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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said substrate, and as having a crystalline orientation defined as predominantly C-axis oriented by x-ray diffraction is disclosed.

Ott, K.C.; Kodas, T.T.

1990-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

2

Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nanoparticle seeded indium-tin oxide (ITO) substrate usingarrays were grown on an indium-tin oxide substrate followedof a double-sided indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate

Wang, Gongming

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Evaluation of reaction mechanism of coal-metal oxide interactions in chemical-looping combustion  

SciTech Connect

The knowledge of reaction mechanism is very important in designing reactors for chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of coal. Recent CLC studies have considered the more technically difficult problem of reactions between abundant solid fuels (i.e. coal and waste streams) and solid metal oxides. A definitive reaction mechanism has not been reported for CLC reaction of solid fuels. It has often been assumed that the solid/solid reaction is slow and therefore requires that reactions be conducted at temperatures high enough to gasify the solid fuel, or decompose the metal oxide. In contrast, data presented in this paper demonstrates that solid/solid reactions can be completed at much lower temperatures, with rates that are technically useful as long as adequate fuel/metal oxide contact is achieved. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations as well as experimental techniques such as thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), flow reactor studies, in situ X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to evaluate how the proximal interaction between solid phases proceeds. The data indicate that carbon induces the Cu-O bond breaking process to initiate the combustion of carbon at temperatures significantly lower than the spontaneous decomposition temperature of CuO, and the type of reducing medium in the vicinity of the metal oxide influences the temperature at which the oxygen release from the metal oxide takes place. Surface melting of Cu and wetting of carbon may contribute to the solid-solid contacts necessary for the reaction. (author)

Siriwardane, Ranjani; Richards, George; Poston, James [US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 (United States); Tian, Hanjing; Miller, Duane; Simonyi, Thomas [US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 (United States); URS, 3610 Collins Ferry Road, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

4

Metal atom oxidation laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides. (auth)

Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

1975-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

5

Metal atom oxidation laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides.

Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

1975-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

6

Solar Thermo-Chemical Splitting of Carbon Dioxide by Metal Oxide ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Solar Thermo-Chemical Splitting of Carbon Dioxide by Metal ... which can split carbon dioxide as well as water molecules by abstracting ...

7

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES  

SciTech Connect

This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Extracting metals directly from metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Extracting metals directly from metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

11

MESOPOROUS METAL OXIDE MICROSPHERE ELECTRODE COMPOSITIONS AND ...  

Compositions and methods of making are provided for mesoporous metal oxide microspheres electrodes. The mesoporous metal oxide microsphere ...

12

Comparison between chemical vapor deposited and physical vapor deposited WSi{sub 2} metal gate for InGaAs n-metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We compare chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and physical vapor deposition (PVD) WSi{sub 2} metal gate process for In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As n-metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors using 10 and 6.5 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as dielectric layer. The CVD-processed metal gate device with 6.5 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows enhanced transistor performance such as drive current, maximum transconductance and maximum effective mobility. These values are relatively better than the PVD-processed counterpart device with improvement of 51.8%, 46.4%, and 47.8%, respectively. The improvement for the performance of the CVD-processed metal gate device is due to the fluorine passivation at the oxide/semiconductor interface and a nondestructive deposition process.

Ong, B. S.; Pey, K. L. [Advanced Materials for Micro and Nano-Systems, Singapore-MIT Alliance, Singapore 637460 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ong, C. Y.; Tan, C. S. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Antoniadis, D. A. [Advanced Materials for Micro and Nano-Systems, Singapore-MIT Alliance, Singapore 637460 (Singapore); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Fitzgerald, E. A. [Advanced Materials for Micro and Nano-Systems, Singapore-MIT Alliance, Singapore 637460 (Singapore); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2011-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

13

Chemical oxidizers treat wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Based on the inherent benefits of these original oxidation systems, a second generation of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) has emerged. These processes combine key features of the first generation technologies with more sophisticated advances in UV technology, such as the new pulsed plasma xenon flash lamp that emits high-energy, high-intensity UV light. Second generation systems can be equipped with a transmittance controller to prevent lamp fouling or scaling. The coupling of the first generation's technology with the new UV sources provides the rapid destruction of chlorinated and nonchlorinated hydrocarbons and humic acids from contaminated water. It also is effective in the treatment of organic laden gases from soil vapor extraction systems. AOPs may promote the oxidation (and subsequent removal) of heavy metals in water, though few data are available to verify the claim. The success of AOPs, including ozonation with UV light, hydrogen peroxide with UV light and advanced photolysis, is linked with their creation of hydroxyl-free radicals (OH[center dot]) that are effective in eliminating contaminants such as formaldehyde, chlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. Hydroxyl free-radicals are consumed in microsecond reactions and exhibit little substrate selectivity with the exception of halogenated alkanes such as chloroform. They can act as chain carriers. Given their power, hydroxyl free-radicals react with virtually all organic solutes more quickly (especially in water) than any other oxidants, except fluorine. There are projects that have found the combination of some AOPs to be the most efficient organic destruction techniques for the job. For example, one project successfully remediated groundwater contaminated with gasoline and Number 2 diesel through successive treatments of ozone and hydrogen peroxide with ultraviolet light, followed by granular activated carbon. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

Stephenson, F.A. (Dames Moore, Phoenix, AZ (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Decontamination of metals using chemical etching  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to chemical etching process for reclaiming contaminated equipment wherein a reduction-oxidation system is included in a solution of nitric acid to contact the metal to be decontaminated and effect reduction of the reduction-oxidation system, and includes disposing a pair of electrodes in the reduced solution to permit passage of an electrical current between said electrodes and effect oxidation of the reduction-oxidation system to thereby regenerate the solution and provide decontaminated equipment that is essentially radioactive contamination-free.

Lerch, Ronald E. (Kennewick, WA); Partridge, Jerry A. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Spectroscopic studies of metal growth on oxides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metal/oxide chemistry and metal cluster growth on oxides are fundamental to our understanding of the catalytic activity and selectivity of metal catalysts, thus considerable research recently has addressed the physical and chemical properties of metal clusters on well-defined oxide surfaces. In this work, the nucleation and growth modes of Ag on TiO?(110)(1x1) and (1x2) surfaces, Ag on ultra-thin Al?O? films, and Au on ultra-thin SiO? films were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEIS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In general, Ag grows three-dimensionally (3D) on both TiO?(110) and Al?O? film at 300 K. The growth mode of Au at fractional monolayer coverages is quasi-two dimensional (2D); at higher coverages, three-dimensional growth of Au was found. In these three systems, Ag/TiO?, Ag/Al?O?, and Au/SiO?, no strong chemical interaction was observed between metal clusters and substrates. Sintering was observed for all metal clusters upon annealing. A non-zero order desorption was observed for Ag/Al?O? and Au/SiO? in temperature programmed desorption (TPD) studies. The desorption activation energies decrease with decreasing metal coverages.

Luo, Kai

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This summarizes NREL's FY09 battery materials research activity in developing metal oxide nanostructured anodes to enable high-energy, durable and affordable li-ion batteries for HEVs and PHEVs.

Dillon, A. C.; Riley, L. A.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ban, C.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Pesaran, A.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This summarizes NREL's FY09 battery materials research activity in developing metal oxide nanostructured anodes to enable high-energy, durable and affordable li-ion batteries for HEVs and PHEVs.

Dillon, A. C.; Riley, L. A.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ban, C.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Pesaran, A.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Process for fabrication of metal oxide films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a method of fabricating metal oxide films from a plurality of reactants by inducing a reaction by plasma deposition among the reactants. The plasma reaction is effective for consolidating the reactants and producing thin films of metal oxides, e.g. electro-optically active transition metal oxides, at a high deposition rate. The presence of hydrogen during the plasma reaction enhances the deposition rate of the metal oxide. Various types of metal oxide films can be produced.

Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.; Svensson, S.

1990-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

19

Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques. 2 figures.

Anderson, M.A.

1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

20

Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Machinable dissolved metal oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Powders of a metal oxide superconductor are mixed with sufficient amount (10--80 mol%) of In, Sn, and/or Al, to become nonbrittle, machinable. Preferred superconductors are YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]x] and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O compounds.

Chen, Chung-Hsuan.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Machinable dissolved metal oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Powders of a metal oxide superconductor are mixed with sufficient amount (10--80 mol%) of In, Sn, and/or Al, to become nonbrittle, machinable. Preferred superconductors are YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} and Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O compounds.

Chen, Chung-Hsuan

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

23

Measurement system for metal-oxide gas sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study on smell sensing and classification has been developed for a long time by many ways. Most of these have been focused on bad smells, when factors of bad smells were known chemically. Many gas sensors have been developed to detect specific chemicals. ... Keywords: Metal-oxide gas sensor, Multi-channel sensors, Smell measurement

Hideo Araki; Sigeru Omatu

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates.

Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

25

Metal oxide composite dosimeter method and material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method of measuring a radiation dose wherein a radiation responsive material consisting essentially of metal oxide is first exposed to ionizing radiation. The metal oxide is then stimulating with light thereby causing the radiation responsive material to photoluminesce. Photons emitted from the metal oxide as a result of photoluminescence may be counted to provide a measure of the ionizing radiation.

Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Metal Current Collector Protected by Oxide Film  

For Industry; For Researchers; Success Stories; About Us; ... metal felt made substantially of inexpensive ferritic steel coated with a thin oxide film, ...

27

Reduction of Metal Oxide to Metal using Ionic Liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel pathway for the high efficiency production of metal from metal oxide means of electrolysis in ionic liquids at low temperature was investigated. The main emphasis was to eliminate the use of carbon and high temperature application in the reduction of metal oxides to metals. The emphasis of this research was to produce metals such as Zn, and Pb that are normally produced by the application of very high temperatures. The reduction of zinc oxide to zinc and lead oxide to lead were investigated. This study involved three steps in accomplishing the final goal of reduction of metal oxide to metal using ionic liquids: 1) Dissolution of metal oxide in an ionic liquid, 2) Determination of reduction potential using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 3) Reduction of the dissolved metal oxide. Ionic liquids provide additional advantage by offering a wide potential range for the deposition. In each and every step of the process, more than one process variable has been examined. Experimental results for electrochemical extraction of Zn from ZnO and Pb from PbO using eutectic mixtures of Urea ((NH2)2CO) and Choline chloride (HOC2H4N(CH3)3+Cl-) or (ChCl) in a molar ratio 2:1, varying voltage and temperatures were carried out. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of ionic liquids with and without metal oxide additions were conducted. FTIR and induction coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICPS) was used in the characterization of the metal oxide dissolved ionic liquid. Electrochemical experiments were conducted using EG&G potentiostat/galvanostat with three electrode cell systems. Cyclic voltammetry was used in the determination of reduction potentials for the deposition of metals. Chronoamperometric experiments were carried out in the potential range of -0.6V to -1.9V for lead and -1.4V to -1.9V for zinc. The deposits were characterized using XRD and SEM-EDS for phase, morphological and elemental analysis. The results showed that pure metal was deposited on the cathode. Successful extraction of metal from metal oxide dissolved in Urea/ChCl (2:1) was accomplished. The current efficiencies were relatively high in both the metal deposition processes with current efficiency greater than 86% for lead and 95% for zinc. This technology will advance the metal oxide reduction process by increasing the process efficiency and also eliminate the production of CO2 which makes this an environmentally benign technology for metal extraction.

Dr. Ramana Reddy

2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

28

Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials  

SciTech Connect

Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

29

Low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon oxide films using disilane and nitrous oxide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: disilane, low temperature, nitrous oxide, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, silicon oxide

Juho Song; G. S. Lee; P. K. Ajmera

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels.

Droege, Michael W. (Livermore, CA); Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Hair, Lucy M. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels. 6 figs.

Droege, M.W.; Coronado, P.R.; Hair, L.M.

1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

32

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Ferro Metal and Chemical...  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Ferro Metal and Chemical Co - NY 42 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Ferro Metal & Chemical Co. (NY.42 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated...

33

ITP Chemicals: Metal Dusting Phenomenon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IL DuPont Central Research Wilmington, DE Duraloy Technologies, Inc. Scottsdale, PA Exxon Chemical Company Baytown, TX Haynes International, Inc. Kokomo, IN Sandvik Steel...

34

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Process for etching mixed metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An etching process using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstom range may be achieved by this method.

Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Process for etching mixed metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An etching process is described using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstrom range may be achieved by this method. 1 fig.

Ashby, C.I.H.; Ginley, D.S.

1994-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

37

Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The containment vessel is enclosed within an aqueous atmosphere that is above the supercritical temperature and pressure of the solvent of the metal alkoxide solution.

Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Senkov, Oleg N. (Moscow, ID)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Oxidation Behavior of Metallic Glass - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, M. Bulk Metallic Glasses, Nanocrystalline Materials, and ... Application of Metallic Glass for High Performance Si Solar Cell: Oxidation Behavior of ...

40

Template synthesis and surface modification of metal oxides.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Porous metal oxide monoliths, specifically silica, titania, zirconia and mixed oxides containing aluminum and yttrium, were prepared in a one-pot synthesis. Macroporosity was induced using… (more)

Drisko, Glenna Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Free Energies of Novel Metal Oxides and Metal Oxide Surfaces at ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The deposition of metal oxides on nuclear fuel rods in ... melds first principles calculations with experimental free energies of formation, we have ... and Pressures using Thermodynamics Informed by Density Functional Theory.

42

Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to ...  

Using metal oxide semiconductor nanoparticles to target and control biological molecules could fuel medical breakthroughs in many areas, including ...

43

Impact Dynamics of Oxidized Liquid Metal Drops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With exposure to air, many liquid metals spontaneously generate an oxide layer on their surface. In oscillatory rheological tests, this skin is found to introduce a yield stress that typically dominates the elastic response but can be tuned by exposing the metal to hydrochloric acid solutions of different concentration. We systematically studied the normal impact of eutectic gallium-indium (eGaIn) drops under different oxidation conditions and show how this leads to two different dynamical regimes. At low impact velocity (or low Weber number), eGaIn droplets display strong recoil and rebound from the impacted surface when the oxide layer is removed. In addition, the degree of drop deformation or spreading during the impact is controlled by the oxide skin. We show that the scaling law known from ordinary liquids for the maximum spreading radius as a function of impact velocity can still be applied to the case of oxidized eGaIn if an effective Weber number $We^{\\star}$ is employed that uses an effective surface...

Xu, Qin; Jaeger, Heinrich M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Reactor vessel using metal oxide ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Zeltner, Walter A. (Oregon, WI)

1992-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

45

Atomic-scale Chemical Quantification of Oxide Interfaces Using ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2013. Symposium, Multifunctional Oxides. Presentation Title, Atomic-scale Chemical ...

46

Metal oxide and metal fluoride nanostructures and methods of making same  

SciTech Connect

The present invention includes pure single-crystalline metal oxide and metal fluoride nanostructures, and methods of making same. These nanostructures include nanorods and nanoarrays.

Wong, Stanislaus S. (Stony Brook, NY); Mao, Yuanbing (Los Angeles, CA)

2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

47

Thermal barrier and overlay coating systems comprising composite metal/metal oxide bond coating layers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention generally describes multilayer coating systems comprising a composite metal/metal oxide bond coat layer. The coating systems may be used in gas turbines.

Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL); Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Hydrous metal oxide catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work performed at Sandia under a CRADA with Shell Development of Houston, Texas aimed at developing hydrous metal oxide (HMO) catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons. Autoxidation as well as selective oxidation of 1-octene was studied in the presence of HMO catalysts based on known oxidation catalysts. The desired reactions were the conversion of olefin to epoxides, alcohols, and ketones, HMOs seem to inhibit autoxidation reactions, perhaps by reacting with peroxides or radicals. Attempts to use HMOs and metal loaded HMOs as epoxidation catalysts were unsuccessful, although their utility for this reaction was not entirely ruled out. Likewise, alcohol formation from olefins in the presence of HMO catalysts was not achieved. However, this work led to the discovery that acidified HMOs can lead to carbocation reactions of hydrocarbons such as cracking. An HMO catalyst containing Rh and Cu that promotes the reaction of {alpha}-olefins with oxygen to form methyl ketones was identified. Although the activity of the catalyst is relatively low and isomerization reactions of the olefin simultaneously occur, results indicate that these problems may be addressed by eliminating mass transfer limitations. Other suggestions for improving the catalyst are also made. 57 refs.

Miller, J.E.; Dosch, R.G.; McLaughlin, L.I. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Process Research Dept.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Method for producing metal oxide aerogels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two-step hydrolysis-condensation method was developed to form metal oxide aerogels of any density, including densities of less than 0.003g/cm{sup 3} and greater than 0.27g/cm{sup 3}. High purity metal alkoxide is reacted with water, alcohol solvent, and an additive to form a partially condensed metal intermediate. All solvent and reaction-generated alcohol is removed, and the intermediate is diluted with a nonalcoholic solvent. The intermediate can be stored for future use to make aerogels of any density. The aerogels are formed by reacting the intermediate with water, nonalcoholic solvent, and a catalyst, and extracting the nonalcoholic solvent directly. The resulting monolithic aerogels are hydrophobic and stable under atmospheric conditions, and exhibit good optical transparency, high clarity, and homogeneity. The aerogels have high thermal insulation capacity, high porosity, mechanical strength and stability, and require shorter gelation times than aerogels formed by conventional methods. 8 figs.

Tillotson, T.M.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Thomas, I.M.

1995-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

50

Method for producing metal oxide aerogels  

SciTech Connect

A two-step hydrolysis-condensation method was developed to form metal oxide aerogels of any density, including densities of less than 0.003g/cm.sup.3 and greater than 0.27g/cm.sup.3. High purity metal alkoxide is reacted with water, alcohol solvent, and an additive to form a partially condensed metal intermediate. All solvent and reaction-generated alcohol is removed, and the intermediate is diluted with a nonalcoholic solvent. The intermediate can be stored for future use to make aerogels of any density. The aerogels are formed by reacting the intermediate with water, nonalcoholic solvent, and a catalyst, and extracting the nonalcoholic solvent directly. The resulting monolithic aerogels are hydrophobic and stable under atmospheric conditions, and exhibit good optical transparency, high clarity, and homogeneity. The aerogels have high thermal insulation capacity, high porosity, mechanical strength and stability, and require shorter gelation times than aerogels formed by conventional methods.

Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Thomas, Ian M. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Metallic Ferroelectricity and Superconductivity in the Transition Metal Oxide Pyrochlore Cd2Re2O7.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Single crystalline samples of transition metal oxide Cd2Re2O7, the first superconductor among pyrochlore oxides with general formula A2B2O7 and the first example of “ferroelectric metal”… (more)

He, Jian

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Metal oxide membranes for gas separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for permformation of a microporous ceramic membrane onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane having mean pore sizes less than 30 Angstroms and useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or gas separation.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Webster, Elizabeth T. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Plainsboro, NJ)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Metal oxide membranes for gas separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for formation of a microporous ceramic membrane onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane having mean pore sizes less than 30 Angstroms and useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or gas separation. 4 figs.

Anderson, M.A.; Webster, E.T.; Xu, Q.

1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

54

Kinetic Consequences of Chemisorbed Oxygen Atoms during Methane Oxidation on Group VIII Metal Clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

v for the oxidation of bulk Pt metals. The bulk oxidation isbulk, cluster size and metal coordination effects on thermodynamic tendencies of bulk oxidation,O s * sites at metal surfaces. Bulk oxidation exposes Pd 2+

Chin, Ya Huei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Near room temperature lithographically processed metal-oxide transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A fully lithographic process at near-room-temperature was developed for the purpose of fabricating transistors based on metal-oxide channel materials. The combination of indium tin oxide (ITO) as the source/drain electrodes, ...

Tang, Hui, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Flame Synthesized Metal Oxide Nanowires as Effective Photoanodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stanford, CA 94305, USA I will discuss an atmospheric, cost-effective and scalable flame synthesis method for the growth and doping of metal oxide nanowires and these...

57

Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Pave the Way for ...  

Argonne researchers have developed a unique application of technology that involves using metal oxide semiconductor nanoparticles to target and control biological ...

58

Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites for Li-Ion Battery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites for Li-Ion Battery. Author(s), Donghai Wang, Daiwon Choi, Juan Li, Zhenguo Yang, Zimin Nie, Rong ...

59

CHEMICAL WASTE RECYCLING PROGRAM EMPTY CHEMICAL BOTTLES: which include all glass, plastic and metal bottles that  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHEMICAL WASTE RECYCLING PROGRAM EMPTY CHEMICAL BOTTLES: which include all glass, plastic and metal bottles that previously contained chemicals (hazardous or non-hazardous) are collected by CWS for recycling. Bottles should be dry and empty without chemical residue. Rinse and collect rinsate in chemical

Ungerleider, Leslie G.

60

Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Madison, WI)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Madison, WI)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Conductive metal oxide film and method of making  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a method for reducing a dopant in a film of a metal oxide wherein the dopant is reduced and the first metal oxide is substantially not reduced. The method of the present invention relies upon exposing the film to reducing conditions for a predetermined time and reducing a valence of the metal from a positive valence to a zero valence and maintaining atoms with a zero valence in an atomic configuration within the lattice structure of the metal oxide. According to the present invention, exposure to reducing conditions may be achieved electrochemically or achieved in an elevated temperature gas phase.

Windisch, Jr., Charles F. (Kennewick, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low-temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as Al, Ti, Ta or stainless steel. The composition comprises Sn and Zn; Ge as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of Cu and Sb; and a grit, such as SiC. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the Ge penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The Ge comprises less than 10 wt.% of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above 300 C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so that the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

64

Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene Triple Junction Points  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Carbon-supported metal catalysts are widely used in heterogeneous catalysis and electrocatalysis. In this paper, we report a novel method to deposit metal catalysts and metal oxide nanoparticles on two-dimensional graphene sheets to improve the catalytic performance and stability of the catalyst materials. The new synthesis method allows indium tin oxide (ITO) nanocrystals to be directly grown on functionalized graphene sheets forming the ITO-graphene hybrids. Pt nanoparticles are then deposited to form a special triple-junction structure (Pt-ITO-graphene). Both experimental study and periodic density functional theory calculations show that the supported Pt nanoparticles are stable at Pt-ITO-graphene triple junction points. The new catalyst materials were tested for oxygen reduction for potential applications in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, and they exhibited greatly enhanced stability and activity. The reasons for the high stability and activity of Pt-ITO-graphene are analyzed.

Kou, Rong; Shao, Yuyan; Mei, Donghai; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Wang, Chong M.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Park, Seh K.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

65

High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets  

SciTech Connect

This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (1) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (2) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (3) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

Scalettar, Richard T.; Pickett, Warren E.

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets  

SciTech Connect

This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (i) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (ii) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (iii) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett

2005-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

67

P-64: A Comparative Study of Metal Oxide Coated Indium-tin Oxide Anodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Indium-tin oxide anodes capped with certain oxides of metals enhance while other oxides degrade the hole-injection and quantum efficiencies of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The oxides of tin, zinc, praseodymium, yttrium, gallium, terbium and titanium have been investigated. The power efficiency of an OLED with a 1nm thick praseodymium oxide cap is improved by 2.5 times over that of a conventional OLED without an oxide capped anode.

For Organic Light-Emitting; Chengfeng Qiu; Haiying Chen; Zhilang Xie; Man Wong; Hoi Sing Kwok

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

Poston, James A. (Star City, WV)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixtures derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

Poston, J.A.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

70

Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchangers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

Dosch, R.G.; Stephens, H.P.; Stohl, F.V.

1983-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

71

Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchanges  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

Dosch, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Stephens, Howard P. (Albuquerque, NM); Stohl, Frances V. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Formation of metal oxides by cathodic arc deposition  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metal oxide thin films are of interest for a number of applications. Cathodic arc deposition, an established, industrially applied technique for formation of nitrides (e.g. TiN), can also be used for metal oxide thin film formation. A cathodic arc plasma source with desired cathode material is operated in an oxygen atmosphere, and metal oxides of various stoichiometric composition can be formed on different substrates. We report here on a series of experiments on metal oxide formation by cathodic arc deposition for different applications. Black copper oxide has been deposited on ALS components to increase the radiative heat transfer between the parts. Various metal oxides such as tungsten oxide, niobium oxide, nickel oxide and vanadium oxide have been deposited on ITO glass to form electrochromic films for window applications. Tantalum oxide films are of interest for replacing polymer electrolytes. Optical waveguide structures can be formed by refractive index variation using oxide multilayers. We have synthesized multilayers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si as possible basic structures for passive optoelectronic integrated circuits, and Al{sub 2-x}Er{sub x}O{sub 3} thin films with a variable Er concentration which is a potential component layer for the production of active optoelectronic integrated devices such as amplifiers or lasers at a wavelength of 1.53 {mu}m. Aluminum and chromium oxide films have been deposited on a number of substrates to impart improved corrosion resistance at high temperature. Titanium sub-oxides which are electrically conductive and corrosion resistant and stable in a number of aggressive environments have been deposited on various substrates. These sub-oxides are of great interest for use in electrochemical cells.

Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Rubin, M.; Wang, Z.; Raoux, S.; Kong, F.; Brown, I.G.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixtures is then cooled to a temperature less than -100/sup 0/C in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

Duerksen, W.K.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

NREL Demonstrates Efficient Solar Water Splitting by Metal Oxide Photoabsorber (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

New development demonstrates that inexpensive and robust metal oxide photoabsorbers hold great promise as photoanodes for water oxidation.

Not Available

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

Norton, David P. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Properties and Characterization of Nano-Structured Metal Oxides ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to synthesize numerous metal oxide nano- structures including TiO2, Nb-doped TiO2, SnO2, ZnO, and NiO and deposit these ...

80

Displacement method and apparatus for reducing passivated metal powders and metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of reducing target metal oxides and passivated metals to their metallic state. A reduction reaction is used, often combined with a flux agent to enhance separation of the reaction products. Thermal energy in the form of conventional furnace, infrared, or microwave heating may be applied in combination with the reduction reaction.

Morrell; Jonathan S. (Knoxville, TN), Ripley; Edward B. (Knoxville, TN)

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Chemical vapor depositing of metal fluorides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Purity BeF2 and BeF2–AlF3glasses have been deposited by the chemical vapor deposition technique using beryllium and aluminum 1

A. Sarhangi; J. M. Power

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Application of chemical structure and bonding of actinide oxide materials for forensic science  

SciTech Connect

We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO{sub 2} (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO{sub 2+x}. Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxide materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, or process history of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensic science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

Wilkerson, Marianne Perry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Interactions of Hydrogen Isotopes and Oxides with Metal Tubes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Understanding and accounting for interaction of hydrogen isotopes and their oxides with metal surfaces is important for persons working with tritium systems. Reported data from several investigators have shown that the processes of oxidation, adsorption, absorption, and permeation are all coupled and interactive. A computer model has been developed for predicting the interaction of hydrogen isotopes and their corresponding oxides in a flowing carrier gas stream with the walls of a metallic tube, particularly at low hydrogen concentrations. An experiment has been constructed to validate the predictive model. Predictions from modeling lead to unexpected experiment results.

Glen R. Longhurst

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Internal zone growth method for producing metal oxide metal eutectic composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for preparing a cermet comprises preparing a compact having about 85 to 95 percent theoretical density from a mixture of metal and metal oxide powders from a system containing a eutectic composition, and inductively heating the compact in a radiofrequency field to cause the formation of an internal molten zone. The metal oxide particles in the powder mixture are effectively sized relative to the metal particles to permit direct inductive heating of the compact by radiofrequency from room temperature. Surface melting is prevented by external cooling or by effectively sizing the particles in the powder mixture.

Clark, Grady W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Holder, John D. (Knoxville, TN); Pasto, Arvid E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Bacterial Production of Mixed Metal Oxide Nanoparticles  

• Production of fine particulates of ceramic powders used by industry and in chemical processing applications Patent Tommy J. Phelps, Robert J. Lauf, ...

87

Initial stages of high temperature metal oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The application of XPS and UPS to the study of the initial stages of high temperature (> 350/sup 0/C) electrochemical oxidation of iron and nickel is discussed. In the high temperature experiments, iron and nickel electrodes were electrochemically oxidized in contact with a solid oxide electrolyte in the uhv system. The great advantages of this technique are that the oxygen activity at the interface may be precisely controlled and the ability to run the reactions in uhv allows the simultaneous observation of the reactions by XPS.

Yang, C.Y.; O'Grady, W.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Methods of making metal oxide nanostructures and methods of controlling morphology of same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a method of producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure. The method comprises providing a metal salt solution and providing a basic solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal salt solution and the basic solution, wherein metal cations of the metal salt solution and hydroxide ions of the basic solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure.

Wong, Stanislaus S; Hongjun, Zhou

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

89

PAD: Polymer-Assisted Deposition of Metal-Oxide and Metal ...  

Wind Energy; Partners (27) Visual Patent ... for the successful production of both simple and complex metal-oxide films such as TiO2, ITO, SrTiO3, TiN, AlN, and ...

90

Chemically homogeneous and thermally reversible oxidation of epitaxial graphene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With its exceptional charge mobility, graphene holds great promise for applications in next-generation electronics. In an effort to tailor its properties and interfacial characteristics, the chemical functionalization of graphene is being actively pursued. The oxidation of graphene via the Hummers method is most widely used in current studies, although the chemical inhomogeneity and irreversibility of the resulting graphene oxide compromises its use in high-performance devices. Here, we present an alternative approach for oxidizing epitaxial graphene using atomic oxygen in ultrahigh vacuum. Atomic-resolution characterization with scanning tunnelling microscopy is quantitatively compared to density functional theory, showing that ultrahigh-vacuum oxidization results in uniform epoxy functionalization. Furthermore, this oxidation is shown to be fully reversible at temperatures as low as 260 8C using scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopic techniques. In this manner, ultrahigh-vacuum oxidation overcomes the limitations of Hummers-method graphene oxide, thus creating new opportunities for the study and application of chemically functionalized graphene.

Hossain, Md. Zakir [Northwestern University, Evanston; Johns, James E. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Bevan, Kirk H [ORNL; Karmel, Hunter J. [Northwestern University, Evanston; Liang, Yu Teng [Northwestern University, Evanston; Yoshimoto, Shinya [University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Mukai, Kozo [University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Koitaya, Tatanori [University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Yoshinobu, Jun [University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Kawai, Maki [University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Lear, Amanda M. [Indiana University; Kesmodel, Larry L. [Indiana University; Tait, Steven L. [Indiana University; Hersam, Mark C. [Northwestern University, Evanston

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Flame Synthesis of One-Dimensional Metal Oxide Nanomaterials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synthesis of One-Dimensional Metal Oxide Nanomaterials Synthesis of One-Dimensional Metal Oxide Nanomaterials Alexei V. Saveliev Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA Robust, scalable, and energy efficient methods of nanomaterial synthesis are needed to meet the demands of current and potential applications. Flames have been successfully applied for the synthesis of metal oxide and ceramic nanopowders largely composed of spherical particles and their aggregates. In recent years, premixed and diffusion flames have been employed for the synthesis of 1-D carbon nanoforms such as carbon fibers and carbon nanotubes. The extension of flame methods to gas phase and solid support synthesis of 1-D inorganic nanoforms is of great interest and significance. This talk presents

92

Metal ion sorption by untreated and chemically treated biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The metal-binding ability of biosorbents is well known; however, in comparison with commercial ion-exchange resins the capacity of biosorbents is low. The purpose of this research was to examine chemically modified biosorbents and biosorbents prepared from microorganisms isolated from extreme environments to determine if significant improvements in metal-binding capacity or biosorbents with unique capabilities could be produced. Chemical treatments examined included acid, alkali, carbon disulfide, phosphorus oxychloride, anhydrous formamide, sodium thiosulfate, sodium chloroacetic acid, and phenylsulfonate. Biosorbents were prepared from microorganisms isolated from pristine and acid mine drainage impacted sites and included heterotrophs, methanotrophs, algae, and sulfate reducers. Chemical modification with carbon disulfide, phosphorous oxychloride, and sodium thiosulfate yielded biosorbents with such as much as 74%, 133%, and 155% improvements, respectively, in metal-binding capacity, but the performance of these chemically modified biosorbents deteriorated upon repeated use. A culture isolated from an acid mine drainage impacted site, IGTM17, exhibits about 3-fold higher metal-binding capacity in comparison with other biosorbents examined in this study. IGTM17 also exhibits superior metal-binding ability at decreased pH or in the presence of interfering common cations in comparison with other biosorbents or some commercially available cation exchange resins. Some biosorbents, such as IGTM5, can bind anions. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of the ability of biosorbents to bind anions. Moreover, preliminary data indicate that the chemical modification of biosorbents may be capable of imparting the ability to selectively bind certain anions. Further research is needed to optimize conditions for the chemical modification and stabilization of biosorbents.

Kilbane, J.J.; Xie, J.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

93

OXIDATION BEHAVIOR OF WELDED AND BASE METAL UNS N06025  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxidation behavior of specimens containing tungsten inert gas welds of UNS N06025 (NiCrFeAlY) was investigated in air for up to 5,000h at 900 -1000 C and 1,000h at 1100 -1200 C. In general, the microstructure was very homogeneous in the weld with smaller carbides and the Al2O3 penetrations were similar or smaller compared to those formed in the base metal. Above 1000 C, significant spallation was observed and Al and Cr depletion in the metal was observed to a similar extent in the weld and base metal. The maximum internal oxidation depth of the base metal at 900 and 1100 C was lower than several other commercial Ni-base alloys.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Paul, Larry D. [Thyssen-Krupp VDM

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Metal current collect protected by oxide film  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive current collects and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical devices having as current interconnects a ferritic steel felt or screen coated with a protective oxide film.

Jacobson, Craig P. (Lafayette, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

2004-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

95

Carbon monoxide oxidation over three different states of copper: Development of a model metal oxide catalyst  

SciTech Connect

Carbon monoxide oxidation was performed over the three different oxidation states of copper -- metallic (Cu), copper (I) oxide (Cu{sub 2}O), and copper (II) oxide (CuO) as a test case for developing a model metal oxide catalyst amenable to study by the methods of modern surface science and catalysis. Copper was deposited and oxidized on oxidized supports of aluminum, silicon, molybdenum, tantalum, stainless steel, and iron as well as on graphite. The catalytic activity was found to decrease with increasing oxidation state (Cu > Cu{sub 2}O > CuO) and the activation energy increased with increasing oxidation state (Cu, 9 kcal/mol < Cu{sub 2}O, 14 kcal/mol < CuO, 17 kcal/mol). Reaction mechanisms were determined for the different oxidation states. Lastly, NO reduction by CO was studied. A Cu and CuO catalyst were exposed to an equal mixture of CO and NO at 300--350 C to observe the production of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. At the end of each reaction, the catalyst was found to be Cu{sub 2}O. There is a need to study the kinetics of this reaction over the different oxidation states of copper.

Jernigan, G.G. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials and Chemical Sciences Div.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

Perkins, John (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David (Evergreen, CO); Taylor, Matthew (Golden, CO); Neuman, George A. (Holland, MI); Luten, Henry A. (Holland, MI); Forgette, Jeffrey A. (Hudsonville, MI); Anderson, John S. (Holland, MI)

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

97

Metal complexes of substituted Gable porphyrins as oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transition metal complexes of Gable porphyrins are disclosed having two porphyrin rings connected through a linking group, and having on the porphyrin rings electron-withdrawing groups, such as halogen, nitro or cyano. These complexes are useful as catalysts for the oxidation of organic compounds, e.g. alkanes.

Lyons, J.E.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Wagner, R.W.

1996-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

98

Metal complexes of substituted Gable porphyrins as oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transition metal complexes of Gable porphyrins having two porphyrin rings connected through a linking group, and having on the porphyrin rings electron-withdrawing groups, such as halogen, nitro or cyano. These complexes are useful as catalysts for the oxidation of organic compounds, e.g. alkanes.

Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Wagner, Richard W. (Murrysville, PA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Electrical conductivity of. gamma. -irradiated and chemically oxidized wool  

SciTech Connect

Examples of wool fibers were irradiated with gamma rays and chemically oxidized with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ to study the effect on their electrical conductivity. In both cases, electrical conductivity increased whereas the activation cnergy decreased with increases in diameter, moisture content and intrensic ash content of the wool samples.

Moharram, M.A. (Tanta Univ., Cairo, Egypt); Abou Sekkina, M.M.; Rabie, S.M.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Thermal & Chemical Behavior of Uranium Metal Bearing Hanford K East Basin Sludge  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Uranium-metal-bearing sludge from the Hanford site K East Basin is to be loaded into containers and moved to interim storage in a dry cell at T Plant on the Hanford site. Thermal and chemical behavior of this sludge in its storage container are of interest to design and safety, because oxidation of its uranium generates power and hydrogen gas, with resulting implications for flammability of the container and cell headspaces, and the potential for local temperature escalation. Key aspects of experimental work and model development necessary to support the technical basis for design and safety analyses are reported here: (1) Experimental data supporting the oxidation rate law, including reactive surface area depletion, (2) Experimental data defining the maximum allowable heat generation rate in wet sludge, the so-called dryout heat flux, and (3) Integral modeling of physical and chemical processes to predict temperature and hydrogen concentration histories during loading, shipping, handling, and storage.

DUNCAN, D.R.

2003-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

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101

Mechanistic aspects of photooxidation of polyhydroxylated molecules on metal oxides.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polyhydroxylated molecules, including natural carbohydrates, are known to undergo photooxidation on wide-gap transition-metal oxides irradiated by ultraviolet light. In this study, we examine mechanistic aspects of this photoreaction on aqueous TiO{sub 2}, {alpha}-FeOOH, and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and site-selective deuteration. We demonstrate that the carbohydrates are oxidized at sites involved in the formation of oxo bridges between the chemisorbed carbohydrate molecule and metal ions at the oxide surface. This bridging inhibits the loss of water (which is the typical reaction of the analogous free radicals in bulk solvent) promoting instead a rearrangement that leads to elimination of the formyl radical. For natural carbohydrates, the latter reaction mainly involves carbon-1, whereas the main radical products of the oxidation are radical arising from H atom loss centered on carbon-1, -2, and -3 sites. Photoexcited TiO{sub 2} oxidizes all of the carbohydrates and polyols, whereas {alpha}-FeOOH oxidizes some of the carbohydrates, and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is unreactive. These results serve as a stepping stone for understanding the photochemistry on mineral surfaces of more complex biomolecules such as nucleic acids.

Shkrob, I. A.; Marin, T. M.; Sevilla, M. D.; Chemerisov, S. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Benedictine Univ.); (Oakland Univ.)

2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

102

Electrical excitation of colloidally synthesized quantum dots in metal oxide structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis develops methods for integrating colloidally synthesized quantum dots (QDs) and metal oxides in optoelectronic devices, presents three distinct light emitting devices (LEDs) with metal oxides surrounding a QD ...

Wood, Vanessa Claire

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

SP-29: Oxidation Behavior of Zr56Al16Co28 Metallic Glasses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The oxidation behavior of Zr56A16Co28 bulk metallic glass was ... A high resistance against oxidation in Zr56Al16Co28 bulk metallic glasses ...

104

Production of Oxygen Gas and Liquid Metal by Electrochemical Decomposition of Molten Iron Oxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is the electrolytic decomposition of a metal oxide, most preferably into liquid metal and oxygen gas. The successful deployment of MOE hinges upon the existence of an inert anode capable of ...

Wang, Dihua

105

Oxidative weathering chemical migration under variably saturated conditions and supergene copper enrichment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transport of oxygen gas from the land surface through an unsaturated zone has a strong influence on oxidative weathering processes. Oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS{sub 2}), one of the most common naturally occurring minerals, is the primary source of acid drainage from mines and waste rock piles. Here we present a detailed numerical model of supergene copper enrichment that involves the oxidative weathering of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) and chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}), and acidification that causes mobilization of metals in the unsaturated zone, with subsequent formation of enriched ore deposits of chalcocite (CuS) and covellite (Cu{sub 2}S) in the reducing conditions below the water table. We examine and identify some significant conceptual and computational issues regarding the oxidative weathering processes through the modeling tool. The dissolution of gaseous oxygen induced by the oxidation reduces oxygen partial pressure, as well as the total pressure of the gas phase. As a result, the gas flow is modified, then the liquid phase flow. Results indicate that this reaction effect on the fluid flow may not be important under ambient conditions, and gas diffusion can be a more important mechanism for oxygen supply than gas or liquid advection. Acidification, mobilization of metals, and alteration of primary minerals mostly take place in unsaturated zone (oxidizing), while precipitation of secondary minerals mainly occurs in saturated zone (reducing). The water table may be considered as an interface between oxidizing and reducing zones. Moving water table due to change of infiltration results in moving oxidizing zone and redistributing aqueous chemical constitutes and secondary mineral deposits. The oxidative weathering processes are difficult to model numerically, because concentrations of redox sensitive chemical species such as O{sub 2}(aq), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and HS{sup -} may change over tens of orders of magnitude between oxidizing and reducing conditions. In order to simulate substantial reaction progress over geologic time, one can benefit from the quasi-stationary state (QSS) approximation. A significant saving of computing time using QSS is demonstrated through the example. In addition, changes in porosity and permeability due to mineral dissolution and precipitation are also addressed in some degree. Even though oxidative weathering is sensitive to many factors, this work demonstrates that our model provides a comprehensive suite of process modeling capabilities, which could serve as a prototype for oxidative weathering processes with broad significance for geoscientific, engineering, and environmental applications.

Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, K.; Brimhall, G.

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Removal of NOx or its conversion into harmless gases by charcoals and composites of metal oxides  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, much attention has been devoted to environmental problems such as acid rain, photochemical smog and water pollution. In particular, NOx emissions from factories, auto mobiles, etc. in urban areas have become worse. To solve these problems on environmental pollution on a global scale, the use of activated charcoal to reduce air pollutants is increasing. However, the capability of wood-based charcoal materials is not yet fully known. The removal of NOx or its conversion into harmless gases such as N{sub 2} should be described. In this study, the adsorption of NO over wood charcoal or metal oxide-dispersed wood charcoal was investigated. In particular, carbonized wood powder of Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) was used to study the effectivity of using these materials in adsorbing NOx. Since wood charcoal is chemically stable, metal oxide with the ability of photocatalysis was dispersed into wood charcoal to improve its adsorption and capability to use the light energy effectively.

Ishihara, Shigehisa; Furutsuka, Takeshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

107

Electrolytic photodissociation of chemical compounds by iron oxide photochemical diodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Chemical compounds can be dissociated by contacting the same with a p/n type semi-conductor photochemical diode having visible light as its sole source of energy. The photochemical diode consists of low cost, readily available materials, specifically polycrystalline iron oxide doped with silicon in the case of the n-type semi-conductor electrode, and polycrystalline iron oxide doped with magnesium in the case of the p-type electrode. So long as the light source has an energy greater than 2.2 electron volts, no added energy source is needed to achieve dissociation.

Somorjai, Gabor A. (Berkeley, CA); Leygraf, Christofer H. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Electrolytic photodissociation of chemical compounds by iron oxide electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Chemical compounds can be dissociated by contacting the same with a p/n type semi-conductor diode having visible light as its sole source of energy. The diode consists of low cost, readily available materials, specifically polycrystalline iron oxide doped with silicon in the case of the n-type semi-conductor electrode, and polycrystalline iron oxide doped with magnesium in the case of the p-type electrode. So long as the light source has an energy greater than 2.2 electron volts, no added energy source is needed to achieve dissociation.

Somorjai, Gabor A. (Berkeley, CA); Leygraf, Christofer H. (Berkeley, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Viscoelastic properties of oxide-coated liquid metals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many liquid metals exposed to air develop an oxide film on their outer surface. This film is sufficiently solid-like to provide mechanical stability to small liquid metal droplets, yet weak enough to allow the droplets to be malleable. These properties are useful in both micro-electronics and microfluidics; however, little is known about how to characterize them. Here we probe the elastic, yielding, and relaxation properties of oxide-coated gallium and eutectic gallium indium using a rheometer equipped with a parallel-plate geometry. By using parallel plates of different size, we show that surface stresses dominate bulk stresses. These experiments also demonstrate that the apparent elastic properties of the oxide film are highly sensitive to its strain history. Moreover, the apparent elasticity is sensitive to the stresses stored in the oxide skin. We probe these stresses and their time-dependence, with both torque and normal force measurements. We also characterize the time-dependence of the elasticity by observing free vibrations of the rheometer. We rationalize the strain history and time-dependence in terms of oxidation and show that despite this dependence, reproducible elasticity measurements can be obtained due to the ability of shear to produce a state that is independent of the strain history. © 2009 The Society of Rheology. ?DOI: 10.1122/1.3236517? I.

Ryan J. Larsen A; Michael D. Dickey B; George M. Whitesides; David A. Weitz C

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Catalytic hydrocarbon reactions over supported metal oxides. Progress report, April 1, 1994--January 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oxide catalysis plays a central role in hydrocarbon processing and improvements in catalytic activity or selectivity are of great technological importance because these improvements will translate directly into more efficient utilization of hydrocarbon supplies and lower energy consumption in separation processes. An understanding of the relationships between surface structure and catalytic properties is needed to describe and improve oxide catalysts. Our approach has been to prepare supported oxides that have a specific structure and oxidation state and then employ these structures in reaction studies. Our current research program is focused on studying the fundamental relationships between structure and reactivity for two important reactions that are present in many oxide-catalyzed processes, partial oxidation and carbon-carbon bond formation. Oxide catalysis can be a complex process with both metal cation and oxygen anions participating in the chemical reactions. From an energy perspective carbon-carbon bond formation is particularly relevant to CO hydrogenation in isosynthesis. Hydrogenolysis and hydrogenation form the basis for heteroatom removal in fuels processing. Understanding the catalysis of these processes (and others) requires isolating reaction steps in the overall cycle and determining how structure and composition influence the individual reaction steps. Specially designed oxides, such as we use, permit one to study some of the steps in oxidation, carbon-carbon coupling and heteroatom removal catalysis. During the course of our studies we have: (1) developed methods to form and stabilize various Mo and W oxide structures on silica; (2) studied C-H abstraction reactions over the fully oxidized cations; (3) studied C-C bond coupling by methathesis and reductive coupling of aldehydes and ketones over reduced cation structures; and (4) initiated a study of hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis over reduced cation structures.

Ekerdt, J.G.

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

111

For cermet inert anode containing oxide and metal phases useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cermet inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a ceramic phase including an oxide of Ni, Fe and M, where M is at least one metal selected from Zn, Co, Al, Li, Cu, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, Hf and rare earths, preferably Zn and/or Co. Preferred ceramic compositions comprise Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO and ZnO or CoO. The cermet inert anode also comprises a metal phase such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. A preferred metal phase comprises Cu and Ag. The cermet inert anodes may be used in electrolytic reduction cells for the production of commercial purity aluminum as well as other metals.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Dual-environment effects on the oxidation of metallic interconnects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells are exposed to a dual environment: fuel on one side (i.e., H2 gas) and oxidizer on the other side (i.e., air). It has been observed that the oxidation behavior of thin stainless steel sheet in air is changed by the presence of H2 on the other side of the sheet. The resulting dual-environment scales are flaky and more friable than the single-environment scales. The H2 disrupts the scale on the air side. A model to explain some of the effects of a dual environment is presented where hydrogen diffusing through the stainless steel sheet reacts with oxygen diffusing through the scale to form water vapor, which has sufficient vapor pressure to mechanically disrupt the scale. Experiments on preoxidized 316L stainless steel tubing exposed to air-air, H2-air, and H2-Ar environments are reported in support of the model.

Holcomb, G.R.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Covino, B.S., Jr.; Bullard, S.J.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0oxidation state and with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more ion with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

2004-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

114

Thermodynamic properties of some metal oxide-zirconia systems  

SciTech Connect

Metal oxide-zirconia systems are a potential class of materials for use as structural materials at temperatures above 1900 K. These materials must have no destructive phase changes and low vapor pressures. Both alkaline earth oxide (MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO)-zirconia and some rare earth oxide (Y2O3, Sc2O3, La2O3, CeO2, Sm2O3, Gd2O3, Yb2O3, Dy2O3, Ho2O3, and Er2O3)-zirconia system are examined. For each system, the phase diagram is discussed and the vapor pressure for each vapor species is calculated via a free energy minimization procedure. The available thermodynamic literature on each system is also surveyed. Some of the systems look promising for high temperature structural materials.

Jacobson, N.S.

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0oxidation state and with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more ion with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oakbrook, IL)

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

116

Activation of Noble Metals on Metal-Carbide Surfaces: Novel Catalysts for CO Oxidation, Desulfurization and Hydrogenation Reactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This perspective article focuses on the physical and chemical properties of highly active catalysts for CO oxidation, desulfurization and hydrogenation reactions generated by depositing noble metals on metal-carbide surfaces. To rationalize structure-reactivity relationships for these novel catalysts, well-defined systems are required. High-resolution photoemission, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and first-principles periodic density-functional (DF) calculations have been used to study the interaction of metals of Groups 9, 10 and 11 with MC(001) (M = Ti, Zr, V, Mo) surfaces. DF calculations give adsorption energies that range from 2 eV (Cu, Ag, Au) to 6 eV (Co, Rh, Ir). STM images show that Au, Cu, Ni and Pt grow on the carbide substrates forming two-dimensional islands at very low coverage, and three-dimensional islands at medium and large coverages. In many systems, the results of DF calculations point to the preferential formation of admetal-C bonds with significant electronic perturbations in the admetal. TiC(001) and ZrC(001) transfer some electron density to the admetals facilitating bonding of the adatom with electron-acceptor molecules (CO, O{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, thiophene, etc.). For example, the Cu/TiC(001) and Au/TiC(001) systems are able to cleave both S-O bonds of SO{sub 2} at a temperature as low as 150 K, displaying a reactivity much larger than that of TiC(001) or extended surfaces of bulk copper and gold. At temperatures below 200 K, Au/TiC is able to dissociate O{sub 2} and perform the 2CO + O{sub 2} {yields} 2CO{sub 2} reaction. Furthermore, in spite of the very poor hydrodesulfurization performance of TiC(001) or Au(111), a Au/TiC(001) surface displays an activity for the hydrodesulfurization of thiophene higher than that of conventional Ni/MoS{sub x} catalysts. In general, the Au/TiC system is more chemically active than systems generated by depositing Au nanoparticles on oxide surfaces. Thus, metal carbides are excellent supports for enhancing the chemical reactivity of noble metals.

Rodriguez J. A.; Illas, F.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Hydrocracking and hydroisomerization of long-chain alkanes and polyolefins over metal-promoted anion-modified transition metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of cracking a feedstock by contacting the feedstock with a metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst in the presence of hydrogen gas. The metal oxide of the catalyst is one or more of ZrO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, TiO.sub.2 and SnO.sub.2, and the feedstock is principally chains of at least 20 carbon atoms. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of Pt, Ni, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, (Mn & Fe) or mixtures of them present between about 0.2% to about 15% by weight of the catalyst. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of SO.sub.4, WO.sub.3, or mixtures of them present between about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the catalyst.

Venkatesh, Koppampatti R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Hu, Jianli (Cranbury, NJ); Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Hydrocracking and hydroisomerization of long-chain alkanes and polyolefins over metal-promoted anion-modified transition metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for cracking a feedstock by contacting the feedstock with a metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst in the presence of hydrogen gas. The metal oxide of the catalyst is one or more of ZrO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2}, and the feedstock is principally chains of at least 20 carbon atoms. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of Pt, Ni, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, (Mn and Fe) or mixtures of them present between about 0.2% to about 15% by weight of the catalyst. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of SO{sub 4}, WO{sub 3}, or mixtures of them present between about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the catalyst.

Venkatesh, Koppampatti R.; Hu, Jianli; Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides Print Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides Print "Ferroelectricity," by analogy to ferromagnetism, is defined as the presence of spontaneous electrical polarization in a material, often arising from distortions in the material's crystal structure. In oxides of the metals lead and bismuth, such distortions were for many years attributed to the existence of "lone pair" electrons: pairs of chemically inert, nonbonding valence electrons in hybrid orbitals that leave noticeable voids in the crystal structure. At the ALS, researchers from the U.K., Ireland, and the U.S. have now obtained definitive experimental evidence that this lone-pair model must be revised. High-resolution x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and soft x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) have clarified the subtle electronic origins of the prototypical distortions in these crystal structures. The results have important implications for the tantalizing possibility of spintronic or superconducting devices combining ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties.

120

Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides Print Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides Print "Ferroelectricity," by analogy to ferromagnetism, is defined as the presence of spontaneous electrical polarization in a material, often arising from distortions in the material's crystal structure. In oxides of the metals lead and bismuth, such distortions were for many years attributed to the existence of "lone pair" electrons: pairs of chemically inert, nonbonding valence electrons in hybrid orbitals that leave noticeable voids in the crystal structure. At the ALS, researchers from the U.K., Ireland, and the U.S. have now obtained definitive experimental evidence that this lone-pair model must be revised. High-resolution x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and soft x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) have clarified the subtle electronic origins of the prototypical distortions in these crystal structures. The results have important implications for the tantalizing possibility of spintronic or superconducting devices combining ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Transition metal oxides deposited on rhodium and platinum: Surface chemistry and catalysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The surface chemistry and catalytic reactivity of transition metal oxides deposited on Rh and Pt substrates has been examined in order to establish the role of oxide-metal interactions in influencing catalytic activity. The oxides investigated included titanium oxide (TiOx), vanadium oxide (VOx), iron oxide (FeOx), zirconium oxide (ZrOx), niobium oxide (NbOx), tantalum oxide (TaOx), and tungsten oxide (WOx). The techniques used to characterize the sample included AES, XPS, LEED, TPD, ISS, and STM. After characterization of the surface in UHV, the sample was enclosed in an atmospheric reaction cell to measure the influence of the oxide deposits on the catalytic activity of the pure metal for CO and CO{sub 2} hydrogenation. The oxide deposits were found to strongly enhance the reactivity of the Rh foil. The rates of methane formation were promoted by up to 15 fold with the maximum in rate enhancement occurring at oxide coverages of approximately 0.5 ML. TiOx TaOx, and NbOx were the most effective promoters and were stable in the highest oxidation states during both reactions (compared to VOx, WOx, and FeOx). The trend in promoter effectiveness was attributed to the direct relationship between oxidation state and Lewis acidity. Bonding at the metal oxide/metal interface between the oxygen end of adsorbed CO and the Lewis acidic oxide was postulated to facilitate C-O bond dissociation and subsequent hydrogenation. 192 refs.

Boffa, A.B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Work function control at metal high-dielectric-constant gate oxide interfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There has been difficulty in finding metals of sufficiently large or small effective work function to act as metal electrodes on high-dielectric-constant gate oxides. To understand the factors affecting the effective work function, we have calculated ... Keywords: High K oxides, Metal gates

K. Tse; J. Robertson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Published on Web 10/28/2008 Gas-Phase, Bulk Production of Metal Oxide Nanowires and Nanoparticles Using a Microwave Plasma Jet Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report gas-phase production of metal oxide nanowires (NWs) and nanoparticles (NPs) using direct oxidation of micron-size metal particles in a high-throughput, atmospheric pressure microwave plasma jet reactor. We demonstrate the concept with production of SnO2, ZnO, TiO2, and Al2O3 NWs. The results suggest that the NW production primarily depends upon the starting metal particle size, microwave power, and the gas-phase composition. The resulting NW powders could be separated from the unreacted metal and metal oxide NPs by sonication in 1-methoxy 2-propanol followed by gravity sedimentation. The experiments conducted using higher microwave powers resulted in spherical, unagglomerated, metal oxide NPs. The results obtained using various metal oxides suggest that the mechanism of NW nucleation and growth in the gas phase is similar to that observed in experiments with metal particles supported on substrates. A simplified analysis suggests that the metal powders melt in the plasma primarily with the heat generated from chemical reactions, such as radical recombination and oxidation reactions on the particle surface.

Jeong H. Kim; Rashekhar Pendyala; Boris Chernomordik; Mahendra K. Sunkara

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

125

Giant magnetoresistance in oxide-based metallic multilayers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors report on the first measurement of low-field giant magnetoresistance in metallic multilayers of perovskite oxides. The authors performed in-plane measurements of the magnetoelectric transport properties in La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}MnO{sub 3}/LaNiO{sub 3} trilayers and succeeded in distinguishing the giant magnetoresistance effect from other contributions to the total magnetoresistance. The samples were grown on single-crystalline SrTiO{sub 3} substrates by dc sputtering.

Granada, Mara; Rojas Sanchez, J. Carlos; Steren, Laura B. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (R8402AGP) San Carlos de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)

2007-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

126

X-Ray Absorption Studies of Vanadium-Containing Metal Oxide Nanocrystals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metal oxide nanocrystals offer significant potential for use as catalysts or catalyst supports due to their high surface areas and unique chemical properties that result from the high number of exposed corners and edges. However, little is known about the catalytic activity of these materials, especially as oxidation catalysts. This research focused on the preparation, characterization and use of vanadium-containing nanocrystals as selective oxidation catalysts. Three vanadium-containing nanocrystals were prepared using a modified sol-gel procedure: V/MgO, V/SiO2, and vanadium phosphate (VPO). These represent active oxidation catalysts for a number of industrially relevant reactions. The catalysts were characterized by x-ray diffraction and Raman, UV-VIS, infrared and x-ray absorption spectroscopies with the goal of determining the primary structural and chemical differences between nanocrystals and microcrystals. The catalytic activity of these catalysts was also studied in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and methanol oxidation to formaldehyde. V/MgO nanocrystals were investigated for activity in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and compared to conventional V/MgO catalysts. Characterization of V/MgO catalysts using Raman spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that both types of catalysts contained magnesium orthovanadate at vanadium loadings below 15 weight%, but above that loading, magnesium pyrovanadate may have been present. In general, MgO nanocrystals had roughly half the crystal size and double the surface area of the conventional MgO. In oxidative dehydrogenation of butane, nanocrystalline V/MgO gave higher selectivity to butene than conventional V/MgO at the same conversion. This difference was attributed to differences in vanadium domain size resulting from the higher surface areas of the nanocrystalline support, since characterization suggested that similar vanadium phases were present on both types of catalysts. Experiments in methanol oxidation were used to probe the chemical differences between sol-gel prepared and conventionally prepared metal oxides. Both V/MgO and V/SiO2 were studied. For both catalysts, similar product selectivities were noted for either preparation method, suggesting similar acid/base and redox properties for the catalysts. At lower weight loadings (butane oxidation to maleic anhydride. In this method vanadium (V) triisopropoxide was reacted with orthophosphoric acid in THF to form a gel. Drying this gel under air resulted in an intercalated VOPO4 compound, where solvent molecules were trapped between layers of the vanadium phosphate compound. Higher surface areas could be achieved by drying this gel at high pressure in an autoclave. The amount of solvent (THF) placed in the autoclave was important in this process. Low amounts of solvent led to a lower surface area, as the solvent evaporated before reaching the critical point and collapsed the gel's pores. In addition, vanadium reduction occurred in the autoclave due to reaction of isopropanol with the vanadium phosphate. Higher amounts of THF reduced the concentration of isopropanol, leading to less reduction. Surfaces areas in excess of 100 m2/g were achieved with this method, and the product was confirmed through XPS and IR to be VOHPO4*0.5H2O, the common precursor for industrial VPO catalysts. Furthermore, this product displayed a platelet morphology, which is desirable for butane oxidation. Further work showed that this material could be transformed to (VO)2P2O7 (the industrial catalyst for butane oxidation to maleic anhydride) by heating under nitrogen without losing much surface are

Hohn, Keith, L.

2006-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

127

Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO2 production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

128

Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2007-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

129

Bipolar plating of metal contacts onto oxide interconnection for solid oxide electrochemical cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of forming an adherent metal deposit on a conducting layer of a tube sealed at one end. The tube is immersed with the sealed end down into an aqueous solution containing ions of the metal to be deposited. An ionically conducting aqueous fluid is placed inside the tube and a direct current is passed from a cathode inside the tube to an anode outside the tube. Also disclosed is a multi-layered solid oxide fuel cell tube which consists of an inner porous ceramic support tube, a porous air electrode covering the support tube, a non-porous electrolyte covering a portion of the air electrode, a non-porous conducting interconnection covering the remaining portion of the electrode, and a metal deposit on the interconnection. 1 fig.

Isenberg, A.O.

1987-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

130

Acoustic plane wave preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0metal oxide in the form of a ceramic slip which has not yet set, orientation of the crystal basal planes parallel with the direction of desired current flow is accomplished by an applied acoustic plane wave in the acoustic or ultrasonic frequency range (either progressive or standing) in applying a torque to each crystal particle. The ceramic slip is then set and fired by conventional methods to produce a conductor with preferentially oriented grains and substantially enhanced current carrying capacity.

Tolt, Thomas L. (North Olmsted, OH); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Solid-State 17O NMR Study of Benzoic Acid Adsorption On Metal Oxide Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid-state 17O NMR spectra of 17O-labeled benzoic and anisic acids are reported and benzoic acid is used to probe the surface of metal oxides. Complexes formed when benzoic acid is dry-mixed with mesoporous silica, and nonporous titania and alumina are characterized. Chemical reactions with silica are not observed. The nature of benzoic acid on silica is a function of the water content of the oxide. The acid disperses in the pores of the silica if the silica is in equilibrium with ambient laboratory humidity. The acid displays high mobility as evidenced by a liquid-like, Lorentzian resonance. Excess benzoic acid remains as the crystalline hydrogen-bonded dimer. Benzoic acid reacts with titania and alumina surfaces in equilibrium with laboratory air to form the corresponding titanium and aluminum benzoates. In both materials the oxygen of the 17O-labeled acid is bound to the metal, showing the reaction proceeds by bond formation between oxygen deficient metal sites and the oxygen of the carboxylic acid. 27Al MAS NMR confirms this mechanism for the reaction on alumina. Dry mixing of benzoic acid with alumina rapidly quenches pentacoordinate aluminum sites, excellent evidence that these sites are confined to the surface of the alumina particles.

Hagaman, Edward {Ed} W [ORNL; Chen, Banghao [ORNL; Jiao, Jian [ORNL; Parsons, Williams [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Electrochemical lithiation and delithiation for control of magnetic properties of nanoscale transition metal oxides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transition metal oxides comprise a fascinating class of materials displaying a variety of magnetic and electronic properties, ranging from half-metallic ferromagnets like CrO2, ferrimagnetic semiconductors like Fey's, and ...

Sivakumar, Vikram

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Metal-based turn-on fluorescent probes for nitric oxide sensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 1. Metal-Based Turn-On Fluorescent Probes for Sensing Nitric Oxide. Nitric oxide, a reactive free radical, regulates a variety of biological processes. The absence of tools to detect NO directly, rapidly, specifically ...

Lim, Mi Hee

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

A Low Temperature Fully Lithographic Process For Metal–Oxide Field-Effect Transistors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a low temperature ( ~ 100à °C) lithographic method for fabricating hybrid metal oxide/organic field-effect transistors (FETs) that combine a zinc-indium-oxide (ZIO) semiconductor channel and organic, parylene, ...

Sodini, Charles G.

135

Investigation of the nature of electronic states in the alkali_metal oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hartree-Fock and Density functional theories have been applied to investigate the density of electronic states and electronic band structures. We studied: oxides, peroxides, nadoxides and ozonides, alkali-metal oxides M2O, peroxides M2O2, ...

O. O. Obolonskaya

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Catalytic effects of period iv transition metal in the oxidation of biodiesel.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??CATALYTIC EFFECTS OF PERIOD IV TRANSITION METALS IN THE OXIDATION OF BIODIESEL BRADLEY R CLARK December 2011 Advisors: Dr. Steve Salley, Dr. Simon Ng, Dr.… (more)

Clark, Bradley

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

The use of natural gas for reduction of metal oxides: constraints and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, The use of natural gas for reduction of metal oxides: constraints ... Reaction mechanism and reaction rate of Sn evaporation from liquid steel.

138

Oxidation Resistance of Zr- and Ti- Based Bulk Metallic Glasses in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2012 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Bulk Metallic Glasses IX. Presentation Title, Oxidation Resistance of Zr- and ...

139

Dual Environment Effects on the Oxidation of Metallic Interconnects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metallic interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells are exposed to a dual environment: fuel on one side (i.e. H2 gas) and oxidizer on the other side (i.e. air). It has been observed that the oxidation behavior of thin stainless steel sheet in air is changed by the presence of H2 on the other side of the sheet. The resulting dual environment scales are flaky and more friable than the single environment scales. The H2 disrupts the scale on the air-side. A model to explain some of the effects of a dual environment is presented where hydrogen diffusing through the stainless steel sheet reacts with oxygen diffusing through the scale to form water vapor, which has sufficient vapor pressure to mechanically disrupt the scale. Experiments on preoxidized 316L stainless steel tubing exposed to air/air, H2/air, and H2/Ar environments are reported in support of the model.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Ziomek-Moroz, Malgorzata; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Jr., Bernard S.; and Bullard, Sophie J.

2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

140

Model-based dummy feature placement for oxide chemical-mechanical polishing manufacturability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) is an enabling technique used in deep-submicron VLSI manufacturing to achieve uniformity in long range oxide planarization [1]. Post-CMP oxide topography is highly related to local spatial pattern density in layout. ...

Ruiqi Tian; D. F. Wong; Robert Boone

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Surface Oxidation and Dissolution of Metal Nanocatalysts in Acid Medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the most important challenges in low-temperature fuel cell technology is improving the catalytic efficiency at the electrode-catalyst where the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) occurs. Platinum is the best pure catalyst for this reaction but its high cost and scarcity hinder the commercial implementation of fuel cells in automobiles. Pt-based alloys are promising alternatives to substitute platinum while maintaining the efficiency and life-time of the pure catalyst. However, the acid medium and the oxidation of the surface reduce the activity and durability of the alloy catalyst through changes in its local composition and structure. Molecular simulation techniques are applied to characterize the thermodynamics and dynamic evolution of the surface of platinum-based alloy catalysts under reaction conditions.1-10 A simulation scheme of the surface oxidation is proposed which combines classical molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT). This approach is able to reproduce the main features of the oxidation phenomena observed experimentally, it is concluded that the dissolution mechanism of metal atoms involves: 1) Surface segregation of alloy atoms, 2) oxygen absorption into the subsurface of the catalyst, and 3) metal detachment through the interaction with ions in the solvent. Therefore, to improve the durability of platinum-based alloy catalysts, the steps of the dissolution mechanism must be prevented. A versatile 3-D kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) code is developed to study the degradation and dealloying in nanocatalysts. The results on the degradation of Pt nanoparticles under different potential regimes demonstrate that the dissolution depends on the potential path to which the nanocatalyst is exposed. Metal atoms detach from the boundaries of (111) facets expecting a reduction in the activity of the nanoparticle. Also, the formation of Pt hollow nanoparticles by the Kirkendall effect is addressed, the role of vacancies is crucial in the removal of the non-noble core that yields to hollow nanoparticles. To investigate the reasons for the experimentally found enhanced ORR activity in porous/hollow nanoparticles, the effect of subsurface vacancies on the main ORR activity descriptors is studied with DFT. It is found that an optimum amount of vacancies may enhance the ORR activity of Pt-monolayer catalysts over certain alloy cores by changing the binding energies of O and OH.

Callejas-Tovar, Juan

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Chemical reduction of refractory oxides by atomic hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The chemical reduction of UO/sub 2/ and Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ by atomic hydrogen was studied. Results of the UO/sub 2//H investigation indicates that reduction of UO/sub 2/ by atomic hydrogen proceeds by the production of water vapor and hypostoichiometric urania. Water vapor and aluminum metal are formed in the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3//H system. The relative ease which UO/sub 2/ is reduced by atomic hydrogen compared with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ is due to two factors. The first is related to the thermochemistry of the reactions. The second factor which favors efficient reduction of UO/sub 2/ but not of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ is the oxygen diffusivity. (LK)

Dooley, D.; Balooch, M.; Olander, D.R.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Carotenoids & Retinoids; Molecular Aspects and Health IssuesChapter 4 Chemical and Metabolic Oxidation of Carotenoids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carotenoids & Retinoids; Molecular Aspects and Health Issues Chapter 4 Chemical and Metabolic Oxidation of Carotenoids Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press   Downlo

144

In-Situ Chemical Oxidation of Soil Contaminated by Benzene ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... In-Situ Chemical Oxidation of Soil Contaminated by Benzene, Lead and Cadmium by Marcia Bragato and Jorge Alberto Soares Tenorio ...

145

GaN Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors  

SciTech Connect

A GaN based depletion mode metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) was demonstrated using Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}(Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) as the gate dielectric. The MOS gate reverse breakdown voltage was > 35V which was significantly improved from 17V of Pt Schottky gate on the same material. A maximum extrinsic transconductance of 15 mS/mm was obtained at V{sub ds} = 30 V and device performance was limited by the contact resistance. A unity current gain cut-off frequency, f{sub {tau}}, and maximum frequency of oscillation, f{sub max} of 3.1 and 10.3 GHz, respectively, were measured at V{sub ds} = 25 V and V{sub gs} = {minus}20 V.

Ren, F.; Pearton, S.J.; Abernathy, C.R.; Baca, A.; Cheng, P.; Shul, R.J.; Chu, S.N.G.; Hong, M.; Lothian, J.R.; Schurman, M.J.

1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

146

Metal oxide morphology in argon-assisted glancing angle deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Glancing angle deposition (GLAD) is a thin film deposition technique capable of fabricating columnar architectures such as posts, helices, and chevrons with control over nanoscale film features. Argon bombardment during deposition modifies the GLAD process, producing films with new morphologies which have shown promise for sensing and photonic devices. The authors report modification of column tilt angle, film density, and specific surface area for 12 different metal oxide and fluoride film materials deposited using Ar-assisted GLAD. For the vapor flux/ion beam geometry and materials studied here, with increasing argon flux, the column tilt increases, film density increases, and specific surface area decreases. With a better understanding of the nature of property modification and the mechanisms responsible, the Ar-assisted deposition process can be more effectively targeted towards specific applications, including birefringent thin films or photonic crystal square spirals.

Sorge, J. B.; Taschuk, M. T.; Wakefield, N. G.; Sit, J. C.; Brett, M. J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V4 (Canada); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2V4 (Canada) and NRC National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, AB T6G 2M9 (Canada)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

147

Solar Thermal Electrolytic Production of Metals from Their Oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Alternative Energy Resources for Metals and Materials Production Symposium. Presentation Title, Solar Thermal Electrolytic Production of Metals ...

148

Oxidation catalysts comprising metal exchanged hexaaluminate wherein the metal is Sr, Pd, La, and/or Mn  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides metal-exchanged hexaaluminate catalysts that exhibit good catalytic activity and/or stability at high temperatures for extended periods with retention of activity as combustion catalysts, and more generally as oxidation catalysts, that make them eminently suitable for use in methane combustion, particularly for use in natural gas fired gas turbines. The hexaaluminate catalysts of this invention are of particular interest for methane combustion processes for minimization of the generation of undesired levels (less than about 10 ppm) of NOx species. Metal exchanged hexaaluminate oxidation catalysts are also useful for oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC), particularly hydrocarbons. Metal exchanged hexaaluminate oxidation catalysts are further useful for partial oxidation, particularly at high temperatures, of reduced species, particularly hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes).

Wickham, David (Boulder, CO); Cook, Ronald (Lakewood, CO)

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

149

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Wednesday, 29 May 2013 00:00 Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

150

Method of dissolving metal oxides with di- or polyphosphonic acid and a redundant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of dissolving metal oxides using a mixture of a di- or polyphosphonic acid and a reductant wherein each is present in a sufficient amount to provide a synergistic effect with respect to the dissolution of metal oxides and optionally containing corrosion inhibitors and pH adjusting agents.

Horwitz, Earl P. (Argonne, IL); Chiarizia, Renato (Argonne, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials  

SciTech Connect

Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

152

Method of making metal oxide ceramic membranes with small pore sizes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes is composed of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Madison, WI)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Superconductors and Complex Transition Metal Oxides for Tunable THz Plasmonic Metamaterials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The outline of this presentation are: (1) Motivation - Non-tunability of metal metamaterials; (2) Superconductors for temperature tunable metamaterials; (3) Ultrafast optical switching in superconductor metamaterials; (4) Controlling the conductivity with infrared pump beam; (5) Complex metal oxides as active substrates - Strontium Titanate; and (6) Conclusion. Conclusions are: (1) High Tc superconductors good for tunable and ultrafast metamaterials; (2) Large frequency and amplitude tunability in ultrathin superconductor films; (3) Such tunable properties cannot be accessed using metals; (4) Complex metal oxides can be used as active substrates - large tunability; (5) Complex oxides fail to address the issue of radiation losses in THz metamaterials.

Singh, Ranjan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xiong, Jie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Azad, Md A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Hao [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trugman, Stuart A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Houtong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

154

HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION/CORROSION BEHAVIOR OF METALS AND ALLOYS UNDER A HYDROGEN GRADIENT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metallic interconnects in SOFC stacks, perform in challenging environment, as they are simultaneously exposed to a reducing environment (e.g. hydrogen, reformate) on one side and an oxidizing environment (e.g. air) on the other side at elevated temperatures. To understand the oxidation/corrosion behavior of metals and alloys under the dual exposures and assess their suitability, selected metals and alloys, including nickel, Fe-Cr and Ni-Cr base chromia forming alloys, alumina forming Fecralloyź, were investigated. It was found that the oxidation/corrosion behavior of metals and alloys in the presence of dual environment can be significantly different in terms of scale structure and/or chemistry from their exposure in a single oxidizing or reducing atmosphere. The anomalous oxidization/corrosion is attributed to the presence of hydrogen diffusion flux from the fuel side to the air side under the influence of a hydrogen gradient across the metallic substrates.

Yang, Z Gary; Xia, Gordon; Walker, Matthew S.; Wang, Chong M.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3 Double-sided CdS and CdSe Quantum Dot Co-sensitized ZnO3. “Double-sided CdS and CdSe quantum dot co-sensitized ZnO45 Double-sided CdS and CdSe Quantum Dot Co-sensitized ZnO

Wang, Gongming

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructure for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cell. Figure 1.2 solar spectrum Figure 1.3 semiconductorvery small in the whole solar spectrum. Theoretically, theNumber of photons in solar spectrum, versus photon energy. (

Wang, Gongming

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Process and apparatus for generating elemental sulfur and re-usable metal oxide from spent metal sulfide sorbents  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for generating elemental sulfur and re-usable metal oxide from spent metal-sulfur compound. Spent metal-sulfur compound is regenerated to re-usable metal oxide by moving a bed of spent metal-sulfur compound progressively through a single regeneration vessel having a first and second regeneration stage and a third cooling and purging stage. The regeneration is carried out and elemental sulfur is generated in the first stage by introducing a first gas of sulfur dioxide which contains oxygen at a concentration less than the stoichiometric amount required for complete oxidation of the spent metal-sulfur compound. A second gas containing sulfur dioxide and excess oxygen at a concentration sufficient for complete oxidation of the partially spent metal-sulfur compound, is introduced into the second regeneration stage. Gaseous sulfur formed in the first regeneration stage is removed prior to introducing the second gas into the second regeneration stage. An oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the third cooling and purging stage. Except for the gaseous sulfur removed from the first stage, the combined gases derived from the regeneration stages which are generally rich in sulfur dioxide and lean in oxygen, are removed from the regenerator as an off-gas and recycled as the first and second gas into the regenerator. Oxygen concentration is controlled by adding air, oxygen-enriched air or pure oxygen to the recycled off-gas.

Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY); Gal, Eli (Lititz, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

159

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

160

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

162

Method for heat treating and sintering metal oxides with microwave radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for microwave sintering materials, primarily metal oxides, is described. Metal oxides do not normally absorb microwave radiation at temperatures ranging from about room temperature to several hundred degrees centrigrade are sintered with microwave radiation without the use of the heretofore required sintering aids. This sintering is achieved by enclosing a compact of the oxide material in a housing or capsule formed of a oxide which has microwave coupling properties at room temprature up to at least the microwave coupling temperature of the oxide material forming the compact. The heating of the housing effects the initial heating of the oxide material forming the compact by heat transference and then functions as a thermal insulator for the encased oxide material after the oxide material reaches a sufficient temperature to adequately absorb or couple with microwave radiation for heating thereof to sintering temperature.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Farragut, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Final LDRD report : metal oxide films, nanostructures, and heterostructures for solar hydrogen production.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The distinction between electricity and fuel use in analyses of global power consumption statistics highlights the critical importance of establishing efficient synthesis techniques for solar fuels-those chemicals whose bond energies are obtained through conversion processes driven by solar energy. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes show potential for the production of solar fuels because of their demonstrated versatility in facilitating optoelectronic and chemical conversion processes. Tandem PEC-photovoltaic modular configurations for the generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight (solar water splitting) provide an opportunity to develop a low-cost and efficient energy conversion scheme. The critical component in devices of this type is the PEC photoelectrode, which must be optically absorptive, chemically stable, and possess the required electronic band alignment with the electrochemical scale for its charge carriers to have sufficient potential to drive the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. After many decades of investigation, the primary technological obstacle remains the development of photoelectrode structures capable of efficient conversion of light with visible frequencies, which is abundant in the solar spectrum. Metal oxides represent one of the few material classes that can be made photoactive and remain stable to perform the required functions.

Kronawitter, Coleman X. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Mao, Samuel S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Extrusion of metal oxide superconducting wire, tube or ribbon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for extruding a superconducting metal oxide composition YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x provides a wire (tube or ribbon) having a cohesive mass and a degree of flexibility together with enhanced electrical properties. Wire diameters in the range of 6-85 mils have been produced with smaller wires on the order of 10 mils in diameter exhibiting enhanced flexibility for forming braided, or multistrand, configurations for greater current carrying capacity. The composition for extrusion contains a polymeric binder to provide a cohesive mass to bind the particles together during the extrusion process with the binder subsequently removed at lower temperatures during sintering. The composition for extrusion further includes a deflocculent, an organic plasticizer and a solvent which also are subsequently removed during sintering. Electrically conductive tubing with an inner diameter of 52 mil and an outer diameter of 87-355 mil has also been produced. Flat ribbons have been produced in the range of 10-125 mil thick by 100-500 mil wide. The superconducting wire, tube or ribbon may include an outer ceramic insulating sheath co-extruded with the wire, tubing or ribbon.

Dusek, Joseph T. (Lombard, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Extrusion of metal oxide superconducting wire, tube or ribbon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for extruding a superconducting metal oxide composition YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} provides a wire (tube or ribbon) having a cohesive mass and a degree of flexibility together with enhanced electrical properties. Wire diameters in the range of 6--85 mils have been produced with smaller wires on the order of 10 mils in diameter exhibiting enhanced flexibility for forming braided, or multistrand, configurations for greater current carrying capacity. The composition for extrusion contains a polymeric binder to provide a cohesive mass to bind the particles together during the extrusion process with the binder subsequently removed at lower temperatures during sintering. The composition for extrusion further includes a deflocculent, an organic plasticizer and a solvent which also are subsequently removed during sintering. Electrically conductive tubing with an inner diameter of 52 mil and an outer diameter of 87--335 mil has also been produced. Flat ribbons have been produced in the range of 10--125 mil thick by 100--500 mil wide. The superconducting wire, tube or ribbon may include an outer ceramic insulating sheath co-extruded with the wire, tubing or ribbon.

Dusek, J.T.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Protonation enthalpies of metal oxides from high temperature electrophoresis.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface protonation reactions play an important role in the behavior of mineral and colloidal systems, specifically in hydrothermal aqueous environments. However, studies addressing the reactions at the solid/liquid interface at temperatures above 100 C are scarce. In this study, newly and previously obtained high temperature electrophoresis data (up to 260 C) - zeta potentials and isoelectric points - for metal oxides, including SiO{sub 2}, SnO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, were used in thermodynamic analysis to derive the standard enthalpies of their surface protonation. Two different approaches were used for calculating the protonation enthalpy: one is based on thermodynamic description of the 1-pKa model for surface protonation, and another one - on a combination of crystal chemistry and solvation theories which link the relative permittivity of the solid phase and the ratio of the Pauling bond strength and bond length to standard protonation enthalpy. From this analysis, two expressions relating the protonation enthalpy to the relative permittivity of the solid phase were obtained.

Rodriguez-Santiago, V [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Fedkin, Mark V [ORNL; Lvov, Serguei N. [Pennsylvania State University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Protonation enthalpies of metal oxides from high temperature electrophoresis  

SciTech Connect

Surface protonation reactions play an important role in the behavior of mineral and colloidal systems, specifically in hydrothermal aqueous environments. However, studies addressing the reactions at the solid/liquid interface at temperatures above 100 C are scarce. In this study, newly and previously obtained high temperature electrophoresis data (up to 260 C) zeta potentials and isoelectric points for metal oxides, including SiO2, SnO2, ZrO2, TiO2, and Fe3O4, were used in thermodynamic analysis to derive the standard enthalpies of their surface protonation. Two different approaches were used for calculating the protonation enthalpy: one is based on thermodynamic description of the 1-pKa model for surface protonation, and another one on a combination of crystal chemistry and solvation theories which link the relative permittivity of the solid phase and the ratio of the Pauling bond strength and bond length to standard protonation enthalpy. From this analysis, two expressions relating the protonation enthalpy to the relative permittivity of the solid phase were obtained.

Rodriguez-Santiago, V [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Fedkin, Mark V. [Pennsylvania State University; Lvov, Serguei N. [Pennsylvania State University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Energy ratings for metal oxide varistors under repetitively pulsed operation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nonlinear resistors can be used to improve the energy transfer efficiency of inductive energy storage systems that use resistive transfer elements. Improved energy transfer efficiency can result in significant cost savings in some large systems if the cost of the nonlinear resistor is less than the cost of the energy storage and charging hardware that the resistor replaces. This report describes experimental tests that were done to determine appropriate energy ratings for ZnO Metal Oxide Varistors (MOVs) for pulsed conditions from 10 to 20 ms long. Tests were performed first on single MOV units which were forced to failure in a small number of shots. Then several sets of matched pairs were operated under identical conditions to investigate current sharing and the statistics of failure. Test results show that the standard rating method used by manufacturers relating peak current, pulse length, and expected lifetime are adequate, but somewhat conservative. The manufacturers' energy ratings project to a very economical nonlinear transfer resistor. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Melton, J.G.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Production of crystalline refractory metal oxides containing colloidal metal precipitates and useful as solar-effective absorbers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a new process for producing refractory crystalline oxides having improved or unusual properties. The process comprises the steps of forming a doped-metal crystal of the oxide; exposing the doped crystal in a bomb to a reducing atmosphere at superatmospheric pressure and a temperature effecting precipitation of the dopant metal in the crystal lattice of the oxide but insufficient to effect net diffusion of the metal out of the lattice; and then cooling the crystal. Preferably, the cooling step is effected by quenching. The process forms colloidal precipitates of the metal in the oxide lattice. The process may be used, for example, to produce thermally stable black MgO crystalline bodies containing magnetic colloidal precipitates consisting of about 99% Ni. The Ni-containing bodies are solar-selective absorbers, having a room-temperature absorptivity of about 0.96 over virtually all of the solar-energy spectrum and exhibiting an absorption edge in the region of 2 .mu.m. The process parameters can be varied to control the average size of the precipitates. The process can produce a black MgO crystalline body containing colloidal Ni precipitates, some of which have the face-centered-cubic structure and others of which have the body-centered cubic structure. The products of the process are metal-precipitate-containing refractory crystalline oxides which have improved or unique optical, mechanical, magnetic, and/or electronic properties.

Narayan, Jagdish (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Yok (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

METHOD FOR THE PREPARATION OF STABLE ACTINIDE METAL OXIDE-CONTAINING SLURRIES AND OF THE OXIDES THEREFOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent deals with a method of preparing actinide metal oxides of a very fine particle size and of forming stable suspensions therefrom. The process consists of dissolving the nitrate of the actinide element in a combustible organic solvent, converting the solution obtained into a spray, and igniting the spray whereby an oxide powder is obtained. The oxide powder is then slurried in an aqueous soiution of a substance which is adsorbable by said oxides, dspersed in a colloid mill whereby a suspension is obtained, and electrodialyzed until a low spectiic conductance is reached.

Hansen, R.S.; Minturn, R.E.

1958-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

171

Chemical Metrology for Metals, Ores, and Related Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the following SRMs have been developed or renewed in collaboration with industry: Completed new and renewal SRMs for steel, silicon metal ...

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Using Chemical Sensors to Control Molten Metal Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

N. Hara and D.D. MacDonald, "Development of Dissolved Hydrogen Sensor Based on Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia with Noble Metal Electrolytes," J. Electrochem

173

Chemical Enrichment of Precious Metals in Iron Sulfides Using ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... by microwave (MW) irradiation generating plasma during oxidation of surfaces. ... Co-Gasification Behavior of Metallurgical Coke with High and Low Reactivity.

174

X-Ray Absorption Studies of Vanadium-Containing Metal Oxide Nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

Metal oxide nanocrystals offer significant potential for use as catalysts or catalyst supports due to their high surface areas and unique chemical properties that result from the high number of exposed corners and edges. However, little is known about the catalytic activity of these materials, especially as oxidation catalysts. This research focused on the preparation, characterization and use of vanadium-containing nanocrystals as selective oxidation catalysts. Three vanadium-containing nanocrystals were prepared using a modified sol-gel procedure: V/MgO, V/SiO2, and vanadium phosphate (VPO). These represent active oxidation catalysts for a number of industrially relevant reactions. The catalysts were characterized by x-ray diffraction and Raman, UV-VIS, infrared and x-ray absorption spectroscopies with the goal of determining the primary structural and chemical differences between nanocrystals and microcrystals. The catalytic activity of these catalysts was also studied in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and methanol oxidation to formaldehyde. V/MgO nanocrystals were investigated for activity in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and compared to conventional V/MgO catalysts. Characterization of V/MgO catalysts using Raman spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that both types of catalysts contained magnesium orthovanadate at vanadium loadings below 15 weight%, but above that loading, magnesium pyrovanadate may have been present. In general, MgO nanocrystals had roughly half the crystal size and double the surface area of the conventional MgO. In oxidative dehydrogenation of butane, nanocrystalline V/MgO gave higher selectivity to butene than conventional V/MgO at the same conversion. This difference was attributed to differences in vanadium domain size resulting from the higher surface areas of the nanocrystalline support, since characterization suggested that similar vanadium phases were present on both types of catalysts. Experiments in methanol oxidation were used to probe the chemical differences between sol-gel prepared and conventionally prepared metal oxides. Both V/MgO and V/SiO2 were studied. For both catalysts, similar product selectivities were noted for either preparation method, suggesting similar acid/base and redox properties for the catalysts. At lower weight loadings (<5%), activity was also similar, but at higher weight loadings the sol-gel prepared catalysts were more active. This was attributed to the greater dispersion of vanadium on sol-gel prepared catalysts, and it was suggested that small vanadium oxide domains were more active in methanol oxidation than polymeric and bulk domains. A novel sol-gel method was developed for preparation of VPO catalysts, which are used industrially in butane oxidation to maleic anhydride. In this method vanadium (V) triisopropoxide was reacted with orthophosphoric acid in THF to form a gel. Drying this gel under air resulted in an intercalated VOPO4 compound, where solvent molecules were trapped between layers of the vanadium phosphate compound. Higher surface areas could be achieved by drying this gel at high pressure in an autoclave. The amount of solvent (THF) placed in the autoclave was important in this process. Low amounts of solvent led to a lower surface area, as the solvent evaporated before reaching the critical point and collapsed the gel's pores. In addition, vanadium reduction occurred in the autoclave due to reaction of isopropanol with the vanadium phosphate. Higher amounts of THF reduced the concentration of isopropanol, leading to less reduction. Surfaces areas in excess of 100 m2/g were achieved with this method, and the product was confirmed through XPS and IR to be VOHPO4*0.5H2O, the common precursor for industrial VPO catalysts. Furthermore, this product displayed a platelet morphology, which is desirable for butane oxidation. Further work showed that this material could be transformed to (VO)2P2O7 (the industrial catalyst for butane oxidation to maleic anhydride) by heating under nitrogen without losing much surface are

Hohn, Keith, L.

2006-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

175

Biosensor and chemical sensor probes for calcium and other metal ions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to chemical sensor and biosensor probes for measuring low concentration of metals and metal ions in complex samples such as biological fluids, living cells, and environmental samples. More particularly the present invention relates to a gel-based Indo-1 and Fura-2 chemical sensor probes for the measurement of low concentrations of calcium, cadmium, magnesium and the like. Also disclosed is a detector device using the sensors of the present invention.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan (Knoxville, TN); Viallet, Pierre (Perpignan, FR)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Synthesis of Nano-Structured Metal-Oxides and Deposition via Ink ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this study was to synthesize numerous metal oxide nano- structures including TiO2, Nb-doped TiO2, and SnO2 and deposit these materials on ...

177

Pt–metal oxide aerogel catalysts: X-ray photoemission investigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

X-ray photoemission spectroscopy was used to study Pt–metal oxide aerogel catalysts that have been developed to respond to increased NO x emissions of lean-burn engines. Lean-burn engines

A. J. Nelson; John G. Reynolds; R. D. Sanner; P. R. Coronado; L. M. Hair

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Design and construction of rigs for studying surface condensation and creating anodized metal oxide surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis details the design and construction of a rig for studying surface condensation and a rig for creating anodized metal oxides (AMOs). The condensation rig characterizes condensation for different surfaces; this ...

Sun, Wei-Yang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Alkane oxidation with porphyrins and metal complexes thereof having haloalkyl side chains  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transition metal complexes of meso-haloalkylporphyrins, wherein the haloalkyl groups contain 2 to 8 carbon atoms have been found to be highly effective catalysts for oxidation of alkanes and for the decomposition of hydroperoxides.

Wijesekera, Tilak (Glen Mills, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Bhinde, Manoj V. (Boothwyn, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Alkane oxidation with porphyrins and metal complexes thereof having haloalkyl side chains  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transition metal complexes of meso-haloalkylporphyrins are disclosed, wherein the haloalkyl groups contain 2 to 8 carbon atoms have been found to be highly effective catalysts for oxidation of alkanes and for the decomposition of hydroperoxides. 7 figs.

Wijesekera, T.; Lyons, J.E.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Bhinde, M.V.

1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Recovery of Metal Oxides From Fly Ash, Volumes 1-3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By processing fly ash to obtain metal oxides and other commercial products, utilities can realize both sales revenues and reduced disposal costs. A commercial-scale processing plant could be ready for demonstration by 1992.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Oxidative chemical vapor deposition of conductive polymers for use in novel photovoltaic device architectures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), (PEDOT), deposited via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) has been investigated for use in organic electronic devices. The oCVD process as well as the ...

Howden, Rachel M. (Rachel Mary)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Thermal conversion of biomass to valuable fuels, chemical feedstocks and chemicals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous process for the conversion of biomass to form a chemical feedstock is described. The biomass and an exogenous metal oxide, preferably calcium oxide, or metal oxide precursor are continuously fed into a reaction chamber that is operated at a temperature of at least 1400.degree. C. to form reaction products including metal carbide. The metal oxide or metal oxide precursor is capable of forming a hydrolizable metal carbide. The reaction products are quenched to a temperature of 800.degree. C. or less. The resulting metal carbide is separated from the reaction products or, alternatively, when quenched with water, hydolyzed to provide a recoverable hydrocarbon gas feedstock.

Peters, William A. (Lexington, MA); Howard, Jack B. (Winchester, MA); Modestino, Anthony J. (Hanson, MA); Vogel, Fredreric (Villigen PSI, CH); Steffin, Carsten R. (Herne, DE)

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

184

Porous desulfurization sorbent pellets containing a reactive metal oxide and an inert zirconium compound  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from coal gas are prepared by combining a reactive oxide, in particular zinc oxide, with a zirconium compound such as an oxide, silicate, or aluminate of zirconium, and an inorganic binder and pelletizing and calcining the mixture. Alternately, the zinc oxide may be replaced by copper oxide or a combination of copper, molybdenum, and manganese oxides. The pellet components may be mixed in dry form, moistened to produce a paste, and converted to pellets by forming an aqueous slurry of the components and spray drying the slurry, or the reactive oxide may be formed on existing zirconium-containing catalyst-carrier pellets by infusing a solution of a salt of the active metal onto the existing pellets and firing at a high temperature to produce the oxide. Pellets made according to this invention show a high reactivity with hydrogen sulfide and durability such as to be useful over repeated cycles of sorption and regeneration.

Gardner, Todd H.; Gasper-Galvin, Lee D.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Nanosized Transition Metal Oxides for Energy Storage Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chemical Synthesis and Structural Analysis of Gd2O3 Nanoparticles for Optical Applications · Complex Crystallization Dynamics in Amorphous Germanium ...

186

Tuning the Metal-Adsorbate Chemical Bond through the Ligand Effect on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tuning the Metal-Adsorbate Chemical Bond through the Ligand Effect on Tuning the Metal-Adsorbate Chemical Bond through the Ligand Effect on Platinum Subsurface Alloys Tuesday, July 31, 2012 The ability to design and control the activities of transition metal catalysts, which are scarce in nature and thus expensive, has been of great importance to the development of economical industrial and energy-saving processes. Over the years several methods have been suggested, especially for processes using platinum, which is the most active metal catalyst for many important reactions, including the reduction of oxygen in fuel cells. Figure 1. Figure 1. Schematic representation of Pt subsurface alloys and corresponding shifts in Pt d-band center. Tuning chemical functionality by implementing a ligand effect - in other words, by changing the atomic nearest neighbor environment - is a

187

Towards Sustainable Metals Production by Molten Oxide Electrolysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid-metal/molten-salt cells have been shown to operate as rechargeable batteries that have the potential to handle colossal currents thereby enabling us to ...

188

Platinum Group Metal Oxide Absorption Properties of Perovskite ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the absorption properties of various perovskite-type oxide is .... Influence of Different Cooling Structure on Surface Crack of HSLA Steel Plate by

189

Solution-mediated strategies for synthesizing metal oxides, borates and phosphides using nanocrystals as reactive precursors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Because of their high surface area (and hence, increased reactivity) nanocrystals can be used as reactive precursors in the low-temperature synthesis of solid state materials. When nanocrystals are used as reactants, the temperatures needed for diffusion between them can be significantly lower than for bulk-scale reactions—often at temperatures attainable using solution-based techniques. In the following work, two synthetic strategies are defined and developed for accessing metal oxides, borates and phosphides using nanocrystalline precursors and solution-mediated techniques. Broadly, the strategies involve either 1) the formation of a nano-sized precursor in solution which is post-annealed after isolation to form a target metal oxide or borate or 2) the solution-mediated diffusion of phosphorus into a nanocrystalline metal to form target metal phosphides. To form multi-metal oxides using the first strategy, metal oxide nanoparticle precursors are mixed in stoichiometric ratios in solution to form a nanocomposite. After isolation, the nanocomposite is annealed in air at 700-800 °C to form target ternary metal oxides, including Y2Ti2O7, Eu2Ti2O7, NiTiO3, Zn2SnO4 and CuInO2. As a variation of this method, rare earth borate nanoparticle precursors can be formed in solution by the reaction of RE3+ with NaBH4. After isolation, annealing in air at 700-800 °C crystallizes a range of REBO3 and Al3RE(BO3)4 powders. Using solution-based techniques, metal phosphides can be formed by the reaction of pre-formed metal nanocrystals with trioctylphosphine (TOP), which acts as a mild phosphorus-source, at 300-370 °C. A range of transition metal phosphide nanocrystals are accessible using this strategy, including the polyphosphides PdP2, AgP2 and Au2P3. Furthermore, shape and size of the metal phosphide product can be influenced by the shape and size of the metal precursor, allowing for the templated-design of nanostructured metal phosphides. The utility of this technique is not limited to the nano-regime. Bulk-scale metal powders, wires, foils, thin films and nanostructured metals can be converted to metal phosphides using analogous reactions with hot TOP. The two-fold purpose of this work is to extend these solution-mediated nanocrystal-based synthetic strategies to new classes of materials, and to compliment the existing library of low-temperature methods for making solid state materials.

Henkes, Amanda Erin

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

A Numerical Model for Evaluating the Impact of Noble Metal Chemical Addition in Boiling Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect

The technique of noble metal chemical addition (NMCA), accompanied by a low-level hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), is being employed by several U.S. nuclear power plants for mitigating intergranular stress corrosion cracking in the vessel internals of their boiling water reactors (BWRs). An improved computer model by the name of DEMACE was employed to evaluate the performance of NMCA throughout the primary coolant circuit (PCC) of a commercial BWR. The molar ratios of hydrogen to oxidizing species in the PCC under normal water chemistry and HWC are analyzed. The effectiveness of NMCA is justified by calculated electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) around the PCC and in a local power range monitoring (LPRM) housing tube, in which practical in-vessel ECP measurements are normally taken.Prior to the modeling work for the BWR, the Mixed Potential Model, which is embedded in DEMACE and responsible for ECP calculation, was calibrated against both laboratory and plant ECP data. After modeling for various HWC conditions, it is found that the effectiveness of NMCA in the PCC of the selected BWR varies from region to region. In particular, the predicted ECP in the LPRM housing tube is notably different from that in the nearby bulk environment under NMCA, indicating that cautions must be given to a possible, undesirable outcome due to a distinct ECP difference between a locally confined area and the actual bulk environment.

Yeh, T.-K. [National Tsing-Hua University, Taiwan (China)

2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

191

Self-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition method for the growth of device-quality metal thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deposition of metals and alloys was demonstrated using thermal chemical vapor deposition starting from commercially available precursors in the absence of molecular hydrogen. The adopted chemical strategy relies solely on the selective reactivity of ... Keywords: CVD of metals, Chemical reduction, Direct liquid injection, Pulsed spray evaporation

N. Bahlawane; P. Antony Premkumar; K. Onwuka; G. Reiss; K. Kohse-Höinghaus

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method of forming vanadium oxide films and vanadium oxide thin-films prepared thereby  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method is disclosed of forming a vanadium oxide film on a substrate utilizing plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The method includes positioning a substrate within a plasma reaction chamber and then forming a precursor gas comprised of a vanadium-containing chloride gas in an inert carrier gas. This precursor gas is then mixed with selected amounts of hydrogen and oxygen and directed into the reaction chamber. The amounts of precursor gas, oxygen and hydrogen are selected to optimize the final properties of the vanadium oxide film An rf plasma is generated within the reaction chamber to chemically react the precursor gas with the hydrogen and the oxygen to cause deposition of a vanadium oxide film on the substrate while the chamber deposition pressure is maintained at about one torr or less. Finally, the byproduct gases are removed from the plasma reaction chamber.

Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Turner, John A. (Littleton, CO); Liu, Ping (Lakewood, CO)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Tiegs, T.N.

1992-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

195

Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures or organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides, e.g., transition metal carbonyl such as nickel carbonyl, and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit.

Mullendore, Arthur W. (Sandia Park, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Functional transport properties in complex transition metal oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Transition oxide materials have a long and high-flying history due to their attractive properties. They are well-known today for magnets, high temperature superconductors as well as promising electronic materials. For example, BaTiO 3 ...

Hee Taek Yi / Sang-Wook Cheong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Chemical bonding of hydrogen molecules to transition metal complexes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The complex W(CO){sub 3}(PR{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}) (CO = carbonyl; PR{sub 3} = organophosphine) was prepared and was found to be a stable crystalline solid under ambient conditions from which the hydrogen can be reversibly removed in vacuum or under an inert atmosphere. The weakly bonded H{sub 2} exchanges easily with D{sub 2}. This complex represents the first stable compound containing intermolecular interaction of a sigma-bond (H-H) with a metal. The primary interaction is reported to be donation of electron density from the H{sub 2} bonding electron pair to a vacant metal d-orbital. A series of complexes of molybdenum of the type Mo(CO)(H{sub 2})(R{sub 2}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PR{sub 2}){sub 2} were prepared by varying the organophosphine substitutent to demonstrate that it is possible to bond either dihydrogen or dihydride by adjusting the electron-donating properties of the co-ligands. Results of infrared and NMR spectroscopic studies are reported. 20 refs., 5 fig.

Kubas, G.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Fuel Surveillance at Dresden-2 After One Cycle of Noble Metal Chemical Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dresden-2 implemented noble metal chemical application (NMCA) with a normalized average metal loading of 32 micrograms per square centimeter at the end of cycle-16 (EOC-16) in 1999. A poolside inspection characterized corrosion performance of the fuel supplied by Framatone ANP, Inc. in a post-NMCA environment after one 24-month cycle in 2001. All one-, two-, and three-cycle fuel rods exhibited satisfactory performance, with no evidence of surface spallation. Moreover, the axial liftoff profiles of rods o...

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Aerosol synthesis of nano and micro-scale zero valent metal particles from oxide precursors  

SciTech Connect

In this work a novel aerosol method, derived form the batch Reduction/Expansion Synthesis (RES) method, for production of nano / micro-scale metal particles from oxides and hydroxides is presented. In the Aerosol-RES (A-RES) method, an aerosol, consisting of a physical mixture of urea and metal oxide or hydroxides, is passed through a heated oven (1000 C) with a residence time of the order of 1 second, producing pure (zero valent) metal particles. It appears that the process is flexible regarding metal or alloy identity, allows control of particle size and can be readily scaled to very large throughput. Current work is focused on creating nanoparticles of metal and metal alloy using this method. Although this is primarily a report on observations, some key elements of the chemistry are clear. In particular, the reducing species produced by urea decomposition are the primary agents responsible for reduction of oxides and hydroxides to metal. It is also likely that the rapid expansion that takes place when solid/liquid urea decomposes to form gas species influences the final morphology of the particles.

Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luhrs, Claudia [UNM; Lesman, Zayd [UNM; Soliman, Haytham [UNM; Zea, Hugo [UNM

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Use of amine oxide surfactants for chemical flooding EOR (enhanced oil recovery)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of amine oxides with and without alcohols as cosolvents, and in combination with other surfactants as mixed micellar formulations for enhanced oil recovery by surfactant flooding was investigated. Amine oxides are a salt-tolerant class of surfactants that produce low interfacial tension and can develop viscosity without the addition of polymers. These salt-tolerant formulations generate three-phase regions with hydrocarbons over a broad salinity range, develop moderate solubilization, and produce low interfacial tensions, however oil recovery from amine oxide-alcohol phase behavior optimized formulations was directly dependent upon the quantity of surfactant injected. The large pore volume and high concentration of surfactant required prohibits their economic use as the primary surfactant in chemical flooding EOR. Dimethylalkylamine oxides are useful as cosurfactants and viscosifiers in formulations with other surfactants for chemical flooding EOR but the use of ethoxylated and propoxylated amine oxides should be avoided due to the decomposition of these amine oxides under reservoir conditions. Phase behavior, phase inversion temperatures, and viscosity scans have been correlated with surfactant structures to provide a guide for amine oxide applications in chemical flooding. 36 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

Olsen, D.K.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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201

Sulfidation of mixed metal oxides in a fluidized-bed reactor  

SciTech Connect

Mixed metal oxides were used for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a hot gas stream. Sorbents were prepared according to the dry and wet impregnation techniques. The desulfurization performance of the metal oxide sorbents was experimentally tested in a fluidized-bed reactor system. Sulfidation experiments performed under reaction conditions similar to those at the exit of a coal gasifier showed that the preparation procedure and technique, the type and the amount of the impregnated metal oxide, the type of the solid carrier, and the size of the solid reactant affect the H[sub 2]S removal capacity of the sorbents. The pore structure of fresh and sulfided sorbents was analyzed using mercury porosimetry, nitrogen adsorption, and scanning electron microscopy.

Christoforou, S.C.; Efthimiadis, E.A.; Vasalos, I.A. (Aristotelian Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece))

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Chemical and Radiochemical Composition of Thermally Stabilized Plutonium Oxide from the Plutonium Finishing Plant Considered as Alternate Feedstock for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility  

SciTech Connect

Eighteen plutonium oxide samples originating from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) on the Hanford Site were analyzed to provide additional data on the suitability of PFP thermally stabilized plutonium oxides and Rocky Flats oxides as alternate feedstock to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Radiochemical and chemical analyses were performed on fusions, acid leaches, and water leaches of these 18 samples. The results from these destructive analyses were compared with nondestructive analyses (NDA) performed at PFP and the acceptance criteria for the alternate feedstock. The plutonium oxide materials considered as alternate feedstock at Hanford originated from several different sources including Rocky Flats oxide, scrap from the Remote Mechanical C-Line (RMC) and the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF), and materials from other plutonium conversion processes at Hanford. These materials were received at PFP as metals, oxides, and solutions. All of the material considered as alternate feedstock was converted to PuO2 and thermally stabilized by heating the PuO2 powder at 950 C in an oxidizing environment. The two samples from solutions were converted to PuO2 by precipitation with Mg(OH)2. The 18 plutonium oxide samples were grouped into four categories based on their origin. The Rocky Flats oxide was divided into two categories, low- and high-chloride Rocky Flats oxides. The other two categories were PRF/RMC scrap oxides, which included scrap from both process lines and oxides produced from solutions. The two solution samples came from samples that were being tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory because all of the plutonium oxide from solutions at PFP had already been processed and placed in 3013 containers. These samples originated at the PFP and are from plutonium nitrate product and double-pass filtrate solutions after they had been thermally stabilized. The other 16 samples originated from thermal stabilization batches before canning at PFP. Samples varied in appearance depending on the original source of material. Rocky Flats items were mostly dark olive green with clumps that crushed easily with a mortar and pestle. PRF/RMC items showed more variability. These items were mostly rust colored. One sample contained white particles that were difficult to crush, and another sample was a dark grey with a mixture of fines and large, hard fragments. The appearance and feel of the fragments indicated they might be an alloy. The color of the solution samples was indicative of the impurities in the sample. The double-pass filtrate solution was a brown color indicative of the iron impurities in the sample. The other solution sample was light gray in color. Radiochemical analyses, including thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), alpha and gamma energy analysis (AEA and GEA), and kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA), indicate that these materials are all weapons-grade plutonium with consistent plutonium isotopics. A small amount of uranium (<0.14 wt%) is also present in these samples. The isotopic composition of the uranium varied widely but was consistent among each category of material. The primary water-soluble anions in these samples were Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, and PO43-. The only major anion observed in the Rocky Flats materials was Cl-, but the PRF/RMC samples had significant quantities of all of the primary anions observed. Prompt gamma measurements provide a representative analysis of the Cl- concentration in the bulk material. The primary anions observed in the solution samples were NO3-, and PO43-. The concentration of these anions did not exceed the mixed oxide (MOX) specification limits. Cations that exceeded the MOX specification limits included Cr, Fe, Ni, Al, Cu, and Si. All of the samples exceeded at least the 75% specification limit in one element.

Tingey, Joel M.; Jones, Susan A.

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Chemical and Radiochemical Composition of Thermally Stabilized Plutonium Oxide from the Plutonium Finishing Plant Considered as Alternate Feedstock for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eighteen plutonium oxide samples originating from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) on the Hanford Site were analyzed to provide additional data on the suitability of PFP thermally stabilized plutonium oxides and Rocky Flats oxides as alternate feedstock to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Radiochemical and chemical analyses were performed on fusions, acid leaches, and water leaches of these 18 samples. The results from these destructive analyses were compared with nondestructive analyses (NDA) performed at PFP and the acceptance criteria for the alternate feedstock. The plutonium oxide materials considered as alternate feedstock at Hanford originated from several different sources including Rocky Flats oxide, scrap from the Remote Mechanical C-Line (RMC) and the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF), and materials from other plutonium conversion processes at Hanford. These materials were received at PFP as metals, oxides, and solutions. All of the material considered as alternate feedstock was converted to PuO2 and thermally stabilized by heating the PuO2 powder at 950 C in an oxidizing environment. The two samples from solutions were converted to PuO2 by precipitation with Mg(OH)2. The 18 plutonium oxide samples were grouped into four categories based on their origin. The Rocky Flats oxide was divided into two categories, low- and high-chloride Rocky Flats oxides. The other two categories were PRF/RMC scrap oxides, which included scrap from both process lines and oxides produced from solutions. The two solution samples came from samples that were being tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory because all of the plutonium oxide from solutions at PFP had already been processed and placed in 3013 containers. These samples originated at the PFP and are from plutonium nitrate product and double-pass filtrate solutions after they had been thermally stabilized. The other 16 samples originated from thermal stabilization batches before canning at PFP. Samples varied in appearance depending on the original source of material. Rocky Flats items were mostly dark olive green with clumps that crushed easily with a mortar and pestle. PRF/RMC items showed more variability. These items were mostly rust colored. One sample contained white particles that were difficult to crush, and another sample was a dark grey with a mixture of fines and large, hard fragments. The appearance and feel of the fragments indicated they might be an alloy. The color of the solution samples was indicative of the impurities in the sample. The double-pass filtrate solution was a brown color indicative of the iron impurities in the sample. The other solution sample was light gray in color. Radiochemical analyses, including thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), alpha and gamma energy analysis (AEA and GEA), and kinetic phosphorescence analysis (KPA), indicate that these materials are all weapons-grade plutonium with consistent plutonium isotopics. A small amount of uranium (Rocky Flats materials was Cl-, but the PRF/RMC samples had significant quantities of all of the primary anions observed. Prompt gamma measurements provide a representative analysis of the Cl- concentration in the bulk material. The primary anions observed in the solution samples were NO3-, and PO43-. The concentration of these anions did not exceed the mixed oxide (MOX) specification limits. Cations that exceeded the MOX specification limits included Cr, Fe, Ni, Al, Cu, and Si. All of the samples exceeded at least the 75% specification limit in one element.

Tingey, Joel M.; Jones, Susan A.

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

On the behavior of Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi Relations for Transition Metal Oxides  

SciTech Connect

Versatile Broensted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relations are found from density functional theory for a wide range of transition metal oxides including rutiles and perovskites. For oxides, the relation depends on the type of oxide, the active site and the dissociating molecule. The slope of the BEP relation is strongly coupled to the adsorbate geometry in the transition state. If it is final state-like the dissociative chemisorption energy can be considered as a descriptor for the dissociation. If it is initial state-like, on the other hand, the dissociative chemisorption energy is not suitable as descriptor for the dissociation. Dissociation of molecules with strong intramolecular bonds belong to the former and molecules with weak intramolecular bonds to the latter group. We show, for the prototype system La-perovskites, that there is a 'cyclic' behavior in the transition state characteristics upon change of the active transition metal of the oxide.

Vojvodic, Aleksandra

2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

205

Anomalous oxidation reactions at noble metal surfaces at low potentials: With particular reference to palladium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multilayer palladium hydrous oxide films, produced by potential cycling, were more stable in acid solution at 0 C (as compared with room temperature). The electrochemical responses for the reduction of such films were more consistent at the lower temperature and were remarkably similar to those of platinum under similar conditions. Both metals yield a hydrous oxide containing two components, HO1 and HO2. The cyclic voltammogram for the bare metal (Pd or Pt) in acid contains an unusual feature at low potentials in the absorbed hydrogen region. This feature, a low level reversible transition at ca. 0.24 V(RHE) for palladium, was reported in earlier independent work. It is attributed here to a premonolayer oxidation effect, i.e., an active metal atom/incipient hydrous oxide transition. The peak maximum potential (E{sub p}) for HO2 reduction in multilayer Pd hydrous oxide reduction experiments, on extrapolation to either very low sweep rates or low film thicknesses, gave a similar potential value. The relevance of this result to noble metal electrocatalysis is outlined. Electrocatalysis is a topic of major interest at the present time, especially in connection with fuel cell development.

Burke, L.D.; Buckley, D.T. [University College Cork (Ireland). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Structure formation upon reactive direct current magnetron sputtering of transition metal oxide films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comparative study of reactive direct current magnetron sputtering for different transition metal oxides reveals crystalline films at room temperature for group 4 and amorphous films for groups 5 and 6. This observation cannot be explained by the known growth laws and is attributed to the impact of energetic particles, originating from the oxidized target, on the growing film. This scenario is supported by measured target characteristics, the evolution of deposition stress of the films, and the observed backsputtering.

Ngaruiya, J.M.; Kappertz, O.; Mohamed, S.H.; Wuttig, M. [I. Physikalisches Institut der RWTH Aachen, D-52056 Aachen, Germany and Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Box 62000 Nairobi (Kenya); I. Physikalisches Institut der RWTH Aachen, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

2004-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

207

Noble Metal Catalysts for Mercury Oxidation in Utility Flue Gas: Gold, Palladium and Platinum Formulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of noble metals as catalysts for mercury oxidation in flue gas remains an area of active study. To date, field studies have focused on gold and palladium catalysts installed at pilot scale. In this article, we introduce bench-scale experimental results for gold, palladium and platinum catalysts tested in realistic simulated flue gas. Our initial results reveal some intriguing characteristics of catalytic mercury oxidation and provide insight for future research into this potentially important process.

Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Short range chemical ordering in bulk metallic glasses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We provide direct experimental evidence for a non-random distribution of atomic constituents in Zr-based multi-component bulk metallic glasses using positron annihilation spectroscopy. The Ti content around the open-volume regions is significantly enhanced at the expense of Cu and Ni, indicating that Cu and Ni occupy most of the volume bounded by their neighboring atoms while Ti and Zr are less closely packed and more likely to be associated with open-volume regions. Temperature-dependent measurements indicate the presence of at least two different characteristic sizes for the open volume regions. Measurements on hydrogen-charged samples show that the larger open-volume regions can be filled by hydrogen up to a critical density. Beyond this critical density, local atomic-scale open-volume damage is created in the sample to accommodate additional hydrogen. The onset of this local damage in positron annihilation data coincides with the onset of volume expansion in X-ray diffraction data.

Sterne, P A; Asoka-Kumar, P; Hartley, J H; Howell, R H; Nieh, T G; Flores, K M; Suh, D; Dauskardt, R H

2001-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

209

Chemical abundances of metal-poor RR Lyrae stars in the Magellanic Clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present for the first time a detailed spectroscopic study of chemical element abundances of metal-poor RR Lyrae stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Cloud (LMC and SMC). Using the MagE echelle spectrograph at the 6.5 ...

Haschke, Raoul

210

Using alternative chemicals in the flotation of heavy metals from lead mill tailings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) investigated alternative chemicals for the flotation of heavy metal values from southeast Missouri lead mill tailings. The objectives of the study were to lower the Pb remaining in the reprocessed tailings to canola oil, to be as effective as classic sulfide flotation reagents.

Benn, F.W. [Bureau of Mines, Rolla, MO (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

THE HIGH TEMPERATURE BEHAVIOR OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Products in Irradiated Uranium Dioxide," UKAEA Report AERE-OF METALLIC INCLUSIONS IN URANIUM DIOXIDE Rosa Lu Yang (Chemical State of Irradiated Uranium- Plutonium Oxide Fuel

Yang, Rosa Lu.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

METAL INTERCONNECTS FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL POWER SYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Interconnect development is identified by the U.S. Department of Energy as a key technical area requiring focused research to meet the performance and cost goals under the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance initiative. In the Phase I SECA Core Technology Program, Ceramatec investigated a commercial ferritic stainless steel composition for oxidation resistance properties by measuring the weight gain when exposed to air at the fuel cell operating temperature. A pre-treatment process that results in a dense, adherent scale was found to reduce the oxide scale growth rate significantly. A process for coating the surface of the alloy in order to reduce the in-plane resistance and potentially inhibit chromium oxide evaporation was also identified. The combination of treatments provided a very low resistance through the scale. The resistance measured was as low as 10 milliohm-cm{sup 2} at 750 C in air. The oxide scale was found to be stable in humidified air at 750 C. The resistance value was stable over several thermal cycles. A similar treatment and coating for the fuel side of the interconnect also showed an exceptionally low resistance of one milliohm-cm{sup 2} in humidified hydrogen at 750 C, and was stable through multiple thermal cycles. Analysis of the scale after exposure to various atmospheres showed the presence of a stable composition. When exposed to a dual (air and hydrogen) atmosphere however, the scale composition contains a mixture of phases. Based on results to-date, the alloy selection and the treatment processes appear to be well suited for SOFC interconnect application.

S. Elangovan; S. Balagopal; M. Timper; I. Bay; D. Larsen; J. Hartvigsen

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Metal oxide coatings for piezoelectric exhaust gas sensors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have deposited ZrO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, and SnO{sub 2} films on ST-cut quartz surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices via sol-gel techniques. The films range from 100 to 300 nm thick and have porosities after calcination at 300{degrees}C that range from 82-88 % for ZrO{sub 2}, 77-81% for TiO{sub 2}, and 57-66% for SnO{sub 2}. In all cases, we have varied the synthesis and processing parameters over a wide range to optimize film properties: metal ion concentration (0.05-1.0 M), the H{sub 2}O:metal ratio (0.3-5.3), the acid concentration in the sol (0.02-0.7 M), the modifier ligand:metal ratio (r = 0.0-1.0), the processing conditions (100-900{degrees}C). The modifier ligand, triethanolamine (TEA), is added to each solution to allow multilayer films to be made crack free. The multilayer films are studied by optical microscopy, ellipsometry, X-ray diffraction, and N{sub 2} sorption. Preliminary high temperature frequency response measurements to target gases, such as, H{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, and propylene indicate limited sensitivity for the configurations tested.

Anderson, M.T.; Cernosek, R.W.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Metal film deposition by laser breakdown chemical vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dielectric breakdown of gas mixtures can be used to deposit homogeneous thin films by chemical vapor deposition with appropriate control of flow and pressure conditions to suppress gas phase nucleation and particle formation. Using a pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser operating at 10.6 microns where there is no significant resonant absorption in any of the source gases, we have succeeded in depositing homogeneous films from several gas phase precursors by gas phase laser pyrolysis. Nickel and molybdenum from the respective carbonyls and tungsten from the hexafluoride have been examined to date. In each case the gas precursor is buffered to reduce the partial pressure of the reactants and to induce breakdown. The films are spectrally reflective and uniform over a large area. Films have been characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, pull tests, and resistivity measurements. The highest quality films have resulted from the nickel depositions. Detailed x-ray diffraction analysis of these films yields a very small domain size (approx. 50 A) consistent with rapid quenching from the gas phase reaction zone. This analysis also shows nickel carbide formation consistent with the temperature of the reaction zone and the Auger electron spectroscopy results which show some carbon and oxygen incorporation (8% and 1% respectively). Gas phase transport and condensation of the molybdenum carbonyl results in substantial carbon and oxygen contamination of the molybdenum films requiring heated substrates, a requirement not consistent with the goals of the program to maximize the quench rate of the deposition. Results from tungsten deposition experiments representing a reduction chemistry instead of the decomposition chemistry involved in the carbonyl experiments are also reported.

Jervis, T.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Electrical and physical characteristics of HfLaON-gated metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with various nitrogen concentration profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The comparative studies of electrical and physical characteristics of HfLaON-gated metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with various nitrogen concentration profiles (NCPs) were investigated. Various NCPs in HfLaON gate dielectrics were adjusted ... Keywords: Charge trapping, Current-conduction, High-k dielectric, Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS), Nitrogen concentration profiles (NCPs)

Chin-Lung Cheng; Jeng-Haur Horng; Hung-Yang Tsai

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

A field-scale test of in situ chemical oxidation through recirculation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ chemical oxidation is a developing class of remediation technologies in which organic contaminants are degraded in place by powerful oxidants. Successful implementation of this technology requires an effective means for dispersing the oxidant to contaminated regions in the subsurface. An oxidant delivery technique has been developed wherein the treatment solution is made by adding an oxidant to extracted groundwater. The oxidant-laden groundwater is then injected and recirculated into a contaminated aquifer through multiple horizontal and/or vertical wells. This technique, referred to as in situ chemical oxidation through recirculation (ISCOR), can be applied to saturated and hydraulically conductive formations and used with relatively stable oxidants such as potassium permanganate (KMnO{sub 4}). A field-scale test of ISCOR was conducted at a site (Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant) where groundwater in a 5-ft thick silty gravel aquifer is contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) at levels that indicate the presence of residual dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). The field test was implemented using a pair of parallel horizontal wells with 200-ft screened sections. For approximately one month, groundwater was extracted from one horizontal well, dosed with crystalline KMnO{sub 4}, and re-injected into the other horizontal well 90 ft away. Post-treatment characterization showed that ISCOR was effective at removing TCE in the saturated region. Lateral and vertical heterogeneities within the treatment zone impacted the uniform delivery of the oxidant solution. However, TCE was not detected in groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells and soil samples from borings in locations where the oxidant had permeated.

West, O.R.; Cline, S.R.; Holden, W.L.; Gardner, F.G.; Schlosser, B.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Siegrist, R.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Houk, T.C. [Bechtel-Jacobs, Piketon, OH (United States). Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

AC conductivity of nanoporous metal-oxide photoanodes for solar energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AC conductivity of nanoporous metal-oxide photoanodes for solar energy conversion Steven J. Konezny and SnO2 play a central role in solar energy conversion applications.1­7 In fact, the discovery of low-cost high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) (i.e., exceeding 10% solar-to-electric energy

218

Production of hydrogen. [metals oxidation/carbon reduction process; and cyyclic electrolytic; carbon reduction  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen is produced in a cyclic metals oxidation/carbon reduction process. In particular, elemental iron or cobalt is oxidized in an aqueous solution of an alkali metal hydroxide with the simultaneous generation of hydrogen. The iron or cobalt oxidation products of the reaction are thereafter reduced to elemental iron or cobalt by contact with a carbonaceous reducing agent at elevated temperatures and the reduced material recycled for reoxidation. In an alternate operation, hydrogen is produced in a cyclic electrolytic/carbon reduction process wherein elemental iron or cobalt is electrolytically converted to corresponding oxidation products with the simultaneous generation of hydrogen. The electrolytic cell used in this process comprises a cathode, a magnetic anode that is adapted to attract and retain iron and/or cobalt particles and an aqueous electrolyte. In the electrolytic cell, hydrogen is produced at the cathode and metal particles contained on the magnetic electrode are oxidized to a non-ferromagnetic specie, such as ferrous hydroxide. The nonferromagnetic species are recovered from the electrolytic cell and thereafter reconverted to particulate elemental iron and/or cobalt by treating the material with a carbonaceous reductant at an elevated temperature.

Batzold, J.S.; Pan, Y.

1980-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

219

Synthesis and characterization of chloride doped polyaniline by bulk oxidative chemical polymerization.Doping effect on electrical conductivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conductive polymers or "organic metals" are highly engineered nanostructured materials made from organic building blocks. They are candidates as molecular wires for nanotechnology applications in molecular electronics. The conduction in these polymers is due to the presence of delocalized molecular orbitals. In this work, we present the synthesis of chloride doped polyaniline by bulk oxidative chemical polymerization using a solid aniline salt as a monomer instead of liquid aniline to diminish toxic hazards. The FTIR and UV-visible spectra confirmed the expected structure of the polymer. The electrical conductivity measured using a four-probe method was 1.7 S/cm. The dependence of impedance modulus on frequency was measured using an HP impedance analyzer in the range 10 kHz-13 MHz. The influence of doping and the preparation temperature on the electrical conductivity were also investigated.

Yomen Atassi; Mohammad Tally; Mazen Ismail

2008-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

220

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Architectural Diversity of Metal Oxide Nanostructures - Esther Takeuchi, Stony Brook University  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Architectural Diversity of Metal Oxide Nanostructures: Architectural Diversity of Metal Oxide Nanostructures: An Opportunity for the Rational Optimization of Group II Cation Based Batteries. Esther S. Takeuchi, Kenneth J. Takeuchi, Amy C. Marschilok esther.takeuchi@stonybrook.edu, kenneth.takeuchi.1@stonybrook.edu, amy.marschilok@stonybrook.edu Utilize earth abundant, low cost elements with minimal environmental impact as battery materials. Exploit magnesium due to air stability and ~1,000X higher natural abundance than lithium and ~5,000X higher abundance than lead. Cathode materials feature Mn, Fe or V metal centers. Strategy Results Results This project targets some of the unique needs of large scale power storage: 1) reduced cost 2) low environmental impact 3) scalability 4) reversibility

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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221

Half-Metallicity in Europium Oxide Conductively Matched with Silicon  

SciTech Connect

EuO1-x--a remarkably versatile ferromagnetic semiconductor with variable transport properties--incorporated into a heterostructure with n+ doped silicon is shown to be {approx}90% spin polarized by Andreev reflection (AR) spin spectroscopy. The AR measurements were done in a planar geometry with an InSn superconducting film. A simple reactive growth technique was used to controllably introduce oxygen vacancies into EuO1-x to adjust its carrier concentration. We demonstrate by direct measurements of spin polarization that half-metallicity of EuO1-x can be achieved in the films conductively matched with Si, thus making EuO1-x one of the most attractive materials for silicon-based spintronics.

Panguluri,R.; Santos, T.; Negusse, E.; Dvorak, J.; Idzerda, Y.; Moodera, J.; Nadgorny, B.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Controlled VLS Growth of Indium, Gallium and Tin Oxide Nanowires via Chemical Vapor Transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technique to synthesize indium oxide, gallium oxide, and tinmaterial systems such as indium oxide, gallium oxide and tinand Characterization A. Indium Oxide Nanowires Indium oxide

Johnson, M.C.; Aloni, S.; McCready, D.E.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Niobium Oxide-Metal Based Seals for High Temperature Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present final report describes technical progress made in regards to evaluating niobium oxide/alumina as a high temperature seal material. Fabrication and characterization of specimens comprising niobium oxide and alumina composites of various compositions was performed. The goal was to identify regions where a glass formed. There were no experimental conditions where a glassy phase was unequivocally identified. However, the results led to the formation of an interesting class of fibrous composites which may have applications where high compliance and high toughness are needed. It is clear that vapor phase sintering is an active mass transport mechanism in Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites (Figure 1), and it may be possible to design porous materials by utilizing vapor phase sintering. The compositions evaluated in the present work are 52, 60, 73, 82 and 95 mol. % Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} with the remainder Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. These were chosen so that some eutectic composition was present during cooling, in an attempt to encourage glass formation. However, the presence of large, elongated crystals, both in the slow cool and the quench experiments indicates that the driving force for crystallization is very high. Several joints were formed between high purity alumina with two compositions (60 and 82 mol. %) forming the joint. These were created by grinding and polishing alumina surfaces and stacking them end-to-end with the powdered Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} material in between. Joining was accomplished in air at temperatures between 1400 C and 1450 C. The joints failed during subsequent machining for strength bars, indicating low strength. It may be possible to use the compositions evaluated here as a joint material, but it seems unlikely that a glassy phase could be produced while joining.

Ivar Reimanis

2006-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

224

Method for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas, device for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the simultaneous removal of oxides and heavy metals from a fluid is provided comprising combining the fluid with compounds containing alkali and sulfur to create a mixture; spray drying the mixture to create a vapor phase and a solid phase; and isolating the vapor phase from the solid phase. A device is also provided comprising a means for spray-drying flue gas with alkali-sulfide containing liquor at a temperature sufficient to cause the flue gas to react with the compounds so as to create a gaseous fraction and a solid fraction and a means for directing the gaseous fraction to a fabric filter.

Huang, Hann-Sheng; Livengood, Charles David

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Spectroscopic investigations of small molecule interactions on metal oxide surfaces. Progress report, September 1, 1979-October 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Significant advances were made over the past year in surveying with angle integrated uv photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) the interactions of general classes of chemically important small molecules with metal oxide surfaces, and in elucidating in detail the geometric and electronic structures of the small molecule-surface complexes observed by angle resolved UPS. Progress can be divided into several areas: (1) a detailed understanding of the unique active site structures associated with the interaction of CO with ZnO utilizing angle integrated and angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy; (2) initiating survey studies into new small molecule systems with emphasis on hydrogen and ethylene; (3) successful construction and testing of a high resoltuion electron energy loss spectrometer (HREELS).

Solomon, E.I.; McFeeley, F.R.

1980-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

226

Metal oxide coating of carbon supports for supercapacitor applications.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The global market for wireless sensor networks in 2010 will be valued close to $10 B, or 200 M units. TPL, Inc. is a small Albuquerque based business that has positioned itself to be a leader in providing uninterruptible power supplies in this growing market with projected revenues expected to exceed $26 M in 5 years. This project focused on improving TPL, Inc.'s patent-pending EnerPak{trademark} device which converts small amounts of energy from the environment (e.g., vibrations, light or temperature differences) into electrical energy that can be used to charge small energy storage devices. A critical component of the EnerPak{trademark} is the supercapacitor that handles high power delivery for wireless communications; however, optimization and miniaturization of this critical component is required. This proposal aimed to produce prototype microsupercapacitors through the integration of novel materials and fabrication processes developed at New Mexico Technology Research Collaborative (NMTRC) member institutions. In particular, we focused on developing novel ruthenium oxide nanomaterials and placed them into carbon supports to significantly increase the energy density of the supercapacitor. These improvements were expected to reduce maintenance costs and expand the utility of the TPL, Inc.'s device, enabling New Mexico to become the leader in the growing global wireless power supply market. By dominating this niche, new customers were expected to be attracted to TPL, Inc. yielding new technical opportunities and increased job opportunities for New Mexico.

Boyle, Timothy J.; Tribby, Louis, J (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Lakeman, Charles D. E. (TPL, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Han, Sang M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Lambert, Timothy N.; Fleig, Patrick F. (TPL, Inc., Albuquerque, NM)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

O-vacancies in transition metal (TM) oxides: Coordination and local site symmetry of transition and negative ion states in TM2O3 and TMO2 oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Removal of neutral O-atoms from a transition metal (TM) oxide results in two electrons residing within the vacated site. Two-electron multiplet theory has been used to develop a d^2equivalent model. When applied to tetragonal HfO"2, the two electrons ... Keywords: Negative ion states, O-vacancy, Second derivative O K pre-edge spectra, Tanabe-Sugano diagrams, Transition metal oxides: X-ray absorption spectroscopy

G. Lucovsky; D. Zeller; J. L. Whitten

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M{sub x}Z{sub y}Mn{sub (1{minus}y)}O{sub 2}, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell. 11 figs.

Doeff, M.M.; Peng, M.Y.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.C.

1996-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

229

NiO as a peculiar support for metal nanoparticles in polyols oxidation  

SciTech Connect

The peculiar influence of a NiO support was studied by preparing gold catalysts supported on NiO(1-x) TiO2(x) mixed oxides. PVA protected Au nanoparticles showed high activity when supported on NiO for the selective oxidation of glycerol and ethan-1,2-diol. A detailed characterization of the resulting Au catalysts revealed a preferential deposition of the metal nanoparticles on the NiO phase. However, the activity of Au on NiO(1-x)-TiO2(x) decreased with respect to pure NiO and the selectivity evolved with changes to the support.

Villa, Alberto [Universita di Milano, Italy; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Ferri, Davide [EMPA, Laboratory for High Performance Ceramics, Duebendorf, Switzerland; Weidenkaff, Anke [EMPA, Laboratory for High Performance Ceramics, Duebendorf, Switzerland; Perry, Kelly A [ORNL; Campisi, Sebastiano [University of Milan and INFN, Milano, Italy; Prati, Laura [Universita di Milano, Italy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Brazing a Mixed Ionic/Electronic Conductor to an Oxidation Resistant Metal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mixed ionically/electrically conducting oxides such as lanthanum calcium manganate are currently being investigated for use as electrodes in a number of high temperature devices, including solid oxide fuel cells. Traditionally, glass seals have been employed as a means of hermetically joining the ceramic components that lie at the heart of these devices to the heat resistant metal frame that gives the device its structural integrity. The present paper outlines an alternative brazing technique for joining these dissimilar materials and discusses recent findings regarding the wettability of the braze on the two joining surfaces, as well as the strength of the resulting joint.

Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.

2003-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

231

Physicochemical Characterization of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols III: Morphologic and Chemical Oxide Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of depleted uranium (DU) penetrators against an armored target causes erosion and fragmentation of the penetrators, the extent of which is dependent on the thickness and material composition of the target. Vigorous oxidation of the DU particles and fragments creates an aerosol of DU oxide particles and DU particle agglomerations combined with target materials. Aerosols from the Capstone DU aerosol study, in which vehicles were perforated by DU penetrators, were evaluated for their oxidation states using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and particle morphologies using scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS). The oxidation state of a DU aerosol is important as it offers a clue to its solubility in lung fluids. The XRD analysis showed that the aerosols evaluated were a combination primarily of U3O8 (insoluble) and UO3 (relatively more soluble) phases, though intermediate phases resembling U4O9 and other oxides were prominent in some samples. Analysis of particle residues in the micrometer-size range by SEM/EDS provided microstructural information such as phase composition and distribution, fracture morphology, size distribution, and material homogeneity. Observations from SEM analysis show a wide variability in the shapes of the DU particles. Some of the larger particles appear to have been fractured (perhaps as a result of abrasion and comminution); others were spherical, occasionally with dendritic or lobed surface structures. Amorphous conglomerates containing metals other than uranium were also common, especially with the smallest particle sizes. A few samples seemed to contain small chunks of nearly pure uranium metal, which were verified by EDS to have a higher uranium content exceeding that expected for uranium oxides. Results of the XRD and SEM/EDS analyses were used in other studies described in this issue of The Journal of Health Physics to interpret the results of lung solubility studies and in selecting input parameters for dose assessments.

Krupka, Kenneth M.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Gold, Kenneth; Arey, Bruce W.; Jenson, Evan D.; Guilmette, Raymond A.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Study of metallic materials for solid oxide fuel cell interconnect applications.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metallic interconnect acts as a gas separator and a gas distributor and therefore, it needs to function adequately in two widely different environments. The interconnect material will be exposed to air on one side and natural gas or coal-derived synthesis gas on the other side. The viable material for the interconnect application must be resistant not only to oxidation but also carburization in hydrocarbon containing low-oxygen environments. In addition, the scales that develop on the exposed surfaces must possess adequate electrical conductivity for them to function as current leads over long service life of the fuel cell. This report addresses five topics of interest for the development of metallic interconnects with adequate performance in fuel cells for long service life. The research conducted over the years and the conclusions reached were used to identify additional areas of research on materials for improved performance of components, especially metallic interconnects, in the complex fuel cell environments. This report details research conducted in the following areas: measurement of area specific electrical resistivity, corrosion performance in dual gas environments by experiments using alloy 446, long term corrosion performance of ferritic and austenitic alloys in hydrogen and methane-reformed synthesis fuel-gas environments, approaches to reduce the area resistance of metallic interconnect, and reduction of electrical resistivity of alumina scales on metallic interconnect. Based on the key requirements for metallic interconnects and the data developed on the corrosion behavior of candidate materials in meeting those requirements, several areas are recommended for further research to develop metallic interconnects with acceptable and reliable long-term performance in solid oxide fuel cells.

Natesan, K.; Zeng, Z.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2009-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

233

Investigation on Durability and Reactivity of Promising Metal Oxide Sorbents During Sulfidation and Regeneration  

SciTech Connect

Research activities and efforts of this research project were concentrated on formulating various metal oxide sorbents with various additives under various formulation conditions, conducting experiments on initial reactivity of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide, and testing hardness of formulated sorbents. Experiments on reactivity of formulated metal oxide sorbents with wet hydrogen sulfide contained in a simulated coal gas mixture were carried out for 120 seconds at 550 o C (see Table 1) to evaluate reactivity of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide. Hardness of formulated sorbents was evaluated in addition to testing their reactivity with hydrogen sulfide. A typical simulated coal gas mixture consists of 9107-ppm hydrogen sulfide (0.005 g; 1 wt %), 0.085-g water (15.84 wt %), 0.0029-g hydrogen (0.58 wt %), and 0.4046-g nitrogen (81.34 wt%).

K. C. Kwon

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Tubular solid oxide fuel cells with porous metal supports and ceramic interconnections  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell structure capable of operating at from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. having a very thin porous hollow elongated metallic support tube having a thickness from 0.10 mm to 1.0 mm, preferably 0.10 mm to 0.35 mm, a porosity of from 25 vol. % to 50 vol. % and a tensile strength from 700 GPa to 900 GPa, which metallic tube supports a reduced thickness air electrode having a thickness from 0.010 mm to 0.2 mm, a solid oxide electrolyte, a cermet fuel electrode, a ceramic interconnection and an electrically conductive cell to cell contact layer.

Huang, Kevin (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

235

NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDES FOR ANODES OF LI-ION RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The aligned nanorods of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and nanoporous hollow spheres (NHS) of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated as the anodes for Li-ion rechargeable batteries. The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods demonstrated 1433 mAh/g reversible capacity. The NHS of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} delivered 400 mAh/g and 250 mAh/g capacities respectively in multiple galvonastatic discharge-charge cycles. It was found that high capacity of NHS of metal oxides is sustainable attributed to their unique structure that maintains material integrity during cycling. The nanostructured metal oxides exhibit great potential as the new anode materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries with high energy density, low cost and inherent safety.

Au, M.

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

236

Inert anode containing oxides of nickel, iron and zinc useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO: 0.2 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.8 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.3 ZnO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Inert anode containing oxides of nickel iron and cobalt useful for the electrolytic production of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO: 0.15 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.85 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.45 CoO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Oxidation Resistant, Cr Retaining, Electrically Conductive Coatings on Metallic Alloys for SOFC Interconnects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes significant results from an on-going, collaborative effort to enable the use of inexpensive metallic alloys as interconnects in planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) through the use of advanced coating technologies. Arcomac Surface Engineering, LLC, under the leadership of Dr. Vladimir Gorokhovsky, is investigating filtered-arc and filtered-arc plasma-assisted hybrid coating deposition technologies to promote oxidation resistance, eliminate Cr volatility, and stabilize the electrical conductivity of both standard and specialty steel alloys of interest for SOFC metallic interconnect (IC) applications. Arcomac has successfully developed technologies and processes to deposit coatings with excellent adhesion, which have demonstrated a substantial increase in high temperature oxidation resistance, stabilization of low Area Specific Resistance values and significantly decrease Cr volatility. An extensive matrix of deposition processes, coating compositions and architectures was evaluated. Technical performance of coated and uncoated sample coupons during exposures to SOFC interconnect-relevant conditions is discussed, and promising future directions are considered. Cost analyses have been prepared based on assessment of plasma processing parameters, which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed surface engineering process for SOFC metallic IC applications.

Vladimir Gorokhovsky

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

239

Electronically conductive ceramics for high temperature oxidizing environments  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to a high temperature, ceramic composition having electronic conductivity as measured by resistivity below about 500 ohm-cm, chemical stability particularly with respect to cathode conditions in a molten carbonate fuel cell, and composed of an alkali metal, transition metal oxide containing a dopant metal in the crystalline structure to replace a portion of the alkali metal or transition metal.

Kucera, G.H.; Smith, J.L.; Sim, J.W.

1983-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

240

Mercury Removal from Aqueous Systems Using Commercial and Laboratory Prepared Metal Oxide Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Five commercial metal oxide nanoparticles (CuO, SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2 and Al2O3) have been individually screened for mercury removal in a batch reactor under bicarbonate buffered and non-buffered aqueous solutions (DI water). Copper oxide was then selected for surface modification to enhance mercury removal. The surfaces of both laboratory prepared and commercially available copper oxide nanoparticles were treated with 1-octanethiol to produce copper sulfide and/or copper alkanethiol nanoparticles. The resulting particles were characterized using X-Ray Fluorescence(XRF), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The novel nanoparticles demonstrated very high mercury removal (> 99%) from both the buffered and non-buffered aqueous solutions.

Desai, Ishan

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Extremely Metal-Poor Stars from SDSS/SEGUE: I. Atmospheric Parameters and Chemical Compositions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical compositions are determined based on high-resolution spectroscopy for 137 candidate extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and its first stellar extension, the Sloan ...

Aoki, Wako

242

Recent trends in the microwave-assisted synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes and their applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study of coating carbon nanotubes with metal/oxides nanoparticles is now becoming a promising and challenging area of research. To optimize the use of carbon nanotubes in various applications, it is necessary to attach functional groups or other ...

Sarah C. Motshekga; Sreejarani K. Pillai; Suprakas Sinha Ray; Kalala Jalama; Rui. W. M. Krause

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Modelling of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behavior of metallic and oxide fuels for sodium fast reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A robust and reliable code to model the irradiation behavior of metal and oxide fuels in sodium cooled fast reactors is developed. Modeling capability was enhanced by adopting a non-empirical mechanistic approach to the ...

Karahan, Aydin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Final Technical Report - High-Performance, Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Tubes for Production of Ethylene adn Other Industrial Chemicals  

SciTech Connect

This project was undertaken by Michigan Technological University and Special Metals Corporation to develop creep-resistant, coking-resistant oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) tubes for use in industrial-scale ethylene pyrolysis and steam methane reforming operations. Ethylene pyrolysis tubes are exposed to some of the most severe service conditions for metallic materials found anywhere in the chemical process industries, including elevated temperatures, oxidizing atmospheres and high carbon potentials. During service, hard deposits of carbon (coke) build up on the inner wall of the tube, reducing heat transfer and restricting the flow of the hydrocarbon feedstocks. About every 20 to 60 days, the reactor must be taken off-line and decoked by burning out the accumulated carbon. This decoking costs on the order of $9 million per year per ethylene plant, accelerates tube degradation, and requires that tubes be replaced about every 5 years. The technology developed under this program seeks to reduce the energy and economic cost of coking by creating novel bimetallic tubes offering a combination of improved coking resistance, creep resistance and fabricability not available in current single-alloy tubes. The inner core of this tube consists of Incoloy(R) MA956, a commercial ferritic Fe-Cr-Al alloy offering a 50% reduction in coke buildup combined with improved carburization resistance. The outer sheath consists of a new material - oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Alloy 803(R) developed under the program. This new alloy retains the good fireside environmental resistance of Alloy 803, a commercial wrought alloy currently used for ethylene production, and provides an austenitic casing to alleviate the inherently-limited fabricability of the ferritic Incoloy(R) MA956 core. To provide mechanical compatibility between the two alloys and maximize creep resistance of the bimetallic tube, both the inner Incoloy(R) MA956 and the outer ODS Alloy 803 are oxide dispersion strengthened materials produced using mechanical alloying technology. To minimize cost, the bimetallic tube is produced by direct powder co-extrusion. This technology has potential for domestic energy savings of up to 4.1 trillion BTU/year (4.3 x 1015J/year) and a reduction of 370,000 tons (340,000 tonnes) of CO2 emissions in short-residence-time ethylene furnaces. This represents an energy savings and CO2 emissions reduction of about 3.3%. If the technology is also applied to other types of ethylene pyrolysis furnaces, total energy savings and CO2 emissions reductions could increase by up to five times. The work involved: Developing powder and consolidation processing protocols to produce an oxide-dispersion strengthened variant of Alloy 803 exhibiting creep strength comparable to Incoloy? Alloy MA956, Developing a direct powder co-extrusion protocol for fabricating co-extruded bimetallic Incoloy? Alloy MA956 / ODS Alloy 803 tubes, Characterizing the properties of the ODS Alloy 803 material, the welding characteristics of the bimetallic tubes, and the coking characteristics of the Incoloy? MA956 alloy, and Documenting the potential energy savings and user requirements for these bimetallic pyrolysis furnace tubes. The project demonstrated that oxide dispersion strengthened Alloy 803 can be produced successfully using conventional mechanical alloying technology. The oxide dispersion strengthened bimetallic radiant coil technology explored under this program has significant potential for energy savings and productivity improvements for domestic ethylene producers. In today's competitive market, however, domestic furnace manufacturers and ethylene producers appear reluctant to pay any cost premium for higher-performance coil materials offering either higher temperature capabilities or longer service life. Interest in oxide dispersion strengthened radiant coils is likely to increase if furnace and ethylene producers begin to focus more on increasing tube wall temperatures to improve productivity.

McKimpson, Marvin G.

2006-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

245

Method for continuously recovering metals using a dual zone chemical reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dual zone chemical reactor continuously processes metal-containing materials while regenerating and circulating a liquid carrier. The starting materials are fed into a first reaction zone of a vessel containing a molten salt carrier. The starting materials react to form a metal product and a by-product that dissolves in the molten salt that flows to a second reaction zone in the reaction vessel. The second reaction zone is partitioned from, but in fluid communication with, the first reaction zone. The liquid carrier continuously circulates along a pathway between the first reaction zone and the second reaction zone. A reactive gas is introduced into the second reaction zone to react with the reaction by-product to generate the molten salt. The metal product, the gaseous waste products, and the excess liquid carrier are removed without interrupting the operation of the reactor. The design of the dual zone reactor can be adapted to combine a plurality of liquid carrier regeneration zones in a multiple dual zone chemical reactor for production scale processing. 6 figs.

Bronson, M.C.

1995-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

246

Method for continuously recovering metals using a dual zone chemical reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dual zone chemical reactor continuously processes metal-containing materials while regenerating and circulating a liquid carrier. The starting materials are fed into a first reaction zone of a vessel containing a molten salt carrier. The starting materials react to form a metal product and a by-product that dissolves in the molten salt that flows to a second reaction zone in the reaction vessel. The second reaction zone is partitioned from, but in fluid communication with, the first reaction zone. The liquid carrier continuously circulates along a pathway between the first reaction zone and the second reaction zone. A reactive gas is introduced into the second reaction zone to react with the reaction by-product to generate the molten salt. The metal product, the gaseous waste products, and the excess liquid carrier are removed without interrupting the operation of the reactor. The design of the dual zone reactor can be adapted to combine a plurality of liquid carrier regeneration zones in a multiple dual zone chemical reactor for production scale processing.

Bronson, Mark C. (Livermore, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Characteristics of Gd2-xLaxO3 high-k films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gd"2"-"xLa"xO"3 high-k films were deposited on (100) Si substrates by low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The metal-organic precursors we used were Gd and La @b-diketonates. The structure, band gap, composition and electrical ... Keywords: Gd2-xLaxO3, High- k, MOCVD

Liu-Ying Huang; Ai-Dong Li; Ying-Ying Fu; Wen-Qi Zhang; Xiao-Jie Liu; Di Wu

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

An exploratory program for using hydrous metal oxide ion exchangers as Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program is to investigate the potential of hydrous metal oxide (HMO) ion exchangers, invented at Sandia National Laboratories, as Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalysts. Metals known to be active in F-T synthesis (e.g. Fe, Co) were ion exchanged on hydrous metal oxide supports. Although HMO catalysts based on Zr, Nb, and Ta have been investigated in direct coal liquefaction studies, this effect focused on formulations based on the hydrous titanium oxide (HTO) system. The program has the goals of developing a catalyst with (1) high activity, (2) selectively to fuel range or other useful products, and (3) better properties for use in slurry reactors. The program has three main tasks: (1) catalyst synthesis, to develop methods for preparing catalysts having desirable F-T properties, (2) characterization, to investigate catalysts proving to have desirable properties by a variety of analytical techniques to determine correlations between activity and material properties and (3) testing to determine activity and selectivity of catalysts. This paper discussed results of activity testing of Ruhrchemie catalyst and some catalyst formulations prepared using ion exchange on hydrous titanium oxide and precipitation. For example, at 250{degree}C the Ruhrchemie catalyst converts {approximately}50% of the syngas feed to reaction products. In comparison, iron catalysts prepared by ion exchange and precipitation had conversions ranging from 20 to 50% over a temperature range of 250 to 275{degree}C of the syngas feed. In addition, results are Auger surface analysis of Ruhrchemie catalyst are presented. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Lynch, A.W.; Dosch, R.G.; Sault, A.G.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

The optical properties of magnesium oxide containing transition metal ions and defects produced by fast neutron irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The photoluminescence (PL), its excitation (PLE) and optical absorption of MgO crystals containing transition metal ions and defects produced by fast neutron irradiation fluence up to 1020cm-2 (E>0.1 MeV) are investigated. Three ... Keywords: absorption, luminescence spectra, magnesium oxide, radiation defect, transition metal ions

Vera Skvortsova; Laima Trinkler

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

High Performance Ceramic Interconnect Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs): Ca- and Transition Metal-doped Yttrium Chromite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of transition metal substitution on thermal and electrical properties of Ca-doped yttrium chromite was investigated in relation to use as a ceramic interconnect in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). 10 at% Co, 4 at% Ni, and 1 at% Cu substitution on B-site of 20 at% Ca-doped yttrium chromite led to a close match of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) with that of 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), and a single phase Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 remained stable between 25 and 1100 degree C over a wide oxygen partial pressure range. Doping with Cu significantly facilitated densification of yttrium chromite. Ni dopant improved both electrical conductivity and dimensional stability in reducing environments, likely through diminishing the oxygen vacancy formation. Substitution with Co substantially enhanced electrical conductivity in oxidizing atmosphere, which was attributed to an increase in charge carrier density and hopping mobility. Electrical conductivity of Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 at 900 degree C is 57 S/cm in air and 11 S/cm in fuel (pO2=5Ś10^-17 atm) environments. Chemical compatibility of doped yttrium chromite with other cell components was verified at the processing temperatures. Based on the chemical and dimensional stability, sinterability, and thermal and electrical properties, Y0.8Ca0.2Cr0.85Co0.1Ni0.04Cu0.01O3 is suggested as a promising SOFC ceramic interconnect to potentially overcome technical limitations of conventional acceptor-doped lanthanum chromites.

Yoon, Kyung J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

251

Method of making AlInSb by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing aluminum-indium-antimony materials by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). This invention provides a method of producing Al.sub.X In.sub.1-x Sb crystalline materials by MOCVD wherein an Al source material, an In source material and an Sb source material are supplied as a gas to a heated substrate in a chamber, said Al source material, In source material, and Sb source material decomposing at least partially below 525.degree. C. to produce Al.sub.x In.sub.1-x Sb crystalline materials wherein x is greater than 0.002 and less than one.

Biefeld, Robert M. (Albuquerque, NM); Allerman, Andrew A. (Albuquerque, NM); Baucom, Kevin C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are reached concerning the factors affecting the growth rate in on-line APCVD reactors. In addition, a substantial body of data was generated that can be used to model many different industrial tin oxide coating processes. These data include the most extensive compilation of thermochemistry for gas-phase tin-containing species as well as kinetic expressions describing tin oxide growth rates over a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and reactant concentrations.

Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Manganese Doping of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Tailoring Surface Reactivity for a Regenerable Heavy Metal Sorbent  

SciTech Connect

A method for tuning the analyte affinity of magnetic, inorganic nanostructured sorbents for heavy metal contaminants is described. The manganese-doped iron oxide nanoparticle sorbents have a remarkably high affinity compared to the precursor material. Sorbent affinity can be tuned toward an analyte of interest simply by adjustment of the dopant quantity. The results show that following the Mn doping process there is a large increase in affinity and capacity for heavy metals (i.e., Co, Ni, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Tl). Capacity measurements were carried out for the removal of cadmium from river water and showed significantly higher loading than the relevant commercial sorbents tested for comparison. The reduction in Cd concentration from 100 ppb spiked river water to 1 ppb (less than the EPA drinking water limit of 5 ppb for Cd) was achieved following treatment with the Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles. The Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were able to load 1 ppm of Cd followed by complete stripping and recovery of the Cd with a mild acid wash. The Cd loading and stripping is shown to be consistent through multiple cycles with no loss of sorbent performance.

Warner, Cynthia L.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Mackie, Katherine E.; Neiner, Doinita; Saraf, Laxmikant; Droubay, Timothy C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Addleman, Raymond S.

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

254

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Uses for structured catalytic supports, such as ceramic straight-channel monoliths and ceramic foams, have been established for a long time. One of the most prominent examples is the washcoated ceramic monolith as a three-way catalytic converter for gasoline-powered automobiles. A distinct alternative to the ceramic monolith is the metal foam, with potential use in fuel cell-powered automobiles. The metal foams are characterized by their pores per inch (ppi) and density ({rho}). In previous research, using 5 wt% platinum (Pt) and 0.5 wt% iron (Fe) catalysts, washcoated metal foams, 5.08 cm in length and 2.54 cm in diameter, of both varying and similar ppi and {rho} were tested for their activity (X{sub CO}) and selectivity (S{sub CO}) on a CO preferential oxidation (PROX) reaction in the presence of a H{sub 2}-rich gas stream. The variances in these metal foams' activity and selectivity were much larger than expected. Other structured supports with 5 wt% Pt, 0-1 wt% Fe weight loading were also examined. A theory for this phenomenon states that even though these structured supports have a similar nominal catalyst weight loading, only a certain percentage of the Pt/Fe catalyst is exposed on the surface as an active site for CO adsorption. We will use two techniques, pulse chemisorption and temperature programmed desorption (TPD), to characterize our structured supports. Active metal count, metal dispersion, and other calculations will help clarify the causes for the activity and selectivity variations between the supports. Results on ceramic monoliths show that a higher Fe loading yields a lower dispersion, potentially because of Fe inhibition of the Pt surface for CO adsorption. This theory is used to explain the reason for activity and selectivity differences for varying ppi and {rho} metal foams; less active and selective metal foams have a lower Fe loading, which justifies their higher metal dispersion. Data on the CO desorption temperature and average metal crystallite size for TPD are also collected.

Paul Chin; George W. Roberts; James J. Spivey

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

255

Low temperature metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth processes for high-efficiency solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a program to develop a more complete understanding of the physical and chemical processes involved in low-temperature growth of III-V compounds by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and to develop a low-temperature process that is suitable for the growth of high-efficiency solar cells. The program was structured to develop a better understanding of the chemical reactions involved in MOCVD growth, to develop a model of the processes occurring in the gas phase, to understand the physical kinetics and reactions operative on the surface of the growing crystal, and to develop an understanding of the means by which these processes may be altered to reduce the temperature of growth and the utilization of toxic hydrides. The basic approach was to develop the required information about the chemical and physical kinetics operative in the gas phase and on the surface by the direct physical measurement of the processes whenever possible. The program included five tasks: (1) MOCVD growth process characterization, (2) photoenhanced MOCVD studies, (3) materials characterization, (4) device fabrication and characterization, and (5) photovoltaic training. Most of the goals of the program were met and significant progress was made in defining an approach that would allow both high throughput and high uniformity growth of compound semiconductors at low temperatures. The technical activity was focused on determining the rates of thermal decomposition of trimethyl gallium, exploring alternate arsenic sources for use MOCVD, and empirical studies of atomic layer epitaxy as an approach.

Dapkus, P.D. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Variation of the shape and morphological properties of silica and metal oxide powders by electro homogeneous precipitation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method for preparing irreversible linear aggregates (fibrils) of metal oxide powders by utilizing static or pulsed DC electrical fields across a relatively non-conducting liquid solvent in which organometal compounds or silicon alkoxides have been dissolved. The electric field is applied to the relatively non-conducting solution throughout the particle formation and growth process promoting the formation of either linear aggregates (fibrils) or spherical shaped particles as desired. Thus the present invention provides a physical method for altering the size, shape and porosity of precursor hydrous metal oxide or hydrous silicon oxide powders for the development of advanced ceramics with improved strength and insulating capacity.

Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Basaran, Osman A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sisson, Warren G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Brunson, Ronald R. (Lenoir City, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

The destruction of hazardous chemical waste by oxidation in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

The chemistry of oxidation in supercritical water is being investigated for development into a practical destruction process for hazardous chemical waste. In principle, a wide variety of waste streams might be treated by this technology, including those that are unsuitable for incineration because of high water content. To establish a basis for extrapolation of kinetic measurements to a variety of compounds, a mechanism is being developed for oxidation in supercritical water on the basis of conventional free-radical reactions, with modifications for high pressures and high concentrations of water. Global rate expressions for oxidation of methane and methanol in supercritical water have been determined. A base mechanism and modifications to the mechanism to account for the roles of hydrogen bonding and water dimer formation have been investigated for CO. On this limited basis, reasonable agreement between model and experimental results has been obtained. Further verification of the model with experimental results will provide insight into the roles of hydrogen bonding and water dimer formation in oxidation in supercritical water. 30 refs., 3 tabs.

Rofer, C.K.; Streit, G.E.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Impact of metal nano layer thickness on tunneling oxide and memory performance of core-shell iridium-oxide nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

The impact of iridium-oxide (IrO{sub x}) nano layer thickness on the tunneling oxide and memory performance of IrO{sub x} metal nanocrystals in an n-Si/SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/IrO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/IrO{sub x} structure has been investigated. A thinner (1.5 nm) IrO{sub x} nano layer has shown better memory performance than that of a thicker one (2.5 nm). Core-shell IrO{sub x} nanocrystals with a small average diameter of 2.4 nm and a high density of {approx}2 x 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2} have been observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The IrO{sub x} nanocrystals are confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A large memory window of 3.0 V at a sweeping gate voltage of {+-}5 V and 7.2 V at a sweeping gate voltage of {+-} 8 V has been observed for the 1.5 nm-thick IrO{sub x} nano layer memory capacitors with a small equivalent oxide thickness of 8 nm. The electrons and holes are trapped in the core and annular regions of the IrO{sub x} nanocrystals, respectively, which is explained by Gibbs free energy. High electron and hole-trapping densities are found to be 1.5 x 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2} and 2 x 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2}, respectively, due to the small size and high-density of IrO{sub x} nanocrystals. Excellent program/erase endurance of >10{sup 6} cycles and good retention of 10{sup 4} s with a good memory window of >1.2 V under a small operation voltage of {+-} 5 V are obtained. A large memory size of >10 Tbit/sq. in. can be designed by using the IrO{sub x} nanocrystals. This study is not only important for the IrO{sub x} nanocrystal charge-trapping memory investigation but it will also help to design future metal nanocrystal flash memory.

Banerjee, W.; Maikap, S. [Thin Film Nano Tech. Lab., Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan 333, Taiwan (China); Tien, T.-C. [Material Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan 310, Taiwan (China); Li, W.-C.; Yang, J.-R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of biodiesel fuels blend surrogate.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were developed and used to study the oxidation of two large unsaturated esters: methyl-5-decenoate and methyl-9-decenoate. These models were built from a previous methyl decanoate mechanism and were compared with rapeseed oil methyl esters oxidation experiments in a jet stirred reactor. A comparative study of the reactivity of these three oxygenated compounds was performed and the differences in the distribution of the products of the reaction were highlighted showing the influence of the presence and the position of a double bond in the chain. Blend surrogates, containing methyl decanoate, methyl-5-decenoate, methyl-9-decenoate and n-alkanes, were tested against rapeseed oil methyl esters and methyl palmitate/n-decane experiments. These surrogate models are realistic kinetic tools allowing the study of the combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel and homogeneous charge compression ignition engines.

Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

260

Effect of Temperature on GaGdO/GaN Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors  

SciTech Connect

GaGdO was deposited on GaN for use as a gate dielectric in order to fabricate a depletion metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). This is the fmt demonstration of such a device in the III-Nitride system. Analysis of the effect of temperature on the device shows that gate leakage is significantly reduced at elevated temperature relative to a conventional metal semiconductor field effeet transistor (MESFET) fabricated on the same GaN layer. MOSFET device operation in fact improved upon heating to 400 C. Modeling of the effeet of temperature on contact resistance suggests that the improvement is due to a reduction in the parasitic resistances present in the device.

Abernathy, C.R.; Baca, A.; Chu, S.N.G.; Hong, M.; Lothian, J.R.; Marcus, M.A.; Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Schurman, M.J.

1998-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Low temperature photochemical vapor deposition of alloy and mixed metal oxide films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for formation of an alloy thin film, or a mixed metal oxide thin film, on a substrate at relatively low temperatures. Precursor vapor(s) containing the desired thin film constituents is positioned adjacent to the substrate and irradiated by light having wavelengths in a selected wavelength range, to dissociate the gas(es) and provide atoms or molecules containing only the desired constituents. These gases then deposit at relatively low temperatures as a thin film on the substrate. The precursor vapor(s) is formed by vaporization of one or more precursor materials, where the vaporization temperature(s) is selected to control the ratio of concentration of metals present in the precursor vapor(s) and/or the total precursor vapor pressure.

Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Chemical Synthesis of Nano-Sized particles of Lead Oxide and their Characterization Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quantum dots of semiconductor display novel and interesting phenomena that have not been in the bulk material. The color tunability is one of the most attractive characteristics in II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles such as CdS, ZnS, CdSe, ZnSe and PbO. In this work, the semiconductor lead oxide nanoparticles are prepared by chemical method. The average particle size, specific surface area, crystallinity index are estimated from XRD analysis. The structural, functional groups and optical characters are analyzed with using of SEM, FTIR and UV- Visible techniques. The optical band gap value has also been determined.

M. Alagar; T. Theivasanthi; A. Kubera Raja

2012-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

263

Post-Deposition Induced Conductivity in Pulsed Laser Irradiated Metal Doped Zinc Oxide Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The optical and electrical properties of doped solution-deposited and rf sputter-deposited thin metal oxide films were investigated following post deposition pulsed laser irradiation. Solution deposited films were annealed at 450 șC. Following the heating regiment, the transparent metal oxide films were subjected to 355 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation (4 nsec pulsewidth) at fluences between 5 and 150 mJ/cm2. Irradiation times at pulse frequencies of 30 Hz ranged from seconds to tens of minutes. Film densification, index change and a marked increase in conductivity were observed following irradiation in air and under vacuum of Al:ZnO (AZO), Ga:ZnO (GZO), and In:ZnO (IZO) films deposited on silica substrates. Despite the measured increase in conductivity, all films continued to show high transparency on the order of 90% at wavelengths from the band edge well into the near infrared region of the spectrum. Laser energies required for turning on the conductivity of these films varied depending upon the dopant. Irradiations in air yielded resistivity measurements on the order of 16 ?.cm. Resistivities of films irradiated under vacuum were on the order of 0.1 ?.cm. The increase in conductivity can be attributed to the formation of oxygen vacancies and subsequent promotion of free carriers into the conduction band. All irradiated films become insulating after around 24 hours. Oxygen atoms in air become reduced by electrons in the metal conduction band and diffuse into the vacancies in the lattice. The rate of this reduction process depends on the type of dopant. This work also sheds light on the damage threshold, correlating the optical properties with the presence of free carriers that have been introduced into the conduction band. All films were characterized by means of UV-VIS-NIR transmission spectroscopy, visible and UV Raman spectroscopy and Hall measurements. Analysis of interference fringes in measured transmission spectra allowed film density and refractive index to be evaluated while the Raman measurements showed an increase in LO mode intensity with respect to the TO mode intensity as the films became more conducting. Results of this study are not only important for the continued development of transparent conducting oxide films that find use in photovoltaic cells and solid state lighting modules, but also provide evidence for the role of free carriers in initiating the laser damage process in these wide bandgap metal oxide films.

Wang, Lisa J.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

2009-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

264

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon fuels must be reformed in a series of steps to provide hydrogen for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Preferential oxidation (PROX) is one method to reduce the CO concentration to less than 10 ppm in the presence of {approx}40% H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and steam. This will prevent CO poisoning of the PEMFC anode. Structured supports, such as ceramic monoliths, can be used for the PROX reaction. Alternatively, metal foams offer a number of advantages over the traditional ceramic monolith.

Paul Chin; Xiaolei Sun; George W. Roberts; Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Sourabh Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr; Richard W. Rice; James J. Spivey

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cellmembranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) membranes were developed in which zirconia-based electrolyte thin films were supported by a composite metal/ceramic electrode, and were subjected to rapid thermal cycling between 200 and 800 C. The effects of this cycling on membrane performance were evaluated. The membranes, not yet optimized for performance, showed a peak power density of 350mW/cm2at 900 C in laboratory-sized SOFCs that was not affected by the thermal cycling. This resistance to cycling degradation is attributed to the close matching of thermal expansion coefficient of the cermet support electrode with that of the zirconia electrolyte.

Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

2004-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

266

Metal Oxidation Kinetics and the Transition from Thin to Thick Films  

SciTech Connect

We report an investigation of growth kinetics and transition from thin to thick films during metal oxidation. In the thin film limit (< 20 nm), Cabrera and Mott’s theory is usually adopted by explicitly considering ionic drift through the oxide in response to electric fields, where the growth kinetics follow an inverse logarithmic law . It is generally accepted that Wagner’s theory, involving self-diffusion, is valid only in the limit of thick film regime (>1?m) and leads to parabolic growth kinetics , where l is the oxide film thickness. Theory presented here unifies the two models and provides a complete description of oxidation including the transition from thin to thick film. The range of validity of Cabrera and Mott’s theory and Wagner’s theory can be well defined in terms of the Debye-Hückel screening length. The transition from drift-dominated ionic transport for thin film to diffusion-dominated transport for thick film is found to strictly follow the direct logarithmic law that is frequently observed in many experiments.

Xu, Zhijie; Rosso, Kevin M.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Synthesis of transition metal nitride by nitridation of metastable oxide precursor  

SciTech Connect

Metastable transition metal oxides were used as precursors to synthesize transition metal nitrides at low temperature. Amorphous MoO{sub 2} was prepared by reduction of (NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24} solution with hydrazine. As-synthesized amorphous MoO{sub 2} was transformed into fcc {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N at 400 Degree-Sign C and then into hexagonal {delta}-MoN by further increasing the temperature to 600 Degree-Sign C under a NH{sub 3} flow. The nitridation temperature employed here is much lower than that employed in nitridation of crystalline materials, and the amorphous materials underwent a unique nitridation process. Besides this, the bimetallic nitride Ni{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}N was also synthesized by nitridating amorphous bimetallic precursor. These results suggested that the nitridation of amorphous precursor possessed potential to be a general method for synthesizing many interstitial metallic compounds, such as nitrides and carbides at low temperature. - graphical abstract: Amorphous oxide was used as new precursor to prepare nitride at low temperature. Pure {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N and {delta}-MoN were obtained at 400 Degree-Sign C and at 600 Degree-Sign C, respectively. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We bring out a new method to synthesize transition metal nitrides at low temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both mono- and bimetallic molybdenum nitrides were synthesized at a mild condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation of two different molybdenum nitrides {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N and {delta}-MoN can be controlled from the same metastable precursor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nitridation temperature was much lower than that reported from crystalline precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The metastable precursor had different reaction process in comparison with crystalline precursor.

Wang, Huamin; Wu, Zijie; Kong, Jing [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang, Zhiqiang, E-mail: zqwang@mail.nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China) [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Water Environment and Resources, Tianjin Normal University, No. 393 Binshui Road, Xiqing Dist., Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhang, Minghui, E-mail: zhangmh@nankai.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (MOE), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

Carbon Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars. I. Chemical Compositions of 26 Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The chemical compositions of 26 metal-poor stars that exhibit strong CH and/or C2 molecular bands are determined based on high-resolution spectroscopy. We define carbon-enhanced stars taking account of the carbon abundance ratio ([C/Fe]) and the evolutionary status. Twenty two stars in our sample satisfy our modified definition for Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) stars. In addition, we measure Na abundances for nine other carbon-enhanced stars for which abundances of other elements have been previously reported. Combining our new sample with the results of previous work, we investigate the abundance and evolutionary status of a total of 64 CEMP stars. In this paper, we separate the carbon-enhanced objects into Ba-rich and Ba-normal objects, and discuss on (1) the metallicity distributions, (2) the correlation between Ba and C (and C+N) abundances, (3) C abundance distributions, (3) the distributions of evolutionary status, and (5) Na abundances. The implications of these results on the origins of carbon in CEMP stars are discussed.

Wako Aoki; Timothy C. Beers; Norbert Christlieb; John E. Norris; Sean G. Ryan; Stelios Tsangarides

2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

269

Metal hydride/chemical heat-pump development project. Phase I. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The metal hydride/chemical heat pump (MHHP) is a chemical heat pump containing two hydrides for the storage and/or recovery of thermal energy. It utilizes the heat of reaction of hydrogen with specific metal alloys. The MHHP design can be tailored to provide heating and/or cooling or temperature upgrading over a wide range of input and ambient temperatures. The system can thus be used with a variety of heat sources including waste heat, solar energy or a fossil fuel. The conceptual design of the MHHP was developed. A national market survey including a study of applications and market sectors was conducted. The technical tasks including conceptual development, thermal and mechanical design, laboratory verification of design and material performance, cost analysis and the detailed design of the Engineering Development Test Unit (EDTU) were performed. As a result of the market study, the temperature upgrade cycle of the MHHP was chosen for development. Operating temperature ranges for the upgrader were selected to be from 70 to 110/sup 0/C (160 to 230/sup 0/F) for the source heat and 140 to 190/sup 0/C (280 to 375/sup 0/F) for the product heat. These ranges are applicable to many processes in industries such as food, textile, paper and pulp, and chemical. The hydride pair well suited for these temperatures is LaNi/sub 5//LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 5/Al/sub 0/ /sub 5/. The EDTU was designed for the upgrade cycle. It is a compact finned tube arrangement enclosed in a pressure vessel. This design incorporates high heat transfer and low thermal mass in a system which maximizes the coefficient of performance (COP). It will be constructed in Phase II. Continuation of this effort is recommended.

Argabright, T.A.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Impact of Iron-Reducing Bacteria on Metals and Radionuclides Adsorbed to Humic-Coated Iron(III) Oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the final report for Grant No. DEFGO2-98ER62691 submitted to the DOE NABR Program. This research has focused on (1) the role of natural organic matter (NOM), quinines, and complexants in enhancing the biological reduction of solid-phase crystalline ferric oxides, (2) the effect of heavy metals (specifically zinc) and NOM on ferric oxide bioreduction, (3) the sorption of Me(II) [Cu(II), Fe(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II)] to ferric oxides and subsequent Me(II)-promoted phase transformations of the ferric oxides, and (4) the development of reaction-based biogeochemical models to numerically simulate our experimental results.

Burgos, W. D.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Evaluation of Solvent Processes for Chemical Cleaning of Supercritical Waterwalls and Removal of Duplex Oxides Formed by High-Temper ature In Situ Oxidation of Ferritic Steels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) report 1003994, Guidelines for Chemical Cleaning of Conventional Fossil Plant Equipment, published in 2001, provides information pertinent to the chemical cleaning of boiler water and steam touched surfaces. The guidelines consider the needs of both drum type and once-through boilers. After the publication of these guidelines, the presence of in situ duplex oxides was identified on the internal diameter of liquid-like touched surfaces of supercritical waterwalls i...

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

272

Effect of pre-oxidation and environmental aging on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealing glass with metallic interconnect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel high-temperature alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass was used to join two ferritic stainless steel coupons for strength evaluation. The steel coupons were pre-oxidized at elevated temperatures to promote thick oxide layers to simulate long-term exposure conditions. In addition, seals to as-received metal coupons were also tested after aging in oxidizing or reducing environments to simulate the actual SOFC environment. Room temperature tensile testing showed strength degradation when using pre-oxidized coupons, and more extensive degradation after aging in air. Fracture surface and microstructural analysis confirmed that the cause of degradation was formation of SrCrO4 at the outer sealing edges exposed to air.

Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

Air-Oxidation of a (Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5)98Er2 Bulk Metallic Glass at ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Bulk Metallic Glasses VII. Presentation Title, Air-Oxidation of a ...

274

Disposition of Uranium -233 (sup 233U) in Plutonium Metal and Oxide at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the position that the concentration of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) in plutonium metal and oxide currently stored at the DOE Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is well below the maximum permissible stabilization, packaging, shipping and storage limits. The {sup 233}U stabilization, packaging and storage limit is 0.5 weight percent (wt%), which is also the shipping limit maximum. These two plutonium products (metal and oxide) are scheduled for processing through the Building 371 Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (PuSPS). This justification is supported by written technical reports, personnel interviews, and nuclear material inventories, as compiled in the ''History of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant In Support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program'' RS-090-056, April 1, 1999. Relevant data from this report is summarized for application to the PuSPS metal and oxide processing campaigns.

Freiboth, Cameron J.; Gibbs, Frank E.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

In-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of water on metals and oxides at ambient conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a powerful tool for surface and interface analysis, providing the elemental composition of surfaces and the local chemical environment of adsorbed species. Conventional XPS experiments have been limited to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions due to a short mean free path of electrons in a gas phase. The recent advances in instrumentation coupled with third-generation synchrotron radiation sources enables in-situ XPS measurements at pressures above 5 Torr. In this review, we describe the basic design of the ambient pressure XPS setup that combines differential pumping with an electrostatic focusing. We present examples of the application of in-situ XPS to studies of water adsorption on the surface of metals and oxides including Cu(110), Cu(111), TiO2(110) under environmental conditions of water vapor pressure. On all these surfaces we observe a general trend where hydroxyl groups form first, followed by molecular water adsorption. The importance of surface OH groups and their hydrogen bonding to water molecules in water adsorption on surfaces is discussed in detail.

Salmeron, Miquel; Yamamoto, S.; Bluhm, H.; Andersson, K.; Ketteler, G.; Ogasawara, H.; Salmeron, M.; Nilsson, A.

2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

276

The chemical abundance of the very metal rich old Open Clusters NGC 6253 and NGC 6791  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the framework of a project aiming at deriving in a homogeneous way the properties (age, distance, reddening and detailed chemical abundances) of a large sample of old open clusters, we present here the metal abundance and the abundance ratios of light (C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti) and heavier (Cr, Mn, Ni, Ba, Eu) elements in the galactic open clusters NGC 6253 and NGC 6791. We performed spectrum synthesis of selected lines on high resolution spectra of four red clump stars in NGC 6253, taken with the UVES and FEROS spectrographs. We also determined abundances of the same elements for four red clump stars in NGC 6791, observed with SARG, for which we had derived the atmospheric parameters and the iron, carbon and oxygen abundances in a previous paper (Gratton et al. 2006). The average metallicity of NGC 6253 is [Fe/H]=+0.46 (rms = 0.03 dex, systematic error = 0.08 dex), obtained by extensive spectral synthesis of Fe lines. This intermediate age cluster closely resembles the old open cluster NGC 6791, as far as the chemical composition is concerned. C, N, O do not show any significant abundance scatter; they are underabundant with respect to the solar values both in NGC 6253 and NGC 6791. We also find no evident star-to-star scatter in any of the elements measured in both clusters, with the possible exception of Na in NGC 6791. The two clusters show very similar abundances, except for Mg, overabundant in NGC 6791 and not in NGC 6253. Both have solar scaled alpha-elements abundances. We have compared our abundance ratios with literature values for disk giants and dwarfs and bulge giants, finding a general good agreement with the run of elemental ratios with [Fe/H] of disk objects.

Eugenio Carretta; Angela Bragaglia; Raffaele Gratton

2007-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

277

Bench Scale Study of Integrated Chemical Oxidation and Enhanced Bio-Stabilization of Manufactured Gas Plant SoilsBench Scale Study of Integrated Chemical Oxidation and Enhanced Bio-Stabilization of Manufactured Gas Plant Soils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A bench-scale study was conducted to investigate a new remedial approach to treat constituents of concern (COC) that were present in soil from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. The approach combines in situ chemical oxidation, in situ stabilization, and enhanced biodegradation to provide overall degradation/stabilization of COCs that would not be possible using any of the three technologies alone. Sodium persulfate was chosen as the oxidant because it can be activated by ...

2013-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

278

A Phenomenological Study of the Metal-Oxide Interface: The Role of Catalysis in Hydrogen Production from Renewable Resources  

SciTech Connect

The truth about Cats: The metal-oxide interface of a Pd-Rh/CeO{sub 2} catalyst was studied in the context of developing active, selective and durable solid catalytic materials for the production of hydrogen from renewables. The presence of a stable contact between finely dispersed transition-metal clusters (Pd and Rh) on the nanoparticles of the CeO{sub 2} support leads to a highly active and stable catalyst for the steam reforming of ethanol.

Idriss, H.; Llorca, J; Chan, S; Blackford, M; Pas, S; Hill, A; Alamgir, F; Rettew, R; Petersburg, C; Barteau, M

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Standard test methods for chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) powder  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide powders to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Carbon by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion Selective Electrode C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Loss of Weight on Ignition 7-13 Sulfur by CombustionIodometric Titration Impurity Elements by a Spark-Source Mass Spectrographic C761 Test Methods for Chemical, Mass Spectrometric, Spectrochemical,Nuclear, and Radiochemical Analysis of Uranium Hexafluoride C1287 Test Method for Determination of Impurities In Uranium Dioxide By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Gadolinium Content in Gadolinium Oxid...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Engineering Escherichia coli for molecularly defined electron transfer to metal oxides and electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1-thiogalactopyranoside Indium tin oxide Microbial fuel cellone type of electrode: indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glasssurface, specifically indium tin oxide (ITO), with nanoscale

Jensen, Heather Marie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Design Principles for Oxygen-Reduction Activity on Perovskite Oxide Catalysts for Fuel Cells and Metal-air Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to {sigma}*-orbital (e{sub g}) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the {sigma}* orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O{sub 2}{sup 2-}/OH{sup -} displacement and OH{sup -} regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

J Suntivich; H Gasteiger; N Yabuuchi; H Nakanishi; J Goodenough; Y Shao-Horn

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

282

HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Metal blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal  

SciTech Connect

US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Blending HEU (highly enriched uranium) with less-enriched uranium to form LEU has been proposed as a disposition option. Five technologies are being assessed for blending HEU. This document provides data to be used in environmental impact analysis for the HEU-LEU disposition option that uses metal blending with an oxide waste product. It is divided into: mission and assumptions, conversion and blending facility descriptions, process descriptions and requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards discussion, and intersite transportation.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Method for producing metal oxide aerogels having densities less than 0. 02 g/cc  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two-step method is described for making transparent aerogels which have a density of less than 0.003 g/cm[sup 3] to those with a density of more than 0.8 g/cm[sup 3], by a sol/gel process and supercritical extraction. Condensed metal oxide intermediate made with purified reagents can be diluted to produce stable aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 g/cm[sup 3]. High temperature, direct supercritical extraction of the liquid phase of the gel produces hydrophobic aerogels which are stable at atmospheric moisture conditions. Monolithic, homogeneous silica aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 to higher than 0.8 g/cm[sup 3], with high thermal insulation capacity, improved mechanical strength and good optical transparency, are described. 7 figures.

Tillotson, T.M.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Thomas, I.M.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

284

Method for producing metal oxide aerogels having densities less than 0.02 g/cc  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-step method is described for making transparent aerogels which have a density of less than 0.003 g/cm.sup.3 to those with a density of more than 0.8 g/cm.sup.3, by a sol/gel process and supercritical extraction. Condensed metal oxide intermediate made with purified reagents can be diluted to produce stable aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 g/cm.sup.3. High temperature, direct supercritical extraction of the liquid phase of the gel produces hydrophobic aerogels which are stable at atmospheric moisture conditions. Monolithic, homogeneous silica aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 to higher than 0.8 g/cm.sup.3, with high thermal insulation capacity, improved mechanical strength and good optical transparency, are described.

Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Poco, John F. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA); Thomas, Ian M. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Chemical kinetic modeling of high pressure propane oxidation and comparison to experimental results. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

A pressure dependent kinetic mechanism for propane oxidation is developed and compared to experimental data from a high pressure flow reactor. Experimental conditions range from 10--15 atm, 650--800 K, and a residence time of 198 ms for propane-air mixtures at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. The experimental results clearly indicate a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior. The chemistry describing this phenomena is critical in understanding automotive engine knock and cool flame oscillations. Results of the numerical model are compared to a spectrum of stable species profiles sampled from the flow reactor. Rate constants and product channels for the reaction of propyl radicals, hydroperoxy-propyl radicals and important isomers (radicals) with O{sub 2} were estimated using thermodynamic properties, with multifrequency quantum Kassel Theory for k(E) coupled with modified strong collision analysis for fall-off. Results of the chemical kinetic model show an NTC region over nearly the same temperature regime as observed in the experiments. Sensitivity analysis identified the key reaction steps that control the rate of oxidation in the NTC region. The model reasonably simulates the profiles for many of the major and minor species observed in the experiments.

Koert, D.N. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bozzelli, J.W. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Dept.; Cernansky, N.P. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Corrosion and Protection of Metallic Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Energy security and increased concern over environmental protection have spurred a dramatic world-wide growth in research and development of fuel cells, which electrochemically convert incoming fuel into electricity with no or low pollution. Fuel cell technology has become increasingly attractive to a number of sectors, including utility, automotive, and defense industries. Among the various types of fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperature (typically 650-1,000 C) and have advantages in terms of high conversion efficiency and the flexibility of using hydrocarbon fuels, in addition to hydrogen. The high temperature operation, however, can lead to increased mass transport and interactions between the surrounding environment and components that are required to be stable during a lifetime of thousands of hours and up to hundreds of thermal cycles. For stacks with relatively low operating temperatures (<800 C), the interconnects that are used to electrically connect a number of cells in series are typically made from cost-effective metals or alloys. The metallic interconnects must demonstrate excellent stability in a very challenging environment during SOFC operation, as they are simultaneously exposed to both an oxidizing (air) environment on the cathode side and a reducing environment (hydrogen or a reformed hydrocarbon fuel) on the anode side. Other challenges include the fact that water vapor is likely to be present in both of these environments, and the fuel is likely to contain impurities, such as sulfides. Since the fuel is usually a reformed hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas, coal gas, biogas, gasoline, etc., the interconnect is exposed to a wet carbonaceous environment at the anode side. Finally, the interconnect must be stable towards any adjacent components, such as electrodes, seals and electrical contact materials, with which it is in physical contact.

Yang, Z Gary; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2007-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

287

Chemical Bonding, Interfaces and Defects in Hafnium Oxide/Germanium Oxynitride Gate Stacks on Ge (100)  

SciTech Connect

Correlations among interface properties and chemical bonding characteristics in HfO{sub 2}/GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge MIS stacks were investigated using in-situ remote nitridation of the Ge (100) surface prior to HfO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition (ALD). Ultra thin ({approx}1.1 nm), thermally stable and aqueous etch-resistant GeO{sub x}N{sub y} interfaces layers that exhibited Ge core level photoelectron spectra (PES) similar to stoichiometric Ge{sub 3}N{sub 4} were synthesized. To evaluate GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge interface defects, the density of interface states (D{sub it}) was extracted by the conductance method across the band gap. Forming gas annealed (FGA) samples exhibited substantially lower D{sub it} ({approx} 1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1}) than did high vacuum annealed (HVA) and inert gas anneal (IGA) samples ({approx} 1x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1}). Germanium core level photoelectron spectra from similar FGA-treated samples detected out-diffusion of germanium oxide to the HfO{sub 2} film surface and apparent modification of chemical bonding at the GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge interface, which is related to the reduced D{sub it}.

Oshima, Yasuhiro; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.; Sun, Yun; /SLAC, SSRL; Kuzum, Duygu; /Stanford U.; Sugawara, Takuya; Saraswat, Krishna C.; Pianetta, Piero; /SLAC, SSRL; McIntyre, Paul C.; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

288

Investigating the First-Cycle Irreversibility of Lithium Metal Oxide Cathodes for Li Batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Layered lithium metal oxide cathodes typically exhibit irreversibility during the first cycle in lithium cells when cycled in conventional voltage ranges (e.g., 3-4.3 V vs. Li+/Li). In this work, we have studied the first-cycle irreversibility of lithium cells containing various layered cathode materials using galvanostatic cycling and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. When cycled between 3.0 and 4.3 V vs. Li+/Li, the cells containing LiCoO2, LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2, and Li1.048(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)0.952O2 as cathodes showed initial coulombic efficiencies of 98.0, 87.0, and 88.6%, respectively, at relatively slow current (8 mA/g). However, the 'lost capacity' could be completely recovered by discharging the cells to low voltages (<2 V vs Li+/Li). During this deep discharge, the same cells exhibited voltage plateaus at 1.17, 1.81, and 1.47 V, respectively, which is believed to be associated with formation of a Li2MO2-like phase (M = Ni, Co, Mn) on the oxide particle surface due to very sluggish lithium diffusion in LieMO2 with {var_epsilon}{yields} 1 (i.e., near the end of discharge). The voltage relaxation curve and in situ X-ray diffraction patterns, obtained from a Li/Li1.048(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)0.952O2 cell, showed that the oxide cathode reversibly returned to its original state [i.e., Li1.048(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)0.952O2] during relaxation following the deep discharge to achieve 100% cycle efficiency.

Kang,S.; Yoon , W.; Nam, K.; Yang, X.; Abraham, D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

INFLUENCE OF OXIDE GROWTH AND METAL CREEP ON STRAIN DEVELOPMENT IN THE STEAM-SIDE OXIDE IN BOILER TUBES  

SciTech Connect

This effort is concerned with developing a quantitative description of the exfoliation behavior of oxide scales grown inside steam tubes in a pressure boiler. Consideration of the development of stress/strain in growing oxides has included expansion mismatch-induced strains during thermal cycling as well as inelastic mechanical effects from oxide/alloy creep phenomena and volume change from oxide growth. The magnitude of the parameters used has been closely matched to actual boiler operating practice. The creep model used was validated against published data. Representation of oxide growth-induced strain was found to be a difficult challenge because the processes involved are not fully understood. In addition to the traditional uniaxial (radial) and dilatational models, lateral growth models are discussed in the context of experimentally-derived criteria, such as the level of elastic strains involved in oxide exfoliation. It was found that strain variation in the oxide cannot be neglected.

Sabau, Adrian S [ORNL; Wright, Ian G [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

HYCSOS: a chemical heat pump and energy conversion system based on metal hydrides. 1979 status report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current status of the HYCSOS chemical heat pump and energy conversion system based on metal hydrides is described. Heat transfer fluid loops were insulated and modified for isothermal operation. Software development for HYCSOS manual mode operation was completed. Routines to handle data acquisition, logging, compression, correction and plotting, using a Tektronix Graphics system with flexible disk data storage, provide a rapid and versatile means of presenting HYCSOS data for analysis. Advanced concept heat exchangers to improve the heat transfer of the hydride bed with the heat transfer fluid are discussed. Preliminary tests made with a LaNi/sub 5/ loaded aluminum foam test unit showed that heat transfer properties are very markedly improved. Thermodynamic expressions are applied to the selection of alloys for use in HYCSOS. The substitution of aluminum for nickel in AB/sub 5/ type alloys is shown to reduce hysteresis and permits the use of potentially lower cost materials with added flexibility for the optimization of engineering design and performance characteristics of the hydride heat pump system. Transient thermal measurements on hydride beds of CaNi/sub 5/ and LaNi/sub 5/ show no deterioration with cycling. Relatively slow heat transfer between the hydride beds and heat transfer fluid in the coiled tube heat exchangers is indicated by temperature lag of the bed and heat transfer fluid. Improved heat transfer is anticipated with aluminum foam heat exchangers.

Sheft, I.; Gruen, D.M.; Lamich, G.

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Fully Integrated Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Bio-Assay Platform  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Bio-Assay Platform by OctavianOxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Bio-Assay Platform by OctavianOxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Bio-Assay Platform by Octavian

Florescu, Octavian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

effect of pressure on solid oxide fuel cell performance," inflat plate solid oxide fuel cells," in Proceedings of theSymposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Electrochem. Soc. 1993,

Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Chemical kinetic modeling of high pressure propane oxidation and comparison to experimental results  

SciTech Connect

A pressure dependent kinetic mechanism for propane oxidation is developed and compared to experimental data from a high pressure flow reactor. The experiment conditions range from 10--15 atm, 650--800 K, and were performed at a residence time of 200 {micro}s for propane-air mixtures at an equivalence ratio of 0.4. The experimental results include data on negative temperature coefficient (NTC) behavior, where the chemistry describing this phenomena is considered critical in understanding automotive engine knock and cool flame oscillations. Results of the numerical model are compared to a spectrum of stable species profiles sampled from the flow reactor. Rate constants and product channels for the reaction of propyl radicals, hydroperoxy-propyl radicals and important isomers with O{sub 2} were estimated using thermodynamic properties, with multifrequency quantum Kassel Theory for k(E) coupled with modified strong collision analysis for fall-off. Results of the chemical kinetic model show an NTC region over nearly the same temperature regime as observed in the experiments. The model simulates properly the production of many of the major and minor species observed in the experiments. Numerical simulations show many of the key reactions involving propylperoxy radicals are in partial equilibrium at 10--15 atm. This indicates that their relative concentrations are controlled by a combination of thermochemistry and rate of minor reaction channels (bleed reactions) rather than primary reaction rates. This suggests that thermodynamic parameters of the oxygenated species, which govern equilibrium concentrations, are important. The modeling results show propyl radical and hydroperoxy-propyl radicals reaction with O{sub 2} proceeds, primarily, through thermalized adducts, not chemically activated channels.

Koert, D.N. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bozzelli, J.W. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Dept.; Cernansky, N.P. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics

1995-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

294

The Statistical Evolution of Multiple Generations of Oxidation Products in the Photochemical Aging of Chemically Reduced Organic Aerosol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The heterogeneous reaction of hydroxyl radicals (OH) with squalane and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (BES) particles are used as model systems to examine how distributions of reactionproducts evolve during the oxidation of chemically reduced organic aerosol. A kinetic model of multigenerational chemistry, which is compared to previously measured (squalane) and new(BES) experimental data, reveals that it is the statistical mixtures of different generations of oxidation products that control the average particle mass and elemental composition during thereaction. The model suggests that more highly oxidized reaction products, although initially formed with low probability, play a large role in the production of gas phase reaction products.In general, these results highlight the importance of considering atmospheric oxidation as a statistical process, further suggesting that the underlying distribution of molecules could playimportant roles in aerosol formation as well as in the evolution of key physicochemical properties such as volatility and hygroscopicity.

Wilson, Kevin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kessler, Sean; Kroll, Jesse H.

2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

295

Correlation of Chemisorption and Electronic Effects for Metal/Oxide Interfaces: Transducing Principles for Temperature-Programmed Gas Microsensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research project seeks to produce, and demonstrate the utility of, a scientific database for oxide conductometric sensing materials that relates materials performance (sensitivity, selectivity and stability) to composition, microstructure and temperature. This information and the capabilities derived from it would be applied to developing a robust, low cost and application tunable chemical monitoring technology based on micromachined platforms.

Semancik, Steve; Cavicchi, Richard E.; McAvoy, Thomas J.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

An electrochemical investigation of the chemical diffusivity in liquid metal alloys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The liquid metal battery has been shown to be a viable candidate for grid-scale energy storage, due to its fast kinetics and ability to be constructed from economically feasible materials. Various of the liquid metal couples ...

Barriga, Salvador A. (Salvador Aguilar)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Fluorescence-based detection methodologies for nitric oxide using transition metal scaffolds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 1. Fluorescence-Based Detection Methodologies for Nitric Oxide: A Review. Chapter 2. Cobalt Chemistry with Mixed Aminotroponimine Salicylaldimine Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization, and Nitric Oxide Reactivity. ...

Hilderbrand, Scott A. (Scott Alan), 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several different catalytic reactions must be carried out in order to convert hydrocarbons (or alcohols) into hydrogen for use as a fuel for polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Each reaction in the fuel-processing sequence has a different set of characteristics, which influences the type of catalyst support that should be used for that particular reaction. A wide range of supports are being evaluated for the various reactions in the fuel-processing scheme, including porous and non-porous particles, ceramic and metal straight-channel monoliths, and ceramic and metal monolithic foams. These different types of support have distinctly different transport characteristics. The best choice of support for a given reaction will depend on the design constraints for the system, e.g., allowable pressure drop, and on the characteristics of the reaction for which the catalyst is being designed. Three of the most important reaction characteristics are the intrinsic reaction rate, the exothermicity/endothermicity of the reaction, and the nature of the reaction network, e.g., whether more than one reaction takes place and, in the case of multiple reactions, the configuration of the network. Isotopic transient kinetic analysis was used to study the surface intermediates. The preferential oxidation of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the presence of high concentrations of hydrogen (PROX) is an important final step in most fuel processor designs. Data on the behavior of straight-channel monoliths and foam monolith supports will be presented to illustrate some of the factors involved in choosing a support for this reaction.

Mr. Paul Chin; Dr. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts; Professor James J. Spivey; Mr. Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Dr. James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Dr. Richard W. Rice

2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

299

Fluorine compounds for doping conductive oxide thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods of forming a conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on a substrate by chemical vapor deposition are described. The methods may include heating the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The methods may also include adding an oxygen-containing precursor to the processing chamber. The precursors are reacted to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate. Methods may also include forming the conductive fluorine-doped metal oxide layer by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. These methods may include providing the substrate in a processing chamber, and introducing a metal-containing precursor, and a fluorine-containing precursor to the processing chamber. A plasma may be formed that includes species from the metal-containing precursor and the fluorine-containing precursor. The species may react to deposit the fluorine-doped metal oxide layer on the substrate.

Gessert, Tim; Li, Xiaonan; Barnes, Teresa M; Torres, Jr., Robert; Wyse, Carrie L

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

300

Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process  

This patent-pending technology, “Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process,” provides a metal-oxide oxygen carrier for application in fuel combustion processes that use oxygen.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Chemical kinetic study of the oxidation of toluene and related cyclic compounds  

SciTech Connect

Chemical kinetic models of hydrocarbons found in transportation fuels are needed to simulate combustion in engines and to improve engine performance. The study of the combustion of practical fuels, however, has to deal with their complex compositions, which generally involve hundreds of compounds. To provide a simplified approach for practical fuels, surrogate fuels including few relevant components are used instead of including all components. Among those components, toluene, the simplest of the alkyl benzenes, is one of the most prevalent aromatic compounds in gasoline in the U.S. (up to 30%) and is a promising candidate for formulating gasoline surrogates. Unfortunately, even though the combustion of aromatics been studied for a long time, the oxidation processes relevant to this class of compounds are still matter of discussion. In this work, the combustion of toluene is systematically approached through the analysis of the kinetics of some important intermediates contained in its kinetic submechanism. After discussing the combustion chemistry of cyclopentadiene, benzene, phenol and, finally, of toluene, the model is validated against literature experimental data over a wide range of operating conditions.

Mehl, M; Frassoldati, A; Fietzek, R; Faravelli, T; Pitz, W; Ranzi, E

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Stress-induced chemical detection using flexible metal-organic frameworks.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this work we demonstrate the concept of stress-induced chemical detection using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) by integrating a thin film of the MOF HKUST-1 with a microcantilever surface. The results show that the energy of molecular adsorption, which causes slight distortions in the MOF crystal structure, can be efficiently converted to mechanical energy to create a highly responsive, reversible, and selective sensor. This sensor responds to water, methanol, and ethanol vapors, but yields no response to either N{sub 2} or O{sub 2}. The magnitude of the signal, which is measured by a built-in piezoresistor, is correlated with the concentration and can be fitted to a Langmuir isotherm. Furthermore, we show that the hydration state of the MOF layer can be used to impart selectivity to CO{sub 2}. We also report the first use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to characterize the structure of a MOF film. We conclude that the synthetic versatility of these nanoporous materials holds great promise for creating recognition chemistries to enable selective detection of a wide range of analytes. A force field model is described that successfully predicts changes in MOF properties and the uptake of gases. This model is used to predict adsorption isotherms for a number of representative compounds, including explosives, nerve agents, volatile organic compounds, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The results show that, as a result of relatively large heats of adsorption (> 20 kcal mol{sup -1}) in most cases, we expect an onset of adsorption by MOF as low as 10{sup -6} kPa, suggesting the potential to detect compounds such as RDX at levels as low as 10 ppb at atmospheric pressure.

Allendorf, Mark D.; Hesketh, Peter J. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Gall, Kenneth A. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Choudhury, A. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Pikarsky, J. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Andruszkiewicz, Leanne (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Houk, Ronald J. T.; Talin, Albert Alec (National Institute of Standards & Technology, Gaithersburg, MD)

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Mesoporous mixed metal oxides derived from P123-templated Mg-Al layered double hydroxides  

SciTech Connect

We report the preparation of mesoporous mixed metal oxides (MMOs) through a soft template method. Different amounts of P123 were used as structure directing agent to synthesize P123-templated Mg-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs). After calcination of as-synthesized LDHs at 500 {sup o}C, the ordered mesopores were obtained by removal of P123. The mesoporous Mg-Al MMOs fabricated by using 2 wt% P123 exhibited a high specific surface area of 108.1 m{sup 2}/g, and wide distribution of pore size (2-18 nm). An investigation of the 'memory effect' of the mesoporous MMOs revealed that they were successfully reconstructed to ibuprofen intercalated LDHs having different gallery heights, which indicated different intercalation capacities. Due to their mesoporosity these unique MMOs have particular potential as drug or catalyst carriers. - Graphical abstract: Ordered mesoporous Mg-Al MMOs can be obtained through the calcination of P123-templated Mg-Al-CO{sub 3} LDHs. The pore diameter is 2.2 nm. At the presence of ibuprofen, the Mg-Al MMOs can recover to Mg-Al-IBU LDHs, based on its 'remember effect'. Display Omitted

Wang Jun, E-mail: zhqw1888@sohu.co [College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); College of Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, 150001 (China); Zhou Jideng; Li Zhanshuang; He Yang; Lin Shuangshuang; Liu Qi [College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang Milin [College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, 150001 (China); Jiang Zhaohua [College of Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

Titanium Oxide Aerogel Prepared from Titanium Metal and HydrogenPeroxide  

SciTech Connect

The reaction of hydrogen peroxide with excess titanium metal produces rigid titanium oxide aquagels. Subsequent solvent exchanges with ethanol and carbon dioxide, and supercritical drying produces the corresponding aerogels. The aerogels are translucent yellow in appearance, are amorphous to X-rays, and have a BET surface area of 350 m{sup 2}/g. The empirical formula of the material, as prepared, is TiO{sub 3}H{sub 2.7}C{sub 0.35}. Infrared spectroscopy indicates the presence of peroxide and carbonate groups. the microstructure of the aerogel consists of a network of elongated particles 2-5 nm in diameter and tens of nm in length. Thermal treatment under argon at 473 K causes rapid decomposition of the aerogel, forming a blue-gray powder consisting of a mixture of rutile and anatase with a surface area of 80 m{sup 2}/g. Additional thermal treatment at 973 K under air forms predominantly rutile, with a surface area of 20 m{sup 2}/g.

Ayers, M.R.; Hunt, A.J.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Investigation of Some Transparent Metal Oxides as Damp Heat Protective Coating for CIGS Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We investigated the protective effectiveness of some transparent metal oxides (TMO) on CIGS solar cell coupons against damp heat (DH) exposure at 85oC and 85% relative humidity (RH). Sputter-deposited bilayer ZnO (BZO) with up to 0.5-um Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer and 0.2-um bilayer InZnO were used as 'inherent' part of device structure on CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG. Sputter-deposited 0.2-um ZnSnO and atomic layer deposited (ALD) 0.1-um Al2O3 were used as overcoat on typical BZO/CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG solar cells. The results were all negative -- all TMO-coated CIGS cells exhibited substantial degradation in DH. Combining the optical photographs, PL and EL imaging, SEM surface micro-morphology, coupled with XRD, I-V and QE measurements, the causes of the device degradations are attributed to hydrolytic corrosion, flaking, micro-cracking, and delamination induced by the DH moisture. Mechanical stress and decrease in crystallinity (grain size effect) could be additional degrading factors for thicker AZO grown on CdS/CIGS.

Pern, F. J.; Yan, F.; Zaaunbrecher, B.; To, B.; Perkins, J.; Noufi, R.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Investigation of zinc oxide doped with metal impurities for use as thin film conductive phosphors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Various technologies for manufacturing flat panel displays are currently being pursued world-wide. These include active matrix LCD, passive matrix LCD, and LED technologies, as well as several field emission approaches. To facilitate the development of a viable flat panel display, low voltage, conductive phosphors which emit blue, red, and green light will be required for the field emission technology. This thesis examines zinc oxide (ZnO) based thin ( ) phosphors for such an application. ZnO is a 11-VI wide bandgap semiconductor which exhibits green luminescence and has been shown to produce red luminescence as well. However, no blue light emission from ZnO thin film phosphors has been reported. An experimental survey has been conducted in which metal dopants were introduced in ZnO. This survey has revealed tungsten doped ZnO to be a previously unreported brilliant blue phosphor with high resistivity. Additional experiments indicated aluminum could be introduced in conjunction with the tungsten to increase the conductivity of the new blue ZnO phosphors. ZnO doped samples with varying amounts of tungsten and aluminum were subsequently prepared and tested. Optimization of the annealing conditions was then studied. The survey results are contained herein. Finally, it should be noted these phosphors have produced light when used as the anode material in vacuum field emission diodes.

Evatt, Steven R.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Assessment of Noble Metal Chemical Addition (NMCA) Effects on BWR Coolant Chemistry and Product Transport on Fuel Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Noble metal chemical addition (NMCA) provides protection of system materials from stress corrosion cracking and mitigates a radiation problem that results from the use of hydrogen water chemistry in boiling water reactors (BWRs), but NMCA has been associated with fuel surface spallation and enhanced Zircaloy corrosion. This report evaluates the effects of NMCA on the reactor water chemistry, explores possible mechanisms that may account for these effects, and recommends further research to further clarif...

2004-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

308

Multilayered thermal insulation formed of zirconia bonded layers of zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers and method for making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multilayered thermal insulating composite is formed of a first layer of zirconia-bonded zirconia fibers for utilization near the hot phase or surface of a furnace or the like. A second layer of zirconia-bonded metal oxide fibers is attached to the zirconia fiber layer by a transition layer formed of intermingled zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers. The thermal insulation is fabricated by vacuum molding with the layers being sequentially applied from aqueous solutions containing the fibers to a configured mandrel. A portion of the solution containing the fibers forming the first layer is intermixed with the solution containing the fibers of the second layer for forming the layer of mixed fibers. The two layers of fibers joined together by the transition layer are saturated with a solution of zirconium oxynitrate which provides a zirconia matrix for the composite when the fibers are sintered together at their nexi.

Wrenn, Jr., George E. (Clinton, TN); Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Farragut, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Growth of gadolinium oxide films for advanced MOS structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have investigated properties of insulating gadolinium oxide (Gd"2O"3) films in connection with the replacement of silicon oxide (SiO"2) gate dielectrics in new generation of CMOS devices. The Gd"2O"3 layers were grown using metal organic chemical ... Keywords: Gadolinium oxide, High-? dielectric, MOCVD, MOS structure

R. Lupták; K. Fröhlich; A. Rosová; K. Hušeková; M. apajna; D. Machajd?k; M. Jergel; J. P. Espinós; C. Mansilla

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Recovery boiler superheater corrosion - solubility of metal oxides in molten salt .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The recovery boiler in a pulp and paper mill plays a dual role of recovering pulping chemicals and generating steam for either chemical processes or… (more)

Meyer, Joseph Freeman

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Galactic Chemical Evolution of the Iron Peak Elements in the Lowest Metallicity Regimes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We use the nucleosynthetic yields of Chieffi & Limongi (2004) in conjunction with a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) to determine the evolution of iron peak element abundances ( Z ?=?21–28) as a function of metallicity. Since we will focus on the extremely metal poor region below [ Fe / H ]?=??1.5 we will consider input from core collapse supernovae (SNe) only

Jennifer Sobeck; Carla Frohlich; Jim Truran; Yeunjin Kim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Removal of metal oxide defects through improved semi-anisotropic wet etching process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Data recently collected from an industrial thin film manufacturer indicate that almost 8% of devices are rejected due to excess metal, or unwanted metal on the device surface. Experimentation and analysis suggest that ...

Dave, Neha H. (Neha Hemang)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Promises and problems with metallic interconnects for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proceedings of Ist European SOFC Forum, U. Bossel , Editor,on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC-VI) ed. S. C. Singhal etsolid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) development is towards lower

Hou, Peggy Y.; Huang, Keqin; Bakker, Wate T.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Chemical nature of the passivation layer depending on the oxidizing agent in Gd2O3/GeO2/Ge stacks grown by molecular beam deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Ge-based metal oxide semiconductor technology, the insertion of a passivation layer seems to be crucial in unpinning the Fermi level at the interface and in reducing the amount of interface defects. GeO"2 was obtained by atomic oxygen (AO), molecular ... Keywords: Gadolinium oxide, Germanium, Molecular beam deposition, Passivation layer, Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry

A. Lamperti; S. Baldovino; A. Molle; M. Fanciulli

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Destruction of organic wastes with molten oxidizers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for destruction of biologically hazardous organic chemical wastes by using liquefied strongly oxidizing inorganic salts, such as the alkali metal nitrates, at high temperatures and atmospheric pressure, to yield inorganic salts, carbon dioxide, and water. The oxidizing salts are regenerated and recycled.

Bradshaw, R.W.; Holmes, J.T.; Tyner, C.E.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Destruction of organic wastes with molten oxidizers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for destruction of biologically hazardous organic chemical wastes by using liquefied strongly oxidizing inorganic salts, such as the alkali metal nitrates, at high temperatures and atmospheric pressure, to yield inorganic salts, carbon dioxide, and water. The oxidizing salts are regenerated and recycled.

Bradshaw, R.W.; Holmes, J.T.; Tyner, C.E.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

317

High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions  

SciTech Connect

The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

318

Support shape effect in metal oxide catalysis: ceria nanoshapes supported vanadia catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane  

SciTech Connect

The activation energy of VOx/CeO2 catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane was found dependent on the shape of ceria support: rods < octahedra, closely related to the surface oxygen vacancy formation energy and defects amount of the two ceria supports with different crystallographic surface planes.

Wu, Zili [ORNL; Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Li, Meijun [ORNL; Rondinone, Adam Justin [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

High-Efficiency 6?? Multicrystalline Black Solar Cells Based on Metal-Nanoparticle-Assisted Chemical Etching  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) photovoltaic (PV) solar cells with nanoscale surface texturing by metal-nanoparticle-assisted etching are proposed to achieve high power efficiency. The investigation of average nanorod ...

Hsu, W. Chuck

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

C-V characteristics of epitaxial germanium metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor on GaAs substrate with ALD Al2O3 dielectric  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Epitaxial germanium metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAP) were fabricated on GaAs substrate using atomic layer deposited Al"2O"3 gate dielectric with surface treatments including pure HF and HF plus rapid thermal oxidation (RTO). The electrical ... Keywords: ALD Al2O3, CMOS integration, Ge MOSCAP, Ge epitaxial film, RTO

Shih Hsuan Tang; Chien I. Kuo; Hai Dang Trinh; Mantu Hudait; Edward Yi Chang; Ching Yi Hsu; Yung Hsuan Su; Guang-Li Luo; Hong Quan Nguyen

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

THE CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF STARS IN THE HALO (CASH) PROJECT. II. A SAMPLE OF 14 EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS ,  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a comprehensive abundance analysis of 20 elements for 16 new low-metallicity stars from the Chemical Abundances of Stars in the Halo (CASH) project. The abundances have been derived from both Hobby-Eberly Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph snapshot spectra (R {approx}15, 000) and corresponding high-resolution (R {approx}35, 000) Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectra. The stars span a metallicity range from [Fe/H] from -2.9 to -3.9, including four new stars with [Fe/H] pipeline. This code will be used for the entire {approx}500 star CASH snapshot sample. We find that the pipeline results are statistically identical for snapshot spectra when compared to a traditional, manual analysis from a high-resolution spectrum.

Hollek, Julie K.; Sneden, Christopher; Shetrone, Matthew [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Frebel, Anna [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Roederer, Ian U. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and JINA: Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kang, Sung-ju [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Thom, Christopher, E-mail: julie@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: chris@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: shetrone@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: afrebel@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: iur@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: beers@pa.msu.edu, E-mail: sjkang@iastate.edu, E-mail: cthom@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2011-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

322

Conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to metal carbides for production of liquid fuels and chemicals. Quarterly technical status report, April 1--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Previous work at MIT indicates that essentially stoichiometric, rather than catalytic, reactions with alkaline earth metal oxides offer technical and economic promise as an innovative approach to upgrading natural gas to premium products such as liquid hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. In this approach, methane would be reacted with relatively low cost and recyclable alkaline earth metal oxides, such as CaO and MgO, at high temperatures (>1500{degrees}C) to achieve very high (i.e. approaching 100%) gas conversions to H{sub 2}, CO and the corresponding alkaline earth metal carbides. These carbides exist stably in solid form at dry ambient conditions and show promise for energy storage and long distance transport. The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop new scientific and engineering knowledge bases for further assessment of the approach by performing laboratory-scale experiments and thermodynamic and thermochemical kinetics calculations. Work on this project will be performed according to two tasks. Under Task 1 (Industrial Chemistry), a laboratory-scale electric arc discharge plasma reactor is being constructed and will be used to assess the technical feasibility of producing Mg{sub 2}C{sub 3} from MgO and methane, and to identify the operating conditions of interest for the commercial production of Mg{sub 2}C{sub 3} and/or CaC{sub 2} from MgO and/or CaO and methane. Under Task 2 (Mechanistic Foundations), preliminary thermodynamic calculations were performed for the Ca-C-H-O and Mg-C-H-O systems using the Chemkin program. A scoping run with CaO in an electrical screen heater reactor under reduced methane pressure was also conducted. No appreciable quantity of acetylene was detected upon hydrolysis of the solid residue. This can be attributed to the very small quantity of methane at the very low pressure coupled with inadequate contacting of whatever methane was present with the CaO powder.

Diaz, A.F.; Modestino, A.J.; Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.A.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

The oxidation of binary alloys of chromium with metals of the first ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

oxide as the essential scale constituent is responsible for the change in ... Coles for laboratory facilities, and to the Science. Research Council for financial ...

324

Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 17, 2010... slags were analyzed by XRD and SEM-EDS, whilst their chemical stability was evaluated by leaching with an aqueous acetic acid solution.

325

In Vitro Evolution of a Peptide with a Hematite Binding Motif That May Constitute a Natural Metal-Oxide Binding Archetype  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Phage-display technology was used to evolve peptides that selectively bind to the metal-oxide hematite (Fe2O3) from a library of approximately 3 billion different polypeptides. The sequences of these peptides contained the highly conserved amino acid motif, Ser/Thr-hydrophobic/aromatic-Ser/Thr-Pro-Ser/Thr. To better understand the nature of the peptide?metal oxide binding demonstrated by these experiments, molecular dynamics simulations were carried out for Ser-Pro-Ser at a hematite surface. These simulations show that hydrogen bonding occurs between the two serine amino acids and the hydroxylated hematite surface and that the presence of proline between the hydroxide residues restricts the peptide flexibility, thereby inducing a structural-binding motif. A search of published sequence data revealed that the binding motif (Ser/Thr-Pro-Ser/Thr) is adjacent to the terminal heme-binding domain of both OmcA and MtrC, which are outer membrane cytochromes from the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. The entire five amino acid consensus sequence (Ser/Thr-hydrophobic/aromatic-Ser/Thr-Pro-Ser/Thr) was also found as multiple copies in the primary sequences of metal-oxide binding proteins Sil1 and Sil2 from Thalassiosira pseudonana. We suggest that this motif constitutes a natural metal-oxide binding archetype that could be exploited in enzyme-based biofuel cell design and approaches to synthesize tailored metal-oxide nanostructures.

Lower, Brian H.; Lins, Roberto D.; Oestreicher, Zachery W.; Straatsma, TP; Hochella Jr., Michael F.; Shi, Liang; Lower, Steven

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

Semiconducting Transition-Metal Oxides Based on D5 Cations: Theory for MnO and Fe2O3  

SciTech Connect

Transition-metal oxides with partially filled d shells are typically Mott or charge-transfer insulators with notoriously poor transport properties due to large effective electron/hole masses or due to carrier self-trapping. Employing band-structure calculations and ab initio small-polaron theory for MnO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, we explore the potential of d{sup 5} oxides for achieving desirable semiconducting properties, e.g., in solar energy applications. The quantification of self-trapping energies and the trends with the coordination symmetry suggest strategies to overcome the main bottlenecks, i.e., the tendency for self-trapping of holes due to Mn(II) and of electrons due to Fe(III).

Peng, H.; Lany, S.

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

327

The Open Cluster Chemical Analysis and Mapping Survey: Local Galactic Metallicity Gradient with APOGEE using SDSS DR10  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Open Cluster Chemical Analysis and Mapping (OCCAM) Survey aims to produce a comprehensive, uniform, infrared-based dataset for hundreds of open clusters, and constrain key Galactic dynamical and chemical parameters from this sample. This first contribution from the OCCAM survey presents analysis of 141 members stars in 28 open clusters with high-resolution metallicities derived from a large uniform sample collected as part of the SDSS-III/Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). This sample includes the first high-resolution metallicity measurements for 22 open clusters. With this largest ever uniformly observed sample of open cluster stars we investigate the Galactic disk gradients of both [M/H] and [alpha/M]. We find basically no gradient across this range in [alpha/M], but [M/H] does show a gradient for R_{GC} < 10 kpc and a significant flattening beyond R_{GC} = 10 kpc. In particular, whereas fitting a single linear trend yields an [M/H] gradient of -0.09 +/- 0.03$ dex/kpc -...

Frinchaboy, Peter M; Jackson, Kelly M; O'Connell, Julia; Meyer, Brianne; Zasowski, Gail; Majewski, Steven R; Chojnowksi, S Drew; Johnson, Jennifer A; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Beers, Timothy C; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Cunha, Katia; Ebelke, Garrett; Perez, Ana Elia Garcia; Hearty, Frederick R; Holtzman, Jon; Kinemuchi, Karen; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Marchante, Moses; Meszaros, Szabolcs; Muna, Demitri; Nidever, David L; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Schiavon, Ricardo P; Schneider, Donald P; Shetrone, Matthew; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie; Smith, Verne V; Wilson, John C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Continuum and Quantum-Chemical Modeling of Oxygen Reduction on the Cathode in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have several advantages over other types of fuels cells such as high-energy efficiency and excellent fuel flexibility. To be economically competitive, however, new materials with extraordinary transport and catalytic properties must be developed to dramatically improve the performance while reducing the cost. This article reviews recent advancements in understanding oxygen reduction on various cathode materials using phenomenological and quantum chemical approaches in order to develop novel cathode materials with high catalytic activity toward oxygen reduction. We summarize a variety of results relevant to understanding the interactions between O2 and cathode materials at the molecular level as predicted using quantum-chemical cal-culations and probed using in situ surface vibrational spectroscopy. It is hoped that this in-depth understanding may provide useful insights into the design of novel cath-ode materials for a new generation of SOFCs.

Choi, Yongman; Mebane, David S.; Wang, Jeng-Han; Liu, Meilin

2009-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

329

Limitations for heavy metal release during thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge ash  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Phosphate recycling from sewage sludge can be achieved by heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash (SSA) producing a fertilizer product: mixing SSA with chloride and treating this mixture (eventually after granulation) in a rotary kiln at 1000 {+-} 100 deg. C leads to the formation of volatile heavy metal compounds that evaporate and to P-phases with high bio-availability. Due to economical and ecological reasons, it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption of this technology. Generally, fluidized bed reactors are characterized by high heat and mass transfer and thus promise the saving of energy. Therefore, a rotary reactor and a fluidized bed reactor (both laboratory-scale and operated in batch mode) are used for the treatment of granulates containing SSA and CaCl{sub 2}. Treatment temperature, residence time and - in case of the fluidized bed reactor - superficial velocity are varied between 800 and 900 deg. C, 10 and 30 min and 3.4 and 4.6 m s{sup -1}. Cd and Pb can be removed well (>95 %) in all experiments. Cu removal ranges from 25% to 84%, for Zn 75-90% are realized. The amount of heavy metals removed increases with increasing temperature and residence time which is most pronounced for Cu. In the pellet, three major reactions occur: formation of HCl and Cl{sub 2} from CaCl{sub 2}; diffusion and reaction of these gases with heavy metal compounds; side reactions from heavy metal compounds with matrix material. Although, heat and mass transfer are higher in the fluidized bed reactor, Pb and Zn removal is slightly better in the rotary reactor. This is due the accelerated migration of formed HCl and Cl{sub 2} out of the pellets into the reactor atmosphere. Cu is apparently limited by the diffusion of its chloride thus the removal is higher in the fluidized bed unit.

Nowak, Benedikt, E-mail: benedikt.nowak@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/166, A-1060 Vienna (Austria); Perutka, Libor [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/166, A-1060 Vienna (Austria); Aschenbrenner, Philipp [Institute for Water Quality, Resource and Waste Management, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/226, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Kraus, Petra [ASH DEC Umwelt AG, Donaufelderstrasse 101/4/5, A-1210 Vienna (Austria); Rechberger, Helmut [Institute for Water Quality, Resource and Waste Management, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/226, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Winter, Franz, E-mail: franz.winter@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/166, A-1060 Vienna (Austria)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

THE METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS OF SEGUE G AND K DWARFS: CONSTRAINTS FOR DISK CHEMICAL EVOLUTION AND FORMATION  

SciTech Connect

We present the metallicity distribution function (MDF) for 24,270 G and 16,847 K dwarfs at distances from 0.2 to 2.3 kpc from the Galactic plane, based on spectroscopy from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) survey. This stellar sample is significantly larger in both number and volume than previous spectroscopic analyses, which were limited to the solar vicinity, making it ideal for comparison with local volume-limited samples and Galactic models. For the first time, we have corrected the MDF for the various observational biases introduced by the SEGUE target-selection strategy. SEGUE is particularly notable for its sample of K dwarfs, which are too faint to examine spectroscopically far from the solar neighborhood. The MDF of both spectral types becomes more metal-poor with increasing |Z|, which reflects the transition from a sample with small [{alpha}/Fe] values at small heights to one with enhanced [{alpha}/Fe] above 1 kpc. Comparison of our SEGUE distributions to those of two different Milky Way models reveals that both are more metal-rich than our observed distributions at all heights above the plane. Our unbiased observations of G and K dwarfs provide valuable constraints over the |Z|-height range of the Milky Way disk for chemical and dynamical Galaxy evolution models, previously only calibrated to the solar neighborhood, with particular utility for thin- and thick-disk formation models.

Schlesinger, Katharine J. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Johnson, Jennifer A.; Schoenrich, Ralph [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Rockosi, Constance M. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lee, Young Sun [Tombaugh Fellow, Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Allende Prieto, Carlos [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and JINA (Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Penn State University, 408A Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Chiappini, Cristina; Da Costa, Luiz N.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Rocha-Pinto, Helio; Santiago, Basilio X. [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia (LIneA), Rua Gal. Jose Cristino 77, 20921-400 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Minchev, Ivan [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

331

The aging of organic aerosol in the atmosphere : chemical transformations by heterogeneous oxidation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The immense chemical complexity of atmospheric organic particulate matter ("aerosol") has left the general field of condensed-phase atmospheric organic chemistry relatively under-developed when compared with either gas-phase ...

Kessler, Sean Herbert

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 13, 2012 ... Strong market demand for secondary materials has restricted material ... by chemical analysis using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in order to ... used for many applications such as secondary battery, cemented carbide, ...

333

Interplay between electronic structure and catalytic activity in transition metal oxide model system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The efficiency of many energy storage and conversion technologies, such as hydrogen fuel cells, rechargeable metal-air batteries, and hydrogen production from water splitting, is limited by the slow kinetics of the oxygen ...

Suntivich, Jin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

complete Fe30Cr+6AT-supported SOFC membrane after firing atof Fe-Cr ferritic steels as SOFC interconnect material," inmass production route for metallic SOFC-interconnectors," in

Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

The detection of nitric oxide and its reactivity with transition metal thiolate complexes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitric oxide (NO) is a molecule that is essential for life and regulates both beneficial and harmful processes. Because this gaseous radical influences many aspects of health and disease, we wish to explore the relationship ...

Tennyson, Andrew Gregory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Study of Metal-oxide Composites Prepared by Ball Milling and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerosol Route Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using Copper Nitrate Solution · AlGaAs-Based Optical ... Defect Energetics and Fission Product Transport in ZrC ... Enhancing Mineral Beneficiation by High Intensity Power Ultrasound.

337

Mechanism of oxygen reduction reaction on transition metal oxide catalysts for high temperature fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with its high energy conversion efficiency, low emissions, silent operation and its ability to utilize commercial fuels has the potential to create a large impact on the energy landscape. ...

La O', Gerardo Jose Cordova

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Chemical Forms and Distribution of Platinum Group Metals and Technetium During Spent Fuel Reprocessing  

SciTech Connect

Amongst the fission products present in spent nuclear fuel of Nuclear Power Plants there are considerable quantities of platinum group metals (PGMs): ruthenium, rhodium and palladium. At the same time there are considerable amounts of technetium in the spent fuel, the problem of its removal at radiochemical plants being in operation encountering serious difficulties. Increased interest in this radionuclides is due not only to its rather large yield, but to higher mobility in the environment as well. However, the peculiarities of technetium chemistry in nitric acid solutions create certain problems when trying to separate it as a single product in the course of NPP's spent fuel reprocessing. The object of this work was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of platinum group metals and technetium behavior at various stages of spent fuel reprocessing and to seek the decisions which could make it possible to separate its as a single product. The paper will report data on platinum metals (PGM) and technetium distribution in spent fuel reprocessing products. The description of various techniques for palladium recovery from differing in composition radioactive solutions arising from reprocessing is given. (authors)

Pokhitonov, Y. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

A Modular Approach to the Development of Molecular Electrocatalysts for H2 Oxidation and Production Based on Inexpensive Metals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of inexpensive electrocatalysts for the production and oxidation of hydrogen will play a vital role in future energy storage and delivery systems. The generation of hydrogen from non-fossil energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, and nuclear energy is one approach being considered for storing the electrical energy generated by these sources for transportation and other uses that are not temporally matched to electrical energy production. In the reverse process, in which fuels are used to produce electricity, it is recognized that fuel cells have significant thermodynamic advantages in terms of energy efficiency compared to internal combustion engines and other Carnot processes. Both fuel generation and fuel utilization require electrocatalysts for efficient interconversion of electrical energy and chemical energy. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Rakowski DuBois, Mary; DuBois, Daniel L.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

A full-scale demonstration of in situ chemical oxidation through recirculation at the X-701B site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1996, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) proposed an oxidant delivery technique involving injection and recirculation of the oxidant solution into a contaminated aquifer through multiple horizontal and vertical wells. This technique would be applicable to saturated, hydraulically conductive formations. In the spring of 1997, the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) agreed to collaborate with the DOE`s Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area to conduct a field-scale treatability study using in situ chemical oxidation through recirculation (ISCOR). PORTS agreed to support the demonstration at the X-701B site where the technology can potentially be used to remediate TCE-contaminated groundwater and sediments. The ISCOR field demonstration took advantage of existing infrastructure and extensive site characterization data generated from previous field demonstrations at X-701B. The field test was implemented using a pair of previously installed horizontal wells that transect an area of DNAPL contamination. Groundwater was extracted from one horizontal well, pumped to an existing pump and treat facility, dosed with KMnO{sub 4}, and re-injected into a parallel horizontal well approximately 90 ft away. The field demonstration lasted approximately one month. Treatment effectiveness was determined by comparing contaminant levels in pre-treatment, during, and post-treatment groundwater samples and pre- and post-treatment soil samples.

West, O.R.; Cline, S.R.; Holden, W.L.; Gardner, F.G.; Schlosser, B.M.; Thate, J.E.; Pickering, D.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Houk, T.C. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems Technology Applications, Piketon, OH (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of 111-v compounds on silicon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Expitaxial composite comprising thin films of a Group III-V compound semiconductor such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) or gallium aluminum arsenide (GaAlAs) on single crystal silicon substrates are disclosed. Also disclosed is a process for manufacturing, by chemical deposition from the vapor phase, epitaxial composites as above described, and to semiconductor devices based on such epitaxial composites. The composites have particular utility for use in making light sensitive solid state solar cells.

Vernon, Stanley M. (Wellesley, MA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF THIN-DISK, HIGH-METALLICITY RED HORIZONTAL-BRANCH FIELD STARS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a detailed abundance analysis and atmospheric parameters of 76 stars from a survey to identify field Galactic red horizontal-branch (RHB) stars. High-resolution echelle spectra (R {approx_equal} 60,000, S/N {>=} 100) were obtained with the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. The target stars were selected only by color and parallax information. Overall metallicities and relative abundances of proton-capture elements (C, N, O, Li), {alpha}-elements (Ca and Si), and neutron-capture elements (Eu and La) were determined by either equivalent width or synthetic spectrum analyses. We used CN features at the {lambda}{lambda}7995-8040 region in order to determine the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios of our targets. Investigation of the evolutionary stages, using spectroscopic T{sub eff} and log g values along with derived {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C ratios, revealed the presence of 18 probable RHB stars in our sample. We also derived kinematics of the stars with available distance information. Taking into account both the kinematics and probable evolutionary stages, we conclude that our sample contains 5 thick-disk and 13 thin-disk RHB stars. Up until now, RHB stars have been considered as members of the thick disk, and were expected to have large space velocities and sub-solar metallicities. However, our sample is dominated by low-velocity solar-metallicity RHB stars; their existence cannot be easily explained with standard stellar evolution.

Afsar, M. [Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Sneden, C.; For, B.-Q., E-mail: melike.afsar@ege.edu.tr, E-mail: afsar@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: chris@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: biqing@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: biqing.for@uwa.edu.au [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

343

Synthesis of graphene nanosheets via oxalic acid-induced chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide  

SciTech Connect

Preparing high-quality graphene through reduction of graphene oxide (GO) by oxalic acid is demonstrated in this paper. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrometry were taken to confirm the reduction of GO and the formation of graphene under these mild conditions. Thermogravimetric analysis and conductivity measurements further testify the excellent thermal stability and conductivity of the obtained graphene. A possible mechanism for the reduction process was also proposed. Furthermore, a Pt-graphene composite was fabricated on a glassy carbon electrode and excellent electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidation was observed. With advantages of low toxicity, simple purification process and high quality of the product, oxalic acid provides a feasible route to prepare graphene from GO under mild conditions, thus facilitating the use of graphene-based materials for large-scale applications.

Song, Peng; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Mingxun; Cui, Xiao-Li; Lin, Yuehe

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Electrical Contacts between Cathodes and Metallic Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To minimize electrical resistance, contact layers are often included between interconnects and electrodes during construction of a SOFC stack. In this work, simulated cathode/interconnect structures were used to investigate the effects of different contact materials on the contact resistance between a LSF cathode and a Crofer22 APU interconnect.. The results from the resistance measurements are reported and correlated to interfacial interactions occurring between the metallic interconnect and the contact materials, particularly perovskites. The materials requirements for the contact layers between cathodes and metallic interconnects in intermediate temperature SOFCs are also discussed.

Yang, Z Gary; Xia, Gordon; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2006-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

345

ZnO light-emitting diode grown by plasma-assisted metal organic chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

We report a breakthrough in fabricating ZnO homojunction light-emitting diode by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Using NO plasma, we are able to grow p-type ZnO thin films on n-type bulk ZnO substrates. The as-grown films on glass substrates show hole concentration of 10{sup 16}-10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} and mobility of 1-10 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra reveal nitrogen-related emissions. A typical ZnO homojunction shows rectifying behavior with a turn-on voltage of about 2.3 V. Electroluminescence at room temperature has been demonstrated with band-to-band emission at I=40 mA and defect-related emissions in the blue-yellow spectrum range.

Xu, W.Z.; Ye, Z.Z.; Zeng, Y.J.; Zhu, L.P.; Zhao, B.H.; Jiang, L.; Lu, J.G.; He, H.P.; Zhang, S.B. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

2006-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

346

J8: Micro Fabrication of Metallic and Oxide Glasses for Terahertz ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

C19: Dissolution Behavior of Cu Under Bump Metallization in Ball Grid Array Structure ... E11: Evolution of the Grain Boundary Character Distribution During Grain ... for High Volume and Fast Turnaround Automated Inline TEM Sample Preparation .... H2: Triboluminescent Smart Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring.

347

Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed. 16 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1996-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

349

Accelerated Publication: Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with Al2O3/Ga2O3(Gd2O3) as gate dielectric  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ga"2O"3(Gd"2O"3) [GGO] 3.5nm-thick, with an in situ Al"2O"3 cap 1.5nm thick, has been directly deposited on Ge substrate without employing interfacial passivation layers. The equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of the gate stack is 1.38-nm. The metal-oxide-semiconductor ... Keywords: EOT, Germanium, High-? dielectric, MOS

L. K. Chu; T. H. Chiang; T. D. Lin; Y. J. Lee; R. L. Chu; J. Kwo; M. Hong

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

A Pilot Scale Evaluation of Surfactant-Enhanced In Situ Chemical Oxidation (S-ISCO) Technology: A Field Application at a Former Manu factured Gas Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites commonly contain areas where coal tar has been released, potentially existing in several phases including non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in portions of the subsurface site soils. This report describes a field-based pilot scale study of an in situ oxidation technology called Surfactant-Enhanced In Situ Chemical Oxidation (S-ISCO), which was developed by VeruTEK Technologies, Inc.BackgroundCoal tar can remain as ...

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

351

Use of impure inert gases in the controlled heating and cooling of mixed conducting metal oxide materials  

SciTech Connect

Method for processing an article comprising mixed conducting metal oxide material. The method comprises contacting the article with an oxygen-containing gas and either reducing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a cooling period or increasing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a heating period; during the cooling period, reducing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the cooling period and increasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is reduced during at least a portion of the cooling period; and during the heating period, increasing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the heating period and decreasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is increased during at least a portion of the heating period.

Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Bernhart, John Charles (Fleetwood, PA)

2012-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

352

Functionalized Graphene Sheets as Molecular Templates for Controlled Nucleation and Self-Assembly of Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Graphene sheets have been extensively studied as a key functional component of graphene-based nanocomposites for electronics, energy, catalysis,and sensing applications. However, fundamental understanding of the interfacial binding and nucleation processes at graphene surfaces remains lacking, and the range of controlled structures that can be produced are limited. Here, by using a combination of theoretical and experimental approaches, we demonstrate that functionalized graphene sheets (FGS) can function as a new class of molecular templates to direct nucleation and self-assembly and produce novel, three-dimensional nanocomposite materials. Two key aspects are demonstrated: First, the functional groups on FGS surface determine the nucleation energy, and thus control the nucleation sites and nucleation density, as well as the preferred crystalline phases. Second, FGS can function as a template to direct the self-assembly of surfactant micelles and produce ordered, mesoporous arrays of crystalline metal oxides and composites.

Li, Xiaolin; Qi, Wen N.; Mei, Donghai; Sushko, Maria L.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Liu, Jun

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

353

Design and construction of a radiation resistant quadrupole using metal oxide insulated CICC  

SciTech Connect

The construction of a engineering test model of a radiation resistant quadrupole is described. The cold-iron quadrupole uses coils fabricated from metal-oixide (synthetic spinel) insulated Cable-In-Conduit-Conductor (CICC). The superconductor is NbTi in a copper matrix. The quadrupole is designed to produce a pole-tip field of 2 T with an operating current of 7,000 A.

Albert F. Zeller

2012-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

354

Method for improving the oxidation-resistance of metal substrates coated with thermal barrier coatings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described.

Thompson, Anthony Mark (Niskayuna, NY); Gray, Dennis Michael (Delanson, NY); Jackson, Melvin Robert (Niskayuna, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

SOFC from ~1000 șC to ~750 șC may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Creation of Exotic Features in Metal Oxides by Surface Treatment for Enhanced Gas Sensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

followed by oxidation in a well-defined pO2 regime near the M-MOx proximity line by a suitable buffer gas Model. Fig. 4. Thermodynamic criteria for several M/MOx coexistence and practical pO2 regimes for phase as a function of temperature for several M-MOx pairs. By manipulating the ambient pO2 across these lines, one

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

357

Bulk Metallic Glasses XI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 15, 2013 ... A Bulk Metallic Glass with Record-breaking Damage Tolerance ... Oxidation on the Surface Characteristics of Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glasses.

358

Photo-oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

359

Au/MxOy/TiO2 catalysts for CO oxidation: promotional effect of main-group, transition, and rare-earth metal oxide additives.  

SciTech Connect

Au/TiO2 catalysts are active for CO oxidation, but they suffer from high-temperature sintering of the gold particles, and few attempts have been made to promote or stabilize Au/TiO2. Our recent communication addressed these issues by loading gold onto Al2O3/TiO2 prepared via surface-sol-gel processing of Al(sec-OC4H9)3 on TiO2. In our current full paper, Au/Al2O3/TiO2 catalysts were prepared alternatively by thermal decomposition of Al(NO3)3 on TiO2 followed by loading gold, and the influences of the decomposition temperature and Al2O3 content were systematically surveyed. This facile method was subsequently extended to the preparation of a battery of metal oxide-modified Au/TiO2 catalysts virtually not reported. It was found that Au/TiO2 modified by CaO, NiO, ZnO, Ga2O3, Y2O3, ZrO2, La2O3, Pr2O3, Nd2O3, Sm2O3, Eu2O3, Gd2O3, Dy2O3, Ho2O3, Er2O3, or Yb2O3 could retain significant activity at ambient temperature even after aging in O2-He at 500 C, whereas unmodified Au/TiO2 lost its activity. Moreover, some 200 C-calcined promoted catalysts showed high activity even at about -100 C. The deactivation and regeneration of some of these new catalysts were studied. This work furnished novel catalysts for further fundamental and applied research.

Ma, Zhen [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Melanin as a target for melanoma chemotherapy: Pro-oxidant effect of oxygen and metals on melanoma viability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

La Jolla, CA, USA). Indium tin oxide plates were purchasedand hydrophilic indium tin oxide (ITO). While the magnitude

Farmer, Patrick J; Gidanian, S; Shahandeh, B; Di Bilio, A J; Tohidian, N; Meyskens, F L

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal oxide chemical" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Reducing the deactivation of Ni-metal during the catalytic partial oxidation of a surrogate diesel fuel mixture  

SciTech Connect

Ni catalysts are active and selective for the conversion of hydrocarbon into synthesis gas. However, conventional supported Ni catalysts rapidly deactivate at the high temperatures required for partial oxidation of diesel fuel by sintering and metal vaporization, as well as by carbon deposition and sulfur poisoning. Thus, to reduce deactivation Ni (3 wt%) was substituted into the structures of Ba-hexaaluminate (BNHA) and La–Sr–Zr pyrochlore (LSZN), and their activity was compared to a supported Ni/Al2O3 for the catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) of a surrogate diesel fuel. Characterization by XRD showed a single phase #2;-alumina for the hexaaluminate, while LSZN had a pyrochlore structure with a defect SrZrO3 perovskite phase. Temperature programmed reduction experiments confirmed Ni was reducible in all catalysts. XANES results confirmed that Ni atoms were substituted into the hexaaluminate and pyrochlore structures, as spectra for each catalyst showed different coordination environments for Ni compared to a NiO standard. During CPOX activity tests (T = 900 ?C and WHSV= 50,000 scc/gcat/h), the LSZN pyrochlore produced stable H2 and CO yields in the presence of 5 wt% 1-methylnaphthalene and 50ppmw dibenzothiophene/n-tetradecane for 2 h, while both Ni/Al2O3 and BNHA catalysts were irreversibly deactivated by this mixture over the same time. Activity loss was strongly linked to carbon formation.

Haynes, D.; Campos, A.; Smith, M.; Berry, D.; Shekhawat, D.; Spivey, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: thermal cycle stability and chemical compatibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An alkali silicate glass (SCN-1) is currently being evaluated as a candidate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel (SOFC) applications. The glass containing ~17 mole% alkalis (K2O and Na2O) remains vitreous and compliant during SOFC operation, unlike conventional SOFC sealing glasses, which experience substantial devitrification after the sealing process. The non-crystallizing compliant sealing glass has lower glass transition and softening temperatures since the microstructure remains glassy without significant crystallite formation, and hence can relieve or reduce residual stresses and also has the potential for crack healing. Sealing approaches based on compliant glass will also need to satisfy all the mechanical, thermal, chemical, physical, and electrical requirements for SOFC applications, not only in bulk properties but also at sealing interfaces. In this first of a series of papers we will report the thermal cycle stability of the glass when sealed between two SOFC components, i.e., a NiO/YSZ anode supported YSZ bilayer and a coated ferritic stainless steel interconnect material. High temperature leak rates were monitored versus thermal cycles between 700-850oC using back pressures ranging from 0.2 psi to 1.0 psi. Isothermal stability was also evaluated in a dual environment consisting of flowing dilute H2 fuel versus ambient air. In addition, chemical compatibility at the alumina and YSZ interfaces was examined with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results shed new light on the topic of SOFC glass seal development.

Chou, Y. S.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Williams, Riley T.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Bonnett, Jeff F.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Shyam, Amit; Lara-Curzio, E.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Strained Ge channel p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors grown on Siâ?â??xGex/Si virtual substrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have fabricated strained Ge channel p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (p-MOSFETs) on Siâ??.â??Geâ??.â?? virtual substrates. The poor interface between silicon dioxide (SiOâ??) and the Ge channel ...

Lee, Minjoo L.

365

Determining the Behavior of RuO(x) Nanoparticles in Mixed-Metal Oxides:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanism of Ethanol Synthesis from Syngas on Rh(111) Understanding of Mechanism of Ethanol Synthesis from Syngas on Rh(111) Understanding of ethanol decomposition on Rh(1 1 1) from density functional theory and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations Theoretical perspective of alcohol decomposition and synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation