fuels included a second-generation computer model of the transport process, turntable transport process design, work on the U-Cu-Mg system, and U and Pu distribution coefficients between molten salt and metal. Refractory metal vessels are being service-life tested. The chloride volatility processing of Th-based fuel was evaluated for its proliferation resistance, and a preliminary ternary phase diagram for the Zn-U-Pu system was computed. Material characterization and process analysis were conducted on the Exportable Pyrochemical process (Pyro-Civex process). Literature data on oxidation of fissile metals to oxides were reviewed. Work was done on chemical bases for the reprocessing of actinide oxides in molten salts. Flowsheets are being developed for the processing of fuel in molten tin. Work on encapsulation of solidified radioactive waste in metal matrix included studies of leach rate of crystalline waste materials and of the impact resistance of metal-matrix waste forms. In work on the transport properties of nuclear waste in geologic media, adsorption of Sr on oolitic limestone was studied, as well as the migration of Cs in basalt. Fitting of data on the adsorption of iodate by hematite to a mathematical model was attempted.

Steindler, M.J.; Ader, M.; Barletta, R.E.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Linker-Induced Anomalous Emission of Organic-Molecule Conjugated Metal-Oxide Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Semiconductor nanoparticles conjugated with organic- and dye-molecules to yield high efficiency visible photoluminescence (PL) hold great potential for many future technological applications. We show that folic acid (FA)-conjugated to nanosize TiO2 and CeO2 particles demonstrates a dramatic increase of photoemission intensity at wavelengths between 500 and 700 nm when derivatized using aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTMS) as spacer-linker molecules between the metal oxide and FA. Using density-functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations we demonstrate that the strong increase of the PL can be explained by electronic transitions between the titania surface oxygen vacancy (OV) states and the low-energy excited states of the FA/APTMS molecule anchored onto the surface oxygen bridge sites in close proximity to the OVs. We suggest this scenario to be a universal feature for a wide class of metal oxide nanoparticles, including nanoceria, possessing a similar band gap (3 eV) and with a large surface-vacancy-related density of electronic states. We demonstrate that the molecule-nanoparticle linker can play a crucial role in tuning the electronic and optical properties of nanosystems by bringing optically active parts of the molecule and of the surface close to each other.

Turkowski, Volodymyr; Babu, Suresh; Le, Duy; Kumar, Amit; Haldar, Manas K.; Wagh, Anil V.; Hu, Zhongjian; Karakoti, Ajay S.; Gesquiere, Andre J.; Law, Benedict; Mallik, Sanku; Rahman, Talat S.; Leuenberger, Michael N.; Seal, Sudipta

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

259

Survey: Destruction of chemical agent simulants in supercritical water oxidation. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) process exhibits distinct advantages for destruction of toxic wastes. Examples of these wastes are two chemical agent simulants, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and thiodiglycol (2,2'-thiodiethanol). DMMP is similar to the nerve agent GB Sarin in structure, and thiodiglycol is a hydrolysis product of the blister agent HD Sulfur Mustard. Both simulants are miscible in water and relatively non-toxic in comparison to the actual chemical agents. Using a Laboratory-scale, batch three temperatures were investigated: 425 deg C, 450 deg C, and 500 deg C with an initial concentration of one percent by volume, 11,450 mg/L for DMMP and 12,220 mg/L for thiodiglycol. Residence times investigated were: 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8 minutes. Reactor beat-up (H.U.) was determined to be one minute. Both pyrolysis and oxidation tests were conducted. Oxygen levels were uniformly set at 200% of stoichiometric requirements for the parent compounds.

Blank, M.R.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Ab initio study of lithium intercalation in metal oxides and metal dichalcogenides M. K. Aydinol, A. F. Kohan, and G. Ceder  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-metal-oxides due to their application potential as rechargeable battery electrodes1 and electrochromic displays.2. In electrochromic applications, band filling is used to adjust the electronic and optical properties.3 Figure 1-potential difference between cathode and anode is desirable as this leads to a high OCV. For electrochromic

Ceder, Gerbrand

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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261

The one-electron oxidation of a dithiolate molecule: The importance of chemical intuition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of nine commonly used density functional methods were assessed to accurately predict the oxidation potential of the (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}S{sub 2}{sup ?2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 2}S{sub 2}{sup •?}) redox couple. It was found that due to their greater tendency for charge delocalization the GGA functionals predict a structure where the radical electron is delocalized within the alkene backbone of C{sub 2}H{sub 2}S{sub 2}{sup •?}, whereas the hybrid functionals and the reference QCISD/cc-pVTZ predict that the radical electron remains localized on the sulfurs. However, chemical intuition suggests that the results obtained with the GGA functionals should be correct. Indeed, with the use of the geometries obtained at the HCTH/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level of theory both the QCISD and hybrid DFT methods yield a molecule with a delocalized electron. Notably, this new molecule lies at least 53 kJ mol{sup ?1} lower in energy than the previously optimized one that had a localized radical. Using these new structures the calculated oxidation potential was found to be 2.71–2.97 V for the nine DFT functionals tested. The M06-L functional provided the best agreement with the QCISD/cc-pVTZ reference oxidation potential of 3.28 V.

Bushnell, Eric A. C.; Burns, Thomas D.; Boyd, Russell J., E-mail: russell.boyd@dal.ca [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

262

Unusual Physical and Chemical Properties of Cu in Ce1-xCuxO2 Oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structural and electronic properties of Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2} nano systems prepared by a reverse microemulsion method were characterized with synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and density functional calculations. The Cu atoms embedded in ceria had an oxidation state higher than those of the cations in Cu{sub 2}O or CuO. The lattice of the Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2} systems still adopted a fluorite-type structure, but it was highly distorted with multiple cation-oxygen distances with respect to the single cation-oxygen bond distance seen in pure ceria. The doping of CeO{sub 2} with copper introduced a large strain into the oxide lattice and favored the formation of O vacancies, leading to a Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2-y} stoichiometry for our materials. Cu approached the planar geometry characteristic of Cu(II) oxides, but with a strongly perturbed local order. The chemical activities of the Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2} nanoparticles were tested using the reactions with H2 and O2 as probes. During the reduction in hydrogen, an induction time was observed and became shorter after raising the reaction temperature. The fraction of copper that could be reduced in the Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2} oxides also depended strongly on the reaction temperature. A comparison with data for the reduction of pure copper oxides indicated that the copper embedded in ceria was much more difficult to reduce. The reduction of the Ce{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 2} nanoparticles was rather reversible, without the generation of a significant amount of CuO or Cu{sub 2}O phases during reoxidation. This reversible process demonstrates the unusual structural and chemical properties of the Cu-doped ceria materials.

Wang,X.; Rodriguez, J.; Hanson, J.; Gamarra, D.; Martinez-Arias, A.; Fernandez-Garcia, M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Carbon Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars. I. Chemical Compositions of 26 Stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The chemical compositions of 26 metal-poor stars that exhibit strong CH and/or C2 molecular bands are determined based on high-resolution spectroscopy. We define carbon-enhanced stars taking account of the carbon abundance ratio ([C/Fe]) and the evolutionary status. Twenty two stars in our sample satisfy our modified definition for Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars. In addition, we measure Na abundances for nine other carbon-enhanced stars for which abundances of other elements have been previously reported. Combining our new sample with the results of previous work, we investigate the abundance and evolutionary status of a total of 64 CEMP stars. In this paper, we separate the carbon-enhanced objects into Ba-rich and Ba-normal objects, and discuss on (1) the metallicity distributions, (2) the correlation between Ba and C (and C+N) abundances, (3) C abundance distributions, (3) the distributions of evolutionary status, and (5) Na abundances. The implications of these results on the origins of carbon in CEMP stars are discussed.

Wako Aoki; Timothy C. Beers; Norbert Christlieb; John E. Norris; Sean G. Ryan; Stelios Tsangarides

2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

264

Formation and distribution of neutral vanadium, niobium, and tantalum oxide clusters: Single photon ionization at 26.5 eV  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. INTRODUCTION Transition metals, as well as their oxides, carbides, ni- trides, and sulfides, are unique bonds at a surface.1 Transition metal oxides are employed extensively as catalysts in the chemical. During the ionization process the metal oxide clusters are almost free of fragmentation. The most stable

Rocca, Jorge J.

265

In-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of water on metals and oxides at ambient conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a powerful tool for surface and interface analysis, providing the elemental composition of surfaces and the local chemical environment of adsorbed species. Conventional XPS experiments have been limited to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions due to a short mean free path of electrons in a gas phase. The recent advances in instrumentation coupled with third-generation synchrotron radiation sources enables in-situ XPS measurements at pressures above 5 Torr. In this review, we describe the basic design of the ambient pressure XPS setup that combines differential pumping with an electrostatic focusing. We present examples of the application of in-situ XPS to studies of water adsorption on the surface of metals and oxides including Cu(110), Cu(111), TiO2(110) under environmental conditions of water vapor pressure. On all these surfaces we observe a general trend where hydroxyl groups form first, followed by molecular water adsorption. The importance of surface OH groups and their hydrogen bonding to water molecules in water adsorption on surfaces is discussed in detail.

Salmeron, Miquel; Yamamoto, S.; Bluhm, H.; Andersson, K.; Ketteler, G.; Ogasawara, H.; Salmeron, M.; Nilsson, A.

2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

266

Metal hydride/chemical heat-pump development project. Phase I. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The metal hydride/chemical heat pump (MHHP) is a chemical heat pump containing two hydrides for the storage and/or recovery of thermal energy. It utilizes the heat of reaction of hydrogen with specific metal alloys. The MHHP design can be tailored to provide heating and/or cooling or temperature upgrading over a wide range of input and ambient temperatures. The system can thus be used with a variety of heat sources including waste heat, solar energy or a fossil fuel. The conceptual design of the MHHP was developed. A national market survey including a study of applications and market sectors was conducted. The technical tasks including conceptual development, thermal and mechanical design, laboratory verification of design and material performance, cost analysis and the detailed design of the Engineering Development Test Unit (EDTU) were performed. As a result of the market study, the temperature upgrade cycle of the MHHP was chosen for development. Operating temperature ranges for the upgrader were selected to be from 70 to 110/sup 0/C (160 to 230/sup 0/F) for the source heat and 140 to 190/sup 0/C (280 to 375/sup 0/F) for the product heat. These ranges are applicable to many processes in industries such as food, textile, paper and pulp, and chemical. The hydride pair well suited for these temperatures is LaNi/sub 5//LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 5/Al/sub 0/ /sub 5/. The EDTU was designed for the upgrade cycle. It is a compact finned tube arrangement enclosed in a pressure vessel. This design incorporates high heat transfer and low thermal mass in a system which maximizes the coefficient of performance (COP). It will be constructed in Phase II. Continuation of this effort is recommended.

Argabright, T.A.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Catalytic hydrogenation and gas permeation properties of metal-containing poly(phenylene oxide) and polysulfone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal-containing polymers, PPL-DPP-Pd, PPO-CPA-Pd, PSF-DPP-Pd, PSF-CPA-Pd (PDD = diphenylphosphinyl, CPA = o-carboxy phenyl amino), PPO-M (M = Pd,Cu,Co,Ni), and PSF-Pd, were prepared by incorporating metal chloride with either modified or unmodified poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) and polysulfone (PSF). The Pd-containing polymers exhibit catalytic activity in the hydrogenation of cyclopentadiene under mild conditions both in alcohol solution and in the gas phase. The selectivity in the hydrogenation of diene to monoene in the gas phase can be controlled by adjusting the hydrogen partial pressure. The metal-containing polymers, PPL-M and PSF-Pd, can be cast easily into the membranes. The H[sub 2]/N[sub 2] permselectivity for PPO-M is higher than that for unmodified PPO, whereas the permeability of H[sub 2] changes slightly. The H[sub 2] permeability and H[sub 2]/N[sub 2] permselectivity for the PPO-Pd membrane are up to 67.5 barrers and 135, respectively.

Hanrong Gao; Yun Xu; Shijian Liao; Ren Liu; Daorong Yu (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian (China). Dalian Inst. of Chemical Physics)

1993-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

268

Method and apparatus for preparation of spherical metal carbonates and lithium metal oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling. Another aspect of the invention includes materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Co.sub..beta.Mn.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.yF- .sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti), where the x is between 0 and 0.2, the .alpha. between 0 and 1, the .beta. between 0 and 1, the .gamma. between 0 and 2, the .delta. between about 0 and about 0.2, the y is between 2 and 4, and the z is between 0 and 0.5.

Kang, Sun-Ho (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

269

Standard test methods for chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) powder  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide powders to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Carbon by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion Selective Electrode C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Loss of Weight on Ignition 7-13 Sulfur by CombustionIodometric Titration Impurity Elements by a Spark-Source Mass Spectrographic C761 Test Methods for Chemical, Mass Spectrometric, Spectrochemical,Nuclear, and Radiochemical Analysis of Uranium Hexafluoride C1287 Test Method for Determination of Impurities In Uranium Dioxide By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Gadolinium Content in Gadolinium Oxid...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Use of high-temperature gas-tight electrochemical cells to measure electronic transport and thermodynamics in metal oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By using a gas-tight electrochemical cell, the authors can perform high-temperature coulometric titration and measure electronic transport properties to determine the electronic defect structure of metal oxides. This technique reduces the time and expense required for conventional thermogravimetric measurements. The components of the gas-tight coulometric titration cell are an oxygen sensor, Pt/yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/Pt, and an encapsulated metal oxide sample. Based on cell design, both transport and thermodynamic measurements can be performed over a wide range of oxygen partial pressures (pO{sub 2} = 10{sup {minus}35} to 1 atm). This paper describes the high-temperature gas-tight electrochemical cells used to determine electronic defect structures and transport properties for pure and doped-oxide systems, such as YSZ, doped and pure ceria (Ca-CeO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}), copper oxides, and copper-oxide-based ceramic superconductors, transition metal oxides, SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub x}, and BaTiO{sub 3}.

Park, J.H.; Ma, B.; Park, E.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Design Principles for Oxygen-Reduction Activity on Perovskite Oxide Catalysts for Fuel Cells and Metal-air Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to {sigma}*-orbital (e{sub g}) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the {sigma}* orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O{sub 2}{sup 2-}/OH{sup -} displacement and OH{sup -} regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

J Suntivich; H Gasteiger; N Yabuuchi; H Nakanishi; J Goodenough; Y Shao-Horn

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

272

Studies on the chemical synthesis and characterization of lead oxide nanoparticles with different organic capping agents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lead oxide (PbO) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using Lead (II) acetate as precursor. The effects of organic capping agents such as Oleic acid, Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) and Cetryl Tri Methyl Butoxide (CTAB) on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Photoluminescence (PL) Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to analyse the prepared nanoparticles for their physical, structural and optical properties. The characterization studies reveal that the synthesized PbO nanoparticles had well defined crystalline structure and sizes in the range of 25 nm to 36 nm for capping agents used and 40 nm for pure PbO nanoparticles.

Arulmozhi, K. T., E-mail: arulsheelphy@gmail.com [Physics Wing (DDE), Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India); Mythili, N. [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India)] [Department of Physics, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu, India - 608 002 (India)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

Interface engineering of quantum Hall effects in digital transition metal oxide heterostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Topological insulators (TIs) are characterized by a non-trivial band topology driven by the spin-orbit coupling. To fully explore the fundamental science and application of TIs, material realization is indispensable. Here we predict, based on tight-binding modeling and first-principles calculations, that bilayers of perovskite-type transition-metal oxides grown along the [111] crystallographic axis are potential candidates for two-dimensional TIs. The topological band structure of these materials can be fine-tuned by changing dopant ions, substrates and external gate voltages. We predict that LaAuO$_3$ bilayers have a topologically non-trivial energy gap of about 0.15~eV, which is sufficiently large to realize the quantum spin Hall effect at room temperature. Intriguing phenomena, such as fractional quantum Hall effect, associated with the nearly flat topologically non-trivial bands found in $e_g$ systems are also discussed.

Xiao, Di [ORNL; Zhu, Wenguang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ran, Ying [Boston College, Chestnut Hill; Nagaosa, Naoto [University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Okamoto, Satoshi [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Transient radiation hardened CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) operational amplifiers. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

General strategies are developed for designing radiation hardened bulk and silicon on insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) operational amplifiers. Comparisons are made between each technology concerning photocurrent mechanisms and the inherent advantages of SOI CMOS. Methods are presented for analysing circuit designs and minimizing the net photocurrent responses. Analysis is performed on standard operational amplifier circuits and subcircuits to demonstrate the usefulness of these methods. Radiation hardening topics discussed include superior radiation hardened topologies, photocurrent compensation and its limitations, and methods to ensure a preferred direction of photocurrent response. Several operational amplifier subcircuits are compared for their hardness characteristics. Folded cascode and three-stage operational amplifiers were fabricated on an SOI CMOS test chip supported by Texas Instruments, Incorporated. At the time of publication, the circuit operation was verified but radiation data were not yet available.

Trombley, G.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Method for producing metal oxide aerogels having densities less than 0.02 g/cc  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-step method is described for making transparent aerogels which have a density of less than 0.003 g/cm.sup.3 to those with a density of more than 0.8 g/cm.sup.3, by a sol/gel process and supercritical extraction. Condensed metal oxide intermediate made with purified reagents can be diluted to produce stable aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 g/cm.sup.3. High temperature, direct supercritical extraction of the liquid phase of the gel produces hydrophobic aerogels which are stable at atmospheric moisture conditions. Monolithic, homogeneous silica aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 to higher than 0.8 g/cm.sup.3, with high thermal insulation capacity, improved mechanical strength and good optical transparency, are described.

Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Thomas, Ian M. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Method for producing metal oxide aerogels having densities less than 0. 02 g/cc  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A two-step method is described for making transparent aerogels which have a density of less than 0.003 g/cm[sup 3] to those with a density of more than 0.8 g/cm[sup 3], by a sol/gel process and supercritical extraction. Condensed metal oxide intermediate made with purified reagents can be diluted to produce stable aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 g/cm[sup 3]. High temperature, direct supercritical extraction of the liquid phase of the gel produces hydrophobic aerogels which are stable at atmospheric moisture conditions. Monolithic, homogeneous silica aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 to higher than 0.8 g/cm[sup 3], with high thermal insulation capacity, improved mechanical strength and good optical transparency, are described. 7 figures.

Tillotson, T.M.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Thomas, I.M.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

277

HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Metal blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Blending HEU (highly enriched uranium) with less-enriched uranium to form LEU has been proposed as a disposition option. Five technologies are being assessed for blending HEU. This document provides data to be used in environmental impact analysis for the HEU-LEU disposition option that uses metal blending with an oxide waste product. It is divided into: mission and assumptions, conversion and blending facility descriptions, process descriptions and requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards discussion, and intersite transportation.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Heterojunction thin films based on multifunctional metal oxides for photovoltaic application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal oxides based multifunctional heterojunction thin films of ZnO/SnO{sub 2} and ZnO/SnO{sub 2}/CuO QDs were prepared by spin-coating technique. The crystallographic properties and the surface morphologies of the films were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The optical absorption studies revealed that the film thickness has considerable effect on the band gap values and is found to be in the range of 3.73–3.48 eV. The photoluminescence spectra showed several weak visible emission peaks related to the deep level defects (450-575 nm). Finally, the current density-voltage (J-V) characteristic of ZnO/SnO{sub 2}/CuO QDs (ZSCI) based heterojunction thin film coated on ITO is also reported.

Prabhu, M.; Soundararajan, N.; Ramachandran, K. [School of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai - 625021 (India); Marikkannan, M.; Mayandi, J. [School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai - 625021 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

279

Methane Activation by Transition-Metal Oxides, MOx (M ) Cr, Mo, W; x ) 1, 2, 3) Xin Xu,# Francesco Faglioni, and William A. Goddard, III*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane Activation by Transition-Metal Oxides, MOx (M ) Cr, Mo, W; x ) 1, 2, 3) Xin Xu,# Francesco, 2002 Recent experiments on the dehydrogenation-aromatization of methane (DHAM) to form benzene using a MoO3/HZSM-5 catalyst stimulated us to examine methane activation by the transition-metal oxide

Goddard III, William A.

280

Corrosion and Protection of Metallic Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy security and increased concern over environmental protection have spurred a dramatic world-wide growth in research and development of fuel cells, which electrochemically convert incoming fuel into electricity with no or low pollution. Fuel cell technology has become increasingly attractive to a number of sectors, including utility, automotive, and defense industries. Among the various types of fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperature (typically 650-1,000 C) and have advantages in terms of high conversion efficiency and the flexibility of using hydrocarbon fuels, in addition to hydrogen. The high temperature operation, however, can lead to increased mass transport and interactions between the surrounding environment and components that are required to be stable during a lifetime of thousands of hours and up to hundreds of thermal cycles. For stacks with relatively low operating temperatures (<800 C), the interconnects that are used to electrically connect a number of cells in series are typically made from cost-effective metals or alloys. The metallic interconnects must demonstrate excellent stability in a very challenging environment during SOFC operation, as they are simultaneously exposed to both an oxidizing (air) environment on the cathode side and a reducing environment (hydrogen or a reformed hydrocarbon fuel) on the anode side. Other challenges include the fact that water vapor is likely to be present in both of these environments, and the fuel is likely to contain impurities, such as sulfides. Since the fuel is usually a reformed hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas, coal gas, biogas, gasoline, etc., the interconnect is exposed to a wet carbonaceous environment at the anode side. Finally, the interconnect must be stable towards any adjacent components, such as electrodes, seals and electrical contact materials, with which it is in physical contact.

Yang, Z Gary; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2007-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Low temperature atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of group 14 oxide films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Depositions of high quality SiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2} films from the reaction of homoleptic amido precursors M(NMe{sub 2})4 (M = Si,Sn) and oxygen were carried out in an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition r. The films were deposited on silicon, glass and quartz substrates at temperatures of 250 to 450C. The silicon dioxide films are stoichiometric (O/Si = 2.0) with less than 0.2 atom % C and 0.3 atom % N and have hydrogen contents of 9 {plus_minus} 5 atom %. They are deposited with growth rates from 380 to 900 {angstrom}/min. The refractive indexes of the SiO{sub 2} films are 1.46, and infrared spectra show a possible Si-OH peak at 950 cm{sup {minus}1}. X-Ray diffraction studies reveal that the SiO{sub 2} film deposited at 350C is amorphous. The tin oxide films are stoichiometric (O/Sn = 2.0) and contain less than 0.8 atom % carbon, and 0.3 atom % N. No hydrogen was detected by elastic recoil spectroscopy. The band gap for the SnO{sub 2} films, as estimated from transmission spectra, is 3.9 eV. The resistivities of the tin oxide films are in the range 10{sup {minus}2} to 10{sup {minus}3} {Omega}cm and do not vary significantly with deposition temperature. The tin oxide film deposited at 350C is cassitterite with some (101) orientation.

Hoffman, D.M. [Houston Univ., TX (United States); Atagi, L.M. [Houston Univ., TX (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chu, Wei-Kan; Liu, Jia-Rui; Zheng, Zongshuang [Houston Univ., TX (United States); Rubiano, R.R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Springer, R.W.; Smith, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

EMPTY CHEMICAL BOTTLES RECYCLING PROGRAM Empty Chemical Bottles Recycling includes all glass, plastic and metal bottles and containers that previously  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EMPTY CHEMICAL BOTTLES RECYCLING PROGRAM Empty Chemical Bottles Recycling includes all glass Disposal Guide. Do not place empty chemical bottles in commingled recycling bins on hallways, trash cans and with a 20 gallons capacity. It is made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with 100% post-consumer recycled

Baker, Chris I.

283

Modeling and experimental studies of oxide covered metal surfaces: TiO{sub 2}/Ti a model system. Progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prior work in our laboratories at the Corrosion Research Center has shown that thin, anodic TiO{sub 2} films formed by the Slow Growth Mode (SGM) on polycrystalline titanium and microcrystalline with a texture that varies from one metal grain to another. Furthermore, the underlying metal grains are mapped by the photoelectrochemical response of the oxide. The same characteristics have also been demonstrated in our laboratory for ZnO grown on Zn. The TiO{sub 2}/Ti system has been chosen for study both because of its importance in energy systems, and because it can serve as a model system for other metal-metal oxide couples. The investigations of anodic TiO{sub 2} films on Ti have shown that the properties of thin films are consistent with the rutile form of the oxide. Both experimental data and theoretical calculations show the close resemblance to results on single crystal TiO{sub 2}. Furthermore, the modeling studies reveal that the optical transitions near the bandedge arise from the bulk band structure. The photoelectrochemical properties of anodic TiO{sub 2} films have now been shown to obey the simple Gaertner-Butler model for the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, with a few modifications. The most important deviation has now been shown to be a result of multiple internal reflections in the oxide film.

Smyrl, W.H.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

284

Modeling and experimental studies of oxide covered metal surfaces: TiO sub 2 /Ti a model system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prior work in our laboratories at the Corrosion Research Center has shown that thin, anodic TiO{sub 2} films formed by the Slow Growth Mode (SGM) on polycrystalline titanium and microcrystalline with a texture that varies from one metal grain to another. Furthermore, the underlying metal grains are mapped by the photoelectrochemical response of the oxide. The same characteristics have also been demonstrated in our laboratory for ZnO grown on Zn. The TiO{sub 2}/Ti system has been chosen for study both because of its importance in energy systems, and because it can serve as a model system for other metal-metal oxide couples. The investigations of anodic TiO{sub 2} films on Ti have shown that the properties of thin films are consistent with the rutile form of the oxide. Both experimental data and theoretical calculations show the close resemblance to results on single crystal TiO{sub 2}. Furthermore, the modeling studies reveal that the optical transitions near the bandedge arise from the bulk band structure. The photoelectrochemical properties of anodic TiO{sub 2} films have now been shown to obey the simple Gaertner-Butler model for the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, with a few modifications. The most important deviation has now been shown to be a result of multiple internal reflections in the oxide film.

Smyrl, W.H.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors using barium strontium titanate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors using barium strontium-effect transistors have been formed by incorporating barium strontium titanate (BST) deposited by rf magnetron in increased leakage. Due to its large dielectric constant, barium strontium ti- tanate [Ba1-xSrxTiO3, (BST

York, Robert A.

286

Fast photoreactions of ethanol and MTBE on tropospheric metal oxide particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol (EtOH) and tert-Butyl methyl ether (MTBE) are both finding increased use as oxygenated additives to fuels. However, the environmental fate in the troposphere of these species is unclear when they escape as fugitive emissions. In several locations there are reports of human illness in response to MTBE in particular. Volatile organic compounds (VOC`s) such as these are generally thought to react by a variety of homogeneous free-radical mechanisms, usually beginning with attack by OH radical. However, we show by laboratory kinetic studies that the heterogeneous photoreaction on solid suspended metal-oxide particulates such as fly ash proceeds with a comparable rate, especially in urban environments. EtOH reacts to form acetaldehyde, and EtOH forms isobutene, methanol, and formaldehyde. Our work appears to be the first-ever demonstration that VOC`s can react as fast by a heterogeneous mechanism as by a homogeneous one in the atmosphere. Experiments by various optical and kinetic techniques show that the active phases in fly ash are Fe oxides, which are fairly abundant in other atmospheric particulates as well.

Idriss, H.; Seebauer, E.G. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

287

High-temperature corrosion of metallic alloys in an oxidizing atmosphere containing NaCl  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A particular heat-exchanger application involved metallic alloys exposed to flue gases of an aluminum remelt furnace. Because the flue gases might contain NaCl and other halides, the corrosion behavior of the alloys was to be investigated. Planned direct exposure of candidate alloys to the flue gases, however, was not conducted because of premature termination of the project. Complementary laboratory testing was conducted on seven commercially available alloys and two nickel aluminides. These materials were exposed to an oxidizing atmosphere containing 0.06 wt % NaCl for 1100 h at 1000/degree/C. Most of the alloy exhibited grain-boundary attack, which resulted in complete oxidation of enveloped grains. The alloys Incoloy MA-956, Incoloy 800, Inconel 625, Inconel 601, Hastelloy X, Haynes 188, and nickel aluminide IC-50 were substantially more corroded than Alloy 214 and nickel aluminide IC-221. The latter two alloys, therefore, would probably be superior to the others in application involving flue gases containing NaCl. Strength fabricability, and weldability, which are briefly discussed, would also affect selection of materials. 8 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

Federer, J.I.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Metal-gate-induced reduction of the interfacial layer in Hf oxide gate stacks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of high-{kappa} metal oxide gate stacks are often determined in the final processing steps following dielectric deposition. We report here results from medium energy ion scattering and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of oxygen and silicon diffusion and interfacial layer reactions in multilayer gate stacks. Our results show that Ti metallization of HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si stacks reduces the SiO{sub 2} interlayer and (to a more limited extent) the HfO{sub 2} layer. We find that Si atoms initially present in the interfacial SiO{sub 2} layer incorporate into the bottom of the high-{kappa} layer. Some evidence for Ti-Si interdiffusion through the high-{kappa} film in the presence of a Ti gate in the crystalline HfO{sub 2} films is also reported. This diffusion is likely to be related to defects in crystalline HfO{sub 2} films, such as grain boundaries. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and corresponding electron energy loss spectroscopy scans show aggressive Ti-Si intermixing and oxygen diffusion to the outermost Ti layer, given high enough annealing temperature. Thermodynamic calculations show that the driving forces exist for some of the observed diffusion processes.

Goncharova, L. V.; Dalponte, M.; Gustafsson, T.; Celik, O.; Garfunkel, E.; Lysaght, P. S.; Bersuker, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Laboratory for Surface Modification, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Rd., Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, and Laboratory for Surface Modification, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Rd., Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); SEMATECH, 2705 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States)

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Gas-phase chemical reactions of transition metal clusters with simple molecules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical reactions of isolated transition metal clusters are studied in a laser-vaporization cluster source coupled to a continuous-flow reactor. Detection of reaction products is via laser ionization and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Experimental probes that have been developed include: (1) kinetics measurements, in which the disappearance of bare cluster signal with increasing reagent gas flow is used to determine absolute reaction rate constants for the addition of the first adsorbate molecule; (2) product composition measurements, in which inferences as to cluster structure and the nature of surface binding sites are derived by determining the total number of adsorbates the clusters can accommodate; (3) laser-induced desorption experiments, from which adsorbate binding energies can be derived; and (4) the observation of actual chemical reactions on cluster surfaces, such as hydrogen/deuterium exchange or adsorbate photochemistry. In addition, a new experimental procedure has been developed that, in a single series of measurements, provides measures of the first three parameters listed above. A review is given of earlier studies of the reaction of iron clusters with hydrogen. More recent results on the reaction of iron clusters with ammonia, and the reaction of ammoniated iron clusters with hydrogen, are also presented.

Riley, S.J.; Parks, E.K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Chemical Bonding, Interfaces and Defects in Hafnium Oxide/Germanium Oxynitride Gate Stacks on Ge (100)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Correlations among interface properties and chemical bonding characteristics in HfO{sub 2}/GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge MIS stacks were investigated using in-situ remote nitridation of the Ge (100) surface prior to HfO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition (ALD). Ultra thin ({approx}1.1 nm), thermally stable and aqueous etch-resistant GeO{sub x}N{sub y} interfaces layers that exhibited Ge core level photoelectron spectra (PES) similar to stoichiometric Ge{sub 3}N{sub 4} were synthesized. To evaluate GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge interface defects, the density of interface states (D{sub it}) was extracted by the conductance method across the band gap. Forming gas annealed (FGA) samples exhibited substantially lower D{sub it} ({approx} 1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1}) than did high vacuum annealed (HVA) and inert gas anneal (IGA) samples ({approx} 1x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1}). Germanium core level photoelectron spectra from similar FGA-treated samples detected out-diffusion of germanium oxide to the HfO{sub 2} film surface and apparent modification of chemical bonding at the GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge interface, which is related to the reduced D{sub it}.

Oshima, Yasuhiro; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.; Sun, Yun; /SLAC, SSRL; Kuzum, Duygu; /Stanford U.; Sugawara, Takuya; Saraswat, Krishna C.; Pianetta, Piero; /SLAC, SSRL; McIntyre, Paul C.; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

291

Comparison of monolith-supported metals for the direct oxidation of methane of syngas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The partial oxidation of CH[sub 4] in O[sub 2] near atmospheric pressure to produce syngas was investigated on monolith-supported Rh, Ni, Pt, Ir, Pd, Pd-La[sub 2]O[sub 3], Fe, Co, Re, and Ru catalysts in an autothermal flow reactor at residence times of [approximately]10 msec (GHSV [approximately] 100,000 hr[sup [minus]1]). Optimal CH[sub 4] conversion and CO and H[sub 2] selectivities of 0.89, 0.95, and 0.90, respectively, were achieved on Rh at 1000[angstrom]C with no loss in activity over many hours. Ni showed similar conversion and selectivities but deactivated. Experiments with up to 25 vol% H[sub 2]O added to the feed showed little evidence of the occurrence of steam reforming and water-gas shift reactions. Pt and Ir sustained stable reaction but a lower selectivities and conversion than Rh or Ni. Pd, Pd-La[sub 2]O[sub 3], and Co deactivated rapidly, while Re, Ru, and Fe would not sustain autothermal reaction. Ni and Re deactivated by volatilization and metal loss, while Pd-La[sub 2]O[sub 3] deactivated by carbon formation, and Pd deactivated by a combination of metal loss and carbon formation. Pd produced up to 14% selectivity to C[sub 2]H[sub 4] and C[sub 2]H[sub 4] and C[sub 2]H[sub 6], Pd-La[sub 2]O[sub 3] up to 5%, Pt [approximately] 1%, and other metals less than 0.2%. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Torniainen, P.M.; Chu, X.; Schmidt, L.D. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

INFLUENCE OF OXIDE GROWTH AND METAL CREEP ON STRAIN DEVELOPMENT IN THE STEAM-SIDE OXIDE IN BOILER TUBES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This effort is concerned with developing a quantitative description of the exfoliation behavior of oxide scales grown inside steam tubes in a pressure boiler. Consideration of the development of stress/strain in growing oxides has included expansion mismatch-induced strains during thermal cycling as well as inelastic mechanical effects from oxide/alloy creep phenomena and volume change from oxide growth. The magnitude of the parameters used has been closely matched to actual boiler operating practice. The creep model used was validated against published data. Representation of oxide growth-induced strain was found to be a difficult challenge because the processes involved are not fully understood. In addition to the traditional uniaxial (radial) and dilatational models, lateral growth models are discussed in the context of experimentally-derived criteria, such as the level of elastic strains involved in oxide exfoliation. It was found that strain variation in the oxide cannot be neglected.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Wright, Ian G [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Variation of the shape and morphological properties of silica and metal oxide powders by electro homogeneous precipitation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a method for preparing irreversible linear aggregates (fibrils) of metal oxide powders by utilizing static or pulsed DC electrical fields across a relatively non-conducting liquid solvent in which organometal compounds or silicon alkoxides have been dissolved. The electric field is applied to the relatively non-conducting solution throughout the particle formation and growth process promoting the formation of either linear aggregates (fibrils) or spherical shaped particles as desired. Thus the present invention provides a physical method for altering the size, shape and porosity of precursor hydrous metal oxide or hydrous silicon oxide powders for the development of advanced ceramics with improved strength and insulating capacity. 3 figs.

Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Sisson, W.G.; Brunson, R.R.

1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

294

Fluorine compounds for doping conductive oxide thin films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of forming a conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition are described. The methods may include heating the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The methods may also include adding an oxygen-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The precursors are reacted to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate. Methods may also include forming the conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. These methods may include providing the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor, and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. A plasma may be formed that includes species from the metal-containing precursor and the fluorine-containing precursor. The species may react to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate.

Gessert, Tim; Li, Xiaonan; Barnes, Teresa M; Torres, Jr., Robert; Wyse, Carrie L

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

295

Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical 259 (2006) 296301 Pt-catalyzed oxidative carbonylation of methane to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of methane to acetic acid in sulfuric acid Mark Zerella, Alexis T. Bell Department of Chemical Engineering carbonylation of methane to acetic acid was investigated using Pt(II) cations as the catalyst and sulfuric acid Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Methane; Acetic acid; Platinum; Sulfuric acid; Oxidative

Bell, Alexis T.

296

Graphene oxide sheets, the chemical exfoliation product of graphite powders and precursor for the bulk production of graphene based materials, are found to be  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Graphene oxide sheets, the chemical exfoliation product of graphite powders and precursor), is the product of chemical oxidation and exfoliation of graphite powders that was first synthesized over a cen atomic layer of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms (Fig. 1a). In 2004, it was isolated by mechanical exfoliation

Huang, Jiaxing

297

Selective CO{sub 2} reduction conjugated with H{sub 2}O oxidation utilizing semiconductor/metal-complex hybrid photocatalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We developed a new hybrid photocatalyst for CO{sub 2} reduction, which is composed of a semiconductor and a metal complex. In the hybrid photocatalyst, ?G between the position of conduction band minimum (E{sub CBM}) of the semiconductor and the CO{sub 2} reduction potential of the complex is an essential factor for realizing fast electron transfer from the conduction band of semiconductor to metal complex leading to high photocatalytic activity. On the basis of this concept, the hybrid photocatalyst InP/Ru-complex, which functions in aqueous media, was developed. The photoreduction of CO{sub 2} to formate using water as an electron donor and a proton source was successfully achieved as a Z-scheme system by functionally conjugating the InP/Ru-complex photocatalyst for CO{sub 2} reduction with a TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst for water oxidation. The conversion efficiency from solar energy to chemical energy was ca. 0.04%, which approaches that for photosynthesis in a plant. Because this system can be applied to many other inorganic semiconductors and metal-complex catalysts, the efficiency and reaction selectivity can be enhanced by optimization of the electron transfer process including the energy-band configurations, conjugation conformations, and catalyst structures. This electrical-bias-free reaction is a huge leap forward for future practical applications of artificial photosynthesis under solar irradiation to produce organic species.

Morikawa, T., E-mail: morikawa@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Sato, S., E-mail: morikawa@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Arai, T., E-mail: morikawa@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Uemura, K., E-mail: morikawa@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Yamanaka, K. I., E-mail: morikawa@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Suzuki, T. M., E-mail: morikawa@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Kajino, T., E-mail: morikawa@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Motohiro, T., E-mail: morikawa@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp [Toyota Central R and D Labs, Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

298

Pilot-scale evaluation of chemical oxidation for MTBE-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has tentatively classified MTBE as a possible human carcinogen, thus further emphasizing the importance for study of fate, transport, and environmental effects of MTBE. The treatment of subsurface contaminants (e.g., MTBE) from leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites presents many complex challenges. Many techniques have been employed for the remediation of contaminants in soil and groundwater at LUST sites. Under sponsorship of US EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory, IT Corporation has conducted evaluations of chemical oxidation of MTBE contaminated soil using Fenton's Reagent (hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by ferrous sulfate), simulating both ex-situ and in-situ soil remediation. Bench-scale ex-situ tests have shown up to 90% degradation of MTBE within 12 hours. Pilot-scale MTBE oxidation tests were conducted in a stainless paddle-type mixer with a 10 cubic foot mixing volume. The reactor was designed with a heavy duty mixer shaft assembly to homogenize soil and included provisions for contaminant and reagent addition, mixing, and sample acquisition. The tests were performed by placing 400 pounds of a synthetic soil matrix (consisting of a mixture of top soil, sand, gravel and clay) in the reactor, spiking with 20 ppm of MTBE, and mixing thoroughly. The variables evaluated in the pilot-scale tests included reaction time, amount of hydrogen peroxide, and amount of ferrous sulfate. After 8 hours of reaction, using 4 times the stoichiometric quantity of hydrogen peroxide and a 10:1 hydrogen peroxide: ferrous iron weight ratio, approximately 60% MTBE degradation was observed. When 10 times the stoichiometric quantity of hydrogen peroxide was used (with the same ratio of hydrogen peroxide to ferrous iron), 90% MTBE degradation was observed. When the same test was performed without any ferrous iron addition, 75% MTBE degradation was observed.

Rahman, M.; Schupp, D.A.; Krishnan, E.R.; Tafuri, A.N.; Chen, C.T.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Ultraviolet GaN photodetectors on Si via oxide buffer heterostructures with integrated short period oxide-based distributed Bragg reflectors and leakage suppressing metal-oxide-semiconductor contacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on a novel double step oxide buffer heterostructure approach for GaN integration on Si, we present an optimized Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM)-based Ultraviolet (UV) GaN photodetector system with integrated short-period (oxide/Si) Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) and leakage suppressing Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) electrode contacts. In terms of structural properties, it is demonstrated by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray studies that the DBR heterostructure layers grow with high thickness homogeneity and sharp interface structures sufficient for UV applications; only minor Si diffusion into the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films is detected under the applied thermal growth budget. As revealed by comparative high resolution x-ray diffraction studies on GaN/oxide buffer/Si systems with and without DBR systems, the final GaN layer structure quality is not significantly influenced by the growth of the integrated DBR heterostructure. In terms of optoelectronic properties, it is demonstrated that—with respect to the basic GaN/oxide/Si system without DBR—the insertion of (a) the DBR heterostructures and (b) dark current suppressing MOS contacts enhances the photoresponsivity below the GaN band-gap related UV cut-off energy by almost up to two orders of magnitude. Given the in-situ oxide passivation capability of grown GaN surfaces and the one order of magnitude lower number of superlattice layers in case of higher refractive index contrast (oxide/Si) systems with respect to classical III-N DBR superlattices, virtual GaN substrates on Si via functional oxide buffer systems are thus a promising robust approach for future GaN-based UV detector technologies.

Szyszka, A., E-mail: szyszka@ihp-microelectronics.com, E-mail: adam.szyszka@pwr.wroc.pl [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw (Poland); Lupina, L.; Lupina, G.; Schubert, M. A.; Zaumseil, P. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Haeberlen, M.; Storck, P.; Thapa, S. B. [Siltronic, Hanns-Seidel-Platz 4, 81737 München (Germany); Schroeder, T. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

300

Fluorescence-based detection methodologies for nitric oxide using transition metal scaffolds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 1. Fluorescence-Based Detection Methodologies for Nitric Oxide: A Review. Chapter 2. Cobalt Chemistry with Mixed Aminotroponimine Salicylaldimine Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization, and Nitric Oxide Reactivity. ...

Hilderbrand, Scott A. (Scott Alan), 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Oxidation of Metals, Vol. 61, Nos. 3/4, April 2004 ( 2004) Thermal Conductivity, Phase Stability, and Oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and Oxidation Resistance of Y3Al5O12 (YAG)/Y2O3­ZrO2 (YSZ) Thermal-Barrier Coatings Y. J. Su, R. W. Trice,# K oxidation resistance while maintaining low thermal conductivity and good phase stability. Padture) is proposed. The objective of this work is to quantify the effect of YAG on thermal resistance, long

Trice, Rodney W.

302

Safety and core design of large liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absorption Metal (Zr) Metal (Mo) Carbide Nitride Oxidef /? a k ? Metal (Zr) Metal (Mo) Carbide Nitride Oxide Table? a k ? Metal (Zr) Metal (Mo) Carbide Nitride Oxide CHAPTER

Qvist, Staffan Alexander

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference...

304

Chemical Looping Combustion Kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the most promising methods of capturing CO{sub 2} emitted by coal-fired power plants for subsequent sequestration is chemical looping combustion (CLC). A powdered metal oxide such as NiO transfers oxygen directly to a fuel in a fuel reactor at high temperatures with no air present. Heat, water, and CO{sub 2} are released, and after H{sub 2}O condensation the CO{sub 2} (undiluted by N{sub 2}) is ready for sequestration, whereas the nickel metal is ready for reoxidation in the air reactor. In principle, these processes can be repeated endlessly with the original nickel metal/nickel oxide participating in a loop that admits fuel and rejects ash, heat, and water. Our project accumulated kinetic rate data at high temperatures and elevated pressures for the metal oxide reduction step and for the metal reoxidation step. These data will be used in computational modeling of CLC on the laboratory scale and presumably later on the plant scale. The oxygen carrier on which the research at Utah is focused is CuO/Cu{sub 2}O rather than nickel oxide because the copper system lends itself to use with solid fuels in an alternative to CLC called 'chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling' (CLOU).

Edward Eyring; Gabor Konya

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

305

Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent work in our laboratory has been directed towards development of mixed layered transition metal oxides with general composition Li[Ni, Co, M, Mn]O2 (M=Al, Ti) for Li ion battery cathodes. Compounds such as Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 (often called NMCs) are currently being commercialized for use in consumer electronic batteries, but the high cobalt content makes them too expensive for vehicular applications such as electric vehicles (EV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). To reduce materials costs, we have explored partial or full substitution of Co with Al, Ti, and Fe. Fe substitution generally decreases capacity and results in poorer rate and cycling behavior. Interestingly, low levels of substitution with Al or Ti improve aspects of performance with minimal impact on energy densities, for some formulations. High levels of Al substitution compromise specific capacity, however, so further improvements require that the Ni and Mn content be increased and Co correspondingly decreased. Low levels of Al or Ti substitution can then be used offset negative effects induced by the higher Ni content. The structural and electrochemical characterization of substituted NMCs is presented in this paper.

Doeff, Marca M.; Conry, Thomas; Wilcox, James

2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

306

Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen is the main fuel for all types of fuel cells except direct methanol fuel cells. Hydrogen can be generated from all manner of fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, diesel, gasoline, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates (e.g., methanol, ethanol, butanol, etc.). Impurities in the fuel can cause significant performance problems and sulfur, in particular, can decrease the cell performance of fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In the SOFC, the high (800-1000°C) operating temperature yields advantages (e.g., internal fuel reforming) and disadvantages (e.g., material selection and degradation problems). Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC from ~1000 ºC to ~750 ºC may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Investigation of Some Transparent Metal Oxides as Damp Heat Protective Coating for CIGS Solar Cells: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigated the protective effectiveness of some transparent metal oxides (TMO) on CIGS solar cell coupons against damp heat (DH) exposure at 85oC and 85% relative humidity (RH). Sputter-deposited bilayer ZnO (BZO) with up to 0.5-um Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer and 0.2-um bilayer InZnO were used as 'inherent' part of device structure on CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG. Sputter-deposited 0.2-um ZnSnO and atomic layer deposited (ALD) 0.1-um Al2O3 were used as overcoat on typical BZO/CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG solar cells. The results were all negative -- all TMO-coated CIGS cells exhibited substantial degradation in DH. Combining the optical photographs, PL and EL imaging, SEM surface micro-morphology, coupled with XRD, I-V and QE measurements, the causes of the device degradations are attributed to hydrolytic corrosion, flaking, micro-cracking, and delamination induced by the DH moisture. Mechanical stress and decrease in crystallinity (grain size effect) could be additional degrading factors for thicker AZO grown on CdS/CIGS.

Pern, F. J.; Yan, F.; Zaaunbrecher, B.; To, B.; Perkins, J.; Noufi, R.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A supported oxidation catalyst includes a support having a metal oxide or metal salt, and mixed metal particles thereon. The mixed metal particles include first particles including a palladium compound, and second particles including a precious metal group (PMG) metal or PMG metal compound, wherein the PMG metal is not palladium. The oxidation catalyst may also be used as a gas sensor.

Mohajeri, Nahid

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

309

Time-Resolved XAFS Spectroscopic Studies of B-H and N-H Oxidative Addition to Transition Metal Catalysts Relevant to Hydrogen Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Successful catalytic dehydrogenation of aminoborane, H3NBH3, prompted questions as to the potential role of N-H oxidative addition in the mechanisms of these processes. N-H oxidative addition reactions are rare, and in all cases appear to involve initial dative bonding to the metal by the amine lone pairs followed by transfer of a proton to the basic metal. Aminoborane and its trimethylborane derivative block this mechanism and, in principle, should permit authentic N-H oxidative attrition to occur. Extensive experimental work failed to confirm this hypothesis. In all cases either B-H complexation or oxidative addition of solvent C-H bonds dominate the chemistry.

Bitterwolf, Thomas E. [University of Idaho

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

310

Simple Chemical Routes for Changing Composition or Morphology in Metal Chalcogenide Nanomaterials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metal chalcogenide nanomaterials are interesting due to their size dependent properties and potential use in numerous types of devices or applications. The synthetic methods of binary phase metal chalcogenide nanoparticles are well established...

Wark, Stacey Elaine

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

311

An electrochemical investigation of the chemical diffusivity in liquid metal alloys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The liquid metal battery has been shown to be a viable candidate for grid-scale energy storage, due to its fast kinetics and ability to be constructed from economically feasible materials. Various of the liquid metal couples ...

Barriga, Salvador A. (Salvador Aguilar)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Comparative electron paramagnetic resonance investigation of reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes with different chemical functionalities for quantum dot attachment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been applied to different chemically treated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A narrow EPR signal is visible at g?=?2.0029 in both GO and CNT-Oxide from carbon-related dangling bonds. EPR signals became broader and of lower intensity after oxygen-containing functionalities were reduced and partially transformed into thiol groups to obtain thiol-functionalized reduced GO (TrGO) and thiol-functionalized CNT (CNT-SH), respectively. Additionally, EPR investigation of CdSe quantum dot-TrGO hybrid material reveals complete quenching of the TrGO EPR signal due to direct chemical attachment and electronic coupling. Our work confirms that EPR is a suitable tool to detect spin density changes in different functionalized nanocarbon materials and can contribute to improved understanding of electronic coupling effects in nanocarbon-nanoparticle hybrid nano-composites promising for various electronic and optoelectronic applications.

Pham, Chuyen V.; Krueger, Michael, E-mail: michael.krueger@fmf.uni-freiburg.de, E-mail: emre.erdem@physchem.uni-freiburg.de; Eck, Michael [Freiburg Materials Research Center (FMF), University of Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Str. 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Weber, Stefan; Erdem, Emre, E-mail: michael.krueger@fmf.uni-freiburg.de, E-mail: emre.erdem@physchem.uni-freiburg.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Freiburg, Albertstr. 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

313

Roles of Glutamates and Metal ions in a Rationally Designed Nitric Oxide Reductase Based on Myoglobin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A structural and functional model of bacterial nitric oxide reductase (NOR) has been designed by introducing two glutamates (Glu) and three histidines (His) in sperm whale myoglobin. X-ray structural data indicate that the three His and one Glu (V68E) residues bind iron, mimicking the putative FeB site in NOR, while the second Glu (I107E) interacts with a water molecule and forms a hydrogen bonding network in the designed protein. Unlike the first Glu (V68E), which lowered the heme reduction potential by {approx}110 mV, the second Glu has little effect on the heme potential, suggesting that the negatively charged Glu has a different role in redox tuning. More importantly, introducing the second Glu resulted in a {approx}100% increase in NOR activity, suggesting the importance of a hydrogen bonding network in facilitating proton delivery during NOR reactivity. In addition, EPR and X-ray structural studies indicate that the designed protein binds iron, copper, or zinc in the FeB site, each with different effects on the structures and NOR activities, suggesting that both redox activity and an intermediate five-coordinate heme-NO species are important for high NOR activity. The designed protein offers an excellent model for NOR and demonstrates the power of using designed proteins as a simpler and more well-defined system to address important chemical and biological issues.

Y Lin; N Yeung; Y Gao; K Miner; S Tian; H Robinson; Y Lu

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

314

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing...

315

Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide (chemical formula N2O), is a trace gas in Earth's atmosphere, with a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fuel, biomass and biofuel, and industrial processes. Nitrous oxide emissions related to biofuel, the Global Warming Potential (GWP) is a more useful quantity. The GWP of N2O is the time- integrated radiative forcing following a 1 kg pulse emission of N2O, relative to the same quantity following a 1 kg

316

New sol-gel synthetic route to transition and main-group metal oxide aerogels using inorganic salt precursors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a new sol-gel route to synthesize several transition and main-group metal oxide aerogels. The approach is straightforward, inexpensive, versatile, and it produces monolithic microporous materials with high surface areas. Specifically, we report the use of epoxides as gelation agents for the sol-gel synthesis of chromia aerogels and xerogels from simple Cr(III) inorganic salts. The dependence of both gel formation and its rate was studied by varying the solvent used, the Cr(III) precursor salt, the epoxide/Cr(III) ratio, as well as the type of epoxide employed. All of these variables were shown to affect the rate of gel formation and provide a convenient control of this parameter. Dried chromia aerogels were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analyses, results of which will be presented. Our studies have shown that rigid monolithic gels can be prepared from many different metal ions salts, provided the formal oxidation state of the metal ion is greater than or equal to +3. Conversely, when di-valent transition metal salts are used precipitated solids are the products.

Gash, A E; Tillotson, T M; Satcher Jr, J H; Hrubesh, L W; Simpson, R L

2000-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

317

Schottky barrier height reduction for holes by Fermi level depinning using metal/nickel oxide/silicon contacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the experimental demonstration of Fermi level depinning using nickel oxide (NiO) as the insulator material in metal-insulator-semiconductor (M-I-S) contacts. Using this contact, we show less than 0.1?eV barrier height for holes in platinum/NiO/silicon (Pt/NiO/p-Si) contact. Overall, the pinning factor was improved from 0.08 (metal/Si) to 0.26 (metal/NiO/Si). The experimental results show good agreement with that obtained from theoretical calculation. NiO offers high conduction band offset and low valence band offset with Si. By reducing Schottky barrier height, this contact can be used as a carrier selective contact allowing hole transport but blocking electron transport, which is important for high efficiency in photonic applications such as photovoltaics and optical detectors.

Islam, Raisul, E-mail: raisul@stanford.edu; Shine, Gautam; Saraswat, Krishna C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

318

Investigation on edge fringing effect and oxide thickness dependence of inversion current in metal-oxide-semiconductor tunneling diodes with comb-shaped electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A particular edge-dependent inversion current behavior of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) tunneling diodes was investigated utilizing square and comb-shaped electrodes. The inversion tunneling current exhibits the strong dependence on the tooth size of comb-shaped electrodes and oxide thickness. Detailed illustrations of current conduction mechanism are developed by simulation and experimental measurement results. It is found that the electron diffusion current and Schottky barrier height lowering for hole tunneling current both contribute on inversion current conduction. In MOS tunneling photodiode applications, the photoresponse can be improved by decreasing SiO{sub 2} thickness and using comb-shaped electrodes with smaller tooth spacing. Meantime, the high and steady photosensitivity can also be approached by introducing HfO{sub 2} into dielectric stacks.

Lin, Chien-Chih; Hsu, Pei-Lun; Lin, Li; Hwu, Jenn-Gwo, E-mail: jghwu@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

319

Stress-induced chemical detection using flexible metal-organic frameworks.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work we demonstrate the concept of stress-induced chemical detection using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) by integrating a thin film of the MOF HKUST-1 with a microcantilever surface. The results show that the energy of molecular adsorption, which causes slight distortions in the MOF crystal structure, can be efficiently converted to mechanical energy to create a highly responsive, reversible, and selective sensor. This sensor responds to water, methanol, and ethanol vapors, but yields no response to either N{sub 2} or O{sub 2}. The magnitude of the signal, which is measured by a built-in piezoresistor, is correlated with the concentration and can be fitted to a Langmuir isotherm. Furthermore, we show that the hydration state of the MOF layer can be used to impart selectivity to CO{sub 2}. We also report the first use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to characterize the structure of a MOF film. We conclude that the synthetic versatility of these nanoporous materials holds great promise for creating recognition chemistries to enable selective detection of a wide range of analytes. A force field model is described that successfully predicts changes in MOF properties and the uptake of gases. This model is used to predict adsorption isotherms for a number of representative compounds, including explosives, nerve agents, volatile organic compounds, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The results show that, as a result of relatively large heats of adsorption (> 20 kcal mol{sup -1}) in most cases, we expect an onset of adsorption by MOF as low as 10{sup -6} kPa, suggesting the potential to detect compounds such as RDX at levels as low as 10 ppb at atmospheric pressure.

Allendorf, Mark D.; Hesketh, Peter J. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Gall, Kenneth A. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Choudhury, A. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Pikarsky, J. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Andruszkiewicz, Leanne (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Houk, Ronald J. T.; Talin, Albert Alec (National Institute of Standards & Technology, Gaithersburg, MD)

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Ballistic performance comparison of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide MX{sub 2} (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the transport properties of monolayer MX{sub 2} (M?=?Mo, W; X?=?S, Se, Te) n- and p-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) using full-band ballistic non-equilibrium Green's function simulations with an atomistic tight-binding Hamiltonian with hopping potentials obtained from density functional theory. We discuss the subthreshold slope, drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL), as well as gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) for different monolayer MX{sub 2} MOSFETs. We also report the possibility of negative differential resistance behavior in the output characteristics of nanoscale monolayer MX{sub 2} MOSFETs.

Chang, Jiwon; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K. [Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

322

Fabrication of Metal/Oxide Nanostructures by Anodization Processes for Biosensor, Drug Delivery and Supercapacitor Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

applications of micro/nano structures; (2) novel processes to innovate anodic aluminum oxide nanotube template; (3) the supercapacitor applications of anodic titanium oxide. First, the extremely high surface area AAO coated microneedle and microneedle array...

Chen, Po-Chun

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

323

Operation of mixed conducting metal oxide membrane systems under transient conditions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method of operating an oxygen-permeable mixed conducting membrane having an oxidant feed side, an oxidant feed surface, a permeate side, and a permeate surface, which method comprises controlling the differential strain between the permeate surface and the oxidant feed surface at a value below a selected maximum value by varying the oxygen partial pressure on either or both of the oxidant feed side and the permeate side of the membrane.

Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA)

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

324

Finding Room for Improvement in Transition Metal Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Kinson C. Kam andusing rechargeable lithium-ion batteries has become an

Kam, Kinson

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal oxides Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

, sodium carbide, turpentine, finely divided metals Calcium water, carbon dioxide, carbon tetrachloride... , and chlorinated hydrocarbons Carbon, activated calcium...

326

Low Temperature Deposition of Metal Oxide Thin Films in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide using Metal-organic Precursors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and are driven by the energy provided by a heated substrate. Both these vacuum-based techniques require in the precursor adsorption, oxidation and by-product desorption. [5] Use of solvation energy may provide a viable. Pressurized CO2 was delivered using an ISCO 260D syringe pump through a high- pressure manifold. Resistive

Gougousi, Theodosia

327

Support shape effect in metal oxide catalysis: ceria nanoshapes supported vanadia catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The activation energy of VOx/CeO2 catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane was found dependent on the shape of ceria support: rods < octahedra, closely related to the surface oxygen vacancy formation energy and defects amount of the two ceria supports with different crystallographic surface planes.

Wu, Zili [ORNL; Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Li, Meijun [ORNL; Rondinone, Adam Justin [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

CO oxidation trends on Pt-group metals from ultrahigh vacuum to near atmospheric pressures: A combined in situ PM-IRAS and reaction kinetics study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oxidation Polarization modulation Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy Reaction kinetics a b s t rCO oxidation trends on Pt-group metals from ultrahigh vacuum to near atmospheric pressures3 Torr) and near atmospheric (1­102 Torr) pressures in a batch reactor under steady-state conditions

Goodman, Wayne

329

Tuning the Metal-Adsorbate Chemical Bond through the Ligand Effect...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

most active metal catalyst for many important reactions, including the reduction of oxygen in fuel cells. Figure 1. Figure 1. Schematic representation of Pt subsurface alloys...

330

Synthesis of Mixed Metal Oxides for Hydrodeoxygenation of Pyrolysis Oil for Alternative Fuels Sarah McNew, Tiorra Ross and Carsten Sievers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· Flash pyrolysis on biomass [1] · Short residence times and flexible feed · Bio-oils produced are close to dissociate hydrogen Goal: synthesize metal free, sulfur free, catalysts for HDO Biomass Pyrolysis OilSynthesis of Mixed Metal Oxides for Hydrodeoxygenation of Pyrolysis Oil for Alternative Fuels Sarah

Das, Suman

331

ROLE OF C AND P SITES ON THE CHEMICAL ACTIVITY OF METAL CARBIDE AND PHOSPHIDES: FROM CLUSTERS TO SINGLE-CRYSTAL SURFACES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transition metal carbides and phosphides have shown tremendous potential as highly active catalysts. At a microscopic level, it is not well understood how these new catalysts work. Their high activity is usually attributed to ligand or/and ensemble effects. Here, we review recent studies that examine the chemical activity of metal carbide and phosphides as a function of size, from clusters to extended surfaces, and metal/carbon or metal/phosphorous ratio. These studies reveal that the C and P sites in these compounds cannot be considered as simple spectators. They moderate the reactivity of the metal centers and provide bonding sites for adsorbates.

RODRIGUEZ,J.A.; VINES, F.; LIU, P.; ILLAS, F.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Photocatalytic and chemical oxidation of organic compounds in supercritical carbon dioxide. Progress report for FY97  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

'The background for the project is briefly reviewed and the work done during the nine months since funding was received is documented. Work began in January, 1997. A post doctoral fellow joined the team in April. The major activities completed this fiscal year were: staffing the project, design of the experimental system, procurement of components, assembly of the system. preparation of the Safe Operating Procedure and ES and H compliance, pressure testing, establishing data collection and storage methodology, and catalyst preparation. Objective The objective of the project is to develop new chemistry for the removal of organic contaminants from supercritical carbon dioxide. This has application in processes used for continuous cleaning and extraction of parts and waste materials. A secondary objective is to increase the fundamental understanding of photocatalytic chemistry. Cleaning and extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) can be applied to the solution of a wide range of environmental and pollution prevention problems in the DOE complex. Work is being done that explores scCO{sub 2} in applications ranging from cleaning contaminated soil to cleaning components constructed from plutonium. The rationale for use of scCO{sub 2} are based on the benign nature, availability and low cost, attractive solvent properties, and energy efficient separation of the extracted solute from the solvent by moderate temperature or pressure changes. To date, R and D has focussed on the methods and applications of the extraction steps of the process. Little has been done that addresses methods to polish the scCO{sub 2} for recycle in the cleaning or extraction operations. In many applications it will be desirable to reduce the level of contamination from that which would occur at steady state operation of a process. This proposal addresses chemistry to achieve that. This would be an alternative to removing a fraction of the contaminated scCO{sub 2} for disposal and using makeup scCO{sub 2}. A chemical polishing operation can reduce the release of CO{sub 2} from the process. It can also reduce the consumption of reagents that may be used in the process to enhance extraction and cleaning. A polishing operation will also reduce or avoid formation of an additional waste stream. Photocatalytic and other photochemical oxidation chemistry have not been investigated in scCO{sub 2}. The large base of information for these reactions in water, organic solvents, or air suggest that the chemistry will work in carbon dioxide. There are compelling reasons to believe that the properties of scCO{sub 2} should increase the performance of photocatalytic chemistry over that found in more conventional fluid phases.'

Blake, D.M.; Bryant, D.L.; Reinsch, V.

1997-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

333

Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics of trivalent oxides of iron and manganese  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A new method for combining elemental iron and other metals to form an inexpensive ceramic to stabilize arsenic, alkaline red mud wastes, swarfs, and other iron or metal-based additives, to create products and waste forms which can be poured or dye cast.

Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL); Jeong, Seung-Young (Westmont, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Control of differential strain during heating and cooling of mixed conducting metal oxide membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method of operating an oxygen-permeable mixed conducting membrane having an oxidant feed side and a permeate side, which method comprises controlling the differential strain between the oxidant feed side and the permeate side by varying either or both of the oxygen partial pressure and the total gas pressure on either or both of the oxidant feed side and the permeate side of the membrane while changing the temperature of the membrane from a first temperature to a second temperature.

Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA)

2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

335

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colfoque Cl, supplkrnent au no 4, Tome 38, Auril 1977, page Cl-333 METAL-OXIDES COMPOSITES FOR BaFe,,Ol PERMANENT MAGNETS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the possibility of producing composites of Ba ferrite with various metals such as cobalt, nickel, iron, copper of a CO deposit with preferential orientation obtained by chemical reduction and electrodeposition. 2. CO

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

336

Experimental Study of Electron Transport through Nanometer-Scale Metal-Oxide Junctions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-annealing. The resistive bistability effect has been observed for all these materials, with particularly high switching, crested barrier, rapid thermal annealing, endurance, resistive bistability, reproducibility. #12;v List properties of Nb/Al/Nb junctions fabricated using thermal oxidation or rf-plasma oxidation at various

337

Multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound imaging and spectroscopy with custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a multichannel, time-resolved picosecond laser ultrasound system that uses a custom complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor linear array detector. This novel sensor allows parallel phase-sensitive detection of very low contrast modulated signals with performance in each channel comparable to that of a discrete photodiode and a lock-in amplifier. Application of the instrument is demonstrated by parallelizing spatial measurements to produce two-dimensional thickness maps on a layered sample, and spectroscopic parallelization is demonstrated by presenting the measured Brillouin oscillations from a gallium arsenide wafer. This paper demonstrates the significant advantages of our approach to pump probe systems, especially picosecond ultrasonics.

Smith, Richard J.; Light, Roger A.; Johnston, Nicholas S.; Pitter, Mark C.; Somekh, Mike G. [Institute of Biophysics, Imaging and Optical Science, University of Nottingham, Nottinghamshire NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Sharples, Steve D. [Applied Optics Group, Electrical Systems and Optics Research Division, University of Nottingham, Nottinghamshire NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

High-Efficiency 6?? Multicrystalline Black Solar Cells Based on Metal-Nanoparticle-Assisted Chemical Etching  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) photovoltaic (PV) solar cells with nanoscale surface texturing by metal-nanoparticle-assisted etching are proposed to achieve high power efficiency. The investigation of average nanorod ...

Hsu, W. Chuck

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Life Prediction of Coated and Uncoated Metallic Interconnect for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxidation reaction of the ferritic stainless interconnects in a typical SOFC working environment is unavoidable and the thickness of the oxide scale will continue to grow with operating time, even with protective coatings. The interfacial strength of the various interfaces for the uncoated and coated ferritic interconnects is crucial to long term performance of SOFCs. In this paper, we employ an integrated experimental/modeling approach to quantify the interfacial strength and to further predict the life of Crofer 22 APU as SOFC interconnect under isothermal cooling condition. The life of Crofer 22 APU was predicted by comparing the predicted interfacial strength, interfacial stresses induced by the cooling process from the operating temperature to room temperature, together with the growth kinetics of oxide scale with and without spinel coating. It was found that the interfacial strength between the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate decreases with the growth of the oxide scale. The interfacial strength of the oxide scale and spinel coating is much higher than that of the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate. With the spinel coating, the predicted life of the Crofer 22 APU is significantly longer than that of the uncoated Crofer 22 APU.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

340

Mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on transition metal oxide catalysts for high temperature fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with its high energy conversion efficiency, low emissions, silent operation and its ability to utilize commercial fuels has the potential to create a large impact on the energy landscape. ...

La O', Gerardo Jose Cordova

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

The detection of nitric oxide and its reactivity with transition metal thiolate complexes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule that is essential for life and regulates both beneficial and harmful processes. Because this gaseous radical influences many aspects of health and disease, we wish to explore the relationship ...

Tennyson, Andrew Gregory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Autothermal oxidative pyrolysis of biomass feedstocks over noble metal catalysts to liquid products.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Two thermal processing technologies have emerged for processing biomass into renewable liquid products: pyrolysis and gasification/Fischer-Tropsch processing. The work presented here will demonstrate oxidative pyrolysis… (more)

Balonek, Christine Marie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

EVALUATION OF A SULFUR OXIDE CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRIC PLANT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRICCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE PROCESS FOR A STEAM SOLAR ELECTRICprocess Boeing solar receiver [5J Internal detail of Boeing solar receiver [5J . 2.4 Heat

Dayan, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

A study of the tropospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds using chemical ionization mass spectrometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mechanisms and kinetics of reactions important to the troposphere have been investigated using a high pressure, turbulent, discharge-flow technique coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The ability to ...

Broekhuizen, Keith Edward, 1974-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

The aging of organic aerosol in the atmosphere : chemical transformations by heterogeneous oxidation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The immense chemical complexity of atmospheric organic particulate matter ("aerosol") has left the general field of condensed-phase atmospheric organic chemistry relatively under-developed when compared with either gas-phase ...

Kessler, Sean Herbert

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Engineering Escherichia coli for molecularly defined electron transfer to metal oxides and electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A mediator-less microbial fuel cell using a metal reducingExperiments on a Microbial Fuel Cell. Science 1962, 137,from a miniature microbial fuel cell using Shewanella

Jensen, Heather Marie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Interplay between electronic structure and catalytic activity in transition metal oxide model system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The efficiency of many energy storage and conversion technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and hydrogen production from water splitting, is limited by the slow kinetics of the oxygen ...

Suntivich, Jin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide-boron carbide composite pellets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide-boron carbide composite pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Boron by Titrimetry 7 to 13 Separation of Boron for Mass Spectrometry 14 to 19 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry 20 to 23 Separation of Halides by Pyrohydrolysis 24 to 27 Fluoride by Ion-Selective Electrode 28 to 30 Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 31 to 33 Trace Elements by Emission Spectroscopy 34 to 46 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (F...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Electrically conductive polycrystalline diamond and particulate metal based electrodes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrically conducting and dimensionally stable diamond (12, 14) and metal particle (13) electrode produced by electrodepositing the metal on the diamond is described. The electrode is particularly useful in harsh chemical environments and at high current densities and potentials. The electrode is particularly useful for generating hydrogen, and for reducing oxygen and oxidizing methanol in reactions which are of importance in fuel cells.

Swain, Greg M.; Wang, Jian

2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

350

Local measurements of diffusion length and chemical character of metal clusters in multicrystalline silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-ray Microprobe Techniques X-ray Fluorescence Microscopy ( -XRF). Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy ( -XRF), also known as "Scanning -XRF" ( -SXRF), is used to detect and characterize the elemental compositions, sizes, and depths of metal-rich clusters. µ-XRF is similar to energy dispersive X

351

THE CHEMICAL IMPRINT OF SILICATE DUST ON THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the impact of dust-induced gas fragmentation on the formation of the first low-mass, metal-poor stars (<1 M[subscript ?]) in the early universe. Previous work has shown the existence of a critical dust-to-gas ...

Bromm, Volker

352

INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4}-air mixtures.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

2000-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

353

INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded research of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4} air mixtures.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

1999-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

354

Investigation of mixed metal sorbent/catalysts for the simultaneous removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The objective of this research is to conduct kinetic and parametric studies of the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} over alumina-supported cerium oxide and copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbent/catalysts; investigate SO{sub 2} removal at lower temperatures by supported copper oxide-cerium oxide sorbents; and investigate the possibility of elemental sulfur production during regeneration with CO or with CH{sub 4}-air mixtures.

Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

355

Chemical Sinks of Organic Aerosol: Kinetics and Products of the Heterogeneous Oxidation of Erythritol and Levoglucosan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The heterogeneous oxidation of pure erythritol (C[subscript 4]H[subscript 10]O[subscript 4]) and levoglucosan (C[subscript 6]H[subscript 10]O[subscript 5]) particles was studied in order to evaluate the effects of atmospheric ...

Kessler, Sean Herbert

356

Characterization of device parameters in high-temperature metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors in. beta. -SiC thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Both inversion- and depletion-mode n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) have been fabricated on ..beta..-SiC thin films grown by chemical-vapor deposition. The inversion-mode devices were made on in situ doped (Al) p-type ..beta..-SiC(100) thin films grown on Si(100) substrates. The depletion-mode MOSFETs were made on n-type ..beta..-SiC(111) thin films grown on the Si(0001) face of a 6H ..cap alpha..-SiC substrates. Stable saturation and low subthreshold currents were achieved at drain-source voltages exceeding 5 and 25 V for the inversion-mode and depletion-mode devices, respectively. The transconductance increased with temperature up to 673 K for the short-gate-length devices, of either mode, and then decreased with further increases in temperature. It is proposed that the transconductances and threshold voltages for the inversion-mode devices are greatly affected by minority-carrier injection from the source. Stable transistor action was observed for both types of devices at temperatures up to 823 K, with the depletion-mode devices operating very well up to 923 K.

Palmour, J.W.; Kong, H.S.; Davis, R.F.

1988-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

357

Gold, Copper, and Platinum Nanoparticles Dispersed on CeOx/TiO2(110) Surfaces: High Water-Gas Shift Activity and the Nature of the Mixed-Metal Oxide at the Nanometer Level  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At small coverages of ceria on TiO{sub 2}(110), the CeO{sub x} nanoparticles have an unusual coordination mode. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density-functional calculations point to the presence of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} dimers, which form diagonal arrays that have specific orientations of 0, 24, and 42{sup o} with respect to the [1 -1 0] direction of the titania substrate. At high coverages of ceria on TiO{sub 2}(110), the surface exhibits two types of terraces. In one type, the morphology is not very different from that observed at low ceria coverage. However, in the second type of terrace, there is a compact array of ceria particles with structures that do not match the structures of CeO{sub 2}(111) or CeO{sub 2}(110). The titania substrate imposes on the ceria nanoparticles nontypical coordination modes, enhancing their chemical reactivity. This phenomenon leads to a larger dispersion of supported metal nanoparticles (M = Au, Cu, Pt) and makes possible the direct participation of the oxide in catalytic reactions. The M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) surfaces display an extremely high catalytic activity for the water-gas shift reaction that follows the sequence Au/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) < Cu/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) < Pt/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110). For low coverages of Cu and CeO{sub x}, Cu/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) is 8-12 times more active than Cu(111) or Cu/ZnO industrial catalysts. In the M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) systems, there is a strong coupling of the chemical properties of the admetal and the mixed-metal oxide: The adsorption and dissociation of water probably take place on the oxide, CO adsorbs on the admetal nanoparticles, and all subsequent reaction steps occur at the oxide-admetal interface. The high catalytic activity of the M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) surfaces reflects the unique properties of the mixed-metal oxide at the nanometer level.

Park, J.; Graciani, J; Evans, J; Stacchiola, D; Senanayake, S; Barrio, L; Liu, P; Fdez. Sanz, J; Hrbek, J; Rodriguez, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Gold, Copper and Platinum Nanoparticles Dispersed on CeOx/TiO2(110) Surfaces: High Water-Gas Shift Activity and the Nature of the Mixed-Metal Oxide at the Nanometer Level  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At small coverages of ceria on TiO{sub 2}(110), the CeO{sub x} nanoparticles have an unusual coordination mode. Scanning tunneling microscopy and density-functional calculations point to the presence of Ce{sub 2}O{sub 3} dimers, which form diagonal arrays that have specific orientations of 0, 24, and 42{sup o} with respect to the [1 -1 0] direction of the titania substrate. At high coverages of ceria on TiO{sub 2}(110), the surface exhibits two types of terraces. In one type, the morphology is not very different from that observed at low ceria coverage. However, in the second type of terrace, there is a compact array of ceria particles with structures that do not match the structures of CeO{sub 2}(111) or CeO{sub 2}(110). The titania substrate imposes on the ceria nanoparticles nontypical coordination modes, enhancing their chemical reactivity. This phenomenon leads to a larger dispersion of supported metal nanoparticles (M = Au, Cu, Pt) and makes possible the direct participation of the oxide in catalytic reactions. The M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) surfaces display an extremely high catalytic activity for the water-gas shift reaction that follows the sequence Au/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) < Cu/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) < Pt/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110). For low coverages of Cu and CeO{sub x}, Cu/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) is 8-12 times more active than Cu(111) or Cu/ZnO industrial catalysts. In the M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) systems, there is a strong coupling of the chemical properties of the admetal and the mixed-metal oxide: The adsorption and dissociation of water probably take place on the oxide, CO adsorbs on the admetal nanoparticles, and all subsequent reaction steps occur at the oxide-admetal interface. The high catalytic activity of the M/CeO{sub x}/TiO{sub 2}(110) surfaces reflects the unique properties of the mixed-metal oxide at the nanometer level.

Rodriguez, J.A.; Park, J.B.; Graciani, J.; Evans, J.; Stacchiola, D.; Senanayake, S.D.; Barrio, L.; Liu, P.; Sanz, J.F.; Hrbek, J.

2010-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

359

Photo-oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

360

Synthesis and characterization of some metal oxide nanocrystals by microwave irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Copper oxide and cobalt oxide (CuO, Co3O4) nanocrystals (NCs) have been successfully prepared in a short time using microwave irradiation. The resulted powders of nanocrystals (NCs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements are also studied. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV–visible absorption spectroscopy of both kind of nanoparticels are illustrated. Optical absorption analysis indicated the direct band gap for both kinds of nanocrystals.

Rashad, M.; Gaber, A.; Abdelrahim, M. A.; Abdel-Baset, A. M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, 71516 Assiut (Egypt); Moharram, A. H. [Physics Dept., College of Science and Arts, King Abdulaziz Univ., Rabigh 21911 (Saudi Arabia)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Laser Desorption/Ionization of Transition Metal Atoms and Oxides from Solid Argon Lester Andrews,*, Andreas Rohrbacher, Christopher M. Laperle, and Robert E. Continetti  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, approximately 10% of the gas sample condensed on the 10K copper plate. For ablation a focused (10 cm f of the laser-ablated metal atoms and O2 in excess argon during condensation at 10 K, have been laser desorbed spectrometry. Adding the C6H5Br chromophore to the Ar/O2 gas mixture also enhanced the metal and oxide ion

Continetti, Robert E.

362

The Chemical Evolution of Very Metal-Poor Damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In earlier work we showed that a dark matter halo with a virial mass of $10^7$ M$_\\odot$ can survive feedback from its own massive stars and form stars for $\\gtrsim100$ Myr. We also found that our modelled systems were consistent with observations of ultrafaint dwarfs (UFDs), the least massive known galaxies. Very metal-poor damped Lyman-$\\alpha$ systems (DLAs) recently identified at $z\\sim2$ may represent the gas that formed at least some of the observed stars in UFDs. We compare projected sightlines from our simulations to the observed metal-poor DLAs and find that our models can reach the densities of the observed sightlines; however the metallicities are inconsistent with the single supernova simulations, suggesting enrichment by multiple supernovae. We model two scenarios for the history of these systems. The first explains the gas abundances in DLAs by a single burst of star formation. This model can produce the observed DLA abundances, but does not provide an explanation as to why the DLAs show suppres...

Webster, David; Sutherland, Ralph S

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Interaction of iron-copper mixed metal oxide oxygen carriers with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work was to prepare supported bimetallic Fe–Cu oxygen carriers and to evaluate their performance for the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal/air. Ten-cycle CLC tests were conducted with Fe–Cu oxygen carriers in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer utilizing simulated synthesis gas derived from the steam gasification of Polish Janina coal and Illinois #6 coal as fuel. The effect of temperature on reaction rates, chemical stability, and oxygen transport capacity were determined. Fractional reduction, fractional oxidation, and global rates of reactions were calculated from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data. The supports greatly affected reaction performance. Data showed that reaction rates and oxygen capacities were stable during the 10-cycle TGA tests for most Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers. Bimetallic Fe–Cu/support oxygen carriers showed higher reduction rates than Fe-support oxygen carriers. The carriers containing higher Cu content showed better stabilities and better reduction rates. An increase in temperature from 800 °C to 900 °C did not have a significant effect on either the oxygen capacity or the reduction rates with synthesis gas derived from Janina coal. Oxidation reaction was significantly faster than reduction reaction for all supported Fe–Cu oxygen carriers. Carriers with higher Cu content had lower oxidation rates. Ten-cycle TGA data indicated that these oxygen carriers had stable performances at 800–900 °C and might be successfully used up to 900 °C for coal CLC reaction in the presence of steam.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. [U.S. DOE; Ksepko, Ewelina; Tian, Hanging [URS

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

A micromechanical model of oxidation effects in SiC/Ti metal matrix composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . Oxidation of Titanium and Titanium Alloys. . FORMULATION OF THE DIFFUSION EQUATION. . . . . The Mechanics of Diffusion. . Finite Element Formulation. . THEROMECHANICAL GOVERNING EQUATIONS. . . . . . PROBLEM SPECIFICS. . Diffusion Application Procedure... higher specific strength and temperature capabilities essential for successful implementation of these projects[1]. Titanium-based composites offer high temperature capabilities and are envisioned for such applications as aircratl skin, internal...

Wittig, Laurrie Ann

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed. 16 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

367

Investigation of zinc oxide doped with metal impurities for use as thin film conductive phosphors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a viable flat panel display, low voltage, conductive phosphors which emit blue, red, and green light will be required for the field emission technology. This thesis examines zinc oxide (ZnO) based thin ( ) phosphors for such an application. ZnO is a...

Evatt, Steven R.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Uniformly Embedded Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Forests as Pseudocapacitor Electrodes for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

applications. A vacuum-assisted, in situ electrodeposition process has been used to achieve the three-dimensional functionalization of CNT forests with inserted nickel nanoparticles as pseudocapacitor electrodes. Experimental CNT forest samples, and the oxidized nickel nanoparticle/CNT supercapacitor retained 94.2% of its

Lin, Liwei

369

Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of 111-v compounds on silicon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Expitaxial composite comprising thin films of a Group III-V compound semiconductor such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) on single crystal silicon substrates are disclosed. Also disclosed is a process for manufacturing, by chemical deposition from the vapor phase, epitaxial composites as above described, and to semiconductor devices based on such epitaxial composites. The composites have particular utility for use in making light sensitive solid state solar cells.

Vernon, Stanley M. (Wellesley, MA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

The design of new ligands and transition metal compounds for the oxidation of organic compounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dehydrated by heating under dynamic vacuum at 150?C for 3 hours. The anhydrous materials were stored in a dry box under nitrogen. (R)-binaphthol was obtained from ABCR Chemical and 3,5-di-tert-butyl salicylaldehyde was obtained from Advanced Asymmetrics.... All other reagents were used as received. All NMR chemical shifts are given in ppm and were recorded on a Mercury-300BB spectrometer ( 1 H, 299.91 MHz; 13 C { 1 H} 75.41 MHz) using the solvent as an internal standard (CDCl 3 (or residual CHCl 3...

Grill, Joseph Michael

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

371

Europium-activated phosphors containing oxides of rare-earth and group-IIIB metals and method of making the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Europium-activated phosphors comprise oxides of at least a rare-earth metal selected from the group consisting of gadolinium, yttrium, lanthanum, and combinations thereof and at least a Group-IIIB metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, and combinations thereof. A method for making such phosphors comprises adding at least a halide of at least one of the selected Group-IIIB metals in a starting mixture. The method further comprises firing the starting mixture in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The phosphors produced by such a method exhibit improved absorption in the UV wavelength range and improved quantum efficiency.

Comanzo, Holly Ann; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani; Manivannan, Venkatesan

2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

372

Europium-activated phosphors containing oxides of rare-earth and group-IIIB metals and method of making the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Europium-activated phosphors comprise oxides of at least a rare-earth metal selected from the group consisting of gadolinium, yttrium, lanthanum, and combinations thereof and at least a Group-IIIB metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, and combinations thereof. A method for making such phosphors comprises adding at least a halide of at least one of the selected Group-IIIB metals in a starting mixture. The method further comprises firing the starting mixture in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The phosphors produced by such a method exhibit improved absorption in the UV wavelength range and improved quantum efficiency.

Comanzo, Holly Ann; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani

2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

373

Use of impure inert gases in the controlled heating and cooling of mixed conducting metal oxide materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for processing an article comprising mixed conducting metal oxide material. The method comprises contacting the article with an oxygen-containing gas and either reducing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a cooling period or increasing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a heating period; during the cooling period, reducing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the cooling period and increasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is reduced during at least a portion of the cooling period; and during the heating period, increasing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the heating period and decreasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is increased during at least a portion of the heating period.

Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Bernhart, John Charles (Fleetwood, PA)

2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

374

Experimental study on vertical scaling of InAs-on-insulator metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated effects of the vertical scaling on electrical properties in extremely thin-body InAs-on-insulator (-OI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). It is found that the body thickness (T{sub body}) scaling provides better short channel effect (SCE) control, whereas the T{sub body} scaling also causes the reduction of the mobility limited by channel thickness fluctuation (?T{sub body}) scattering (?{sub fluctuation}). Also, in order to achieve better SCEs control, the thickness of InAs channel layer (T{sub channel}) scaling is more favorable than the thickness of MOS interface buffer layer (T{sub buffer}) scaling from a viewpoint of a balance between SCEs control and ?{sub fluctuation} reduction. These results indicate necessity of quantum well channel structure in InAs-OI MOSFETs and these should be considered in future transistor design.

Kim, SangHyeon, E-mail: dadembyora@mosfet.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: sh-kim@kist.re.kr; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Nakane, Ryosho; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ichikawa, Osamu; Osada, Takenori; Hata, Masahiko [Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., 6 Kitahara, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-3294 (Japan)

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

375

Au/MxOy/TiO2 catalysts for CO oxidation: promotional effect of main-group, transition, and rare-earth metal oxide additives.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Au/TiO2 catalysts are active for CO oxidation, but they suffer from high-temperature sintering of the gold particles, and few attempts have been made to promote or stabilize Au/TiO2. Our recent communication addressed these issues by loading gold onto Al2O3/TiO2 prepared via surface-sol-gel processing of Al(sec-OC4H9)3 on TiO2. In our current full paper, Au/Al2O3/TiO2 catalysts were prepared alternatively by thermal decomposition of Al(NO3)3 on TiO2 followed by loading gold, and the influences of the decomposition temperature and Al2O3 content were systematically surveyed. This facile method was subsequently extended to the preparation of a battery of metal oxide-modified Au/TiO2 catalysts virtually not reported. It was found that Au/TiO2 modified by CaO, NiO, ZnO, Ga2O3, Y2O3, ZrO2, La2O3, Pr2O3, Nd2O3, Sm2O3, Eu2O3, Gd2O3, Dy2O3, Ho2O3, Er2O3, or Yb2O3 could retain significant activity at ambient temperature even after aging in O2-He at 500 C, whereas unmodified Au/TiO2 lost its activity. Moreover, some 200 C-calcined promoted catalysts showed high activity even at about -100 C. The deactivation and regeneration of some of these new catalysts were studied. This work furnished novel catalysts for further fundamental and applied research.

Ma, Zhen [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Optical properties of nanowire structures produced by the metal-assisted chemical etching of lightly doped silicon crystal wafers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Layers of Si nanowires produced by the metal-assisted chemical etching of (100)-oriented single-crystal p-Si wafers with a resistivity of 1–20 ? · cm are studied by reflectance spectroscopy, Raman spectros-copy, and photoluminescence measurements. The nanowire diameters are 20–200 nm. The wafers are supplied by three manufacturing companies and distinguished by their different lifetimes of photoexcited charge carriers. It is established that the Raman intensity for nanowires longer than 1 ?m is 3–5 times higher than that for the substrates. The interband photoluminescence intensity of nanowires at the wavelength 1.12 ?m is substantially higher than that of the substrates and reaches a maximum for samples with the longest bulk lifetime, suggesting a low nonradiative recombination rate at the nanowire surfaces.

Gonchar, K. A., E-mail: k.a.gonchar@gmail.com; Osminkina, L. A. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Sivakov, V. [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (Germany); Lysenko, V. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquées (INSA) de Lyon, Nanotechnology Institute of Lyon (France); Timoshenko, V. Yu. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

ZnO light-emitting diode grown by plasma-assisted metal organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a breakthrough in fabricating ZnO homojunction light-emitting diode by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Using NO plasma, we are able to grow p-type ZnO thin films on n-type bulk ZnO substrates. The as-grown films on glass substrates show hole concentration of 10{sup 16}-10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and mobility of 1-10 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra reveal nitrogen-related emissions. A typical ZnO homojunction shows rectifying behavior with a turn-on voltage of about 2.3 V. Electroluminescence at room temperature has been demonstrated with band-to-band emission at I=40 mA and defect-related emissions in the blue-yellow spectrum range.

Xu, W.Z.; Ye, Z.Z.; Zeng, Y.J.; Zhu, L.P.; Zhao, B.H.; Jiang, L.; Lu, J.G.; He, H.P.; Zhang, S.B. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

2006-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

378

Computational screening of perovskite metal oxides for optimal solar light Ivano E. Castelli,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

increasing energy demands, together with the CO2 related climate problems, make the development of sustainable energy technology one of the most important problems of today.1 Direct harvesting and conversion of solar light to electrical energy in photovoltaic (PV) cells or to chemical energy

Thygesen, Kristian

379

Design and construction of a radiation resistant quadrupole using metal oxide insulated CICC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The construction of a engineering test model of a radiation resistant quadrupole is described. The cold-iron quadrupole uses coils fabricated from metal-oixide (synthetic spinel) insulated Cable-In-Conduit-Conductor (CICC). The superconductor is NbTi in a copper matrix. The quadrupole is designed to produce a pole-tip field of 2 T with an operating current of 7,000 A.

Albert F. Zeller

2012-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

380

Method for improving the oxidation-resistance of metal substrates coated with thermal barrier coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described.

Thompson, Anthony Mark (Niskayuna, NY); Gray, Dennis Michael (Delanson, NY); Jackson, Melvin Robert (Niskayuna, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

INL Internship:Modification of Metal Contaminants on Oxide Surfaces Modified by Laser Irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project focuses on obtaining the optimal laser parameters needed for enhancing metal contaminants on cement, granite, and marble. The various parameters of the laser tested include the fluence, wavelength, and frequency. A chelating study was also performed in order to increase the volatility of cobalt. In the following paper each experiment is described in detail. No results are included in this report because their release is not approved and they could eventually become classified.

Michael J. Hansen; Robert Fox; Les Manner

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Noble Metal-Free Reduced Graphene Oxide-ZnxCd1-xS Nanocomposite with Enhanced Solar Photocatalytic H2Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solar energy by production of hydrogen from water splitting is of great importance from both theoretical strategy for solving simultaneously the incoming energy and environmental problems.2 So far, numerousNoble Metal-Free Reduced Graphene Oxide-ZnxCd1-xS Nanocomposite with Enhanced Solar Photocatalytic

Gong, Jian Ru

383

Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: thermal cycle stability and chemical compatibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An alkali silicate glass (SCN-1) is currently being evaluated as a candidate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel (SOFC) applications. The glass containing ~17 mole% alkalis (K2O and Na2O) remains vitreous and compliant during SOFC operation, unlike conventional SOFC sealing glasses, which experience substantial devitrification after the sealing process. The non-crystallizing compliant sealing glass has lower glass transition and softening temperatures since the microstructure remains glassy without significant crystallite formation, and hence can relieve or reduce residual stresses and also has the potential for crack healing. Sealing approaches based on compliant glass will also need to satisfy all the mechanical, thermal, chemical, physical, and electrical requirements for SOFC applications, not only in bulk properties but also at sealing interfaces. In this first of a series of papers we will report the thermal cycle stability of the glass when sealed between two SOFC components, i.e., a NiO/YSZ anode supported YSZ bilayer and a coated ferritic stainless steel interconnect material. High temperature leak rates were monitored versus thermal cycles between 700-850oC using back pressures ranging from 0.2 psi to 1.0 psi. Isothermal stability was also evaluated in a dual environment consisting of flowing dilute H2 fuel versus ambient air. In addition, chemical compatibility at the alumina and YSZ interfaces was examined with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results shed new light on the topic of SOFC glass seal development.

Chou, Y. S.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Williams, Riley T.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Bonnett, Jeff F.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, E.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Electronic Structure, Oxidation State of Sn, and Chemical Stability of Photovoltaic Perovskite Variant Cs2SnI6  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cs2SnI6, a variant of perovskite CsSnI3, is expected for a photovoltaic material. Based on a simple ionic model, it is expected that Cs2SnI6 is composed of Cs+, I-, and Sn4+ ions and that the band gap is primarily made of occupied I- 5p6 valence band maximum (VBM) and unoccupied Sn4+ 5s conduction band minimum (CBM) similar to SnO2. In this work, we performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations and revealed that the real charge state of the Sn ion in this compound is +2 similar to CsSnI3. This is due to strong covalent nature between the I ion and the Sn ion, the VBM consists of I 5p - I 5p antibonding states, and the CBM of I 5p - Sn 5s antibonding states. The +2 oxidation state of Sn is realized by the apparent charge state of I-2/3, because the I 5p - Sn 5s antibonding states form the unoccupied CBM and apparently 1/18 of the I 5p orbitals are unoccupied. These results are further supported by comparing chemical bonding analyses with those of related compounds. The chemical stability of the Cs2SnI...

Xiao, Zewen; Zhang, Xiao; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Hosono, Hideo; Kamiya, Toshio

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Understanding Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal Nanoparticles by Correlation with Atomic Resolution Electron Microscopy and Field Evaporation Simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal-dielectric composite materials, specifically metal nanoparticles supported on or embedded in metal oxides, are widely used in catalysis. The accurate optimization of such nanostructures warrants the need for detailed three-dimensional characterization. Atom probe tomography is uniquely capable of generating sub-nanometer structural and compositional data with part-per-million mass sensitivity, but there are reconstruction artifacts for composites containing materials with strongly differing fields of evaporation, as for oxide-supported metal nanoparticles. By correlating atom probe tomography with scanning transmission electron microscopy for Au nanoparticles embedded in an MgO support, deviations from an ideal topography during evaporation are demonstrated directly, and correlated with compositional errors in the reconstructed data. Finite element simulations of the field evaporation process confirm that protruding Au nanoparticles will evolve on the tip surface, and that evaporation field variations lead to an inaccurate assessment of the local composition, effectively lowering the spatial resolution of the final reconstructed dataset. Cross-correlating the experimental data with simulations results in a more detailed understanding of local evaporation aberrations during APT analysis of metal-oxide composites, paving the way towards a more accurate three-dimensional characterization of this technologically important class of materials.

Devaraj, Arun; Colby, Robert J.; Vurpillot, F.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

387

IN-SITU CHEMICAL STABILIZATION OF METALS AND RADIONUCLIDES THROUGH ENHANCED ANAEROBIC REDUCTIVE PRECIPITATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this NETL sponsored bench-scale study was to demonstrate the efficacy of enhanced anaerobic reductive precipitation (EARP) technology for precipitating uranium using samples from contaminated groundwater at the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) in Cincinnati, Ohio. EARP enhances the natural biological reactions in the groundwater through addition of food grade substrates (typically molasses) to drive the oxidative-reductive potential of the groundwater to a lower, more reduced state, thereby precipitating uranium from solution. In order for this in-situ technology to be successful in the long term, the precipitated uranium must not be re-dissolved at an unacceptable rate once groundwater geochemical conditions return to their pretreatment, aerobic state. The approach for this study is based on the premise that redissolution of precipitated uranium will be slowed by several mechanisms including the presence of iron sulfide precipitates and coatings, and sorption onto fresh iron oxides. A bench-scale study of the technology was performed using columns packed with site soil and subjected to a continuous flow of uranium-contaminated site groundwater (476 {micro}g/L). The ''treated'' column received a steady stream of dilute food grade molasses injected into the contaminated influent. Upon attainment of a consistently reducing environment and demonstrated removal of uranium, an iron sulfate amendment was added along with the molasses in the influent solution. After a month long period of iron addition, the treatments were halted, and uncontaminated, aerobic, unamended water was introduced to the treated column to assess rebound of uranium concentrations. In the first two months of treatment, the uranium concentration in the treated column decreased to the clean-up level (30 {micro}g/L) or below, and remained there for the remainder of the treatment period. A brief period of resolubilization of uranium was observed as the treated column returned to aerobic conditions, but the concentration later returned to below the clean-up level. Speciation analysis was conducted on soil collected from the treated column after rebound testing. The experimental results show that: (a) The mass of uranium resolubilized in more than four months of column testing was much lower than the amount precipitated. (b) The majority of the uranium was precipitated in the first few inches of the treated column. The majority of the uranium precipitated was associated with iron oxides or in other immobile/sequestered phases. It is important to contrast this result with the results reported by Bryan (2003) who shows that most of the uranium associated with contaminated aquifer solids at Fernald under the existing natural attenuation/pump and treat with reinjection conditions is carbonate bound. Carbonate bound forms are traditionally seen as fairly mobile, but may not be under a calcite/dolomite saturated condition. Fernald is currently conducting further studies to investigate the mobility of the carbonate bound forms. (c) Though reoxidation concentrations from the bench-scale column exceeded 30 {micro}g/L for a time, they later returned to below this value. Effluent concentrations from the treated column are expected to over predict full-scale concentrations for reasons discussed in depth in the text. Finally, these results must be viewed in light of the site's ongoing pump-and-treat with reinjection system. There is reason to believe that although the pump-and-treat technology is currently effectively controlling the uranium plume and reducing the groundwater concentration, it may not be able to reach the treatment standard of 30 {micro}g/L within an economical operating lifetime and then maintain that concentration without rebound. This study suggests that Enhanced Anaerobic Reductive Precipitation can change the speciation and thus reduce the mobility of uranium at the site and expedite closure.

Christopher C. Lutes; Angela Frizzell, PG; Todd A. Thornton; James M. Harrington

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Synthesis and characterization of metal oxide materials for thermochemical CO2 splitting using concentrated solar energy.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Sunshine to Petrol effort at Sandia aims to convert carbon dioxide and water to precursors for liquid hydrocarbon fuels using concentrated solar power. Significant advances have been made in the field of solar thermochemical CO{sub 2}-splitting technologies utilizing yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-supported ferrite composites. Conceptually, such materials work via the basic redox reactions: Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} {yields} 3FeO + 0.5O{sub 2} (Thermal reduction, >1350 C) and 3FeO + CO{sub 2} {yields} Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} + CO (CO{sub 2}-splitting oxidation, <1200 C). There has been limited fundamental characterization of the ferrite-based materials at the high temperatures and conditions present in these cycles. A systematic study of these composites is underway in an effort to begin to elucidate microstructure, structure-property relationships, and the role of the support on redox behavior under high-temperature reducing and oxidizing environments. In this paper the synthesis, structural characterization (including scanning electron microscopy and room temperature and in-situ x-ray diffraction), and thermogravimetric analysis of YSZ-supported ferrites will be reported.

Stechel, Ellen Beth; Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Miller, James Edward; Evans, Lindsey R.; Livers, Stephanie

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

INVESTIGATION OF MIXED METAL SORBENT/CATALYSTS FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SULFUR AND NITROGEN OXIDES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} using a regenerable solid sorbent will constitute an important improvement over the use of separate processes for the removal of these two pollutants from stack gases and possibly eliminate several shortcomings of the individual SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal operations. The work done at PETC and the DOE-funded investigation of the investigators on the sulfation and regeneration of alumina-supported cerium oxide sorbents have shown that they can perform well at relatively high temperatures (823-900 K) as regenerable desulfurization sorbents. Survey of the recent literature shows that addition of copper oxide to ceria lowers the sulfation temperature of ceria down to 773 K, sulfated ceria-based sorbents can function as selective SCR catalysts even at elevated temperatures, SO{sub 2} can be directly reduced to sulfur by CO on CuO-ceria catalysts, and ceria-based catalysts may have a potential for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} by methane. These observations indicate a possibility of developing a ceria-based sorbent/catalyst which can remove both SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gases within a relatively wide temperature window, produce significant amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration, and use methane for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}.

Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtle

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Development of carbon-metal oxide supercapacitors from sol-gel derived carbon-ruthenium xerogels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There has been increasing interest in electrochemical capacitors as energy storage systems because of their high power density and long cycle life, compared to battery devices. According to the mechanism of energy storage, there are two types of electrochemical capacitors. One type is based on double layer (dl) formation due to charge separation, and the other type is based on a faradaic process due to redox reactions. Sol-gel derived high surface area carbon-ruthenium xerogels were prepared from carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde resins containing an electrochemically active form of ruthenium oxide. The electrochemical capacitance of these materials increased with an increase in the ruthenium content indicating the presence of pseudocapacitance associated with the ruthenium oxide undergoing reversible faradaic redox reactions. A specific capacitance of 256 F/g (single electrode) was obtained from a carbon xerogel containing 14 wt% Ru, which corresponded to more than 50% utilization of the ruthenium. The double layer accounted for 40% of this capacitance. This material was also electrochemically stable, showing no change in a cyclic voltammogram for over 2,000 cycles.

Lin, C.; Ritter, J.A.; Popov, B.N.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Reaction of metal sulfates with molybdenum oxide, a high temperature reaction step for thermochemical cycles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reaction of sulfates with molybdenum oxide at high temperature was studied to determine the feasibility of using these reactions in a thermochemical process for making hydrogen. The experiments were performed by heating the blended powders to temperatures of 1075 K and higher and analyzing the evolved gas for acid content. It was found that the reaction rate over the first few minutes increased with both temperature and MoO/sub 3/. The fraction of sulfate reacting in the first 5 minutes varies with cation used. At 1125 K and for a molar ratio of sulfate ion/MoO/sub 3/ of 0.5, the fraction reacted was 0.29 for BaSO/sub 4/, 0.32 for CaSO/sub 4/ and 0.82 for La/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/. These results are encouraging and indicate that an alternative means to sulfuric acid drying and decomposition is feasible using a mixed sulfate/oxide system to lower the effective decomposition temperature of the insoluble sulfate.

Hollabaugh, C.M.; Wallace, T.C.; Bowman, M.G.; Jones, W.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Controlled, Defect-Guided, Metal-Nanoparticle Incorporation onto MoS2 via Chemical and Microwave Routes: Electrical, Thermal, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

show that MoS2 can be applied effectively in sensing,6,7 energy harvesting,8 and photoelectronicControlled, Defect-Guided, Metal-Nanoparticle Incorporation onto MoS2 via Chemical and Microwave via both diffusion limited aggregation and instantaneous reaction arresting (using microwaves

Berry, Vikas

393

Method For Improving The Oxidation Resistance Of Metal Substrates Coated With Thermal Barrier Coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described. A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described.

Thompson, Anthony Mark (Niskayuna, NY); Gray, Dennis Michael (Delanson, NY); Jackson, Melvin Robert (Niskayuna, NY)

2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

394

Chemical and structural investigation of the role of both Mn and Mn oxide in the formation of manganese silicate barrier layers on SiO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, Mn silicate (MnSiO{sub 3}) barrier layers were formed on thermally grown SiO{sub 2} using both metallic Mn and oxidized Mn films, in order to investigate the role of oxygen in determining the extent of the interaction between the deposited Mn and the SiO{sub 2} substrate. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, it has been shown that a metallic Mn film with an approximate thickness of 1 nm cannot be fully converted to Mn silicate following vacuum annealing to 500 deg. C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis suggests the maximum MnSiO{sub 3} layer thickness obtainable using metallic Mn is {approx}1.7 nm. In contrast, a {approx}1 nm partially oxidized Mn film can be fully converted to Mn silicate following thermal annealing to 400 deg. C, forming a MnSiO{sub 3} layer with a measured thickness of 2.6 nm. TEM analysis also clearly shows that MnSiO{sub 3} growth results in a corresponding reduction in the SiO{sub 2} layer thickness. It has also been shown that a fully oxidized Mn oxide thin film can be converted to Mn silicate, in the absence of metallic Mn. Based on these results it is suggested that the presence of Mn oxide species at the Mn/SiO{sub 2} interface facilitates the conversion of SiO{sub 2} to MnSiO{sub 3}, in agreement with previously published studies.

Casey, P.; Bogan, J.; Hughes, G. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Lozano, J. G.; Nellist, P. D. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Study on plasma assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of Zr,,C,N... and Ti,,C,N... thin films and in situ plasma diagnostics with optical  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

films and in situ plasma diagnostics with optical emission spectroscopy S. J. Cho, S.-H. Nam, C.-K. JungStudy on plasma assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of Zr,,C,N... and Ti,,C,N... thin C,N films were synthesized by pulsed dc plasma assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

Boo, Jin-Hyo

396

Physical and chemical characterization of combinatorial metal gate electrode Ta-C-N library film  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports comprehensive structural and chemical analyses for the combinatorial Ta-C-N/HfO{sub 2} system, crucial data for understanding the electrical properties of Ta-C-N/HfO{sub 2}. Combinatorial Ta-C-N 'library' (composition spread) films were deposited by magnetron sputtering. Electron probe wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence-yield near-edge spectroscopy were used to quantitatively determine the composition across these films. Scanning x-ray microdiffractometry determined that a solid solution of Ta(C,N){sub x} forms and extends to compositions (0.3<=Ta<=0.5 and 0.57<=Ta<=0.67) that were previously unknown. The thermal stability of the Ta-C-N/HfO{sub 2} library was studied using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, which shows Ta-C-N/HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si exhibiting good thermal stability up to 950 deg. C.

Chang, K.-S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Green, M. L.; Levin, I.; Hattrick-Simpers, J. R.; Jaye, C.; Fischer, D. A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Takeuchi, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); De Gendt, S. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium and Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

2010-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

397

High-resolution structural studies of ultra-thin magnetic, transition metal overlayers and two-dimensional transition metal oxides using synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This thesis report the surface-structure determination of three, ultra-thin magnetic transition-metal films, Fe/Au(100), Mn/Ni(100), and Mn/Cu(100) using Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) and photoelectron holography. These structural studies are the first to use non-s initial states in the ARPEFS procedure. This thesis also reports an ARPEFS surface-structure determination of a two-dimensional transition-metal oxide, [(1 x 1)O/W(110)] x 12. The authors have analyzed the ARPFES signal from the Au 4f{sub 7/5} core level of the Au(1 ML)/Fe(15 ML)/Au(100) system. The analysis shows that the Fe grows layer by layer with one monolayer of gold, acting as a surfactant, remaining on top of the growing Fe layers. These surface gold atoms sit in the four-fold hollow site, 1.67 {+-} 0.02 A above the iron surface. The grown Fe layer is very much like the bulk, bcc iron, with an interlayer spacing of 1.43 {+-} 0.03 A. Analysis of the Mn 3p ARPEFS signals from c(2 x 2)Mn/Ni(100) and c(2 x 2)Mn/Cu(100) shows that the Mn forms highly corrugated surface alloys. The corrugation of the Mn/Ni(100) and Mn/Cu(100) systems are 0.24 {+-} 0.02 A and 0.30 {+-} 0.04 A respectively. In both cases the Mn is sticking above the plane of the surface substrate atoms. For the Mn/Ni(100) system the first layer Ni is contracted 4% from the bulk value. The Mn/Cu(100) system shows bulk spacing for the substrate Cu. Photoelectron holography shows that the Mn/Ni interface is very abrupt with very little Mn leaking into the second layer, while the Mn/Cu(100) case has a significant amount of Mn leaking into the second layer. A new, five-element electrostatic electron lens was developed for hemispherical electron-energy analyzers. This lens system can be operated at constant transverse or constants angular magnification, and has been optimized for use with the very small photon-spot sizes. Improvements to the hemispherical electron-energy analyzer are also discussed.

Kellar, S.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source Div.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Chemical modification of surfaces: the effect of potassium on the chemisorption of molecules on transition metal crystal surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The physical and chemical properties of pure potassium monolayers and its effect on the adsorption of oxygen, carbon monoxide and benzene on the (111) faces of platinum and rhodium single crystals are described. Potassium adsorption on both surfaces is quite similar. Potassium forms hexagonally close packed structures that are incommensurate with the substrate. The heat of desorption of potassium on these surfaces decreases with increasing potassium coverage. The surface free electron density increases and the work function decreases substantially wtih alkali adsorption, indicating charge transfer occurs from potassium to the substrate. Oxygen adsorption increases the potassium binding energy, and forms a surface complex at high potassium coverages. Oxygen adsorption is dissociative on both clean and potassium dosed Rh(111). The metal-oxygen stretching vibration increases in the presence of potassium, indicating stronger adsorption. Carbon monoxide adsorption on both metal surfaces is strongly affected. With increasing potassium coverage, the heat of desorption increases while the C-O stretching frequencies decrease. Also, substantial population shifts from the atop to the bridged site occur. Dissociation of CO is induced on Rh(111) by the presence of potassium. Benzene is found to be ..pi.. bonded oriented with the ring plane parallel to the surface with C/sub 3v/(sigma/sub d/) symmetry on both the clean and potassium dosed Rh(111) surfaces. Potassium reduces the heat of desorption of molecular benzene and induces a lower temperature pathway to decomposition. The major influence of potassium is to increase the surface electron density, which, for molecular adsorbates with low lying vacant orbitals of the correct symmetry, can lead to substantial changes in their bonding with the surface.

Crowell, J.E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

THE COORDINATION CHEMISTRY OF METAL SURFACES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

result 7 ' 30 u 31 in metal carbide cluster chemistry willin metal chemistry. Oxidation of the iron carbide cluster

Muetterties, Earl L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Classification of oxide glasses: A polarizability approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A classification of binary oxide glasses has been proposed taking into account the values obtained on their refractive index-based oxide ion polarizability {alpha}{sub O2-}(n{sub 0}), optical basicity {lambda}(n{sub 0}), metallization criterion M(n{sub 0}), interaction parameter A(n{sub 0}), and ion's effective charges as well as O1s and metal binding energies determined by XPS. Four groups of oxide glasses have been established: glasses formed by two glass-forming acidic oxides; glasses formed by glass-forming acidic oxide and modifier's basic oxide; glasses formed by glass-forming acidic and conditional glass-forming basic oxide; glasses formed by two basic oxides. The role of electronic ion polarizability in chemical bonding of oxide glasses has been also estimated. Good agreement has been found with the previous results concerning classification of simple oxides. The results obtained probably provide good basis for prediction of type of bonding in oxide glasses on the basis of refractive index as well as for prediction of new nonlinear optical materials.

Dimitrov, Vesselin [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridski Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Komatsu, Takayuki [Department of Chemistry, The Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata-ken 940-2188 (Japan)]. E-mail: komatsu@chem.nagaokaut.ac.jp

2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Metal Hydrides - Science Needs  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

with traditions in metal hydride research Metal and Ceramic Sciences Condensed Matter Physics Materials Chemistry Chemical and Biological Sciences Located on campus of Tier...

402

STUDY MAGNETIC EXCITATIONS IN DOPED TRANSITION METAL OXIDES USING INELASTIC NEUTRON SCATTERING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity continues to be a “hot” topic in modern condensed matter physics. The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in iron-based materials in 2008 provided an unique opportunity to compare and contrast these materials with traditional high-Tc copper oxide superconductors. Neutron scattering plays an important role in determining the dynamical spin properties in these materials. This proposal is a continuation of previous DOE supported proposal. This report summarizes the final progress we have made over from May 2005 till Aug. 2013. Overall, we continue to carry out extensive neutron scattering experiments on Fe-based materials, focusing on understanding their magnetic properties. In addition, we have established a materials laboratory at UT that has allowed us to grow these superconductors. Because neutron scattering typically demands a large amount of samples, by growing these materials in our own laboratory, we can now pursuit neutron scattering experiments over the entire electronic phase diagram, focusing on regions of interests. The material synthesis laboratory at UT was established entirely with the support of DOE funding. This not only allowed us to carry out neutron scattering experiments, but also permit us to provide samples to other US/International collaborators for studying these materials.

Dai, Pengcheng

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

403

Microstructural and chemical evolution near anode triple phase boundary in Ni/YSZ solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we report the micro-structural and chemical evolution of anode grain boundaries and triple phase boundary (TPB) junctions of Ni/YSZ anode supported solid oxide fuel cells. A NiO phase was found to develop along the Ni/YSZ interfaces extending to TPBs in the operated cells. The thickness of the NiO ribbon phase remains constant at ~ 5 nm in hydrogen for operating durations up to 540 h. When operating on synthesis gas, an increase in interphase thickness was observed from ~ 11 nm for 24 h of operation to ~ 51 nm for 550 h of operation. YSZ phases are observed to be stable in H{sub 2} over 540 h of operation. However, for the cell operated in syngas for 550 h, a 5–10 nm tetragonal YSZ (t-YSZ) interfacial layer was identified that originated from the Ni/YSZ interfaces. Yttrium species seem to segregate to the interfaces during operation, leading to the formation of t-YSZ in the Y-depleted regions.

Chen, Yun; Chen, Song; Hackett, Gregory; Finklea, Harry; Song, Xueyan; Gerdes, Kirk

2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

404

Solubility of, and hydrogen ion adsorption on, some metal oxides in aqueous solutions to high temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solubility of boehmite (AlOOH), ferrous hydroxide (Fe(OH)2)/magnetite (Fe3O4), zincite (ZnO), and brucite (Mg(OH)2) were measured over a range of temperatures (AlOOH, 100-290 C; Fe(OH)2/Fe3O4, 100-250 C; ZnO, 50-290 C; Mg(OH)2, 60-200 C) using in situ pH measurements. A hydrogen-electrode concentration cell was used; the pH range depended on the oxide. The solubility results for boehmite mainly demonstrate the method viability, while those for zincite are mainly restricted to mildly acidic to neutral pH where Zn{sup 2+} predominates in solution. The magnetite (presumably coated with Fe(OH)2) solubilities extend from pHs > 5 and, because of relevance to water/steam cycles of power plants, are compared in detail with previous studies. The same cell was used to investigate the surface adsorption-desorption thermodynamics of H ions on rutile (TiO2) and zincite to 290 C. Behavior of pH at zero-point-of-charge as function of temperature and application of the Stern-3-layer model were determined for this solid. The zincite study is still incomplete; preliminary results show trends that can be rationalized only qualitatively now with the zero- point-of-charge being apparently affected by hydration of the surface in basic solutions and specific adsorption of Na ions under the same conditions.

Palmer, D.A.; Benezeth, P.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Anovitz, L.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Machesky, M.L. [Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Hayashi, Ken-ichiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Inst. of Mineralogy, Petrology and Economic Geology; Hyde, K.E. [State Univ. of New York, Oswego, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Comparative study of the reactions of metal oxides with H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Primary objective was to investigate the effects of pore structure on capacity of porous metal oxides for removal of SO{sub 2} from power plant fuel gas and H{sub 2}S from hot coal gas. During this period, a comparative study was carried out on the direct reaction with H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} of the three limestones used as CaO precursors: Greer limestone, Georgia marble, and Iceland spar calcite. Sulfation was carried out at 750 and 850 C in a thermogravimetric analysis system under simulated high pressure (enough CO{sub 2} to prevent decomposition of CaCO{sub 3}). Results are presented as conversion vs time graphs. Mercury penetration and gas adsorption were used to analyze the structure. Activation energies and effective diffusivities were determined. A variable diffusivity shrinking-core model was used to analyze the data. In the future, this limestone study will be completed, and a study on supported CuO sorbent will be started.

Sotirchos, S.V.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

406

Comparative study of the reactions of metal oxides with H[sub 2]S and SO[sub 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Primary objective was to investigate the effects of pore structure on capacity of porous metal oxides for removal of SO[sub 2] from power plant fuel gas and H[sub 2]S from hot coal gas. During this period, a comparative study was carried out on the direct reaction with H[sub 2]S and SO[sub 2] of the three limestones used as CaO precursors: Greer limestone, Georgia marble, and Iceland spar calcite. Sulfation was carried out at 750 and 850 C in a thermogravimetric analysis system under simulated high pressure (enough CO[sub 2] to prevent decomposition of CaCO[sub 3]). Results are presented as conversion vs time graphs. Mercury penetration and gas adsorption were used to analyze the structure. Activation energies and effective diffusivities were determined. A variable diffusivity shrinking-core model was used to analyze the data. In the future, this limestone study will be completed, and a study on supported CuO sorbent will be started.

Sotirchos, S.V.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Impact of Fission Products Impurity on the Plutonium Content of Metal- and Oxide- Fuels in Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This short report presents the neutronic analysis to evaluate the impact of fission product impurity on the Pu content of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) metal- and oxide- fuel fabrication. The similar work has been previously done for PWR MOX fuel [1]. The analysis will be performed based on the assumption that the separation of the fission products (FP) during the reprocessing of UOX spent nuclear fuel assemblies is not perfect and that, consequently, a certain amount of FP goes into the Pu stream used to fabricate SFR fuels. Only non-gaseous FPs have been considered (see the list of 176 isotopes considered in the calculations in Appendix 1 of Reference 1). Throughout of this report, we define the mixture of Pu and FPs as PuFP. The main objective of this analysis is to quantify the increase of the Pu content of SFR fuels necessary to maintain the same average burnup at discharge independently of the amount of FP in the Pu stream, i.e. independently of the PuFP composition. The FP losses are considered element-independent, i.e., for example, 1% of FP losses mean that 1% of all non-gaseous FP leak into the Pu stream.

Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Comparative study of the reactions of metal oxides with H sub 2 S and SO sub 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this project is the investigation of the effects of pore structure on the capacity of porous metal oxides for removal of gaseous pollutants from flue gases of power plants (SO{sub 2}) and hot coal gas (primarily H{sub 2}A). Specifically, we intend to appropriately exploit the differences of the sulfidation and sulfation reactions (for instance, different molar volumes of solid products) to elucidate the dependence of the sorptive capacity of a porous sorbent on its physical microstructure. The following tasks have been identified in the proposed project: (1) Literature survey and identification of solids to be used in experimental studies. (2) Experimental study of the reaction of the chosen solids with SO{sub 2} and/or H{sub 2}S. (3) Experimental study of the evolution of the structure of the solids during reaction with SO{sub 2} and/or H{sub 2}S using pore structure analysis and effective diffusivity measurements. (4) Model testing and validation using the obtained experimental data.

Sotirchos, S.V.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Metalization of lipid vesicles via electroless plating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The encapsulation of metallic particles and metallic oxides within lipid vesicles has recently been of interest for applications such as catalysis, water splitting, and magnetic control of spin coupling. In this communication the authors introduce the concept and practice of the deposition of metal on vesicles by using electroless plating techniques. Coordination of low valent transition metals to organic functional groups on the surface of the bilayer membrane provides a means of binding metal atoms to vesicles. Chemical reduction produced zero valent atoms which serve as sites for further metal deposition by the chemical reduction techniques of electroless plating. Specifically, this procedure involved the binding of a small amount of tetrachloropalladate to the vesicle bilayer, reduction of the palladium(II) to palladium(0), followed by the deposition of much larger amounts of metal from an electroless plating solution. Electroless plating solutions were used for the deposition of palladium, nickel, cobalt, or copper metal onto the catalytic palladium centers. Since the metallic particles were associated with the vesicles, colloids were formed that were stable in water for much longer periods than the control metal particles formed in water alone. If the vesicles were composed in part of unsaturated lipids, with the olefinic groups on the hydrocarbon chains, the initial evidence suggests the transition metal was directed into the bilayer, rather than staying on the surface.

Ferrar, W.T.; O'Brien, D.F.; Warshawsky, A.; Voycheck, C.L.

1988-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

410

The calculation of electron chemical potential and ion charge state and their influence on plasma conductivity in electrical explosion of metal wire  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electron chemical potential and ion charge state (average ion charge and ion distribution) are important parameters in calculating plasma conductivity in electrical explosion of metal wire. In this paper, the calculating method of electron chemical potential and ion charge state is discussed at first. For the calculation of electron chemical potential, the ideal free electron gas model and Thomas-Fermi model are compared and analyzed in terms of the coupling constant of plasma. The Thomas-Fermi ionization model, which is used to calculate ion charge state, is compared with the method based on Saha equation. Furthermore, the influence of electron degenerated energy levels and ion excited states in Saha equation on the ion charge state is also analyzed. Then the influence of different calculating methods of electron chemical potential and ion charge state on plasma conductivity is discussed by applying them in the Lee-More conductivity model.

Shi, Zongqian; Wang, Kun; Li, Yao; Shi, Yuanjie; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shanxi 710049 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Shanxi 710049 (China)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700139 StructurePropertyFunction Relationships in Nanoscale Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200700139 Structure­Property­Function Relationships in Nanoscale Oxide Sensors-emitting diodes, lasers, photovoltaic solar cells, UV-photodetectors, var- istors, and even heterogeneous for chemical sensing.[17] However, to date most of the attention in the field of metal-oxide sensors

Nabben, Reinhard

412

Control of metal dusting corrosion in Ni-base alloys.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal dusting is a major issue in plants used in the production of hydrogen-and methanol-reformer systems, and syngas (H{sub 2}/CO mixtures) systems that are pertinent to the chemical and petrochemical industries. Usually, metal dusting corrosion has two stages: incubation and growth resulting in propagation of metal dusting pits. The two stages were studied by scanning electron microscopy and profile mapping to evaluate the scale of the surface oxide in the initiation and propagation of metal dusting attack. The initiation occurs because of the presence of defects, and the propagation is determined by the diffusion of carbon into the alloy. The carbon diffusion pathways can be blocked by periodically oxidizing alloy surface at moderate temperatures in controlled atmospheres. It was concluded that metal dusting degradation can be mitigated by selecting an alloy with a long incubation time and subjecting it to intermediate oxidation.

Zeng, Z.; Natesan, K.; Energy Technology

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Direct observation of both contact and remote oxygen scavenging of GeO{sub 2} in a metal-oxide-semiconductor stack  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the path to incorporating Ge based metal-oxide-semiconductor into modern nano-electronics, one of the main issues is the oxide-semiconductor interface quality. Here, the reactivity of Ti on Ge stacks and the scavenging effect of Ti were studied using synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, with an in-situ metal deposition and high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging. Oxygen removal from the Ge surface was observed both in direct contact as well as remotely through an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. The scavenging effect was studied in situ at room temperature and after annealing. We find that the reactivity of Ti can be utilized for improved scaling of Ge based devices.

Fadida, S., E-mail: sivanfa@tx.technion.ac.il; Shekhter, P.; Eizenberg, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Cvetko, D. [Laboratorio TASC/IOM-CNR, Area di ricerca, Trieste (Italy); Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Floreano, L.; Verdini, A. [Laboratorio TASC/IOM-CNR, Area di ricerca, Trieste (Italy); Nyns, L.; Van Elshocht, S. [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kymissis, I. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

414

Mössbauer study of metallic iron and iron oxide nanoparticles having environmental purifying ability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A relationship between local structure and methylene blue (MB) decomposing ability of nanoparticles (NPs) of metallic iron (Fe{sup 0}) and maghemite (??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was investigated by {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and UV-visible light absorption spectroscopy. ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs were successfully prepared by mixing (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Fe(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}?6H{sub 2}O (Mohr's salt) and (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}?3H{sub 2}O aqueous solution at 30 °C for 1 h, while those of Fe{sup 0} were obtained by the reduction of Mohr's salt with NaBH{sub 4}. From the Scherrer's equation, the smallest crystallite sizes of ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs and Fe{sup 0} NPs were determined to be 9.7 and 1.5 nm, respectively. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrum of ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs consists of a relaxed sextet with isomer shift (?) of 0.33{sub ±0.01} mm s{sup ?1}, internal magnetic field (H{sub int}) of 25.8{sub ±0.5} T, and linewidth (?) of 0.62{sub ±0.04} mm s{sup ?1}. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrum of Fe{sup 0} NP is mainly composed of a sextet having ?, ?, and H{sub int} of 0.00{sub ±0.01} mm s{sup ?1} 0.45{sub ±0.01} mm s{sup ?1}, and 22.8{sub ±0.1} T, respectively. A bleaching test of the mixture of Fe{sup 0} and ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs (3:7 ratio, 100 mg) in MB aqueous solution (20 mL) for 6 h showed a remarkable decrease of MB concentration with the first-order rate constant (k{sub MB}) of 6.7 × 10{sup ?1} h{sup ?1}. This value is larger than that obtained for the bleaching test using bulk Fe{sup 0}+??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (3:7) mixture (k{sub MB}?=?6.5×10{sup ?3}h{sup ?1}). These results prove that MB decomposing ability is enhanced by the NPs mixture of Fe{sub 0} and ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

Kubuki, Shiro, E-mail: kubuki@tmu.ac.jp; Watanabe, Yuka, E-mail: kubuki@tmu.ac.jp; Akiyama, Kazuhiko, E-mail: kubuki@tmu.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Risti?, Mira; Krehula, Stjepko [Division of Materials Chemistry, Ru?er Boškovi? Institute, P. O. Box 180, Zagreb 10002 (Croatia); Homonnay, Zoltán; Kuzmann, Ern? [Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, P.O. Box 32, 1512 Budapest (Hungary); Nishida, Tetsuaki [Department of Biological and Environmental Chemistry, Faculty of Humanity-Oriented Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 11-6 Kayanomori, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8555 (Japan)

2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

415

Co-generation of electricity and chemicals from propane fuel in solid oxide fuel cells with anode containing nano-bimetallic catalyst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Co-generation of electricity and chemicals from propane fuel in solid oxide fuel cells with anode propane fueled SOFCs. CoeFe bimetallic phase was formed from Pr0.4Sr0.6Co0.2Fe0.7Nb0.1O3Ã?d SOFC anode aromatic hydrocarbons were produced from SOFCs using propane as fuel. a r t i c l e i n f o Article history

Frenkel, Anatoly

416

EQ6 Calculations for Chemical Degradation Of N Reactor (U-Metal) Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Packages  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Waste Package Department of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management & Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) performed calculations to provide input for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the N Reactor, a graphite moderated reactor at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site (ref. 1). The N Reactor core was fueled with slightly enriched (0.947 wt% and 0.947 to 1.25 wt% {sup 235}U in Mark IV and Mark IA fuels, respectively) U-metal clad in Zircaloy-2 (Ref. 1, Sec. 3). Both types of N Reactor SNF have been considered for disposal at the proposed Yucca Mountain site. For some WPs, the outer shell and inner shell may breach (Ref. 3) allowing the influx of water. Water in the WP will moderate neutrons, increasing the likelihood of a criticality event within the WP; and the water may, in time, gradually leach the fissile components from the WP, further affecting the neutronics of the system. This study presents calculations of the long-term geochemical behavior of WPs containing two multi-canister overpacks (MCO) with either six baskets of Mark IA or five baskets of Mark IV intact N Reactor SNF rods (Ref. 1, Sec. 4) and two high-level waste (HLW) glass pour canisters (GPCs) arranged according to the codisposal concept (Ref. 4). The specific study objectives were to determine: (1) The extent to which fissile uranium will remain in the WP after corrosion/dissolution of the initial WP configuration (2) The extent to which fissile uranium will be carried out of the degraded WP by infiltrating water (such that internal criticality is no longer possible, but the possibility of external criticality may be enhanced); and (3) The nominal chemical composition for the criticality evaluations of the WP design, and to suggest the range of parametric variations for additional evaluations. The scope of this calculation, the chemical compositions (and subsequent criticality evaluations) of the simulations, is limited to time periods up to 6.35 x 10{sup 5} years. This longer time frame is closer to the one million year time horizon recently recommended by the National Academy of Sciences to the Environmental Protection Agency for performance assessment related to a nuclear repository (Ref. 5). However, it is important to note that after 100,000 years, most of the materials of interest (fissile materials) will have either been removed from the WP, reached a steady state, or been transmuted.

P. Bernot

2001-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

417

INCOMPATIBILITY OF COMMON LABORATORY CHEMICALS When certain hazardous chemicals are stored or mixed together, violent reactions may occur because the chemicals are  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Classes of incompatible chemicals should be segregated from each other during storage, according to hazard class. Use the following general guidelines for hazard class storage: · Flammable/Combustible Liquids as butane, propane benzene, turpentine, acids, bases, oxidizers, plastics #12;etc.) Hydrofluoric acid metals

Cho, Junghyun

418

Influence of surface defects and local structure on acid/base properties and oxidation pathways over metal oxide surfaces. Final report, June 1990--January 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final report covers work done during project period one and project period two. All the work in project period one was focused on the selective oxidation of oxygenated hydrocarbons over the SnO{sub 2}(110) single crystal surface. In project period two, the emphasis was on the acid/base properties of SnO{sub 2}(110) as well as two different Cu{sub 2}O single crystal surfaces. Prior to the summary of results, a description of these different surfaces is given as background information. Results are described for the dissociation and reaction of Bronsted acids (methanol, formic acid, water, formaldehyde, acetone, propene, acetic acid, and carbon monoxide). Results from project period two include: ammonia adsorption, CO{sub 2} adsorption, propene adsorption and oxidation, with tin oxides; complimentary work with copper oxides; and STM investigations.

Cox, D.F.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe{sup 3+} provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided. 21 figs.

Day, D.E.

1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

420

Iron phosphate compositions for containment of hazardous metal waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved iron phosphate waste form for the vitrification, containment and long-term disposition of hazardous metal waste such as radioactive nuclear waste is provided. The waste form comprises a rigid iron phosphate matrix resulting from the cooling of a melt formed by heating a batch mixture comprising the metal waste and a matrix-forming component. The waste form comprises from about 30 to about 70 weight percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and from about 25 to about 50 weight percent iron oxide and has metals present in the metal waste chemically dissolved therein. The concentration of iron oxide in the waste form along with a high proportion of the iron in the waste form being present as Fe.sup.3+ provide a waste form exhibiting improved chemical resistance to corrosive attack. A method for preparing the improved iron phosphate waste forms is also provided.

Day, Delbert E. (Rolla, MO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

In situ X-ray absorption fine structure studies of foreign metal ions in nickel hydrous oxide electrodes in alkaline electrolytes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aspects of the structural and electronic properties of hydrous oxide films of composite (9:1) Ni/Co and (9:1) Ni/Fe, prepared by electrodeposition, have been examined in alkaline electrolytes using in situ X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). An analysis of the X-ray absorption near the edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) for the Co and Fe K-edges of these composite hydrous oxides revealed that, regardless of the oxidation state of nickel sites in the films, the guest metal ions are present as Co[sup 3+] and Fe[sup 3+] and that the cobalt-oxygen distance d(Co-O) = 1.9 [+-] 0.02 [angstrom] and d(Fe-O) = 1.92 [+-] 0.02 [angstrom]. The latter values are in excellent agreement with d(Me-O) (Me = Co or Fe) in CoOOH and [beta]- and [gamma]-FeOOH, respectively, determined by conventional X-ray diffraction. Two clearly defined Me-Ni first coordination shells could be observed in the Fourier transforms (FT) of the K-edge EXAFS of the guest metal recorded at a potential at which both Ni[sup 2+] and Ni[sup 3+] sites are expected to be present. 28 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Kim, Sunghyun; Tryk, D.A.; Scherson, D. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)); Antonio, M.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Carr, R. (Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lab., CA (United States))

1994-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

422

Adsorption of propane, isopropyl, and hydrogen on cluster models of the M1 phase of Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst possessing the M1 phase structure is uniquely capable of directly converting propane into acrylonitrile. However, the mechanism of this complex eight-electron transformation, which includes a series of oxidative H-abstraction and N-insertion steps, remains poorly understood. We have conducted a density functional theory study of cluster models of the proposed active and selective site for propane ammoxidation, including the adsorption of propane, isopropyl (CH{sub 3}CHCH{sub 3}), and H which are involved in the first step of this transformation, that is, the methylene C-H bond scission in propane, on these active site models. Among the surface oxygen species, the telluryl oxo (Te=O) is found to be the most nucleophilic. Whereas the adsorption of propane is weak regardless of the MO{sub x} species involved, isopropyl and H adsorption exhibits strong preference in the order of Te=O > V=O > bridging oxygens > empty Mo apical site, suggesting the importance of TeO{sub x} species for H abstraction. The adsorption energies of isopropyl and H and consequently the reaction energy of the initial dehydrogenation of propane are strongly dependent on the number of ab planes included in the cluster, which points to the need to employ multilayer cluster models to correctly capture the energetics of surface chemistry on this mixed metal oxide catalyst.

Govindasamy, Agalya [University of Cincinnati; Muthukumar, Kaliappan [University of Cincinnati; Yu, Junjun [University of Cincinnati; Xu, Ye [ORNL; Guliants, Vadim V. [University of Cincinnati

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Durable metallized polymer mirror  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

Schissel, Paul O. (Golden, CO); Kennedy, Cheryl E. (Lafayette, CO); Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Shinton, Yvonne D. (Northglenn, CO); Goggin, Rita M. (Englewood, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Durable metallized polymer mirror  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Actinide metal processing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

Sauer, Nancy N. (Los Alamos, NM); Watkin, John G. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Actinide metal processing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

427

Reducible oxide based catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

428

Method for synthesis of high T[sub c] superconducting materials by oxidation and press coating of metallic precursor alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A superconductor oxide composite is prepared using a press coating technique. The coated layers on various substrates exhibit good adhesion, textured microstructure, and improved J[sub c].

Gao, W.; Vander Sande, J.B.

1993-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

429

668 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY, VOL. 7, NO. 6, NOVEMBER 2008 Chemical Sensors and Electronic Noses Based  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Electronic Noses Based on 1-D Metal Oxide Nanostructures Po-Chiang Chen, Guozhen Shen, and Chongwu Zhou warfare agents is important to human health and safety. Thus, the development of chemical sensors- trial gases, chemical warfare agents, and human breath. In this review, we provide an overview

Zhou, Chongwu

430

Electrical characteristics and thermal stability of HfO{sub 2} metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors fabricated on clean reconstructed GaSb surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HfO{sub 2}/GaSb interfaces fabricated by high-vacuum HfO{sub 2} deposition on clean reconstructed GaSb surfaces were examined to explore a thermally stable GaSb metal-oxide-semiconductor structure with low interface-state density (D{sub it}). Interface Sb-O bonds were electrically and thermally unstable, and post-metallization annealing at temperatures higher than 200?°C was required to stabilize the HfO{sub 2}/GaSb interfaces. However, the annealing led to large D{sub it} in the upper-half band gap. We propose that the decomposition products that are associated with elemental Sb atoms act as interface states, since a clear correlation between the D{sub it} and the Sb coverage on the initial GaSb surfaces was observed.

Miyata, Noriyuki, E-mail: nori.miyata@aist.go.jp; Mori, Takahiro; Yasuda, Tetsuji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Ohtake, Akihiro [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Ichikawa, Masakazu [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

431

Nickel-and Ruthenium-Doped Lanthanum Chromite Anodes: Effects of Nanoscale Metal Precipitation on Solid Oxide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Performance W. Kobsiriphat,* B. D. Madsen, Y. Wang, M. Shah, L. D. Marks, and S. A characterization and electrochemical measurements in solid oxide fuel cells SOFCs . Transmission electron electrochemical kinetics. © 2009 The Electrochemical Society. DOI: 10.1149/1.3269993 All rights reserved

Marks, Laurence D.

432

Blueshift of optical band gap in ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. INTRODUCTION Zinc oxide ZnO is a wide direct band-gap 3.37 eV semiconductor with a broad range of applications. Dimethylzinc DMZn , N2 gas, and high-purity O2 were used as the zinc source, carrier gas, and oxidizing agent including light-emitting devices,1 varistors,2 solar cells,3 and gas sensors.4 Moreover, ZnO is a promising

433

Chemical extractions and predicted free ion activities fail to estimate1 metal transfer from soil to field land snails2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of trace metals (Cd, Pb and Zn) from soil to snail soft tissues over a large30 smelter-impacted area is primarily sourced from55 smelter fallout and dusts from spoil heaps that have been transported across

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

434

Monolithic integration of rare-earth oxides and semiconductors for on-silicon technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several concepts of integration of the epitaxial rare-earth oxides into the emerging advanced semiconductor on silicon technology are presented. Germanium grows epitaxially on gadolinium oxide despite lattice mismatch of more than 4%. Additionally, polymorphism of some of the rare-earth oxides allows engineering of their crystal structure from hexagonal to cubic and formation of buffer layers that can be used for growth of germanium on a lattice matched oxide layer. Molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition of gallium nitride on the rare-earth oxide buffer layers on silicon is discussed.

Dargis, Rytis, E-mail: dargis@translucentinc.com; Clark, Andrew; Erdem Arkun, Fevzi [Translucent, Inc., 952 Commercial St., Palo Alto, California 94303 (United States); Grinys, Tomas; Tomasiunas, Rolandas [Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 10, LT-10223 Vilnius (Lithuania); O'Hara, Andy; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, C1600, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

The optimization of interfaces in InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattices grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have prepared InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattice (SLS) semiconductors by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) under a variety of conditions. Presence of an InGaAsSb interface layer is indicated by x-ray diffraction patterns. Optimized growth conditions involved the use of low pressure, short purge times, and no reactant flow during the purges. MOCVD was used to prepare an optically pumped, single heterostructure InAsSb/InGaAs SLS/InPSb laser which emitted at 3.9 {mu}m with a maximum operating temperature of approximately 100 K.

Biefeld, R.M.; Baucom, K.C.; Kurtz, S.R.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

436

Elemental diffusion during the droplet epitaxy growth of In(Ga)As/GaAs(001) quantum dots by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Droplet epitaxy is an important method to produce epitaxial semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). Droplet epitaxy of III-V QDs comprises group III elemental droplet deposition and the droplet crystallization through the introduction of group V elements. Here, we report that, in the droplet epitaxy of InAs/GaAs(001) QDs using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, significant elemental diffusion from the substrate to In droplets occurs, resulting in the formation of In(Ga)As crystals, before As flux is provided. The supply of As flux suppresses the further elemental diffusion from the substrate and promotes surface migration, leading to large island formation with a low island density.

Chen, Z. B.; Chen, B.; Wang, Y. B.; Liao, X. Z., E-mail: xiaozhou.liao@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lei, W. [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia); Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Zou, J. [Materials Engineering and Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Ringer, S. P. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

437

The Fundamental Role of Nano-Scale Oxide Films in the Oxidation of Hydrogen and the Reduction of Oxygen on Noble Metal Electrocatalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The derivation of successful fuel cell technologies requires the development of more effective, cheaper, and poison-resistant electrocatalysts for both the anode (H{sub 2} oxidation in the presence of small amounts of CO from the reforming of carbonaceous fuels) and the cathode (reduction of oxygen in the presence of carried-over fuel). The proposed work is tightly focused on one specific aspect of electrocatalysis; the fundamental role(s) played by nanoscale (1-2 nm thick) oxide (''passive'') films that form on the electrocatalyst surfaces above substrate-dependent, critical potentials, on charge transfer reactions, particularly at elevated temperatures (25 C < T < 200 C). Once the role(s) of these films is (are) adequately understood, we will then use this information to specify, at the molecular level, optimal properties of the passive layer for the efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction.

Digby Macdonald

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

438

Method for dry etching of transition metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for dry etching of transition metals. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorous-containing .pi.-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the .pi.-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the .pi.-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/.pi.-acceptor ligand complex.

Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Esherick, Peter (Albuquerque, NM); Parmeter, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Rieger, Dennis J. (Tijeras, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Method for dry etching of transition metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for dry etching of transition metals is disclosed. The method for dry etching of a transition metal (or a transition metal alloy such as a silicide) on a substrate comprises providing at least one nitrogen- or phosphorus-containing {pi}-acceptor ligand in proximity to the transition metal, and etching the transition metal to form a volatile transition metal/{pi}-acceptor ligand complex. The dry etching may be performed in a plasma etching system such as a reactive ion etching (RIE) system, a downstream plasma etching system (i.e. a plasma afterglow), a chemically-assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) system or the like. The dry etching may also be performed by generating the {pi}-acceptor ligands directly from a ligand source gas (e.g. nitrosyl ligands generated from nitric oxide), or from contact with energized particles such as photons, electrons, ions, atoms, or molecules. In some preferred embodiments of the present invention, an intermediary reactant species such as carbonyl or a halide ligand is used for an initial chemical reaction with the transition metal, with the intermediary reactant species being replaced at least in part by the {pi}-acceptor ligand for forming the volatile transition metal/{pi}-acceptor ligand complex.

Ashby, C.I.H.; Baca, A.G.; Esherick, P.; Parmeter, J.E.; Rieger, D.J.; Shul, R.J.

1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

440

Photoluminescence quenching of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum thin films at interfaces with metal oxide films of different conductivities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report a comprehensive study of photoluminescence (PL) quenching of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq[subscript ]3) at interfaces with thin films of tin oxide (SnO[subscript 2]) using both steady-state and ...

Mei, Jun

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441

Method and system for the combination of non-thermal plasma and metal/metal oxide doped .gamma.-alumina catalysts for diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present disclosure pertains to a system and method for treatment of oxygen rich exhaust and more specifically to a method and system that combines non-thermal plasma with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina catalyst. Current catalyst systems for the treatment of oxygen rich exhaust are capable of achieving only approximately 7 to 12% NO.sub.x reduction as a passive system and only 25 40% reduction when a supplemental hydrocarbon reductant is injected into the exhaust stream. It has been found that treatment of an oxygen rich exhaust initially with a non-thermal plasma and followed by subsequent treatment with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina prepared by the sol gel method is capable of increasing the NO.sub.x reduction to a level of approximately 90% in the absence of SO.sub.2 and 80% in the presence of 20 ppm of SO.sub.2. Especially useful metals have been found to be indium, gallium, and tin.

Aardahl, Christopher L. (Richland, WA); Balmer-Miller, Mari Lou (West Richland, WA); Chanda, Ashok (Peoria, IL); Habeger, Craig F. (West Richland, WA); Koshkarian, Kent A. (Peoria, IL); Park, Paul W. (Peoria, IL)

2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

442

L{sub g}?=?100?nm In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As quantum well metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with atomic layer deposited beryllium oxide as interfacial layer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, we have fabricated nanometer-scale channel length quantum-well (QW) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) incorporating beryllium oxide (BeO) as an interfacial layer. BeO has high thermal stability, excellent electrical insulating characteristics, and a large band-gap, which make it an attractive candidate for use as a gate dielectric in making MOSFETs. BeO can also act as a good diffusion barrier to oxygen owing to its small atomic bonding length. In this work, we have fabricated In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As MOS capacitors with BeO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and compared their electrical characteristics. As interface passivation layer, BeO/HfO{sub 2} bilayer gate stack presented effective oxide thickness less 1 nm. Furthermore, we have demonstrated In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As QW MOSFETs with a BeO/HfO{sub 2} dielectric, showing a sub-threshold slope of 100?mV/dec, and a transconductance (g{sub m,max}) of 1.1 mS/?m, while displaying low values of gate leakage current. These results highlight the potential of atomic layer deposited BeO for use as a gate dielectric or interface passivation layer for III–V MOSFETs at the 7?nm technology node and/or beyond.

Koh, D., E-mail: dh.koh@utexas.edu, E-mail: Taewoo.Kim@sematech.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); SEMATECH, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Kwon, H. M. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T.-W., E-mail: dh.koh@utexas.edu, E-mail: Taewoo.Kim@sematech.org; Veksler, D.; Gilmer, D.; Kirsch, P. D. [SEMATECH, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Kim, D.-H. [SEMATECH, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Hudnall, Todd W. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas, 78666 (United States); Bielawski, Christopher W. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Maszara, W. [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Santa Clara, California 95054 (United States); Banerjee, S. K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

443

Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical 276 (2007) 816 Oxidative carbonylation of toluene to p-toluic acid catalyzed by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the water-gas-shift reaction leading to a reduction of Rh(III) to Rh(I). A mechanism for the overall 2007 Abstract The mechanism and kinetics of the liquid phase, oxidative carbonylation of toluene. The concentration of water, produced during the reoxidation of Rh(I) to Rh(III), in the reaction system must

Bell, Alexis T.

444

Role of gas phase reactions in subatmospheric chemical-vapor deposition ozone/TEOS processes for oxide deposition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-vapor deposition. Our results for oxide deposition show optimum process window around 200 Torr for producing films a po- tentially optimum process window in which film properties, deposition rates, film uniformity requires high quality dielectric films that can be deposited rapidly and conformally on high aspect ratio

Rubloff, Gary W.

445

Method for preparing metal powder, device for preparing metal powder, method for processing spent nuclear fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing metal powder is provided the comprising supplying a molten bath containing a reducing agent, contacting a metal oxide with the molten bath for a time and at a temperature sufficient to reduce the metal in the metal oxide to elemental metal and produce free oxygen; and isolating the elemental metal from the molten bath.

Park, Jong-Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

446

Chemical structure of vanadium-based contact formation on n-AlN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have investigated the chemical interaction between a Au/V/Al/V layer structure and n-type AlN epilayers using soft x-ray photoemission, x-ray emission spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. To understand the complex processes involved in this multicomponent system, we have studied the interface before and after a rapid thermal annealing step. We find the formation of a number of chemical phases at the interface, including VN, metallic vanadium, aluminum oxide, and metallic gold. An interaction mechanism for metal contact formation on the entire n-(Al,Ga)N system is proposed.

Pookpanratana, S.; France, R.; Blum, M.; Bell, A.; Bar, M.; Weinhardt, L.; Zhang, Y.; Hofmann, T.; Fuchs, O.; Yang, W.; Denlinger, J. D.; Mulcahy, S.; Moustakas, T. D.; Heske, Clemens

2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

447

EUREM 12, Brno, Czech Republic, July 9-14, 2000 I 159 Super Resolution Imaging of Complex Metal Oxides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rather than the image intensity that is recorded by conventional HREM. In this paper, restorations that have been investigated are Nb16W18O94, which consists of pentagonal columns of metal cations projected, samples were prepared by crushing and dispersion of the raw material onto a holey carbon support film

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

448

Single-Site Vanadyl Activation, Functionalization, and Reoxidation Reaction Mechanism for Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation on the Cubic V4O10 Cluster  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and mixed metal oxide (MMO) catalysts for selective oxidation and ammoxida- tion of propene to acrolein

Goddard III, William A.

449

Effect of gold-nickel metallization microstructure on fluxless soldering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gold plating is used in the microelectronics industry to maintain the wettability of metal substrates. The nature of wetting during soldering of gold plated metals is discussed, and the results of experiments on the fluxless wettability and oxidation of gold plated nickel are described. The results suggest that electrodeposition of a thin gold plate (0.14 [mu]m) and the concurrent reduction of nickel oxide produce a gold-nickel system which will wet without flux. Oxidation of nickel was observed to occur via nickel out-diffusion and by direct exposure of the substrate through pinhole plating defects. Auger chemical analysis indicates that pinholes do not produce oxidation of the surrounding substrate area. 20 refs., 10 figs.

Cinque, R.B.; Morris, J.W. Jr. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States))

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

“Covalent Hydration” Reactions in Model Monomeric Ru 2,2'-Bipyridine Complexes: Thermodynamic Favorability as a Function of Metal Oxidation and Overall Spin States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Density functional theory (DFT) has been used to investigate the plausibility of water addition to the simple mononuclear ruthenium complexes, [(NH{sub 3}){sub 3}(bpy)Ru=O]{sup 2+}/{sup 3+} and [(NH{sub 3}){sub 3}(bpy)RuOH]{sup 3+}, in which the OH fragment adds to the 2,2{prime}-bipyridine (bpy) ligand. Activation of bpy toward water addition has frequently been postulated within the literature, although there exists little definitive experimental evidence for this type of 'covalent hydration'. In this study, we examine the energetic dependence of the reaction upon metal oxidation state, overall spin state of the complex, as well as selectivity for various positions on the bipyridine ring. The thermodynamic favorability is found to be highly dependent upon all three parameters, with free energies of reaction that span favorable and unfavorable regimes. Aqueous addition to [(NH{sub 3}){sub 3}(bpy)Ru=O]{sup 3+} was found to be highly favorable for the S = 1/2 state, while reduction of the formal oxidation state on the metal center makes the reaction highly unfavorable. Examination of both facial and meridional isomers reveals that when bipyridine occupies the position trans to the ruthenyl oxo atom, reactivity toward OH addition decreases and the site preferences are altered. The electronic structure and spectroscopic signatures (EPR parameters and simulated spectra) have been determined to aid in recognition of 'covalent hydration' in experimental systems. EPR parameters are found to uniquely characterize the position of the OH addition to the bpy as well as the overall spin state of the system.

Ozkanlar, Abdullah; Cape, Jonathan L.; Hurst, James K.; Clark, Aurora E.

2011-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

451

In situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed species on mixed metal oxide catalysts for higher alcohol synthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy was utilized to identify adsorbed species on Zn/Cu/Cr oxide and potassium carbonate-promoted Zn/Cu/Cr oxide catalysts at 285/sup 0/C and atmospheric pressure. Adsorption of various molecules on catalysts provided information about the nature of the adsorbed species. As a result of CO/H/sub 2/ mixture, methanol and formaldehyde adsorption two types of species formed, namely a methoxy and a formate. The adsorption of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid at 285/sup 0/C revealed stable acetate species. Ethanol and acetaldehyde adsorption also produced an ethoxy species whose formation was much favored on promoted catalysts. 136 refs., 46 figs., 14 tabs.

Baysar, A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Optimization of InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattice growth by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition for use in infrared emitters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have prepared InAsSb/InGaAs strained-layer superlattices (SLSs) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition using a variety of growth conditions. Presence of an InGaAsSb interface layer was indicated by x-ray diffraction. This interface effect was minimized by optimizing the purge times, reactant flows, and growth conditions. The optimized growth conditions involved the use of low pressure, short purge times between the growth of the layers, and no reactant flow during the purges. Electron diffraction indicates that CuPt-type compositional ordering occurs in InAs{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x} alloys and SLSs which explains an observed bandgap reduction from previously accepted alloy values.

Biefeld, R.M.; Baucom, K.C.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Towards an artificial formate dehydrogenase : : mechanistic studies of formate oxidation and CO? reduction by metal P?N? complexes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electrode can be quantified and subtracted from the signal to yield PdPd(P Me2 N Ph2 ) 2 participates in some chemical reaction after being formed at the electrode.electrode around –1.5 V (Figure 5-7). However, the larger current in the presence of Pd

Seu, Candace Sachi Wai Mei

454

CO Oxidation on Pt-Group Metals from Ultrahigh Vacuum to Near Atmospheric Pressures. F. Gao, Y. Cai, K. K. Gath, Y. Wang, M. S. Chen, Q. L. Guo, and D. W. Goodman*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRAS) and X-ray photoelectronCO Oxidation on Pt-Group Metals from Ultrahigh Vacuum to Near Atmospheric Pressures. 1. Rhodium F. 6 found for a Pt(111) catalyst near atmospheric conditions, the reaction rate is linearly

Goodman, Wayne

455

Synthesis of nanostructured materials in supercritical ammonia: nitrides, metals and oxides Desmoulins-Krawiec S., Aymonier C., Loppinet-Serani A., Weill F., Grosse S., Etourneau J., Cansell F.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

N in supercritical cryogenic nitrogen by self-propagating-high- temperature synthesis (6.21 MPa, ­141 °C);19 (ii) GaSynthesis of nanostructured materials in supercritical ammonia: nitrides, metals and oxides. Abstract : In this study, the synthesis of nanostructured particles of nitrides (Cr2N, Co2N, Fe4N, Cu3N, Ni

Boyer, Edmond

456

Diphenylarsinic acid, a chemical warfare-related neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis via activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and consequent induction of oxidative DAN damage in rats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a chemical warfare-related neurotoxic organic arsenical, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. Inorganic arsenic is carcinogenic in humans and its organic arsenic metabolites are carcinogenic in animal studies, raising serious concerns about the carcinogenicity of DPAA. However, the carcinogenic potential of DPAA has not yet been evaluated. In the present study we found that DPAA significantly enhanced the development of diethylnitrosamine-induced preneoplastic lesions in the liver in a medium-term rat liver carcinogenesis assay. Evaluation of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the liver revealed that DPAA induced the expression of CYP1B1, but not any other CYP1, CYP2, or CYP3 enzymes, suggesting that CYP1B1 might be the enzyme responsible for the metabolic activation of DPAA. We also found increased oxidative DNA damage, possibly due to elevated CYP1B1 expression. Induction of CYP1B1 has generally been linked with the activation of AhR, and we found that DPAA activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Importantly, the promotion effect of DPAA was observed only at a dose that activated the AhR, suggesting that activation of AhR and consequent induction of AhR target genes and oxidative DNA damage plays a vital role in the promotion effects of DPAA. The present study provides, for the first time, evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of DPAA and indicates the necessity of comprehensive evaluation of its carcinogenic potential using long-term carcinogenicity studies. - Highlights: • DPAA, an environmental neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis in rats. • DPAA is an activator of AhR signaling pathway. • DPAA promoted oxidative DNA damage in rat livers. • AhR target gene CYP 1B1 might be involved in the metabolism of DPAA.

Wei, Min; Yamada, Takanori; Yamano, Shotaro; Kato, Minoru; Kakehashi, Anna; Fujioka, Masaki; Tago, Yoshiyuki; Kitano, Mistuaki; Wanibuchi, Hideki, E-mail: wani@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

457

The Chemical Composition of Carbon-Rich, Very Metal-Poor Stars: A New Class of Mildly Carbon-Rich Objects Without Excess of Neutron-Capture Elements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on an analysis of the chemical composition of five carbon-rich, very metal-poor stars based on high-resolution spectra. One star, CS22948-027, exhibits very large overabundances of carbon, nitrogen, and the neutron-capture elements, as found in the previous study of Hill et al.. This result may be interpreted as a consequence of mass transfer from a binary companion that previously evolved through the asymptotic giant branch stage. By way of contrast, the other four stars we investigate exhibit no overabundances of barium ([Ba/Fe]carbon and/or nitrogen ([C+N]+1). We have been unable to determine accurate carbon and nitrogen abundances for the remaining star (CS30312-100). These stars are rather similar to the carbon-rich, neutron-capture-element-poor star CS22957-027 discussed previously by Norris et al., though the carbon overabundance in this object is significantly larger ([C/Fe]=+2.2). Our results imply that these carbon-rich objects with ``normal'' neutron-capture element abundances are not rare among very metal-deficient stars. One possible process to explain this phenomenon is as a result of helium shell flashes near the base of the AGB in very low-metallicity, low-mass (M~carbon enhancements reported herein ([C/Fe]+1) are similar to those reported in the famous r-process-enhanced star CS22892-052. We discuss the possibility that the same process might be responsible for this similarity, as well as the implication that a completely independent phenomenon was responsible for the large r-process enhancement in CS22892-052.

Wako Aoki; John E. Norris; Sean G. Ryan; Timothy C. Beers; Hiroyasu Ando

2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

458

Comparative study of the reactions of metal oxides and carbonates with H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. Final technical report, September 1990--February 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this project had been the investigation of the effects of pore structure on the capacity of porous metal oxides for removal of gaseous pollutants from flue gases of power plants (SO{sub 2}) and hot coal gas (primarily H{sub 2}S). Porous calcines obtained from natural precursors (limestones and dolomites) and sorbents based on zinc oxide were used as model systems in our experimental studies, which included reactivity evolution experiments and pore structure characterization using a variety of methods. The key idea behind this project was to appropriately exploit the differences of the sulfidation and sulfation reactions (for instance, different molar volumes of solid products) to elucidate the dependence of the sorptive capacity of a porous sorbent on its physical microstructure. In order to be able to proceed faster and more productively on the analysis of the above defined problem, it was decided to employ in our studies solids whose reaction with SO{sub 2} (limestone calcines) or H{sub 2}S (sorbents based on zinc oxide) had been investigated in detail in past studies by our research group. Reactivity vs time or conversion vs time studies were conducted using thermogravimetry and fixed-bed and fluidized-bed reactors. The pore structure of partially reacted samples collected at selected time instants or conversion levels was analyzed by gas adsorption and mercury porosimetry. For better characterization of the pore structure of the solid samples, we also carried out intraparticle diffusivity measurements by the peak-broadening (chromatographic) method, using a system developed for this purpose in our laboratory. In the context of this part of the project, we also conducted a detailed theoretical investigation of the measurement of effective diffusivities in porous solids using the diffusion-cell method.

Sotirchos, S.V.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Controlling the properties of bulk metal oxides at a molecular level: Alkoxides vs carboxylates-alkoxides routes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reactions between alkoxides and/or alkoxides and anhydrous acetates have been investigated for access to advanced multicomponent niobates or titanates and with the aim to get insight into relationships between the nature of the initial precursors single or mixed metal derivatives, ligands (OAc or OR, R = Et, iPr),...- and the properties of the final material. Data are based on a variety of techniques: FT-IR, multinuclear NMR ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 207}Pb, {sup 113}Cd), X-ray investigations on single crystals. Powders have been analyzed by TGA, SEM-EDX, light scattering and XRD.

Hubert-Pfalzgraf, L.G.; Daniele, S.; Boulmaaz, S.; Papiernik, R. [Univ. de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice (France)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

460

Oxidative particle mixtures for groundwater treatment  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a method and a composition of a mixture for degradation and immobilization of contaminants in soil and groundwater. The oxidative particle mixture and method includes providing a material having a minimal volume of free water, mixing at least one inorganic oxidative chemical in a granular form with a carrier fluid containing a fine grained inorganic hydrophilic compound and injecting the resulting mixture into the subsurface. The granular form of the inorganic oxidative chemical dissolves within the areas of injection, and the oxidative ions move by diffusion and/or advection, therefore extending the treatment zone over a wider area than the injection area. The organic contaminants in the soil and groundwater are degraded by the oxidative ions, which form solid byproducts that can sorb significant amounts of inorganic contaminants, metals, and radionuclides for in situ treatment and immobilization of contaminants. The method and composition of the oxidative particle mixture for long-term treatment and immobilization of contaminants in soil and groundwater provides for a reduction in toxicity of contaminants in a subsurface area of contamination without the need for continued injection of treatment material, or for movement of the contaminants, or without the need for continuous pumping of groundwater through the treatment zone, or removal of groundwater from the subsurface area of contamination.

Siegrist, Robert L. (Boulder, CO); Murdoch, Lawrence C. (Clemson, SC)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z