National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for metal hydride rated

  1. Metal Hydrides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal Hydrides Theodore Motyka Savannah River National Laboratory Metal Hydride System Architect Jose-Miguel Pasini, & Bart van Hassel UTRC Claudio Corgnale & Bruce Hardy SRNL ...

  2. Metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carnes, J.R.; Kherani, N.P.

    1987-11-01

    Metal hydride information is not available for most hydrides in a consolidated quick-reference source. This report's objective is to fill the need for such a document providing basic thermodynamic data for as many metal hydrides as possible. We conduced a computerized library search to access as many sources as possible and screened each source for such thermodynamic data as pressure-temperature graphs, van't Hoff curves, and impurity effects. We included any other relevant information and commented on it. A primary concern to be investigated in the future is the behavior of metal tritides. This would be important in the area of emergency tritium cleanup systems. The hydride graphs are useful, however, as tritides may be expected in most cases to behave similarly and at least follow trends of their respective hydrides. 42 refs., 40 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Metal Hydride Hydrogen Storage Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's research on complex metal hydrides targets the development of advanced metal hydride materials including light-weight complex hydrides, destabilized binary hydrides, intermetallic hydrides,...

  4. Effect of delivery condition on desorption rate of ZrCo metal hydride bed for fusion fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, H.G.; Yun, S.H.; Chung, D.; Oh, Y.H.; Chang, M.H.; Cho, S.; Chung, H.; Song, K.M.

    2015-03-15

    For the safety of fusion fuel cycle, hydrogen isotope gases including tritium are stored as metal hydride form. To satisfy fueling requirement of fusion machine, rapid delivery from metal hydride bed is one of major factors for the development of tritium storage and delivery system. Desorption from metal hydride depends on the operation scenario by pressure and temperature control of the bed. The effect of operation scenario and pump performance on desorption rate of metal hydride bed was experimentally investigated using ZrCo bed. The results showed that the condition of pre-heating scenario before actual delivery of gas affected the delivery performance. Different pumps were connected to desorption line from bed and the effect of pump capacity on desorption rate were also found to be significant. (authors)

  5. Metal Hydride Storage Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's (FCTO's) metal hydride storage materials research focuses on improving the volumetric and gravimetric capacities, hydrogen adsorption/desorption kinetics, cycle life, and reaction thermodynamics of potential material candidates.

  6. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities - Metal Hydride Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Hydride Laboratories Working with SRNL Our Facilities - Metal Hydride Laboratories The Metal Hydride Laboratories are used for research and development on metal hydride absorption and desorption performance

  7. Dimensionally stable metallic hydride composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K.

    1994-01-01

    A stable, metallic hydride composition and a process for making such a composition. The composition comprises a uniformly blended mixture of a metal hydride, kieselguhr, and a ballast metal, all in the form of particles. The composition is made by subjecting a metal hydride to one or more hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles to disintegrate the hydride particles to less than approximately 100 microns in size. The particles are partly oxidized, then blended with the ballast metal and the kieselguhr to form a uniform mixture. The mixture is compressed into pellets and calcined. Preferably, the mixture includes approximately 10 vol. % or more kieselguhr and approximately 50 vol. % or more ballast. Metal hydrides that can be used in the composition include Zr, Ti, V, Nb, Pd, as well as binary, tertiary, and more complex alloys of La, Al, Cu, Ti, Co, Ni, Fe, Zr, Mg, Ca, Mn, and mixtures and other combinations thereof. Ballast metals include Al, Cu and Ni.

  8. Metastable Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Graetz, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of using hydrogen as a reliable energy carrier for both stationary and mobile applications has gained renewed interest in recent years due to improvements in high temperature fuel cells and a reduction in hydrogen production costs. However, a number of challenges remain and new media are needed that are capable of safely storing hydrogen with high gravimetric and volumetric densities. Metal hydrides and complex metal hydrides offer some hope of overcoming these challenges; however, many of the high capacity “reversible” hydrides exhibit a large endothermic decomposition enthalpy making it difficult to release the hydrogen at low temperatures. Onmore » the other hand, the metastable hydrides are characterized by a low reaction enthalpy and a decomposition reaction that is thermodynamically favorable under ambient conditions. The rapid, low temperature hydrogen evolution rates that can be achieved with these materials offer much promise for mobile PEM fuel cell applications. However, a critical challenge exists to develop new methods to regenerate these hydrides directly from the reactants and hydrogen gas. This spotlight paper presents an overview of some of the metastable metal hydrides for hydrogen storage and a few new approaches being investigated to address the key challenges associated with these materials.« less

  9. Porous metal hydride composite and preparation and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, William A. (Los Alamos, NM); Olsen, Clayton E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01

    A composite formed from large pieces of aggregate formed from (1) metal hydride (or hydride-former) powder and (2) either metal powder or plastic powder or both is prepared. The composite has large macroscopic interconnected pores (much larger than the sizes of the powders which are used) and will have a very fast heat transfer rate and low windage loss. It will be useful, for example, in heat engines, hydrogen storage devices, and refrigerator components which depend for their utility upon both a fast rate of hydriding and dehydriding. Additionally, a method of preparing the composite and a method of increasing the rates of hydriding and dehydriding of metal hydrides are also given.

  10. Porous metal hydride composite and preparation and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, W.A.; Olsen, C.E.

    1980-03-12

    A composite formed from large pieces of aggregate formed from (1) metal hydride (or hydride-former) powder and (2) either metal powder or plastic powder or both is prepared. The composite has large macroscopic interconnected pores (much larger than the sizes of the powders which are used) and will have a very fast heat transfer rate and low windage loss. It will be useful, for example, in heat engines, hydrogen storage devices, and refrigerator components which depend for their utility upon both a fast rate of hydriding and dehydriding. Additionally, a method of preparing the composite and a method of increasing the rates of hydriding and dehydriding of metal hydrides are also given.

  11. Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addthis Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride ... Through licensing and collaborative work, Energy ... Related Articles With help from the Clean Cities National ...

  12. Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature Power Generation Systems Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature Power Generation ...

  13. Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride Thermochemical Storage Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride Thermochemical ...

  14. Metal hydride composition and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Congdon, James W.

    1995-01-01

    A dimensionally stable hydride composition and a method for making such a composition. The composition is made by forming particles of a metal hydride into porous granules, mixing the granules with a matrix material, forming the mixture into pellets, and sintering the pellets in the absence of oxygen. The ratio of matrix material to hydride is preferably between approximately 2:1 and 4:1 by volume. The porous structure of the granules accommodates the expansion that occurs when the metal hydride particles absorb hydrogen. The porous matrix allows the flow of hydrogen therethrough to contact the hydride particles, yet supports the granules and contains the hydride fines that result from repeated absorption/desorption cycles.

  15. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-01-01

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed.

  16. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-12-31

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R&D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed.

  17. Liquid suspensions of reversible metal hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Winsche, W.E.

    1983-12-08

    The reversibility of the process M + x/2 H/sub 2/ ..-->.. MH/sub x/, where M is a metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under a liquid, thereby to reduce contamination, provide better temperature control and provide in situ mobility of the reactants. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen (at high pressures) and to release (at low pressures) previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the former is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

  18. Influence of uranium hydride oxidation on uranium metal behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, N.; Hambley, D.; Clarke, S.A.; Simpson, K.

    2013-07-01

    This work addresses concerns that the rapid, exothermic oxidation of active uranium hydride in air could stimulate an exothermic reaction (burning) involving any adjacent uranium metal, so as to increase the potential hazard arising from a hydride reaction. The effect of the thermal reaction of active uranium hydride, especially in contact with uranium metal, does not increase in proportion with hydride mass, particularly when considering large quantities of hydride. Whether uranium metal continues to burn in the long term is a function of the uranium metal and its surroundings. The source of the initial heat input to the uranium, if sufficient to cause ignition, is not important. Sustained burning of uranium requires the rate of heat generation to be sufficient to offset the total rate of heat loss so as to maintain an elevated temperature. For dense uranium, this is very difficult to achieve in naturally occurring circumstances. Areas of the uranium surface can lose heat but not generate heat. Heat can be lost by conduction, through contact with other materials, and by convection and radiation, e.g. from areas where the uranium surface is covered with a layer of oxidised material, such as burned-out hydride or from fuel cladding. These rates of heat loss are highly significant in relation to the rate of heat generation by sustained oxidation of uranium in air. Finite volume modelling has been used to examine the behaviour of a magnesium-clad uranium metal fuel element within a bottle surrounded by other un-bottled fuel elements. In the event that the bottle is breached, suddenly, in air, it can be concluded that the bulk uranium metal oxidation reaction will not reach a self-sustaining level and the mass of uranium oxidised will likely to be small in relation to mass of uranium hydride oxidised. (authors)

  19. Low density metal hydride foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maienschein, Jon L.; Barry, Patrick E.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a low density foam having a porosity of from 0 to 98% and a density less than about 0.67 gm/cc, prepared by heating a mixture of powered lithium hydride and beryllium hydride in an inert atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 455 to about 490 K for a period of time sufficient to cause foaming of said mixture, and cooling the foam thus produced. Also disclosed is the process of making the foam.

  20. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D [Martinez, CA; Jankowski, Alan F [Livermore, CA; Yu, Conrad [Antioch, CA

    2009-05-05

    Disclosed herein is a metal hydride fuel storage cartridge having integrated resistive heaters that can be used in conjunction with fuel cells such as MEMS-based fuel cells. The cartridge is fabricated using micromachining methods and thin/thick film materials synthesis techniques.

  1. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan F.; Yu, Conrad

    2006-10-17

    Disclosed herein is a metal hydride fuel storage cartridge having integrated resistive heaters that can be used in conjunction with fuel cells such as MEMS-based fuel cells. The cartridge is fabricated using micromachining methods and thin/thick film materials synthesis techniques.

  2. METAL HYDRIDE HYDROGEN COMPRESSORS: A REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman Jr, Robert C; Yartys, Dr. Volodymyr A.; Lototskyy, Dr. Michael V; Pollet, Dr. B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Metal hydride (MH) thermal sorption compression is an efficient and reliable method allowing a conversion of energy from heat into a compressed hydrogen gas. The most important component of such a thermal engine the metal hydride material itself should possess several material features in order to achieve an efficient performance in the hydrogen compression. Apart from the hydrogen storage characteristics important for every solid H storage material (e.g. gravimetric and volumetric efficiency of H storage, hydrogen sorption kinetics and effective thermal conductivity), the thermodynamics of the metal-hydrogen systems is of primary importance resulting in a temperature dependence of the absorption/desorption pressures). Several specific features should be optimized to govern the performance of the MH-compressors including synchronisation of the pressure plateaus for multi-stage compressors, reduction of slope of the isotherms and hysteresis, increase of cycling stability and life time, together with challenges in system design associated with volume expansion of the metal matrix during the hydrogenation. The present review summarises numerous papers and patent literature dealing with MH hydrogen compression technology. The review considers (a) fundamental aspects of materials development with a focus on structure and phase equilibria in the metal-hydrogen systems suitable for the hydrogen compression; and (b) applied aspects, including their consideration from the applied thermodynamic viewpoint, system design features and performances of the metal hydride compressors and major applications.

  3. Uranium metal reactions with hydrogen and water vapour and the reactivity of the uranium hydride produced

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godfrey, H.; Broan, C.; Goddard, D.; Hodge, N.; Woodhouse, G.; Diggle, A.; Orr, R.

    2013-07-01

    Within the nuclear industry, metallic uranium has been used as a fuel. If this metal is stored in a hydrogen rich environment then the uranium metal can react with the hydrogen to form uranium hydride which can be pyrophoric when exposed to air. The UK National Nuclear Laboratory has been carrying out a programme of research for Sellafield Limited to investigate the conditions required for the formation and persistence of uranium hydride and the reactivity of the material formed. The experimental results presented here have described new results characterising uranium hydride formed from bulk uranium at 50 and 160 C. degrees and measurements of the hydrolysis kinetics of these materials in liquid water. It has been shown that there is an increase in the proportion of alpha-uranium hydride in material formed at lower temperatures and that there is an increase in the rate of reaction with water of uranium hydride formed at lower temperatures. This may at least in part be attributable to a difference in the reaction rate between alpha and beta-uranium hydride. A striking observation is the strong dependence of the hydrolysis reaction rate on the temperature of preparation of the uranium hydride. For example, the reaction rate of uranium hydride prepared at 50 C. degrees was over ten times higher than that prepared at 160 C. degrees at 20% extent of reaction. The decrease in reaction rate with the extent of reaction also depended on the temperature of uranium hydride preparation.

  4. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Ritter, James A.; Ebner, Armin D.; Wang, Jun; Holland, Charles E.

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  5. Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-05

    HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at nightwhen the sun is not outto drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNLs metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800C). A high-temperature tank in PNNLs storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNLs thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

  6. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan F.; Yu, Conrad

    2010-08-10

    An apparatus having a first substrate having (1) a cavity, (2) one or more resistive heaters, and (3) one or more coatings forming a diffusion barrier to hydrogen; a second substrate having (1) an outlet valve comprising a pressure relief structure and (2) one or more coatings forming a diffusion barrier to hydrogen, wherein said second substrate is coupled to said first substrate forming a sealed volume in said cavity; a metal hydride material contained within said cavity; and a gas distribution system formed by coupling a microfluidic interconnect to said pressure relief structure. Additional apparatuses and methods are also disclosed.

  7. Process for production of a metal hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-12

    A process for production of a metal hydride compound MH.sub.x, wherein x is one or two and M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg. The process comprises combining a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.xM with aluminum, hydrogen and at least one metal selected from among titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula MH.sub.x. R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group. A mole ratio of aluminum to (R.sup.1O).sub.xM is from 0.1:1 to 1:1. The catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum.

  8. Ni/metal hydride secondary element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauerlein, Peter

    2005-04-19

    A Ni/metal hydride secondary element having a positive nickel hydroxide electrode, a negative electrode having a hydrogen storage alloy, and an alkaline electrolyte, the positive electrode, provided with a three-dimensional metallic conductive structure, also contains an aluminum compound which is soluble in the electrolyte, in addition to nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxide. The aluminum compound is aluminum hydroxide and/or aluminum oxide, and the mass of the aluminum compound which is present in the positive bulk material mixture is 0.1 to 2% by weight relative to the mass of the nickel hydroxide which is present. In combination with aluminum hydroxide or aluminum oxide, the positive electrode further contains lanthanoid oxidic compounds Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, La.sub.2 O.sub.3 and Ca(OH).sub.2, as well as mixtures of these compounds.

  9. Recent advances in metal hydrides for clean energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2013-06-01

    Metal hydrides are a fascinating class of materials that can be utilized for a surprising variety of clean energy applications, including smart solar collectors, smart windows, sensors, thermal energy storage, and batteries, in addition to their traditional application for hydrogen storage. Over the past decade, research on metal hydrides for hydrogen storage increased due to global governmental incentives and an increased focus on hydrogen storage research for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell operation. Tremendous progress has been made in so-called complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage applications with the discovery of many new hydrides containing covalently bound complex anions. Many of these materials have applications beyond hydrogen storage and are being investigated for lithium-ion battery separator and anode materials. In this issue of MRS Bulletin , we present the state of the art of key evolving metal-hydride-based clean energy technologies with an outlook toward future needs.

  10. Diffusional exchange of isotopes in a metal hydride sphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfer, Wilhelm G.; Hamilton, John C.; James, Scott Carlton

    2011-04-01

    This report describes the Spherical Particle Exchange Model (SPEM), which simulates exchange of one hydrogen isotope by another hydrogen isotope in a spherical metal hydride particle. This is one of the fundamental physical processes during isotope exchange in a bed of spherical metal particles and is thus one of the key components in any comprehensive physics-based model of exchange. There are two important physical processes in the model. One is the entropy of mixing between the two isotopes; the entropy of mixing is increased by having both isotopes randomly placed at interstitial sites on the lattice and thus impedes the exchange process. The other physical process is the elastic interaction between isotope atoms on the lattice. The elastic interaction is the cause for {beta}-phase formation and is independent of the isotope species. In this report the coupled diffusion equations for two isotopes in the {beta}-phase hydride are solved. A key concept is that the diffusion of one isotope depends not only on its concentration gradient, but also on the concentration gradient of the other isotope. Diffusion rate constants and the chemical potentials for deuterium and hydrogen in the {beta}-phase hydride are reviewed because these quantities are essential for an accurate model of the diffusion process. Finally, a summary of some of the predictions from the SPEM model are provided.

  11. Metal Hydrides for High-Temperature Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.; Westman, Matthew P.; Zheng, Feng; Fang, Zhigang Zak

    2015-08-10

    Metal hydrides can be utilized for hydrogen storage and for thermal energy storage (TES) applications. By using TES with solar technologies, heat can be stored from sun energy to be used later which enables continuous power generation. We are developing a TES technology based on a dual-bed metal hydride system, which has a high-temperature (HT) metal hydride operating reversibly at 600-800°C to generate heat as well as a low-temperature (LT) hydride near room temperature that is used for hydrogen storage during sun hours until there is a need to produce electricity, such as during night time, a cloudy day, or during peak hours. We proceeded from selecting a high-energy density, low-cost HT-hydride based on performance characterization on gram size samples, to scale-up to kilogram quantities and design, fabrication and testing of a 1.5kWh, 200kWh/m3 bench-scale TES prototype based on a HT-bed of titanium hydride and a hydrogen gas storage instead of a LT-hydride. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to make performance predictions for cylindrical hydride beds with varying diameters and thermal conductivities. Based on experimental and modeling results, a bench-scale prototype was designed and fabricated and we successfully showed feasibility to meet or exceed all performance targets.

  12. Metal Hydrides for High-Temperature Power Generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.; Westman, Matthew P.; Zheng, Feng; Fang, Zhigang Zak

    2015-08-10

    Metal hydrides can be utilized for hydrogen storage and for thermal energy storage (TES) applications. By using TES with solar technologies, heat can be stored from sun energy to be used later which enables continuous power generation. We are developing a TES technology based on a dual-bed metal hydride system, which has a high-temperature (HT) metal hydride operating reversibly at 600-800°C to generate heat as well as a low-temperature (LT) hydride near room temperature that is used for hydrogen storage during sun hours until there is a need to produce electricity, such as during night time, a cloudy day, ormore » during peak hours. We proceeded from selecting a high-energy density, low-cost HT-hydride based on performance characterization on gram size samples, to scale-up to kilogram quantities and design, fabrication and testing of a 1.5kWh, 200kWh/m3 bench-scale TES prototype based on a HT-bed of titanium hydride and a hydrogen gas storage instead of a LT-hydride. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to make performance predictions for cylindrical hydride beds with varying diameters and thermal conductivities. Based on experimental and modeling results, a bench-scale prototype was designed and fabricated and we successfully showed feasibility to meet or exceed all performance targets.« less

  13. Hydridable material for the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride storage battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knosp, Bernard; Bouet, Jacques; Jordy, Christian; Mimoun, Michel; Gicquel, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    A monophase hydridable material for the negative electrode of a nickel-metal hydride storage battery with a "Lave's phase" structure of hexagonal C14 type (MgZn.sub.2) has the general formula: Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x Ni.sub.a Mn.sub.b Al.sub.c Co.sub.d V.sub.e where ##EQU1##

  14. Method for preparing hydride configurations and reactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, G.L.

    1984-05-18

    A method for preparing reactive metal surfaces, particularly uranium surfaces is disclosed, whereby the metal is immediately reactive to hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure. The metal surfaces are first pretreated by exposure to an acid which forms an adherent hydride-bearing composition on the metal surface. Subsequent heating of the pretreated metal at a temperature sufficient to decompose the hydride coating in vacuum or inert gas renders the metal surface instantaneously reactive to hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure.

  15. AIR PASSIVATION OF METAL HYDRIDE BEDS FOR WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J; R. H. Hsu, R

    2007-07-02

    Metal hydride beds offer compact, safe storage of tritium. After metal hydride beds have reached the end of their useful life, the beds will replaced with new beds and the old beds prepared for disposal. One acceptance criteria for hydride bed waste disposal is that the material inside the bed not be pyrophoric. To determine the pyrophoric nature of spent metal hydride beds, controlled air ingress tests were performed. A simple gas handling manifold fitted with pressure transducers and a calibrated volume were used to introduce controlled quantities of air into a metal hydride bed and the bed temperature rise monitored for reactivity with the air. A desorbed, 4.4 kg titanium prototype hydride storage vessel (HSV) produced a 4.4 C internal temperature rise upon the first air exposure cycle and a 0.1 C temperature rise upon a second air exposure. A total of 346 scc air was consumed by the bed (0.08 scc per gram Ti). A desorbed, 9.66 kg LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} prototype storage bed experienced larger temperature rises over successive cycles of air ingress and evacuation. The cycles were performed over a period of days with the bed effectively passivated after the 12th cycle. Nine to ten STP-L of air reacted with the bed producing both oxidized metal and water.

  16. Metal hydride hydrogen compression: Recent advances and future prospects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bowman, Jr., Robert C.; Yartys, Volodymyr A.; Lototskyy, Mykhaylo V.; Linkov, Vladimir; Grant, David; Stuart, Alastair; Eriksen, Jon; Denys, Roman

    2016-03-17

    Metal hydride (MH) thermal sorption compression is one of the more important applications of the metal hydrides. The present paper reviews recent advances in the field based on the analysis of the fundamental principles of this technology. The performances when boosting hydrogen pressure, along with two- and three-step compression units are analyzed. The paper includes also a theoretical modeling of a two-stage compressor aimed at both describing the performance of the experimentally studied systems, but, also, on their optimization and design of more advanced MH compressors. Business developments in the field are reviewed for the Norwegian company HYSTORSYS AS andmore » the South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry. Finally, future prospects are outlined presenting the role of the metal hydride compression in the overall development of the hydrogen driven energy systems. Lastly, the work is based on the analysis of the development of the technology in Europe, USA and South Africa.« less

  17. Ab-initio study of transition metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Ramesh; Shukla, Seema Dwivedi, Shalini Sharma, Yamini

    2014-04-24

    We have performed ab initio self consistent calculations based on Full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method to investigate the optical and thermal properties of yttrium hydrides. From the band structure and density of states, the optical absorption spectra and specific heats have been calculated. The band structure of Yttrium metal changes dramatically due to hybridization of Y sp orbitals with H s orbitals and there is a net charge transfer from metal to hydrogen site. The electrical resistivity and specific heats of yttrium hydrides are lowered but the thermal conductivity is slightly enhanced due to increase in scattering from hydrogen sites.

  18. Process of forming a sol-gel/metal hydride composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Congdon, James W.

    2009-03-17

    An external gelation process is described which produces granules of metal hydride particles contained within a sol-gel matrix. The resulting granules are dimensionally stable and are useful for applications such as hydrogen separation and hydrogen purification. An additional coating technique for strengthening the granules is also provided.

  19. Cascades for hydrogen isotope separation using metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, F.B.; Grzetic, V.

    1982-01-01

    Designs are presented for continuous countercurrent hydrogen isotope separation cascades based on the use of metal hydrides. The cascades are made up of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) or temperature swing adsorption (TSA) stages. The designs were evolved from consideration of previously conducted studies of the separation performance of four types of PSA and TSA processes.

  20. METHOD OF PREPARING SINTERED ZIRCONIUM METAL FROM ITS HYDRIDES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angier, R.P.

    1958-02-11

    The invention relates to the preparation of metal shapes from zirconium hydride by powder metallurgical techniques. The zirconium hydride powder which is to be used for this purpose can be prepared by rendering massive pieces of crystal bar zirconium friable by heat treatment in purified hydrogen. This any then be ground into powder and powder can be handled in the air without danger of it igniting. It may then be compacted in the normal manner by being piaced in a die. The compact is sintered under vacuum conditions preferably at a temperature ranging from 1200 to 1300 deg C and for periods of one to three hours.

  1. Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

    2012-02-01

    In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin composite material indicating that the polymer is physically intact upon cycling. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride in the form of a composite material reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. This reduction in capacity was observed to be independent of the amount of charge/discharge cycles except for the composites containing siloxane, which showed less of an impact on hydrogen storage capacity as it was cycled further. While the reason for this is not clear, it may be due to a chemically stabilizing effect of the siloxane on the metal hydride. Flow-through calorimetry was used to characterize the mitigating effectiveness of the different composites relative to the neat (no polymer) material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation, and the best performing material was the siloxane-containing composite which reduced the heat release to less than 50% of the value of the neat material. However, upon cycling the composites, all mitigating behavior was lost. The combined results of the flow-through calorimetry, hydrogen capacity, and thermogravimetric analysis tests lead to the proposed conclusion that while the polymer composites have mitigating potential and are physically robust under cycling, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of metal hydride electrodes. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBreen, J.; Reilly, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this project is to elucidate the compositional and structural parameters that affect the thermodynamics, kinetics and stability of alloy hydride electrodes and to use this information in the development of new high capacity long life hydride electrodes for rechargeable batteries. The work focuses on the development of AB{sub 5} alloys and the application of in situ methods, at NSLS, such as x-ray absorption (XAS), to elucidate the role of the alloying elements in hydrogen storage and corrosion inhibition. The most significant results to date are: The decay of electrode capacity on cycling was directly related to alloy corrosion. The rate of corrosion depended in part on both the alloy composition and the partial molar volume of hydrogen, V{sub H}. The corrosion rate depended on the composition of the A component in AB{sub 5} (LaNi{sub 5} type) alloys. Partial substitution of La with Ce in AB{sub 5} alloys substantially inhibits electrode corrosion on cycling. Recent results indicate that Co also greatly inhibits electrode corrosion, possibly by minimizing V{sub H}. The AB{sub 5} alloys investigated included LaNi{sub 5}, ternary alloys (e.g. LaN{sub 4.8}Sn{sub 0.2} and La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}Ni{sub 5}), alloys with various substitutions for both La and Ni (e.g. La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}Ni{sub 4.8}Sn{sub 0.2}) and mischmetal (Mm) alloys of the type normally used in batteries, such as MmB{sub 5} (B = Ni{sub 3.55}Mn{sub 0.4}A1{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.75}). A major effort was devoted to the effects of La substitution in the A component. Both in situ and ex situ XAS measurements are used to study the electronic effects that occur on the addition of various metal substitutions and on the ingress of hydrogen.

  3. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paxton, B K

    1995-09-01

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  4. Hydriding process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raymond, J.W.; Taketani, H.

    1973-12-01

    BS>A method is described for hydriding a body of a Group IV-B metal, preferably zirconium, to produce a crack-free metal-hydride bedy of high hydrogen content by cooling the body at the beta to beta + delta boundary, without further addition of hydrogen, to precipitate a fine-grained delta-phase metal hydride in the beta + delta phase region and then resuming the hydriding, preferably preceded by a reheating step. (Official Gazette)

  5. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  6. Final report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Jay O.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the R&D activities within the U.S. Department of Energy Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) from March 2005 to June 2010. The purpose of the MHCoE has been to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE 2010 and 2015 system goals for hydrogen storage materials. The MHCoE combines three broad areas: mechanisms and modeling (which provide a theoretically driven basis for pursuing new materials), materials development (in which new materials are synthesized and characterized) and system design and engineering (which allow these new materials to be realized as practical automotive hydrogen storage systems). This Final Report summarizes the organization and execution of the 5-year research program to develop practical hydrogen storage materials for light duty vehicles. Major results from the MHCoE are summarized, along with suggestions for future research areas.

  7. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The teams innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  8. Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Metal Hydride Center of Excellence Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence This technical report describes the activities carried out, key accomplishments, and recommendations from the DOE's Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence, led by Los Alamos National Laboratory with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory from 2005 through 2010. The center's focus was the development of advanced chemical hydrogen storage materials that had the potential to meet the

  9. Materials Down-selection Decisions Made within the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) - September-October 2007

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Reports on which hydrogen storage materials offer potential for further research as decided by DOE's Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

  10. Materials Down-selection Decisions Made within the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) - September-October 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klebanoff, Lennie

    2007-09-01

    Reports on which hydrogen storage materials offer potential for further research as decided by DOE's Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

  11. Method and composition in which metal hydride particles are embedded in a silica network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K.

    1999-01-01

    A silica embedded metal hydride composition and a method for making such a composition. The composition is made via the following process: A quantity of fumed silica is blended with water to make a paste. After adding metal hydride particles, the paste is dried to form a solid. According to one embodiment of the invention, the solid is ground into granules for use of the product in hydrogen storage. Alternatively, the paste can be molded into plates or cylinders and then dried for use of the product as a hydrogen filter. Where mechanical strength is required, the paste can be impregnated in a porous substrate or wire network.

  12. First Principles Studies of Phase Stability and Reaction Dynamics in Complex Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Mei-Yin

    2014-09-29

    Complex metal hydrides are believed to be one of the most promising materials for developing hydrogen storage systems that can operate under desirable conditions. At the same time, these are also a class of materials that exhibit intriguing properties. We have used state-of-the-art computational techniques to study the fundamental properties of these materials.

  13. Project Profile: Low-Cost Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    -- This project is inactive -- The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under the National Laboratory R&D competitive funding opportunity, is collaborating with Curtin University (CU) to evaluate new metal hydride materials for thermal energy storage (TES) that meet the SunShot cost and performance targets for TES systems.

  14. Metal hydrides as electrode/catalyst materials for oxygen evolution/reduction in electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Halpert, Gerald; Fultz, Brent; Witham, Charles K.; Bowman, Robert C.; Hightower, Adrian

    1997-01-01

    An at least ternary metal alloy of the formula, AB.sub.(5-Y)X(.sub.y), is claimed. In this formula, A is selected from the rare earth elements, B is selected from the elements of groups 8, 9, and 10 of the periodic table of the elements, and X includes at least one of the following: antimony, arsenic, and bismuth. Ternary or higher-order substitutions, to the base AB.sub.5 alloys, that form strong kinetic interactions with the predominant metals in the base metal hydride are used to form metal alloys with high structural integrity after multiple cycles of hydrogen sorption.

  15. In-bed measurement of tritium loading in process metal hydride beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nobile, A.

    1988-01-01

    The Replacement Tritium Facility at Savannah River Plant will make extensive use of metal hydride technology for the storage, pumping, isotopic separation, and compression of hydrogen isotopes. Two options were considered for routine accountability of tritium stored in metal hydride beds. One option was to use standard P-V-T-mass spectrometry techniques after desorption of storage beds to tanks of known volume. The second option was to develop a technique for direct measurement of bed loading. It was thought that such a technique would be more rapid and would account for heel, although some accuracy would be lost.The static nitrogen and flowing nitrogen methods were considered for this option. The flowing nitrogen method was eventually selected because it was insensitive to bed physical properties and isotopic gas composition, as well as being more accurate and easier to automate.

  16. In-bed accountability of tritium in production scale metal hydride storage beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.E.

    1995-10-01

    An `in-bed accountability` (IBA) flowing gas calorimetric measurement method has been developed and implemented to eliminate the need to remove tritium from production scale metal hydride storage beds for inventory measurement purposes. Six-point tritium IBA calibration curves have been completed for two, 390 gram tritium metal hydride storage beds. The calibration curves for the two tritium beds are similar to those obtained from the `cold` test program. Tritium inventory errors at the 95 percent confidence level ranged from {+-} 7.3 to 8.6 grams for the cold test results compared to {+-} 4.2 to 7.5 grams obtained for the two tritium calibrated beds. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Method for preparing hydride configurations and reactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1988-08-16

    A method for preparing highly hydrogen-reactive surfaces on metals which normally require substantial heating, high pressures, or an extended induction period, which involves pretreatment of said surfaces with either a non-oxidizing acid or hydrogen gas to form a hydrogen-bearing coating on said surfaces, and subsequently heating said coated metal in the absence of moisture and oxygen for a period sufficient to decompose said coating and cooling said metal to room temperature. Surfaces so treated will react almost instantaneously with hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure. The method is particularly applicable to uranium, thorium, and lanthanide metals.

  18. OPTIMIZATION OF INTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE TANKS UTILIZING METAL HYDRIDES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, S.; Tamburello, D.; Hardy, B.; Anton, D.; Gorbounov, M.; Cognale, C.; van Hassel, B.; Mosher, D.

    2011-07-14

    Two detailed, unit-cell models, a transverse fin design and a longitudinal fin design, of a combined hydride bed and heat exchanger are developed in COMSOL{reg_sign} Multiphysics incorporating and accounting for heat transfer and reaction kinetic limitations. MatLab{reg_sign} scripts for autonomous model generation are developed and incorporated into (1) a grid-based and (2) a systematic optimization routine based on the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method to determine the geometrical parameters that lead to the optimal structure for each fin design that maximizes the hydrogen stored within the hydride. The optimal designs for both the transverse and longitudinal fin designs point toward closely-spaced, small cooling fluid tubes. Under the hydrogen feed conditions studied (50 bar), a 25 times improvement or better in the hydrogen storage kinetics will be required to simultaneously meet the Department of Energy technical targets for gravimetric capacity and fill time. These models and methodology can be rapidly applied to other hydrogen storage materials, such as other metal hydrides or to cryoadsorbents, in future work.

  19. LaNi{sub 5}-based metal hydride electrode in Ni-MH rechargeable cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bugga, R.V.; Fultz, B.; Bowman, R.; Surampudi, S.R.; Witham, C.K.; Hightower, A.

    1999-03-30

    An at least ternary metal alloy of the formula AB{sub (Z-Y)}X{sub (Y)} is disclosed. In this formula, A is selected from the rare earth elements, B is selected from the elements of Groups 8, 9, and 10 of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and X includes at least one of the following: antimony, arsenic, germanium, tin or bismuth. Z is greater than or equal to 4.8 and less than or equal to 6.0. Y is greater than 0 and less than 1. Ternary or higher-order substitutions to the base AB{sub 5} alloys that form strong kinetic interactions with the predominant metals in the base metal hydride are used to form metal alloys with high structural integrity after multiple cycles of hydrogen sorption. 16 figs.

  20. Non-stoichiometric AB5 alloys for metal hydride electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, James J.; Adzic, Gordana D.; Johnson, John R.; Vogt, Thomas; McBreen, James

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a non-stoichiometric alloy comprising a composition having the formula AB.sub.5+X an atomic ratio wherein A is selected from the group consisting of the rare earth metals, yttrium, mischmetal, or a combination thereof; B is nickel and tin, or nickel and tin and at least a third element selected from the group consisting of the elements in group IVA of the periodic table, aluminum, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, antimony or a combination thereof; X is greater than 0 and less than or equal to about 2.0; and wherein at least one substituted A site is occupied by at least one of the B elements. An electrode incorporating said alloy and an electrochemical cell incorporating said electrode are also described.

  1. Metal hydride/chemical heat-pump development project. Phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argabright, T.A.

    1982-02-01

    The metal hydride/chemical heat pump (MHHP) is a chemical heat pump containing two hydrides for the storage and/or recovery of thermal energy. It utilizes the heat of reaction of hydrogen with specific metal alloys. The MHHP design can be tailored to provide heating and/or cooling or temperature upgrading over a wide range of input and ambient temperatures. The system can thus be used with a variety of heat sources including waste heat, solar energy or a fossil fuel. The conceptual design of the MHHP was developed. A national market survey including a study of applications and market sectors was conducted. The technical tasks including conceptual development, thermal and mechanical design, laboratory verification of design and material performance, cost analysis and the detailed design of the Engineering Development Test Unit (EDTU) were performed. As a result of the market study, the temperature upgrade cycle of the MHHP was chosen for development. Operating temperature ranges for the upgrader were selected to be from 70 to 110/sup 0/C (160 to 230/sup 0/F) for the source heat and 140 to 190/sup 0/C (280 to 375/sup 0/F) for the product heat. These ranges are applicable to many processes in industries such as food, textile, paper and pulp, and chemical. The hydride pair well suited for these temperatures is LaNi/sub 5//LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 5/Al/sub 0/ /sub 5/. The EDTU was designed for the upgrade cycle. It is a compact finned tube arrangement enclosed in a pressure vessel. This design incorporates high heat transfer and low thermal mass in a system which maximizes the coefficient of performance (COP). It will be constructed in Phase II. Continuation of this effort is recommended.

  2. Isotope exchange kinetics in metal hydrides I : TPLUG model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, Rich; James, Scott Carlton; Nilson, Robert H.

    2011-05-01

    A one-dimensional isobaric reactor model is used to simulate hydrogen isotope exchange processes taking place during flow through a powdered palladium bed. This simple model is designed to serve primarily as a platform for the initial development of detailed chemical mechanisms that can then be refined with the aid of more complex reactor descriptions. The one-dimensional model is based on the Sandia in-house code TPLUG, which solves a transient set of governing equations including an overall mass balance for the gas phase, material balances for all of the gas-phase and surface species, and an ideal gas equation of state. An energy equation can also be solved if thermodynamic properties for all of the species involved are known. The code is coupled with the Chemkin package to facilitate the incorporation of arbitrary multistep reaction mechanisms into the simulations. This capability is used here to test and optimize a basic mechanism describing the surface chemistry at or near the interface between the gas phase and a palladium particle. The mechanism includes reversible dissociative adsorptions of the three gas-phase species on the particle surface as well as atomic migrations between the surface and the bulk. The migration steps are more general than those used previously in that they do not require simultaneous movement of two atoms in opposite directions; this makes possible the creation and destruction of bulk vacancies and thus allows the model to account for variations in the bulk stoichiometry with isotopic composition. The optimization code APPSPACK is used to adjust the mass-action rate constants so as to achieve the best possible fit to a given set of experimental data, subject to a set of rigorous thermodynamic constraints. When data for nearly isothermal and isobaric deuterium-to-hydrogen (D {yields} H) and hydrogen-to-deuterium (H {yields} D) exchanges are fitted simultaneously, results for the former are excellent, while those for the latter show pronounced deviations at long times. These discrepancies can be overcome by postulating the presence of a surface poison such as carbon monoxide, but this explanation is highly speculative. When the method is applied to D {yields} H exchanges intentionally poisoned by known amounts of CO, the fitting results are noticeably degraded from those for the nominally CO-free system but are still tolerable. When TPLUG is used to simulate a blowdown-type experiment, which is characterized by large and rapid changes in both pressure and temperature, discrepancies are even more apparent. Thus, it can be concluded that the best use of TPLUG is not in simulating realistic exchange scenarios, but in extracting preliminary estimates for the kinetic parameters from experiments in which variations in temperature and pressure are intentionally minimized.

  3. First-Principles Modeling of Hydrogen Storage in Metal Hydride Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Karl Johnson

    2011-05-20

    The objective of this project is to complement experimental efforts of MHoCE partners by using state-of-the-art theory and modeling to study the structure, thermodynamics, and kinetics of hydrogen storage materials. Specific goals include prediction of the heats of formation and other thermodynamic properties of alloys from first principles methods, identification of new alloys that can be tested experimentally, calculation of surface and energetic properties of nanoparticles, and calculation of kinetics involved with hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes. Discovery of new metal hydrides with enhanced properties compared with existing materials is a critical need for the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. New materials discovery can be aided by the use of first principles (ab initio) computational modeling in two ways: (1) The properties, including mechanisms, of existing materials can be better elucidated through a combined modeling/experimental approach. (2) The thermodynamic properties of novel materials that have not been made can, in many cases, be quickly screened with ab initio methods. We have used state-of-the-art computational techniques to explore millions of possible reaction conditions consisting of different element spaces, compositions, and temperatures. We have identified potentially promising single- and multi-step reactions that can be explored experimentally.

  4. Heat exchanger selection and design analyses for metal hydride heat pump systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Voskuilen, Tyler G.; Waters, Essene L.; Pourpoint, Timothee L.; Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a design analysis for the development of highly efficient heat exchangers within stationary metal hydride heat pumps. The design constraints and selected performance criteria are applied to three representative heat exchangers. The proposed thermal model can be applied to select the most efficient heat exchanger design and provides outcomes generally valid in a pre-design stage. Heat transfer effectiveness is the principal performance parameter guiding the selection analysis, the results of which appear to be mildly (up to 13%) affected by the specific Nusselt correlation used. The thermo-physical properties of the heat transfer medium and geometrical parameters aremore » varied in the sensitivity analysis, suggesting that the length of independent tubes is the physical parameter that influences the performance of the heat exchangers the most. The practical operative regions for each heat exchanger are identified by finding the conditions over which the heat removal from the solid bed enables a complete and continuous hydriding reaction. The most efficient solution is a design example that achieves the target effectiveness of 95%.« less

  5. Heat exchanger selection and design analyses for metal hydride heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Voskuilen, Tyler G.; Waters, Essene L.; Pourpoint, Timothee L.; Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a design analysis for the development of highly efficient heat exchangers within stationary metal hydride heat pumps. The design constraints and selected performance criteria are applied to three representative heat exchangers. The proposed thermal model can be applied to select the most efficient heat exchanger design and provides outcomes generally valid in a pre-design stage. Heat transfer effectiveness is the principal performance parameter guiding the selection analysis, the results of which appear to be mildly (up to 13%) affected by the specific Nusselt correlation used. The thermo-physical properties of the heat transfer medium and geometrical parameters are varied in the sensitivity analysis, suggesting that the length of independent tubes is the physical parameter that influences the performance of the heat exchangers the most. The practical operative regions for each heat exchanger are identified by finding the conditions over which the heat removal from the solid bed enables a complete and continuous hydriding reaction. The most efficient solution is a design example that achieves the target effectiveness of 95%.

  6. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  7. Discovery of Novel Complex Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage through Molecular Modeling and Combinatorial Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesch, David A; Adriaan Sachtler, J.W. J.; Low, John J; Jensen, Craig M; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Siegel, Don

    2011-02-14

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, Ford Motor Company, and Striatus, Inc., collaborated with Professor Craig Jensen of the University of Hawaii and Professor Vidvuds Ozolins of University of California, Los Angeles on a multi-year cost-shared program to discover novel complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. This innovative program combined sophisticated molecular modeling with high throughput combinatorial experiments to maximize the probability of identifying commercially relevant, economical hydrogen storage materials with broad application. A set of tools was developed to pursue the medium throughput (MT) and high throughput (HT) combinatorial exploratory investigation of novel complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. The assay programs consisted of monitoring hydrogen evolution as a function of temperature. This project also incorporated theoretical methods to help select candidate materials families for testing. The Virtual High Throughput Screening served as a virtual laboratory, calculating structures and their properties. First Principles calculations were applied to various systems to examine hydrogen storage reaction pathways and the associated thermodynamics. The experimental program began with the validation of the MT assay tool with NaAlH4/0.02 mole Ti, the state of the art hydrogen storage system given by decomposition of sodium alanate to sodium hydride, aluminum metal, and hydrogen. Once certified, a combinatorial 21-point study of the NaAlH4 ?? LiAlH4 ??Mg(AlH4)2 phase diagram was investigated with the MT assay. Stability proved to be a problem as many of the materials decomposed during synthesis, altering the expected assay results. This resulted in repeating the entire experiment with a mild milling approach, which only temporarily increased capacity. NaAlH4 was the best performer in both studies and no new mixed alanates were observed, a result consistent with the VHTS. Powder XRD suggested that the reverse reaction, the regeneration of the alanate from alkali hydride, Al and hydrogen, was hampering reversibility. The reverse reaction was then studied for the same phase diagram, starting with LiH, NaH, and MgH2, and Al. The study was extended to phase diagrams including KH and CaH2 as well. The observed hydrogen storage capacity in the Al hexahydrides was less than 4 wt. %, well short of DOE targets. The HT assay came on line and after certification with studies on NaAlH4, was first applied to the LiNH2 - LiBH4 - MgH2 phase diagram. The 60-point study elucidated trends within the system locating an optimum material of 0.6 LiNH2 ?? 0.3 MgH2 ?? 0.1 LiBH4 that stored about 4 wt. % H2 reversibly and operated below 220 °C. Also present was the phase Li4(NH2)3BH4, which had been discovered in the LiNH2 -LiBH4 system. This new ternary formulation performed much better than the well-known 2 LiNH2 ?? MgH2 system by 50 °C in the HT assay. The Li4(NH2)3BH4 is a low melting ionic liquid under our test conditions and facilitates the phase transformations required in the hydrogen storage reaction, which no longer relies on a higher energy solid state reaction pathway. Further study showed that the 0.6 LiNH2 ?? 0.3 MgH2 ?? 0.1 LiBH4 formulation was very stable with respect to ammonia and diborane desorption, the observed desorption was from hydrogen. This result could not have been anticipated and was made possible by the efficiency of HT combinatorial methods. Investigation of the analogous LiNH2 ?? LiBH4 ?? CaH2 phase diagram revealed new reversible hydrogen storage materials 0.625 LiBH4 + 0.375 CaH2 and 0.375 LiNH2 + 0.25 LiBH4 + 0.375 CaH2 operating at 1 wt. % reversible hydrogen below 175 °C. Powder x-ray diffraction revealed a new structure for the spent materials which had not been previously observed. While the storage capacity was not impressive, an important aspect is that it boron appears to participate in a low temperature reversible reaction. The last major area of study also focused

  8. LaNi.sub.5 is-based metal hydride electrode in Ni-MH rechargeable cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Fultz, Brent; Bowman, Robert; Surampudi, Subra Rao; Witham, Charles K.; Hightower, Adrian

    1999-01-01

    An at least ternary metal alloy of the formula AB.sub.(Z-Y) X.sub.(Y) is disclosed. In this formula, A is selected from the rare earth elements, B is selected from the elements of Groups 8, 9, and 10 of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and X includes at least one of the following: antimony, arsenic, germanium, tin or bismuth. Z is greater than or equal to 4.8 and less than or equal to 6.0. Y is greater than 0 and less than 1. Ternary or higher-order substitutions to the base AB.sub.5 alloys that form strong kinetic interactions with the predominant metals in the base metal hydride are used to form metal alloys with high structural integrity after multiple cycles of hydrogen sorption.

  9. Gas atomization processing of tin and silicon modified LaNi{sub 5} for nickel-metal hydride battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ting, J.

    1999-02-12

    Numerous researchers have studied the relevant material properties of so-called AB{sub 5} alloys for battery applications. These studies involved LaNi{sub 5} substituted alloys which were prepared using conventional cast and crush alloying techniques. While valuable to the understanding of metal hydride effects, the previous work nearly ignored the potential for alternative direct powder production methods, like high pressure gas atomization (HPGA). Thus, there is a need to understand the relationship between gas atomization processes, powder particle solidification phases, and hydrogen absorption properties of ultra fine (< 25 {micro}m) atomized powders with high surface area for enhanced battery performance. Concurrently, development of a gas atomization nozzle that is more efficient than all current designs is needed to increase the yield of ultrafine AB{sub 5} alloy powder for further processing advantage. Gas atomization processing of the AB{sub 5} alloys was demonstrated to be effective in producing ultrafine spherical powders that were resilient to hydrogen cycling for the benefit of improving corrosion resistance in battery application. These ultrafine powders benefited from the rapid solidification process by having refined solute segregation in the microstructure of the gas atomized powders which enabled a rapid anneal treatment of the powders. The author has demonstrated the ability to produce high yields of ultrafine powder efficiently and cost effectively, using the new HPGA-III technology. Thus, the potential benefits of processing AB{sub 5} alloys using the new HPGA technology could reduce manufacturing cost of nickel-metal hydride powder. In the near future, the manufacture of AB{sub 5} alloy powders could become a continuous and rapid production process. The economic benefit of an improved AB{sub 5} production process may thereby encourage the use of nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries in electrical vehicle applications in the foreseeable future.

  10. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of nickel metal-hydride batteries for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Hammel, C.J.; Mark, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies important environment, health, and safety issues associated with nickel metal-hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and assesses the need for further testing and analysis. Among the issues discussed are cell and battery safety, workplace health and safety, shipping requirements, and in-vehicle safety. The manufacture and recycling of Ni-MH batteries are also examined. This report also overviews the ``FH&S`` issues associated with other nickel-based electric vehicle batteries; it examines venting characteristics, toxicity of battery materials, and the status of spent batteries as a hazardous waste.

  11. Hydride heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cottingham, James G.

    1977-01-01

    Method and apparatus for the use of hydrides to exhaust heat from one temperature source and deliver the thermal energy extracted for use at a higher temperature, thereby acting as a heat pump. For this purpose there are employed a pair of hydridable metal compounds having different characteristics working together in a closed pressure system employing a high temperature source to upgrade the heat supplied from a low temperature source.

  12. Applications of nuclear reaction analysis to metal hydride film characterization at the GEND 200 KeV accelerator facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malbrough, D.J.; Becker, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) is a quantitative analytical technique that usually involves the use of MeV ion beams and resonant nuclear reactions to non-destructively probe materials for elemental content and depth profiles. Low energy, non-resonant nuclear reactions can also be exploited for NRA and procedures have been developed for using the GEND 200-KeV accelerator to characterize neutron generator components by that technique. The procedures involve the detection and analysis of fusion reaction products generated by the interactions of deuteron beams with light elements in metal hydride films. A description of the accelerator system is presented along with some of the unique NRA procedures that have recently been developed for its use. The system is used to measure neutron output efficiencies of metal deuterides and tritides by the associated particle technique (APT) and accurate neutron yield measurements have been made for a number of materials for which data was formerly not available.

  13. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandrock, Gary; Reilly, James; Graetz, Jason; Wegrzyn, James E.

    2010-11-23

    In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

  14. Hydride compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, James R.; Salzano, Francis J.

    1978-01-01

    Method of producing high energy pressurized gas working fluid power from a low energy, low temperature heat source, wherein the compression energy is gained by using the low energy heat source to desorb hydrogen gas from a metal hydride bed and the desorbed hydrogen for producing power is recycled to the bed, where it is re-adsorbed, with the recycling being powered by the low energy heat source. In one embodiment, the adsorption-desorption cycle provides a chemical compressor that is powered by the low energy heat source, and the compressor is connected to a regenerative gas turbine having a high energy, high temperature heat source with the recycling being powered by the low energy heat source.

  15. Final Report: DE- FC36-05GO15063, Fundamental Studies of Advanced High-Capacity, Reversible Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Craig; McGrady, Sean; Severa, Godwin; Eliseo, Jennifer; Chong, Marina

    2015-02-08

    The project was component of the US DOE, Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE). The Sandia National Laboratory led center was established to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE/FreedomCAR 2010 and 2015 system targets for hydrogen storage materials. Our approach entailed a wide variety of activities ranging from synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of new candidate hydrogen storage materials; screening of catalysts for high capacity materials requiring kinetics enhancement; development of low temperature methods for nano-confinement of hydrides and determining its effects on the kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrides; and development of novel processes for the direct re-hydrogenation of materials. These efforts have resulted in several advancements the development of hydrogen storage materials. We have greatly extended the fundamental knowledge about the highly promising hydrogen storage carrier, alane (AlH?), by carrying out the first crystal structure determinations and the first determination of the heats of dehydrogenation of ?AlH? and ?-AlD?. A low-temperature homogenous organometallic approach to incorporation of Al and Mg based hydrides into carbon aerogels has been developed that that allows high loadings without degradation of the nano-porous scaffold. Nano-confinement was found to significantly improve the dehydrogenation kinetics but not effect the enthalpy of dehydrogenation. We conceived, characterized, and synthesized a novel class of potential hydrogen storage materials, bimetallic borohydrides. These novel compounds were found to have many favorable properties including release of significant amounts of hydrogen at moderate temperatures (75-190C). However, in situ IR studies in tandem with thermal gravimetric analysis have shown that about 0.5 equivalents of diborane are released during the dehydrogenation making re-hydrogenation effectively impossible and precluding these compounds from further consideration as hydrogen storage materials. The hydrogen cycling of >11 wt % between MgB? to Mg(BH?)? was achieved but required very forcing conditions. Under moderate conditions (dehydrogenation 200C; re-hydrogenation 250C, 120 atm H2), Mg(BH?)? undergoes reversible dehydrogenation to Mg(B3H8)2. Although the 2.5 wt% cycling capacity does not meet current on-board storage targets, this result provides first example of direct hydrogen cycling of a borohydride under moderate conditions and demonstrates the plausibility of finding mild, PEM fuel cell relevant conditions for the high capacity, reversible dehydrogenation of borohydrides. A method was developed for the room temperature, direct hydrogenation of Ti-doped LiH/Al in liquefied dimethyl ether under 100 atm of H?. The process has been optimized such that Ti-doped LiAlH? is obtained in >95% yield. The WTT energy efficiency our direct synthesis process has been estimated to approach the 60% U.S. DOE target. Thus our simplification of the hydrogenation half-cycle may provide the key to harnessing the long-recognized potential of this lightweight, high capacity material as a practical hydrogen carrier. Finally, we have gained insight into the fundamental basis of the enhanced hydrogen cycling kinetics of Ti-doped NaAlH? through studies by solid state H NMR, anelastic spectroscopy; muon spin rotation; and positron annihilation.

  16. First principles screening of destabilized metal hydrides for high capacity H2 storage using scandium (presentation had varying title: Accelerating Development of Destabilized Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage Using First Principles Calculations)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alapati, S.; Johnson, J.K.; Sholl, D.S.; Dai, B. --last author not shown on publication, only presentation

    2007-10-31

    Favorable thermodynamics are a prerequisite for practical H2 storage materials for vehicular applications. Destabilization of metal hydrides is a versatile route to finding materials that reversibly store large quantities of H2. First principles calculations have proven to be a useful tool for screening large numbers of potential destabilization reactions when tabulated thermodynamic data are unavailable. We have used first principles calculations to screen potential destabilization schemes that involve Sc-containing compounds. Our calculations use a two-stage strategy in which reactions are initially assessed based on their reaction enthalpy alone, followed by more detailed free energy calculations for promising reactions. Our calculations indicate that mixtures of ScH2 + 2LiBH4, which will release 8.9 wt.% H2 at completion and will have an equilibrium pressure of 1 bar at around 330 K, making this compound a promising target for experimental study. Along with thermodynamics, favorable kinetics are also of enormous importance for practical usage of these materials. Experiments would help identify possible kinetic barriers and modify them by developing suitable catalysts.

  17. Hydride compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Myung, W.

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed are a composition for use in storing hydrogen and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the H equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to H, and then heating below the softening temperature of any of the constituents. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P{sub H}{sub 2} and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

  18. Hydride compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Myung W.

    1995-01-01

    A composition for use in storing hydrogen, and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the hydrogen equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to hydrogen and then heating at a temperature below the softening temperature of any of the. constituents so that their chemical and structural integrity is preserved. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P.sub.H.sbsb.2 and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

  19. Metal hydride differential scanning calorimetry as an approach to compositional determination of mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues and helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, David B.; Luo, Weifang; Cai, Trevor Y.; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2015-09-26

    Gaseous mixtures of diatomic hydrogen isotopologues and helium are often encountered in the nuclear energy industry and in analytical chemistry. Compositions of stored mixtures can vary due to interactions with storage and handling materials. When tritium is present, it decays to form ions and helium-3, both of which can lead to further compositional variation. Monitoring of composition is typically achieved by mass spectrometry, a method that is bulky and energy-intensive. Mass spectrometers disperse sample material through vacuum pumps, which is especially troublesome if tritium is present. Moreover, our ultimate goal is to create a compact, fast, low-power sensor that can determine composition with minimal gas consumption and waste generation, as a complement to mass spectrometry that can be instantiated more widely. We propose calorimetry of metal hydrides as an approach to this, due to the strong isotope effect on gas absorption, and demonstrate the sensitivity of measured heat flow to atomic composition of the gas. Peak shifts are discernible when mole fractions change by at least 1%. A mass flow restriction results in a unique dependence of the measurement on helium concentration. We present a mathematical model as a first step toward prediction of the peak shapes and positions. The model includes a useful method to compute estimates of phase diagrams for palladium in the presence of arbitrary mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues. As a result, we expect that this approach can be used to deduce unknown atomic compositions from measured calorimetric data over a useful range of partial pressures of each component.

  20. Metal hydride differential scanning calorimetry as an approach to compositional determination of mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues and helium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Robinson, David B.; Luo, Weifang; Cai, Trevor Y.; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2015-09-26

    Gaseous mixtures of diatomic hydrogen isotopologues and helium are often encountered in the nuclear energy industry and in analytical chemistry. Compositions of stored mixtures can vary due to interactions with storage and handling materials. When tritium is present, it decays to form ions and helium-3, both of which can lead to further compositional variation. Monitoring of composition is typically achieved by mass spectrometry, a method that is bulky and energy-intensive. Mass spectrometers disperse sample material through vacuum pumps, which is especially troublesome if tritium is present. Moreover, our ultimate goal is to create a compact, fast, low-power sensor that canmore » determine composition with minimal gas consumption and waste generation, as a complement to mass spectrometry that can be instantiated more widely. We propose calorimetry of metal hydrides as an approach to this, due to the strong isotope effect on gas absorption, and demonstrate the sensitivity of measured heat flow to atomic composition of the gas. Peak shifts are discernible when mole fractions change by at least 1%. A mass flow restriction results in a unique dependence of the measurement on helium concentration. We present a mathematical model as a first step toward prediction of the peak shapes and positions. The model includes a useful method to compute estimates of phase diagrams for palladium in the presence of arbitrary mixtures of hydrogen isotopologues. As a result, we expect that this approach can be used to deduce unknown atomic compositions from measured calorimetric data over a useful range of partial pressures of each component.« less

  1. Direct synthesis of catalyzed hydride compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Karl J.; Majzoub, Eric

    2004-09-21

    A method is disclosed for directly preparing alkali metal aluminum hydrides such as NaAlH.sub.4 and Na.sub.3 AlH.sub.6 from either the alkali metal or its hydride, and aluminum. The hydride thus prepared is doped with a small portion of a transition metal catalyst compound, such as TiCl.sub.3, TiF.sub.3, or a mixture of these materials, in order to render them reversibly hydridable. The process provides for mechanically mixing the dry reagents under an inert atmosphere followed by charging the mixed materials with high pressure hydrogen while heating the mixture to about 125.degree. C. The method is relatively simple and inexpensive and provides reversible hydride compounds which are free of the usual contamination introduced by prior art wet chemical methods.

  2. Method for controlled hydrogen charging of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Bo-Ching (Fremont, CA); Adamson, Ronald B. (Fremont, CA)

    1984-05-29

    A method for controlling hydrogen charging of hydride forming metals through a window of a superimposed layer of a non-hydriding metal overlying the portion of the hydride forming metals to be charged.

  3. Metal Hydrides- Science Needs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC.

  4. Titanium tritide radioisotope heat source development : palladium-coated titanium hydriding kinetics and tritium loading tests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Blarigan, Peter; Shugard, Andrew D.; Walters, R. Tom

    2012-01-01

    We have found that a 180 nm palladium coating enables titanium to be loaded with hydrogen isotopes without the typical 400-500 C vacuum activation step. The hydriding kinetics of Pd coated Ti can be described by the Mintz-Bloch adherent film model, where the rate of hydrogen absorption is controlled by diffusion through an adherent metal-hydride layer. Hydriding rate constants of Pd coated and vacuum activated Ti were found to be very similar. In addition, deuterium/tritium loading experiments were done on stacks of Pd coated Ti foil in a representative-size radioisotope heat source vessel. The experiments demonstrated that such a vessel could be loaded completely, at temperatures below 300 C, in less than 10 hours, using existing department-of-energy tritium handling infrastructure.

  5. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2006-08-22

    A hydrogen storage material and process of forming the material is provided in which complex hydrides are combined under conditions of elevated temperatures and/or elevated temperature and pressure with a titanium metal such as titanium butoxide. The resulting fused product exhibits hydrogen desorption kinetics having a first hydrogen release point which occurs at normal atmospheres and at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 90.degree. C.

  6. The Hydriding Kinetics of Organic Hydrogen Getters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, G. L.

    2002-02-11

    The aging of hermetically sealed systems is often accompanied by the gradual production of hydrogen gas that is a result of the decay of environmental gases and the degradation of organic materials. In particular, the oxygen, water, hydrogen ''equilibrium'' is affected by the removal of oxygen due the oxidation of metals and organic materials. This shift of the above ''equilibrium'' towards the formation of hydrogen gas, particularly in crevices, may eventually reach an explosive level of hydrogen gas or degrade metals by hydriding them. The latter process is generally delayed until the oxidizing species are significantly reduced. Organic hydrogen getters introduced by Allied Signal Aerospace Company, Kansas City Division have proven to be a very effective means of preventing hydrogen gas accumulation in sealed containers. These getters are relatively unaffected by air and environmental gases. They can be packaged in a variety of ways to fit particular needs such as porous pellets, fine or coarse [gravel] powder, or loaded into silicone rubber. The hydrogen gettering reactions are extremely irreversible since the hydrogen gas is converted into an organic hydrocarbon. These getters are based on the palladium-catalyzed hydrogenation of triple bonds to double and then single bonds in aromatic aryl compounds. DEB (1,4 bis (phenyl ethynyl) benzene) typically mixed with 25% by weight carbon with palladium (1% by weight of carbon) is one of the newest and best of these organic hydrogen getters. The reaction mechanisms are complex involving solid state reaction with a heterogeneous catalyst leading to the many intermediates, including mixed alkyl and aryl hydrocarbons with the possibilities of many isomers. The reaction kinetics mechanisms are also strongly influenced by the form in which they are packaged. For example, the hydriding rates for pellets and gravel have a strong dependence on reaction extent (i.e., DEB reduction) and a kinetic order in pressure of 0.76. Silicone rubber based DEB getters hydride at a much lower rate, have little dependence on reaction extent, have a higher kinetic order in pressure (0.87), and have a lower activation energy. The kinetics of the reaction as a function of hydrogen pressure, stoichiometry, and temperature for hydrogen and deuterium near ambient temperature (0 to 75 C) for pressures near or below 100 Pa over a wide range (in some cases, the complete) hydrogenation range are presented along with multi-dimensional rate models.

  7. High energy density battery based on complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2016-04-26

    A battery and process of operating a battery system is provided using high hydrogen capacity complex hydrides in an organic non-aqueous solvent that allows the transport of hydride ions such as AlH.sub.4.sup.- and metal ions during respective discharging and charging steps.

  8. High capacity stabilized complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Mohtadi, Rana F; Fewox, Christopher; Sivasubramanian, Premkumar

    2014-11-11

    Complex hydrides based on Al(BH.sub.4).sub.3 are stabilized by the presence of one or more additional metal elements or organic adducts to provide high capacity hydrogen storage material.

  9. Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

  10. High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Henderson, Wesley A.; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark H.; Borodin, Oleg; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-02-20

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, dendritic Li growth and limited Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated Li deposition/stripping processes have prevented the application of this anode in rechargeable Li metal batteries, especially for use at high current densities. Herein, we report that the use of highly concentrated electrolytes composed of ether solvents and the lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) salt enables the high rate cycling of a Li metal anode at high CE (up to 99.1 %) without dendrite growth. With 4 M LiFSI in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) as the electrolyte, a Li|Li cell can be cycled at high rates (10 mA cm-2) for more than 6000 cycles with no increase in the cell impedance, and a Cu|Li cell can be cycled at 4 mA cm-2 for more than 1000 cycles with an average CE of 98.4%. These excellent high rate performances can be attributed to the increased solvent coordination and increased availability of Li+ concentration in the electrolyte. Further development of this electrolyte may lead to practical applications for Li metal anode in rechargeable batteries. The fundamental mechanisms behind the high rate ion exchange and stability of the electrolytes also shine light on the stability of other electrochemical systems.

  11. Hydrogen Storage Properties of New Hydrogen-Rich BH3NH3-Metal Hydride (TiH2, ZrH2, MgH2, and/or CaH2) Composite Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Young Joon; Xu, Yimin; Shaw, Wendy J.; Ronnebro, Ewa

    2012-04-19

    Ammonia borane (AB = NH3BH3) is one of the most attractive materials for chemical hydrogen storage due to its high hydrogen contents of 19.6 wt.%, however, impurity levels of borazine, ammonia and diborane in conjunction with foaming and exothermic hydrogen release calls for finding ways to mitigate the decomposition reactions. In this paper we present a solution by mixing AB with metal hydrides (TiH2, ZrH2, MgH2 and CaH2) which have endothermic hydrogen release in order to control the heat release and impurity levels from AB upon decomposition. The composite materials were prepared by mechanical ball milling, and their H2 release properties were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The formation of volatile products from decomposition side reactions, such as borazine (N3B3H6) was determined by mass spectrometry (MS). Sieverts type pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) gas-solid reaction instrument was adopted to observe the kinetics of the H2 release reactions of the combined systems and neat AB. In situ 11B MAS-NMR revealed a destabilized decomposition pathway. We found that by adding specific metal hydrides to AB we can eliminate the impurities and mitigate the heat release.

  12. Phase I. Lanthanum-based Start Materials for Hydride Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, K. A.; Schmidt, F. A.; Frerichs, A. E.; Ament, K. A.

    2013-08-20

    The purpose of Phase I of this work is to focus on developing a La-based start material for making nickel-metal (lanthanum)-hydride batteries based on our carbothermic-silicon process. The goal is to develop a protocol for the manufacture of (La1-xRx)(Ni1-yMy)(Siz), where R is a rare earth metal and M is a non-rare earth metal, to be utilized as the negative electrode in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries.

  13. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, Richard K.; Bystroff, Roman I.; Miller, Dale E.

    1987-01-01

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  14. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, R.K.; Bystroff, R.I.; Miller, D.E.

    1986-08-27

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  15. High Resolution Neutron Radiography and Tomography of Hydrided Zircaloy-4 Cladding Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Tyler S; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Ray, Holly B; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Yan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Neutron radiography for hydrogen analysis was performed with several Zircaloy-4 cladding samples with controlled hydrogen concentrations up to 1100 ppm. Hydrogen charging was performed in a process tube that was heated to facilitate hydrogen absorption by the metal. A correlation between the hydrogen concentration in the hydrided tubes and the neutron intensity was established, by which hydrogen content can be determined precisely in a small area (55 m x 55 m). Radiography analysis was also performed to evaluate the heating rate and its correlation with the hydrogen distribution through hydrided materials. In addition to radiography analysis, tomography experiments were performed on Zircaloy-4 tube samples to study the local hydrogen distribution. Through tomography analysis a 3D reconstruction of the tube was evaluated in which an uneven hydrogen distribution in the circumferential direction can be observed.

  16. Empirical and physics based mathematical models of uranium hydride decomposition kinetics with quantified uncertainties.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salloum, Maher N.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.

    2013-10-01

    Metal particle beds have recently become a major technique for hydrogen storage. In order to extract hydrogen from such beds, it is crucial to understand the decomposition kinetics of the metal hydride. We are interested in obtaining a a better understanding of the uranium hydride (UH3) decomposition kinetics. We first developed an empirical model by fitting data compiled from different experimental studies in the literature and quantified the uncertainty resulting from the scattered data. We found that the decomposition time range predicted by the obtained kinetics was in a good agreement with published experimental results. Secondly, we developed a physics based mathematical model to simulate the rate of hydrogen diffusion in a hydride particle during the decomposition. We used this model to simulate the decomposition of the particles for temperatures ranging from 300K to 1000K while propagating parametric uncertainty and evaluated the kinetics from the results. We compared the kinetics parameters derived from the empirical and physics based models and found that the uncertainty in the kinetics predicted by the physics based model covers the scattered experimental data. Finally, we used the physics-based kinetics parameters to simulate the effects of boundary resistances and powder morphological changes during decomposition in a continuum level model. We found that the species change within the bed occurring during the decomposition accelerates the hydrogen flow by increasing the bed permeability, while the pressure buildup and the thermal barrier forming at the wall significantly impede the hydrogen extraction.

  17. High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode - Joint...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode Coulombic efficiency (CE) of Li platingstripping is > 99.1% in concentrated LiFSI-DME electrolyte Scientific Achievement Lithium metal is an ...

  18. High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium (Li) metal is an ideal anode material for rechargeable batteries. However, ... anode in rechargeable Li metal batteries, especially for use at high current densities. ...

  19. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    manufacturing environments: Fuel injector nozzle drilling (automotive industry) Ceramic hole drilling (electronics industry) Precious metal drilling ...

  20. Mechanochemical processing for metals and metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Froes, Francis H.; Eranezhuth, Baburaj G.; Prisbrey, Keith

    2001-01-01

    A set of processes for preparing metal powders, including metal alloy powders, by ambient temperature reduction of a reducible metal compound by a reactive metal or metal hydride through mechanochemical processing. The reduction process includes milling reactants to induce and complete the reduction reaction. The preferred reducing agents include magnesium and calcium hydride powders. A process of pre-milling magnesium as a reducing agent to increase the activity of the magnesium has been established as one part of the invention.

  1. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston University have demonstrated the technical viability of the process and have provided data for the cost analyses that have been performed. We also concluded that a carbothermic process could also produce magnesium at acceptable costs. The use of slurry as a medium to carry chemical hydrides has been shown during this project to offer significant advantages for storing, delivering, and distributing hydrogen: • Magnesium hydride slurry is stable for months and pumpable. • The oils of the slurry minimize the contact of oxygen and moisture in the air with the metal hydride in the slurry. Thus reactive chemicals, such as lithium hydride, can be handled safely in the air when encased in the oils of the slurry. • Though magnesium hydride offers an additional safety feature of not reacting readily with water at room temperatures, it does react readily with water at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Thus when hydrogen is needed, the slurry and water are heated until the reaction begins, then the reaction energy provides heat for more slurry and water to be heated. • The reaction system can be relatively small and light and the slurry can be stored in conventional liquid fuel tanks. When transported and stored, the conventional liquid fuel infrastructure can be used. • The particular metal hydride of interest in this project, magnesium hydride, forms benign byproducts, magnesium hydroxide (“Milk of Magnesia”) and magnesium oxide. • We have estimated that a magnesium hydride slurry system (including the mixer device and tanks) could meet the DOE 2010 energy density goals. During the investigation of hydriding techniques, we learned that magnesium hydride in a slurry can also be cycled in a rechargeable fashion. Thus, magnesium hydride slurry can act either as a chemical hydride storage medium or as a rechargeable hydride storage system. Hydrogen can be stored and delivered and then stored again thus significantly reducing the cost of storing and delivering hydrogen. Further evaluation and development of this concept will be performed as follow-on work under another project. However, since the cost of reducing magnesium from magnesium oxide makes up 85% of the cost of the slurry, if hydrogen can be stored many times in the slurry, then the cost of storing hydrogen can be spread over many units of hydrogen and can be significantly reduced from the costs of a chemical hydride system. This may be the most important finding of this project. If the slurry is used to carry a rechargeable hydride, the slurry can be stored in a conventional liquid fuel tank and delivered to a release system as hydrogen is needed. The release system will contain only the hydride needed to produce the hydrogen desired. This is in contrast to conventional designs proposed for other rechargeable hydride systems that store all the hydride in a large and heavy pressure and heat transfer vessel.

  2. Dissolution rate and radiation dosimetry of metal tritides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1993-06-01

    Metal tritides including titanium tritide (Ti{sup 3}H{sub x}) and erbium tritide (Er{sup 3}H{sub x}) have been used as components of neutron generators. These compounds can be released to the air as aerosols during fabrication, assembling and testing of components or in accidental or fugitive releases. As a result, workers could be exposed to these compounds by inhalation. A joint research project between SNL and ITRI (Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute) was initiated last fall to investigate the solubility of metal tritides, retention and translocation of inhaled particles and internal dosimetry of metal tritides. The current understanding of metal tritides and their radiation dosimetry for internal exposure are very limited. There is no provision in the ICRP-30 for tritium dosimetry in metal tritide form. However, a few papers in the literature suggested that the solubility of metal tritide could be low. The current radiation protection guidelines for metal tritide particles are based on the assumption that the biological behavior is similar to tritiated water which behaves like body fluid with a relative short biological half life (10 days). If the solubility of metal tritide is low, the biological half life of metal tritide particles and the dosimetry of inhalation exposure to these particles could be quite different from tritiated water. This would have major implications in current radiation protection guidelines for metal tritides Including annual limits of intakes and derived air concentrations. The preliminary results of metal tritide dissolution study at ITRI indicate that the solubility of titanium tritide is low. The outlines of the project, the preliminary results and future work will be discussed in presentation.

  3. Dissolution rate and radiation dosimetry of metal tritides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Y.

    1993-12-31

    Metal tritides including titanium tritide (Ti{sup 3}H{sub x}) and erbium tritide (Er{sup 3}H{sub x}) have been used as components of neutron generators. These compounds can be released to the air as aerosols during fabrication, assembling, and testing of components or in accidental or fugitive releases; as a result, workers may be exposed to these compounds by inhalation. A joint research project between Sandia National Laboratories and the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute was initiated to investigate the solubility of metal tritide particles, to determine retention and translocation of inhaled particles in animals, and to develop an internal dosimetry model. The current understanding of metal tritides and their radiation dosimetry for internal exposure is very limited. The ICRP Report 30 does not provide for tritium dosimetry in metal tritide form. The current radiation protection guidelines for metal tritide particles are based on the assumption that the biological behavior is similar to tritiated water which could be easily absorbed into body fluid, and therefore, a relatively short biological half life (10 days). If the solubility is low, the biological half life of metal tritide particles and the dosimetry of inhalation exposure to these particles could be quite different from tritiated water. This would have significant implications in the current health protection guidelines including annual limits of intakes and derived air concentrations. The preliminary results of our metal tritide dissolution study indicated that the solubility of titanium tritide is low.

  4. Dissolution rate and radiation dosimetry of metal tritides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Y.

    1993-12-31

    Metal tritides including titanium tritide (Ti {sup 3}H{sub x}) and erbium tritide (Er {sup 3}H{sub x}) have been used as components of neutron generators. These compounds can be released to the air as aerosols during fabrication, assembling, and testing of components or in accidental or fugitive releases; as a result, workers may be exposed to these compounds by inhalation. A joint research project between Sandia National Laboratories and the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute was initiated last fall to investigate the solubility of metal tritide particles, to determine retention and translocation of inhaled particles in animals, and to develop an internal dosimetry model. The current understanding of metal tritides and their radiation dosimetry for dosimetry in metal tritide form. However, a few papers in the literature suggest that the solubility of metal tritide could be low. The current radiation protection guidelines for metal tritide particles are based on the assumption that the biological behavior is similar to tritiated water which could be easily absorbed into body fluid, and therefore, a relatively short biological half life (10 days). If the solubility is low, exposure to these particles could be quite different from tritiated water. This would have significant implications in the current health protection guidelines including annual limits of intakes and derived air concentrations. The preliminary results of our metal tritide dissolution study indicated that the solubility of titanium tritide is low.

  5. Production of Hydrogen by Electrocatalysis: Making the H-H Bond by Combining Protons and Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, R. Morris; Appel, Aaron M.; Helm, Monte L.

    2014-03-25

    Generation of hydrogen by reduction of two protons by two electrons can be catalysed by molecular electrocatalysts. Determination of the thermodynamic driving force for elimination of H2 from molecular complexes is important for the rational design of molecular electrocatalysts, and allows the design of metal complexes of abundant, inexpensive metals rather than precious metals (“Cheap Metals for Noble Tasks”). The rate of H2 evolution can be dramatically accelerated by incorporating pendant amines into diphosphine ligands. These pendant amines in the second coordination sphere function as protons relays, accelerating intramolecular and intermolecular proton transfer reactions. The thermodynamics of hydride transfer from metal hydrides and the acidity of protonated pendant amines (pKa of N-H) contribute to the thermodynamics of elimination of H2; both of the hydricity and acidity can be systematically varied by changing the substituents on the ligands. A series of Ni(II) electrocatalysts with pendant amines have been developed. In addition to the thermochemical considerations, the catalytic rate is strongly influenced by the ability to deliver protons to the correct location of the pendant amine. Protonation of the amine endo to the metal leads to the N-H being positioned appropriately to favor rapid heterocoupling with the M-H. Designing ligands that include proton relays that are properly positioned and thermodynamically tuned is a key principle for molecular electrocatalysts for H2 production as well as for other multi-proton, multi-electron reactions important for energy conversions. The research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  6. Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2006-11-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

  7. Microstructure, Phase Formation, and Stress of Reactively-Deposited Metal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydride Thin Films (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Microstructure, Phase Formation, and Stress of Reactively-Deposited Metal Hydride Thin Films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microstructure, Phase Formation, and Stress of Reactively-Deposited Metal Hydride Thin Films This document summarizes research of reactively deposited metal hydride thin films and their properties. Reactive deposition processes are of interest, because desired stoichiometric phases are created in a

  8. Hydrogen isotopic exchange over palladium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carstens, D.H.W.; Encinias, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    We have recently developed the laser-Raman technique as a means of unambiguously measuring the partial pressures of all possible hydrogen isotopes in the gas phase. Using this technique we have investigated the hydrogen-deuterium exchange in a number of metals. This report presents detailed data for isotopic exchange in the palladium hydride system over the temperature range 26{degree}C to -100{degree}C at a pressure of 7 atm. First order kinetic rate constants and activation energies are summarized for the forward (hydride to deuteride) and reverse (deuteride to hydride) exchange processes. In addition, we have found that small amounts (100 ppm) of impurities in the exchange gases considerably slow the exchange kinetics with the effect increasing down the series CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and CO. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Hydride Rim Formation in Unirradiated Zircaloy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this work is to develop the means of pre-hydriding unirradiated Zircaloy cladding such that a high concentration, or rim, of hydrides is formed at the cladding outside diameter.

  10. Photogeneration of Hydride Donors and Their Use Toward CO2 Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita,E.; Muckerman, J.T.; Polyansky, D.E.

    2009-06-07

    Despite substantial effort, no one has succeeded in efficiently producing methanol from CO2 using homogeneous photocatalytic systems. We are pursuing reaction schemes based on a sequence of hydride-ion transfers to carry out stepwise reduction of CO2 to methanol. We are using hydride-ion transfer from photoproduced C-H bonds in metal complexes with bio-inspired ligands (i.e., NADH-like ligands) that are known to store one proton and two electrons.

  11. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, Leslie D.

    1982-01-01

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  12. Method of producing a chemical hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Wendt, Kraig M.

    2007-11-13

    A method of producing a chemical hydride is described and which includes selecting a composition having chemical bonds and which is capable of forming a chemical hydride; providing a source of a hydrocarbon; and reacting the composition with the source of the hydrocarbon to generate a chemical hydride.

  13. Lowering critical cooling rate for forming bulk metallic glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, T.D.; Schwarz, R.B. [MS G755, MST-8, Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2006-02-27

    Small volumes of Pd{sub 44}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 26}P{sub 20} and Pd{sub 43.2}Ni{sub 8.8}Cu{sub 28}P{sub 20} were encapsulated in B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and thermally cycled between T{sub g}-60 deg. C and T{sub l}+60 deg. C, where T{sub g} and T{sub l} denote the alloys' glass transition and liquidus temperatures. After this thermal treatment, the critical cooling rates (CCRs) for glass formation can be lowered by an order of magnitude, resulting in a critical cooling rate significantly lower than that reported for any other glass forming alloy melt. These experiments demonstrate that the CCR is not constant but strongly dependent on the degree of heterogeneous nucleation.

  14. Dose Rate Calculation of TRU Metal Ingot in Pyroprocessing - 12202

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Lee, Kunjai

    2012-07-01

    Spent fuel management has been a main problem to be solved for continuous utilization of nuclear energy. Spent fuel management policy of Korea is 'Wait and See'. It is focused on Pyro-process and SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) for closed-fuel cycle research and development in Korea. For peaceful use of nuclear facilities, the proliferation resistance has to be proved. Proliferation resistance is one of key constraints in the deployment of advanced nuclear energy systems. Non-proliferation and safeguard issues have been strengthening internationally. Barriers to proliferation are that reduces desirability or attractiveness as an explosive and makes it difficult to gain access to the materials, or makes it difficult to misuse facilities and/or technologies for weapons applications. Barriers to proliferation are classified into intrinsic and extrinsic barriers. Intrinsic barrier is inherent quality of reactor materials or the fuel cycle that is built into the reactor design and operation such as material and technical barriers. As one of the intrinsic measures, the radiation from the material is considered significantly. Therefore the radiation of TRU metal ingot from the pyro-process was calculated using ORIGEN and MCNP code. (authors)

  15. A new phase in palladium hydride technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, R.T.

    1991-12-31

    Two plateaux are observed in both the absorption and desorption isotherms of palladium hydride. For the absorption isotherm, a change in plateau pressure is observed at a hydrogen-to-metal (H/M) ratio of about 0.35 for all temperatures studied. For the desorption isotherm, the change in plateau pressure appears to be a function of temperature, ranging from an H/M ratio of 0.18 at 80{degrees}C to 0.3 at 140{degrees}C. These data are interpreted as being experimentally observed boundaries to an equilibrium phase line located in the miscibility gap of the palladium/hydrogen phase diagram. This new phase does not appear to be a stoichiometric compounds, but rather its composition seems to vary with temperature. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  16. A new phase in palladium hydride technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    Two plateaux are observed in both the absorption and desorption isotherms of palladium hydride. For the absorption isotherm, a change in plateau pressure is observed at a hydrogen-to-metal (H/M) ratio of about 0.35 for all temperatures studied. For the desorption isotherm, the change in plateau pressure appears to be a function of temperature, ranging from an H/M ratio of 0.18 at 80{degrees}C to 0.3 at 140{degrees}C. These data are interpreted as being experimentally observed boundaries to an equilibrium phase line located in the miscibility gap of the palladium/hydrogen phase diagram. This new phase does not appear to be a stoichiometric compounds, but rather its composition seems to vary with temperature. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  17. DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... materials to store hydrogen onboard vehicles, leading to more reliable, economic hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles. "Hydrogen, as a transportation fuel, has great potential to ...

  18. Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    funds cutting-edge research on a broad range of topics ranging from advanced battery construction to the modeling of industrial processes and supercomputer simulation of...

  19. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from condensation of vaporized material and subsequent rapid formation of aggregates. Particles of larger size, resulting from ejection of melted material or fragments from the cutting zone, were also observed. This study presents data regarding the metal cutting rate, particle size distribution, and their generation rate, while using different cutting tools and metals. The study shows that respirable particles constitute only a small fraction of the released kerf.

  20. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, L.D.

    1980-03-13

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator was designed to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  1. Igniter containing titanium hydride and potassium perchlorate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietzel, Russel W.; Leslie, William B.

    1976-01-01

    An explosive device is described which employs a particular titanium hydride-potassium perchlorate composition directly ignitible by an electrical bridgewire.

  2. Activated Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Compositions - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Startup America Startup America Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Activated Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Compositions...

  3. CRADA (AL-C-2009-02) Final Report: Phase I. Lanthanum-based Start Materials for Hydride Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl; Schmidt, Frederick; Frerichs, A.E.; Ament, Katherine A.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of Phase I of this work is to focus on developing a La-based start material for making nickel-metal (lanthanum)-hydride batteries based on our carbothermic-silicon process. The goal is to develop a protocol for the manufacture of (La{sub 1-x}R{sub x})(Ni{sub 1-y}M{sub y})(Si{sub z}), where R is a rare earth metal and M is a non-rare earth metal, to be utilized as the negative electrode in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries.

  4. Investigation of Cracked Lithium Hydride Reactor Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    bird, e.l.; mustaleski, t.m.

    1999-06-01

    Visual examination of lithium hydride reactor vessels revealed cracks that were adjacent to welds, most of which were circumferentially located in the bottom portion of the vessels. Sections were cut from the vessels containing these cracks and examined by use of the metallograph, scanning electron microscope, and microprobe to determine the cause of cracking. Most of the cracks originated on the outer surface just outside the weld fusion line in the base material and propagated along grain boundaries. Crack depths of those examined sections ranged from {approximately}300 to 500 {micro}m. Other cracks were reported to have reached a maximum depth of 1/8 in. The primary cause of cracking was the creation of high tensile stresses associated with the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the filler metal and the base metal during operation of the vessel in a thermally cyclic environment. This failure mechanism could be described as creep-type fatigue, whereby crack propagation may have been aided by the presence of brittle chromium carbides along the grain boundaries, which indicates a slightly sensitized microstructure.

  5. METHOD OF MAKING DELTA ZIRCONIUM HYDRIDE MONOLITHIC MODERATOR PIECES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vetrano, J.B.

    1962-01-23

    A method is given for preparing large, sound bodies of delta zirconium hydride. The method includes the steps of heating a zirconium body to a temperature of not less than l000 deg C, providing a hydrogen atmosphere for the zirconium body at a pressure not greater than one atmosphere, reducing the temperature slowly to 800 deg C at such a rate that cracks do not form while maintaining the hydrogen pressure substantially constant, and cooling in an atmosphere of hydrogen. (AEC)

  6. Kinetics of hydride front in Zircaloy-2 and H release from a fractional hydrided surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, M.; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, A.; Moya, J. S.; Remartinez, B.; Perez, S.; Sacedon, J. L.

    2009-07-15

    The authors study the hydriding process on commercial nuclear fuel claddings from their inner surface using an ultrahigh vacuum method. The method allows determining the incubation and failure times of the fuel claddings, as well as the dissipated energy and the partial pressure of the desorbed H{sub 2} from the outer surface of fuel claddings during the hydriding process. The correlation between the hydriding dissipated energy and the amount of zirconium hydride (formed at different stages of the hydriding process) leads to a near t{sup 1/2} potential law corresponding to the time scaling of the reaction for the majority of the tested samples. The calibrated relation between energy and hydride thickness allows one to calculate the enthalpy of the {delta}-ZrH{sub 1.5} phase. The measured H{sub 2} desorption from the external surface is in agreement with a proposed kinetic desorption model from the hydrides precipitated at the surface.

  7. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S.; Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  8. Steric Effect for Proton, Hydrogen-Atom, andHydride Transfer Reactions with Geometric Isomers of NADH-Model Ruthenium Complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita E.; Cohen, B.W.; Polyansky, D.E.; Achord, P.; Cabelli, D.; Muckerman, J.T.; Tanaka, K.; Thummel, R.P.; Zong, R.

    2012-01-01

    Two isomers, [Ru(1)]{sup 2+} (Ru = Ru(bpy){sub 2}, bpy = 2,2{prime}-bipyridine, 1 = 2-(pyrid-2{prime}-yl)-1-azaacridine) and [Ru(2)]{sup 2+} (2 = 3-(pyrid-2{prime}-yl)-4-azaacridine), are bio-inspired model compounds containing the nicotinamide functionality and can serve as precursors for the photogeneration of C-H hydrides for studying reactions pertinent to the photochemical reduction of metal-C{sub 1} complexes and/or carbon dioxide. While it has been shown that the structural differences between the azaacridine ligands of [Ru(1)]{sup 2+} and [Ru(2)]{sup 2+} have a significant effect on the mechanism of formation of the hydride donors, [Ru(1HH)]{sup 2+} and [Ru(2HH)]{sup 2+}, in aqueous solution, we describe the steric implications for proton, net-hydrogen-atom and net-hydride transfer reactions in this work. Protonation of [Ru(2{sup {sm_bullet}-})]{sup +} in aprotic and even protic media is slow compared to that of [Ru(1{sup {sm_bullet}-})]{sup +}. The net hydrogen-atom transfer between *[Ru(1)]{sup 2+} and hydroquinone (H{sub 2}Q) proceeds by one-step EPT, rather than stepwise electron-proton transfer. Such a reaction was not observed for *[Ru(2)]{sup 2+} because the non-coordinated N atom is not easily available for an interaction with H{sub 2}Q. Finally, the rate of the net hydride ion transfer from [Ru(1HH)]{sup 2+} to [Ph{sub 3}C]{sup +} is significantly slower than that of [Ru(2HH)]{sup 2+} owing to steric congestion at the donor site.

  9. Hydrogen-storing hydride complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Niemann, Michael U.; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias K.

    2012-04-10

    A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

  10. Regeneration of Aluminum Hydride - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regeneration of Aluminum Hydride Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Regeneration of Lithium Aluminum Hydride (919 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Alane is one of the most promising solutions to storing hydrogen for use in hydrogen fuel cells. This technology provides exceptional improvement in solving the difficult problem of economically preparing the material. Description Describes methods and materials required for the

  11. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duerksen, Walter K.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  12. Porous metallic bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.

    1984-03-13

    Porous metallic bodies having a substantially uniform pore size of less than about 200 microns and a density of less than about 25 percent theoretical, as well as the method for making them, are disclosed. Group IIA, IIIB, IVB, VB, and rare earth metal hydrides a

  13. Method to determine the position-dependant metal correction factor for dose-rate equivalent laser testing of semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horn, Kevin M.

    2013-07-09

    A method reconstructs the charge collection from regions beneath opaque metallization of a semiconductor device, as determined from focused laser charge collection response images, and thereby derives a dose-rate dependent correction factor for subsequent broad-area, dose-rate equivalent, laser measurements. The position- and dose-rate dependencies of the charge-collection magnitude of the device are determined empirically and can be combined with a digital reconstruction methodology to derive an accurate metal-correction factor that permits subsequent absolute dose-rate response measurements to be derived from laser measurements alone. Broad-area laser dose-rate testing can thereby be used to accurately determine the peak transient current, dose-rate response of semiconductor devices to penetrating electron, gamma- and x-ray irradiation.

  14. Fast, Quantitative, and Nondestructive Evaluation on Hydrided LWR Fuel Cladding by Small Angle Incoherent Neutron Scattering of Hydrogen

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Littrell, Ken; Parish, Chad M

    2015-01-01

    A non-destructive neutron scattering method to precisely measure the uptake of hydrogen and the distribution of hydride precipitates in light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding was developed. Zircaloy-4 cladding used in commercial LWRs was used to produce hydrided specimens. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zr alloy specimens and hydrogen gas. Following hydrogen charging, the hydrogen content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method, by which the samples with desired hydrogen concentration were selected for the neutron study. Optical microscopy shows that our hydriding procedure results in uniform distributionmore » of circumferential hydrides across the wall. Small angle neutron incoherent scattering was performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Our study demonstrates that the hydrogen in commercial Zircaloy-4 cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes by this nondestructive method over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations from a very small amount ( 20 ppm) to over 1000 ppm. The hydrogen distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor determined by a calibration process using standard, destructive direct chemical analysis methods on the specimens. This scale factor can be used in future tests with unknown hydrogen concentrations, thus providing a nondestructive method for absolute hydrogen concentration determination.« less

  15. Fast, Quantitative, and Nondestructive Evaluation on Hydrided LWR Fuel Cladding by Small Angle Incoherent Neutron Scattering of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Yong; Qian, Shuo; Littrell, Ken; Parish, Chad M; Plummer, Lee K

    2015-01-01

    A non-destructive neutron scattering method to precisely measure the uptake of hydrogen and the distribution of hydride precipitates in light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding was developed. Zircaloy-4 cladding used in commercial LWRs was used to produce hydrided specimens. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zr alloy specimens and hydrogen gas. Following hydrogen charging, the hydrogen content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method, by which the samples with desired hydrogen concentration were selected for the neutron study. Optical microscopy shows that our hydriding procedure results in uniform distribution of circumferential hydrides across the wall. Small angle neutron incoherent scattering was performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Our study demonstrates that the hydrogen in commercial Zircaloy-4 cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes by this nondestructive method over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations from a very small amount ( 20 ppm) to over 1000 ppm. The hydrogen distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor determined by a calibration process using standard, destructive direct chemical analysis methods on the specimens. This scale factor can be used in future tests with unknown hydrogen concentrations, thus providing a nondestructive method for absolute hydrogen concentration determination.

  16. Ductility Evaluation of As-Hydrided and Hydride Reoriented Zircaloy-4 Cladding under Simulated Dry-Storage Condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Yong; Plummer, Lee K; Ray, Holly B; Cook, Tyler S; Bilheux, Hassina Z

    2014-01-01

    Pre-storage drying-transfer operations and early stage storage expose cladding to higher temperatures and much higher pressure-induced tensile hoop stresses relative to normal operation in-reactor and pool storage under these conditions. Radial hydrides could precipitate during slow cooling and provide an additional embrittlement mechanism as the cladding temperature decreases below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. As a means of simulating this behavior, unirradiated hydrided Zircaloy-4 samples were fabricated by a gas charging method to levels that encompass the range of hydrogen concentrations observed in current used fuel. Mechanical testing was carried out by the ring compression test (RCT) method at various temperatures to evaluate the sample s ductility for both as-hydrided and post-hydride reorientation treated specimens. As-hydrided samples with higher hydrogen concentration (>800 ppm) resulted in lower strain before fracture and reduced maximum load. Increasing RCT temperatures resulted in increased ductility of the as-hydrided cladding. A systematic radial hydride treatment was conducted at various pressures and temperatures for the hydrided samples with H content around 200 ppm. Following the radial hydride treatment, RCTs on the hydride reoriented samples were conducted and exhibited lower ductility compared to as-hydrided samples.

  17. Loading-rate-independent delay of catastrophic avalanches in a bulk metallic glass

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, S. H.; Chan, K. C.; Wang, G.; Wu, F. F.; Xia, L.; Ren, J. L.; Li, J.; Dahmen, K. A.; Liaw, P. K.

    2016-02-25

    The plastic flow of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is characterized by intermittent bursts of avalanches, and this trend results in disastrous failures of BMGs. In the present work, a double-side-notched BMG specimen is designed, which exhibits chaotic plastic flows consisting of several catastrophic avalanches under the applied loading. The disastrous shear avalanches have, then, been delayed by forming a stable plastic-flow stage in the specimens with tailored distances between the bottoms of the notches, where the distribution of a complex stress field is acquired. Differing from the conventional compressive testing results, such a delaying process is independent of loading rate.more » The statistical analysis shows that in the specimens with delayed catastrophic failures, the plastic flow can evolve to a critical dynamics, making the catastrophic failure more predictable than the ones with chaotic plastic flows. Lastly, the findings are of significance in understanding the plastic-flow mechanisms in BMGs and controlling the avalanches in relating solids.« less

  18. Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Cordes; A. Donaldson

    2000-09-01

    The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.

  19. Regeneration of aluminum hydride - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    268,288 Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Find More Like This Return to Search Regeneration of aluminum hydride United

  20. The Role of Impurities in the Complex Hydrides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Predicted hydride destablization as a function of particle size, using the Wulff construction Kim, et al., Nanotechnology, 20, 204001 (2009) Benefits of Nanoconfinement * Improves ...

  1. Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    into Moose-Bison and Validation Strategy Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into Moose-Bison and Validation Strategy This report documents the ...

  2. Complex Hydrides-A New Frontier for Future Energy Applications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    physics and chemistry of complex hydrides, X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron microscopy, and first-principles...

  3. Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (HFIR). Irradiation of the capsules was conducted for post-irradiation examination (PIE) metallography. PDF icon Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR...

  4. A New Process for Hot Metal Production at Low Fuel Rate - Phase 1 Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Wei-Kao Lu

    2006-02-01

    The project is part of the continuing effort by the North American steel industry to develop a coal-based, cokeless process for hot metal production. The objective of Phase 1 is to determine the feasibility of designing and constructing a pilot scale facility with the capacity of 42,000 mtpy of direct reduced iron (DRI) with 95% metallization. The primary effort is performed by Bricmont, Inc., an international engineering firm, under the supervision of McMaster University. The study focused on the Paired Straight Hearth furnace concept developed previously by McMaster University, The American Iron and Steel Institute and the US Department of Energy.

  5. Method of making crack-free zirconium hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Richard W.

    1980-01-01

    Crack-free hydrides of zirconium and zirconium-uranium alloys are produced by alloying the zirconium or zirconium-uranium alloy with beryllium, or nickel, or beryllium and scandium, or nickel and scandium, or beryllium and nickel, or beryllium, nickel and scandium and thereafter hydriding.

  6. Sub-Nanostructured Non Transition Metal Complex Grids for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Orhan Talu; Dr. Surendra N. Tewari

    2007-10-27

    This project involved growing sub-nanostructured metal grids to increase dynamic hydrogen storage capacity of metal hydride systems. The nano particles of any material have unique properties unlike its bulk form. Nano-structuring metal hydride materials can result in: {sm_bullet}Increased hydrogen molecule dissociation rate, {sm_bullet} Increased hydrogen atom transport rate, {sm_bullet} Decreased decrepitation caused by cycling, {sm_bullet} Increased energy transfer in the metal matrix, {sm_bullet} Possible additional contribution by physical adsorption, and {sm_bullet} Possible additional contribution by quantum effects The project succeeded in making nano-structured palladium using electrochemical growth in templates including zeolites, mesoporous silica, polycarbonate films and anodized alumina. Other metals were used to fine-tune the synthesis procedures. Palladium was chosen to demonstrate the effects of nano-structuring since its bulk hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics are well known. Reduced project funding was not sufficient for complete characterization of these materials for hydrogen storage application. The project team intends to seek further funding in the future to complete the characterization of these materials for hydrogen storage.

  7. Highly Concentrated Palladium Hydrides/Deuterides; Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papaconstantopoulos, Dimitrios

    2013-11-26

    Accomplishments are reported in these areas: tight-binding molecular dynamics study of palladium; First-principles calculations and tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations of the palladium-hydrogen system; tight-binding studies of bulk properties and hydrogen vacancies in KBH{sub 4}; tight-binding study of boron structures; development of angular dependent potentials for Pd-H; and density functional and tight-binding calculations for the light-hydrides NaAlH4 and NaBH4

  8. Complex Hydride Compounds with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosher, Daniel A.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Tang, Xia; Laube, Bruce L.; Brown, Ronald J.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Anton, Donald L.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Berseth, Polly

    2008-02-18

    The United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), in collaboration with major partners Albemarle Corporation (Albemarle) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), conducted research to discover new hydride materials for the storage of hydrogen having on-board reversibility and a target gravimetric capacity of ≥ 7.5 weight percent (wt %). When integrated into a system with a reasonable efficiency of 60% (mass of hydride / total mass), this target material would produce a system gravimetric capacity of ≥ 4.5 wt %, consistent with the DOE 2007 target. The approach established for the project combined first principles modeling (FPM - UTRC) with multiple synthesis methods: Solid State Processing (SSP - UTRC), Solution Based Processing (SBP - Albemarle) and Molten State Processing (MSP - SRNL). In the search for novel compounds, each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages; by combining them, the potential for success was increased. During the project, UTRC refined its FPM framework which includes ground state (0 Kelvin) structural determinations, elevated temperature thermodynamic predictions and thermodynamic / phase diagram calculations. This modeling was used both to precede synthesis in a virtual search for new compounds and after initial synthesis to examine reaction details and options for modifications including co-reactant additions. The SSP synthesis method involved high energy ball milling which was simple, efficient for small batches and has proven effective for other storage material compositions. The SBP method produced very homogeneous chemical reactions, some of which cannot be performed via solid state routes, and would be the preferred approach for large scale production. The MSP technique is similar to the SSP method, but involves higher temperature and hydrogen pressure conditions to achieve greater species mobility. During the initial phases of the project, the focus was on higher order alanate complexes in the phase space between alkaline metal hydrides (AmH), Alkaline earth metal hydrides (AeH2), alane (AlH3), transition metal (Tm) hydrides (TmHz, where z=1-3) and molecular hydrogen (H2). The effort started first with variations of known alanates and subsequently extended the search to unknown compounds. In this stage, the FPM techniques were developed and validated on known alanate materials such as NaAlH4 and Na2LiAlH6. The coupled predictive methodologies were used to survey over 200 proposed phases in six quaternary spaces, formed from various combinations of Na, Li Mg and/or Ti with Al and H. A wide range of alanate compounds was examined using SSP having additions of Ti, Cr, Co, Ni and Fe. A number of compositions and reaction paths were identified having H weight fractions up to 5.6 wt %, but none meeting the 7.5 wt%H reversible goal. Similarly, MSP of alanates produced a number of interesting compounds and general conclusions regarding reaction behavior of mixtures during processing, but no alanate based candidates meeting the 7.5 wt% goal. A novel alanate, LiMg(AlH4)3, was synthesized using SBP that demonstrated a 7.0 wt% capacity with a desorption temperature of 150°C. The deuteride form was synthesized and characterized by the Institute for Energy (IFE) in Norway to determine its crystalline structure for related FPM studies. However, the reaction exhibited exothermicity and therefore was not reversible under acceptable hydrogen gas pressures for on-board recharging. After the extensive studies of alanates, the material class of emphasis was shifted to borohydrides. Through SBP, several ligand-stabilized Mg(BH4)2 complexes were synthesized. The Mg(BH4)2*2NH3 complex was found to change behavior with slightly different synthesis conditions and/or aging. One of the two mechanisms was an amine-borane (NH3BH3) like dissociation reaction which released up to 16 wt %H and more conservatively 9 wt%H when not including H2 released from the NH3. From FPM, the stability of the Mg(BH4)2*2NH3 compound was found to increase with the inclusion of NH3 groups in the inner-Mg coordination sphere, which in turn correlated with lowering the dimensionality of the Mg(BH4)2 network. Development of various Ak Tm-B-H compounds using SSP produced up to 12 wt% of H2 desorbed at temperatures of 400°C. However, the most active material can only be partially recharged to 2 wt% H2 at 220-300°C and 195 bar H2 pressure due to stable product formation. While gravimetric & volumetric targets are feasible, reversibility remains a persistent challenge.

  9. Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis C. Kunerth

    2014-09-01

    This report fulfills the M4 milestone, M4FT-14IN0805023, Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides, under Work Package Number FT-14IN080502. During service, zirconium alloy fuel cladding will degrade via corrosion/oxidation. Hydrogen, a byproduct of the oxidation process, will be absorbed into the cladding and eventually form hydrides due to low hydrogen solubility limits. The hydride phase is detrimental to the mechanical properties of the cladding and therefore it is important to be able to detect and characterize the presence of this constituent within the cladding. Presently, hydrides are evaluated using destructive examination. If nondestructive evaluation techniques can be used to detect and characterize the hydrides, the potential exists to significantly increase test sample coverage while reducing evaluation time and cost. To demonstrate the viability this approach, an initial evaluation of eddy current and ultrasonic techniques were performed to demonstrate the basic ability to these techniques to detect hydrides or their effects on the microstructure. Conventional continuous wave eddy current techniques were applied to zirconium based cladding test samples thermally processed with hydrogen gas to promote the absorption of hydrogen and subsequent formation of hydrides. The results of the evaluation demonstrate that eddy current inspection approaches have the potential to detect both the physical damage induced by hydrides, e.g. blisters and cracking, as well as the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates on the electrical properties of the zirconium alloy. Similarly, measurements of ultrasonic wave velocities indicate changes in the elastic properties resulting from the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates as well as changes in geometry in regions of severe degradation. However, for both approaches, the signal responses intended to make the desired measurement incorporate a number of contributing parameters. These contributing factors need to be recognized and a means to control them or separate their contributions will be required to obtain the desired information.

  10. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.E.

    2005-07-15

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains on internal 'U-tube' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds.IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95% confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory.Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM.Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests.

  11. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KLEIN, JAMES

    2004-10-12

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains an internal ''U-tube'' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds. IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95 percent confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory. Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM. Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests.

  12. Method to predict relative hydriding within a group of zirconium alloys under nuclear irradiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Levy, I.S.; Trimble, D.J.; Lanning, D.D.; Gerber, F.S.

    1990-04-10

    An out-of-reactor method for screening to predict relative in-reactor hydriding behavior of zirconium-based materials is disclosed. Samples of zirconium-based materials having different compositions and/or fabrication methods are autoclaved in a relatively concentrated (0.3 to 1.0M) aqueous lithium hydroxide solution at constant temperatures within the water reactor coolant temperature range (280 to 316 C). Samples tested by this out-of-reactor procedure, when compared on the basis of the ratio of hydrogen weight gain to oxide weight gain, accurately predict the relative rate of hydriding for the same materials when subject to in-reactor (irradiated) corrosion. 1 figure.

  13. Electronic structure and crystal phase stability of palladium hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houari, Abdesalem; Matar, Samir F.; Eyert, Volker

    2014-11-07

    The results of electronic structure calculations for a variety of palladium hydrides are presented. The calculations are based on density functional theory and used different local and semilocal approximations. The thermodynamic stability of all structures as well as the electronic and chemical bonding properties are addressed. For the monohydride, taking into account the zero-point energy is important to identify the octahedral Pd-H arrangement with its larger voids and, hence, softer hydrogen vibrational modes as favorable over the tetrahedral arrangement as found in the zincblende and wurtzite structures. Stabilization of the rocksalt structure is due to strong bonding of the 4d and 1s orbitals, which form a characteristic split-off band separated from the main d-band group. Increased filling of the formerly pure d states of the metal causes strong reduction of the density of states at the Fermi energy, which undermines possible long-range ferromagnetic order otherwise favored by strong magnetovolume effects. For the dihydride, octahedral Pd-H arrangement as realized, e.g., in the pyrite structure turns out to be unstable against tetrahedral arrangement as found in the fluorite structure. Yet, from both heat of formation and chemical bonding considerations, the dihydride turns out to be less favorable than the monohydride. Finally, the vacancy ordered defect phase Pd{sub 3}H{sub 4} follows the general trend of favoring the octahedral arrangement of the rocksalt structure for Pd:H ratios less or equal to one.

  14. Electronic structure of metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oelhafen, P.; Lapka, R.; Gubler, U.; Krieg, J.; DasGupta, A.; Guentherodt, H.J.; Mizoguchi, T.; Hague, C.; Kuebler, J.; Nagel, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is organized in six sections and deals with (1) the glassy transition metal alloys, their d-band structure, the d-band shifts on alloying and their relation to the alloy heat of formation (..delta..H) and the glass forming ability, (2) the glass to crystal phase transition viewed by valence band spectroscopy, (3) band structure calculations, (4) metallic glasses prepared by laser glazing, (5) glassy normal metal alloys, and (6) glassy hydrides.

  15. Designation of Sites for Remedial Action - Metal Hydrides, Beverly...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    This approach was used for some of the contamination at Gilman Hall, Berkeley, California, and the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. However, there may be other areas of ...

  16. Proposed Virtual Center for Excellence for Metal Hydride Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC.

  17. Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Materials from Project A: Destabilized Materials ... Hoff average) and theory values (blue line). ......Advanced transmission electron microscopy ...

  18. Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    R&D Program Investments | Department of Energy presents the findings from a retrospective economic analysis of technology development supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) in DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The purpose of this study is to estimate the "public" return on investment (EERE GTP's return on investment to the nation) by comparing historical economic activity with GTP's investment to

  19. Two plateaux for palladium hydride and the effect of helium from tritium decay on the desorption plateau pressure for palladium tritide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, R.T.; Lee, M.W. )

    1991-10-01

    Two plateaux are observed in the desorption isotherm for palladium hydride: a lower plateau pressure for a hydrogen/metal atom ratio (H/M) less than about 0.3 and a slightly higher plateau pressure for H/M greater than about 0.3. This higher pressure corresponds to the reported pressure for palladium hydride. These observations were made for a large surface area palladium powder exposed to both protium and tritium. Helium buildup form tritium decay decreases the lower plateau pressure but does not affect the observations for H/M greater than about 0.3. In this paper, a multiple-energy hydrogen site occupancy model is proposed to explain qualitatively both the dual plateau and the helium effect in palladium hydride.

  20. Mechanistic study of the isotopic-exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and palladium hydride powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Outka, D.A.; Foltz, G.W. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA))

    1991-07-01

    A detailed mechanism for the isotopic-exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and solid palladium hydride is developed which extends previous model for this reaction by specifically including surface reactions. The modeling indicates that there are two surface-related processes that contribute to the overall rate of exchange: the desorption of hydrogen from the surface and the exchange between surface hydrogen and bulk hydrogen. This conclusion is based upon measurements examining the effect of small concentrations of carbon monoxide were helpful in elucidating the mechanism. Carbon monoxide reversibly inhibits certain steps in the exchange; this slows the overall rate of exchange and changes the distribution of products from the reactor.

  1. Effects of outgassing of loader chamber walls on hydriding of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    gas pressure. Complete process data for (1) a copper-(1.83 wt. %)beryllium wet hydrogen fired passivated (600 C-1 h) externally heated pipe hydriding chamber are reported....

  2. Nonaqueous actinide hydride dissolution and production of actinide $beta$- diketonates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crisler, L.R.

    1975-11-11

    Actinide beta-diketonate complex molecular compounds are produced by reacting a beta-diketone compound with a hydride of the actinide material in a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and methanol. (auth)

  3. STANFORD IN-SITU HIGH RATE YBCO PROCESS: TRANSFER TO METAL TAPES AND PROCESS SCALE UP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm R. Beasley; Robert H.Hammond

    2009-04-14

    Executive Summary The materials science understanding of high rate low cost processes for Coated Conductor will benefit the application to power utilities for low loss energy transportation and power generation as well for DOD applications. The research in this program investigated several materials processing approaches that are new and original, and are not being investigated elsewhere. This work added to the understanding of the material science of high rate PVD growth of HTSC YBCO assisted by a liquid phase. A new process discovered uses amorphous glassy precursors which can be made at high rate under flexible conditions of temperature and oxygen, and later brought to conditions of oxygen partial pressure and temperature for rapid conversion to YBCO superconductor. Good critical current densities were found, but further effort is needed to optimize the vortex pinning using known artificial inclusions. A new discovery of the physics and materials science of vortex pinning in the HTSC system using Sm in place of Y came at growth at unusually low oxygen pressure resulting in clusters of a low or non superconducting phase within the nominal high temperature phase. The driving force for this during growth is new physics, perhaps due to the low oxygen. This has the potential for high current in large magnetic fields at low cost, applicable to motors, generators and transformers. The technical demands of this project were the motivation for the development of instrumentation that could be essential to eventual process scale up. These include atomic absorption based on tunable diode lasers for remote monitoring and control of evaporation sources (developed under DARPA support), and the utility of Fourier Transform Infrared Reflectivity (FTIR) for aid in the synthesis of complex thin film materials (purchased by a DURIP-AFOSR grant).

  4. Method and apparatus for regenerating cold traps within liquid-metal systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Jr., John M.

    1976-01-01

    Oxide and hydride impurities of a liquid metal such as sodium are removed from a cold trap by heating to a temperature at which the metal hydroxide is stable in a molten state. The partial pressure of hydrogen within the system is measured to determine if excess hydride or oxide is present. Excess hydride is removed by venting hydrogen gas while excess oxide can be converted to molten hydroxide through the addition of hydrogen. The resulting, molten hydroxide is drained from the trap which is then returned to service at cold trap temperatures within the liquid-metal system.

  5. Method of selective reduction of polyhalosilanes with alkyltin hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, Kenneth G.; D'Errico, John J.

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to the selective and stepwise reduction of polyhalosilanes by reacting at room temperature or below with alkyltin hydrides without the use of free radical intermediates. Alkyltin hydrides selectively and stepwise reduce the Si--Br, Si--Cl, or Si--I bonds while leaving intact any Si--F bonds. When two or more different halogens are present on the polyhalosilane, the halogen with the highest atomic weight is preferentially reduced.

  6. Method of selective reduction of halodisilanes with alkyltin hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Errico, John J.; Sharp, Kenneth G.

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to the selective and sequential reduction of halodisilanes by reacting these compounds at room temperature or below with trialkyltin hydrides or dialkyltin dihydrides without the use of free radical intermediates. The alkyltin hydrides selectively and sequentially reduce the Si-Cl, Si-Br or Si-I bonds while leaving intact the Si-Si and Si-F bonds present.

  7. High-nitrogen-metal complexes as burning-rate modifiers for the aluminum-water propellant system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tappan, Bryce C; Mason, Benjamin A

    2009-01-01

    The reactions of electropositive metals, such as aluminum, with water have long been utilized in explosive and propellant formulations, but until recently this has mostly been limited to the water formed as a product gas from the decomposition of another energetic system . Recently, however, with the increased availability of nano-particulate materials, the direct reaction of nano-aluminum (nAl) with water as an oxidizer has been investigated as a propellant system due to high reaction temperatures and the production of hydrogen as the primary gaseous species. This system could be useful for intra-planetary travel where non-terrestrial water is harvested for the oxidizer. Here we present the study of nAl, mixed at a stoichiometric ratio with water ({Phi} = 1) with the highly water soluble metal complexes of bis(tetrazolato)amine (BTA) added at 5, 15,30 and 50 wt% in the case of FeBTA and 5 and 15 wt% in the case of NiBTA and CoBTA. The basic structure of the BTA complexes is shown below where M = Fe, Ni or Co, and x = 3 for Fe and Co and x = 2 for Ni. The particle size of nAl studied was primarily 38 nm with various studies with the particle size of 80 nm. The FeBT A at a loading of 15 wt% gave the highest burning rate enhancement (4.6x at {approx}6.8 MPa), while retaining a low pressure exponent (0.21 compared to 0.24 for nA/H{sub 2}O). At 15 wt% the Ni and Co increased the burning rate, but also increased the pressure exponents. The burning rate of the FeBTA modified material with 80 nm Al decreased as the weight percent of FeBTA was increased, which also tracked decrease in the calculated specific impulse of the mixtures.

  8. Optimization of Hydride Rim Formation in Unirradiated Zr 4 Cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Hanson, Brady D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of this work is to build on the results reported in the M2 milestone M2FT 13PN0805051, document number FCRD-USED-2013-000151 (Hanson, 2013). In that work, it was demonstrated that unirradiated samples of zircaloy-4 cladding could be pre-hydrided at temperatures below 400°C in pure hydrogen gas and that the growth of hydrides on the surface could be controlled by changing the surface condition of the samples and form a desired hydride rim on the outside diameter of the cladding. The work performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory since the issuing of the M2 milestone has focused its efforts to optimize the formation of a hydride rim on available zircaloy-4 cladding samples by controlling temperature variation and gas flow control during pre-hydriding treatments. Surface conditioning of the outside surface was also examined as a variable. The results of test indicate that much of the variability in the hydride thickness is due to temperature variation occurring in the furnaces as well as how hydrogen gas flows across the sample surface. Efforts to examine other alloys, gas concentrations, and different surface conditioning plan to be pursed in the next FY as more cladding samples become available

  9. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  10. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  11. THERMAL ENHANCEMENT CARTRIDGE HEATER MODIFIED TECH MOD TRITIUM HYDRIDE BED DEVELOPMENT PART I DESIGN AND FABRICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Estochen, E.

    2014-03-06

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1{sup st} generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and 3{sup rd} generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen 3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed.

  12. THE EFFECT OF 3HE ON LOW PRESSURE HYDRIDE ABSORPTION MEASUREMENTS WITH TRITIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staack, G.; Klein, J.

    2011-01-20

    Absorption isotherm data exists for a wide variety of hydrogen-metal systems. When working with high purity gases, appropriately sized equipment, and hydrides with equilibrium pressures above several hundred Pa, data collection is relatively straightforward. Special consideration must be given to experiments involving low equilibrium pressure hydrides, as even sub-ppm levels of gas impurities can generate partial pressures many times greater than the equilibrium pressures to be measured. Tritium absorption experiments are further complicated by the continuous generation of helium-3. The time required to transfer and absorb a known quantity of tritium onto a sample ultimately limits the minimum pressure range that can be studied using the standard technique. Equations are presented which show the pressure of helium-3 in a sample cell based on the amount of tritium to be absorbed, the sample cell volume and temperature, and the decay time of tritium. Sample calculations for zirconium show that at 300 C, the estimated helium-3 pressure in the cell will be equal to the hydrogen absorption pressure after only milliseconds of tritium decay. An alternate method is presented that permits the collection of equilibrium data at pressures orders of magnitude lower than possible using a direct approach.

  13. A Novel Zr-1Nb Alloy and a New Look at Hydriding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert D. Mariani; James I. Cole; Assel Aitkaliyeva

    2013-09-01

    A novel Zr-1Nb has begun development based on a working model that takes into account the hydrogen permeabilities for zirconium and niobium metals. The beta-Nb secondary phase particles (SPPs) in Zr-1Nb are believed to promote more rapid hydrogen dynamics in the alloy in comparison to other zirconium alloys. Furthermore, some hydrogen release is expected at the lower temperatures corresponding to outages when the partial pressure of H2 in the coolant is less. These characteristics lessen the negative synergism between corrosion and hydriding that is otherwise observed in cladding alloys without niobium. In accord with the working model, development of nanoscale precursors was initiated to enhance the performance of existing Zr-1Nb alloys. Their characteristics and properties can be compared to oxide-dispersion strengthened alloys, and material additions have been proposed to zirconium-based LWR cladding to guard further against hydriding and to fix the size of the SPPs for microstructure stability enhancements. A preparative route is being investigated that does not require mechanical alloying, and 10 nanometer molybdenum particles have been prepared which are part of the nanoscale precursors. If successful, the approach has implications for long term dry storage of used fuel and for new routes to nanoferritic and ODS alloys.

  14. Facile synthesis of Ba1-xKxFe?As? superconductors via hydride route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaikina, Julia V. [Univ. of California at Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Batuk, Maria [Univ. of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Abakumov, Artem M. [Univ. of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Navrotsky, Alexandra [Univ. of California at Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Kauzlarich, Susan M. [Univ. of California at Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-03

    We have developed a fast, easy, and scalable synthesis method for Ba1-xKxFe?As? (0 ? x ? 1) superconductors using hydrides BaH? and KH as a source of barium and potassium metals. Synthesis from hydrides provides better mixing and easier handling of the starting materials, consequently leading to faster reactions and/or lower synthesis temperatures. The reducing atmosphere provided by the evolved hydrogen facilitates preparation of oxygen-free powders. By a combination of methods we have shown that Ba1-xKxFe?As? obtained via hydride route has the same characteristics as when it is prepared by traditional solid-state synthesis. Refinement from synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data confirms a linear dependence of unit cell parameters upon K content as well as the tetragonal to orthorhombic transition at low temperatures for compositions with x < 0.2. Magnetic measurements revealed dome-like dependence of superconducting transition temperature Tc upon K content with a maximum of 38 K for x close to 0.4. Electron diffraction and high-resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy indicates an absence of Ba/K ordering, while local inhomogeneity in the Ba/K distribution takes place at a scale of several angstroms along [110] crystallographic direction.

  15. The anti-perovskite type hydride InPd{sub 3}H{sub 0.89}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohlmann, H.; Skripov, A.V.; Soloninin, A.V.; Udovic, T.J.

    2010-10-15

    Hydrogenation of tetragonal InPd{sub 3} in the ZrAl{sub 3} type structure (four-fold ccp superstructure) yields a hydride with a cubic AuCu{sub 3} type structure (one-fold ccp superstructure). Deuterium can be located by neutron powder diffraction in octahedral voids surrounded exclusively by palladium, [Pd{sub 6}], which are 88.5(6)% occupied in a statistical manner. The resulting deuteride InPd{sub 3}D{sub 0.89} thus crystallizes in a cubic anti-perovskite type structure (space group Pm3-bar m (no. 221), a=402.25(1) pm at 299(2) K). The Pd-D distance of 201.13(1) pm is typical for interstitial hydrides with palladium. Inelastic neutron scattering on the hydride InPd{sub 3}H{sub 0.89}, which shows a spectrum similar to that of binary palladium hydride, confirms the cubic site symmetry of hydrogen in [Pd{sub 6}] interstices. This is also confirmed by the absence of any quadrupole splitting in the {sup 2}D-NMR signal of the deuteride. {sup 1}H NMR spectra of InPd{sub 3}H{sub 0.89} do not show any motional narrowing. Values found for the H jump rate {tau}{sup -1} in InPd{sub 3}H{sub 0.89} remain below 10{sup 6} s{sup -1} in the studied temperature range 28-360 K, indicating a small hydrogen mobility in InPd{sub 3}H{sub 0.8} as compared with binary palladium hydride, PdH{sub {<=}1}. This can be attributed to the large spatial separation of the [Pd{sub 6}] sites. - Graphical abstract: Hydrogen induces a rearrangement in InPd{sub 3} from a ZrAl{sub 3} type structure to a cubic AuCu{sub 3} type structure, thus forming an anti-perovskite type hydride InPd{sub 3}H{sub 0.89}.

  16. Plasma deposition of amorphous metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hays, Auda K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    Amorphous metal alloy coatings are plasma-deposited by dissociation of vapors of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides in the presence of a reducing gas, using a glow discharge. Tetracarbonylnickel, phosphine, and hydrogen constitute a typical reaction mixture of the invention, yielding a NiPC alloy.

  17. Plasma deposition of amorphous metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hays, A.K.

    1979-07-18

    Amorphous metal alloy coatings are plasma-deposited by dissociation of vapors of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides in the presence of a reducing gas, using a glow discharge. Tetracarbonylnickel, phosphine, and hydrogen constitute a typical reaction mixture of the invention, yielding a NiPC alloy.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FOR THE ISOTOPIC EXCHANGE OF A 1600 LITER TITANIUM HYDRIDE STORAGE VESSEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.

    2010-12-14

    Titanium is used as a low pressure tritium storage material. The absorption/desorption rates and temperature rise during air passivation have been reported previously for a 4400 gram prototype titanium hydride storage vessel (HSV). A desorption limit of roughly 0.25 Q/M was obtained when heating to 700 C which represents a significant residual tritium process vessel inventory. To prepare an HSV for disposal, batchwise isotopic exchange has been proposed to reduce the tritium content to acceptable levels. A prototype HSV was loaded with deuterium and exchanged with protium to determine the effectiveness of a batch-wise isotopic exchange process. A total of seven exchange cycles were performed. Gas samples were taken nominally at the beginning, middle, and end of each desorption cycle. Sample analyses showed the isotopic exchange process does not follow the standard dilution model commonly reported. Samples taken at the start of the desorption process were lower in deuterium (the gas to be removed) than those taken later in the desorption cycle. The results are explained in terms of incomplete mixing of the exchange gas in the low pressure hydride.

  19. Rapid hydrogen gas generation using reactive thermal decomposition of uranium hydride.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanouff, Michael P.; Van Blarigan, Peter; Robinson, David B.; Shugard, Andrew D.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Buffleben, George M.; James, Scott Carlton; Mills, Bernice E.

    2011-09-01

    Oxygen gas injection has been studied as one method for rapidly generating hydrogen gas from a uranium hydride storage system. Small scale reactors, 2.9 g UH{sub 3}, were used to study the process experimentally. Complimentary numerical simulations were used to better characterize and understand the strongly coupled chemical and thermal transport processes controlling hydrogen gas liberation. The results indicate that UH{sub 3} and O{sub 2} are sufficiently reactive to enable a well designed system to release gram quantities of hydrogen in {approx} 2 seconds over a broad temperature range. The major system-design challenge appears to be heat management. In addition to the oxidation tests, H/D isotope exchange experiments were performed. The rate limiting step in the overall gas-to-particle exchange process was found to be hydrogen diffusion in the {approx}0.5 {mu}m hydride particles. The experiments generated a set of high quality experimental data; from which effective intra-particle diffusion coefficients can be inferred.

  20. The effect of in-situ noble metal chemical addition on crack growth rate behavior of structural materials in 288 C water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andresen, P.L.; Angeliu, T.

    1996-10-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC), especially in existing boiling water reactor (BVM) components, is most effectively accomplished by reducing the corrosion potential. This was successfully demonstrated by adding hydrogen to BNM water, which reduced oxidant concentration and corrosion potential by recombining with the radiolytically formed oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. However, reduction in the corrosion potential for some vessel internals is difficult, and others require high hydrogen addition rates, which results in an increase in the main steam radiation level from volatile N{sup 16}. Noble metal electrocatalysis provides a unique opportunity to efficiently achieve a dramatic reduction in corrosion potential and SCC in BWRs, by catalytically reacting all oxidants that diffuse to a (catalytic) metal surface with hydrogen. There are many techniques for creating catalytic surfaces, including alloying with noble metals or applying noble metal alloy powders to existing BWR components by thermal spraying or weld cladding. A novel system-wide approach for producing catalytic surfaces on all wetted components has been developed which employs the reactor coolant water as the medium of transport. This approach is termed in-situ noble metal chemical addition (NMCA), and has been successfully used in extensive laboratory tests to coat a wide range of pre-oxidized structural materials. In turn, these specimens have maintained catalytic response in long term, cyclic exposures to extremes in dissolved gases, impurity levels, pH, flow rate, temperature, straining, etc. With stoichiometric excess H{sub 2}, the corrosion potential drops dramatically and crack initiation and growth are greatly reduced, even at high O{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels. Without excess H{sub 2} (i.e., in normal BWR water chemistry), noble metals do not increase the corrosion potential or SCC.

  1. DOE ER63951-3 Final Report: An Integrated Assessment of Geochemical and Community Structure Determinants of Metal Reduction Rates in Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Pfiffner

    2010-06-28

    The objective of this research was to examine the importance of microbial community structure in influencing uranium reduction rates in subsurface sediments. If the redox state alone is the key to metal reduction, then any organisms that can utilize the oxygen and nitrate in the subsurface can change the geochemical conditions so metal reduction becomes an energetically favored reaction. Thus, community structure would not be critical in determining rates or extent of metal reduction unless community structure influenced the rate of change in redox. Alternatively, some microbes may directly catalyze metal reduction (e.g., specifically reduce U). In this case the composition of the community may be more important and specific types of electron donors may promote the production of communities that are more adept at U reduction. Our results helped determine if the type of electron donor or the preexisting community is important in the bioremediation of metal-contaminated environments subjected to biostimulation. In a series of experiments at the DOE FRC site in Oak Ridge we have consistently shown that all substrates promoted nitrate reduction, while glucose, ethanol, and acetate always promoted U reduction. Methanol only occasionally promoted extensive U reduction which is possibly due to community heterogeneity. There appeared to be limitations imposed on the community related to some substrates (e.g. methanol and pyruvate). Membrane lipid analyses (phospholipids and respiratory quinones) indicated different communities depending on electron donor used. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone libraries indicated distinct differences among communities even in treatments that promoted U reduction. Thus, there was enough metabolic diversity to accommodate many different electron donors resulting in the U bioimmobilization.

  2. Light metal explosives and propellants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Lowell L.; Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Nuckolls, John H.; Pagoria, Phillip F.; Viecelli, James A.

    2005-04-05

    Disclosed herein are light metal explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants (LME&Ps) comprising a light metal component such as Li, B, Be or their hydrides or intermetallic compounds and alloys containing them and an oxidizer component containing a classic explosive, such as CL-20, or a non-explosive oxidizer, such as lithium perchlorate, or combinations thereof. LME&P formulations may have light metal particles and oxidizer particles ranging in size from 0.01 .mu.m to 1000 .mu.m.

  3. Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into Moose-Bison

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Validation Strategy | Department of Energy Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into Moose-Bison and Validation Strategy Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into Moose-Bison and Validation Strategy This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride d-ZrH1.5 precipitation in the cladding of used nuclear fuels that may occur during long-term dry

  4. The relationship between stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate for H?-selected galaxies at z ? 0.8 from the NewH? survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes, Mithi A. de los; Ly, Chun; Lee, Janice C.; Peeples, Molly S.; Feddersen, Jesse; Salim, Samir; Momcheva, Ivelina; Dale, Daniel A.; Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Finn, Rose

    2015-02-01

    Using a sample of 299 H?-selected galaxies at z?0.8, we study the relationship between galaxy stellar mass, gas-phase metallicity, and star formation rate (SFR), and compare to previous results. We use deep optical spectra obtained with the IMACS spectrograph at the Magellan telescope to measure strong oxygen lines. We combine these spectra and metallicities with (1) rest-frame UV-to-optical imaging, which allows us to determine stellar masses and dust attenuation corrections, and (2) H? narrowband imaging, which provides a robust measurement of the instantaneous SFR. Our sample spans stellar masses of ?10{sup 9}6 10{sup 11} M{sub ?}, SFRs of 0.4270 M{sub ?} yr{sup ?1}, and metal abundances of 12+log(O/H)?8.39.1 (?0.42.6 Z{sub ?}). The correlations that we find between the H?-based SFR and stellar mass (i.e., the star-forming main sequence) and between the stellar mass and metallicity are both consistent with previous z?1 studies of star-forming galaxies. We then study the relationship between the three properties using various plane-fitting techniques and a curve-fitting projection. In all cases, we exclude strong dependence of the M{sub ?}Z relation on SFR, but are unable to distinguish between moderate and no dependence. Our results are consistent with previous massmetallicitySFR studies. We check whether data set limitations may obscure a strong dependence on the SFR by using mock samples drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These experiments reveal that the adopted signal-to-noise ratio cuts may have a significant effect on the measured dependence. Further work is needed to investigate these results, and to test whether a fundamental metallicity relation or a fundamental plane describes star-forming galaxies across cosmic time.

  5. Method to predict relative hydriding within a group of zirconium alloys under nuclear irradiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jr., A. Burtron; Levy, Ira S.; Trimble, Dennis J.; Lanning, Donald D.; Gerber, Franna S.

    1990-01-01

    An out-of-reactor method for screening to predict relative in-reactor hydriding behavior of zirconium-bsed materials is disclosed. Samples of zirconium-based materials having different composition and/or fabrication are autoclaved in a relatively concentrated (0.3 to 1.0M) aqueous lithium hydroxide solution at constant temperatures within the water reactor coolant temperature range (280.degree. to 316.degree. C.). Samples tested by this out-of-reactor procedure, when compared on the basis of the ratio of hydrogen weight gain to oxide weight gain, accurately predict the relative rate of hyriding for the same materials when subject to in-reactor (irradiated) corrision.

  6. Effect of Accelerated Aging Rate on the Capture of Fuel-Borne Metal Impurities by Emissions Control Devices

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    INTRODUCTION Metallic fuel contaminants such as sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) may be introduced into diesel fuel through a number of different sources. As one example, biodiesel production relies on sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide to catalyze the reaction of vegetable oils with methanol to form methyl esters. In this process, residual amounts of Na or K can be left behind. In addition, small amounts of Ca or Mg can be added to the fuel from the purifcation

  7. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  8. Anisotropic Azimuthal Power and Temperature distribution on FuelRod. Impact on Hydride Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motta, Arthur; Ivanov, Kostadin; Arramova, Maria; Hales, Jason

    2015-04-29

    The degradation of the zirconium cladding may limit nuclear fuel performance. In the high temperature environment of a reactor, the zirconium in the cladding corrodes, releasing hydrogen in the process. Some of this hydrogen is absorbed by the cladding in a highly inhomogeneous manner. The distribution of the absorbed hydrogen is extremely sensitive to temperature and stress concentration gradients. The absorbed hydrogen tends to concentrate near lower temperatures. This hydrogen absorption and hydride formation can cause cladding failure. This project set out to improve the hydrogen distribution prediction capabilities of the BISON fuel performance code. The project was split into two primary sections, first was the use of a high fidelity multi-physics coupling to accurately predict temperature gradients as a function of r, θ , and z, and the second was to use experimental data to create an analytical hydrogen precipitation model. The Penn State version of thermal hydraulics code COBRA-TF (CTF) was successfully coupled to the DeCART neutronics code. This coupled system was verified by testing and validated by comparison to FRAPCON data. The hydrogen diffusion and precipitation experiments successfully calculated the heat of transport and precipitation rate constant values to be used within the hydrogen model in BISON. These values can only be determined experimentally. These values were successfully implemented in precipitation, diffusion and dissolution kernels that were implemented in the BISON code. The coupled output was fed into BISON models and the hydrogen and hydride distributions behaved as expected. Simulations were conducted in the radial, axial and azimuthal directions to showcase the full capabilities of the hydrogen model.

  9. A reduced mechanism for methane and one-step rate expressions for fuel-lean catalytic combustion of small alkanes on noble metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshmukh, S.R.; Vlachos, D.G.

    2007-06-15

    A reduced mechanism and a one-step rate expression for fuel-lean methane/air catalytic combustion on an Rh catalyst are proposed. These are developed from a detailed microkinetic model using a computer-aided model reduction strategy that employs reaction path analysis, sensitivity analysis, partial equilibrium analysis, and simple algebra to deduce the most abundant reaction intermediate and the rate-determining step. The mechanism and the one-step rate expression are then tested on Pt catalyst. It is found that the reaction proceeds effectively via the same mechanistic pathway on both noble metals, but the effective reaction orders differ due to the difference in the adsorption strength of oxygen. Based on the homologous series idea, the rate expression is extended to small alkanes (ethane and propane; butane is also briefly discussed) and is found to reasonably describe experimental data. Estimation of the relevant parameters in the rate expression for various fuels and catalysts using the semiempirical bond-order conservation theory, quantum mechanical density functional theory, and/or simple experiments is discussed. Finally, it is proposed that detailed microkinetic models with coverage-dependent parameters can assist in rationalizing the apparent discrepancies between experimental data from various research groups. (author)

  10. Microstructure and hydriding studies of AB/sub 5/ hydrogen storage compounds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodell, P.D.; Sandrock, G.D.; Huston, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    New data on the microstructure, pressure-composition-temperature, and absorption/desorption kinetics of AB/sub 5/ metal hydrides are presented. The most significant result to emerge from the investigation is that many of the AB/sub 5/ metal hydrides, especially the LaNi/sub 5/ related materials, show instantaneous absorption and desorption response in proportion to the amount of cooling or heating which is provided. Eight categories of materials were studied: reference alloys (LaNi/sub 5/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 9/Al/sub 0/ /sub 1/, LaNi/sub 3/Co/sub 2/); Ni second phase particles (LaNi/sub 5/ /sub 67/, LaNi/sub 7/, LaNi/sub 11/ /sub 3/); eutectoid microstructure (SmCo/sub 5/); other second phases (LaNi/sub 3/ /sub 8/Fe/sub 1/ /sub 2/, LaNi/sub 3/ /sub 5/Cr/sub 1/ /sub 5/, LaNi/sub 4/Cr, LaNi/sub 4/Si; LaNi/sub 4/Sn, MNi/sub 4/Sn, MNi/sub 4/ /sub 3/Al/sub 0/ /sub 7/); substitutional elements (LaNi/sub 4/Cu, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 5/Pd/sub 0/ /sub 5/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 7/Sn/sub 0/ /sub 3/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 8/C/sub 0/ /sub 2/, MNi/sub 4/ /sub 3/Mn/sub 0/ /sub 7/); surface active elements (LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 8/B/sub 0/ /sub 2/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 9/S/sub 0/ /sub 1/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 9/Se/sub 0/ /sub 1/); large diameter atom substitutions (Mg/sub 0/ /sub 1/La/sub 0/ /sub 9/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/La/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Sr/sub 0/ /sub 2/La/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ba/sub 0/ /sub 2/La/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/); other compositions (LaNi/sub 3/); and Pd plating (electroless plated samples and mechanically alloyed specimens).

  11. Chemical Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

    2012-04-16

    Due to its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of 2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions, ammonia borane (AB) is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications in transportation sector. Several systems models for chemical hydride materials such as solid AB, liquid AB and alane were developed and evaluated at PNNL to determine an optimal configuration that would meet the 2010 and future DOE targets for hydrogen storage. This paper presents an overview of those systems models and discusses the simulation results for various transient drive cycle scenarios.

  12. Electrochemical process and production of novel complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2013-06-25

    A process of using an electrochemical cell to generate aluminum hydride (AlH.sub.3) is provided. The electrolytic cell uses a polar solvent to solubilize NaAlH.sub.4. The resulting electrochemical process results in the formation of AlH.sub.3. The AlH.sub.3 can be recovered and used as a source of hydrogen for the automotive industry. The resulting spent aluminum can be regenerated into NaAlH.sub.4 as part of a closed loop process of AlH.sub.3 generation.

  13. Method of generating hydrogen-storing hydride complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Sesha S; Niemann, Michael U; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias K

    2013-05-14

    A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

  14. Metal-to-Insulator Transition in Anatase TiO2 Thin Films Induced by Growth Rate Modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tachikawa, T; Minohara, M.; Nakanishi, Y.; Hikita, Y.; Yoshita, M.; Akiyama, H.; Bell, C.; Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-06-21

    We demonstrate control of the carrier density of single phase anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films by nearly two orders of magnitude by modulating the growth kinetics during pulsed laser deposition, under fixed thermodynamic conditions. The resistivity and the intensity of the photoluminescence spectra of these TiO{sub 2} samples, both of which correlate with the number of oxygen vacancies, are shown to depend strongly on the growth rate. A quantitative model is used to explain the carrier density changes.

  15. Effects of zinc additions on the stress corrosion crack growth rate of sensitized stainless steel, Alloy 600 and Alloy 182 weld metal in 288 C water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andresen, P.L.; Angeliu, T.M.

    1995-09-01

    ZnO additions to boiling water reactor (BWR) water have been the focus of recent interest, primarily because of their beneficial influence in reducing buildup of radioactive species such as Co{sup 60} in the oxide film of structural components, e.g., stainless steel piping. The effect of ZnO additions on stress corrosion crack growth rates were studied using 1T CT fracture mechanics specimens of sensitized type 304 stainless steel, sensitized Alloy 600, and Alloy 182 weld metal exposed to {approx}288 C water containing various levels of dissolved oxygen and impurities. Zn levels of 5 to 100 ppb Zn{sup 2+} were evaluated and found to reduce crack growth rates for all materials and in all water chemistries. Many Zn tests involved long term exposure and were performed at somewhat reduced corrosion potential (e.g., from {approx}+200 to 0 {minus}+50 mV{sub she}); variations in corrosion potential from +200, to +50, to {minus}50 mV{sub she} clearly had an important effect. The benefit of Zn appeared to be most pronounced when the growth rate was decreased (e.g., by corrosion potential). This was consistent with the findings of mechanistic studies, which showed that Zn decreased the repassivation response at times >10{sup 4} s, which is associated with low crack tip strain rates, i.e., low growth rates. Reduced corrosion potentials are also expected to directly effect Zn, since high (crack mouth) corrosion potentials inhibit the transport of Zn{sup 2+} into the crack. Zn also increased the fracture strain of the oxide on stainless steel, and may also reduce crack growth rates by increasing the pH in the crack. Similar benefits are expected for other structural materials, such as nonsensitized or irradiated stainless steel, carbon steel, low alloy steel, and other nickel alloys.

  16. Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Senkov, Oleg N. (Moscow, ID)

    2000-01-01

    The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

  17. Studies of isotopic exchange between gaseous hydrogen and palladium hydride powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foltz, G.W.; Melius, C.F.

    1987-12-01

    A gas flow apparatus has been constructed and used to study the isotopic exchange reaction occurring between the solid and gas phases in hydrogen (deuterium) gas flows directed through packed-powder beds of ..beta..-phase palladium deuteride (hydride). Spontaneous Raman light scattering is employed to obtain a real-time analysis of the isotopic composition of the gas (H/sub 2/, D/sub 2/, HD) exiting from the bed. A parametric rate-equation model is described which depicts the time-dependent behavior of the isotopic exchange process. The exchange mechanism is assumed to be rate-limited by processes occurring on the surface of the powder. The fundamental kinetic parameter of the model is the isotopic exchange probability, p, which is the probability that an isotopic exchange event occurs during a collision of a gas-phase atom with the surface. Isotope effects between the gas and solid phases are explicitly included in terms of the isotope separation factor, ..cap alpha... Results of the model are compared with the experimental measurements and, using a literature value of ..cap alpha.. = 2.4, good agreement is obtained for p approx. = 10/sup -7/. In view of the importance of the isotope effects in the hydrogen/palladium system and the range of a values reported for the ..beta..-phase in the literature, the sensitivity of the model results to a variation in the value of ..cap alpha.. is examined.

  18. Modeling of temporal behavior of isotopic exchange between gaseous hydrogen and palladium hydride power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melius, C F; Foltz, G W

    1987-01-01

    A parametric rate-equation model is described which depicts the time dependent behavior of the isotopic exchange process occurring between the solid and gas phases in gaseous hydrogen (deuterium) flows through packed-powder palladium deuteride (hydride) beds. The exchange mechanism is assumed to be rate-limited by processes taking place on the surface of the powder. The fundamental kinetic parameter of the model is the isotopic exchange probability, p, which is the probability that an isotopic exchange event occurs during a collision of a gas phase atom with the surface. Isotope effects between the gas and solid phases are explicitly included in terms of the isotope separation factor, ..cap alpha... Results of the model are compared with recent experimental measurements of isotope exchange in the ..beta..-phase hydrogen/palladium system and, using a literature value of ..cap alpha.. = 2.4, a good description of the experimental data is obtained for p approx. 10/sup -7/. In view of the importance of the isotope effects in the hydrogen/palladium system and the range of ..cap alpha.. values reported for the ..beta..-phase in the literature, the sensitivity of the model results to a variation in the value of ..cap alpha.. is examined.

  19. Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Irradiation is known to have a significant impact on the properties and performance of Zircaloy cladding and structural materials (material degradation processes, e.g., effects of hydriding).  This...

  20. First-principles calculations of niobium hydride formation in superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, Denise C.; Cooley, Lance D.; Seidman, David N.

    2013-09-01

    Niobium hydride is suspected to be a major contributor to degradation of the quality factor of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. In this study, we connect the fundamental properties of hydrogen in niobium to SRF cavity performance and processing. We modeled several of the niobium hydride phases relevant to SRF cavities and present their thermodynamic, electronic, and geometric properties determined from calculations based on density-functional theory. We find that the absorption of hydrogen from the gas phase into niobium is exothermic and hydrogen becomes somewhat anionic. The absorption of hydrogen by niobium lattice vacancies is strongly preferred over absorption into interstitial sites. A single vacancy can accommodate six hydrogen atoms in the symmetrically equivalent lowest-energy sites and additional hydrogen in the nearby interstitial sites affected by the strain field: this indicates that a vacancy can serve as a nucleation center for hydride phase formation. Small hydride precipitates may then occur near lattice vacancies upon cooling. Vacancy clusters and extended defects should also be enriched in hydrogen, potentially resulting in extended hydride phase regions upon cooling. We also assess the phase changes in the niobium-hydrogen system based on charge transfer between niobium and hydrogen, the strain field associated with interstitial hydrogen, and the geometry of the hydride phases. The results of this study stress the importance of not only the hydrogen content in niobium, but also the recovery state of niobium for the performance of SRF cavities.

  1. Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into Moose-Bison and Validation Strategy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weck, Philippe F; Tikare, Veena; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Clark, B; Mitchell, J; Glazoff, Michael V.; Homer, Eric R.

    2014-10-01

    This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride δ-ZrH{sub 1.5} precipitation in the cladding of used nuclear fuels that may occur during long-term dry storage. While the Zr-based claddings are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service, in the reactor by a process commonly termed ‘hydrogen pick-up’. The precipitation and growth of zirconium hydrides during dry storage is one of the most likely fuel rod integrity failure mechanisms either by embrittlement or delayed hydride cracking of the cladding (Hanson et al., 2011). While the phenomenon is well documented and identified as a potential key failure mechanism during long-term dry storage (Birk et al., 2012 and NUREG/CR-7116), the ability to actually predict the formation of hydrides is poor. The model being documented in this work is a computational capability for the prediction of hydride formation in different claddings of used nuclear fuels. This work supports the Used Fuel Disposition Research and Development Campaign in assessing the structural engineering performance of the cladding during and after long-term dry storage. In this work, a model to numerically simulate hydride precipitation at the microstructural scale, in a wide variety of Zr-based claddings, under dry-storage conditions is being developed. It will be used to aid in the evaluation of the mechanical integrity of used fuel rods during dry storage and transportation by providing the structural conditions from the microstructural scale to the continuum scale to engineering component scale models to predict if the used fuel rods will perform without failure under normal and off-normal conditions. The microstructure, especially, the hydride structure is thought to be a primary determinant of cladding failure, thus this component of UFD’s storage and transportation analysis program is critical. The model development, application and validation of the model are documented and the limitations of the current model are discussed. The model has been shown to simulate hydride precipitation in Zircaloy-4 cladding with correct morphology, thermodynamics and kinetics. An unexpected insight obtained from simulations hydride formation in Zircaloy-4 is that small (sub-micron) precipitates need to order themselves to form the larger hydrides typically described as radially-reoriented precipitates. A limitation of this model is that it does not currently solve the stress state that forms dynamically in the precipitate or matrix surrounding the precipitate. A method to overcome the limitations is suggested and described in detail. The necessary experiments to provide key materials physics and to validate the model are also recommended.

  2. Molybdenum Hydride and Dihydride Complexes Bearing Diphosphine Ligands with a Pendant Amine: Formation of Complexes With Bound Amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shaoguang; Bullock, R. Morris

    2015-07-06

    CpMo(CO)(PNP)H complexes (PNP = (R2PCH2)2NMe, R = Et or Ph) were synthesized by displacement of two CO ligands of CpMo(CO)3H by the PNP ligand; these complexes were characterized by IR and variable temperature 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy. CpMo(CO)(PNP)H complexes are formed as mixture of cis and trans-isomers. Both cis-CpMo(CO)(PEtNMePEt)H and trans-CpMo(CO)(PPhNMePPh)H were analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical oxidation of CpMo(CO)(PEtNMePEt)H and CpMo(CO)(PPhNMePPh)H in CH3CN are both irreversible at slow scan rates and quasi-reversible at higher scan rates, with E1/2 = -0.36 V (vs. Cp2Fe+/0) for CpMo(CO)(PEtNMePEt)H and E1/2 = -0.18 V for CpMo(CO)(PPhNMePPh)H. Hydride abstraction from CpMo(CO)(PNP)H with [Ph3C]+[A]- (A = B(C6F5)4 or BArF4; [ArF = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]) afforded “tuck-in” [CpMo(CO)(κ3-PNP)]+ complexes that feature the amine bound to the metal. Displacement of the κ3 Mo-N bond by CD3CN gives [CpMo(CO)(PNP)(CD3CN)]+. The kinetics of this reaction were studied by NMR spectroscopy, providing the activation parameters ΔH‡ = 22.1 kcal/mol, ΔS‡ = 1.89 cal/(mol·K), Ea = 22.7 kcal/mol. Protonation of CpMo(CO)(PEtNMePEt)H affords [CpMo(CO)(κ2-PEtNMePEt)(H)2]+ as a Mo dihydride complex, which loses H2 to generate [CpMo(CO)(κ3-PEtNMePEt)]+ at room temperature. CpMo(CO)(dppp)H (dppp = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) was studied as a Mo diphosphine analogue without a pendant amine, and the product of protonation of this complex gives [CpMo(CO)(dppp)(H)2]+. Our results show that the pendant amine has a strong driving force to form stable “tuck-in” [CpMo(CO)(κ3-PNP)]+ complexes, and also promotes hydrogen elimination from [CpMo(CO)(PNP)(H)2]+ complexes by formation of Mo-N dative bond. We thank the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences for support. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy. We thank Monte Helm, Elliott Hulley and Deanna Miller for help on the crystallography, and Ming Fang for assistance on the electrochemical experiments.

  3. Thermal Release of 3He from Tritium Aged LaNi4.25Al0.75 Hydride

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Staack, Gregory C.; Crowder, Mark L.; Klein, James E.

    2015-02-01

    Recently, the demand for He-3 has increased dramatically due to widespread use in nuclear nonproliferation, cryogenic, and medical applications. Essentially all of the world’s supply of He-3 is created by the radiolytic decay of tritium. The Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities (SRS-TF) utilizes LANA.75 in the tritium process to store hydrogen isotopes. The vast majority of He-3 “born” from tritium stored in LANA.75 is trapped in the hydride metal matrix. The SRS-TF has multiple LANA.75 tritium storage beds that have been retired from service with significant quantities of He-3 trapped in the metal. To support He-3 recovery, the Savannah Rivermore » National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) on a tritium aged LANA.75 sample. TGA-MS testing was performed in an argon environment. Prior to testing, the sample was isotopically exchanged with deuterium to reduce residual tritium and passivated with air to alleviate pyrophoric concerns associated with handling the material outside of an inert glovebox. Analyses indicated that gas release from this sample was bimodal, with peaks near 220 and 490°C. The first peak consisted of both He-3 and residual hydrogen isotopes, the second was primarily He-3. The bulk of the gas was released by 600 °C« less

  4. Dynamic response of Cu4Zr54 metallic glass to high strain rate shock loading: plasticity, spall and atomic-level structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Shengnian; Arman, Bedri; Germann, Timothy C; Cagin, Tahir

    2009-01-01

    We investigate dynamic response of Cu{sub 46}Zr{sub 54} metallic glass under adiabatic planar shock wave loading (one-dimensional strain) wjth molecular dynamics simulations, including Hugoniot (shock) states, shock-induced plasticity and spallation. The Hugoniot states are obtained up to 60 CPa along with the von Mises shear flow strengths, and the dynamic spall strength, at different strain rates and temperatures. The spall strengths likely represent the limiting values achievable in experiments such as laser ablation. For the steady shock states, a clear elastic-plastic transition is identified (e.g., in the shock velocity-particle velocity curve), and the shear strength shows strain-softening. However, the elastic-plastic transition across the shock front displays transient stress overshoot (hardening) above the Hugoniot elastic limit followed by a relatively sluggish relaxation to the steady shock state, and the plastic shock front steepens with increasing shock strength. The local von Mises shear strain analysis is used to characterize local deformation, and the Voronoi tessellation analysis, the corresponding short-range structures at various stages of shock, release, tension and spallation. The plasticity in this glass is manifested as localized shear transformation zones and of local structure rather than thermal origin, and void nucleation occurs preferentially at the highly shear-deformed regions. The Voronoi and shear strain analyses show that the atoms with different local structures are of different shear resistances that lead to shear localization (e.g., the atoms indexed with (0,0,12,0) are most shear-resistant, and those with (0,2,8,1) are highly prone to shear flow). The dynamic changes in local structures are consistent with the observed deformation dynamics.

  5. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2010-01-29

    Means to decrease the rate of hydrogen gas generation from the chemical reaction of uranium metal with water were identified by surveying the technical literature. The underlying chemistry and potential side reactions were explored by conducting 61 principal experiments. Several methods achieved significant hydrogen gas generation rate mitigation. Gas-generating side reactions from interactions of organics or sludge constituents with mitigating agents were observed. Further testing is recommended to develop deeper knowledge of the underlying chemistry and to advance the technology aturation level. Uranium metal reacts with water in K Basin sludge to form uranium hydride (UH3), uranium dioxide or uraninite (UO2), and diatomic hydrogen (H2). Mechanistic studies show that hydrogen radicals (H·) and UH3 serve as intermediates in the reaction of uranium metal with water to produce H2 and UO2. Because H2 is flammable, its release into the gas phase above K Basin sludge during sludge storage, processing, immobilization, shipment, and disposal is a concern to the safety of those operations. Findings from the technical literature and from experimental investigations with simple chemical systems (including uranium metal in water), in the presence of individual sludge simulant components, with complete sludge simulants, and with actual K Basin sludge are presented in this report. Based on the literature review and intermediate lab test results, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, Nochar Acid Bond N960, disodium hydrogen phosphate, and hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] were tested for their effects in decreasing the rate of hydrogen generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water. Nitrate and nitrite each were effective, decreasing hydrogen generation rates in actual sludge by factors of about 100 to 1000 when used at 0.5 molar (M) concentrations. Higher attenuation factors were achieved in tests with aqueous solutions alone. Nochar N960, a water sorbent, decreased hydrogen generation by no more than a factor of three while disodium phosphate increased the corrosion and hydrogen generation rates slightly. U(VI) showed some promise in attenuating hydrogen but only initial testing was completed. Uranium metal corrosion rates also were measured. Under many conditions showing high hydrogen gas attenuation, uranium metal continued to corrode at rates approaching those observed without additives. This combination of high hydrogen attenuation with relatively unabated uranium metal corrosion is significant as it provides a means to eliminate uranium metal by its corrosion in water without the accompanying hazards otherwise presented by hydrogen generation.

  6. The FMOS-COSMOS survey of star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.6. II. The mass-metallicity relation and the dependence on star formation rate and dust extinction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zahid, H. J.; Sanders, D. B.; Chu, J.; Hasinger, G.; Kashino, D.; Silverman, J. D.; Kewley, L. J.; Daddi, E.; Renzini, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Nagao, T.; Arimoto, N.; Kartaltepe, J.; Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Maier, C.; Geller, M. J.; Capak, P.; Ilbert, O.; Kajisawa, M.; Collaboration: COSMOS Team; and others

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the relationships between stellar mass, gas-phase oxygen abundance (metallicity), star formation rate (SFR), and dust content of star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 1.6 using Subaru/FMOS spectroscopy in the COSMOS field. The mass-metallicity (MZ) relation at z ∼ 1.6 is steeper than the relation observed in the local universe. The steeper MZ relation at z ∼ 1.6 is mainly due to evolution in the stellar mass where the MZ relation begins to turnover and flatten. This turnover mass is 1.2 dex larger at z ∼ 1.6. The most massive galaxies at z ∼ 1.6 (∼10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}) are enriched to the level observed in massive galaxies in the local universe. The MZ relation we measure at z ∼ 1.6 supports the suggestion of an empirical upper metallicity limit that does not significantly evolve with redshift. We find an anti-correlation between metallicity and SFR for galaxies at a fixed stellar mass at z ∼ 1.6, which is similar to trends observed in the local universe. We do not find a relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR that is independent of redshift; rather, our data suggest that there is redshift evolution in this relation. We examine the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and dust extinction, and find that at a fixed stellar mass, dustier galaxies tend to be more metal rich. From examination of the stellar masses, metallicities, SFRs, and dust extinctions, we conclude that stellar mass is most closely related to dust extinction.

  7. Method of production of pure hydrogen near room temperature from aluminum-based hydride materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Balema, Viktor P.

    2004-08-10

    The present invention provides a cost-effective method of producing pure hydrogen gas from hydride-based solid materials. The hydride-based solid material is mechanically processed in the presence of a catalyst to obtain pure gaseous hydrogen. Unlike previous methods, hydrogen may be obtained from the solid material without heating, and without the addition of a solvent during processing. The described method of hydrogen production is useful for energy conversion and production technologies that consume pure gaseous hydrogen as a fuel.

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics-Aided Analysis of a Hydride Vapor Phase

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Epitaxy Reactor (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Computational Fluid Dynamics-Aided Analysis of a Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy Reactor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Computational Fluid Dynamics-Aided Analysis of a Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy Reactor Authors: Schulte, Kevin L. ; Simon, John ; Roy, Abhra ; Reedy, Robert C. ; Young, David L. ; Kuech, Thomas F. ; Ptak, Aaron J. Publication Date: 2016-01-15 OSTI Identifier: 1233143 Report Number(s): NREL/JA-5J00-64594 Journal ID:

  9. White Paper Summary of 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sindelar, R.; Louthan, M.; PNNL, B.

    2015-05-29

    This white paper recommends that ASTM International develop standards to address the potential impact of hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium alloys. The need for such standards was apparent during the 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding and Assembly Components, sponsored by ASTM International Committee C26.13 and held on June 10-12, 2014, in Jackson, Wyoming. The potentially adverse impacts of hydrogen and hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium-alloy cladding on used fuel were shown to depend on multiple factors such as alloy chemistry and processing, irradiation and post irradiation history, residual and applied stresses and stress states, and the service environment. These factors determine the hydrogen content and hydride morphology in the alloy, which, in turn, influence the response of the alloy to the thermo-mechanical conditions imposed (and anticipated) during storage, transport and disposal of used nuclear fuel. Workshop presentations and discussions showed that although hydrogen/hydride induced degradation of zirconium alloys may be of concern, the potential for occurrence and the extent of anticipated degradation vary throughout the nuclear industry because of the variations in hydrogen content, hydride morphology, alloy chemistry and irradiation conditions. The tools and techniques used to characterize hydrides and hydride morphologies and their impacts on material performance also vary. Such variations make site-to-site comparisons of test results and observations difficult. There is no consensus that a single material or system characteristic (e.g., reactor type, burnup, hydrogen content, end-of life stress, alloy type, drying temperature, etc.) is an effective predictor of material response during long term storage or of performance after long term storage. Multi-variable correlations made for one alloy may not represent the behavior of another alloy exposed to identical conditions and the material responses to thermo-mechanical exposures will be different depending on the materials and systems used. The discussions at the workshop showed several gaps in the standardization of processes and techniques necessary to assess the long term performance of irradiated zirconium alloy cladding during dry storage and transport. The development of, and adherence to, standards to help bridge these gaps will strengthen the technical basis for long term storage and post-storage operations, provide consistency across the nuclear industry, maximize the value of most observations, and enhance the understanding of behavioral differences among alloys. The need for, and potential benefits of, developing the recommended standards are illustrated in the various sections of this report.

  10. Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride Thermochemical Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative awarded to Pacific Northwest National Lab (PNNL) through the Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage (CSP: ELEMENTS) funding program.

  11. Low-Cost Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage System- FY13 Q2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this SRNL project, funded by SunShot, for the second quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  12. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Proposal to Participate in the Carbon and Metal Hydride Virtual Centers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC.

  13. Method Of Charging Maintenance-Free Nickel Metal Hydride Storage Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berlureau, Thierry; Liska, Jean-Louis

    1999-11-16

    A method of charging an industrial maintenance-free Ni-MH storage cell, the method comprising in combination a first stage at a constant current I.sub.1 lying in the range I.sub.c /10 to I.sub.c /2, and a second stage at a constant current I.sub.2 lying in the range I.sub.c /50 to I.sub.c /10, the changeover from the first stage to the second stage taking place when the time derivative of the temperature reaches a threshold value which varies as a function of the temperature at the time of the changeover.

  14. Low-Cost Metal Hydride TES Systems- FY13 Q1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress for this Savannah Reiver National Laboratory project, funded by SunShot, for the first quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  15. Low-Cost Metal Hydride TES Systems- FY13 Q3

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this SRNL project, funded by SunShot, for the third quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  16. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullendore, A.W.

    1988-03-18

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides,e.g., transition metal carbonyl, such as nickel carbonyl and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit. 1 fig.

  17. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullendore, Arthur W.

    1990-01-01

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures or organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides, e.g., transition metal carbonyl such as nickel carbonyl, and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit.

  18. Draft of M2 Report on Integration of the Hybrid Hydride Model into INL's MBM Framework for Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikare, Veena; Weck, Philippe F.; Schultz, Peter A.; Clark, Blythe; Glazoff, Michael; Homer, Eric

    2014-07-01

    This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride {delta}-ZrH{sub 1.5} precipitation in the cladding of used nuclear fuels that may occur during long-term dry storage. While the Zr-based claddings are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service, in the reactor by a process commonly termed ‘hydrogen pick-up’. The precipitation and growth of zirconium hydrides during dry storage is one of the most likely fuel rod integrity failure mechanisms either by embrittlement or delayed hydride cracking of the cladding. While the phenomenon is well documented and identified as a potential key failure mechanism during long-term dry storage (NUREG/CR-7116), the ability to actually predict the formation of hydrides is poor. The model being documented in this work is a computational capability for the prediction of hydride formation in different claddings of used nuclear fuels. This work supports the Used Fuel Disposition Research and Development Campaign in assessing the structural engineering performance of the cladding during and after long-term dry storage. This document demonstrates a basic hydride precipitation model that is built on a recently developed hybrid Potts-phase field model that combines elements of Potts-Monte Carlo and the phase-field models. The model capabilities are demonstrated along with the incorporation of the starting microstructure, thermodynamics of the Zr-H system and the hydride formation mechanism.

  19. Internal hydriding in irradiated defected Zircaloy fuel rods: A review (LWBR Development Program)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, J C

    1987-10-01

    Although not a problem in recent commercial power reactors, including the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor, internal hydriding of Zircaloy cladding was a persistent cause of gross cladding failures during the 1960s. It occurred in the fuel rods of water-cooled nuclear power reactors that had a small cladding defect. This report summarizes the experimental findings, causes, mechanisms, and methods of minimizing internal hydriding in defected Zircaloy-clad fuel rods. Irradiation test data on the different types of defected fuel rods, intentionally fabricated defected and in-pile operationally defected rods, are compared. Significant factors affecting internal hydriding in defected Zircaloy-clad fuel rods (defect hole size, internal and external sources of hydrogen, Zircaloy cladding surface properties, nickel alloy contamination of Zircaloy, the effect of heat flux and fluence) are discussed. Pertinent in-pile and out-of-pile test results from Bettis and other laboratories are used as a data base in constructing a qualitative model which explains hydrogen generation and distribution in Zircaloy cladding of defected water-cooled reactor fuel rods. Techniques for minimizing internal hydride failures in Zircaloy-clad fuel rods are evaluated.

  20. Model for the Prediction of the Hydriding Thermodynamics of Pd-Rh-Co Ternary Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teter, D.F.; Thoma, D.J.

    1999-03-01

    A dilute solution model (with respect to the substitutional alloying elements) has been developed, which accurately predicts the hydride formation and decomposition thermodynamics and the storage capacities of dilute ternary Pd-Rh-Co alloys. The effect of varying the rhodium and cobalt compositions on the thermodynamics of hydride formation and decomposition and hydrogen capacity of several palladium-rhodium-cobalt ternary alloys has been investigated using pressure-composition (PC) isotherms. Alloying in the dilute regime (<10 at.%) causes the enthalpy for hydride formation to linearly decrease with increasing alloying content. Cobalt has a stronger effect on the reduction in enthalpy than rhodium for equivalent alloying amounts. Also, cobalt reduces the hydrogen storage capacity with increasing alloying content. The plateau thermodynamics are strongly linked to the lattice parameters of the alloys. A near-linear dependence of the enthalpy of hydride formation on the lattice parameter was observed for both the binary Pd-Rh and Pd-Co alloys, as well as for the ternary Pd-Rh-Co alloys. The Pd-5Rh-3Co (at. %) alloy was found to have similar plateau thermodynamics as a Pd-10Rh alloy, however, this ternary alloy had a diminished hydrogen storage capacity relative to Pd-10Rh.

  1. Neutron diffraction studies of a four-coordinated hydride in near square-planar geometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liao, Jian -Hong; Dhayal, Rajendra Singh; Wang, Xiaoping; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean -Yves; Liu, C. W.

    2014-10-07

    The structure of a nanospheric polyhydrido copper cluster, [Cu20(H)11{S2P(OiPr)2}9], was determined by single-crystal neutron diffraction. Cu20 cluster consists of an elongated triangular orthobicupola constructed from 18 Cu atoms that encapsulate a [Cu2H5}3- ion in the center with an exceptionally short Cu-Cu distance. The eleven hydrides in the cluster display three different coordination modes to the Cu atoms: Six μ3-hydrides in pyramidal geometry, two μ4-hydrides in tetrahedral cavity, and three μ4-hydrides in an unprecedented near square-planar geometry. The neutron data set was collected on a small crystal of the size 0.20 mm x 0.50 mm x 0.65 mm for seven daysmore » using the Spallation Neutron Source TOPAZ single-crystal time-of-flight Laue diffractometer at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Furthermore, the final R-factor is 8.64% for 16014 reflections.« less

  2. Model for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel Claddings: A Status Report on Current Model Capabilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The report demonstrates a meso-scale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride precipitation in the cladding of used fuels during long-term dry-storage.

  3. Process for production of an aluminum hydride compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Miller, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2013-08-06

    A compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y, wherein R.sup.1 is phenyl substituted by at least one of: (i) an alkoxy group having from one to six carbon atoms; and (ii) an alkyl group having from three to twelve carbon atoms; wherein M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg; and y is one or two.

  4. The influence of surface morphology and oxide microstructure on the nucleation and growth of uranium hydride on alpha uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Hawley, M.E.; Brown, G.W.

    1998-12-31

    While the bulk kinetics of the uranium-hydrogen reaction are well understood, the mechanisms underlying the initial nucleation of uranium hydride on uranium remain controversial. In this study, the authors have employed environmental cell optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy, (AFM) in an attempt to relate the structure of the surface and the microstructure of the substrate with the susceptibility and site of hydride nucleation. Samples have been investigated with varying grain size, inclusion (carbide) concentration, and thermal history. There is a clear correlation to heat treatment immediately prior to hydrogen exposure. Susceptibility to hydride formation also appears to be related to impurities in the uranium. The oxidized surface is very complex, exhibiting wide variations in thickness and topography between samples, between grains in the same sample, and within individual grains. It is, however, very difficult to relate this fine scale variability to the relatively sparse hydride initiation sites. Therefore, the surface oxide layer itself does not appear to control the sites where hydride attack is initiated, although it must play a role in the induction period prior to hydride initiation.

  5. Synthesis, NMR spectra, and structure of rhodium hydride complexes with Rh-Sn bonds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krut'ko, B.P.; Permin, A.B.; Petrosyan, V.S.; Reutov, O.A.

    1985-06-20

    The authors study the hydride complexes using Sn 119 and H 1 NMR spectroscopy. The spectra were taken in a pulse mode on a Varian FT-80A spectrometer equipped with a wideband system at 29.66 and 79.54 MHz. The Sn 119 and H 1 NMR spectral parameters for a solution of the complex (Bu/sub 4/N)/sub 3/ (HRh(SnCl/sub 3/)/sub 5/) in CD/sub 3/CN are shown, the spectra show that the (HRh(SnCl/sub 3/)/sub 5/)/sup 3 -/ anion has octahedral structure with four equatorial and one axial Rh-Sn bonds. New rhodium hydride complexes with general formula (R/sub 4/N)/sub 3/(HRh(SnCl/sub 3/)/sub 5/) were synthesized.

  6. Thermal Release of 3He from Tritium Aged LaNi4.25Al0.75 Hydride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staack, Gregory C.; Crowder, Mark L.; Klein, James E.

    2015-02-01

    Recently, the demand for He-3 has increased dramatically due to widespread use in nuclear nonproliferation, cryogenic, and medical applications. Essentially all of the world’s supply of He-3 is created by the radiolytic decay of tritium. The Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities (SRS-TF) utilizes LANA.75 in the tritium process to store hydrogen isotopes. The vast majority of He-3 “born” from tritium stored in LANA.75 is trapped in the hydride metal matrix. The SRS-TF has multiple LANA.75 tritium storage beds that have been retired from service with significant quantities of He-3 trapped in the metal. To support He-3 recovery, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) on a tritium aged LANA.75 sample. TGA-MS testing was performed in an argon environment. Prior to testing, the sample was isotopically exchanged with deuterium to reduce residual tritium and passivated with air to alleviate pyrophoric concerns associated with handling the material outside of an inert glovebox. Analyses indicated that gas release from this sample was bimodal, with peaks near 220 and 490°C. The first peak consisted of both He-3 and residual hydrogen isotopes, the second was primarily He-3. The bulk of the gas was released by 600 °C

  7. Rate Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  8. PROCESS OF ELECTROPLATING METALS WITH ALUMINUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schickner, W.C.

    1960-04-26

    A process of electroplating aluminum on metals from a nonaqueous bath and a novel method of pretreating or conditioning the metal prior to electrodeposition of the aluminum are given. The process of this invention, as applied by way of example to the plating of uranium, comprises the steps of plating the uranium with the barrier inetal, immersing the barrier-coated uranium in fatty acid, and electrolyzing a water-free diethyl ether solution of aluminum chloride and lithium hydride while making the uranium the cathode until an aluminum deposit of the desired thickness has been formed. According to another preferred embodiment the barrier-coated uranium is immersed in an isopropyl alcohol solution of sterato chromic chloride prior to the fatty acid treatment of this invention.

  9. O3-type layered transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 as a high rate and long cycle life cathode material for sodium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Ji -Li; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yu, Xiqian; Bak, Seong -Min; Fu, Zheng -Wen

    2015-10-09

    High rate capability and long cycle life are challenging goals for the development of room temperature sodium-ion batteries. Here we report a new single phase quaternary O3-type layer-structured transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction as a new cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. It can deliver a reversible capacity of 90.6 mA h g–1 at a rate as high as 20C. At 5C, 75.0% of the initial specific capacity can be retained after 400 cycles with a capacity-decay rate of 0.07% per cycle, demonstrating a superior long-term cyclability at high current density. X-ray diffraction and absorption characterization revealed reversible phase transformations and electronic structural changes during the Na+ deintercalation/intercalation process. Ni, Co and Fe ions contribute to charge compensation during charge and discharge. Although Ti ions do not contribute to the charge transfer, they play a very important role in stabilizing the structure during charge and discharge by suppressing the Fe migration. Additionally, Ti substitution can also smooth the charge–discharge plateaus effectively, which provides a potential advantage for the commercialization of this material for room temperature sodium-ion batteries.

  10. O3-type layered transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 as a high rate and long cycle life cathode material for sodium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Ji -Li; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yu, Xiqian; Bak, Seong -Min; Fu, Zheng -Wen

    2015-10-09

    High rate capability and long cycle life are challenging goals for the development of room temperature sodium-ion batteries. Here we report a new single phase quaternary O3-type layer-structured transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction as a new cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. It can deliver a reversible capacity of 90.6 mA h g–1 at a rate as high as 20C. At 5C, 75.0% of the initial specific capacity can be retained after 400 cycles with a capacity-decay rate of 0.07% per cycle, demonstrating a superior long-term cyclability at high current density. X-ray diffraction and absorption characterizationmore » revealed reversible phase transformations and electronic structural changes during the Na+ deintercalation/intercalation process. Ni, Co and Fe ions contribute to charge compensation during charge and discharge. Although Ti ions do not contribute to the charge transfer, they play a very important role in stabilizing the structure during charge and discharge by suppressing the Fe migration. Additionally, Ti substitution can also smooth the charge–discharge plateaus effectively, which provides a potential advantage for the commercialization of this material for room temperature sodium-ion batteries.« less

  11. Method and apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes. [stored as uranium hydride in a block of copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMullen, J.W.; Wheeler, M.G.; Cullingford, H.S.; Sherman, R.H.

    1982-08-10

    An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas is stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forms at a significantly lower temperature).

  12. Modeling and Simulation of Used Nuclear Fuel During Transportation with Consideration of Hydride Effects and Cyclic Fatigue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Pritam; Sabharwall, Piyush; Spears, Robert Edward; Coleman, Justin Leigh; Sener, Kadir; Varma, Amit H.

    2015-09-30

    The objective of this work is to understand the integrity of Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) during transportation. Previous analysis work has been performed to look at the integrity of UNF during transportation but these analyses have neglected to analyze the effect of hydrides and flaws (fracture mechanics models to capture radial cracking in the cladding). In this study, the clad regions of interest are near the pellet-pellet interfaces. These regions can experience more complex stress-states than the rest of the clad during cooling and have a greater possibility to develop radially reoriented hydrides during vacuum drying.

  13. THE ABSORPTION OF HYDROGEN ON LOW PRESSURE HYDRIDE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, G.; Korinko, P.

    2012-04-03

    For this study, hydrogen getter materials (Zircaloy-4 and pure zirconium) that have a high affinity for hydrogen (and low overpressure) have been investigated to determine the hydrogen equilibrium pressure on Zircaloy-4 and pure zirconium. These materials, as with most getter materials, offered significant challenges to overcome given the low hydrogen equilibrium pressure for the temperature range of interest. Hydrogen-zirconium data exists for pure zirconium at 500 C and the corresponding hydrogen overpressure is roughly 0.01 torr. This manuscript presents the results of the equilibrium pressures for the absorption and desorption of hydrogen on zirconium materials at temperatures ranging from 400 C to 600 C. The equilibrium pressures in this temperature region range from 150 mtorr at 600 C to less than 0.1 mtorr at 400 C. It has been shown that the Zircaloy-4 and zirconium samples are extremely prone to surface oxidation prior to and during heating. This oxidation precludes the hydrogen uptake, and therefore samples must be heated under a minimum vacuum of 5 x 10{sup -6} torr. In addition, the Zircaloy-4 samples should be heated at a sufficiently low rate to maintain the system pressure below 0.5 mtorr since an increase in pressure above 0.5 mtorr could possibly hinder the H{sub 2} absorption kinetics due to surface contamination. The results of this study and the details of the testing protocol will be discussed.

  14. Metals processing control by counting molten metal droplets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlienger, Eric; Robertson, Joanna M.; Melgaard, David; Shelmidine, Gregory J.; Van Den Avyle, James A.

    2000-01-01

    Apparatus and method for controlling metals processing (e.g., ESR) by melting a metal ingot and counting molten metal droplets during melting. An approximate amount of metal in each droplet is determined, and a melt rate is computed therefrom. Impedance of the melting circuit is monitored, such as by calculating by root mean square a voltage and current of the circuit and dividing the calculated current into the calculated voltage. Analysis of the impedance signal is performed to look for a trace characteristic of formation of a molten metal droplet, such as by examining skew rate, curvature, or a higher moment.

  15. METHOD FOR PRODUCING ISOTOPIC METHANES FROM LITHIUM CARBONATE AND LITHIUM HYDRIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frazer, J.W.

    1959-10-27

    A process is descrlbed for the production of methane and for the production of methane containing isotopes of hydrogen and/or carbon. Finely divided lithium hydrlde and litldum carbonate reactants are mixed in intimate contact and subsequently compacted under pressures of from 5000 to 60,000 psl. The compacted lithium hydride and lithium carbenate reactunts are dispised in a gas collecting apparatus. Subsequently, the compact is heated to a temperature in the range 350 to 400 deg C whereupon a solid-solid reaction takes place and gaseous methane is evolved. The evolved methane is contaminated with gaseous hydrogen and a very small amount of CO/sub 2/; however, the desired methane product is separated from sald impurities by well known chemical processes, e.g., condensation in a cold trap. The product methane contalns isotopes of carbon and hydrogen, the Isotopic composition being determined by the carbon isotopes originally present In the lithium carbonate and the hydrogen isotopes originally present in the lithium hydride.

  16. Metal aminoboranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya Kaviraj; Shrestha, Roshan P.

    2010-05-11

    Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

  17. A technique for synthesizing metal tritide standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bach, H. T.; Allen, T. H.; Hill, D. D.; Martinez, P. T.; Schwarz, R. B.; Paglieri, S. N.; Wermer, J. R.

    2008-07-15

    Before surplus plutonium pits can be decommissioned and converted into metal oxides to be used as reactor fuels, residual tritium must be reduced to an acceptable level. We have developed two analytical methods involving melting and acid dissolution, combined with liquid scintillation counting as a quantitative and sensitive technique for measuring residual tritium in Pu metal. The detection limit, linearity, and reproducibility of these analytical methods must be validated with a series of metal tritide standards. Since there are no commercially available metal tritide standards, we have developed a technique for their synthesis. The synthesis of these low-level metal tritide standards is accomplished by charging cerium powder with a known amount of tritium to form a master cerium tritide alloy and then by aliquoting from this master alloy and diluting with pure cerium powder to form a series of standards with different tritium concentrations. The major difficulty in synthesizing these standards is that the samples contain extremely low levels of tritium, which span over three decades of concentrations. The synthesis technique and initial data obtained for cerium hydride samples will be presented. (authors)

  18. Verification and Validation Strategy for Implementation of Hybrid Potts-Phase Field Hydride Modeling Capability in MBM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason D. Hales; Veena Tikare

    2014-04-01

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) program has initiated a project to develop a hydride formation modeling tool using a hybrid Pottsphase field approach. The Potts model is incorporated in the SPPARKS code from Sandia National Laboratories. The phase field model is provided through MARMOT from Idaho National Laboratory.

  19. Final Report: Metal Perhydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, J-Y.; Shi, S.; Hackney, S.; Swenson, D.; Hu, Y.

    2011-07-26

    Hydrogen is a promising energy source for the future economy due to its environmental friendliness. One of the important obstacles for the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel source for applications such as fuel cells is the storage of hydrogen. In the infrastructure of the expected hydrogen economy, hydrogen storage is one of the key enabling technologies. Although hydrogen possesses the highest gravimetric energy content (142 KJ/g) of all fuels, its volumetric energy density (8 MJ/L) is very low. It is desired to increase the volumetric energy density of hydrogen in a system to satisfy various applications. Research on hydrogen storage has been pursed for many years. Various storage technologies, including liquefaction, compression, metal hydride, chemical hydride, and adsorption, have been examined. Liquefaction and high pressure compression are not desired due to concerns related to complicated devices, high energy cost and safety. Metal hydrides and chemical hydrides have high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities but encounter issues because high temperature is required for the release of hydrogen, due to the strong bonding of hydrogen in the compounds. Reversibility of hydrogen loading and unloading is another concern. Adsorption of hydrogen on high surface area sorbents such as activated carbon and organic metal frameworks does not have the reversibility problem. But on the other hand, the weak force (primarily the van der Waals force) between hydrogen and the sorbent yields a very small amount of adsorption capacity at ambient temperature. Significant storage capacity can only be achieved at low temperatures such as 77K. The use of liquid nitrogen in a hydrogen storage system is not practical. Perhydrides are proposed as novel hydrogen storage materials that may overcome barriers slowing advances to a hydrogen fuel economy. In conventional hydrides, e.g. metal hydrides, the number of hydrogen atoms equals the total valence of the metal ions. One LiH molecule contains one hydrogen atom because the valence of a Li ion is +1. One MgH2 molecule contains two hydrogen atoms because the valence of a Mg ion is +2. In metal perhydrides, a molecule could contain more hydrogen atoms than expected based on the metal valance, i.e. LiH1+n and MgH2+n (n is equal to or greater than 1). When n is sufficiently high, there will be plenty of hydrogen storage capacity to meet future requirements. The existence of hydrogen clusters, Hn+ (n = 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15) and transition metal ion-hydrogen clusters, M+(H2)n (n = 1-6), such as Sc(H2)n+, Co(H2)n+, etc., have assisted the development of this concept. Clusters are not stable species. However, their existence stimulates our approach on using electric charges to enhance the hydrogen adsorption in a hydrogen storage system in this study. The experimental and modeling work to verify it are reported here. Experimental work included the generation of cold hydrogen plasma through a microwave approach, synthesis of sorbent materials, design and construction of lab devices, and the determination of hydrogen adsorption capacities on various sorbent materials under various electric field potentials and various temperatures. The results consistently show that electric potential enhances the adsorption of hydrogen on sorbents. NiO, MgO, activated carbon, MOF, and MOF and platinum coated activated carbon are some of the materials studied. Enhancements up to a few hundred percents have been found. In general, the enhancement increases with the electrical potential, the pressure applied, and the temperature lowered. Theoretical modeling of the hydrogen adsorption on the sorbents under the electric potential has been investigated with the density functional theory (DFT) approach. It was found that the interaction energy between hydrogen and sorbent is increased remarkably when an electric field is applied. This increase of binding energy offers a potential solution for DOE when looking for a compromise between chemisorption and physisorption for hydrogen storage. Bonding of chemisorption is too

  20. Composite Metal-hydrogen Electrodes for Metal-Hydrogen Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruckman, M W; Wiesmann, H; Strongin, M; Young, K; Fetcenko, M

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and conduct a feasibility study of metallic thin films (multilayered and alloy composition) produced by advanced sputtering techniques for use as anodes in Ni-metal hydrogen batteries. The anodes could be incorporated in thin film solid state Ni-metal hydrogen batteries that would be deposited as distinct anode, electrolyte and cathode layers in thin film devices. The materials could also be incorporated in secondary consumer batteries (i.e. type AF(4/3 or 4/5)) which use electrodes in the form of tapes. The project was based on pioneering studies of hydrogen uptake by ultra-thin Pd-capped metal-hydrogen ratios exceeding and fast hydrogen charging and Nb films, these studies suggested that materials with those of commercially available metal hydride materials discharging kinetics could be produced. The project initially concentrated on gas phase and electrochemical studies of Pd-capped niobium films in laboratory-scale NiMH cells. This extended the pioneering work to the wet electrochemical environment of NiMH batteries and exploited advanced synchrotron radiation techniques not available during the earlier work to conduct in-situ studies of such materials during hydrogen charging and discharging. Although batteries with fast charging kinetics and hydrogen-metal ratios approaching unity could be fabricated, it was found that oxidation, cracking and corrosion in aqueous solutions made pure Nb films-and multiiayers poor candidates for battery application. The project emphasis shifted to alloy films based on known elemental materials used for NiMH batteries. Although commercial NiMH anode materials contain many metals, it was found that 0.24 µm thick sputtered Zr-Ni films cycled at least 50 times with charging efficiencies exceeding 95% and [H]/[M] ratios of 0.7-1.0. Multilayered or thicker Zr-Ni films could be candidates for a thin film NiMH battery that may have practical applications as an integrated power source for modern electronic devices.

  1. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  2. Hydride vapor phase GaN films with reduced density of residual electrons and deep traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Yugova, T. G.; Cox, H.; Helava, H.; Makarov, Yu.; Usikov, A. S.

    2014-05-14

    Electrical properties and deep electron and hole traps spectra are compared for undoped n-GaN films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) in the regular process (standard HVPE samples) and in HVPE process optimized for decreasing the concentration of residual donor impurities (improved HVPE samples). It is shown that the residual donor density can be reduced by optimization from ?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3} to (25)??10{sup 14}?cm{sup ?3}. The density of deep hole traps and deep electron traps decreases with decreased donor density, so that the concentration of deep hole traps in the improved samples is reduced to ?5??10{sup 13}?cm{sup ?3} versus 2.9??10{sup 16}?cm{sup ?3} in the standard samples, with a similar decrease in the electron traps concentration.

  3. RF sputtering for controlling dihydride and monohydride bond densities in amorphous silicon hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeffery, F.R.; Shanks, H.R.

    1980-08-26

    A process is described for controlling the dihydride and monohydride bond densities in hydrogenated amorphous silicone produced by reactive rf sputtering of an amorphous silicon target. There is provided a chamber with an amorphous silicon target and a substrate therein with the substrate and the target positioned such that when rf power is applied to the target the substrate is in contact with the sputtering plasma produced thereby. Hydrogen and argon are fed to the chamber and the pressure is reduced in the chamber to a value sufficient to maintain a sputtering plasma therein, and then rf power is applied to the silicon target to provide a power density in the range of from about 7 watts per square inch to about 22 watts per square inch to sputter an amorphous solicone hydride onto the substrate, the dihydride bond density decreasing with an increase in the rf power density. Substantially pure monohydride films may be produced.

  4. Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

    2013-04-23

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

  5. Metal inks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

    2014-02-04

    Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

  6. Numerical comparison of hydrogen desorption behaviors of metal hydride beds based on uranium and on zirconium-cobalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyoung, S.; Yoo, H.; Ju, H.

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, the hydrogen delivery capabilities of uranium (U) and zirconium-cobalt (ZrCo) are compared quantitatively in order to find the optimum getter materials for tritium storage. A three-dimensional hydrogen desorption model is applied to two identically designed cylindrical beds with the different materials, and hydrogen desorption simulations are then conducted. The simulation results show superior hydrogen delivery performance and easier thermal management capability for the U bed. This detailed analysis of the hydrogen desorption behaviors of beds with U and ZrCo will help to identify the optimal bed material, bed design, and operating conditions for the storage and delivery system in ITER. (authors)

  7. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  8. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2006-12-05

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  9. HIGH ENERGY RATE EXTRUSION OF URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, L.

    1963-07-23

    A method of extruding uranium at a high energy rate is described. Conditions during the extrusion are such that the temperature of the metal during extrusion reaches a point above the normal alpha to beta transition, but the metal nevertheless remains in the alpha phase in accordance with the Clausius- Clapeyron equation. Upon exiting from the die, the metal automatically enters the beta phase, after which the metal is permitted to cool. (AEC)

  10. Finance & Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    all of its costs in the rates it charges customers for wholesale electricity and transmission services. The agency is committed to careful cost management consistent with its...

  11. Atomic-Scale Chemical, Physical and Electronic Properties of the Subsurface Hydride of Palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Paul

    2014-01-20

    We employed low-temperature, extreme-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to investigate the roles of subsurface hydride (H) and deuteride (D) in the surface reconstruction and surface reactivity of Pd{110}. Specifically, we gained the ability to tailor the surface structure of Pd{110} both by preparation method and by deposition of deuterium from the gas phase. We observed thiophene at low coverage on Pd{110} to determine its adsorption orientation and electronic structure through scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) namely, conductance spectroscopy and differential conductance imaging. We developed the methods necessary to coadsorb D adatoms with thiophene molecules, and to induce the reaction of individual molecules with predefined subsurface H or D features. In the case of Pd{110}, we found a much more pronounced effect from subsurface D, as it is influenced by the surface directionality. These experiments facilitate an understanding of the role of surface and subsurface H and D in heterogeneous catalytic processes, specifically in the hydrodesulfuization (HDS) of thiophene, an important and ubiquitous component found to be detrimental to petroleum refining.

  12. TRITIUM IN-BED ACCOUNTABILITY FOR A PASSIVELY COOLED, ELECTRICALLY HEATED HYDRIDE BED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Foster, P.

    2011-01-21

    A PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been deployed into tritium service in the Savannah River Site (SRS) Tritium Facilities. The bed design, absorption and desorption performance, and cold (non-radioactive) in-bed accountability (IBA) results have been reported previously. Six PACE Beds were fitted with instrumentation to perform the steady-state, flowing gas calorimetric inventory method. An IBA inventory calibration curve, flowing gas temperature rise ({Delta}T) versus simulated or actual tritium loading, was generated for each bed. Results for non-radioactive ('cold') tests using the internal electric heaters and tritium calibration results are presented. Changes in vacuum jacket pressure significantly impact measured IBA {Delta}T values. Higher jacket pressures produce lower IBA {Delta}T values which underestimate bed tritium inventories. The exhaust pressure of the IBA gas flow through the bed's U-tube has little influence on measured IBA {Delta}T values, but larger gas flows reduce the time to reach steady-state conditions and produce smaller tritium measurement uncertainties.

  13. Properties of aged metal tritides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConville, G.T,; Menke, D.A.; West, D.S.; Woods, C.M.

    1994-06-22

    The interaction of tritium with metals is made complex by two phenomena. The first is that the beta decay in the metal produces {sup 3}He. The helium moves to form bubbles. This report shows that growth of the bubbles produces a two-stage swelling of the metal that comes first from the appearance of the helium and second from the relaxation of the lattice disorder. The second phenomena is the steady state ion and free radical concentration in the tritium over gas that interacts with impurities on the metal surface. This report shows that the reaction rates are much faster than for normal hydrogen cleaning.

  14. First Principles Contributions to the Thermodynamic Assessment of Solid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Metal Hydride and Complex Hydride Phases | Department of Energy First Principles Contributions to the Thermodynamic Assessment of Solid State Metal Hydride and Complex Hydride Phases First Principles Contributions to the Thermodynamic Assessment of Solid State Metal Hydride and Complex Hydride Phases Presentation on the Thermodynamic Assessment of Solid State Metal Hydride and Complex Hydride Phases given at the DOE Theory Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage Materials on May 18, 2006.

  15. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  16. Particle size effect of hydride formation and surface hydrogen absorption of nanosized palladium catalysts : L{sub 3} edge vs K edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tew, M. W.; Miller, J. T.; van Bokhoven, J. A.

    2009-08-01

    The particle size effect on the formation of palladium hydride and on surface hydrogen adsorption was studied at room temperature using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Pd K and L{sub 3} edges. Hydride formation was indirectly observed by lattice expansion in Pd K edge XANES spectra and by EXAFS analysis. Hydride formation was directly detected in the L{sub 3} edge spectra. A characteristic spectral feature caused by the formation of a Pd-H antibonding state showed strong particle size dependence. The L{sub 3} edge spectra were reproduced using full multiple scattering analysis and density of state calculations, and the contributions of bulk absorbed and surface hydrogen to the XANES spectra could be distinguished. The ratio of hydrogen on the surface versus that in the bulk increased with decreasing particle size, and smaller particles dissolved less hydrogen.

  17. A coupled transport and solid mechanics formulation with improved reaction kinetics parameters for modeling oxidation and decomposition in a uranium hydride bed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salloum, Maher N.; Shugard, Andrew D.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.

    2013-03-01

    Modeling of reacting flows in porous media has become particularly important with the increased interest in hydrogen solid-storage beds. An advanced type of storage bed has been proposed that utilizes oxidation of uranium hydride to heat and decompose the hydride, releasing the hydrogen. To reduce the cost and time required to develop these systems experimentally, a valid computational model is required that simulates the reaction of uranium hydride and oxygen gas in a hydrogen storage bed using multiphysics finite element modeling. This SAND report discusses the advancements made in FY12 (since our last SAND report SAND2011-6939) to the model developed as a part of an ASC-P&EM project to address the shortcomings of the previous model. The model considers chemical reactions, heat transport, and mass transport within a hydride bed. Previously, the time-varying permeability and porosity were considered uniform. This led to discrepancies between the simulated results and experimental measurements. In this work, the effects of non-uniform changes in permeability and porosity due to phase and thermal expansion are accounted for. These expansions result in mechanical stresses that lead to bed deformation. To describe this, a simplified solid mechanics model for the local variation of permeability and porosity as a function of the local bed deformation is developed. By using this solid mechanics model, the agreement between our reacting bed model and the experimental data is improved. Additionally, more accurate uranium hydride oxidation kinetics parameters are obtained by fitting the experimental results from a pure uranium hydride oxidation measurement to the ones obtained from the coupled transport-solid mechanics model. Finally, the coupled transport-solid mechanics model governing equations and boundary conditions are summarized and recommendations are made for further development of ARIA and other Sandia codes in order for them to sufficiently implement the model.

  18. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  19. Evaluation of hoop creep behaviors in long-term dry storage condition of pre-hydrided and high burn-up nuclear fuel cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sun-Ki; Bang, J.G.; Kim, D.H.; Yang, Y.S.

    2007-07-01

    Related to the degradation of the mechanical properties of Zr-based nuclear fuel cladding tubes under long term dry storage condition, the mechanical tests which can simulate the degradation of the mechanical properties properly are needed. Especially, the degradation of the mechanical properties by creep mechanism seems to be dominant under long term dry storage condition. Accordingly, in this paper, ring creep tests were performed in order to evaluate the creep behaviors of high burn-up fuel cladding under a hoop loading condition in a hot cell. The tests are performed with Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding whose burn-up is approximately {approx}60,000 MWd/tU in the temperature range from 350 deg. to 550 deg.. The tests are also performed with pre-hydrided Zircaloy-4 and ZIRLO up to 1,000 ppm. First of all, the hoop loading grip for the ring creep test was designed in order that a constant curvature of the specimen was maintained during the creep deformation, and the graphite lubricant was used to minimize the friction between the outer surface of the die insert and the inner surface of the ring specimen. The specimen for the ring creep test was designed to limit the deformation within the gauge section and to maximize the uniformity of the strain distribution. It was confirmed that the mechanical properties under a hoop loading condition can be correctly evaluated by using this test technique. In this paper, secondary creep rate with increasing hydrogen content are drawn, and then kinetic data such as pre-exponential factor and activation energy for creep process are also drawn. In addition, creep life are predicted by obtaining LMP (Larson-Miller parameter) correlation in the function of hydrogen content and applied stress to yield stress ratio. (authors)

  20. Dendritic metal nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A.; Song, Yujiang; Pereira, Eulalia F.; Medforth, Craig J.

    2010-08-31

    Dendritic metal nanostructures made using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

  1. Review of consequences of uranium hydride formation in N-Reactor fuel elements stored in the K-Basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, J.W.

    1994-09-28

    The 105-K Basins on the Hanford site are used to store uranium fuel elements and assemblies irradiated in and discharged from N Reactor. The storage cylinders in KW Basin are known to have some broken N reactor fuel elements in which the exposed uranium is slowly reacting chemically with water in the cylinder. The products of these reactions are uranium oxide, hydrogen, and potentially some uranium hydride. The purpose of this report is to document the results f the latest review of potential, but highly unlikely accidents postulated to occur as closed cylinders containing N reactor fuel assemblies are opened under water in the KW basin and as a fuel assembly is raised from the basin in a shipping cask for transportation to the 327 Building for examination as part of the SNF Characterization Program. The postulated accidents reviews in this report are considered to bound all potential releases of radioactivity and hydrogen. These postulated accidents are: (1) opening and refill of a cylinder containing significant amounts of hydrogen and uranium hydride; and (2) draining of the single element can be used to keep the fuel element submerged in water after the cask containing the can and element is lifted from the KW Basin. Analysis shows the release of radioactivity to the site boundary is significantly less than that allowed by the K Basin Safety Evaluation. Analysis further shows there would be no damage to the K Basin structure nor would there be injury to personnel for credible events.

  2. Rates Meetings and Workshops (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rate Case Workshops Other Power Rates-Related Workshops July 1, 2004 - Rates and Finances Workshop (updated June 25, 2004) (financial and rate forecasts and scenarios for FY...

  3. Method of producing microporous joints in metal bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danko, Joseph C. (Danville, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Tungsten is placed in contact with either molybdenum, tantalum, niobium, vanadium, rhenium, or other metal of atoms having a different diffusion coefficient than tungsten. The metals are heated so that the atoms having the higher diffusion coefficient migrate to the metal having the lower diffusion rate, leaving voids in the higher diffusion coefficient metal. Heating is continued until the voids are interconnected.

  4. METAL COMPOSITIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seybolt, A.U.

    1959-02-01

    Alloys of uranium which are strong, hard, and machinable are presented, These alloys of uranium contain bctween 0.1 to 5.0% by weight of at least one noble metal such as rhodium, palladium, and gold. The alloys may be heat treated to obtain a product with iniproved tensile and compression strengths,

  5. Calorimetric study of the palladium hydride and deuteride systems. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, J.E.

    1985-08-12

    Pressure differential scanning calorimetry was applied to a study of the hydrogenation of palladium metal. The effects of hydrogen and deuterium absorption by palladium metal, the effects of isotope exchanges, and hydrogen and deuterium pressure changes which affect the stoichiometry of PdH/sub x/ and PdD/sub x/ are presented in some detail by this experimental technique. It is emphasized that a pressure differential scanning calorimeter is a quick and convenient experimental means for assessing hydrogen absorption properties of hydrogen storage materials. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. The affect of erbium hydride on the conversion efficience to accelerated protons from ultra-shsort pulse laser irradiated foils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Offermann, D

    2008-09-04

    This thesis work explores, experimentally, the potential gains in the conversion efficiency from ultra-intense laser light to proton beams using erbium hydride coatings. For years, it has been known that contaminants at the rear surface of an ultra-intense laser irradiated thin foil will be accelerated to multi-MeV. Inertial Confinement Fusion fast ignition using proton beams as the igniter source requires of about 10{sup 16} protons with an average energy of about 3MeV. This is far more than the 10{sup 12} protons available in the contaminant layer. Target designs must include some form of a hydrogen rich coating that can be made thick enough to support the beam requirements of fast ignition. Work with computer simulations of thin foils suggest the atomic mass of the non-hydrogen atoms in the surface layer has a strong affect on the conversion efficiency to protons. For example, the 167amu erbium atoms will take less energy away from the proton beam than a coating using carbon with a mass of 12amu. A pure hydrogen coating would be ideal, but technologically is not feasible at this time. In the experiments performed for my thesis, ErH{sub 3} coatings on 5 {micro}m gold foils are compared with typical contaminants which are approximately equivalent to CH{sub 1.7}. It will be shown that there was a factor of 1.25 {+-} 0.19 improvement in the conversion efficiency for protons above 3MeV using erbium hydride using the Callisto laser. Callisto is a 10J per pulse, 800nm wavelength laser with a pulse duration of 200fs and can be focused to a peak intensity of about 5 x 10{sup 19}W/cm{sup 2}. The total number of protons from either target type was on the order of 10{sup 10}. Furthermore, the same experiment was performed on the Titan laser, which has a 500fs pulse duration, 150J of energy and can be focused to about 3 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. In this experiment 10{sup 12} protons were seen from both erbium hydride and contaminants on 14 {micro} m gold foils. Significant improvements were also observed but possibly because of the depletion of hydrogen in the contaminant layer case.

  7. MULTIDIMENSIONAL CHEMICAL MODELING OF YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS. III. THE INFLUENCE OF GEOMETRY ON THE ABUNDANCE AND EXCITATION OF DIATOMIC HYDRIDES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruderer, S.; Benz, A. O.; Staeuber, P.; Doty, S. D.

    2010-09-10

    The Herschel Space Observatory enables observations in the far-infrared at high spectral and spatial resolution. A particular class of molecules will be directly observable: light diatomic hydrides and their ions (CH, OH, SH, NH, CH{sup +}, OH{sup +}, SH{sup +}, NH{sup +}). These simple constituents are important both for the chemical evolution of the region and as tracers of high-energy radiation. If outflows of a forming star erode cavities in the envelope, protostellar far-UV (FUV; 6 < E{sub {gamma}} < 13.6 eV) radiation may escape through such low-density regions. Depending on the shape of the cavity, the FUV radiation then irradiates the quiescent envelope in the walls along the outflow. The chemical composition in these outflow walls is altered by photoreactions and heating via FUV photons in a manner similar to photo-dominated regions. In this work, we study the effect of cavity shapes, outflow density, and of a disk with the two-dimensional chemical model of a high-mass young stellar object introduced in the second paper in this series. The model has been extended with a self-consistent calculation of the dust temperature and a multi-zone escape probability method for the calculation of the molecular excitation and the prediction of line fluxes. We find that the shape of the cavity is particularly important in the innermost part of the envelope, where the dust temperatures are high enough ({approx}>100 K) for water ice to evaporate. If the cavity shape allows FUV radiation to penetrate this hot-core region, the abundance of FUV-destroyed species (e.g., water) is decreased. On larger scales, the shape of the cavity is less important for the chemistry in the outflow wall. In particular, diatomic hydrides and their ions CH{sup +}, OH{sup +}, and NH{sup +} are enhanced by many orders of magnitude in the outflow walls due to the combination of high gas temperatures and rapid photodissociation of more saturated species. The enhancement of these diatomic hydrides is sufficient for a detection using the HIFI and PACS instruments on board Herschel. The effect of X-ray ionization on the chemistry is found to be small, due to the much larger luminosity in FUV bands compared to X-rays.

  8. Attendee Introduction

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... U N C L A S S I F I E D RCRA Challenges: metal hydride Uranium hydride, or tritide, ... U-hydrides or tritides are LLW. Palladium hydride, or tritide, is not AEA exempt. ...

  9. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  10. Composite metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1998-04-14

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  11. Composite metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peachey, Nathaniel M.; Dye, Robert C.; Snow, Ronny C.; Birdsell, Stephan A.

    1998-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  12. Transition metal-free olefin polymerization catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, Ayusman; Wojcinski, II, Louis M.; Liu, Shengsheng

    2001-01-01

    Ethylene and/or propylene are polymerized to form high molecular weight, linear polymers by contacting ethylene and/or propylene monomer, in the presence of an inert reaction medium, with a catalyst system which consists essentially of (1) an aluminum alkyl component, such as trimethylaluminum, triethylaluminum, triisobutylaluminum, tri-n-octylaluminum and diethylaluminum hydride and (2) a Lewis acid or Lewis acid derivative component, such as B (C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.3, [(CH.sub.3).sub.2 N (H) (C.sub.6 H.sub.5)].sup.+ [B (C.sub.6 F.sub.5)4].sup.-, [(C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.3 NH].sup.+ [B C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.4 ],.sup.-, [C(C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.3 ].sup.+ [B(C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.4 ].sup.-, (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(OCH.sub.3), (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methylphenoxide), (C.sub.2 H.sub.5)Al(2,6 -di-t-butylphenoxide).sub.2, (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(2,6-di-t-butylphonoxide) , 2,6 -di-t-butylphenol.multidot.methylaluminoxane or an alkylaluminoxane, and which may be completely free any transition metal component(s).

  13. Gas-Phase Reactions of Doubly Charged Lanthanide Cations with Alkanes and Alkenes. Trends in Metal(2+) Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, John K.; Marcalo, Joaquim; Santos, Marta; Pires de Matos, Antonio; Haire, Richard G.

    2008-12-08

    The gas-phase reactivity of doubly-charged lanthanide cations, Ln2+ (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu), with alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane) and alkenes (ethene, propene, 1-butene) was studied by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The reaction products consisted of different combinations of doubly-charged organometallic ions?adducts or species formed via metal-ion-induced hydrogen, dihydrogen, alkyl, or alkane eliminations from the hydrocarbons?and singly-charged ions that resulted from electron, hydride, or methide transfers from the hydrocarbons to the metal ions. The only lanthanide cations capable of activating the hydrocarbons to form doubly-charged organometallic ions were La2+, Ce2+, Gd2+, and Tb2+, which have ground-state or low-lying d1 electronic configurations. Lu2+, with an accessible d1 electronic configuration but a rather high electron affinity, reacted only through transfer channels. The remaining Ln2+ reacted via transfer channels or adduct formation. The different accessibilities of d1 electronic configurations and the range of electron affinities of the Ln2+ cations allowed for a detailed analysis of the trends for metal(2+) reactivity and the conditions for occurrence of bond activation, adduct formation, and electron, hydride, and methide transfers.

  14. Current BPA Power Rates (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Workshops WP-10 Rate Case WP-07 Rate Case WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial...

  15. Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WP-10 Rate Case WP-07 Rate Case WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial Choices (2003-06) Power...

  16. Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G.; Miller, John L.

    1993-01-01

    Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

  17. Coupling apparatus for a metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, D.G.; Miller, J.L.

    1993-02-23

    Coupling apparatus for a large bore metal vapor laser is disclosed. The coupling apparatus provides for coupling high voltage pulses (approximately 40 KV) to a metal vapor laser with a high repetition rate (approximately 5 KHz). The coupling apparatus utilizes existing thyratron circuits and provides suitable power input to a large bore metal vapor laser while maintaining satisfactory operating lifetimes for the existing thyratron circuits.

  18. Three-Electrode Metal Oxide Reduction Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W.; Ackerman, John P.

    2005-06-28

    A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

  19. Three-electrode metal oxide reduction cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W.; Ackerman, John P.

    2008-08-12

    A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

  20. Composite metal-hydrogen electrodes for metal-hydrogen batteries. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.; Weismann, H.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop and conduct a feasibility study of metallic thin films (multilayered and alloy composition) produced by advanced sputtering techniques for use as anodes in Ni-metal hydrogen batteries that would be deposited as distinct anode, electrolyte and cathode layers in thin film devices. The materials could also be incorporated in secondary consumer batteries (i.e. type AF(4/3 or 4/5)) which use electrodes in the form of tapes. The project was based on pioneering studies of hydrogen uptake by ultra-thin Pd-capped Nb films, these studies suggested that materials with metal-hydrogen ratios exceeding those of commercially available metal hydride materials and fast hydrogen charging and discharging kinetics could be produced. The project initially concentrated on gas phase and electrochemical studies of Pd-capped niobium films in laboratory-scale NiMH cells. This extended the pioneering work to the wet electrochemical environment of NiMH batteries and exploited advanced synchrotron radiation techniques not available during the earlier work to conduct in-situ studies of such materials during hydrogen charging and discharging. Although batteries with fast charging kinetics and hydrogen-metal ratios approaching unity could be fabricated, it was found that oxidation, cracking and corrosion in aqueous solutions made pure Nb films and multilayers poor candidates for battery application. The project emphasis shifted to alloy films based on known elemental materials used for NiMH batteries. Although commercial NiMH anode materials contain many metals, it was found that 0.24 {mu}m thick sputtered Zr-Ni films cycled at least 50 times with charging efficiencies exceeding 95% and [H]/[M] ratios of 0.7-1.0. Multilayered or thicker Zr-Ni films could be candidates for a thin film NiMH battery that may have practical applications as an integrated power source for modern electronic devices.

  1. Metal dusting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edited by K. Natesan

    2004-01-01

    This workshop was held soon after the September 11th incident under a climate of sorrow and uncertainty among the people of the world, in particular the Workshop participants and their host organizations. With considerable help from the partiicpants, the Workshop was conducted as planed and we had excellent participation in spite of the circumstances. A good fraction of the attendees in the Workshop were from abroad and from several industries, indicating the importance and relevance of the subject for the chemical process industry. Degradation of structural metallic alloys by metal dusting has been an issue for over 40 years in the chemical, petrochemical, syngas, and iron ore reduction plants. However, the fundamental scientific reasons for the degradation of complex alloys in high carbon activity environments are not clear. one of the major parameters of importance is the variation in gas chemistry in both the laboratory experiments and in the plant-service environments. the industry has questioned the applicability of the laboratory test data, obtained in low steam environments, in assessment and life prediction for the materials in plant service where the environments contain 25-35% steam. Several other variables such as system pressure, gas flow velocity, incubation time, alloy chemistry, surface finish, and weldments, were also identified in the literature as to having an effect on the initiatino and propagation of metal dusting attack. It is the purpose of this Workshop to establish a forum in which the researchers from scientific and industrial laboratories, alloy manufacturers, end users, and research and development sponsors can exchange information, discuss different points of view, prioritize the issues, and to elaborate on the trends in industry for the future. We believe that we accomplished these goals successfully and sincerely thank the participants for their contributions.

  2. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-06-30

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C.

  3. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-15

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C.

  4. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-09-04

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

  5. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  6. Current Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  7. Previous Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  8. Previous Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Current Power Rates Current Transmission Rates...

  9. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Wednesday, 29 May 2013 00:00 Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides

  10. Metal filled porous carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Adam F.; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping; Salguero, Tina T.

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  11. Metal tritides helium emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavis, L.C.

    1980-02-01

    Over the past several years, we have been measuring the release of helium from metal tritides (primarily erbium tritide). We find that qualitatively all tritides of interest to us behave the same. When they are first formed, the helium is released at a low rate that appears to be related to the amount of surface area which has access to the outside of the material (either film or bulk). For example, erbium tritide films initially release about 0.3% of the helium generated. Most tritide films emit helium at about this rate initially. At some later time, which depends upon the amount of helium generated, the parent occluding element and the degree of tritium saturation of the dihydride phase the helium emission changes to a new mode in which it is released at approximately the rate at which it is generated (for example, we measure this value to be approx. = .31 He/Er for ErT/sub 1/./sub 9/ films). If erbium ditritide is saturated beyond 1.9 T/Er, the critical helium/metal ratio decreases. For example, in bulk powders ErT/sub 2/./sub 15/ reaches critical release concentration at approx. = 0.03. Moderate elevation of temperature above room temperature has little impact on the helium release rate. It appears that the process may have approx. = 2 kcal/mol activation energy. The first helium formed is well bound. As the tritide ages, the helium is found in higher energy sites. Similar but less extensive measurements on scandium, titanium, and zirconium tritides are also described. Finally, the thermal desorption of erbium tritides of various ages from 50 days to 3154 days is discussed. Significant helium is desorbed along with the tritium in all but the youngest samples during thermodesorption.

  12. Effect of Gaseous Impurities on Long-Term Thermal Cycling and Aging Properties of Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandra, Dhanesh; Lamb, Joshua; Chien, Wen-Ming; Talekar, Anjali; and Pal, Narendra.

    2011-03-28

    This program was dedicated to understanding the effect of impurities on Long-Term Thermal Cycling and aging properties of Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage. At the start of the program we found reversibility between Li2NH+LiH  LiH+LiNH2 (yielding ~5.8 wt.%H capacity). Then we tested the effect of impurity in H2 gas by pressure cycling at 255oC; first with industrial gas containing ppm levels of O2 and H2O as major impurities. Both these impurities had a significant impact on the reversibility and decreased the capacity by 2.65 wt.%H. Further increase in number of cycles from 500 to 1100 showed only a 0.2 wt%H more weight loss, showing some capacity is still maintained after a significant number of cycles. The loss of capacity is attributed to the formation of ~55 wt% LiH and ~30% Li2O, as major contaminant phases, along with the hydride Li2NH phase; suggesting loss of nitrogen during cycling. The effect of 100 ppm H2O in H2 also showed a decrease of ~2.5 wt.%H (after 560 cycles), and 100ppm O2 in H2; a loss of ~4.1 wt.%. Methane impurity (100 ppm, 100cycles), showed a very small capacity loss of 0.9 wt.%H under similar conditions. However, when Li3N was pressure cycled with 100ppmN2-H2 there were beneficial effects were observed (255oC); the reversible capacity increased to 8.4wt.%H after 853 cycles. Furthermore, with 20 mol.%N2-H2 capacity increased to ~10 wt.%H after 516 cycles. We attribute this enhancement to the reaction of nitrogen with liquid lithium during cycling as the Gibbs free energy of formation of Li3N (Go = -98.7 kJ/mol) is more negative than that of LiH (Go = -50.3 kJ/mol). We propose that the mitigation of hydrogen capacity losses is due to the destabilization of the LiH phase that tends to accumulate during cycling. Also more Li2NH phase was found in the cycled product. Mixed Alanates (3LiNH2:Li3AlH6) showed that 7 wt% hydrogen desorbed under dynamic vacuum. Equilibrium experiments (maximum 12 bar H2) showed up to 4wt% hydrogen reversibly stored in the material after the first desorption. The activation energy was found to be 51 kJ/mol, as compared to 81 kJ/mol for pure lithium alanate. It is proposed that based on the data obtained and CALPHAD modeling that the improvement in cycling is due to the formation of pure lithium (liquid at 255oC), which is able to react with nitrogen specifically forming Li3N. The presence of nitrogen in the 80/20 molar mixtures in a hydride bed along with hydrogen causes Li to form Li3N rather than LiH, and subsequently regenerates the Li2NH phase and yields a ~10 wt.%H reversibly.

  13. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Phelps, Cindy

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  14. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  15. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities - HTRL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    purification of hydrogen, stripping of hydrogen, storage of hydrogen in metal hydrides, characterization of metal hydrides, and analysis of gas samples using mass spectrometry. ...

  16. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  17. PNCA-02 Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proposed Adjustment to the Rate for Interchange Energy Imbalances Under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA-02 Rate Case) (updated on April 26, 2002) BPA has issued...

  18. OPERATION OF A TRITIUM GLOVEBOX CLEAN-UP SYSTEM USING ZIRCONIUM MANGANESE IRON AND ZIRCONIUM TWO IRON METAL GETTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. LARSON; K. COOK

    2000-08-01

    A metal hydride-based tritium clean-up system has been successfully operated for more than four years on an 11 m{sup 3} helium/nitrogen glovebox which was used for handling metal tritide powders. The clean-up system consists of two beds: (1) a Zr-Mn-Fe (in a 10% by weight Al binder, SAES ST909) bed operating at 675 C followed by (2) a Zr{sub 2}Fe (SAES ST198) bed operating at 250 C. The Zr-Mn-Fe bed serves to condition the gas stream by cracking hydrogenous impurities (such as H{sub 2}O and hydrocarbons) and absorbing oxygen and carbon. The Zr{sub 2}Fe bed absorbs the hydrogen isotopes from the flowing stream by forming a solid hydride compound. These beds contain 3 kilograms of Zr{sub 2}Fe and have been loaded routinely with 230-250 STP liters of hydrogen isotopes in earlier trials. The Zr-Mn-Fe alloy exhibits an anomaly during activation, namely an exotherm upon initial exposure to nitrogen. The purpose of this work is to better understand this reaction. Nitrogen absorption studies were done in order to quantify the nitrogen taken up by the getter and to characterize the reaction kinetics. In addition, ST909 phases before and after the reaction were studied with x-ray diffraction.

  19. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  20. Surface protected lithium-metal-oxide electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2016-04-05

    A lithium-metal-oxide positive electrode having a layered or spinel structure for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell and battery is disclosed comprising electrode particles that are protected at the surface from undesirable effects, such as electrolyte oxidation, oxygen loss or dissolution by one or more lithium-metal-polyanionic compounds, such as a lithium-metal-phosphate or a lithium-metal-silicate material that can act as a solid electrolyte at or above the operating potential of the lithium-metal-oxide electrode. The surface protection significantly enhances the surface stability, rate capability and cycling stability of the lithium-metal-oxide electrodes, particularly when charged to high potentials.

  1. The role of destabilization of palladium hydride on the hydrogen uptake of Pd-containing activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhat, Vinay V; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on differences in stability of Pd hydride phases in palladium particles with various degrees of contact with microporous carbon supports. A sample containing Pd embedded in activated carbon fiber (Pd-ACF; 2 wt% Pd) was compared with commercial Pd nanoparticles deposited on microporous activated carbon (Pd-catalyst, 3 wt% Pd) and with support-free nanocrystalline palladium (Pd-black). The morphology of materials was characterized by electron microscopy, and the phase transformations were analyzed over a large range of hydrogen partial pressures (0.003 - 10 bar) and at several temperatures using in-situ X-ray diffraction. The results were verified with volumetric hydrogen uptake measurements. Results indicate that higher degree of Pd-carbon contacts for Pd particles embedded in a microporous carbon matrix induce efficient pumping of hydrogen out of -PdHx. It was also found that thermal cleaning of carbon surface groups prior to exposure to hydrogen further enhances the hydrogen pumping power of the microporous carbon support. In brief, this study highlights that the stability of -PdHx phase supported on carbon depends on the degree of contact between Pd-carbon and the nature of the carbon surface.

  2. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide

  3. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide

  4. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide

  5. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide

  6. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide

  7. Removal of field and embedded metal by spin spray etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Contolini, Robert J.; Mayer, Steven T.; Tarte, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    A process of removing both the field metal, such as copper, and a metal, such as copper, embedded into a dielectric or substrate at substantially the same rate by dripping or spraying a suitable metal etchant onto a spinning wafer to etch the metal evenly on the entire surface of the wafer. By this process the field metal is etched away completely while etching of the metal inside patterned features in the dielectric at the same or a lesser rate. This process is dependent on the type of chemical etchant used, the concentration and the temperature of the solution, and also the rate of spin speed of the wafer during the etching. The process substantially reduces the metal removal time compared to mechanical polishing, for example, and can be carried out using significantly less expensive equipment.

  8. Removal of field and embedded metal by spin spray etching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Contolini, R.J.; Mayer, S.T.; Tarte, L.A.

    1996-01-23

    A process of removing both the field metal, such as copper, and a metal, such as copper, embedded into a dielectric or substrate at substantially the same rate by dripping or spraying a suitable metal etchant onto a spinning wafer to etch the metal evenly on the entire surface of the wafer. By this process the field metal is etched away completely while etching of the metal inside patterned features in the dielectric at the same or a lesser rate. This process is dependent on the type of chemical etchant used, the concentration and the temperature of the solution, and also the rate of spin speed of the wafer during the etching. The process substantially reduces the metal removal time compared to mechanical polishing, for example, and can be carried out using significantly less expensive equipment. 6 figs.

  9. REFRACTORY METAL TUBE DRAWING

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, C.H.; Karasek, F.J.

    1963-01-29

    A lubricant for drawing Zr and other refractory metals is described. Metallic Cu powder is added to a solution of acrylic resin in chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent. (AEC)

  10. Rate Case Elements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proceeding Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales Reports Rate Case Elements BPA's rate cases are decided "on the record." That is, in making a decision...

  11. Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, T.W.; Hamill, P.E. Jr.; Ozgu, M.R.; Padfield, R.C.; Rego, D.N.; Brita, G.P.

    1990-07-24

    A pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal is characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate. 1 fig.

  12. Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Thomas W.; Hamill, Jr., Paul E.; Ozgu, Mustafa R.; Padfield, Ralph C.; Rego, Donovan N.; Brita, Guido P.

    1990-01-01

    A pressurized tundish for controlling a continous flow of molten metal characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate.

  13. Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Choices (2003-06) Power Function Review (PFR) Firstgov Power Rate Cases BPA's wholesale power rates are set to recover its costs and repay the U.S. Treasury for the Federal...

  14. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  15. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  16. Heavy metal biosensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hillson, Nathan J; Shapiro, Lucille; Hu, Ping; Andersen, Gary L

    2014-04-15

    Compositions and methods are provided for detection of certain heavy metals using bacterial whole cell biosensors.

  17. METAL PRODUCTION AND CASTING

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magel, T.T.

    1958-03-01

    This patent covers a method and apparatus for collecting the molten metal produced by high temperature metal salt reduction. It consists essentially of subjecting the reaction vessel to centrifugal force in order to force the liberatcd molten metal into a coherent molten mass, and allowing it to solidify there. The apparatus is particularly suitable for use with small quantities of rare metals.

  18. Ceramic to metal seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snow, Gary S.; Wilcox, Paul D.

    1976-01-01

    Providing a high strength, hermetic ceramic to metal seal by essentially heating a wire-like metal gasket and a ceramic member, which have been chemically cleaned, while simultaneously deforming from about 50 to 95 percent the metal gasket against the ceramic member at a temperature of about 30 to 75 percent of the melting temperature of the metal gasket.

  19. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presenter: John Kirwan Chief Scientist Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This ...

  20. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Titanium Alloy Production ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Low-Cost Titanium Alloy Production ... than a corresponding steel part and nearly 20 times more expensive than an aluminum part. ...

  1. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Currently, most industries treat water to meet standards for direct discharge to surface water. The process includes a primary treatment to remove free oils and solids and ...

  2. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The goal of the project is to develop an automated, ultrafast laser machining device that will be used to prototype GDI injectors. The platform will turn CAD drawings into high-precision prototypes.

  3. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to 10 times higher than lithium-ion), using raw materials that are low cost or even free. ... that PLE-based batteries can be manufactured and scaled to high-volume production. ...

  4. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combining lasers and motion control devices into a simple interface that can mesh with computer- aided design (CAD) renderings will expedite manufacturing compared to ...

  5. Amorphous metal composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrne, Martin A. (Troy, NY); Lupinski, John H. (Scotia, NY)

    1984-01-01

    An improved amorphous metal composite and process of making the composite. The amorphous metal composite comprises amorphous metal (e.g. iron) and a low molecular weight thermosetting polymer binder. The process comprises placing an amorphous metal in particulate form and a thermosetting polymer binder powder into a container, mixing these materials, and applying heat and pressure to convert the mixture into an amorphous metal composite.

  6. NMR comparisons of nanocrystalline and coarse-grained palladium hydride and deuteride.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastman, J. A.; Materials Science Division; Washington Univ.; William Jewell College

    2003-02-01

    Two distinct proton NMR lines were previously reported in nanocrystalline PdH{sub x} (r=5nm, x=0.70), and were tentatively assigned to H in the crystalline cores and in grain boundaries. Here we show this assignment to be incorrect, with all of the H in the Pd forming a single line and the second line arising from surface-bound H{sub 2}O formed by reaction with an initial oxygen surface layer on the Pd. Distinct spectroscopic signatures of deuterium in boundaries and in crystalline cores are sought in the rigid lattice {sup 2}D spectrum of nano-PdD{sub x} and in the onset of motional narrowing. In neither case is two-part behavior found; the results are nearly identical to those in coarse-grained PdD{sub x}. The spin-lattice relaxation rate R{sub 1} of {sup 2}D in nano-PdD{sub x} is compared to that in coarse-grained material. The electronic (Korringa) contribution, dominant below 125 K, is 1.58 times as large in nano-PdD{sub x}, indicating a substantial difference in the electronic structure in the boundary regions of nano-PdD{sub x}. Above 200 K, a contribution to R{sub 1} from exchange with D{sub 2} gas and/or surface adsorbed species is observed for nano-PdD{sub x}, a result of the large surface area.

  7. Process for etching mixed metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Ginley, D.S.

    1994-10-18

    An etching process is described using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstrom range may be achieved by this method. 1 fig.

  8. Process for etching mixed metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H.; Ginley, David S.

    1994-01-01

    An etching process using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstom range may be achieved by this method.

  9. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiorucci, Louis C. (Hamden, CT); Morgan, Michael J. (Guilford, CT)

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  10. Metal halogen electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, F.M.

    1986-06-03

    An electrochemical cell is described having a metal anode selected from the group consisting of zinc and cadmium; a bromine cathode; and, an aqueous electrolyte containing a metal bromide, the metal having the same metal as the metal of the anode, the improvement comprising: a bromine complexing agent in the aqueous metal bromide electrolyte consisting solely of a tetraorgano substituted ammonium salt, which salt is soluble of water and forms and substantially water immiscible liquid bromine complex at temperatures in the range of about 10/sup 0/C. to about 60/sup 0/C. and wherein the tetraorgano substituted ammonium salt is selected from asymmetric quaternary ammonium compounds.

  11. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  12. Before a Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings and Workshops Customer...

  13. Rating Agency Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liabilities Financial Plan Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases Rate Information Residential Exchange Program Surplus Power Sales...

  14. BP-18 Rate Proceeding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  15. BP-12 Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  16. BP-16 Rate Case

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skip navigation links Financial Information Financial Public Processes Asset Management Cost Verification Process Rate Cases BP-18 Rate Case Related Publications Meetings...

  17. 2012 Transmission Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2014 Transmission, Ancillary, and Control Area Service Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (FY 2014-2015) October 2013 United States Department of Energy...

  18. Highly chemoselective palladium-catalyzed conjugate reduction of. cap alpha. ,. beta. -unsaturated carbonyl compounds with silicon hydrides and zinc chloride cocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keinan, E.; Greenspoon, N.

    1986-11-12

    A three-component system comprised of a soluble palladium catalyst, hydridosilane, and zinc chloride is capable of efficient conjugate reduction of ..cap alpha..,..beta..-unsaturated ketones and aldehydes. The optimal set of conditions includes diphenylsilane as the most effective hydride donor, any soluble palladium complex in either the O or II oxidation state, when it is stabilized by phosphine ligands, and ZnCl/sub 2/ as the best Lewis acid cocatalyst. The reaction is very general with respect to a broad range of unsaturated ketones and aldehydes, and it is highly selective for these Michael acceptors, as reduction of ..cap alpha..,..beta..-unsaturated carboxylic acid derivatives is very sluggish under these conditions. When dideuteriodiphenylsilane is used to reduce unsaturated ketones, deuterium is stereoselectivity introduced at the less-hindered fact of the substrate and regioselectively at the ..beta..-position. Conversely, when reductions are carried out in the presence of traces of D/sub 2/O, deuterium incorporation occurs at the ..cap alpha..-position. On the basis of deuterium-incorporation experiments and /sup 1/H NMR studies a catalytic cycle is postulated in which the first step involves reversible coordination of the palladium complex to the electron-deficient olefin and oxidative addition of silicon hydride to form a hydridopalladium olefin complex.

  19. Metal to semiconductor transition in metallic transition metal dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yan; Kang, Jun; Li, Jingbo; Tongay, Sefaattin; Wu, Junqiao; Yue, Qu

    2013-11-07

    We report on tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of metallic transition metal dichalcogenides (mTMDCs) by 2D to 1D size confinement. The stability of the mTMDC monolayers and nanoribbons is demonstrated by the larger binding energy compared to the experimentally available semiconducting TMDCs. The 2D MX{sub 2} (M?=?Nb, Ta; X?=?S, Se) monolayers are non-ferromagnetic metals and mechanically softer compared to their semiconducting TMDCs counterparts. Interestingly, mTMDCs undergo metal-to-semiconductor transition when the ribbon width approaches to ?13? and ?7? for zigzag and armchair edge terminations, respectively; then these ribbons convert back to metal when the ribbon widths further decrease. Zigzag terminated nanoribbons are ferromagnetic semiconductors, and their magnetic properties can also be tuned by hydrogen edge passivation, whereas the armchair nanoribbons are non-ferromagnetic semiconductors. Our results display that the mTMDCs offer a broad range of physical properties spanning from metallic to semiconducting and non-ferromagnetic to ferromagnetic that is ideal for applications where stable narrow bandgap semiconductors with different magnetic properties are desired.

  20. Metal phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E.; Lyons, James E.

    1994-01-01

    As a new composition of matter, alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

  1. Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P; Toops, Todd J; Tortorelli, Peter F; More, Karren Leslie; Meyer III, Harry M; Pihl, Josh A; Wang, Heli; Turner, John; Garzon, Fernando; Rockward, Tommy; Gervasio, Don; Rakowski, Jim; EstevezGenCell, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Effort devoted to scale up and demonstration of thin stamped metallic bipolar plates. Overall goal is to demonstrate potential for metallic bipolar plates to meet 5000 h automotive durability goal at a cost of less than $5/kW.

  2. Metal phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

    1994-10-11

    A new composition of matter is described which is an alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

  3. Electrochemical Oxidation of H? Catalyzed by Ruthenium Hydride Complexes Bearing P?N? Ligands With Pendant Amines as Proton Relays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Tianbiao L.; Rakowski DuBois, Mary; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2014-01-01

    Two Ru hydride complexes (Cp*Ru(PPh?NBn?)H, (1-H) and Cp*Ru(PtBu?NBn?)H, (2-H) supported by cyclic PR?NR'? ligands (Cp* = n?-C?Me?; 1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane, where R = Ph or tBu and R' = Bn) have been synthesized and fully characterized. Both complexes are demonstrated to be electrocatalysts for oxidation of H? (1 atm, 22 C) in the presence of external base, DBU (1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene). The turnover frequency of 2-H is 1.2 s-1, with an overpotential at Ecat/2 of 0.45 V, while catalysis by 1-H has a turnover frequency of 0.6 s-1 and an overpotential of 0.6 V at Ecat/2. Addition of H?O facilitates oxidation of H? by 2-H and increases its turnover frequency to 1.9 s-1 while , H?O slows down the catalysis by 1-H. The different effects of H?O for 1-H and 2-H are ascribed to different binding affinities of H?O to the Ru center of the corresponding unsaturated species, [Cp*Ru(PPh?NBn?)]+ and [Cp*Ru(PPh?NBn?)]+. In addition, studies of Cp*Ru(dmpm)H (where dmpm = bis(dimethylphosphino)methane), a control complex lacking pendent amines in its diphosphine ligand, confirms the critical roles of the pendent amines of P?N? ligands for oxidation of H?. We thank the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, for supporting initial parts of the work. Current work is supported by the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Metal wastage in fluidized-bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, G.F.; Podolski, W.F.; Reimann, K.J.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Youngdahl, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Objectives of the research are (1) to develop guidelines for the design and operation of fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) units with minimum metal wastage rates and (2) to develop continuous erosion monitors for use in pilot plant and full-scale FBC units. The design guidelines will be developed from the understanding gained from the experimental studies and analytical model development activities. The computational models are being developed in order to predict the rates of metal wastage for specific FBC designs and operating conditions. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  6. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, Paul O.; Kennedy, Cheryl E.; Jorgensen, Gary J.; Shinton, Yvonne D.; Goggin, Rita M.

    1994-01-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

  7. ITP Metal Casting: Implementation of Metal Casting Best Practices |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Implementation of Metal Casting Best Practices ITP Metal Casting: Implementation of Metal Casting Best Practices PDF icon implementation_final.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Metal Casting: Advanced Melting Technologies: Energy Saving Concepts and Opportunities for the Metal Casting Industry ITP Metal Casting: Energy Use in Selected Metalcasting Facilities - 2003 ITP Metal Casting: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Metal casting

  8. Combinatorial Approach for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence Thermodynamic Guidelines for the Prediction of Hydrogen Storage Reactions and Their Application to Destabillzed Hydride ...

  9. Control of Metal Nanocrystal Size Reveals Metal-Support Interface Role for Ceria Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cargnello, M; Doan-Nguyen, VVT; Gordon, TR; Diaz, RE; Stach, EA; Gorte, RJ; Fornasiero, P; Murray, CB

    2013-08-15

    Interactions between ceria (CeO2) and supported metals greatly enhance rates for a number of important reactions. However, direct relationships between structure and function in these catalysts have been difficult to extract because the samples studied either were heterogeneous or were model systems dissimilar to working catalysts. We report rate measurements on samples in which the length of the ceria-metal interface was tailored by the use of monodisperse nickel, palladium, and platinum nanocrystals. We found that carbon monoxide oxidation in ceria-based catalysts is greatly enhanced at the ceria-metal interface sites for a range of group VIII metal catalysts, clarifying the pivotal role played by the support.

  10. The effect of hydriding on the physical structure of palladium and on the release of contained tritium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storms, E.; Talcott-Storms, C. (Nuclear Materials Technology, and Material Science and Technology Divisions Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS C348, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

    1991-05-10

    When Pd gains or loses hydrogen or deuterium, the lattice expands or contracts causing a change in physical dimension. Under certain conditions, there is an additional expansion that is largely irreversible. Repeated gain and loss of hydrogen caused this excess volume to steadily increase. After all dissolved hydrogen has been removed, the diameter of a rod is found to have increased and the length to have decreased. These changes suggest the creation of micropores and/or dislocations within the metal. Such changes in the ennvironment with Pd metal can alter the local D/Pd ratio, affect the diffusion of impurities and, perhaps, affect the Fleischmann-Pons Effect.

  11. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Royer, L.T.

    1987-03-20

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  12. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Xianghong; Johnson, William L.

    1998-01-01

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  13. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-04-07

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  14. Methane

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Storage » Metal Hydride Storage Materials Metal Hydride Storage Materials The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's (FCTO's) metal hydride storage materials research focuses on improving the volumetric and gravimetric capacities, hydrogen adsorption/desorption kinetics, cycle life, and reaction thermodynamics of potential material candidates. Technical Overview Figure shows pressure composition isotherms and van't Hoff traces for metal hydride materials. Metal hydrides (MHx) are the most

  15. Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee Meeting Minutes, July 2013 | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Storage » Metal Hydride Storage Materials Metal Hydride Storage Materials The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's (FCTO's) metal hydride storage materials research focuses on improving the volumetric and gravimetric capacities, hydrogen adsorption/desorption kinetics, cycle life, and reaction thermodynamics of potential material candidates. Technical Overview Figure shows pressure composition isotherms and van't Hoff traces for metal hydride materials. Metal hydrides (MHx) are the most

  16. Stabilizing metal components in electrodes of electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spengler, Charles J.; Ruka, Roswell J.

    1989-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of reducing the removal or transfer into a gas phase of a current carrying metal in an apparatus, such as an electrochemical cell 2 having a porous fuel electrode 6 containing metal particles 11, where the metal is subject to removal or transfer into a gaseous phase, the method characterized in that (1) a metal organic compound that decomposes to form an electronically conducting oxide coating when heated is applied to the metal and porous electrode, and (2) the compound on the metal is then heated to a temperature sufficient to decompose the compound into an oxide coating 13 by increasing the temperature at a rate that is longer than 1 hour between room temperature and 600.degree. C., resulting in at least one continuous layer 13, 14 of the oxide coating on the metal.

  17. PNNL Chemical Hydride Capabilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC.

  18. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  19. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graetz, Jason Allan (Mastic, NY); Reilly, James J. (Bellport, NY)

    2009-04-21

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  20. Metallic heat exchangers for coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.

    1984-07-01

    A high-temperature corrosion program is being conducted to evaluate the corrosion behavior of selected metallic alloys and coatings in mixed-gas atmospheres for application in heat recovery systems of coal gasification schemes. The experiments conducted with internally air-cooled specimens have established three key variables, namely the gas temperature, metal temperature, and gas chemistry. In addition, the alloy chemistry and exposure time have a strong influence on the corrosion scale morphologies and metal recession rates. The results showed that the scale growth in carbon steel and low- to medium-chromium steels is predominantly linear with time. Selection of these materials will be primarily based upon acceptable corrosion wastage rate. On the other hand, high-chromium alloys can develop thin oxide scales resulting in negligible wastage via corrosion, but are susceptible to accelerated corrosion in mixed-gas atmospheres. 6 references, 12 figures, 4 tables.

  1. FORMING PROTECTIVE FILMS ON METAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gurinsky, D.H.; Kammerer, O.F.; Sadofsky, J.; Weeks, J.R.

    1958-12-16

    Methods are described of inhibiting the corrosion of ferrous metal by contact with heavy liquid metals such as bismuth and gallium at temperatures above 500 icient laborato C generally by bringing nltrogen and either the metal zirconium, hafnium, or titanium into reactlve contact with the ferrous metal to form a thin adherent layer of the nitride of the metal and thereafter maintaining a fractional percentage of the metal absorbed in the heavy liquid metal in contact with the ferrous metal container. The general purpose for uslng such high boiling liquid metals in ferrous contalners would be as heat transfer agents in liquid-metal-fueled nuclear reactors.

  2. Light metal production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Qinbai

    2016-04-19

    An electrochemical process for the production of light metals, particularly aluminum. Such a process involves contacting a light metal source material with an inorganic acid to form a solution containing the light metal ions in high concentration. The solution is fed to an electrochemical reactor assembly having an anode side containing an anode and a cathode side containing a cathode, with anode side and the cathode side separated by a bipolar membrane, with the solution being fed to the anode side. Light metal ions are electrochemically transferred through the bipolar membrane to the cathode side. The process further involves reducing the light metal ions to light metal powder. An associated processing system is also provided.

  3. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huxford, Theodore J.

    1993-01-01

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal.

  4. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huxford, T.J.

    1993-11-16

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

  5. Metal atom oxidation laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides. (auth)

  6. Metal atom oxidation laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides.

  7. Probing metal solidification nondestructively

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Probing metal solidification nondestructively Probing metal solidification nondestructively This is the first time that high-energy protons have been used to nondestructively image a large metal sample during melting and solidification. April 11, 2014 An x-ray image of a 200 micron thick aluminum-14 atomic percent copper alloy during directional solidification, highlighting the growth of an aluminum-rich branched structure (dendrite) and the advancing solid-liquid (planar) interface. The

  8. Supported metal alloy catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrera, Joseph; Smith, David C.

    2000-01-01

    A process of preparing a Group IV, V, or VI metal carbonitride including reacting a Group IV, V, or VI metal amide complex with ammonia to obtain an intermediate product; and, heating the intermediate product to temperatures and for times sufficient to form a Group IV, V, or VI metal carbonitride is provided together with the product of the process and a process of reforming an n-alkane by use of the product.

  9. Closed cell metal foam method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patten, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Foamed metals and metal alloys which have a closed cellular structure are prepared by heating a metal body containing entrapped inert gas uniformly distributed throughout to a temperature above the melting point of the metal and maintaining the body at this temperature a period of time sufficient to permit the entrapped gas to expand, forming individual cells within the molten metal, thus expanding and foaming the molten metal. After cell formation has reached the desired amount, the foamed molten metal body is cooled to below the melting temperature of the metal. The void area or density of the foamed metal is controlled by predetermining the amount of inert gas entrapped in the metal body and by the period of time the metal body is maintained in the molten state. This method is useful for preparing foamed metals and metal alloys from any metal or other material of which a body containing entrapped inert gas can be prepared.

  10. Environmental effects on noble-gas hydrides: HXeBr, HXeCCH, and HXeH in noble-gas and molecular matrices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsuge, Masashi E-mail: leonid.khriachtchev@helsinki.fi; Lignell, Antti; Rsnen, Markku; Khriachtchev, Leonid E-mail: leonid.khriachtchev@helsinki.fi

    2013-11-28

    Noble-gas hydrides HNgY (Ng is a noble-gas atom and Y is an electronegative group) are sensitive probes of local environment due to their relatively weak bonding and large dipole moments. We experimentally studied HXeBr in Ar, Kr, and N{sub 2} matrices, HXeCCH in Ne and N{sub 2} matrices, and HXeH in an N{sub 2} matrix. These are the first observations of noble-gas hydrides in an N{sub 2} matrix. An N{sub 2} matrix strongly increases the HXe stretching frequency of HXeBr and HXeCCH with respect to a Ne matrix, which is presumably due to a strong interaction between the HNgY dipole moment and quadrupole moments of the surrounding lattice N{sub 2} molecules. The spectral shift of HXeBr in an N{sub 2} matrix is similar to that in a CO{sub 2} matrix, which is a rather unexpected result because the quadrupole moment of CO{sub 2} is about three times as large as that of N{sub 2}. The HXe stretching frequencies of HXeBr and HXeCCH in noble-gas matrices show a trend of ?(Ne) < ?(Xe) < ?(Kr) < ?(Ar), which is a non-monotonous function of the dielectric constants of the noble-gas solids. The MP2(full) calculations of HXeBr and HXeCCH with the polarizable continuum model as well as the CCSD(T) calculations of the HXeBrNg and HXeCCHNg (Ng = Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) complexes cannot fully explain the experimental observations. It is concluded that more sophisticated computational models should be used to describe these experimental findings.

  11. Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation, which focuses on nitrided metallic bipolar plates, was given by M. P. Brady of ORNL at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

  12. Method of producing homogeneous mixed metal oxides and metal-metal oxide mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quinby, Thomas C.

    1978-01-01

    Metal powders, metal oxide powders, and mixtures thereof of controlled particle size are provided by reacting an aqueous solution containing dissolved metal values with excess urea. Upon heating, urea reacts with water from the solution leaving a molten urea solution containing the metal values. The molten urea solution is heated to above about 180.degree. C. whereupon metal values precipitate homogeneously as a powder. The powder is reduced to metal or calcined to form oxide particles. One or more metal oxides in a mixture can be selectively reduced to produce metal particles or a mixture of metal and metal oxide particles.

  13. Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brueck, Steven R. J.; Myers, David R.; Sharma, Ashwani K.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

  14. Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brueck, Steven R. J.; Myers, David R.; Sharma, Ashwani K.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

  15. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-08-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-italic-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-italic-function is discussed in physical terms.

  16. Rail Coal Transportation Rates

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Previous Data Years Year: 2013 2011 2010 2008 2002 Go Background and Methodology The data ... The initial report on coal transportation rates covered the years 2001 through 2008, ...

  17. Draft Tiered Rate Methodology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For Regional Dialogue Discussion Purposes Only Pre-Decisional Draft Tiered Rates Methodology March 7, 2008 Pre-decisional, Deliberative, For Discussion Purposes Only March 7,...

  18. LCC Guidance Rates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

  19. Accelerated decarburization of Fe-C metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, U.B.; Sadoway, D.R.

    1997-05-27

    A process is described for improving the rate of metal production and FeO utilization in a steelmaking process or a process combining iron-making and steelmaking in a single reactor that uses or generates Fe-C metal alloy droplets submerged in an FeO-containing slag. The process involves discharging a charge build-up (electron accumulation) in the slag at the slag-metal alloy interface by means of an electron conductor connected between the metal alloy droplets and a gas at a gas-slag interface, said gas having an oxygen partial pressure of at least about 0.01 atmosphere. 2 figs.

  20. Accelerated decarburization of Fe-C metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, Uday B.; Sadoway, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    A process for improving the rate of metal production and FeO utilization in a steelmaking process or a process combining iron-making and steelmaking in a single reactor that uses or generates Fe-C metal alloy droplets submerged in an FeO-containing slag. The process involves discharging a charge build-up (electron accumulation) in the slag at the slag-metal alloy interface by means of an electron conductor connected between the metal alloy droplets and a gas at a gas-slag interface, said gas having an oxygen partial pressure of at least about 0.01 atmosphere.

  1. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  2. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  3. Metallic nut for use with ceramic threads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1996-01-01

    A nozzle guide vane assembly has ceramic components therein having a conventional thread thereon including a preestablished pitch and having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion. The nozzle guide vane assembly has a metallic components therein having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater that the rate of thermal expansion of the ceramic components is positioned in a gas turbine engine. The metallic component, a nut, has a thread therein including a plurality of crests being spaced on a pitch equal to that of the ceramic component and has a pair of contacting surfaces extending from the plurality of crests. A notch spirally extends intermediate adjacent ones of the plurality of crests and has a preestablished depth which is at least twice the size of the conventional pitch. Furthermore, the pair of contacting surfaces are in contact with only a portion of the threaded surface of the ceramic components.

  4. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyon, W.L.; Moore, R.H.

    1961-01-17

    A process is given for producing plutonium metal by the reduction of plutonium chloride, dissolved in alkali metal chloride plus or minus aluminum chloride, with magnesium or a magnesium-aluminum alloy at between 700 and 800 deg C and separating the plutonium or plutonium-aluminum alloy formed from the salt.

  5. METAL SURFACE TREATMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-12

    Improved flux baths are described for use in conjunction with hot dipped coatings for uranium. The flux bath consists of molten alkali metal, or alkaline earth metal halides. One preferred embodiment comprises a bath containing molten KCl, NaCl, and LiCl in proportions approximating the triple eutectic.

  6. Method for controlling gas metal arc welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smartt, Herschel B.; Einerson, Carolyn J.; Watkins, Arthur D.

    1989-01-01

    The heat input and mass input in a Gas Metal Arc welding process are controlled by a method that comprises calculating appropriate values for weld speed, filler wire feed rate and an expected value for the welding current by algorithmic function means, applying such values for weld speed and filler wire feed rate to the welding process, measuring the welding current, comparing the measured current to the calculated current, using said comparison to calculate corrections for the weld speed and filler wire feed rate, and applying corrections.

  7. Method for controlling gas metal arc welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smartt, H.B.; Einerson, C.J.; Watkins, A.D.

    1987-08-10

    The heat input and mass input in a Gas Metal Arc welding process are controlled by a method that comprises calculating appropriate values for weld speed, filler wire feed rate and an expected value for the welding current by algorithmic function means, applying such values for weld speed and filler wire feed rate to the welding process, measuring the welding current, comparing the measured current to the calculated current, using said comparison to calculate corrections for the weld speed and filler wire feed rate, and applying corrections. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M. [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A. [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S. [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  9. Metallization of electronic insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM); Uribe, Francisco A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    An electroplated element is formed to include an insulating substrate, a conducting polymer polymerized in situ on the substrate, and a metal layer deposited on the conducting polymer. In one application a circuit board is formed by polymerizing pyrrole on an epoxy-fiberglass substrate in a single step process and then electrodepositing a metal over the resulting polypyrrole polymer. No chemical deposition of the metal is required prior to electroplating and the resulting layer of substrate-polymer-metal has excellent adhesion characteristics. The metal deposition is surprisingly smooth and uniform over the relatively high resistance film of polypyrrole. A continuous manufacturing process is obtained by filtering the solution between successive substrates to remove polymer formed in the solution, by maintaining the solution oxidizing potential within selected limits, and by adding a strong oxidant, such as KMnO.sub.4 at periodic intervals to maintain a low sheet resistivity in the resulting conducting polymer film.

  10. Synthesis of Metal-Metal Oxide Catalysts and Electrocatalysts...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthesis of Metal-Metal Oxide Catalysts and Electrocatalysts Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication...

  11. Computer Simulation of Bubble Growth in Metals Due to He

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FOILES, STEPHEN M.; HOYT, JEFFREY J.

    2001-03-01

    Atomistic simulations of the growth of helium bubbles in metals are performed. The metal is represented by embedded atom method potentials for palladium. The helium bubbles are treated via an expanding repulsive spherical potential within the metal lattice. The simulations predict bubble pressures that decrease monotonically with increasing helium to metal ratios. The swelling of the material associated with the bubble growth is also computed. It is found that the rate of swelling increases with increasing helium to metal ratio consistent with experimental observations on the swelling of metal tritides. Finally, the detailed defect structure due to the bubble growth was investigated. Dislocation networks are observed to form that connect the bubbles. Unlike early model assumptions, prismatic loops between the bubbles are not retained. These predictions are compared to available experimental evidence.

  12. Metal nanodisks using bicellar templates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A

    2013-12-03

    Metallic nanodisks and a method of making them. The metallic nanodisks are wheel-shaped structures that that provide large surface areas for catalytic applications. The metallic nanodisks are grown within bicelles (disk-like micelles) that template the growth of the metal in the form of approximately circular dendritic sheets. The zero-valent metal forming the nanodisks is formed by reduction of a metal ion using a suitable electron donor species.

  13. Metal Aminoboranes - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Metal Aminoboranes Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction

  14. Precious Metals | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Precious Metals General Information: The Materials Handling group provides Precious Metals receiving and documentation (PM's) for research programs funded by the Department of Energy (DOE). Precious metals are obtained from the DOE's Business Center for Precious Metals Sales and Recovery (BCPMSR). The return of scrap and excess precious metals to the BCPMSR is also provided by this group. Metals under this control are: GOLD - SILVER - PLATINUM - RHODIUM - PALLADIUM - IRIDIUM - OSMIUM - RUTHENIUM

  15. Method for producing metallic nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-02-10

    Method for producing metallic nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating non-oxidizing plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone to metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and to the plasma afterglow where it cools and condenses to form solid metallic nanoparticles.

  16. Method for producing metallic microparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-06-29

    Method for producing metallic particles. The method converts metallic nanoparticles into larger, spherical metallic particles. An aerosol of solid metallic nanoparticles and a non-oxidizing plasma having a portion sufficiently hot to melt the nanoparticles are generated. The aerosol is directed into the plasma where the metallic nanoparticles melt, collide, join, and spheroidize. The molten spherical metallic particles are directed away from the plasma and enter the afterglow where they cool and solidify.

  17. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, Nancy N. (Los Alamos, NM); Watkin, John G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  18. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  19. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1992-01-01

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  20. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-03-24

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  1. EXELFS of Metallic Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Y.; Alamgir, F.M.; Schwarz, R.B.; Jain, H.; Williams, D.B.

    1999-11-30

    The feasibility of using extended energy-loss fine structure (EXELFS) obtained from {approximately}1 nm regions of metallic glasses to study their short-range order has been examined. Ionization edges of the metallic glasses in the electron energy-loss spectrum (EELS) have been obtained from PdNiP bulk metallic glass and Ni{sub 2}P polycrystalline powder in a transmission electron microscope. The complexity of EXELFS analysis of L- and M-ionization edges of heavy elements (Z>22, i.e. Ni and Pd) is addressed by theoretical calculations using an ab initio computer code, and its results are compared with the experimental data.

  2. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel

    2012-07-03

    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  3. Metal Matrix Microencapsulated (M3) fuel neutronics performance in PWRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fratoni, Massimiliano; Terrani, Kurt A

    2012-01-01

    Metal Matrix Microencapsulated (M3) fuel consists of TRISO or BISO coated fuel particles directly dispersed in a matrix of zirconium metal to form a solid rod (Fig. 1). In this integral fuel concept the cladding tube and the failure mechanisms associated with it have been eliminated. In this manner pellet-clad-interactions (PCI), thin tube failure due to oxidation and hydriding, and tube pressurization and burst will be absent. M3 fuel, given the high stiffness of the integral rod design, could as well improve grid-to-rod wear behavior. Overall M3 fuel, compared to existing fuel designs, is expected to provide greatly improved operational performance. Multiple barriers to fission product release (ceramic coating layers in the coated fuel particle and te metal matrix) and the high thermal conductivity zirconium alloy metal matrix contribute to the enhancement in fuel behavior. The discontinuous nature of fissile material encapsulated in coated particles provides additional assistance; for instance if the M3 fuel rod is snapped into multiple pieces, only the limited number of fuel particles at the failure cross section are susceptible to release fission products. This is in contrast to the conventional oxide fuel where the presence of a small opening in the cladding provides the pathway for release of the entire inventory of fission products from the fuel rod. While conventional metal fuels (e.g. U-Zr and U-Mo) are typically expected to experience large swelling under irradiation due to the high degree of damage from fission fragments and introduction of fission gas into the lattice, this is not the case for M3 fuels. The fissile portion of the fuel is contained within the coated particle where enough room is available to accommodate fission gases and kernel swelling. The zirconium metal matrix will not be exposed to fission products and its swelling is known to be very limited when exposed solely to neutrons. Under design basis RIA and LOCA, fuel performance will be superior to the conventional oxide fuel since PCMI and rod burst, respectively, have been mitigated. Under beyond design basis accident scenarios where the fuel is exposed to high temperature steam for prolonged periods, larger inventory of zirconium metal in the core could negatively affect the accident progression. A thin steam resistant layer (e.g. alumina forming alloy steel), integrated into the solid rod during fabrication by co-extrusion or hot-isostatic-pressing, offers the potential to provide additional fuel protection from steam interaction: blanketing under a range of boiling regimes and under severe accident conditions up to high temperatures well beyond what is currently possible in the conventional fuel. A crucial aspect to the viability of M3 fuel in light water reactors is the reduced heavy metal load compared to standard pellet fuel. This study evaluated the design requirements to operate a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with M3 fuel in order to obtain fuel cycle length, reactivity coefficients, and power peaking factors comparable to that of standard fuel.

  4. Residential Solar Valuation Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Valuation Rates Karl R. Rbago Rbago Energy LLC 1 The Ideal Residential Solar Tariff Fair to the utility and non-solar customers Fair compensation to the solar ...

  5. Best Practices: Escalation Rates

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Best Practices Escalation Rates Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 3-4, 2015 Houston, TX Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 3-4, 2015 Houston, TX Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 3-4, 2015 Houston, TX Best Practices: Escalation Rate Value of future energy savings * Provides purchasing power for implementing a robust, comprehensive and customized ECM set * Provides an option for paying back financing in the shortest possible

  6. WP-07 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Meetings & Workshops Rate Case Parties Web Site WP-07 Supplemental Rate Case ASC Methodology Adjustments (2007-2009) Adjustments (2002-2006) Previous Rate Cases Financial...

  7. 2007-2009 Power Rate Adjustments (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Function Review (PFR) Firstgov FY 2007 2009 Power Rate Adjustments BPA's 2007-2009 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (GRSPs) took effect on...

  8. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  9. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Palmer, Donald A.; Beard, James S.

    2012-04-10

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  10. Molten metal reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-11-05

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  11. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, Craig M.; Zidan, Ragaiy A.

    2002-01-01

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  12. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coops, Melvin S.

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  13. Helium nano-bubble evolution in aging metal tritides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowgill, Donald F.

    2004-05-01

    A continuum-scale, evolutionary model of helium (He) nano-bubble nucleation, growth and He release for aging bulk metal tritides is presented which accounts for major features of the experimental database. Bubble nucleation, modeled as self-trapping of interstitially diffusing He atoms, is found to occur during the first few days following tritium introduction into the metal and is sensitive to the He diffusivity and pairing energy. An effective helium diffusivity of 0.3 x 10{sup -16} cm{sup 2}/s at 300 K is required to generate the average bubble density of 5x 1017 bubbles/cm3 observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Early bubble growth by dislocation loop punching with a l/radius bubble pressure dependence produces good agreement with He atomic volumes and bubble pressures determined from swelling data, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements, and hydride pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) shifts. The model predicts that later in life neighboring bubble interactions may first lower the loop punching pressure through cooperative stress effects, then raise the pressure by partial blocking of loops. It also accounts for the shape of the bubble spacing distribution obtained from NMR data. This distribution is found to remain fixed with age, justifying the separation of nucleation and growth phases, providing a sensitive test of the growth formulation, and indicating that further significant bubble nucleation does not occur throughout life. Helium generated within the escape depth of surfaces and surface-connected porosity produces the low-level early helium release. Accelerated or rapid release is modeled as inter-bubble fracture using an average ligament stress criterion. Good agreement is found between the predicted onset of fracture and the observed He-metal ratio (HeM) for rapid He release from bulk palladium tritide. An examination of how inter-bubble fracture varies over the bubble spacing distribution shows that the critical Hem will be lower for thin films or small particle material. It is concluded that control of He retention can be accomplished through control of bubble nucleation.

  14. A-01 metals in stormwater runoff evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eldridge, L.L.

    1997-11-06

    As a part of the A-01 investigation required by the NPDES permit, an investigation was performed to ascertain the concentrations of metals specifically copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in stormwater being discharged through the outfall. This information would indicate whether all water being discharged would have to be treated or if only a portion of the discharged stormwater would have to be treated. A study was designed to accomplish this. The first goal was to determine if the metal concentrations increased, decreased, or remained the same as flow increased during a rain event. The second goal was to determine if the concentrations in the storm water were due to dissolved. The third goal was to obtain background data to ascertain if effluent credits could be gained due to naturally occurring metals.Samples from this study were analyzed and indicate that the copper and lead values increase as the flow increases while the zinc values remain essentially the same regardless of the flow rate. Analyses of samples for total metals, dissolved metals, TSS, and metals in solids was complicated because in all cases metals contamination was found in the filters themselves. Some conclusions can be derived if this problem is taken into account when analyzing the data. Copper concentrations in the total and dissolved fractions as well as the TSS concentrations followed the hydrograph at this outfall but the copper in solids concentration appeared to peak in the first flush and decline to nondetectable rapidly over the course of the storm event. Lead was present in the total analysis but not present in the dissolved fraction or the solids fraction of the samples. The data for zinc was interesting in that the dissolved fractions were higher than the total fraction in three out of four samples. This is probably due to the high zinc concentrations on the filters being transferred to the dissolved faction of the sample. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. WINCO Metal Recycle annual report, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bechtold, T.E.

    1993-12-01

    This report is a summary of the first year progress of the WINCO Metal Recycle Program. Efforts were directed towards assessment of radioactive scrap metal inventories, economics and concepts for recycling, technology development, and transfer of technology to the private sector. Seven DOE laboratories worked together to develop a means for characterizing scrap metal. Radioactive scrap metal generation rates were established for several of these laboratories. Initial cost estimates indicate that recycle may be preferable over burial if sufficient decontamination factors can be achieved during melt refining. Radiation levels of resulting ingots must be minimized in order to keep fabrication costs low. Industry has much of the expertise and capability to execute the recycling of radioactive scrap metal. While no single company can sort, melt, refine, roll and fabricate, a combination of two to three can complete this operation. The one process which requires development is in melt refining for removal of radionuclides other than uranium. WINCO is developing this capability in conjunction with academia and industry. This work will continue into FY-94.

  16. Process for making silver metal filaments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1997-01-01

    A process for making silver metal particles from silver salt particles having the same morphology. Precursor silver salt particles selected from the group consisting of silver acetate and silver sulfide having a selected morphology are contained in a reactor vessel having means for supporting the particles in an air suspension to prevent the agglomeration of the particles. Air is flowed through the reactor vessel at a flow rate sufficient to suspend the particles in the reactor vessel. The suspended precursor silver salt particles are heated to a processing temperature and at a heating rate below which the physical deterioration of the suspended precursor silver salt particles takes place. The suspended precursor silver salt particles are maintained at the processing temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the particles into silver metal particles having the same morphology as the precursor silver salt particles.

  17. Metal recovery from porous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1992-10-13

    A method is described for recovering plutonium and other metals from materials by leaching comprising the steps of incinerating the materials to form a porous matrix as the residue of incineration, immersing the matrix into acid in a microwave-transparent pressure vessel, sealing the pressure vessel, and applying microwaves so that the temperature and the pressure in the pressure vessel increase. The acid for recovering plutonium can be a mixture of HBF[sub 4] and HNO[sub 3] and preferably the pressure is increased to at least 100 PSI and the temperature to at least 200 C. The porous material can be pulverized before immersion to further increase the leach rate.

  18. Electrochemical nitridation of metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Heli; Turner, John A.

    2015-06-30

    Electrochemical nitridation of metals and the produced metals are disclosed. An exemplary method of electrochemical nitridation of metals comprises providing an electrochemical solution at low temperature. The method also comprises providing a three-electrode potentiostat system. The method also comprises stabilizing the three-electrode potentiostat system at open circuit potential. The method also comprises applying a cathodic potential to a metal.

  19. Thermally tolerant multilayer metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Ronny C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of a Group IVB or Group VB metal sandwiched between two layers of a Group VIIIB metal selected from the group consisting of palladium, platinum, nickel, rhodium, iridium, cobalt, and alloys thereof, and a non-continuous layer of a metal chalcogenide upon one layer of the Group VIIIB metal is disclosed together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture using such a composite membrane and a process for forming such a composite metal membrane.

  20. Method for forming metal contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reddington, Erik; Sutter, Thomas C; Bu, Lujia; Cannon, Alexandra; Habas, Susan E; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2013-09-17

    Methods of forming metal contacts with metal inks in the manufacture of photovoltaic devices are disclosed. The metal inks are selectively deposited on semiconductor coatings by inkjet and aerosol apparatus. The composite is heated to selective temperatures where the metal inks burn through the coating to form an electrical contact with the semiconductor. Metal layers are then deposited on the electrical contacts by light induced or light assisted plating.

  1. Peroxotitanates for Biodelivery of Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, David; Elvington, M.

    2009-02-11

    Metal-based drugs are largely undeveloped in pharmacology. One limiting factor is the systemic toxicity of metal-based compounds. A solid-phase, sequestratable delivery agent for local delivery of metals could reduce systemic toxicity, facilitating new drug development in this nascent area. Amorphous peroxotitanates (APT) are ion exchange materials with high affinity for several heavy metal ions, and have been proposed to deliver or sequester metal ions in biological contexts. In the current study, we tested a hypothesis that APT are able to deliver metals or metal compounds to cells. We exposed fibroblasts (L929) or monocytes (THP1) to metal-APT materials for 72 h in vitro, then measured cellular mitochondrial activity (SDH-MTT method) to assess the biological impact of the metal-APT materials vs. metals or APT alone. APT alone did not significantly affect cellular mitochondrial activity, but all metal-APT materials suppressed the mitochondrial activity of fibroblasts (by 30-65% of controls). The concentration of metal-APT materials required to suppress cellular mitochondrial activity was below that required for metals alone, suggesting that simple extracellular release of the metals from the metal-APT materials was not the primary mechanism of mitochondrial suppression. In contrast to fibroblasts, no metal-APT material had a measurable effect on THP1 monocyte mitochondrial activity, despite potent suppression by metals alone. This latter result suggested that 'biodelivery' by metal-APT materials may be cell type-specific. Therefore, it appears that APT are plausible solid phase delivery agents of metals or metal compounds to some types of cells for potential therapeutic effect.

  2. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  3. Alkali metal ionization detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauerle, James E.; Reed, William H.; Berkey, Edgar

    1978-01-01

    Variations in the conventional filament and collector electrodes of an alkali metal ionization detector, including the substitution of helical electrode configurations for either the conventional wire filament or flat plate collector; or, the substitution of a plurality of discrete filament electrodes providing an in situ capability for transferring from an operationally defective filament electrode to a previously unused filament electrode without removing the alkali metal ionization detector from the monitored environment. In particular, the helical collector arrangement which is coaxially disposed about the filament electrode, i.e. the thermal ionizer, provides an improved collection of positive ions developed by the filament electrode. The helical filament design, on the other hand, provides the advantage of an increased surface area for ionization of alkali metal-bearing species in a monitored gas environment as well as providing a relatively strong electric field for collecting the ions at the collector electrode about which the helical filament electrode is coaxially positioned. Alternatively, both the filament and collector electrodes can be helical. Furthermore, the operation of the conventional alkali metal ionization detector as a leak detector can be simplified as to cost and complexity, by operating the detector at a reduced collector potential while maintaining the sensitivity of the alkali metal ionization detector adequate for the relatively low concentration of alkali vapor and aerosol typically encountered in leak detection applications.

  4. METAL RESISTIVITY MEASURING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renken, J. Jr.; Myers, R.G.

    1960-12-20

    An eddy current device is offered for detecting discontinuities in metal samples. Alternate short and long duration pulses are inductively applied to a metal sample via the outer coil of a probe. The long pulses give a resultant signal from the metal sample responsive to probe-tosample spacing and discontinuities within the sample and the shont pulses give a resultant signal responsive only to probe -to-sample spacing. The inner coil of the probe detects the two resultant signals and transmits them to a separation network where the two signals are separated. The two separated signals are then transmitted to a compensation network where the detected signals due to the short pulses are used to compensate for variations due to probe-to-sample spacing contained in the detected signals from the long pulses. Thus, a resultant signal is obtained responsive to discontinuities within the sample and independent of probe-to- sample spacing.

  5. Method for locating metallic nitride inclusions in metallic alloy ingots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Jack C.; Traut, Davis E.; Oden, Laurance L.; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1992-01-01

    A method of determining the location and history of metallic nitride and/or oxynitride inclusions in metallic melts. The method includes the steps of labeling metallic nitride and/or oxynitride inclusions by making a coreduced metallic-hafnium sponge from a mixture of hafnium chloride and the chloride of a metal, reducing the mixed chlorides with magnesium, nitriding the hafnium-labeled metallic-hafnium sponge, and seeding the sponge to be melted with hafnium-labeled nitride inclusions. The ingots are neutron activated and the hafnium is located by radiometric means. Hafnium possesses exactly the proper metallurgical and radiochemical properties for this use.

  6. Measurement of the differential pressure of liquid metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metz, H.J.

    1975-09-01

    This patent relates to an improved means for measuring the differential pressure between any two points in a process liquid metal coolant loop, wherein the flow of liquid metal in a pipe is opposed by a permanent magnet liquid metal pump until there is almost zero flow shown by a magnetic type flowmeter. The pressure producing the liquid metal flow is inferred from the rate of rotation of the permanent magnet pump. In an alternate embodiment, a differential pressure transducer is coupled to a process pipeline by means of high-temperature bellows or diaphragm seals, and a permanent magnet liquid metal pump in the high-pressure transmission line to the pressure transducer can be utilized either for calibration of the transducer or for determining the process differential pressure as a function of the magnet pump speed. (auth)

  7. Challenges to achievement of metal sustainability in our high-tech society

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izatt, Reed M.; Izatt, Steven R.; Bruening, Ronald L.; Izatt, Neil; Moyer, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Achievement of sustainability in metal life cycles from mining of virgin ore to consumer and industrial devices to end-of-life products requires greatly increased recycling and improved processing of metals. Electronic and other high-tech products containing precious, toxic, and specialty metals usually have short lifetimes and low recycling rates. Products containing these metals generally are incinerated, discarded as waste in landfills, or dismantled in informal recycling using crude and environmentally irresponsible procedures. Low metal recycling rates coupled with increasing demand for products containing them necessitate increased mining with attendant environmental, health, energy, water, and carbon-footprint consequences. In this tutorial review, challenges to achieving metal sustainability in present high-tech society are presented; health, environmental, and economic incentives for various stakeholders to improve metal sustainability are discussed; a case for technical improvements in separations technology, especially employing molecular recognition, is given; and global consequences of continuing on the present path are examined.

  8. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  9. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-07-26

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  10. Liquid metal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  11. Metal alloy identifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, William D. (Avondale, MD); Brown, Jr., Robert D. (Avondale, MD)

    1987-01-01

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  12. Metallic carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Marvin Lou; Crespi, Vincent Henry; Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng; Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter

    1999-01-01

    Novel metallic forms of planar carbon are described, as well as methods of designing and making them. Nonhexagonal arrangements of carbon are introduced into a graphite carbon network essentially without destroying the planar structure. Specifically a form of carbon comprising primarily pentagons and heptagons, and having a large density of states at the Fermi level is described. Other arrangements of pentagons and heptagons that include some hexagons, and structures incorporating squares and octagons are additionally disclosed. Reducing the bond angle symmetry associated with a hexagonal arrangement of carbons increases the likelihood that the carbon material will have a metallic electron structure.

  13. Sequoia Messaging Rate Benchmark

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-22

    The purpose of this benchmark is to measure the maximal message rate of a single compute node. The first num_cores ranks are expected to reside on the 'core' compute node for which message rate is being tested. After that, the next num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the first core rank, the next set of num_nbors ranks are neighbors for the second core rank, and so on. For example, testing an 8-core node (num_cores = 8)more » with 4 neighbors (num_nbors = 4) requires 8 + 8 * 4 - 40 ranks. The first 8 of those 40 ranks are expected to be on the 'core' node being benchmarked, while the rest of the ranks are on separate nodes.« less

  14. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  15. The Evaluation of Lithium Hydride for Use in a Space Nuclear Reactor Shield, Including a Historical Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Poeth

    2005-12-09

    LiH was one of the five primary shield materials the NRPCT intended to develop (along with beryllium, boron carbide, tungsten, and water) for potential Prometheus application. It was also anticipated that {sup 10}B metal would be investigated for feasibility at a low level of effort. LiH historically has been selected as a low mass, neutron absorption material for space shields (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP), Topaz, SP-100). Initial NRPCT investigations did not produce convincing evidence that LiH was desirable or feasible for a Prometheus mission due to material property issues (primarily swelling and hydrogen cover gas containment), and related thermal design complexity. Furthermore, if mass limits allowed, an option to avoid use of LiH was being contemplated to lower development costs and associated risks. However, LiH remains theoretically the most efficient neutron shield material per unit mass, and, with sufficient testing and development, could be an optimal material choice for future flights.

  16. Metal dusting behavior of high-temperature alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, B.A.; Smith, G.D.

    1999-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of ferritic, stainless steel, iron-nickel-chromium and nickel-base alloys was investigated in H{sub 2}-80 % CO at 621 C. Mass change and rate of mass loss, pit depth progression rate and pit distribution were monitored and recorded. It was found that wastage rates and pit depth progression rates were generally much lower for nickel-base alloys than iron-base alloys. Pit depth did not necessarily correlate with area averaged mass change rate, Chromium, silicon and aluminum additions were found to be beneficial in producing an oxide scale which reduced or prevented wastage due to metal dusting.

  17. Corrosion of Metal Inclusions In Bulk Vitrification Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Pierce, Eric M.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Strachan, Denis M.; Josephson, Gary B.

    2006-07-31

    The primary purpose of the work reported here is to analyze the potential effect of the release of technetium (Tc) from metal inclusions in bulk vitrification waste packages once they are placed in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). As part of the strategy for immobilizing waste from the underground tanks at Hanford, selected wastes will be immobilized using bulk vitrification. During analyses of the glass produced in engineering-scale tests, metal inclusions were found in the glass product. This report contains the results from experiments designed to quantify the corrosion rates of metal inclusions found in the glass product from AMEC Test ES-32B and simulations designed to compare the rate of Tc release from the metal inclusions to the release of Tc from glass produced with the bulk vitrification process. In the simulations, the Tc in the metal inclusions was assumed to be released congruently during metal corrosion as soluble TcO4-. The experimental results and modeling calculations show that the metal corrosion rate will, under all conceivable conditions at the IDF, be dominated by the presence of the passivating layer and corrosion products on the metal particles. As a result, the release of Tc from the metal particles at the surfaces of fractures in the glass releases at a rate similar to the Tc present as a soluble salt. The release of the remaining Tc in the metal is controlled by the dissolution of the glass matrix. To summarize, the release of 99Tc from the BV glass within precipitated Fe is directly proportional to the diameter of the Fe particles and to the amount of precipitated Fe. However, the main contribution to the Tc release from the iron particles is over the same time period as the release of the soluble Tc salt. For the base case used in this study (0.48 mass% of 0.5 mm diameter metal particles homogeneously distributed in the BV glass), the release of 99Tc from the metal is approximately the same as the release from 0.3 mass% soluble Tc salt in the castable refractory block and it is released over the same time period as the salt. Therefore, to limit the impact of precipitated Fe on the release of 99Tc, both the amount of precipitated Fe in the BV glass and the diameter of these particles should be minimized.

  18. Wick for metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

  19. Metal Insertion in a Microporous Metal-Organic Framework Lined...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Insertion in a Microporous Metal-Organic Framework Lined with 2,2 '-Bipyridine Previous Next List E. D. Bloch, D. Britt, C. Lee, C. J. Doonan, F. J. Uribe-Romo, H. Furukawa,...

  20. STRIPPING METAL COATINGS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siefen, H.T.; Campbell, J.M.

    1959-02-01

    A method is described for removing aluminumuranium-silicon alloy bonded to metallic U comprising subjecting the Al-U -Si alloy to treatment with hot concentrated HNO/sun 3/ to partially dissolve and embrittle the alloy and shot- blasting the embrittled alloy to loosen it from the U.

  1. Metal working lubricant compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andress, H.J.; Davis, R.H.; Schick, J.W.

    1981-08-11

    A lubricant concentrate for use in metal processing comprises a sulfur compound such as a sulfurized olefin or sulfurized mineral oil and an ester prepared from a fatty acid having 12 to 40 carbon atoms or the dimer thereof or a polyalkenylsuccinic acid or anhydride and a hydroxyl-containing amine.

  2. Serpentine metal gasket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothgeb, Timothy Moore; Reece, Charles Edwin

    2009-06-02

    A metallic seal or gasket for use in the joining of cryogenic fluid conduits, the seal or gasket having a generally planar and serpentine periphery defining a central aperture. According to a preferred embodiment, the periphery has at least two opposing elongated serpentine sides and two opposing arcuate ends joining the opposing elongated serpentine sides and is of a hexagonal cross-section.

  3. Metal halogen electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bellows, Richard J. (Hampton, NJ); Kantner, Edward (E. Brunswick, NJ)

    1988-08-23

    It has now been discovered that reduction in the coulombic efficiency of metal halogen cells can be minimized if the microporous separator employed in such cells is selected from one which is preferably wet by the aqueous electrolyte and is not wet substantially by the cathodic halogen.

  4. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conner, W.V.

    1981-10-09

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as souces of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  5. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conner, William V.

    1983-01-01

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  6. Writing Effective Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating (ISR)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Initial Summary Ratings Initial Summary Rating (ISR) At the end of the performance cycle, the rating official must prepare an ISR in ePerformance for each SES member who has completed at least 90 days on an established performance plan. Rating officials must take into account the SES member's accomplishments achieved during the performance cycle and the impact to the organization's performance. Rating officials must appraise executives realistically and fairly and avoid ratings inflation.

  7. October 1996 - September 2001 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    affecting a specific power purchase. For more specific information see: 1996 Final Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules: Power Rates (PDF, 84 pages, 188 kb) Ancillary...

  8. Method of producing adherent metal oxide coatings on metallic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, Michael H. (Clifton Park, NY); Varrin, Jr., Robert D. (McLean, VA)

    2001-01-01

    Provided is a process of producing an adherent synthetic corrosion product (sludge) coating on metallic surfaces. The method involves a chemical reaction between a dry solid powder mixture of at least one reactive metal oxide with orthophosphoric acid to produce a coating in which the particles are bound together and the matrix is adherent to the metallic surface.

  9. Catalysts and methods of increasing mass transfer rate of acid gas scrubbing solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remias, Joseph E.; Lippert, Cameron A.; Liu, Kunlei; Odom, Susan Anne; Burrows, Rachael Ann

    2016-02-23

    A novel transition metal trimer compound/catalyst is disclosed. A method of increasing the overall mass transfer rate of acid gas scrubbing solvents utilizing that catalyst is also provided.

  10. PULSE RATE DIVIDER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, H.C. Jr.

    1962-12-18

    A compact pulse-rate divider circuit affording low impedance output and high input pulse repetition rates is described. The circuit features a single secondary emission tube having a capacitor interposed between its dynode and its control grid. An output pulse is produced at the anode of the tube each time an incoming pulse at the control grid drives the tube above cutoff and the duration of each output pulse corresponds to the charging time of the capacitor. Pulses incoming during the time the grid bias established by the discharging capacitor is sufficiently negative that the pulses are unable to drive the tube above cutoff do not produce output pulses at the anode; these pulses are lost and a dividing action is thus produced by the circuit. The time constant of the discharge path may be vanied to vary in turn the division ratio of the circuit; the time constant of the charging circuit may be varied to vary the width of the output pulses. (AEC)

  11. Process for the fabrication of aluminum metallized pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Ramsey, Philip B.; Juntz, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    An improved method for fabricating pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets with superior heat transfer ability, longer life, and maximum energy transmission. Anisotropic pyrolytic graphite is contoured and/or segmented to match the erosion profile of the sputter target and then oriented such that the graphite's high thermal conductivity planes are in maximum contact with a thermally conductive metal backing. The graphite contact surface is metallized, using high rate physical vapor deposition (HRPVD), with an aluminum coating and the thermally conductive metal backing is joined to the metallized graphite target by one of four low-temperature bonding methods; liquid-metal casting, powder metallurgy compaction, eutectic brazing, and laser welding.

  12. Rare-earth neutral metal injection into an electron beam ion trap plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, E. W., E-mail: magee1@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hell, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universitt Erlangen-Nrnberg, 96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    We have designed and implemented a neutral metal vapor injector on the SuperEBIT high-energy electron beam ion trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A horizontally directed vapor of a europium metal is created using a thermal evaporation technique. The metal vapor is then spatially collimated prior to injection into the trap. The source's form and quantity constraints are significantly reduced making plasmas out of metal with vapor pressures ?10{sup ?7} Torr at ?1000?C more obtainable. A long pulsed or constant feed metal vapor injection method adds new flexibility by varying the timing of injection and rate of material being introduced into the trap.

  13. Metal-oxide-based energetic materials and synthesis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M. , Simpson; Randall L.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2006-01-17

    A method of preparing energetic metal-oxide-based energetic materials using sol-gel chemistry has been invented. The wet chemical sol-gel processing provides an improvement in both safety and performance. Essentially, a metal-oxide oxidizer skeletal structure is prepared from hydrolyzable metals (metal salts or metal alkoxides) with fuel added to the sol prior to gelation or synthesized within the porosity metal-oxide gel matrix. With metal salt precursors a proton scavenger is used to destabilize the sol and induce gelation. With metal alkoxide precursors standard well-known sol-gel hydrolysis and condensation reactions are used. Drying is done by standard sol-gel practices, either by a slow evaporation of the liquid residing within the pores to produce a high density solid nanocomposite, or by supercritical extraction to produce a lower density, high porous nanocomposite. Other ingredients may be added to this basic nanostructure to change physical and chemical properties, which include organic constituents for binders or gas generators during reactions, burn rate modifiers, or spectral emitters.

  14. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Gregory, Kevin M.

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  15. Energy Escalation Rate Calculator Download

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Escalation Rate Calculator (EERC) computes an average annual escalation rate for a specified time period, which can be used as an escalation rate for contract payments in energy savings performance contracts and utility energy services contracts.

  16. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  17. SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.; Schweikher, E.W.

    1958-05-27

    The treatment of metallic uranium to provide a surface to which adherent electroplates can be applied is described. Metallic uranium is subjected to an etchant treatment in aqueous concentrated hydrochloric acid, and the etched metal is then treated to dissolve the resulting black oxide and/or chloride film without destroying the etched metal surface. The oxide or chloride removal is effected by means of moderately concentrated nitric acid in 3 to 20 seconds.

  18. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Lawrence J.

    1984-01-01

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  19. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Lawrence J.

    1986-01-01

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  20. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, L.J.

    1982-09-20

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  1. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  2. Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Woods, Robert W.; Dawless, Robert K.; Hosler, Robert B.

    2000-01-01

    A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

  3. Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Woods, Robert W.; Dawless, Robert K.; Hosler, Robert B.

    2001-01-01

    A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

  4. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  5. Integrated decontamination process for metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Thomas S.; Whitlow, Graham A.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated process for decontamination of metals, particularly metals that are used in the nuclear energy industry contaminated with radioactive material. The process combines the processes of electrorefining and melt refining to purify metals that can be decontaminated using either electrorefining or melt refining processes.

  6. Fabrication of metallic glass structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cline, C.F.

    1983-10-20

    Amorphous metal powders or ribbons are fabricated into solid shapes of appreciable thickness by the application of compaction energy. The temperature regime wherein the amorphous metal deforms by viscous flow is measured. The metal powders or ribbons are compacted within the temperature regime.

  7. ORIGIN OF THE GALAXY MASS-METALLICITY-STAR FORMATION RELATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harwit, Martin; Brisbin, Drew

    2015-02-20

    We describe an equilibrium model that links the metallicity of low-redshift galaxies to stellar evolution models. It enables the testing of different stellar initial mass functions and metal yields against observed galaxy metallicities. We show that the metallicities of more than 80,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies in the low-redshift range 0.07 ? z ? 0.3 considerably constrain stellar evolution models that simultaneously relate galaxy stellar mass, metallicity, and star formation rates to the infall rate of low-metallicity extragalactic gas and outflow of enriched matter. A feature of our model is that it encompasses both the active star forming phases of a galaxy and epochs during which the same galaxy may lie fallow. We show that the galaxy mass-metallicity-star formation relation can be traced to infall of extragalactic gas mixing with native gas from host galaxies to form stars of observed metallicities, the most massive of which eject oxygen into extragalactic space. Most consequential among our findings is that, on average, extragalactic infall accounts for one half of the gas required for star formation, a ratio that is remarkably constant across galaxies with stellar masses ranging at least from M* = 2 10{sup 9} to 6 10{sup 10} M {sub ?}. This leads us to propose that star formation is initiated when extragalactic infall roughly doubles the mass of marginally stable interstellar clouds. The processes described may also account quantitatively for the metallicity of extragalactic space, though to check this the fraction of extragalactic baryons will need to be more firmly established.

  8. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Synthetic, Structural and Mechanistic Investigations of Olefin Polymerization Catalyzed by Early Transition Metal Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bercaw, John E.

    2014-05-23

    The goal of this project is to develop new catalysts and provide understanding of ligand effects on catalyst composition in order to guide development of superior catalyst systems for polymerization of olefins. Our group is designing and synthesizing new “LX2”,“pincer” type ligands and complexing early transition metals to afford precatalysts. In a collaboration with Hans Brintzinger from the University of Konstanz, we are also examining the structures of the components of catalyst systems obtained from reaction of zirconocene dichlorides with aluminum alkyls and aluminum hydrides. Such systems are currently used commercially to produce polyolefins, but the nature of the active and dormant species as well as the mechanisms of their interconversions are not understood. New information on catalyst design and performance may lead to new types of polymers and/or new chemical transformations between hydrocarbons and transition metal centers, ultimately contributing to the development of catalytic reactions for the production of fuels, commodity and polymeric materials.

  9. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-04-02

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  10. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  11. Fabrication of metal shells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Holleran, T.P.; Henderson, T.M.; Downs, R.L.; Nolen, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Small hollow metal spheres are needed as targets for particle-beam fusion experiments and as the inner fuel container for multi-shell targets. For the multishell application, shells fabricated of materials with high atomic numbers, e.g., gold, are of particular interest because they may effectively reduce preheating of the fuel. Because the shells must also contain the fuel mixture (deuterium and tritium) at high pressures, high strength materials, e.g., iron, are also of considerable interest. With the objective of proof of principle we have investigated several techniques of fabricating shells of metal or materials containing large fractions of high atomic number elements. These techniques, our experimental results and their evaluation are presented.

  12. Cyclopentadienyl-containing low-valent early transition metal olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Luo, Lubin; Yoon, Sung Cheol

    2007-01-09

    A catalyst system useful to polymerize and co-polymerize polar and non-polar olefin monomers is formed by in situ reduction with a reducing agent of a catalyst precursor comprising {Cp*MRR'.sub.n}.sup.+{A}.sup.- wherein Cp* is a cyclopentadienyl or substituted cyclopentadienyl moiety; M is an early transition metal; R is a C.sub.1 C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl; R' are independently selected from hydride, C.sub.1 C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl, SiR''.sub.3, NR''.sub.2, OR'', SR'', GeR''.sub.3, SnR''.sub.3, and C.dbd.C-containing groups (R''=C.sub.1 C.sub.10 hydrocarbyl); n is an integer selected to balance the oxidation state of M; and A is a suitable non-coordinating anionic cocatalyst or precursor. This catalyst system may form stereoregular olefin polymers including syndiotactic polymers of styrene and methylmethacrylate and isotactic copolymers of polar and nonpolar olefin monomers such as methylmethacrylate and styrene.

  13. Cyclopentadienyl-Containing Low-Valent Early Transition Metal Olefin Polymerization Catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Luo, Lubin; Yoon, Sung Cheol

    2004-06-08

    A catalyst system useful to polymerize and co-polymerize polar and non-polar olefin monomers is formed by in situ reduction with a reducing agent of a catalyst precursor comprising {Cp*MRR'.sub.n }.sup.+ {A}.sup.- wherein Cp* is a cyclopentadienyl or substituted cyclopentadienyl moiety; M is an early transition metal; R is a C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl; R' are independently selected from hydride, C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl, SiR".sub.3, NR".sub.2, OR", SR", GeR".sub.3, SnR".sub.3, and C.dbd.C-containing groups (R"=C.sub.1 -C.sub.10 hydrocarbyl); n is an integer selected to balance the oxidation state of M; and A is a suitable non-coordinating anionic cocatalyst or precursor. This catalyst system may form stereoregular olefin polymers including syndiotactic polymers of styrene and methylmethacrylate and isotactic copolymers of polar and nonpolar olefin monomers such as methylmethacrylate and styrene.

  14. Cyclopentadienyl-containing low-valent early transition metal olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Luo, Lubin; Yoon, Sung Cheol

    2006-10-10

    A catalyst system useful to polymerize and co-polymerize polar and non-polar olefin monomers is formed by in situ reduction with a reducing agent of a catalyst precursor comprising {Cp*MRR'.sub.n}.sup.+{A}.sup.- wherein Cp* is a cyclopentadienyl or substituted cyclopentadienyl moiety; M is an early transition metal; R is a C.sub.1 C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl; R' are independently selected from hydride, C.sub.1 C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl, SiR''.sub.3, NR''.sub.2, OR'', SR'', GeR''.sub.3, SnR''.sub.3, and C.dbd.C-containing groups (R''=C.sub.1 C.sub.10 hydrocarbyl); n is an integer selected to balance the oxidation state of M; and A is a suitable non-coordinating anionic cocatalyst or precursor. This catalyst system may form stereoregular olefin polymers including syndiotactic polymers of styrene and methylmethacrylate and isotactic copolymers of polar and nonpolar olefin monomers such as methylmethacrylate and styrene.

  15. Cyclopentadienyl-containing low-valent early transition metal olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Luo, Lubin; Yoon, Sung Cheol

    2003-04-08

    A catalyst system useful to polymerize and co-polymerize polar and non-polar olefin monomers is formed by in situ reduction with a reducing agent of a catalyst precursor comprising {Cp*MRR'.sub.n }.sup.+ {A}.sup.- wherein Cp* is a cyclopentadienyl or substituted cyclopentadienyl moiety; M is an early transition metal; R is a C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl; R' are independently selected from hydride, C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl, SiR".sub.3, NR".sub.2, OR", SR", GeR".sub.3, and SnR".sub.3 containing groups (R"=C.sub.1 -C.sub.10 hydrocarbyl); n is an integer selected to balance the oxidation state of M; and A is a suitable non-coordinating anionic cocatalyst or precursor. This catalyst system may form stereoregular olefin polymers including syndiotactic polymers of styrene and methylmethacrylate and isotactic copolymers of polar and nonpolar olefin monomers such as methylmethacrylate and styrene.

  16. Cyclopentadienyl-containing low-valent early transition metal olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Luo, Lubin; Yoon, Sung Cheol

    2003-12-30

    A catalyst system useful to polymerize and co-polymerize polar and non-polar olefin monomers is formed by in situ reduction with a reducing agent of a catalyst precursor comprising wherein Cp* is a cyclopentadienyl or substituted cyclopentadienyl moiety; M is an early transition metal; R is a C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl; R' are independently selected from hydride, C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl, SiR".sub.3, NR".sub.2, OR", SR", GeR".sub.3, SnR".sub.3, and C.dbd.C containing groups (R".dbd.C.sub.1 -C.sub.10 hydrocarbyl); n is an integer selected to balance the oxidation state of M; and A is a suitable non-coordinating anionic cocatalyst or precursor. This catalyst system may form stereoregular olefin polymers including syndiotactic polymers of styrene and methylmethacrylate and isotactic copolymers of polar and nonpolar olefin monomers such as methylmethacrylate and styrene.

  17. METAL COATING BATHS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, J.W.

    1958-08-26

    A method is presented for restoring the effectiveness of bronze coating baths used for hot dip coating of uranium. Such baths, containing a high proportion of copper, lose their ability to wet uranium surfaces after a period of use. The ability of such a bath to wet uranium can be restored by adding a small amount of metallic aluminum to the bath, and skimming the resultant hard alloy from the surface.

  18. Amorphous metal alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, R.; Merz, M.D.

    1980-04-09

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  19. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier5Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier5Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  20. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier1Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier1Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  1. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/DemandRateStructure/Tier3Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateDemandRateStructureTier3Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  2. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier3Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier3Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  3. Property:OpenEI/UtilityRate/EnergyRateStructure/Tier4Rate | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Property:OpenEIUtilityRateEnergyRateStructureTier4Rate Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type...

  4. Spray casting of metallic preforms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, John E.; Burch, Joseph V.; Sears, James W.

    2000-01-01

    A metal alloy is melted in a crucible and ejected from the bottom of the crucible as a descending stream of molten metal. The descending stream is impacted with a plurality of primary inert gas jets surrounding the molten metal stream to produce a plume of atomized molten metal droplets. An inert gas is blown onto a lower portion of the plume with a plurality of auxiliary inert gas jets to deflect the plume into a more restricted pattern of high droplet density, thereby substantially eliminating unwanted overspray and resulting wasted material. The plume is projected onto a moving substrate to form a monolithic metallic product having generally parallel sides.

  5. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfs, Denise Y.; Clavenna, Le Roy R.; Eakman, James M.; Kalina, Theodore

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  6. Characterization and analysis of metal wastage in coal-fired fluidized-bed combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazemi, A.H.; Madsen, M.M.; Malone, G.A.

    1985-08-01

    As an integral part of its program in fluidized-bed combustion technology development, the US Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) supports a number of projects directed toward providing both theoretical and experimental results which will guide solutions to the metal loss problem. As a part of this effort, METC and the MITRE Corporation have undertaken a project to compile and analyze metal loss data obtained from a variety of FBC systems ranging from small-scale experimental units to industrial-size facilities and to establish a functional relationship between metal loss for several alloy types and various FBC design and operating parameters. To date, metal loss and operating information have been categorized for forty-four alloys in twenty separate FBC systems worldwide. Review of the tabulated data indicate the following trends: metal temperatures above 1200/sup 0/F significantly increase rates of metal loss; system operation with high excess air reduces metal loss, but does not eliminate it; use of coals with high ash sintering temperatures does not significantly reduce metal loss; degree of metal loss is much lower for surfaces exposed in the freeboard than for in-bed surfaces; the rate of metal loss decreases with time of exposure; iron-based stainless steels are relatively resistant to conditions which cause metal loss; cobalt-based alloys and high-chromium steels show significant resistance to metal loss; nickel-based alloys are most susceptible to metal loss; sulfidation/oxidation attack on metals within fluidized beds are more likely to occur if sorbent is present; and metal attack will occur irrespective of coal and sorbent type. 25 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Reduction of Metal Oxide to Metal using Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ramana Reddy

    2012-04-12

    A novel pathway for the high efficiency production of metal from metal oxide means of electrolysis in ionic liquids at low temperature was investigated. The main emphasis was to eliminate the use of carbon and high temperature application in the reduction of metal oxides to metals. The emphasis of this research was to produce metals such as Zn, and Pb that are normally produced by the application of very high temperatures. The reduction of zinc oxide to zinc and lead oxide to lead were investigated. This study involved three steps in accomplishing the final goal of reduction of metal oxide to metal using ionic liquids: 1) Dissolution of metal oxide in an ionic liquid, 2) Determination of reduction potential using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 3) Reduction of the dissolved metal oxide. Ionic liquids provide additional advantage by offering a wide potential range for the deposition. In each and every step of the process, more than one process variable has been examined. Experimental results for electrochemical extraction of Zn from ZnO and Pb from PbO using eutectic mixtures of Urea ((NH2)2CO) and Choline chloride (HOC2H4N(CH3)3+Cl-) or (ChCl) in a molar ratio 2:1, varying voltage and temperatures were carried out. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of ionic liquids with and without metal oxide additions were conducted. FTIR and induction coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICPS) was used in the characterization of the metal oxide dissolved ionic liquid. Electrochemical experiments were conducted using EG&G potentiostat/galvanostat with three electrode cell systems. Cyclic voltammetry was used in the determination of reduction potentials for the deposition of metals. Chronoamperometric experiments were carried out in the potential range of -0.6V to -1.9V for lead and -1.4V to -1.9V for zinc. The deposits were characterized using XRD and SEM-EDS for phase, morphological and elemental analysis. The results showed that pure metal was deposited on the cathode. Successful extraction of metal from metal oxide dissolved in Urea/ChCl (2:1) was accomplished. The current efficiencies were relatively high in both the metal deposition processes with current efficiency greater than 86% for lead and 95% for zinc. This technology will advance the metal oxide reduction process by increasing the process efficiency and also eliminate the production of CO2 which makes this an environmentally benign technology for metal extraction.

  8. Hysteresis-free high rate reactive sputtering of niobium oxide, tantalum oxide, and aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srhammar, Erik, E-mail: erik.sarhammar@angstrom.uu.se; Berg, Sren; Nyberg, Tomas [Department of Solid State Electronics, The ngstrm Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    This work reports on experimental studies of reactive sputtering from targets consisting of a metal and its oxide. The composition of the targets varied from pure metal to pure oxide of Al, Ta, and Nb. This combines features from both the metal target and oxide target in reactive sputtering. If a certain relation between the metal and oxide parts is chosen, it may be possible to obtain a high deposition rate, due to the metal part, and a hysteresis-free process, due to the oxide part. The aim of this work is to quantify the achievable boost in oxide deposition rate from a hysteresis-free process by using a target consisting of segments of a metal and its oxide. Such an increase has been previously demonstrated for Ti using a homogeneous substoichiometric target. The achievable gain in deposition rate depends on transformation mechanisms from oxide to suboxides due to preferential sputtering of oxygen. Such mechanisms are different for different materials and the achievable gain is therefore material dependent. For the investigated materials, the authors have demonstrated oxide deposition rates that are 1.510 times higher than what is possible from metal targets in compound mode. However, although the principle is demonstrated for oxides of Al, Ta, and Nb, a similar behavior is expected for most oxides.

  9. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchheit, R.G.; Martinez, M.A.

    1998-05-26

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides is disclosed. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds. 1 fig.

  10. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchheit, Rudolph G.; Martinez, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds.

  11. October 2005 - March 2006 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 30.56% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  12. April - September 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 40.77% non-Slice LB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is simply a...

  13. October 2004 - March 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The PDF documents above provide tables of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with the LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustments for each month of the rate period. The table below is simply...

  14. April - September 2005 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 36.93% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  15. October 2003 - March 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 43.66% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the rate period. The table below is simply a...

  16. October 2002 - March 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 43.91% non-Slice LB + FB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is...

  17. October 2001 - March 2002 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 46% non-Slice LB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is simply a...

  18. April - September 2003 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 49.50% non-Slice LB + FB CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below is...

  19. April - September 2004 Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    above provides a table of monthly Slice, PF, RL, and IP rates with a 47.00% non-Slice LB + FB + SN CRAC adjustment for each month of the six-month rate period. The table below...

  20. FPS-96R Rate Adjustment (rates/ratecases)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Final Firm Power Products and Services (FPS-96R) Rate Adjustment In August 1999, BPA proposed to correct errors in the Firm Power Products and Services rate schedule (FPS-96), and...