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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Metal Hydrides - Science Needs  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Storage Grand Challenge Pre-Solicitation Meeting, June 19, 2003 1 Metal Hydrides - Science Needs TRADITIONAL METALLIC HYDRIDES: 1.5 to 2 wt.% H. Well studied. COMPLEX...

2

Metal Hydride Hydrogen Storage R and D  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE's research on complex metal hydrides targets the development of advanced metal hydride materials including light-weight complex hydrides, destabilized binary hydrides, intermetallic hydrides,...

3

Metal Hydride Hydrogen Storage Research and Development  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE's research on complex metal hydrides targets the development of advanced metal hydride materials including light-weight complex hydrides, destabilized binary hydrides, intermetallic hydrides,...

4

Transition-Metal Hydrides  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transition-Metal Hydride Electrochromics Transition-Metal Hydride Electrochromics A new type of electrochromic hydride material has interesting and unusual properties. Thin Ni-Mg films, for example, are mirror-like in appearance and have very low visible transmittance. On exposure to hydrogen gas or on reduction in alkaline electrolyte, the films become transparent. The transition is believed to result from formation of nickel magnesium hydride, Mg2NiH4. Switchable mirrors based on rare earth hydrides were discovered in 1996 at Vrije University in the Netherlands, Rare earth-magnesium alloy films were subsequently found to be superior to the pure lanthanides in maximum transparency and mirror-state reflectivity by Philips Laboratories. The newer transition-metal types which use less expensive and less reactive materials were discovered at LBNL. This has now become a very active area of study with a network of researchers.

5

Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

Ron, M.; Gruen, D.M.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Sheft, I.

1980-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

6

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkali metal hydrides Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hf for selected alkali metal hydrides, alkaline earth metal hydrides, transition metal hydrides... of binary hydrides based on alkali metals, alkaline earth ... Source:...

7

Porous metal hydride composite and preparation and uses thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite formed from large pieces of aggregate formed from (1) metal hydride (or hydride-former) powder and (2) either metal powder or plastic powder or both is prepared. The composite has large macroscopic interconnected pores (much larger than the sizes of the powders which are used) and will have a very fast heat transfer rate and low windage loss. It will be useful, for example, in heat engines, hydrogen storage devices, and refrigerator components which depend for their utility upon both a fast rate of hydriding and dehydriding. Additionally, a method of preparing the composite and a method of increasing the rates of hydriding and dehydriding of metal hydrides are also given.

Steyert, W.A.; Olsen, C.E.

1980-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

8

Porous metal hydride composite and preparation and uses thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite formed from large pieces of aggregate formed from (1) metal hydride (or hydride-former) powder and (2) either metal powder or plastic powder or both is prepared. The composite has large macroscopic interconnected pores (much larger than the sizes of the powders which are used) and will have a very fast heat transfer rate and low windage loss. It will be useful, for example, in heat engines, hydrogen storage devices, and refrigerator components which depend for their utility upon both a fast rate of hydriding and dehydriding. Additionally, a method of preparing the composite and a method of increasing the rates of hydriding and dehydriding of metal hydrides are also given.

Steyert, William A. (Los Alamos, NM); Olsen, Clayton E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Recent developments in hydrogen storage applications based on metal hydrides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metal hydrides have been commercialized for battery applications for more than 8 years. In case of storage applications, metal hydrides were extensively evaluated in combination with combustion engines. The relatively low gravimetric energy density of hydride tanks based on low temperature metal hydrides prevented the commercial use of that technology. Recently, lasting progress in the PEM fuel cell technology offers chances for metal hydride storage systems mainly for low power applications, but also for niche markets. The paper describes promising projects on metal hydride storage technology and gives an outlook about improvements of both the metal hydride alloy performance and the performance of metal hydride storage tanks.

V. Güther; A. Otto

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Liquid suspensions of reversible metal hydrides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The reversibility of the process M + x/2 H/sub 2/ ..-->.. MH/sub x/, where M is a metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under a liquid, thereby to reduce contamination, provide better temperature control and provide in situ mobility of the reactants. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen (at high pressures) and to release (at low pressures) previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the former is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Winsche, W.E.

1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

11

Influence of uranium hydride oxidation on uranium metal behaviour  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work addresses concerns that the rapid, exothermic oxidation of active uranium hydride in air could stimulate an exothermic reaction (burning) involving any adjacent uranium metal, so as to increase the potential hazard arising from a hydride reaction. The effect of the thermal reaction of active uranium hydride, especially in contact with uranium metal, does not increase in proportion with hydride mass, particularly when considering large quantities of hydride. Whether uranium metal continues to burn in the long term is a function of the uranium metal and its surroundings. The source of the initial heat input to the uranium, if sufficient to cause ignition, is not important. Sustained burning of uranium requires the rate of heat generation to be sufficient to offset the total rate of heat loss so as to maintain an elevated temperature. For dense uranium, this is very difficult to achieve in naturally occurring circumstances. Areas of the uranium surface can lose heat but not generate heat. Heat can be lost by conduction, through contact with other materials, and by convection and radiation, e.g. from areas where the uranium surface is covered with a layer of oxidised material, such as burned-out hydride or from fuel cladding. These rates of heat loss are highly significant in relation to the rate of heat generation by sustained oxidation of uranium in air. Finite volume modelling has been used to examine the behaviour of a magnesium-clad uranium metal fuel element within a bottle surrounded by other un-bottled fuel elements. In the event that the bottle is breached, suddenly, in air, it can be concluded that the bulk uranium metal oxidation reaction will not reach a self-sustaining level and the mass of uranium oxidised will likely to be small in relation to mass of uranium hydride oxidised. (authors)

Patel, N.; Hambley, D. [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom); Clarke, S.A. [Sellafield Ltd (United Kingdom); Simpson, K.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

URANIUM METAL POWDER PRODUCTION, PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS, AND REACTION RATE STUDIES OF A HYDRIDE-DEHYDRIDE PROCESS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

atmosphere to reduce sample oxidation .................................................................................................. 13 12 Aluminum oxide crucible located at the bottom of the hydride-dehydride rig. ... 14 13 Furnace and furnace... at 60 minutes, 5psig, 250?C hydride, 325?C dehydride ................................................................................................... 30 27 Rotary kiln designed at ORNL for use in voloxidation...

Sames, William

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

13

Encapsulated Metal Hydride for Hydrogen Separation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

concentration feed stock, not for low concentration � Hydrogen economy will need hydrogen recovery from lowEncapsulated Metal Hydride for Hydrogen Separation (Formerly Separation Membrane Development) DOE Hydrogen Program 2003 Merit Review and Peer Evaluation L. Kit Heung, Jim Congdon Savannah River Technology

14

METAL HYDRIDE HYDROGEN COMPRESSORS: A REVIEW  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal hydride (MH) thermal sorption compression is an efficient and reliable method allowing a conversion of energy from heat into a compressed hydrogen gas. The most important component of such a thermal engine the metal hydride material itself should possess several material features in order to achieve an efficient performance in the hydrogen compression. Apart from the hydrogen storage characteristics important for every solid H storage material (e.g. gravimetric and volumetric efficiency of H storage, hydrogen sorption kinetics and effective thermal conductivity), the thermodynamics of the metal-hydrogen systems is of primary importance resulting in a temperature dependence of the absorption/desorption pressures). Several specific features should be optimized to govern the performance of the MH-compressors including synchronisation of the pressure plateaus for multi-stage compressors, reduction of slope of the isotherms and hysteresis, increase of cycling stability and life time, together with challenges in system design associated with volume expansion of the metal matrix during the hydrogenation. The present review summarises numerous papers and patent literature dealing with MH hydrogen compression technology. The review considers (a) fundamental aspects of materials development with a focus on structure and phase equilibria in the metal-hydrogen systems suitable for the hydrogen compression; and (b) applied aspects, including their consideration from the applied thermodynamic viewpoint, system design features and performances of the metal hydride compressors and major applications.

Bowman Jr, Robert C [ORNL] [ORNL; Yartys, Dr. Volodymyr A. [Institute for Energy Technology (IFE)] [Institute for Energy Technology (IFE); Lototskyy, Dr. Michael V [University of the Western Cape, South Africa] [University of the Western Cape, South Africa; Pollet, Dr. B.G. [University of the Western Cape, South Africa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

Zidan, Ragaiy (Aiken, SC); Ritter, James A. (Lexington, SC); Ebner, Armin D. (Lexington, SC); Wang, Jun (Columbia, SC); Holland, Charles E. (Cayce, SC)

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

16

Proposed Virtual Center for Excellence for Metal Hydride Development...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Virtual Center for Excellence for Metal Hydride Development Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC....

17

Mathematical modelling of a metal hydride hydrogen storage system.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In order for metal hydride hydrogen storage systems to compete with existing energy storage technology, such as gasoline tanks and batteries, it is important to… (more)

MacDonald, Brendan David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNL’s metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800°C). A high-temperature tank in PNNL’s storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNL’s thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

None

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

19

Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus having a first substrate having (1) a cavity, (2) one or more resistive heaters, and (3) one or more coatings forming a diffusion barrier to hydrogen; a second substrate having (1) an outlet valve comprising a pressure relief structure and (2) one or more coatings forming a diffusion barrier to hydrogen, wherein said second substrate is coupled to said first substrate forming a sealed volume in said cavity; a metal hydride material contained within said cavity; and a gas distribution system formed by coupling a microfluidic interconnect to said pressure relief structure. Additional apparatuses and methods are also disclosed.

Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Yu, Conrad (Antioch, CA)

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

20

Process for production of a metal hydride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for production of a metal hydride compound MH.sub.x, wherein x is one or two and M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg. The process comprises combining a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.xM with aluminum, hydrogen and at least one metal selected from among titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula MH.sub.x. R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group. A mole ratio of aluminum to (R.sup.1O).sub.xM is from 0.1:1 to 1:1. The catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum.

Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Development of a metal hydride electrode waste treatment process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Manufacturing residues of metal hydride electrodes for nickel - metal hydride batteries were chemically processed to recover the metal part and heat treated for the organic part. Chemical recovery yielded Ni-Co alloy after electrolysis of the solution and hydroxides of other metal, mainly rare earths. The organic part, pyrolyzed at 700 C, led to separation between carbon and fluorinated matter. Infrared coupling at the output of the pyrolysis furnace was used to identify the pyrolysis gases.

Bianco, J.C.; Martin, D.; Ansart, F.; Castillo, S.

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Recent advances in metal hydrides for clean energy applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal hydrides are a fascinating class of materials that can be utilized for a surprising variety of clean energy applications, including smart solar collectors, smart windows, sensors, thermal energy storage, and batteries, in addition to their traditional application for hydrogen storage. Over the past decade, research on metal hydrides for hydrogen storage increased due to global governmental incentives and an increased focus on hydrogen storage research for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell operation. Tremendous progress has been made in so-called complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage applications with the discovery of many new hydrides containing covalently bound complex anions. Many of these materials have applications beyond hydrogen storage and are being investigated for lithium-ion battery separator and anode materials. In this issue of MRS Bulletin , we present the state of the art of key evolving metal-hydride-based clean energy technologies with an outlook toward future needs.

Ronnebro, Ewa; Majzoub, Eric H.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Diffusional exchange of isotopes in a metal hydride sphere.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the Spherical Particle Exchange Model (SPEM), which simulates exchange of one hydrogen isotope by another hydrogen isotope in a spherical metal hydride particle. This is one of the fundamental physical processes during isotope exchange in a bed of spherical metal particles and is thus one of the key components in any comprehensive physics-based model of exchange. There are two important physical processes in the model. One is the entropy of mixing between the two isotopes; the entropy of mixing is increased by having both isotopes randomly placed at interstitial sites on the lattice and thus impedes the exchange process. The other physical process is the elastic interaction between isotope atoms on the lattice. The elastic interaction is the cause for {beta}-phase formation and is independent of the isotope species. In this report the coupled diffusion equations for two isotopes in the {beta}-phase hydride are solved. A key concept is that the diffusion of one isotope depends not only on its concentration gradient, but also on the concentration gradient of the other isotope. Diffusion rate constants and the chemical potentials for deuterium and hydrogen in the {beta}-phase hydride are reviewed because these quantities are essential for an accurate model of the diffusion process. Finally, a summary of some of the predictions from the SPEM model are provided.

Wolfer, Wilhelm G.; Hamilton, John C.; James, Scott Carlton

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Hydridable material for the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride storage battery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A monophase hydridable material for the negative electrode of a nickel-metal hydride storage battery with a "Lave's phase" structure of hexagonal C14 type (MgZn.sub.2) has the general formula: Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x Ni.sub.a Mn.sub.b Al.sub.c Co.sub.d V.sub.e where ##EQU1##

Knosp, Bernard (Neuilly-sur-Seine, FR); Bouet, Jacques (Paris, FR); Jordy, Christian (Dourdan, FR); Mimoun, Michel (Neuilly-sur-Marne, FR); Gicquel, Daniel (Lanorville, FR)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries October 17, 2011 - 10:42am Addthis Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries Matthew Loveless Matthew Loveless Data Integration Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Through licensing and collaborative work, Energy Department-sponsored research can yield great economic benefits and help bring important new products to market. The Energy Department funds cutting-edge research on a broad range of topics ranging from advanced battery construction to the modeling of industrial processes and supercomputer simulation of supernovae. But this research is not only about furthering our understanding of the world around

26

Metal Hydride Chemical Heat Pumps for Industrial Use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydriding alloys are intermetallic absorbent compounds which have the remarkable quality of absorbing very large quantities of hydrogen gas per unit volume of metallic powder. The absorption and desorption of hydrogen are exothermic and endothermic...

Ally, M. R.; Rebello, W. J.; Rosso, M. J., Jr.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Dynamic modeling and simulation of hydrogen supply capacity from a metal hydride tank  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The current study presents a modeling of a LaNi5 metal hydride-based hydrogen storage tank to simulate and control the dynamic processes of hydrogen discharge from a metal hydride tank in various operating conditions. The metal hydride takes a partial volume in the tank and, therefore, hydrogen discharge through the exit of the tank was driven by two factors; one factor is compressibility of pressurized gaseous hydrogen in the tank, i.e. the pressure difference between the interior and the exit of the tank makes hydrogen released. The other factor is desorption of hydrogen from the metal hydride, which is subsequently released through the tank exit. The duration of a supposed full load supply is evaluated, which depends on the initial tank pressure, the circulation water temperature, and the metal hydride volume fraction in the tank. In the high pressure regime, the duration of full load supply is increased with increasing circulation water temperature while, in the low pressure regime where the initial amount of hydrogen absorbed in the metal hydride varies sensitively with the metal hydride temperature, the duration of full load supply is increased and then decreased with increasing circulation water temperature. PID control logic was implemented in the hydrogen supply system to simulate a representative scenario of hydrogen consumption demand for a fuel cell system. The demanded hydrogen consumption rate was controlled adequately by manipulating the discharge valve of the tank at a circulation water temperature not less than a certain limit, which is increased with an increase in the tank exit pressure.

Ju-Hyeong Cho; Sang-Seok Yu; Man-Young Kim; Sang-Gyu Kang; Young-Duk Lee; Kook-Young Ahn; Hyun-Jin Ji

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Characterization and High Throughput Analysis of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage by Steven James BarceloMetal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage by Steven James BarceloCo-chair Efficient hydrogen storage is required for fuel

Barcelo, Steven James

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SANDIA REPORT SANDIA REPORT SAND2012-0786 Unlimited Release Printed February 2012 Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence Lennie Klebanoff Director, Metal Hydride Center of Excellence Jay Keller Deputy Director, Metal Hydride Center of Excellence Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited. Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy

30

Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin composite material indicating that the polymer is physically intact upon cycling. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride in the form of a composite material reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. This

Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Process of forming a sol-gel/metal hydride composite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An external gelation process is described which produces granules of metal hydride particles contained within a sol-gel matrix. The resulting granules are dimensionally stable and are useful for applications such as hydrogen separation and hydrogen purification. An additional coating technique for strengthening the granules is also provided.

Congdon, James W. (Aiken, SC)

2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

32

Synthesis and characterization of metal hydride/carbon aerogel composites for hydrogen storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two materials currently of interest for onboard lightweight hydrogen storage applications are sodium aluminum hydride (NaAlH4), a complex metal hydride, and carbon aerogels (CAs), a light porous material connected by several spherical nanoparticles. ...

Kuen-Song Lin; Yao-Jen Mai; Su-Wei Chiu; Jing-How Yang; Sammy L. I. Chan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows Title Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-1089E Year of Publication 2008 Authors Anders, André, Jonathan L. Slack, and Thomas J. Richardson Journal Thin Solid Films Volume 1 Date Published 08/2003 Call Number LBNL-1089E Abstract Proof-of-principle gas-reservoir MnNiMg electrochromic mirror devices have been investigated. In contrast to conventional electrochromic approaches, hydrogen is stored (at low concentration) in the gas volume between glass panes of the insulated glass units (IGUs). The elimination of a solid state ion storage layer simplifies the layer stack, enhances overall transmission, and reduces cost. The cyclic switching properties were demonstrated and system durability improved with the incorporation a thin Zr barrier layer between the MnNiMg layer and the Pd catalyst. Addition of 9% silver to the palladium catalyst further improved system durability. About 100 full cycles have been demonstrated before devices slow considerably. Degradation of device performance appears to be related to Pd catalyst mobility, rather than delamination or metal layer oxidation issues originally presumed likely to present significant challenges.

34

Thermomechanics of hydrogen storage in metallic hydrides: modeling and analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A thermodynamically consistent mathematical model for hydrogen adsorption in metal hydrides is proposed. Beside hydrogen diffusion, the model accounts for phase transformation accompanied by hysteresis, swelling, temperature and heat transfer, strain, and stress. We prove existence of solutions of the ensuing system of partial differential equations by a carefully-designed, semi-implicit approximation scheme. A generalization for a drift-diffusion of multi-component ionized "gas" is outlined, too.

Tomas Roubicek; Giuseppe Tomassetti

2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

35

E-Print Network 3.0 - annulus metal hydride Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Introduction Metal hydride applications span a wide variety of tech nologies eg energy conversion... chemical compressors and hydrogen storage A knowledge of heat and...

36

Thermodynamics of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage applications using first principles calculations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Metal hydrides are promising candidates for H2 storage, but high stability and poor kinetics are the important challenges which have to be solved for vehicular… (more)

Kim, Ki Chul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Designation of Sites for Remedial Action - Metal Hydrides, Beverly,  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

T: T: Designation of Sites for Remedial Action - Metal Hydrides, Beverly, MA; Bridgeport Brass, Adrian, MI and Seymour, Chicago, IL CT; National Guard Armory, 0: Joe LaGrone, Manager Oak Ridge Operations Office Based on the attached radiological survey data (Attachments 1 through 3) and an appropriate authority review, the following properties are being authorized for remedial action. It should be noted that the attached survey data are for designation purposes only and that Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) should conduct appropriate comprehensive characterization studies to determine the extent'and magnitude of contamination on properties. Site Location Priority Former Bridgeport Brass Co. (General Motors) Adrian, MI Low Former Bridgeport Brass Co.

38

ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

2011-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

39

Laves phase hydrogen storage alloys for super-high-pressure metal hydride hydrogen compressors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ti-Cr- and Ti-Mn-based alloys were prepared to be low- and high-pressure stage metals for a double-stage super-high-pressure metal hydride hydrogen compressor. Their crystallographic characteristics and hydrogen

Xiumei Guo; Shumao Wang; Xiaopeng Liu; Zhinian Li; Fang Lü; Jing Mi; Lei Hao…

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films T. J. Richardsona@lbl.gov Abstract Mixed metal thin films containing magnesium and a first-row transition element exhibit very large and coordination of the magnesium and transition metal atoms during hydrogen absorption were studied using dynamic

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films Title X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-50574 Year of Publication 2002 Authors Richardson, Thomas J., Baker Farangis, Jonathan L. Slack, Ponnusamy Nachimuthu, Rupert C. C. Perera, Nobumichi Tamura, and Michael D. Rubin Journal Journal of Alloys and Compounds Volume 356-357 Start Page 204 Pagination 204-207 Date Published 08/2003 Keywords A. hydrogen storage materials, NEXAFS, thin film s; C. EXAFS, x-ray diffraction Abstract Mixed metal thin films containing magnesium and a first-row transition element exhibit very large changes in both reflectance and transmittance on exposure to hydrogen gas. Changes in electronic structure and coordination of the magnesium and transition metal atoms during hydrogen absorption were studied using dynamic in situ transmission mode X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Mg K-edge and Ni, Co, and Ti L-edge spectra reflect both reversible and irreversible changes in the metal environments. A significant shift in the nickel L absorption edge shows it to be an active participant in hydride formation. The effect on cobalt and titanium is much less dramatic, suggesting that these metals act primarily as catalysts for formation of magnesium hydride.

42

Hydriding and dehydriding characteristics of LiBH{sub 4} and transition metals-added magnesium hydride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Hydriding reaction curves under 12 bar H{sub 2}, and dehydriding reaction curves under 1.0 bar H{sub 2}, at 593 K at the 1st cycle for MgH{sub 2}–10Ni–2LiBH{sub 4}–2Ti and MgH{sub 2}. Highlights: ? Addition of Ni, LiBH{sub 4}, and Ti to MgH{sub 2} to increase reaction rates. ? Sample preparation by reactive mechanical grinding. ? At n = 2, the sample absorbed 4.05 wt% H for 60 min at 593 K under 12 bar H{sub 2}. ? Analysis of rate-controlling step for dehydriding of the sample at n = 3. - Abstract: In this study, MgH{sub 2} was used as a starting material instead of Mg. Ni, Ti, and LiBH{sub 4} with a high hydrogen-storage capacity of 18.4 wt% were added. A sample with a composition of MgH{sub 2}–10Ni–2LiBH{sub 4}–2Ti was prepared by reactive mechanical grinding. The activation of MgH{sub 2}–10Ni–2LiBH{sub 4}–2Ti was completed after the first hydriding–dehydrding cycle. The hydriding rate decreases as the temperature increases due to the decrease in the driving force for the hydriding reaction. At the 1st cycle, the sample desorbs 1.45 wt% H for 10 min, 2.54 wt% H for 20 min, 3.13 wt% H for 30 min, and 3.40 wt% H for 60 min at 593 K under 1.0 bar H{sub 2}. At the 2nd cycle, the sample absorbs 3.84 wt% H for 5 min, 3.96 wt% H for 10 min, and 4.05 wt% H for 60 min at 593 K under 12 bar H{sub 2}. MgH{sub 2}–10Ni–2LiBH{sub 4}–2Ti after reactive mechanical grinding contained MgH{sub 2}, Mg, Ni, TiH{sub 1.924}, and MgO phases. The reactive mechanical grinding of Mg with Ni, LiBH{sub 4}, and Ti is considered to create defects on the surface and in the interior of Mg (to facilitate nucleation), and to reduce the particle size of Mg (to shorten diffusion distances of hydrogen atoms). The formation of Mg{sub 2}Ni during hydriding–dehydriding cycling increases the hydriding and dehydriding rates of the sample.

Song, Myoung Youp, E-mail: songmy@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research Center, Engineering Research Institute, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Young Jun; Lee, Seong Ho [Department of Materials Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hye Ryoung [Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbongdong, Bukgu, Gwangju, 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

Erroneous Wave Functions of Ciuchi et al for Collective Modes in Neutron Production on Metallic Hydride Cathodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There is a recent comment (Ciuchi et al., 2012) concerning the theory of collective many body effects on the neutron production rates in a chemical battery cathode. Ciuchi et al employ an inverse beta decay expression that contains a two body amplitude. Only one electron and one proton may exist in the Ciuchi et al model initial state wave function. A flaw in their reasoning is that one cannot in reality describe collective many body correlations with only a two particle wave function. One needs very many particles to describe collective effects. In the model wave functions of Ciuchi et al there are no metallic hydrides, there are no cathodes and there are no chemical batteries. Employing a wave function with only one electron and one proton is inadequate for describing collective metallic hydride surface quantum plasma physics in cathodes accurately.

Widom, A; Larsen, L

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Erroneous Wave Functions of Ciuchi et al for Collective Modes in Neutron Production on Metallic Hydride Cathodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There is a recent comment (Ciuchi et al., 2012) concerning the theory of collective many body effects on the neutron production rates in a chemical battery cathode. Ciuchi et al employ an inverse beta decay expression that contains a two body amplitude. Only one electron and one proton may exist in the Ciuchi et al model initial state wave function. A flaw in their reasoning is that one cannot in reality describe collective many body correlations with only a two particle wave function. One needs very many particles to describe collective effects. In the model wave functions of Ciuchi et al there are no metallic hydrides, there are no cathodes and there are no chemical batteries. Employing a wave function with only one electron and one proton is inadequate for describing collective metallic hydride surface quantum plasma physics in cathodes accurately.

A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava; L. Larsen

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

45

Synthesis, characterization and reactivity of several rhenium hydride complexes. A study of the role of metal hydrides in organometallic reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanistic role of transition metal hydrides in organometallic reactions has been studied using several low valent, electron rich rhenium complexes. The reaction ReH[sub 7](PPh[sub 3])[sub 2] with indene has been found to yield products that are [eta][sup 5]-C[sub 9]H[sub 7]ReH[sub 2](PPh[sub 3])[sub 2] and ([eta][sup 5]-C[sub 9]H[sub 11])ReH[sub 2](PPh[sub 3])[sub 2], respectively. The mechanism proposed for the formation of these two products consists of several metal to ring hydride migrations, and the activation parameters for one of the migrations have been obtained. Hydride migrations are prevalent in the subsequent chemistry of ([eta][sup 5]-C[sub 9]H[sub 11])ReH[sub 2](PPh[sub 3])[sub 2], as well as in the similar complex ([eta][sup 4]-C[sub 9]H[sub 12])ReH[sub 3](PPh[sub 3])[sub 2]. The complex ([eta][sup 4]-C[sub 4]H[sub 5]S)ReH[sub 2](PPh[sub 3])[sub 2] has been synthesized and structurally characterized in an attempt to model the interaction of thiophene with a metal hydride surface which is presumably present during typical hydrodesulfurization conditions. The thermolysis of ([eta][sup 4]-C[sub 4]H[sub 5]S)ReH[sub 2](PPh[sub 3])[sub 2] in the presence of PMe[sub 3] has been found to yield free tetrahydrothiophene and the cyclometallated Re(PMe[sub 3])[sub 4](PPH[sub 2]C[sub 6]H[sub 4]), while photolysis with excess PMe[sub 3] yields a mixture of organometallic products in which the thiophene ligand has undergone C-S bond cleavage. Products have been identified that contain an S-bound 1-butene-1-thiolate ligand, an [eta][sup 3]-allyl bound 1-butene-1-thiolate ligand, an ethylthioketene ligand and an S-bound 1-butanethiolate ligand, all of which represent the first such homogeneous transformations of thiophene. The photochemical ligand exchange reactions and the observed H/D exchange catalysis (between a deuterated solvent and a protio substrate) of CpReH[sub 2](PPh[sub 3])[sub 2] have been studied in detail.

Rosini, G.P.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Method and composition in which metal hydride particles are embedded in a silica network  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A silica embedded metal hydride composition and a method for making such a composition. The composition is made via the following process: A quantity of fumed silica is blended with water to make a paste. After adding metal hydride particles, the paste is dried to form a solid. According to one embodiment of the invention, the solid is ground into granules for use of the product in hydrogen storage. Alternatively, the paste can be molded into plates or cylinders and then dried for use of the product as a hydrogen filter. Where mechanical strength is required, the paste can be impregnated in a porous substrate or wire network.

Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Analytical assessment of the thermal behavior of nickel-metal hydride batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analytical assessment of the thermal behavior of nickel-metal hydride batteries Peyman Taheri in batteries with orthotropic thermal conductivities, where the heat generation is due to irreversible of the battery thermal behavior with modest numerical effort. The accuracy of the proposed model is tested

Bahrami, Majid

48

Project Profile: Low-Cost Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage System  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under the National Laboratory R&D competitive funding opportunity, is collaborating with Curtin University (CU) to evaluate new metal hydride materials for thermal energy storage (TES) that meet the SunShot cost and performance targets for TES systems.

49

First Principles Studies of Phase Stability and Reaction Dynamics in Complex Metal Hydrides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Complex metal hydrides are believed to be one of the most promising materials for developing hydrogen storage systems that can operate under desirable conditions. At the same time, these are also a class of materials that exhibit intriguing properties. We have used state-of-the-art computational techniques to study the fundamental properties of these materials.

Chou, Mei-Yin

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

50

Evaluation of Protected Metal Hydride Slurries in a H2 Mini-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaluation of Protected Metal Hydride Slurries in a H2 Mini- Grid TIAX, LLC Acorn Park Cambridge_MERIT_REVIEW_MAY2003 2 Introduction Hydrogen Mini-Grid Concept Distributed FCPS utilizing a H2 Mini-Grid can provide waste heat can be used for hot water or space heating in buildings (i.e. "cogen") Distributed FCPS

51

Nickel-Metal-Hydride Batterie--High Energy Storage for Electric Vehicles  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Freedomcar & Vehicle Technologies Program Freedomcar & Vehicle Technologies Program Nickel-Metal-Hydride Batteries - High Energy Storage for Electric Vehicles Background The key to making electric vehicles (EVs) practical is the development of batteries that can provide performance comparable with that of con ventional vehicles at a similar cost. Most EV batteries have limited energy storage capabili ties, permitting only relatively short driving distances before the batteries must be recharged. In 1991, under a coopera tive agreement with The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) initiated development of nickel- metal-hydride (NiMH) battery technology and established it as a prime mid-term candidate for use in EVs. DOE funding has been instru

52

X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF TRANSITION METAL-MAGNESIUM HYDRIDE FILMS  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films T. J. Richardson a, *, B. Farangis a , J. L. Slack a , P. Nachimuthu b , R. Pereira b , N. Tamura b , and M. Rubin a a Environmental Energy Technologies Division, b Advanced Light Source, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, California 94720, USA *Corresponding author, E-mail address: tjrichardson@lbl.gov Abstract Mixed metal thin films containing magnesium and a first-row transition element exhibit very large changes in both reflectance and transmittance on exposure to hydrogen gas. Changes in electronic structure and coordination of the magnesium and transition metal atoms during hydrogen absorption were studied using dynamic in situ transmission mode X-ray absorption

53

LaNi{sub 5}-based metal hydride electrode in Ni-MH rechargeable cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An at least ternary metal alloy of the formula AB{sub (Z-Y)}X{sub (Y)} is disclosed. In this formula, A is selected from the rare earth elements, B is selected from the elements of Groups 8, 9, and 10 of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and X includes at least one of the following: antimony, arsenic, germanium, tin or bismuth. Z is greater than or equal to 4.8 and less than or equal to 6.0. Y is greater than 0 and less than 1. Ternary or higher-order substitutions to the base AB{sub 5} alloys that form strong kinetic interactions with the predominant metals in the base metal hydride are used to form metal alloys with high structural integrity after multiple cycles of hydrogen sorption. 16 figs.

Bugga, R.V.; Fultz, B.; Bowman, R.; Surampudi, S.R.; Witham, C.K.; Hightower, A.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

54

OPTIMIZATION OF INTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE TANKS UTILIZING METAL HYDRIDES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two detailed, unit-cell models, a transverse fin design and a longitudinal fin design, of a combined hydride bed and heat exchanger are developed in COMSOL{reg_sign} Multiphysics incorporating and accounting for heat transfer and reaction kinetic limitations. MatLab{reg_sign} scripts for autonomous model generation are developed and incorporated into (1) a grid-based and (2) a systematic optimization routine based on the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method to determine the geometrical parameters that lead to the optimal structure for each fin design that maximizes the hydrogen stored within the hydride. The optimal designs for both the transverse and longitudinal fin designs point toward closely-spaced, small cooling fluid tubes. Under the hydrogen feed conditions studied (50 bar), a 25 times improvement or better in the hydrogen storage kinetics will be required to simultaneously meet the Department of Energy technical targets for gravimetric capacity and fill time. These models and methodology can be rapidly applied to other hydrogen storage materials, such as other metal hydrides or to cryoadsorbents, in future work.

Garrison, S.; Tamburello, D.; Hardy, B.; Anton, D.; Gorbounov, M.; Cognale, C.; van Hassel, B.; Mosher, D.

2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

55

Positron binding to alkali-metal hydrides: The role of molecular vibrations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The bound vibrational levels for J=0 have been computed for the series of alkali-metal hydride molecules from LiH to RbH, including NaH and KH. For all four molecules the corresponding potential-energy curves have been obtained for each isolated species and for its positron-bound complex (e{sup +}XH). It is found that the calculated positron affinity values strongly depend on the molecular vibrational state for which they are obtained and invariably increase as the molecular vibrational energy content increases. The consequences of our findings on the likelihood of possibly detecting such weakly bound species are briefly discussed.

Gianturco, Franco A.; Franz, Jan; Buenker, Robert J.; Liebermann, Heinz-Peter; Pichl, Lukas; Rost, Jan-Michael; Tachikawa, Masanori; Kimura, Mineo [Department of Chemistry and INFM, University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Fachbereich C-Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften, Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Gaussstrasse 20, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer St. 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Graduate School of Science, Yokohama-city University, Seto 22-2, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan); Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

Startup and Operation of a Metal Hydride Based Isotope Separation Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Production scale separation of tritium from other hydrogen isotopes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC, has been accomplished by several methods. These methods include thermal diffusion (1957--1986), fractional absorption (1964--1968), and cryogenic distillation (1967-present). Most recently, the Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP), a metal hydride based hydrogen isotope separation system, began production in the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) on April 9, 1994. TCAP has been in development at the Savannah River Technology Center since 1980. The production startup of this semi-continuous gas chromatographic separation process is a significant accomplishment for the Savannah River Site and was achieved after years of design, development, and testing.

Scogin, J.H.; Poore, A.S.

1995-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

57

Fracture Initiation Due to Hydrides in Zircaloy-2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In hydride-forming metals, the presence of hydrides can sometimes lead to brittle fracture. Zirconium is a hydride-forming metal that forms the basis of a number of alloys used in CANDUTM nuclear reactors. Under ...

M. P. Puls; B. W. Leitch; W. R. Wallace

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Methodology of Materials Discovery in Complex Metal Hydrides Using Experimental and Computational Tools  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a review of the experimental and theoretical methods used in the discovery of new metal-hydrogen materials systems for hydrogen storage applications. Rather than a comprehensive review of all new materials and methods used in the metal hydride community, we focus on a specific subset of successful methods utilizing theoretical crystal structure prediction methods, computational approaches for screening large numbers of compound classes, and medium-throughput experimental methods for the preparation of such materials. Monte Carlo techniques paired with a simplified empirical Hamiltonian provide crystal structure candidates that are refined using Density Functional Theory. First-principle methods using high-quality structural candidates are further screened for an estimate of reaction energetics, decomposition enthalpies, and determination of reaction pathways. Experimental synthesis utilizes a compacted-pellet sintering technique under high-pressure hydrogen at elevated temperatures. Crystal structure determination follows from a combination of Rietveld refinements of diffraction patterns and first-principles computation of total energies and dynamical stability of competing structures. The methods presented within are general and applicable to a wide class of materials for energy storage.

Majzoub, Eric H.; Ronnebro, Ewa

2012-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

59

Materials Go/No-Go Decisions Made Within the Department of Energy Metal Hydride Center of Excellence  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Materials Go/No-Go Decisions Made Within Materials Go/No-Go Decisions Made Within the Department of Energy Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) In fulfillment of the end of Fiscal Year 2007 Project Milestone on Materials Down-selection Lennie Klebanoff, Director Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, CA 94551 September/October 2007 1 Acknowledgements The author wishes to acknowledge the contributions of all Principal Investigators within the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) to the work summarized herein. Their names and affiliations are listed below. Especially significant contributions to this document were made by Dr. Ewa Ronnebro (SNL), Dr. John Vajo (HRL), Prof. Zak Fang (U. Utah), Dr. Robert Bowman Jr. (JPL), Prof. David Sholl (CMU) and Prof. Craig Jensen (U. Hawaii). The author thanks Dr.

60

Study of integrated metal hydrides heat pump and cascade utilization of liquefied natural gas cold energy recovery system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The traditional cold energy utilization of the liquefied natural gas system needs a higher temperature heat source to improve exergy efficiency, which barricades the application of the common low quality thermal energy. The adoption of a metal hydride heat pump system powered by low quality energy could provide the necessary high temperature heat and reduce the overall energy consumption. Thus, an LNG cold energy recovery system integrating metal hydride heat pump was proposed, and the exergy analysis method was applied to study the case. The performance of the proposed integration system was evaluated. Moreover, some key factors were also theoretically investigated about their influences on the system performance. According to the results of the analysis, some optimization directions of the integrated system were also pointed out.

Xiangyu Meng; Feifei Bai; Fusheng Yang; Zewei Bao; Zaoxiao Zhang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

62

Getting metal-hydrides to do what you want them to  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the discovery of AB/sub 5/ compounds, intermetallic hydrides with unusual properties began to be developed (H dissociation pressures of one to several atmospheres, extremely rapid and reversible adsorption/desorption very large amounts of H adsorbed). This paper reviews the factors that must be controlled in order to modify these hydrides to make them useful. The system LaNi/sub 5/ + H/sub 2/ is used as example. Use of AB/sub 5/ hydrides to construct a chemical heat pumps is discussed. Results of a systematic study substituting Al for Ni are reported; the HYCSOS pump is described briefly. Use of hydrides as hydrogen getters (substituted ZrV/sub 2/) is also discussed. Finally, possible developments in intermetallic hydride research in the 1980's and the hydrogen economy are discussed. 10 figures. (DLC)

Gruen, D.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Mixing effect of metal oxides on negative electrode reactions in the nickel-hydride battery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Negative electrodes for use in nickel-hydride batteries were prepared from MmNi[sub 3.6]Mn[sub 0.4]Al[sub 0.3]Co[sub 0.7] (Mm = misch metal with the composition of 24.87% La, 52.56% Ce, 5.57% Pr, 16.86% Nd, and 0.14% Sm) alloy being mixed with RuO[sub 2] or Co[sub 3]O[sub 4] powder. Then the hydrogen evolution reactions at the electrodes were investigated by measuring the potential decay immediately after the interruption of an applied cathodic current. The reactions were found to proceed by the Volmer-Tafel mechanism. The total overvoltage ([eta]) was divided into two components ([eta][sub 1] and [eta][sub 2]) corresponding to the Tafel and Volmer reactions. The exchange current densities of the elementary reactions, i[sub 0V] and i[sub 0T], were then evaluated by extrapolating the Tafel lines for [eta][sub 1] and [eta][sub 2]. The Volmer reaction is much more accelerated by surface modification with RuO[sub 2] or Co[sub 3]O[sub 4] powder than the Tafel reaction, which results in the enrichment of adsorbed hydrogen, leading to higher charging efficiency.

Iwakura, Chiaki; Matsuoka, Masao; Kohno, Tatsuoki (Univ. of Osaka Prefecture (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Effects on the positive electrode of the corrosion of AB{sub 5} alloys in nickel-metal-hydride batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Effects of corrosion of MmNi{sub 4.3{minus}x}Mn{sub 0.3}Al{sub 0.4}Co{sub x} alloys (where Mm = Ce 50%, La 30%, Nd 15%, Pr 5%) are evaluated in nickel-metal-hydride (Ni-MH) cells. Particularly, it is shown how Al released by the corroded alloys pollutes the positive electrode, which endures a loss of charging efficiency, due to the formation of a hydrotalcite-like phase stabilized with Al. Furthermore, since Al is eluted from the hydride electrode and is completely trapped in the positive active material, the titration of this element in the positive electrode is a powerful technique for quantification of the corrosion of AB{sub 5} alloys in Ni-MH cells.

Bernard, P. [SAFT, Marcoussis (France). Research Dept.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Influence of additives on the thermal behavior of nickel/metal hydride battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study discusses the thermal behavior of the 6.5 Ah cylinder Ni/MH hydride battery with 0.5 wt% ytterbium oxide (...2O3...) in nickel electrode and 1.0 wt% super absorbent polymer (SAP) in hydrogen-storage al...

Kai Yang; Jin Jing An; Shi Chen

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Model based design of an automotive-scale, metal hydride hydrogen storage system.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia and General Motors have successfully designed, fabricated, and experimentally operated a vehicle-scale hydrogen storage system using the complex metal hydride sodium alanate. Over the 6 year project, the team tackled the primary barriers associated with storage and delivery of hydrogen including mass, volume, efficiency and cost. The result was the hydrogen storage demonstration system design. The key technologies developed for this hydrogen storage system include optimal heat exchange designs, thermal properties enhancement, a unique catalytic hydrogen burner and energy efficient control schemes. The prototype system designed, built, and operated to demonstrate these technologies consists of four identical hydrogen storage modules with a total hydrogen capacity of 3 kg. Each module consists of twelve stainless steel tubes that contain the enhanced sodium alanate. The tubes are arranged in a staggered, 4 x 3 array and enclosed by a steel shell to form a shell and tube heat exchanger. Temperature control during hydrogen absorption and desorption is accomplished by circulating a heat transfer fluid through each module shell. For desorption, heat is provided by the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen within a high efficiency, compact heat exchanger. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to the circulating heat transfer fluid. The demonstration system module design and the system control strategies were enabled by experiment-based, computational simulations that included heat and mass transfer coupled with chemical kinetics. Module heat exchange systems were optimized using multi-dimensional models of coupled fluid dynamics and heat transfer. Chemical kinetics models were coupled with both heat and mass transfer calculations to design the sodium alanate vessels. Fluid flow distribution was a key aspect of the design for the hydrogen storage modules and computational simulations were used to balance heat transfer with fluid pressure requirements. An overview of the hydrogen storage system will be given, and examples of these models and simulation results will be described and related to component design. In addition, comparisons of demonstration system experimental results to model predictions will be reported.

Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.; Jorgensen, Scott W. (General Motors R& D); Dedrick, Daniel E.; Evans, Gregory Herbert

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Ultra compact direct hydrogen fuel cell prototype using a metal hydride hydrogen storage tank for a mobile phone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The small fuel cell is being researched as an alternative power source to the Li-ion battery in mobile phone. In this paper, a direct hydrogen fuel cell system which powers a mobile phone without a supplementary battery is compactly integrated below 25 ml volume at the backside of the phone. The system consists of a small (8 ml) metal hydride hydrogen storage tank with 4 L hydrogen storage or an energy density of ?640 W h/L, a thin air-breathing planar polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack (13.44 cm2 × 3 mm for a volumetric power density of 335 W/L), miniature pressure regulator, and a high efficiency DC–DC voltage converting circuitry. The hydrogen storage tank is packed with the AB5 type metal hydride alloy. The eight-cell air-breathing planar stack (8 ml) is very thin (3 mm) due to a thin flexible printed circuit board current collectors as well as a unique riveting assembly and is capable of a robust performance of 2.68 W (200 mW/cm2). A miniature pressure regulator is compact with fluidic and electrical connections within 4 ml. A miniature DC–DC voltage converter operates at an overall efficiency of 90%. Consequently, the estimated energy density of a fully integrated fuel cell system is 205 W h/L (70.5 W h/kg).

Sung Han Kim; Craig M. Miesse; Hee Bum Lee; Ik Whang Chang; Yong Sheen Hwang; Jae Hyuk Jang; Suk Won Cha

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

Sandrock, Gary (Ringwood, NJ); Reilly, James (Bellport, NY); Graetz, Jason (Mastic, NY); Wegrzyn, James E. (Brookhaven, NY)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

69

A unified view of coherent and incoherent dihydrogen exchange in transition metal hydrides by nuclear resonance and inelastic neutron scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper a unified view of coherent and incoherent dihydrogen exchange in transition metal hydrides by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) is presented. It is shown that both exchange processes coexist i.e. do not transform into each other although they may dominate the spectra in different temperature ranges. This superposition is the consequence of the incorporation of the tunnel frequency J of the coherent process into the nuclear two-spin hamiltonian of hydrogen pairs which allows to treat the problem using the well known density matrix theory of NMR line-shapes developed by Alexander and Binsch. It is shown that this theory can also be used to predict the line-shapes of the rotational tunneling transitions observed in the INS spectra of transition metal dihydrogen complexes and that both NMR and INS spectra depend on similar parameters.

Limbach, H.H.; Ulrich, S.; Buntkowsky, G. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie; Sabo-Etienne, S.; Chaudret, B. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Lab. de Chimie de Coordination du C.N.R.S.; Kubas, G.J.; Eckert, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

70

Identification of a new pseudo-binary hydroxide during calendar corrosion of (La, Mg)2Ni7-type hydrogen storage alloys for Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrogen storage alloys for Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries J. Monnier 1 , H. Chen 1 , S. Joiret2,3 , J present higher hydrogen storage capacity and higher discharge capacity, eg. 356mAh/g for LaCaMgNi9 [4 in the huge market of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and Emergency Light Units (ELU). Hydrogen

Boyer, Edmond

71

E-Print Network 3.0 - americium hydrides Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and complete processing... facility for hydride research 12;BNL Current Research in Hydrogen Storage Complex metal hydride ... Source: DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and...

72

Executive Summaries for the Hydrogen Storage Materials Center of Excellence - Chemical Hydrogen Storage CoE, Hydrogen Sorption CoE, and Metal Hydride CoE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Executive Summaries Executive Summaries for the Hydrogen Storage Materials Centers of Excellence Chemical Hydrogen Storage CoE, Hydrogen Sorption CoE, and Metal Hydride CoE Period of Performance: 2005-2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U. S. Department of Energy April 2012 2 3 Primary Authors: Chemical Hydrogen Storage (CHSCoE): Kevin Ott, Los Alamos National Laboratory Hydrogen Sorption (HSCoE): Lin Simpson, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Metal Hydride (MHCoE): Lennie Klebanoff, Sandia National Laboratory Contributors include members of the three Materials Centers of Excellence and the Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Team in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program.

73

High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials highmetalremovalprocessfactsheet.pdf More...

74

Hydride compositions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed are a composition for use in storing hydrogen and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the H equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to H, and then heating below the softening temperature of any of the constituents. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P{sub H}{sub 2} and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

Lee, Myung, W.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Hydride compositions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for use in storing hydrogen, and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the hydrogen equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to hydrogen and then heating at a temperature below the softening temperature of any of the. constituents so that their chemical and structural integrity is preserved. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P.sub.H.sbsb.2 and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

Lee, Myung W. (North Augusta, SC)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Metal Hydrides- Science Needs  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC.

77

Titanium tritide radioisotope heat source development : palladium-coated titanium hydriding kinetics and tritium loading tests.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have found that a 180 nm palladium coating enables titanium to be loaded with hydrogen isotopes without the typical 400-500 C vacuum activation step. The hydriding kinetics of Pd coated Ti can be described by the Mintz-Bloch adherent film model, where the rate of hydrogen absorption is controlled by diffusion through an adherent metal-hydride layer. Hydriding rate constants of Pd coated and vacuum activated Ti were found to be very similar. In addition, deuterium/tritium loading experiments were done on stacks of Pd coated Ti foil in a representative-size radioisotope heat source vessel. The experiments demonstrated that such a vessel could be loaded completely, at temperatures below 300 C, in less than 10 hours, using existing department-of-energy tritium handling infrastructure.

Van Blarigan, Peter; Shugard, Andrew D.; Walters, R. Tom (Savannah River National Labs, Aiken, SC)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Lightweight Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Ji-Cheng Zhao (Primary Contact), Xuenian Chen, Sheldon G. Shore The Ohio State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 286 Watts Hall, 2041 College Road Columbus, OH 43210 Phone: (614) 292-9462 Email: zhao.199@osu.edu DOE Managers HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FC3605GO15062 Project Start Date: January 1, 2005 Project End Date: August 31, 2011 (No-cost extension to December 31, 2012) Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Develop a high-capacity lightweight hydride for * reversible vehicular hydrogen storage, capable of meeting or exceeding the 2010 DOE FreedomCAR

79

Dose Rates from Plutonium Metal and Beryllium Metal in a 9975 Shipping Container  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A parametric study was performed of the radiation dose rates that might be produced if plutonium metal and beryllium metal were shipped in the 9975 shipping package. These materials consist of heterogeneous combinations plutonium metal and beryllium. The plutonium metal content varies up to 4.4 kilograms while the beryllium metal varies up to 4 kilograms. This paper presents the results of that study.

Nathan, S.J.

2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

80

Short-range order of low-coverage Ti/Al,,111...: Implications for hydrogen storage in complex metal hydrides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Short-range order of low-coverage Ti/Al,,111...: Implications for hydrogen storage in complex metal-coverage Ti atoms on Al 111 as a model surface system for transition metal doped alanate hydrogen storage the dissociative chemisorption of hydrogen in Ti-doped alanate storage materials. © 2007 American Institute

Ciobanu, Cristian

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Pressure-induced phase transformations in alkali-metal hydrides calculated using an improved linear-muffin-tin-orbital–atomic-sphere-approximation energy scheme  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A scheme for the calculation of total energies from first principles is described which is intermediate between the popular linear muffin-tin-orbital method in the atomic-sphere approximation (LMTO-ASA) and an exact full-potential treatment. The local-density total energy is evaluated accurately for the output charge density from the ASA potential. This method is applied to the study of static structural properties and the pressure-induced phase transformation from B1 (NaCl-structure) to B2 (CsCl-structure) phases for the partially ionic alkaki-metal hydrides NaH and KH and the alkali halide NaCl. Good agreement with experimental transition pressures and volumes is obtained. The series NaH, KH, and NaCl shows the observed strong cation and weak anion dependence. Charge densities and band structures are given at zero and high pressure. Calculated energy-volume curves for LiH show no transition up to 1 Mbar, in agreement with experimental data.

C. O. Rodriguez and M. Methfessel

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

First-principles study of the stability and electronic structure of metal hydrides H. Smithson,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy is the chemical bonding between the hydrogen and metal in which it is inserted. This is the only number s : 61.50.Ah, 61.66.Dk I. INTRODUCTION The absorption of hydrogen in materials is of wide to as hydro- gen embrittlement. The mechanism of such embrittlement is believed to be different depending

Ceder, Gerbrand

83

High capacity stabilized complex hydrides for hydrogen storage  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Complex hydrides based on Al(BH.sub.4).sub.3 are stabilized by the presence of one or more additional metal elements or organic adducts to provide high capacity hydrogen storage material.

Zidan, Ragaiy; Mohtadi, Rana F; Fewox, Christopher; Sivasubramanian, Premkumar

2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

84

Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

Walker, Franklin E. (18 Shadow Oak Rd., Danville, CA 94526); Wasley, Richard J. (4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Hydrogen Storage Properties of New Hydrogen-Rich BH3NH3-Metal Hydride (TiH2, ZrH2, MgH2, and/or CaH2) Composite Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ammonia borane (AB = NH3BH3) is one of the most attractive materials for chemical hydrogen storage due to its high hydrogen contents of 19.6 wt.%, however, impurity levels of borazine, ammonia and diborane in conjunction with foaming and exothermic hydrogen release calls for finding ways to mitigate the decomposition reactions. In this paper we present a solution by mixing AB with metal hydrides (TiH2, ZrH2, MgH2 and CaH2) which have endothermic hydrogen release in order to control the heat release and impurity levels from AB upon decomposition. The composite materials were prepared by mechanical ball milling, and their H2 release properties were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The formation of volatile products from decomposition side reactions, such as borazine (N3B3H6) was determined by mass spectrometry (MS). Sieverts type pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) gas-solid reaction instrument was adopted to observe the kinetics of the H2 release reactions of the combined systems and neat AB. In situ 11B MAS-NMR revealed a destabilized decomposition pathway. We found that by adding specific metal hydrides to AB we can eliminate the impurities and mitigate the heat release.

Choi, Young Joon; Xu, Yimin; Shaw, Wendy J.; Ronnebro, Ewa

2012-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

86

Development of the Low-Pressure Hydride/Dehydride Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The low-pressure hydride/dehydride process was developed from the need to recover thin-film coatings of plutonium metal from the inner walls of an isotope separation chamber located at Los Alamos and to improve the safety operation of a hydride recovery process using hydrogen at a pressure of 0.7 atm at Rocky Flats. This process is now the heart of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) project.

Rueben L. Gutierrez

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston University have demonstrated the technical viability of the process and have provided data for the cost analyses that have been performed. We also concluded that a carbothermic process could also produce magnesium at acceptable costs. The use of slurry as a medium to carry chemical hydrides has been shown during this project to offer significant advantages for storing, delivering, and distributing hydrogen: • Magnesium hydride slurry is stable for months and pumpable. • The oils of the slurry minimize the contact of oxygen and moisture in the air with the metal hydride in the slurry. Thus reactive chemicals, such as lithium hydride, can be handled safely in the air when encased in the oils of the slurry. • Though magnesium hydride offers an additional safety feature of not reacting readily with water at room temperatures, it does react readily with water at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Thus when hydrogen is needed, the slurry and water are heated until the reaction begins, then the reaction energy provides heat for more slurry and water to be heated. • The reaction system can be relatively small and light and the slurry can be stored in conventional liquid fuel tanks. When transported and stored, the conventional liquid fuel infrastructure can be used. • The particular metal hydride of interest in this project, magnesium hydride, forms benign byproducts, magnesium hydroxide (“Milk of Magnesia”) and magnesium oxide. • We have estimated that a magnesium hydride slurry system (including the mixer device and tanks) could meet the DOE 2010 energy density goals. ? During the investigation of hydriding techniques, we learned that magnesium hydride in a slurry can also be cycled in a rechargeable fashion. Thus, magnesium hydride slurry can act either as a chemical hydride storage medium or as a rechargeable hydride storage system. Hydrogen can be stored and delivered and then stored again thus significantly reducing the cost of storing and delivering hydrogen. Further evaluation and development of this concept will be performed as follow-on work under a

McClaine, Andrew W.

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

88

Anisotropic behavior and rupture of hydrided Zircaloy-4 sheets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a French pressurized water reactor (PWR), most of the structural parts of the fuel assembly consist of zirconium alloys (ZIRCALOY-2). The mechanical behavior of ZIRCALOY-4 sheets is investigated at room temperature. The effect of hydride precipitation on the mechanical behavior and on the rupture mechanism is also studied, in the range from 200 to 1,200 wt ppm hydrogen and for different stress triaxialities. It is shown that the material exhibits a strong anisotropy die to its pronounced texture, and that its mechanical properties depend on the strain rate. Hydride precipitation appears to have no effect on the anisotropy or on the strain-rate sensitivity, in the range from 10{sup {minus}4} to 10{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The main effect of hydrogen is the reduction of the ductility and of crack resistance. The ductile rupture mechanism is studied, focusing on the stage of damage nucleation by hydride fracture. Observations during scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in situ tests show that hydrides allow the transmission of slip, which occurs in ZIRCALOY-4 grains. Hydrides can also deform, together with surrounding zirconium matrix. Damage appears after a plastic-strain yield of about 14 to 25 pct. Fracture occurs first on intergranular hydrides. Fracture of transgranular hydrides is observed only prior to failure, for higher plastic strains.

Grange, M.; Besson, J.; Andrieu, E.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Microstructural study by XRD profile analysis and TEM observations on hydrided recrystallized Zircaloy-4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zircaloy-4, used as cladding tube material in the nuclear reactors, may become brittle due to the precipitation of hydrides. During hydride formation, the anisotropic misfit strains between hydrides and the hexagonal-close-packed zirconium matrix results in a preferred orientation of the hydride platelets in the anisotropic stress field caused by non-relieved fabrication residual stresses and misfit stresses. To understand the mechanism of rupture and to predict the threshold stresses for hydride stress orientation, it is necessary to study the residual stresses, especially the microstrain caused by crystalline lattice misfit, in a hydrided specimen. The X-ray diffraction profile analysis is very sensitive to all the microstructure evolution in metallic materials. It is a non-destructive and voluminal technique compared with transmission electron microscope observation. The XRD peak broadening can be related closely with the microstrain in case of hydrided Zircaloy-4, because the hydride formation creates in general a great number of dislocations which contributes especially to the diminution of coherent domain size and to the increase of microstrain. To calibrate the internal microstrain due to precipitation effect of hydrided specimens, XRD profile analysis has also been realized on the non-hydrided specimens deformed by uniaxial tension. In this paper the authors restrict to analyzing the results about the recrystallized state, because more informations about the anisotropic elasticity, plasticity, thermal expansion, neutron diffraction measurement and the crystallographic texture results are available.

Bai, J.B. (Lab. MSS/MAT, CNRS URA 850, Ecole Centrale Paris, 92295 Chatenay Malabry Cedex (FR)); Gilbon, D. (LM3, CNRS URA 1219, ENSAM, 151 Bd. de l'Hopital, 75013 Paris (FR)); Lebrun, J.L. (CEA/DTA/CEREM/DTM/SRMA, C.E. Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (FR))

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

PNNL Chemical Hydride Capabilities | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Chemical Hydride Capabilities PNNL Chemical Hydride Capabilities Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC....

91

Mechanochemical processing for metals and metal alloys  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A set of processes for preparing metal powders, including metal alloy powders, by ambient temperature reduction of a reducible metal compound by a reactive metal or metal hydride through mechanochemical processing. The reduction process includes milling reactants to induce and complete the reduction reaction. The preferred reducing agents include magnesium and calcium hydride powders. A process of pre-milling magnesium as a reducing agent to increase the activity of the magnesium has been established as one part of the invention.

Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Prisbrey, Keith (Moscow, ID)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

14 - Hydrogen storage in hydride-forming materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: Hydrogen storage technologies are playing a significant and critical role in the so-called ‘hydrogen economy’: they are used to buffer primary energy sources for time-delayed end-uses. The purpose of this chapter is to review the main hydrogen storage processes and materials, with a special emphasis on chemical storage (metal and chemical hydrides). First, the main hydrogen processes (physical, chemical, electrochemical, geological) are reviewed. Then, reversible hydrogen storage in hydride-forming metals and intermetallics is discussed. Basic principles (thermodynamic properties, sorption mechanisms, kinetics) are presented and the properties of the main materials are listed and compared. Irreversible hydrogen storage in the main classes of chemical hydrides is then described. In the last section, specifications for automotive and stationary applications are reviewed and discussed.

P. Millet

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Production of Hydrogen by Electrocatalysis: Making the H-H Bond by Combining Protons and Hydrides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Generation of hydrogen by reduction of two protons by two electrons can be catalysed by molecular electrocatalysts. Determination of the thermodynamic driving force for elimination of H2 from molecular complexes is important for the rational design of molecular electrocatalysts, and allows the design of metal complexes of abundant, inexpensive metals rather than precious metals (“Cheap Metals for Noble Tasks”). The rate of H2 evolution can be dramatically accelerated by incorporating pendant amines into diphosphine ligands. These pendant amines in the second coordination sphere function as protons relays, accelerating intramolecular and intermolecular proton transfer reactions. The thermodynamics of hydride transfer from metal hydrides and the acidity of protonated pendant amines (pKa of N-H) contribute to the thermodynamics of elimination of H2; both of the hydricity and acidity can be systematically varied by changing the substituents on the ligands. A series of Ni(II) electrocatalysts with pendant amines have been developed. In addition to the thermochemical considerations, the catalytic rate is strongly influenced by the ability to deliver protons to the correct location of the pendant amine. Protonation of the amine endo to the metal leads to the N-H being positioned appropriately to favor rapid heterocoupling with the M-H. Designing ligands that include proton relays that are properly positioned and thermodynamically tuned is a key principle for molecular electrocatalysts for H2 production as well as for other multi-proton, multi-electron reactions important for energy conversions. The research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

Bullock, R. Morris; Appel, Aaron M.; Helm, Monte L.

2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

94

Hydride-phase formation and its influence on fatigue crack propagationbehavior in a Zircaloy-4 alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydride-phase formation and its influence on the fatigue behavior of a Zircaloy-4 alloy charged with hydrogen gas are investigated. First, the microstructure and fatigue crack propagation rate of the alloy in the as-received condition are studied. Second, the formation and homogeneous distribution of delta zirconium hydride ( -ZrH2) in the bulk, and its effect on the fatigue crack propagation rate are presented. The results show that in the presence of hydrides the zirconium alloy exhibits reduced toughness and enhanced crack growth rates. Finally, the influence of a pre-existing fatigue crack in the specimen and the subsequent hydride formation were investigated. The residual lattice strain profile around the fatigue crack tip was measured using neutron diffraction. The combined effects of residual strains and hydride precipitation on the fatigue behavior are discussed.

Garlea, Elena [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Choo, H. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Wang, G Y [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Liaw, Peter K [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Clausen, B [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brown, D. W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Park, Jae-Sung [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Rack, P. D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kenik, Edward A [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

A STUDY OF FUNDAMENTAL REACTION PATHWAYS FOR TRANSITION METAL ALKYL COMPLEXES. I. THE REACTION OF A NICKEL METHYL COMPLEX WITH ALKYNES. II. THE MECHANISM OF ALDEHYDE FORMATION IN THE REACTION OF A MOLYBDENUM HYDRIDE WITH MOLYBDENUM ALKYLS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

I. This study reports the rapid reaction under mild conditions of internal or terminal alkynes with methyl (acetyl~ acetonato) (triphenylphosphine) nickel (1) in either aromatic or ether solvents. In all cases vinylnickel products 2 are formed by insertion of the alkyne into the nickel=methyl bond. These complexes may be converted into a variety of organic products (e.g. alkenes, esters, vinyl halides) by treatment with appropriate reagents. Unsymmetrical alkynes give selectively the one regioisomer with the sterically largest substituent next to the nickel atom. In order to investigate the stereochemistry of the initial insertion, a x-ray diffraction study of the reaction of 1 with diphenylacetylene was carried out. This showed that the vinylnickel complex formed by overall trans insertion was the product of the reaction. Furthermore, subsequent slow isomerization of this complex, to a mixture of it and the corresponding cis isomer, demonstrated that this trans addition product is the kinetic product of the reaction. In studies with other alkynes, the product of trans addition was not always exclusively (or even predominantly) formed, but the ratio of the stereoisomers formed kinetically was substantially different from the thermodynamic ratio. Isotope labeling, added phosphine, and other experiments have allowed us to conclude that the mechanism of this reaction does involve initial cis addition. However, a coordinatively unsaturated vinylnickel complex is initially formed which can undergo rapid, phosphine-catalyzed cis-trans isomerization in competition with its conversion to the isolable phosphine-substituted kinetic reaction products. II. The reaction of CpMo(CO){sub 3}H (1a) with CpMo(CO){sub 3}R (2, R= CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}) at 50{degrees} C in THF gives the aldehyde RCHO and the dimers [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} (3a) and [CpMo(CO){sub 2}]{sub 2} (4a). Labeling one of the reactants with a methylcyclopentadienyl ligand it was possible to show that the mixed dimers MeCpMo(CO){sub 3}-(CO){sub 3}MoCp (3b) and MeCpMo(CO){sub 2}{triple_bond}(CO){sub 2}MoCp (4b) are the predominant kinetic products of the reaction. Additionally labeling the carbonyl ligands of 1a with {sup 13}CO led to the conclusion that all three of the carbonyl ligands in 1a end up in the tetracarbonyl dimers 4a if the reaction is carried out under a continuous purge of argon Trapping studies failed to find any evidence for the intermediacy of either [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup -} or [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup +} in this reaction. A mechanism is proposed that involves the initial migration of the alkyl ligand in 2 to CO forming an unsaturated acyl complex which reacts with 1a to give a binuclear complex containing a three center-two electron Mo-H-Mo bond. This complex then selectively looses a carbonyl from the acyl molybdenum, migrates the hydride to that same metal, and forms a metal-metal bond. This binuclear complex with the hydride and acyl ligands on one metal reductively eliminates aldehyde, and migrates a carbonyl ligand, to give 4a directly. The other product 3a is formed by addition of two molecules of free CO to 4a.

Huggins, John Mitchell

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Photogeneration of Hydride Donors and Their Use Toward CO2 Reduction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite substantial effort, no one has succeeded in efficiently producing methanol from CO2 using homogeneous photocatalytic systems. We are pursuing reaction schemes based on a sequence of hydride-ion transfers to carry out stepwise reduction of CO2 to methanol. We are using hydride-ion transfer from photoproduced C-H bonds in metal complexes with bio-inspired ligands (i.e., NADH-like ligands) that are known to store one proton and two electrons.

Fujita,E.; Muckerman, J.T.; Polyansky, D.E.

2009-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

97

Hydride Rim Formation in Unirradiated Zircaloy  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The purpose of this work is to develop the means of pre-hydriding unirradiated Zircaloy cladding such that a high concentration, or rim, of hydrides is formed at the cladding outside diameter.

98

Crack propagation in hydrided zircaloy-2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transmission electron microscope observations of cracks in thin foils of Zircaloy—2 which contains hydride particles have shown that the fracture process is one of linking up satellite cracks in the hydride ph...

G. Östberg

1968-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Brittle fracture induced by hydrides in zircaloy-4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zircaloy-4 is used as a cladding material in the nuclear industry for fuel elements. Its mechanical properties can be drastically affected by the presence of hydrides, which form when hydrogen content exceeds the terminal solid solubility. This change often manifests itself as a reduction in ductility (elongation and reduction in area), coupled with the evolution of the fracture mode from ductile microvoid nucleation and coalescence to intergranular fracture. It has been found, at room temperature, that Zircaloy-4 undergoes a ductile to brittle transition when the hydrogen content (hydride volume fraction) in the specimen is higher than some critical value depending on the microstructure and the hydride morphology. Heat treatment of the material can shift the transition end point from 1050 ppm wt H for the stress-relieved state to 100-150 ppm wt H for the {beta} treated state, thus strongly suggesting that there may be some relationship between the microstructure (grain size and shape) and the ductile-brittle transition. It has also been reported that for the same hydriding condition, the hydrogen absorption rate is higher for the stress-relieved and recrystallized states and lower for the {beta} treated state. This phenomenon is very important for engineering applications because it is related to the determination of the safe life. Insufficient attention has been drawn to the quantitative evaluation and the modelization of the influence of the microstructure on the ductile-brittle transition in hydrided Zircaloy-4, though there has been some general research on the boundary structural effect on intergranular fracture. The present authors attempt to modelize this influence by an upper-limit model using the results of image analysis on the microstructures and tensile tests on hydrided sheet specimens.

Bai, J.B.; Francois, D.; Prioul, C. (Lab. MSS/MAT CNRS URA 850, Ecole Centrale Paris, 92295 Chatenay Malabry Cedex (FR)); Lansiart, S. (CEA/DTA/CEREM/DTM/SRMA, C.E. Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (FR))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Metal accumulation rates in sediments of the Mid-Atlantic ridge near 37°N  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

METAL ACCUMULATION RATES IN SEDIMENTS OF THE MID-ATLANTIC RIDGE NEAR 37'N A Thesis by PATRICIA FAE SALTER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1977 Major Subject: Oceanography METAL ACCUMULATION RATES IN SEDIMENTS OF THE MID-ATLANTIC RIDGE NEAR 37 N A Thesis by PATRICIA FAE SALTER Approved as to style and content by; (Chairman of Committee) /~4~ r (Head of Depar tme t) (Mem er...

Salter, Patricia Fae

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Use of Metal Hydrides for Handling Tritium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Material Interaction / Proceedings of the Second National Topical Meeting on Tritium Technology in Fission, Fusion and Isotopic Applications (Dayton, Ohio, April 30 to May 2, 1985)

Mark S. Ortman; Thomas J. Warren; Daniel J. Smith

102

Preparation and X-Ray diffraction studies of curium hydrides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Curium hydrides were prepared by reaction of curium-248 metal with hydrogen and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. Several of the syntheses resulted in a hexagonal compound with average lattice parameters of a/sub 0/ = 0.3769(8) nm and c/sub 0/ = 0.6732(12) nm. These products are considere to be CmH/sub 3//sup -//sub 8/ by analogy with the behavior of lanthanide-hydrogen and lighter actinide-hydrogen systems. Face-centered cubic products with an average lattice parameter of a/sub 0/ = 0.5322(4) nm were obtained from other curium hydride preparations. This parameter is slightly smaller than that reported previously for cubic curium dihydride, CmH /SUB 2-x/ (B.M. Bansal and D. Damien. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. Lett. 6 603, 1970). The present results established a continuation of typical heavy trivalent lanthanidelike behavior of the transuranium actinide-hydrogen systems through curium.

Gibson, J.K.; Maire, R.G.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrides for Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage George Thomas, Consultant Sandia National Laboratories G. J. Thomas Efficient onboard hydrogen storage is a critical enabling technology for the use of hydrogen in vehicles * The low volumetric density of gaseous fuels requires a storage method which densifies the fuel. - This is particularly true for hydrogen because of its lower energy density relative to hydrocarbon fuels. * Storage methods result in additional weight and volume above that of the fuel. How do we achieve adequate stored energy in an efficient, safe and cost-effective system? G. J. Thomas However, the storage media must meet certain requirements: - reversible hydrogen uptake/release - lightweight - low cost - cyclic stability - rapid kinetic properties - equilibrium properties (P,T) consistent

104

Activated Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Compositions - Energy...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Activated Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Compositions Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This...

105

Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities...

106

Comprehensive Thermodynamics of Nickel Hydride Bis(Diphosphine...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thermodynamics of Nickel Hydride Bis(Diphosphine) Complexes: A Predictive Model through Computations. Comprehensive Thermodynamics of Nickel Hydride Bis(Diphosphine) Complexes: A...

107

Incorporation of Hydride Nuclear Fuels in Commercial Light Water Reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of hydride fueled BWRs. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 239:Fueled PWR Cores. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 239:1489–Hydride Fueled LWRs. Nuclear Engineering and Design, 239:

Terrani, Kurt Amir

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Effect of the metal-semiconductor phase transition on the rate of hydrogen penetration into vanadium dioxide thin films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rates of hydrogen penetration from an aqueous solution of glycerin into ... compared. It has been found that the rate of hydrogen penetration into the metal phase of vanadium dioxide ... order of magnitude hi...

V. N. Andreev; V. A. Klimov

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Relationship between the residual electric resistance of solid solutions and the rate of their melting in contact with metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rates of melting of tin-, lead-, and indium-based binary solid solutions in contact with low-melting metals (Bi, Sn, In, Pb) have been measured. A linear relationship is established between the rate of con...

A. A. Akhkubekov; N. V. Dalakova; O. L. Enaldieva…

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Kinetics of hydride front in Zircaloy-2 and H release from a fractional hydrided surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors study the hydriding process on commercial nuclear fuelcladdings from their inner surface using an ultrahigh vacuum method. The method allows determining the incubation and failure times of the fuel claddings as well as the dissipated energy and the partial pressure of the desorbed H 2 from the outer surface of fuel claddings during the hydriding process. The correlation between the hydriding dissipated energy and the amount of zirconium hydride (formed at different stages of the hydriding process) leads to a near t 1 ? 2 potential law corresponding to the time scaling of the reaction for the majority of the tested samples. The calibrated relation between energy and hydride thickness allows one to calculate the enthalpy of the ? - Zr H 1.5 phase. The measured H 2 desorption from the external surface is in agreement with a proposed kinetic desorption model from the hydrides precipitated at the surface.

M. Díaz; A. González-González; J. S. Moya; B. Remartínez; S. Pérez; J. L. Sacedón

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Electrical Properties of Hydrides and Deuterides of Zirconium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrical properties of hydrides and deuterides of zirconium have been investigated between 1.1 and 410°K. The metallic nature of these materials is evident in the fact that for compositions approaching ZrH2, the hydride is a better conductor than is high-purity zirconium. Above ?150°K the electrical resistivity exhibits an interesting upturn, which arises from scattering from the optical-model lattice vibrations. Excellent fits to the ideal-resistivity data are obtained with a simple additive combination of Grüneisen and Howarth-Sondheimer functions for the respective acoustical- and optical-mode scattering contributions. The corresponding acoustical- and optical-mode characteristic temperatures are in good accord with expectations based on earlier inelastic neutron scattering data. Moreover, the optical-mode characteristic temperature exhibits the expected hydride-deuteride isotope shift of 2. The observed Hall coefficients are large in magnitude (much greater than for pure Zr), and indicate majority hole conduction for the fcc ? phase and majority electron conduction for the face-centered tetragonal ? phase. The thermoelectric power also changes from positive to negative with increasing hydrogen concentration in the range ZrH1.5-ZrH2.

P. W. Bickel and T. G. Berlincourt

1970-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

Rate-dependent deformation behavior of Zr-based metallic-glass coatings examined by nanoindentation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zr-based metallic-glass coatings with micrometer-scale thickness are prepared by the radio-frequency magnetron-sputtering technique on silicon substrates. Using the load- and displacement-sensing nanoindentation technique, we have examined the dependence of their deformation behavior, especially the indentation hardness, on the strain rate and maximum indentation depth. For shallow indentation in which the substrate effect can be neglected, the increase of the penetration rate leads to the decrease of the hardness. This seemingly "negative" strain-rate-sensitivity is actually a result of the dependence of the degree of elastic deformation on the effective strain rate. The coating interface will block the shear-band propagation and promote the shear-band multiplication, so that the plastic flow is much easier to occur as the increase of the maximum penetration depth from a few percent of, to that comparable to, the coating thickness. We use a power-law viscoplastic constitutive relationship to illustrate key issues related to the indentation response of rate-dependent materials, while a phenomenological viscoplastic model with strain softening behavior is used to understand the unique features of the inhomogeneous deformation in metallic glasses. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy are used to examine the shear bands and pileup around the indents.

Liu, F. X. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gao, Yanfei [ORNL; Liaw, Peter K [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Wire Wrapped Hexagonal Pin Arrays for Hydride Fueled PWRs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work contributes to the Hydride Fuels Project, a collaborative effort between UC Berkeley and MIT

Diller, Peter

114

Hydrogen-storing hydride complexes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

Srinivasan, Sesha S. (Tampa, FL); Niemann, Michael U. (Venice, FL); Goswami, D. Yogi (Tampa, FL); Stefanakos, Elias K. (Tampa, FL)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

115

E-Print Network 3.0 - automated hydride generation-cryotrapping...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Beds... Laboratories Hydride DevelopmentHydride Development for Hydrogen Storagefor Hydrogen Storage Karl Gross Sandia... using light-weight reversible hydrides The lack of a...

116

Heating rates in collisionally opaque alkali-metal atom traps: Role of secondary collisions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Grazing collisions with background gas are the major cause of trap loss and trap heating in atom traps. To first order, these effects do not depend on the trap density. In collisionally opaque trapped atom clouds, however, scattered atoms with an energy E larger than the effective trap depth Eeff, which are destined to escape from the atom cloud, will have a finite probability for a secondary collision. This results in a contribution to the heating rate that depends on the column density ?nl? of the trapped atoms, i.e., the product of density and characteristic size of the trap. For alkali-metal atom traps, secondary collisions are quite important due to the strong long-range interaction with like atoms. We derive a simple analytical expression for the secondary heating rate, showing a dependency proportional to ?nl??Eeff1/2. When extrapolating to a vanishing column density, only primary collisions with the background gas will contribute to the heating rate. This contribution is rather small, due to the weak long-range interaction of the usual background gas species in an ultrahigh-vacuum system—He, Ne, or Ar—with the trapped alkali-metal atoms. We conclude that the transition between trap-loss collisions and heating collisions is determined by a cutoff energy 200??K<~Eeff<~400??K, much smaller than the actual trap depth E in most magnetic traps. Atoms with an energy Eeffrates for the alkali-metal atoms Li through Cs as a function of the effective trap depth, the column density of the trap, and the species in the background gas. The predictions of our model are in good agreement with the experimental data of Myatt for heating rates in high-density 87Rb-atom magnetic traps at JILA, including the effect of the rf shield and the composition of the background gas. It is shown that collisions with atoms from the Oort cloud also contribute to the heating rate. For 85Rb the calculated heating rate is below the experimentally observed value at JILA, supporting the idea that inelastic collisions in the trap are the major source of heating.

H. C. W. Beijerinck

2000-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

117

Relativistic formulation for the nuclear-spin-lattice relaxation rate in metallic systems: Applications to AgxPt1-x  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The nuclear-spin-lattice relaxation rate (T1T)-1 in metallic systems is formulated in a relativistically correct form, which is applicable to pure metals as well as to alloys. As an example, the results of relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent-potential approximation calculations for the alloy system AgxPt1-x are used to calculate the relaxation rates of Ag and Pt in this system.

H. Ebert, P. Weinberger, and J. Voitlander

1985-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Gas phase contributions to topochemical hydride reduction reactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alkali and alkali earth hydrides have been used as solid state reductants recently to yield many interesting new oxygen-deficient transition metal oxides. These reactions have tacitly been assumed to be a solid phase reaction between the reductant and parent oxide. We have conducted a number of experiments with physical separation between the reductant and oxides, and find that in some cases reduction proceeds even when the reagents are physically separated, implying reactions with in-situ generated H{sub 2} and, to a lesser extent, getter mechanisms. Our findings change our understanding of these topochemical reactions, and should enhance the synthesis of additional new oxides and nanostructures. - Graphical abstract: Topochemical reductions with hydrides: Solid state or gas phase reaction? Display Omitted - Highlights: • SrFeO{sub 2} and LaNiO{sub 2} were prepared by topochemical reduction of oxides. • Separating the reducing agent (CaH{sub 2}, Mg metal) from the oxide still results in reduction. • Such topochemical reactions can occur in the gas phase.

Kobayashi, Yoji [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Li, Zhaofei [Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hirai, Kei [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Tassel, Cédric [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Ushinomiya-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8302 (Japan); Loyer, François [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226 Université de Rennes 1-CNRS, équipe CSM, Bât. 10B, Campus de Beaulieu, 263, Avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Ichikawa, Noriya [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Abe, Naoyuki [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yamamoto, Takafumi [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Shimakawa, Yuichi [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); and others

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

Effect of high strain rates on peak stress in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanical behavior of Zr{sub 41.25}Ti{sub 13.75}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} (LM-1) has been extensively characterized under quasistatic loading conditions; however, its mechanical behavior under dynamic loading conditions is currently not well understood. A Split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) and a single-stage gas gun are employed to characterize the mechanical behavior of LM-1 in the strain-rate regime of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 5}/s. The SHPB experiments are conducted with a tapered insert design to mitigate the effects of stress concentrations and preferential failure at the specimen-insert interface. The higher strain-rate plate-impact compression-and-shear experiments are conducted by impacting a thick tungsten carbide (WC) flyer plate with a sandwich sample comprising a thin bulk metallic glass specimen between two thicker WC target plates. Specimens employed in the SHPB experiments failed in the gage-section at a peak stress of approximately 1.8 GPa. Specimens in the high strain-rate plate-impact experiments exhibited a flow stress in shear of approximately 0.9 GPa, regardless of the shear strain-rate. The flow stress under the plate-impact conditions was converted to an equivalent flow stress under uniaxial compression by assuming a von Mises-like material behavior and accounting for the plane strain conditions. The results of these experiments, when compared to the previous work conducted at quasistatic loading rates, indicate that the peak stress of LM-1 is essentially strain rate independent over the strain-rate range up to 10{sup 5}/s.

Sunny, George; Yuan Fuping; Prakash, Vikas [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7222 (United States); Lewandowski, John [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7222 (United States)

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Mass-loss rates and dust-to-gas ratios for obscured Asymptotic Giant Branch stars of different metallicities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mass-loss rates and dust-to-gas ratios of obscured Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars are investigated for samples with different initial metallicities: in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC & LMC) and in the Milky Way. The properties of their circumstellar envelopes can be explained in a consistent way if, both for obscured M-type AGB stars and for obscured carbon stars, the total (gas+dust) mass-loss rate depends only weakly on initial metallicity whilst the dust-to-gas ratio depends approximately linearly on initial metallicity.

Jacco Th. van Loon

1999-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Method to determine the position-dependant metal correction factor for dose-rate equivalent laser testing of semiconductor devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method reconstructs the charge collection from regions beneath opaque metallization of a semiconductor device, as determined from focused laser charge collection response images, and thereby derives a dose-rate dependent correction factor for subsequent broad-area, dose-rate equivalent, laser measurements. The position- and dose-rate dependencies of the charge-collection magnitude of the device are determined empirically and can be combined with a digital reconstruction methodology to derive an accurate metal-correction factor that permits subsequent absolute dose-rate response measurements to be derived from laser measurements alone. Broad-area laser dose-rate testing can thereby be used to accurately determine the peak transient current, dose-rate response of semiconductor devices to penetrating electron, gamma- and x-ray irradiation.

Horn, Kevin M.

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

122

A survey of foundries that cast red brass products to ascertain an effective pouring rate of molten metal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A SURVEY OF FOUNDRIES THAT CAST RED BRASS PRODUCTS TO ASCERTAIN AN EFPECTIVE POURING RATE OF MOLTEN METAL A Thesis by RONALD KEE TOM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1974 Major Subject: Industrial Technology A SURVEY OF FOUNDRIES THAT CAST RED BRASS PRODUCTS TO ASCERTAIN AN EFFECTIVE POURING RATE OF MOLTEN METAL A Thesis by RONALD KEE TOM Approved as to style and content by...

Tom, Ronald Kee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

123

Ductility Evaluation of As-Hydrided and Hydride Reoriented Zircaloy-4 Cladding under Simulated Dry-Storage Condition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pre-storage drying-transfer operations and early stage storage expose cladding to higher temperatures and much higher pressure-induced tensile hoop stresses relative to normal operation in-reactor and pool storage under these conditions. Radial hydrides could precipitate during slow cooling and provide an additional embrittlement mechanism as the cladding temperature decreases below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. As a means of simulating this behavior, unirradiated hydrided Zircaloy-4 samples were fabricated by a gas charging method to levels that encompass the range of hydrogen concentrations observed in current used fuel. Mechanical testing was carried out by the ring compression test (RCT) method at various temperatures to evaluate the sample s ductility for both as-hydrided and post-hydride reorientation treated specimens. As-hydrided samples with higher hydrogen concentration (>800 ppm) resulted in lower strain before fracture and reduced maximum load. Increasing RCT temperatures resulted in increased ductility of the as-hydrided cladding. A systematic radial hydride treatment was conducted at various pressures and temperatures for the hydrided samples with H content around 200 ppm. Following the radial hydride treatment, RCTs on the hydride reoriented samples were conducted and exhibited lower ductility compared to as-hydrided samples.

Yan, Yong [ORNL] [ORNL; Plummer, Lee K [ORNL] [ORNL; Ray, Holly B [ORNL] [ORNL; Cook, Tyler S [ORNL] [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Hydride embrittlement in ZIRCALOY-4 plate; Part 2: Interaction between the tensile stress and the hydride morphology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of an applied tensile stress on the hydrides morphology in ZIRCALOY-4 was studied. To this end, the residual stresses around the hydride caused by the hydride precipitation was first evaluated. Considering the disability to predict hydride transformation stresses by ordinary macroscopical mechanical calculation in previous studies, X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations were carried out to quantify the microstructural evolution in hydrided ZIRCALOY-4. The residual microstrains and microstresses in the matrix and around the hydride were thus estimated. The big discrepancy between the results and the existing studies were explained by the major self-accommodation of phase transformation deformation remaining inside the hydrides and the local plastic accommodation of ZIRCALOY-4. In order to study the stress effect on hydride orientation and to estimate the hydride orientation threshold stresses, hydrogen was introduced into the specimens under tensile stress. A quantitative technique was used to evaluate the susceptibility to perpendicular hydride formation under the influence of texture, residual stresses, and externally applied tensile stresses, following an improved approach that had been first developed by Sauthoff and then applied to Zr-H system by Puls. Both analytical and experimental results indicate that the threshold stress for producing perpendicular hydrides varies with the microstructural features, the yield strength, and the residual stresses.

Bai, J.B.; Prioul, C.; Francois, D. (Ecole Centrale Paris, Chatenay-Malabry (France)); Ji, N. (ENSAM, Paris (France)); Gilbon, D. (C.E.N. Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.

R. A. Cordes; A. Donaldson

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

RATES  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Planning & Projects Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates You are here: SN Home page > Power Marketing > RATES Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current Rates Power Revenue Requirement Worksheet (FY 2014) (Oct 2013 - Sep 2014) (PDF - 30K) PRR Notification Letter (Sep 27, 2013) (PDF - 959K) FY 2012 FP% True-Up Calculations(PDF - 387K) Variable Resource Scheduling Charge FY12-FY16 (October 1, 2012) PRR Forecast FY14-FY17 (May 23, 2013) (PDF - 100K) Forecasted Transmission Rates (May 2013) (PDF - 164K) Past Rates 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Historical CVP Transmission Rates (April 2013) (PDF - 287K) Rate Schedules Power - CV-F13 - CPP-2 Transmission - CV-T3 - CV-NWT5 - PACI-T3 - COTP-T3 - CV-TPT7 - CV-UUP1 Ancillary - CV-RFS4 - CV-SPR4 - CV-SUR4 - CV-EID4 - CV-GID1 Federal Register Notices - CVP, COTP and PACI

127

RATES  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Marketing > RATES Marketing > RATES RATES Current Rates Past Rates 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Rates Schedules Power CV-F13 CPP-2 Transmissions CV-T3 CV-NWT5 PACI-T3 COTP-T3 CV-TPT7 CV-UUP1 Ancillary CV-RFS4 CV-SPR4 CV-SUR4 CV-EID4 CV-GID1 Future and Other Rates SNR Variable Resource Scheduling Charge FY12-FY16 (October 1, 2012) SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on 4-27-10 (PDF - 155K) Power Action Item List (Quick links to relevant documents) Formal Process Rates Brochure (01/11/2011) (PDF - 900K) Appendix A - Federal Register Notice (01/03/2011) (PDF - 8000K) Appendix B - Central Valley Project Power Repayment Study (PDF - 22,322K) Appendix C - Development of the CVP Cost of Service Study (PDF - 2038K)

128

Some Constraints On the Effects of Age and Metallicity on the Low Mass X-ray Binary Formation Rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have studied the low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations within and outside globular clusters (GC) in NGC 4365 and NGC 3115. Using published age and metallicity constraints from optical and IR observations of their GCs, we do not find any evidence for an increase in the LMXB formation rate in the intermediate age cluster population of NGC 4365, as has been proposed in some scenarios of dynamical LMXB formation in GCs. The old, metal-rich, red population of GCs in NGC 3115 on the other hand is {\\it at least} three times as efficient at creating LMXBs as the old, metal-poor, blue clusters. These data suggest that the higher formation efficiency of LMXBs in the red GC subsystems of many galaxies is largely a consequence of their higher metallicity. A comparison of the densities of field LMXBs in different galaxies does not reveal an obvious correlation with the age of the field stars as predicted by models in which the LMXB formation rate in the field drops monotonically with time after an initial burst. This suggests that either a significant fraction of the field LMXBs are created in GCs and subsequently injected into the field, or the LMXB formation rate has a more complex time evolution pattern.

Arunav Kundu; Thomas J. Maccarone; Stephen E. Zepf; Thomas H. Puzia

2003-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

129

RATES  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

RATES RATES Rates Document Library SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on 4-27-10 (PDF - 155K) Power Action Item List (Quick links to relevant documents) Formal Process Rates Brochure (01/11/2011) (PDF - 900K) Appendix A - Federal Register Notice (01/03/2011) (PDF - 8000K) Appendix B - Central Valley Project Power Repayment Study (PDF - 22,322K) Appendix C - Development of the CVP Cost of Service Study (PDF - 2038K) Appendix D - Western Transmission System Facilities Map (PDF - 274K) Appendix E - Estimated FY12 FP and BR Customer (PDF - 1144K) Appendix F - Forecasted Replacements and Additions FY11 - FY16 (PDF - 491K) Appendix G - Definitions (PDF - 1758K) Appendix H - Acronyms (PDF - 720K)

130

A STUDY OF FUNDAMENTAL REACTION PATHWAYS FOR TRANSITION METAL ALKYL COMPLEXES. I. THE REACTION OF A NICKEL METHYL COMPLEX WITH ALKYNES. II. THE MECHANISM OF ALDEHYDE FORMATION IN THE REACTION OF A MOLYBDENUM HYDRIDE WITH MOLYBDENUM ALKYLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

relative rates of Sn2 and ocesses in the reaction of 1 withthat these reactions proceed by an Sn2 displacementthe anion, the reaction was found to proceed by Sn2 di prima

Huggins, John Mitchell

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

HYDRIDE-RELATED DEGRADATION OF SNF CLADDING UNDER REPOSITORY CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose and scope of this analysis/model report is to analyze the degradation of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) cladding under repository conditions by the hydride-related metallurgical processes, such as delayed hydride cracking (DHC), hydride reorientation and hydrogen embrittlement, thereby providing a better understanding of the degradation process and clarifying which aspects of the process are known and which need further evaluation and investigation. The intended use is as an input to a more general analysis of cladding degradation.

K. McCoy

2000-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

132

Dissipative hydride precipitates in superconducting niobium cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the first direct observation of the microstructural features exhibiting RF losses at high surface magnetic fields of above 100 mT in field emission free superconducting niobium cavities. The lossy areas were identified by advanced thermometry. Surface investigations using different techniques were carried out on cutout samples from lossy areas and showed the presence of dendritic niobium hydrides. This finding has possible implications to the mechanisms of RF losses in superconducting niobium at all field levels.

Romanenko, A.; Cooley, L.D.; /Fermilab; Ciovati, G.; / /Jefferson Lab; Wu, G.; /Argonne

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

E-Print Network 3.0 - antimony hydrides Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Sb(V) were the only hydride-forming species found... WATERS BY HYDRIDE GENERATION ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY Water-Resources Investigations Report 03... Prior to the...

134

LANL/PNNL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrides and New Concepts...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

LANLPNNL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrides and New Concepts for Hydrogen Storage LANLPNNL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrides and New Concepts for Hydrogen Storage...

135

E-Print Network 3.0 - argon hydrides Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques Collection: Mathematics 4 Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage Darlene K. Slattery and Michael D. Hampton Summary: Complex Hydrides for...

136

Nano-engineering of magnesium hydride for hydrogen storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The destabilization of magnesium hydride (MgH"2) by solid-state reaction with Si in a nanoscale under vacuum was studied. The nanostructured Si films were deposited on the nanocrystalline MgH"2/Mg composite substrate by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD). ... Keywords: Destabilization, Magnesium hydride, Microstructure, Nano-engineering, Silicon

J. Bystrzycki; T. P?oci?ski; W. Zieli?ski; Z. Winiewski; M. Polanski; W. Mróz; Z. Bojar; K. J. Kurzd?owski

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Muon motion in titanium hydride  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Motional narrowing of the transverse-field muon-spin rotation signal has been reported previously for ?-TiHx with x=1.83, 1.97, and 1.99. An analysis of the results for TiH1.99 near room temperature indicates that the mechanism responsible for the motion of the muon out of the octahedral site is thermally activated diffusion with an attempt frequency comparable to the optical vibrations of the lattice. The motional narrowing in TiH1.97 near 500 K is interpreted with the aid of Monte Carlo calculations which simulated the effect of muon and proton motion upon the field-correlation time for the muon. The results of these simulations coupled with published proton nuclear-magnetic-resonance T1 measurements indicate that the field-correlation time for the muon can be explained if the rate of motion for the nearest-neighbor protons is decreased relative to the hopping rate for the unperturbed lattice.

J. R. Kempton; K. G. Petzinger; W. J. Kossler; H. E. Schone; C. E. Stronach

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Complex Hydride Compounds with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), in collaboration with major partners Albemarle Corporation (Albemarle) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), conducted research to discover new hydride materials for the storage of hydrogen having on-board reversibility and a target gravimetric capacity of ? 7.5 weight percent (wt %). When integrated into a system with a reasonable efficiency of 60% (mass of hydride / total mass), this target material would produce a system gravimetric capacity of ? 4.5 wt %, consistent with the DOE 2007 target. The approach established for the project combined first principles modeling (FPM - UTRC) with multiple synthesis methods: Solid State Processing (SSP - UTRC), Solution Based Processing (SBP - Albemarle) and Molten State Processing (MSP - SRNL). In the search for novel compounds, each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages; by combining them, the potential for success was increased. During the project, UTRC refined its FPM framework which includes ground state (0 Kelvin) structural determinations, elevated temperature thermodynamic predictions and thermodynamic / phase diagram calculations. This modeling was used both to precede synthesis in a virtual search for new compounds and after initial synthesis to examine reaction details and options for modifications including co-reactant additions. The SSP synthesis method involved high energy ball milling which was simple, efficient for small batches and has proven effective for other storage material compositions. The SBP method produced very homogeneous chemical reactions, some of which cannot be performed via solid state routes, and would be the preferred approach for large scale production. The MSP technique is similar to the SSP method, but involves higher temperature and hydrogen pressure conditions to achieve greater species mobility. During the initial phases of the project, the focus was on higher order alanate complexes in the phase space between alkaline metal hydrides (AmH), Alkaline earth metal hydrides (AeH2), alane (AlH3), transition metal (Tm) hydrides (TmHz, where z=1-3) and molecular hydrogen (H2). The effort started first with variations of known alanates and subsequently extended the search to unknown compounds. In this stage, the FPM techniques were developed and validated on known alanate materials such as NaAlH4 and Na2LiAlH6. The coupled predictive methodologies were used to survey over 200 proposed phases in six quaternary spaces, formed from various combinations of Na, Li Mg and/or Ti with Al and H. A wide range of alanate compounds was examined using SSP having additions of Ti, Cr, Co, Ni and Fe. A number of compositions and reaction paths were identified having H weight fractions up to 5.6 wt %, but none meeting the 7.5 wt%H reversible goal. Similarly, MSP of alanates produced a number of interesting compounds and general conclusions regarding reaction behavior of mixtures during processing, but no alanate based candidates meeting the 7.5 wt% goal. A novel alanate, LiMg(AlH4)3, was synthesized using SBP that demonstrated a 7.0 wt% capacity with a desorption temperature of 150°C. The deuteride form was synthesized and characterized by the Institute for Energy (IFE) in Norway to determine its crystalline structure for related FPM studies. However, the reaction exhibited exothermicity and therefore was not reversible under acceptable hydrogen gas pressures for on-board recharging. After the extensive studies of alanates, the material class of emphasis was shifted to borohydrides. Through SBP, several ligand-stabilized Mg(BH4)2 complexes were synthesized. The Mg(BH4)2*2NH3 complex was found to change behavior with slightly different synthesis conditions and/or aging. One of the two mechanisms was an amine-borane (NH3BH3) like dissociation reaction which released up to 16 wt %H and more conservatively 9 wt%H when not including H2 released from the NH3. From FPM, the stability of the Mg(BH4)2*2NH3 compound was found to increase with the inclusion of NH3 groups in the inner-Mg coordination

Mosher, Daniel A.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Tang, Xia; Laube, Bruce L.; Brown, Ronald J.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Anton, Donald L.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Berseth, Polly

2008-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

139

Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities Irradiation is known to have a significant impact on the properties and performance of Zircaloy cladding and structural materials (material degradation processes, e.g., effects of hydriding). This UFD study examines the behavior and performance of unirradiated cladding and actual irradiated cladding through testing and simulation. Three capsules containing hydrogen-charged Zircaloy-4 cladding material have been placed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Irradiation of the capsules was conducted for post-irradiation examination (PIE) metallography. Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of

140

Pressure Acceleration of Hydride Formation on a Cobalt(I) Macrocycle  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Pressure Acceleration of Hydride Formation via Pressure Acceleration of Hydride Formation via Proton Binding to a Cobalt(I) Macrocycle Etsuko Fujita, James F. Wishart, and Rudi van Eldik Inorg. Chem. 41, 1579-1583 (2002) [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: The effect of pressure on proton binding to the racemic isomer of the cobalt(I) macrocycle, CoL+ (L = 5,7,7,12,14,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-4,11-diene), has been studied for a series of proton donors using pulse radiolysis techniques. The second-order rate constants for the reaction of CoL+ with proton donors decrease with increasing pKa of the donor acid, consistent with a reaction occurring via proton transfer. Whereas the corresponding volumes of activation (DVý) are rather small and negative for all acids (proton donors) with pKa values below 8.5, significantly larger negative

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141

Method to predict relative hydriding within a group of zirconium alloys under nuclear irradiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An out-of-reactor method for screening to predict relative in-reactor hydriding behavior of zirconium-based materials is disclosed. Samples of zirconium-based materials having different compositions and/or fabrication methods are autoclaved in a relatively concentrated (0.3 to 1.0M) aqueous lithium hydroxide solution at constant temperatures within the water reactor coolant temperature range (280 to 316 C). Samples tested by this out-of-reactor procedure, when compared on the basis of the ratio of hydrogen weight gain to oxide weight gain, accurately predict the relative rate of hydriding for the same materials when subject to in-reactor (irradiated) corrosion. 1 figure.

Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Levy, I.S.; Trimble, D.J.; Lanning, D.D.; Gerber, F.S.

1990-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

142

Systems Modeling, Simulation and Material Operating Requirements for Chemical Hydride Based Hydrogen Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research on ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) has shown it to be a promising material for chemical hydride based hydrogen storage. AB was selected by DOE's Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) as the initial chemical hydride of study because of its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of {approx}2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions. A new systems concept based on augers, ballast tank, hydrogen heat exchanger and H2 burner was designed and implemented in simulation. In this design, the chemical hydride material was assumed to produce H2 on the augers itself, thus minimizing the size of ballast tank and reactor. One dimensional models based on conservation of mass, species and energy were used to predict important state variables such as reactant and product concentrations, temperatures of various components, flow rates, along with pressure, in various components of the storage system. Various subsystem components in the models were coded as C language S-functions and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. The control variable AB (or alane) flow rate was determined through a simple expression based on the ballast tank pressure, H2 demand from the fuel cell and hydrogen production from AB (or alane) in the reactor. System simulation results for solid AB, liquid AB and alane for both steady state and transient drive cycle cases indicate the usefulness of the model for further analysis and prototype development.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

SOLID STATE HYDRIDE SYSTEM ENGINEERING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A typical hydrogen refueling station was designed based on DOE targets and existing gasoline filling station operations. The purpose of this design was to determine typical heat loads, how these heat loads will be handled, and approximate equipment sizes. For the station model, two DOE targets that had the most impact on the design were vehicle driving range and refueling time. The target that hydrogen fueled vehicles should have the equivalent driving range as present automobiles, requires 5 kg hydrogen storage. Assuming refueling occurs when the tank is 80% empty yields a refueling quantity of 4 kg. The DOE target for 2010 of a refueling time of 3 minutes was used in this design. There is additional time needed for payment of the fuel, and connecting and disconnecting hoses and grounds. It was assumed that this could be accomplished in 5 minutes. Using 8 minutes for each vehicle refueling gives a maximum hourly refueling rate of 7.5 cars per hour per fueling point.

Anton, D; Mark Jones, M; Bruce Hardy, B

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

144

Proposed Virtual Center for Excellence for Metal Hydride Development  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC.

145

Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This technical report describes the activities carried out, key accomplishments, and recommendations from the DOE’s Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence, led by Los Alamos National Laboratory with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory from 2005 through 2010.

146

Proposed Virtual Center for Excellence for Metal Hydride Development  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

& Engineering Sciences Center Atoms to Continuum Storage development within the DOE hydrogen Storage development within the DOE hydrogen program for 10 years program for 10...

147

STANFORD IN-SITU HIGH RATE YBCO PROCESS: TRANSFER TO METAL TAPES AND PROCESS SCALE UP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Executive Summary The materials science understanding of high rate low cost processes for Coated Conductor will benefit the application to power utilities for low loss energy transportation and power generation as well for DOD applications. The research in this program investigated several materials processing approaches that are new and original, and are not being investigated elsewhere. This work added to the understanding of the material science of high rate PVD growth of HTSC YBCO assisted by a liquid phase. A new process discovered uses amorphous glassy precursors which can be made at high rate under flexible conditions of temperature and oxygen, and later brought to conditions of oxygen partial pressure and temperature for rapid conversion to YBCO superconductor. Good critical current densities were found, but further effort is needed to optimize the vortex pinning using known artificial inclusions. A new discovery of the physics and materials science of vortex pinning in the HTSC system using Sm in place of Y came at growth at unusually low oxygen pressure resulting in clusters of a low or non superconducting phase within the nominal high temperature phase. The driving force for this during growth is new physics, perhaps due to the low oxygen. This has the potential for high current in large magnetic fields at low cost, applicable to motors, generators and transformers. The technical demands of this project were the motivation for the development of instrumentation that could be essential to eventual process scale up. These include atomic absorption based on tunable diode lasers for remote monitoring and control of evaporation sources (developed under DARPA support), and the utility of Fourier Transform Infrared Reflectivity (FTIR) for aid in the synthesis of complex thin film materials (purchased by a DURIP-AFOSR grant).

Malcolm R. Beasley; Robert H.Hammond

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

148

Novel Hydride Transfer Catalysis for Carbohydrate Conversions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), an important versatile sugar derivative has been synthesized from glucose using catalytic amounts of CrCl2 in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidizolium chloride. Glycerol and glyceraldehyde were tested as sugar model compounds. Glycerol is unreactive and does not interfere with glucose conversion. Glyceraldehyde is reactive and does interfere with glucose conversion in competitive experiments. MnCl2 or FeCl2 catalyze dehydration of glyceraldehyde dimer to form compound I, a cyclic hemiacetal with an exocyclic double bond. Upon aqueous work-up I forms pyruvaldehyde. CrCl2 or VCl3 further catalyze a hydride transfer of I to form lactide. Upon aqueous work-up lactide is converted to lactic acid.

Holladay, John E.; Brown, Heather M.; Appel, Aaron M.; Zhang, Z. Conrad

2008-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

149

Delayed hydride cracking behavior for ZIRCALOY-2 tubing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The delayed hydride cracking (DHC) behavior for ZIRCALOY-2 tubing was characterized at temperatures ranging from 93 °C to 288 °C. Testing was performed on the three types of pressure tubes that were used in th...

F. H. Huang; W. J. Mills

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Hydride-dehydride module within ARIES (Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the many requirements placed on the DOE is the reduction of the nuclear stockpile through dismantlement programs. The DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) has been tasked with the disposition of excess plutonium and other fissile materials. On the list of items containing excess fissile materials are nuclear weapon cores, pits. The Advanced Recovery and integrated Extraction System (ARIES) at Los Alamos National Laboratory is the pit disassembly and conversion demonstration line that is being used to gather data to support the design of the full scale pit disassembly and conversion facility. The Hydride Dehydride recycle system is an important element to this program, because it provides these dismantlement programs with a technology for removing plutonium from nuclear weapons without producing large amounts of waste compared to historical processes used in the DOE complex. The Hydride Dehydride recycle process can separate plutonium from other weapons components resulting in an unclassified plutonium metal button. After separation, this button can be stored in long term storage containers or processed to produce plutonium oxide, which will be used by either of the plutonium disposition options, mixed oxide fuel burning in a nuclear reactor or immobilization. Once placed into long term storage containers, either the plutonium metal or plutonium oxide can be inspected by bilateral or international agencies to invoke transparency of the plutonium.

Flamm, B.F.; Isom, G.M.; Nelson, T.O.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

151

OBSERVATIONS IN REACTIVITY BETWEEN BH CONTAINING COMPOUNDS AND ORGANOMETALLIC REAGENTS: SYNTHESIS OF BORONIC ACIDS, BORONIC ESTERS, AND MAGNESIUM HYDRIDES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reaction of BH 3 :THF with magnesium hydride byproduct. A.It was also observed that magnesium hydride can partiallyACIDS, BORONIC ESTERS, AND MAGNESIUM HYDRIDES A dissertation

Clary, Jacob William

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Proposed beryllium metal bounding airborne release fractions (ARFs)/rates (ARRs) and respirable fractions (RFs) for DOE facility accidents analyses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Beryllium metal has special properties for nuclear applications and is used widely within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Beryllium is toxic and has the potential to cause health effects (sensitization and chronic beryllium disease) to workers. Due to the type of processing involving large quantities of beryllium metal and powders and potential for significant airborne release under accident conditions, a comprehensive hazard analysis is required by DOE in a safety analysis document that evaluates potential accidents that can cause beryllium releases to the workplace and public or to the environment. The goal of the safety analysis is to identify and evaluate hazards so that appropriate controls or safeguards can be specified to protect the workers and public from potential accidents. A hazard assessment is also required to comply with 10 CFR Part 850, Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (1999) to protect the workers. DOE safety analyses include a quantitative estimate of releases and downwind concentrations for purposes of hazard classification and determination of the need for additional hazards analysis, accident analysis, and risk assessments. There are no complex-wide accepted Airborne Release Fractions (ARFs) and Respirable Fractions (RFs) that can be used to evaluate the potential downwind consequences of releases of beryllium under various accident conditions (e.g., spill, fire, stress, explosion, etc.). The purpose is to recommend DOE complex-wide \\{ARFs\\} and \\{RFs\\} that can be used to evaluate the potential downwind consequences of accidents. This paper proposes various values for \\{ARFs\\} and \\{RFs\\} that are based on review of the published information and data on the oxidation and ignition behavior of beryllium metal encased in a thin coat of non-porous, adherent oxide (“blue oxide”); the typical form of this material found in DOE facilities. Information is also presented as a function of the morphology of the metal (i.e., large, coherent, pieces; turnings/swarfs; chips/powder; and dust) because the surface to volume ratio is an important factor in evaluating both the amount of beryllium released and the potential for ignition of the metal that may increase the amount of release significantly. Guidance is also provided for the use of the DOE-HDBK-3010-94, Airborne Release Fractions/Rates and Respirable Fraction for Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities, values for oxide releases that result in a more liberal, allowable limiting airborne concentration for determining consequences and hazard classification of the facility. Detailed explanations of the proposed ARF/RF values for the various beryllium metal forms (large coherent pieces, chips/powder, turning/swarfs from processing, and dust) and other aspects of beryllium are provided in a report by Mishima et al. (April 2005). A short version of this report and a summary of the ARF/RF values are presented here.

Jofu Mishima; Terry L. Foppe; J.C. Laul

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Time growth rate and field profiles of hybrid modes excited by a relativistic elliptical electron beam in an elliptical metallic waveguide with dielectric rod  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dispersion relation of guided electromagnetic waves propagating in an elliptical metallic waveguide with a dielectric rod driven by relativistic elliptical electron beam (REEB) is investigated. The electric field profiles and the growth rates of the waves are numerically calculated by using Mathieu functions. The effects of relative permittivity constant of dielectric rod, accelerating voltage, and current density of REEB on the growth rate are presented.

Jazi, B.; Rahmani, Z.; Abdoli-Arani, A. [Faculty of Physics, Department of Laser and Photonics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heidari-Semiromi, E. [Faculty of Physics, Department of Condense Matter, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Opening of a Post Doctoral Position Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Opening of a Post Doctoral Position Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage applications on complex hydrides for hydrogen storage applications in connection with the « Fast, reliable and cost effective boron hydride based high capacity solid state hydrogen storage materials» project co

155

Photoelectron spectroscopy of boron aluminum hydride cluster anions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Boron aluminum hydride clusters are studied through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations. Boron aluminum hydride cluster anions, B{sub x}Al{sub y}H{sub z}{sup ?}, were generated in a pulsed arc cluster ionization source and identified by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle-type electron energy analyzer. The resultant photoelectron spectra as well as calculations on a selected series of stoichiometries reveal significant geometrical changes upon substitution of aluminum atoms by boron atoms.

Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Gantefoer, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Li, Xiang [Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland–Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States)] [Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland–Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu [Department of Chemistry and Physics, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Physics, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K. [Department of Physics, West Chester University, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States)] [Department of Physics, West Chester University, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

156

Effect of radial hydrides on the axial and hoop mechanical properties of Zircaloy-4 cladding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of radial hydrides on the mechanical properties of stress-relief annealed Zircaloy-4 cladding was studied. Specimens were firstly hydrided to different target hydrogen levels between 100 and 600 wt ppm and then thermally cycled in an autoclave under a constant hoop stress to form radial hydrides by a hydride reorientation process. The effect of radial hydrides on the axial properties of the cladding was insignificant. On the other hand, the cladding ductility measurements decreased as its radial hydride content increased when the specimen was tested in plane strain tension. A reference hydrogen concentration for radial hydrides in the cladding was defined for assessing the fuel cladding integrity based on a criterion of the tensile strength 600 MPa. The reference hydrogen concentration increased with the specimen (bulk) hydrogen concentration to a maximum of ?90 wt ppm at the bulk concentration ?300 wt ppm H and then decreased towards higher concentrations.

H.C. Chu; S.K. Wu; K.F. Chien; R.C. Kuo

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

HYDROGEN STORAGE USINGHYDROGEN STORAGE USING COMPLEX HYDRIDESCOMPLEX HYDRIDES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Michael D. HamptonDarlene K. Slattery, Michael D. Hampton FL Solar Energy Center, U. of Central FLFL Solar Energy Center, U. of Central FL #12;Objective · Identify a hydrogen storage system that meets the DOEHYDROGEN STORAGE USINGHYDROGEN STORAGE USING COMPLEX HYDRIDESCOMPLEX HYDRIDES Darlene K. Slattery

158

Nondestructive Evaluation on Hydrided LWR Fuel Cladding by Small Angle Incoherent Neutron Scattering of Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A non-destructive neutron scattering method was developed to precisely measure the uptake of total hydrogen in nuclear grade Ziraloy-4 cladding. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zr alloy specimens and H gas. By controlling the initial H gas pressure in the vessel and the temperature profile, target H concentrations from tens of ppm to a few thousands of wppm have been successfully achieved. Following H charging, the H content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method (VHE), by which the samples with desired H concentration were selected for the neutron study. Small angle neutron incoherent scattering (SANIS) were performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge national Laboratory (ORNL). Our study indicates that a very small amount ( 20 ppm) H in commercial Zr cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes for a wide range of H concentration by a nondestructive method. The H distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor, which is determined by calibration process with direct chemical analysis method on the specimen. This scale factor can be used for future test with unknown H concentration, thus provide a nondestructive method for absolute H concentration determination.

Yan, Yong [ORNL; Qian, Shuo [ORNL; Littrell, Ken [ORNL; Parish, Chad M [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Plummer, Lee K [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

DOE ER63951-3 Final Report: An Integrated Assessment of Geochemical and Community Structure Determinants of Metal Reduction Rates in Subsurface Sediments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to examine the importance of microbial community structure in influencing uranium reduction rates in subsurface sediments. If the redox state alone is the key to metal reduction, then any organisms that can utilize the oxygen and nitrate in the subsurface can change the geochemical conditions so metal reduction becomes an energetically favored reaction. Thus, community structure would not be critical in determining rates or extent of metal reduction unless community structure influenced the rate of change in redox. Alternatively, some microbes may directly catalyze metal reduction (e.g., specifically reduce U). In this case the composition of the community may be more important and specific types of electron donors may promote the production of communities that are more adept at U reduction. Our results helped determine if the type of electron donor or the preexisting community is important in the bioremediation of metal-contaminated environments subjected to biostimulation. In a series of experiments at the DOE FRC site in Oak Ridge we have consistently shown that all substrates promoted nitrate reduction, while glucose, ethanol, and acetate always promoted U reduction. Methanol only occasionally promoted extensive U reduction which is possibly due to community heterogeneity. There appeared to be limitations imposed on the community related to some substrates (e.g. methanol and pyruvate). Membrane lipid analyses (phospholipids and respiratory quinones) indicated different communities depending on electron donor used. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and clone libraries indicated distinct differences among communities even in treatments that promoted U reduction. Thus, there was enough metabolic diversity to accommodate many different electron donors resulting in the U bioimmobilization.

Susan Pfiffner

2010-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

160

Effects of alloying elements on the strength and cooling rate sensitivity of ultra-low carbon alloy steel weld metals. Technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of weld cooling rate on the strength of autogenous GTAW deposited weld metal. The basic weld metal composition was based on a low carbon bainite metallurgical system. The weld metal yield strength goal was 130 ksi, needed to surpass the current HY-13O weld metal requirements. Vacuum Induction Melted (VIM) heats of steel were produced and processed into 3/4` thickness plates. The autogenous gas tungsten arc welds (GTAW) on the parent steel plates were produced under two different heat input conditions. Tensile specimens were produced from the weldments; specimens from certain heats were subjected to gleeble thermal simulations of multi-pass welding conditions using the Gleeble 1500. All specimens were then evaluated for yield and ultimate tensile strength. From the data presented, it was found that the experimental compositions studied were less sensitive to cooling rate than current HY-130 welding consumables. The compositions tested approached the target yield strength of 130 ksi, but further work is necessary in this area.

Vassilaros, M.G.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Effect of high strain rates on peak stress in a Zr-based bulk metallic glass George Sunny,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and excellent processing ability.1­3,9,10 Recent advances in the development of multi- component metallic glass Yuan,1 Vikas Prakash,1,a and John Lewandowski2 1 Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7222, USA 2 Department of Materials Science

Rollins, Andrew M.

162

FEASIBILITY OF RECYCLING PLUTONIUM AND MINOR ACTINIDES IN LIGHT WATER REACTORS USING HYDRIDE FUEL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this DOE NERI program sponsored project was to assess the feasibility of improving the plutonium (Pu) and minor actinide (MA) recycling capabilities of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) by using hydride instead of oxide fuels. There are four general parts to this assessment: 1) Identifying promising hydride fuel assembly designs for recycling Pu and MAs in PWRs 2) Performing a comprehensive systems analysis that compares the fuel cycle characteristics of Pu and MA recycling in PWRs using the promising hydride fuel assembly designs identified in Part 1 versus using oxide fuel assembly designs 3) Conducting a safety analysis to assess the likelihood of licensing hydride fuel assembly designs 4) Assessing the compatibility of hydride fuel with cladding materials and water under typical PWR operating conditions Hydride fuel was found to offer promising transmutation characteristics and is recommended for further examination as a possible preferred option for recycling plutonium in PWRs.

Greenspan, Ehud; Todreas, Neil; Taiwo, Temitope

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

163

Behavior and rupture of hydrided Zircaloy-4 tubes and sheets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zirconium alloys are used as structural parts in the nuclear fuel assembly. The mechanical behavior and rupture mechanisms of ZIRCALOY-4 guide tubes and sheet containing 150 to 1,200 wt ppm hydrogen have been investigated at room temperature. Sheets were notched to study the influence of geometrical defects on rupture. It is shown that hydrides strengthened the material, as maximum stresses sustained by the material are increased with increasing hydrogen contents. On the other hand, ductility is reduced. The material also exhibits a strong anisotropy due to its pronounced texture. Metallographic examinations have shown that damage by hydride cracking is a continuous process that starts after the onset of necking. Notches reduce ductility. A modified Gurson-Tvergaard model was used to represent the material behavior and rupture. Numerical simulation using the finite element method demonstrates the strong influence of plastic anisotropy on the behavior of structures and rupture modes.

Prat, F.; Besson, J. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Evry (France); Grange, M. [Framatome Nuclear Fuel, Lyon (France); Andrieu, E. [ENSCT, Toulouse (France). Lab. Materiaux

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Method to predict relative hydriding within a group of zirconium alloys under nuclear irradiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An out-of-reactor method for screening to predict relative in-reactor hydriding behavior of zirconium-bsed materials is disclosed. Samples of zirconium-based materials having different composition and/or fabrication are autoclaved in a relatively concentrated (0.3 to 1.0M) aqueous lithium hydroxide solution at constant temperatures within the water reactor coolant temperature range (280.degree. to 316.degree. C.). Samples tested by this out-of-reactor procedure, when compared on the basis of the ratio of hydrogen weight gain to oxide weight gain, accurately predict the relative rate of hyriding for the same materials when subject to in-reactor (irradiated) corrision.

Johnson, Jr., A. Burtron (Richland, WA); Levy, Ira S. (Kennewick, WA); Trimble, Dennis J. (Kennewick, WA); Lanning, Donald D. (Kennewick, WA); Gerber, Franna S. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenic hydrides Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(2002) 1080-703902.50 Summary: for arsenic species using hydride generation and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The detec- tion limit for As... by ASP Estimation of...

166

LANL/PNNL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrides and New Concepts...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

LANLPNNL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrides and New Concepts for Hydrogen Storage * Thermodynamics * Kinetics * Recycle * WeightVolume Capacity * Durability Investigate...

167

Influence of an oxide layer on the hydride embrittlement in Zircaloy-4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrid embrittlement of zirconium and its alloy has been studied extensively. The common techniques used to hydride the specimens are electro-chemical and gaseous ones. During this operation, especially for cases of long duration, an oxide layer would form on the surface of specimens. The present paper reports on some evidence for the influence of this layer on the hydride embrittlement in Zircaloy-4. Tensile tests with or without this layer were performed on hydrided specimens. Metallographic and fractographic analyses were carried out in order to examine the fracture nature of this layer. An analysis based on the fracture mechanics was also proposed.

Bai, J.B. (Ecole Centrale de Paris, Chatenay Malabry (France). Lab. MSS/MAT)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

169

Hydride blisters Formation, Characterization and Effect on the Fracture of Zircaloy-4 Cladding Tubes Under Reactivity Initiated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

failure in 1983[2], when an axial crack developed in a CANDU pressure tube following an array of hydride

170

Solid-State Gadolinium-Magnesium Hydride Optical Switch R. Armitage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-state electrochromic device. With positive polarization of the hydride electrode, the visible reflectance approaches 35 and reflecting states. Keywords: gadolinium-magnesium; electrochromic hydride; optical switching device. 2 #12;A conventional electrochromics5 . Optical switching has also been demonstrated by varying the H content

171

Hydride precipitation and its influence on mechanical properties of notched and unnotched Zircaloy-4 plates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The hydride formation and its influence on the mechanical performance of hydrided Zircaloy-4 plates containing different hydrogen contents were studied at room temperature. For the unnotched plate samples with the hydrogen contents ranging from 25 to 850 wt. ppm, the hydrides exerted an insignificant effect on the tensile strength, while the ductility was severely degraded with increasing hydrogen content. The fracture mode and degree of embrittlement were strongly related to the hydrogen content. When the hydrogen content reached a level of 850 wt. ppm, the plate exhibited negligible ductility, resulting in almost completely brittle behavior. For the hydrided notched plate, the tensile stress concentration associated with the notch tip facilitated the hydride accumulation at the region near the notch tip and the premature crack propagation through the hydride fracture during hydriding. The final brittle through-thickness failure for this notched sample was mainly attributed to the formation of a continuous hydride network on the thickness section and the obtained very high hydrogen concentration (estimated to be 1965 wt. ppm).

Zhiyang Wang; Ulf Garbe; Huijun Li; Robert P. Harrison; Karl Toppler; Andrew J. Studer; Tim Palmer; Guillaume Planchenault

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Hydrogen Storage Properties of New Hydrogen-Rich BH3NH3-Metal...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Storage Properties of New Hydrogen-Rich BH3NH3-Metal Hydride (TiH2, ZrH2, MgH2, andor CaH2) Composite Systems. Hydrogen Storage Properties of New Hydrogen-Rich BH3NH3-Metal...

173

Stress-induced reorientation of hydrides and mechanical properties of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Stress-induced reorientation of hydrides and its effect on the stress–strain response of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes were investigated. The reorientation of hydrides along the radial direction was most pronounced if the tube was cooled from 300 to 200 °C under circumferential loading. Reorientation occurred much less frequently at either higher (cooled from 400 to 300 °C) or lower (cooled from 200 to 100 °C) temperature range. The population of radial hydrides in R43H7 (which was cooled from 400 to 300 °C and maintained at 300 °C for 7 h) increased drastically during annealing at 300 °C, suggesting time dependent stress-aided dissolution of circumferential hydrides and reprecipitation of radial hydrides. The drastic decrease of the strength and the complete loss of the ductility were observed in R32AC and R43H7.

S.I. Hong; K.W. Lee

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Corrosion product identification and relative rates of corrosion of candidate metals in an irradiated air-steam environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previously reported work by others indicates that dicopper trihydroxide nitrate, Cu{sub 2}NO{sub 3}(OH){sub 3}, forms on copper and copper alloys subjected to irradiated moist air near room temperature. We have performed experiments over a range of temperature and humidity, and have found that this species is formed at temperatures up to at least 150{degree}C if low to intermediate relative humidities are present. At 150{degree}C and 100% relative humidity, only Cu{sub 2}O and CuO were observed. The relative general corrosion rates of the copper materials tested in 1-month experiments at dose rates of 0.7 and 2.0 kGy/h were Cu > 70/30 Cu--Ni > Al-bronze. High-nickel alloy 825 showed no observable corrosion. 29 refs., 4 tabs.

Reed, D.T.; Swayambunathan, V.; Tani, B.S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Van Konynenburg, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1989-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

175

Electrochemical process and production of novel complex hydrides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of using an electrochemical cell to generate aluminum hydride (AlH.sub.3) is provided. The electrolytic cell uses a polar solvent to solubilize NaAlH.sub.4. The resulting electrochemical process results in the formation of AlH.sub.3. The AlH.sub.3 can be recovered and used as a source of hydrogen for the automotive industry. The resulting spent aluminum can be regenerated into NaAlH.sub.4 as part of a closed loop process of AlH.sub.3 generation.

Zidan, Ragaiy

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

176

Chemical Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of 2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions, ammonia borane (AB) is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications in transportation sector. Several systems models for chemical hydride materials such as solid AB, liquid AB and alane were developed and evaluated at PNNL to determine an optimal configuration that would meet the 2010 and future DOE targets for hydrogen storage. This paper presents an overview of those systems models and discusses the simulation results for various transient drive cycle scenarios.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

177

Metal-to-Insulator Transition in Anatase TiO2 Thin Films Induced by Growth Rate Modulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate control of the carrier density of single phase anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films by nearly two orders of magnitude by modulating the growth kinetics during pulsed laser deposition, under fixed thermodynamic conditions. The resistivity and the intensity of the photoluminescence spectra of these TiO{sub 2} samples, both of which correlate with the number of oxygen vacancies, are shown to depend strongly on the growth rate. A quantitative model is used to explain the carrier density changes.

Tachikawa, T; Minohara, M.; Nakanishi, Y.; Hikita, Y.; Yoshita, M.; Akiyama, H.; Bell, C.; Hwang, H.Y.

2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

178

Method of generating hydrogen-storing hydride complexes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

Srinivasan, Sesha S; Niemann, Michael U; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias K

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

179

DOE Science Showcase - Rare Earth Metal Research from DOE Databases |  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Rare Earth Metal Research from DOE Databases Rare Earth Metal Research from DOE Databases Information Bridge Energy Citations Database Highlighted documents of Rare Earth Metal research in DOE databases Information Bridge - Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces DOE R&D Project Summaries - Structural and magnetic studies on heavy rare earth metals at high pressures using designer diamonds Energy Citations Database - Intermultiplet transitions in rare-earth metals DOE Green Energy - LaNi.sub.5 is-based metal hydride electrode in Ni-MH rechargeable cells Science.gov - H.R.4866 - Rare Earths Supply-Chain Technology and Resources Transformation Act of 2010 WorldWideScience.org - China produces most of the world's rare earth metals DOepatents - Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

180

Relativistic theory for the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate in ferromagnetic metals with application to 5d impurities in bcc Fe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A relativistic theory for the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (TT1)-1 in ferromagnetic metals is presented that includes in particular the electric quadrupolar and the core polarization contributions. Because it is formulated within the framework of the spin-polarized relativistic version of the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method of band structure calculations it can be applied in principle to any kind of system. Here an application of the theory to 5d impurities (Lu–Hg) in ferromagnetic bcc Fe is presented. While the core polarization contribution turned out to be negligible in all cases, the electric quadrupolar contribution was found to be of the same order of magnitude as the magnetic dipolar one in the case of Lu, Hf, Ir, and Au.

I. Cabria, M. Deng, and H. Ebert

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal. III: Results for the 2002--2007 data-taking period  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in Dec. 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. We give here the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in Dec. 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through Dec. 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keV of 65.4 (+3.1)(-3.0) (stat) (+2.6)(-2.8) (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neutrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1 +/- 3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced 37Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior 51Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.87 +/- 0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in 71Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63-66 SNU with an uncertainty of about 4%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the neutrino flux produced in the Sun by the proton-proton fusion reaction to be (6.0 +/- 0.8) x 10^(10)/(cm^2 s), which agrees well with the pp flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

SAGE Collaboration; J. N. Abdurashitov; V. N. Gavrin; V. V. Gorbachev; P. P. Gurkina; T. V. Ibragimova; A. V. Kalikhov; N. G. Khairnasov; T. V. Knodel; I. N. Mirmov; A. A. Shikhin; E. P. Veretenkin; V. E. Yants; G. T. Zatsepin; T. J. Bowles; S. R. Elliott; W. A. Teasdale; J. S. Nico; B. T. Cleveland; J. F. Wilkerson

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

Polar intermetallic compounds of the silicon and arsenic family elements and their ternary hydrides and fluorides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investigation has been made on the effects of hydrogen and fluoride in the solid state chemistry of alkaline-earth and divalent rare-earth metal pnictide (Pn) and tetrelide (Tt) phases A{sub 5}(Pn,Tt,){sub 3}Z{sub x}, where A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Sm, Eu, Yb; Pn = As, Sb, Bi; Tt = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb and Z = H, F. Several trivalent rare-earth-metal pnictides, RE{sub 5}Pn{sub 3} (RE = Y, La, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) and alkaline-earth-metal trielides, A{sub 5}Tr{sub 3}Z{sub x} (Tr = Ga, In, Tl) have been included in an effort to complete observed structural trends. Two main experimental techniques were followed throughout this work, (a) reactions in absence of hydrogen or under continuous high vacuum, and (b) reactions with binary metal hydrides, AH{sub x}, in closed containers. The results demonstrate that all the phases reported with the {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type structure in the A{sub 5}Pn{sub 3} systems are hydrogen-stabilized compounds. Reactions in absence of hydrogen lead to compounds with the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type structure. The structure type {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} (= Ca{sub 5}SB{sub 3}F) was found to be characteristic of ternary systems and inaccurately associated with phases that form in the Y{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}-type. A new series of isomorphous Zintl compounds with the Ca{sub 16}Sb{sub 11}-type structure were prepared and studied as well. All the alkaline-earth-metal tetrelides, A{sub 5}Tt{sub 3}, that crystallize in the Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}-type structure can be interstitially derivatized by hydrogen or fluoride. Binary and ternary compounds were characterized by Guinier powder patterns, single crystal X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. In an effort to establish property-structure relationships, electrical resistivity and magnetic measurements were performed on selected systems, and the results were explained in terms of the Zintl concepts, aided by extended Hueckel band calculations.

Leon-Escamilla, E.A.

1996-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

183

Modeling of temporal behavior of isotopic exchange between gaseous hydrogen and palladium hydride power  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A parametric rate-equation model is described which depicts the time dependent behavior of the isotopic exchange process occurring between the solid and gas phases in gaseous hydrogen (deuterium) flows through packed-powder palladium deuteride (hydride) beds. The exchange mechanism is assumed to be rate-limited by processes taking place on the surface of the powder. The fundamental kinetic parameter of the model is the isotopic exchange probability, p, which is the probability that an isotopic exchange event occurs during a collision of a gas phase atom with the surface. Isotope effects between the gas and solid phases are explicitly included in terms of the isotope separation factor, ..cap alpha... Results of the model are compared with recent experimental measurements of isotope exchange in the ..beta..-phase hydrogen/palladium system and, using a literature value of ..cap alpha.. = 2.4, a good description of the experimental data is obtained for p approx. 10/sup -7/. In view of the importance of the isotope effects in the hydrogen/palladium system and the range of ..cap alpha.. values reported for the ..beta..-phase in the literature, the sensitivity of the model results to a variation in the value of ..cap alpha.. is examined.

Melius, C F; Foltz, G W

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Hydride embrittlement in ZIRCALOY-4 plate; Part 1: Influence of microstructure on the hydride embrittlement in ZIRCALOY-4 at 20[degree]C and 350[degree]C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydride embrittlement in ZIRCALOY-4 was studied at room temperature and 350 C. Sheet tensile specimens of two fabrication routes in the stress-relieved, recrystallized, and [beta]-treated states were hydrided with or without tensile stress. It was found generally that the effect on strength of increasing hydrogen content was not important. However, for the tensile tests at room temperature, there is a ductile-brittle transition when the hydrogen content is higher than a certain threshold. The prior thermomechanical treatment shifts this transition considerably. In situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests, fractography, and fracture profile observations were carried out to determine the fracture micromechanisms and the microscopic processes. At 20 C, the fracture surfaces are characterized by voids and secondary cracks for low and medium hydrogen contents and by intergranular cracks and decohesion through the continuous hydride network for high hydrogen contents. This phenomenon disappears at 350 C, and the hydrogen seems to exert no more influence on the fracture micromechanism even for very high hydrogen contents (up to 1,500 wt ppm). A full-coverage model is proposed to estimate the critical hydrogen content that makes ZIRCALOY-4 totally brittle. The effect of microstructure on hydride embrittlement in different metallurgical states is thus explained according to the modeling. Special attention is devoted to relating the micromechanisms and the modeling in order to propose the possible measures needed to limit the hydride embrittlement effect.

Bai, J.B.; Prioul, C.; Francois, D. (Ecole Centrale Paris, Chatenay-Malabry (France))

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Model for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel Claddings: A Status Report on Current Model Capabilities Model for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel Claddings: A Status Report on Current Model Capabilities The report demonstrates a meso-scale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride precipitation in the cladding of used fuels during long-term dry-storage. While the Zr-based claddings (regarded as a barrier for containment of radioactive fission products and fuel) are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service in the reactor. The amount of hydrogen that the cladding picks up is primarily a function of the exact chemistry and microstructure of the claddings and reactor operating conditions, time-temperature history, and

186

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminium hydrides Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Medicine 26 KV-tOOJHfe Metallurgy Department Summary: .3. Developaent of a Hydride Based Fuel Cell 32 4.4. Materials Research for Fuel Cell Application .. 33 4.5. Thin... . The...

187

The Safe Use of Sodium Hydride on Scale: The Process Development of a Chloropyrimidine Displacement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Safe Use of Sodium Hydride on Scale: The Process Development of a Chloropyrimidine Displacement ... Global Pharmaceutical Commercialization, Merck Manufacturing Division, Rahway, New Jersey, 07065 ... This article is part of the Safety of Chemical Processes 11 special issue. ...

Jamie M. McCabe Dunn; Alicia Duran-Capece; Brendan Meehan; James Ulis; Tetsuo Iwama; Guy Gloor; George Wong; Evan Bekos

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

188

Structure of the novel ternary hydrides Li4Tt2D (Tt = Si and Ge)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The crystal structures of novel Li4Tt2D (Tt = Si and Ge) ternary hydrides were solved using neutron powder diffraction data. All hydrogen atoms were found to occupy Li6-octahedral interstices.

Wu, H.

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Formation and Characterization of Hydride Blisters in Zircaloy-4 Cladding Tubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a CANDU Zircaloy-2 pressure tube along an array of hydride blisters on the external surface is the material that replaced Zircaloy-2 alloy for pressure tubes in the CANDU reactors. In all these studies

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

190

First-principles calculations of niobium hydride formation in superconducting radio-frequency cavities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Niobium hydride is suspected to be a major contributor to degradation of the quality factor of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. In this study, we connect the fundamental properties of hydrogen in niobium to SRF cavity performance and processing. We modeled several of the niobium hydride phases relevant to SRF cavities and present their thermodynamic, electronic, and geometric properties determined from calculations based on density-functional theory. We find that the absorption of hydrogen from the gas phase into niobium is exothermic and hydrogen becomes somewhat anionic. The absorption of hydrogen by niobium lattice vacancies is strongly preferred over absorption into interstitial sites. A single vacancy can accommodate six hydrogen atoms in the symmetrically equivalent lowest-energy sites and additional hydrogen in the nearby interstitial sites affected by the strain field: this indicates that a vacancy can serve as a nucleation center for hydride phase formation. Small hydride precipitates may then occur near lattice vacancies upon cooling. Vacancy clusters and extended defects should also be enriched in hydrogen, potentially resulting in extended hydride phase regions upon cooling. We also assess the phase changes in the niobium-hydrogen system based on charge transfer between niobium and hydrogen, the strain field associated with interstitial hydrogen, and the geometry of the hydride phases. The results of this study stress the importance of not only the hydrogen content in niobium, but also the recovery state of niobium for the performance of SRF cavities.

Ford, Denise C.; Cooley, Lance D.; Seidman, David N.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

\\{WS8e4\\} - EFFECT OF HYDRIDES ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ZIRCALOY-4  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABSTRACT In order to better understand the embrittlement of Zircaloy-4 by hydrides and the ductile-brittle transition on this alloy, Zircaloy-4 sheet tensile specimens in the stress-relieved, recrystallized and ? treated states were hydrided (10 to 1500 ppm wt H) and then tested at two temperatures (20°C, 350°C). Metallographic and fractographic analyses were carried out to determine the fracture micro-mechanisms. The results showed that, at 20°C, Zircaloy-4 undergoes a significant ductile to brittle transition for high hydrogen contents. Heat treatment shifts this transition (to zero elongation) considerably, from 1050 ppm wt H for the stress-relieved state to less than 250 ppm wt H for the ? treated state. However, at 350°C, Zircaloy-4 remains ductile up to hydrogen content higher than 1100 ppm wt. At 20°C, the fracture surfaces are characterized by voids and secondary cracks for low and medium hydrogen contents, and by intergranular crack and decohesion through the continuous hydride network for high hydrogen content. A model based on image analysis and hydride embrittlement micro-mechanism observations is used to calculate the upper-limit hydrogen content which makes Zircaloy-4 totally brittle. The difference between the mechanical behaviors of stress-relieved and recrystallized states is also explained. KEYWORDS Zircaloy-4, hydride embrittlement, ductile-brittle transition, cracked-hydride voids.

J.B. BAI; C. PRIOUL; D. FRANÇOIS

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Fracture of Hydrided Zircaloy-4 Sheet under Through-Thickness Crack Growth Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The failure of thin-wall components such as fuel cladding may be caused by crack initiation on the component surface and subsequent crack growth through its thickness. This study has determined the fracture toughness of hydrided cold-worked stress relieved Zircaloy-4 sheet subject to through-thickness crack growth at 25 deg. C. The experimental approach utilizes a novel procedure in which a narrow linear strip of brittle hydride blister across the specimen width creates a well-defined pre-crack upon initial loading. The subsequent crack growth resistance is then characterized by four-point bending of the specimen and an elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis. At room temperature, the through-thickness fracture toughness (K{sub Q}) is sensitive to the orientation of the hydride platelets, and K{sub Q} {approx_equal} 25 MPavm for crack growth through a mixed in-plane/out-of-plane hydride field. In contrast, K{sub Q} is much higher ({approx_equal} 75 MPavm) when the hydride platelets are oriented predominantly in the plane of the sheet (and therefore normal to both the crack plane and the crack growth direction). The implication of these fracture toughness values to the fracture strain behavior of hydrided Zircaloy-4 under through-thickness crack growth conditions is illustrated. (authors)

Raynaud, P.A.; Koss, D.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Motta, A.T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Chan, K.S. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties Title Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-49043 Year of Publication 2001 Authors Richardson, Thomas J., Jonathan L. Slack, Baker Farangis, and Michael D. Rubin Journal Applied Physics Letters Volume 80 Pagination 1349-1351 Call Number LBNL-49043 Abstract Thin, Pd-capped metallic films containing magnesium and first row transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co) switch reversibly from their initial reflecting state to visually transparent states when exposed to gaseous hydrogen or following reduction cathodic polarization in an alkaline electrolyte. Reversion to the reflecting state is achieved by exposure to air or by anodic polarization. The films were prepared by co-sputtering from one magnesium target and one manganese, iron, or cobalt target. Both the dynamic optical switching range and the speed of the transition depend on the magnesium-transition metal ratio. Infrared spectra of films in the transparent, hydrided (deuterided) states support the presence of the intermetallic hydride phases Mg3MnH7, Mg2FeH6, and Mg2CoH5.

194

Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into Moose-Bison and Validation Strategy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride ?-ZrH1.5 precipitation in the cladding of used nuclear fuels that may occur during long-term dry storage. While the Zr-based claddings are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service, in the reactor by a process commonly termed ‘hydrogen pick-up’. The precipitation and growth of zirconium hydrides during dry storage is one of the most likely fuel rod integrity failure mechanisms either by embrittlement or delayed hydride cracking of the cladding (Hanson et al., 2011). While the phenomenon is well documented and identified as a potential key failure mechanism during long-term dry storage (Birk et al., 2012 and NUREG/CR-7116), the ability to actually predict the formation of hydrides is poor. The model being documented in this work is a computational capability for the prediction of hydride formation in different claddings of used nuclear fuels. This work supports the Used Fuel Disposition Research and Development Campaign in assessing the structural engineering performance of the cladding during and after long-term dry storage. In this work, a model to numerically simulate hydride precipitation at the microstructural scale, in a wide variety of Zr-based claddings, under dry-storage conditions is being developed. It will be used to aid in the evaluation of the mechanical integrity of used fuel rods during dry storage and transportation by providing the structural conditions from the microstructural scale to the continuum scale to engineering component scale models to predict if the used fuel rods will perform without failure under normal and off-normal conditions. The microstructure, especially, the hydride structure is thought to be a primary determinant of cladding failure, thus this component of UFD’s storage and transportation analysis program is critical. The model development, application and validation of the model are documented and the limitations of the current model are discussed. The model has been shown to simulate hydride precipitation in Zircaloy-4 cladding with correct morphology, thermodynamics and kinetics. An unexpected insight obtained from simulations hydride formation in Zircaloy-4 is that small (sub-micron) precipitates need to order themselves to form the larger hydrides typically described as radially-reoriented precipitates. A limitation of this model is that it does not currently solve the stress state that forms dynamically in the precipitate or matrix surrounding the precipitate. A method to overcome the limitations is suggested and described in detail. The necessary experiments to provide key materials physics and to validate the model are also recommended.

Veena Tikare; Philippe Weck; Peter Schultz; Blythe Clark; John Mitchell; Michael Glazoff; Eric Homer

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Means to decrease the rate of hydrogen gas generation from the chemical reaction of uranium metal with water were identified by surveying the technical literature. The underlying chemistry and potential side reactions were explored by conducting 61 principal experiments. Several methods achieved significant hydrogen gas generation rate mitigation. Gas-generating side reactions from interactions of organics or sludge constituents with mitigating agents were observed. Further testing is recommended to develop deeper knowledge of the underlying chemistry and to advance the technology aturation level. Uranium metal reacts with water in K Basin sludge to form uranium hydride (UH3), uranium dioxide or uraninite (UO2), and diatomic hydrogen (H2). Mechanistic studies show that hydrogen radicals (H·) and UH3 serve as intermediates in the reaction of uranium metal with water to produce H2 and UO2. Because H2 is flammable, its release into the gas phase above K Basin sludge during sludge storage, processing, immobilization, shipment, and disposal is a concern to the safety of those operations. Findings from the technical literature and from experimental investigations with simple chemical systems (including uranium metal in water), in the presence of individual sludge simulant components, with complete sludge simulants, and with actual K Basin sludge are presented in this report. Based on the literature review and intermediate lab test results, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, Nochar Acid Bond N960, disodium hydrogen phosphate, and hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] were tested for their effects in decreasing the rate of hydrogen generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water. Nitrate and nitrite each were effective, decreasing hydrogen generation rates in actual sludge by factors of about 100 to 1000 when used at 0.5 molar (M) concentrations. Higher attenuation factors were achieved in tests with aqueous solutions alone. Nochar N960, a water sorbent, decreased hydrogen generation by no more than a factor of three while disodium phosphate increased the corrosion and hydrogen generation rates slightly. U(VI) showed some promise in attenuating hydrogen but only initial testing was completed. Uranium metal corrosion rates also were measured. Under many conditions showing high hydrogen gas attenuation, uranium metal continued to corrode at rates approaching those observed without additives. This combination of high hydrogen attenuation with relatively unabated uranium metal corrosion is significant as it provides a means to eliminate uranium metal by its corrosion in water without the accompanying hazards otherwise presented by hydrogen generation.

Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

196

Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides,e.g., transition metal carbonyl, such as nickel carbonyl and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit. 1 fig.

Mullendore, A.W.

1988-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

197

Low-Cost Metal Hydride TES Systems- FY13 Q1  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document summarizes the progress for this Savannah Reiver National Laboratory project, funded by SunShot, for the first quarter of fiscal year 2013.

198

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Proposal to Participate in the Carbon and Metal Hydride Virtual Centers  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC.

199

Improving nickel metal hydride batteries through research in negative electrode corrosion control and novel electrode materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electrode materials. In order to fully understand the processes involved in the corrosion study, tests were carried at Brookhaven National Laboratory using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy. These tests showed that Zn prevented the corrosion of Ni-a...

Alexander, Michael Scott

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Characterization and High Throughput Analysis of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Efficient hydrogen storage is required for fuel cell vehicles to be competitive with those driven by internal combustion engines. Current methods of storage such as… (more)

Barcelo, Steven James

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Interaction of electrons with light metal hydrides in the transmission electron microscope  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......light elements are partially subject to this limitation. To achieve a high hydrogen capacity (see http://energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/hydrogen-storage and http://www.nedo.go.jp/activities/FF_00518.html ), the majority of currently......

Yongming Wang; Takenobu Wakasugi; Shigehito Isobe; Naoyuki Hashimoto; Somei Ohnuki

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride Thermochemical Storage  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative awarded to Pacific Northwest National Lab (PNNL) through the Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage (CSP: ELEMENTS) funding program.

203

Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gas-reservoir MnNiMg electrochromic mirror devices have beencontrast to conventional electrochromic approaches, hydrogenThe application of electrochromic devices based on tungsten

Anders, Andre

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Thermal analysis of nickel/metal (Ni/MH) hydride battery during charge cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A three-dimensional mathematical model containing temporal and spatial coordinates is presented for analyzing the thermal behavior and obtaining the internal temperature profile of cylindrical Ni/MH battery. This model is performed to investigate the ... Keywords: Ni/MH battery, charge, heat transfer coefficient, thermal analysis

Nabi Jahantigh; Ebrahim Afsharia

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Thermal behavior of nickel/metal hydride battery during charging and discharging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work discusses thermal behavior of Ni/MH battery with experimental methods. The present work not ... new way to get more exactly parameters and thermal model, but also concentrates on thermal behavior in dis...

K. Yang; D. H. Li; S. Chen; F. Wu

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Thermal behavior analysis of nickel/metal hydride battery during overcharging  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To analyze the thermal behavior of the cylinder Ni/MH battery during overcharging, a two-dimensional thermal model is provided in this work. More ... reliable data is provided to create the precise thermal model....

Kai Yang; JinJing An; Shi Chen

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

E-Print Network 3.0 - air metal hydride Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy, Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization ; Renewable Energy 2 Mathematical Modelling of...

208

Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature Power Generation Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

209

Electronic structure of alkaline metal hydrides according to MO LCAO-SCF-CNDO cluster calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a quantum chemical study of compounds MH (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) in a cluster approximation. The calculations were performed by the MO LCAO-SCF- ... model systems of high-te...

E. A. Zharikova; A. I. Ermakov; R. P. Ozerov

210

Characterization and High Throughput Analysis of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

affect the fundamental changes to electronic structure thatunderstood. A fundamental study of the electronic structure

Barcelo, Steven James

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

The influence of hydride blisters on the fracture of Zircaloy-4 O.N. Pierron a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.elsevier.com/locate/jnucmat Journal of Nuclear Materials 322 (2003) 21­35 #12;hydrogen embrittlement [15]. Such an effect becomes, and radiation damage [1]. As the cladding undergoes oxidation with the associated hydrogen pickup, the total amount of hydrogen increases, and hydride precipitates form pref- erentially near the outer (cooler

Motta, Arthur T.

212

Development of encapsulated lithium hydride thermal energy storage for space power systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Inclusion of thermal energy storage in a pulsed space power supply will reduce the mass of the heat rejection system. In this mode, waste heat generated during the brief high-power burst operation is placed in the thermal store; later, the heat in the store is dissipated to space via the radiator over the much longer nonoperational period of the orbit. Thus, the radiator required is of significantly smaller capacity. Scoping analysis indicates that use of lithium hydride as the thermal storage medium results in system mass reduction benefits for burst periods as long as 800 s. A candidate design for the thermal energy storage component utilizes lithium hydride encapsulated in either 304L stainless steel or molybdenum in a packed-bed configuration with a lithium or sodium-potassium (NaK) heat transport fluid. Key issues associated with the system design include phase-change induced stresses in the shell, lithium hydride and shell compatibility, lithium hydride dissociation and hydrogen loss from the system, void presence and movement associated with the melt-freeze process, and heat transfer limitations on obtaining the desired energy storage density. 58 refs., 40 figs., 11 tabs.

Morris, D.G.; Foote, J.P.; Olszewski, M.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Analytical assessment of the thermal behavior of nickelemetal hydride batteries during fast charging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analytical assessment of the thermal behavior of nickelemetal hydride batteries during fast to investigate transient thermal behavior of NiMH batteries. The thermal model uses integral transformation 2013 Available online 25 June 2013 Keywords: Battery thermal management Battery thermal model Fast

Bahrami, Majid

214

Observations of proton beam enhancement due to erbium hydride on gold foil targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent theoretical work suggests that the conversion efficiency from laser to protons in laser irradiated thin foil experiments increases if the atomic mass of nonhydrogen atoms on the foil rear surface increases. Experiments were performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jupiter Laser Facility to observe the effect of thin foils coated with erbium hydride on the conversion efficiency from laser to protons. Gold foils with and without the rear surface coated with ErH{sub 3} were irradiated using the ultrashort pulse, 40 TW Callisto laser. An argon-ion etching system was used to remove naturally occurring nanometer thick surface layer contaminants from the hydride. With the etcher, gold with ErH{sub 3} showed a 25% increase in the conversion efficiency to protons above 3.4 MeV relative to contaminants, where C{sup +4} and H{sup +} were the dominant ion species. No difference in the ion signal was observed without first cleaning the hydrides. Simulations using the hybrid PIC code, LSP, revealed that the increase due to erbium hydride versus contaminants is 37% for protons above 3 MeV.

Offermann, D. T.; Van Woerkom, L. D. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Freeman, R. R. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Department of Applied Science, University of California Davis, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Foord, M. E.; Hey, D.; Key, M. H.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.; Sanchez, J. J.; Shen, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bartal, T.; Beg, F. N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Espada, L. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Chen, C. D. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage Darlene K. Slattery and Michael D. Hampton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at a temperature of less than 100 o C in order to be compatible with fuel cells and must have an installed hydrogen have reported the discovery of a number of catalysts that improve the reversing of the hydrogen release the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of sodium aluminum hydride. Mechanical incorporation of the catalyst

216

Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopic study of the adsorption of hydrogen on chromia and on some metal chromites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adsorption of hydrogen and deuterium on samples of chromia and on nonstoichiometric zinc, cobalt, and manganese chromites (M/Cr atomic ratio 1:1; M = Zn, Co, Mn), previously activated in hydrogen and vacuum, was studied by means of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. Parallel CO adsorption experiments indicate that all four catalysts are essentially in an oxide form after hydrogen adsorption. Only in the case of the cobalt compound are zerovalent centers observed. Terminal hydrides Cr-H are formed on chromia, whereas on the three chromites, both terminal and bridged hydride species, thought to be bonded to Zn{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, and Mn{sup 2+} centers, respectively, are observed. These assignments are based on the H(D) isotopic shift and on a comparison with the spectra of known hydride species of the same metals. The mechanism of formation of these adsorbed forms is briefly discussed.

Busca, G. (Universita di Genova, Genoa (Italy))

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Carbon Sequestration Rates in Organic Layers of Soils Under the Grey Poplar (Populus x canescens) Stands Impacted by Heavy Metal Pollution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To describe carbon sequestration processes in organic layers of forest soils ... limit-value method was used to estimate C sequestration rate in poplar litters. A two-year ... using the ignition method. Input of ...

Agnieszka Medy?ska-Juraszek; Leszek Kuchar

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Process for production of an aluminum hydride compound  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y, wherein R.sup.1 is phenyl substituted by at least one of: (i) an alkoxy group having from one to six carbon atoms; and (ii) an alkyl group having from three to twelve carbon atoms; wherein M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg; and y is one or two.

Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Miller, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

219

Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

research activities are being pursued, such as those related to lightweight composite tanks with high-pressure ratings and conformability and high-capacity metal hydrides,...

220

2011 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

research activities are being pursued, such as those related to lightweight composite tanks with high-pressure ratings and conformability and high- capacity metal hydrides,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Aluminum Hydride - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

1 1 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Jason Graetz (Primary Contact), James Wegrzyn Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Building 815 Upton, NY 11973 Phone: (631) 344-3242 Email: graetz@bnl.gov DOE Manager HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov Project Start Date: October 1, 2011 Project End Date: Project continuation and direction determined annually by DOE Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Develop onboard vehicle storage systems using aluminum hydride that meets all of DOE's targets for proton exchange membrane fuel cell vehicles. Produce aluminum hydride material with a hydrogen * storage capacity greater than 9.7% gravimetric (kg-H 2 /kg) and 0.13 kg-H 2 /L volumetric. Develop practical and economical processes for *

222

Mechanism and Site Requirements for Activation and Chemical Conversion of Methane on Supported Pt Clusters and Turnover Rate Comparisons among Noble Metals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

decomposition, and water-gas shift reactions. Reforming rates are exclusively limited by C-H bond activation, indicating that CO2 activation is quasi-equilibrated and kinetically irrelevant. Binomial water, 2003; In Final Form: January 21, 2004 Isotopic tracer and kinetic studies are used to probe

Iglesia, Enrique

223

detonation rate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

detonation rate, detonation velocity, velocity of detonation, V.O.D., detonating velocity, rate of detonation, detonating rate ? Detonationsgeschwindigkeit f

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Draft of M2 Report on Integration of the Hybrid Hydride Model into INL’s MBM Framework for Review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride {delta}-ZrH{sub 1.5} precipitation in the cladding of used nuclear fuels that may occur during long-term dry storage. While the Zr-based claddings are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service, in the reactor by a process commonly termed ‘hydrogen pick-up’. The precipitation and growth of zirconium hydrides during dry storage is one of the most likely fuel rod integrity failure mechanisms either by embrittlement or delayed hydride cracking of the cladding (Hanson et al., 2011). While the phenomenon is well documented and identified as a potential key failure mechanism during long-term dry storage (Birk et al., 2012 and NUREG/CR-7116), the ability to actually predict the formation of hydrides is poor. The model being documented in this work is a computational capability for the prediction of hydride formation in different claddings of used nuclear fuels. This work supports the Used Fuel Disposition Research and Development Campaign in assessing the structural engineering performance of the cladding during and after long-term dry storage. This document demonstrates a basic hydride precipitation model that is built on a recently developed hybrid Potts-phase field model that combines elements of Potts-Monte Carlo and the phase-field models (Homer et al., 2013; Tikare and Schultz, 2012). The model capabilities are demonstrated along with the incorporation of the starting microstructure, thermodynamics of the Zr-H system and the hydride formation mechanism.

Tikare, Veena; Weck, Philippe F.; Schultz, Peter A.; Clark, Blythe; Michael Glazoff; Eric Homer

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Cr2O3 scale growth rates on metallic interconnectors derived from 40,000 h solid oxide fuel cell stack operation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The ohmic resistance caused by Cr2O3 scale formation on metallic interconnects (MICs) can significantly contribute to the overall degradation of SOFC stacks. For this reason oxide scale growth on Cr5Fe1Y2O3 (CFY) and Fe22Cr0.5Mn (Crofer) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) from post-test samples that were either exposed to air at 850 °C (furnace) or operated in Hexis planar SOFC-stacks under dual atmospheres (anode and cathode conditions) at temperatures around 900 °C. The study includes unique test results from a stack operated for 40,000 h. To analyze inhomogeneity in scale thicknesses a dedicated statistical image analysis method has been applied. SEM images were used to compare the structural phenomena related to MIC oxidation at different sample locations. The observed differences between different sample locations may relate to locally different conditions (temperature, pO2, H2O/O2-ratio). Cr2O3 scale growth on the anode side is found to be approximately twice as fast in comparison to the scale growth on cathode side. Finally, based on our time lapse analyses with extensive sampling it can be concluded that reliable predictions of scale growth requires statistical analyses over a period that covers at least a quarter (10,000 h) of the required SOFC stack lifetime (40,000 h).

Markus Linder; Thomas Hocker; Lorenz Holzer; K. Andreas Friedrich; Boris Iwanschitz; Andreas Mai; J. Andreas Schuler

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene Triple Junction Points. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene...

227

An automated hydride generation-cryogenic trapping-ICP-MS system for measuring inorganic and methylated Ge, Sb and As species  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An automated hydride generation-cryogenic trapping-ICP-MS system for measuring inorganic of both flow injection and batch hydride generation and couples it to an automated cryogenic trapping unit with detection by ICP-MS. The Teflon cryogenic trap was packed with 10 cm of SE-30 5% Chromosorb W-HP 80­100 mesh

Canberra, University of

228

ReaxFFMgH Reactive Force Field for Magnesium Hydride Systems Sam Cheung, Wei-Qiao Deng, Adri C. T. van Duin, and William A. Goddard III*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ReaxFFMgH Reactive Force Field for Magnesium Hydride Systems Sam Cheung, Wei-Qiao Deng, Adri C. TFFMgH) for magnesium and magnesium hydride systems. The parameters for this force field were derived from fitting to quantum chemical (QM) data on magnesium clusters and on the equations of states for condensed phases

van Duin, Adri

229

The superwind mass-loss rate of the metal-poor carbon star LI-LMC 1813 in the LMC cluster KMHK 1603  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LI-LMC 1813 is a dust-enshrouded Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star, located in the small open cluster KMHK 1603 near the rim of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Optical and infrared photometry between 0.5 and 60 micron is obtained to constrain the spectral energy distribution of LI-LMC 1813. Near-infrared spectra unambiguously show it to be a carbon star. Modelling with the radiation transfer code Dusty yields accurate values for the bolometric luminosity, L=1.5 x 10^4 Lsun, and mass-loss rate, Mdot=3.7(+/-1.2) x 10^-5 Msun/yr. On the basis of colour-magnitude diagrams, the age of the cluster KMHK 1603 is estimated to be t=0.9-1.0 Gyr, which implies a Zero-Age Main Sequence mass for LI-LMC 1813 of M(ZAMS)=2.2+/-0.1 Msun. This makes LI-LMC 1813 arguably the object with the most accurately and reliably determined (circum)stellar parameters amongst all carbon stars in the superwind phase.

Jacco Th. van Loon; Jonathan R. Marshall; Mikako Matsuura; Albert A. Zijlstra

2003-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

230

Metal Aminoboranes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Metal Aminoboranes Metal Aminoboranes Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. June 25, 2013 Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit. U.S. Patent No.: 7,713,506 (DOE S-112,798)

231

Thermodynamic Guidelines for the Prediction of Hydrogen Storage Reactions and Their Application to Destabillzed Hydride Mixtures  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thermodynamic guidelines for the prediction of hydrogen Thermodynamic guidelines for the prediction of hydrogen storage reactions and their application to destabilized hydride mixtures Hydrogen Storage & Nanoscale Modeling Group Ford Motor Company Don Siegel dsiegel2@ford.com Phys. Rev. B 76, 134102 (2007) 1 Acknowledgements C. Wolverton V. Ozolins Computation Northwestern UCLA J. Yang A. Sudik Experiments Ford Ford 2 Computational Methodology * Atomistic computer simulations based on quantum mechanics (Density Functional Theory) * First-principles approach: - Only empirical input are crystal structure and fundamental physical constants - VASP code - PAW potentials - PW91 GGA - Temperature-dependent thermodynamic contributions evaluated within harmonic approximation * "Direct method" for construction of dynamical matrix

232

Measurements of Ionic Structure in Shock Compressed Lithium Hydride from Ultrafast X-Ray Thomson Scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present the first ultrafast temporally, spectrally, and angularly resolved x-ray scattering measurements from shock-compressed matter. The experimental spectra yield the absolute elastic and inelastic scattering intensities from the measured density of free electrons. Laser-compressed lithium-hydride samples are well characterized by inelastic Compton and plasmon scattering of a K-alpha x-ray probe providing independent measurements of temperature and density. The data show excellent agreement with the total intensity and structure when using the two-species form factor and accounting for the screening of ion-ion interactions.

Kritcher, A. L. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Neumayer, P.; Doeppner, T.; Landen, O. L.; Glenzer, S. H. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Brown, C. R. D. [Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); AWE plc., Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Davis, P. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Falcone, R. W.; Lee, H. J. [Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Gericke, D. O.; Vorberger, J.; Wuensch, K. [CFSA, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Gregori, G. [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Holst, B.; Redmer, R. [Universitaet Rostock, Institut fuer Physik, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Morse, E. C. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Pelka, A.; Roth, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

233

Method and apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes. [stored as uranium hydride in a block of copper  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas is stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forms at a significantly lower temperature).

McMullen, J.W.; Wheeler, M.G.; Cullingford, H.S.; Sherman, R.H.

1982-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

234

Theory of Hydride-Proton Transfer (HPT) Carbonyl Reduction by [Os(III)(tpy)(Cl)(NH=CHCH3)(NSAr)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Quantum mechanical analysis reveals that carbonyl reduction of aldehydes and ketones by the imine-based reductant cis-[Os{sup III}(tpy)(Cl)(NH?CHCH{sub 3})(NSAr)] (2), which is accessible by reduction of the analogous nitrile, occurs by hydride-proton transfer (HPT) involving both the imine and sulfilimido ligands. In carbonyl reduction, water or alcohol is necessary to significantly lower the barrier for proton shuttling between ligands. The ?N(H)SAr group activates the carbonyl group through hydrogen bonding while the ?NC(H)CH{sub 3} ligand delivers the hydride.

Ess, Daniel H.; Schauer, Cynthia; Meyer, Thomas J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Mechanical Behavior Studies of Depleted Uranium in the Presence of Hydrides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project addresses critical issues related to aging in the presence of hydrides (UH{sub 3}) in DU and the subsequent effect on mechanical behavior. Rolled DU specimens with three different hydrogen concentrations and the as-rolled condition were studied. The texture measurements indicate that the hydrogen charging is affecting the initial as-rolled DU microstructure/texture. The macroscopic mechanical behavior suggests the existence of a threshold between the 0 wpmm H and 0.3 wppm H conditions. A VPSC simulation of the macroscopic strain-stress behavior, when taking into account only a texture effect, shows no agreement with the experiment. This suggests that the macroscopic mechanical behavior observed is indeed due to the presence of hydrogen/hydrides in the DU bulk. From the lattice strain variation it can be concluded that the hydrogen is affecting the magnitude and/or the nature of CRSS. The metallography indicates the specimens that underwent the hydrogen charging process, developed large grains and twinning, which were enhanced by the presence of hydrogen. Further studies using electron microscopy and modeling will be conducted to learn about the deformation mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior.

Garlea, E.; Morrell, J. S.; Bridges, R. L.; Powell, G. L.; Brown, d. W.; Sisneros, T. A.; Tome, C. N.; Vogel, S. C.

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

236

Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

237

Nuclear fusion in muonic molecules and in deuterated metals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Study of the fusion reactions between hydrogen isotopes in muonic molecules is the first example of the accurate accounting of the nucleus charge screening by a muon in the fusion process. At LUNA installation the measurements of astrophysical reaction cross sections were extended down to collision energies of a few keV. The screening by atomic electrons of the target became substantial. The possibility to look over screening from unbound electrons is given by metal-hydrides used as targets in dd reaction measurements. The classical Debye screening in plasma, applied to quasi-free electrons in metal, provides an explanation of unexpectedly large screening potentials found for some metals in the research through the Periodic table of elements.

L. N. Bogdanova

2008-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

238

OBSERVATIONS IN REACTIVITY BETWEEN BH CONTAINING COMPOUNDS AND ORGANOMETALLIC REAGENTS: SYNTHESIS OF BORONIC ACIDS, BORONIC ESTERS, AND MAGNESIUM HYDRIDES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aryl bromides and H 2 BN(iPr) 2 Scheme 2.7. Hydroboration oftransfer hydride to BH 2 -N(iPr) 2 Scheme 2.10. Conversionchloride with BH 2 -N(iPr) 2 Scheme 3; Aqueous quench of p-

Clary, Jacob William

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Verification and Validation Strategy for Implementation of Hybrid Potts-Phase Field Hydride Modeling Capability in MBM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) program has initiated a project to develop a hydride formation modeling tool using a hybrid Potts­phase field approach. The Potts model is incorporated in the SPPARKS code from Sandia National Laboratories. The phase field model is provided through MARMOT from Idaho National Laboratory.

Jason D. Hales; Veena Tikare

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Combustion Processes in the Zr-Co-H2 System and Synthesis of Hydrides of Intermetallic Compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The researches on Zr2Co, ZrCo, ZrCo2 synthesis and hydriding in a self-propagating hightemperature synthesis — SHS mode are carried out. In IMC — hydrogen systems low temperature (350–500°C) and high temperature ...

H. G. Hakobyan; S. K. Dolukhanyan

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Rate Schedules  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

242

Chemical Hydride Rate Modeling, Validation, and System Demonstration - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6 6 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Troy A. Semelsberger (Primary Contact), Biswajit Paik, Tessui Nakagawa, Ben Davis, and Jose I. Tafoya Los Alamos National Laboratory MS J579, P.O. Box 1663 Los Alamos, NM 87545 Phone: (505) 665-4766 Email: troy@lanl.gov DOE Managers HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov GO: Jesse Adams Phone: (720) 356-1421 Email: Jesse.Adams@go.doe.gov Project Start Date: February 2009 Project End Date: February 2014 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Investigate reaction characteristics of various fluid-phase * ammonia-borane (AB)-ionic liquid (IL) compositions Identify and quantify hydrogen impurities and develop *

243

Metal inks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

244

Rates - WAPA-137 Rate Order  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

WAPA-137 Rate Order WAPA-137 Rate Order 2009 CRSP Management Center Customer Rates Second Step Presentation from the June 25, 2009, Customer Meeting Handout Materials from the June 25, 2009, Customer Meeting Customer Comment Letters ATEA CREDA Farmington ITCA AMPUA Rate Adjustment Information The second step of WAPA-137 SLCA/IP Firm Power, CRSP Transmission and Ancillary Services rate adjustment. FERC Approval of Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Notice Of Filing for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Published Final FRN for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Letter to Customers regarding the published Notice of Extension of Public Process for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 Published Extension of Public Process for Rate Order No. WAPA-137 FRN Follow-up Public Information and Comment Forum Flier WAPA-137 Customer Meetings and Rate Adjustment Schedule

245

Quantum Simulation of Helium Hydride in a Solid-State Spin Register  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

\\emph{Ab initio} computation of molecular properties is one of the most promising applications of quantum computing. While this problem is widely believed to be intractable for classical computers, efficient quantum algorithms exist which have the potential to vastly accelerate research throughput in fields ranging from material science to drug discovery. Using a solid-state quantum register realized in a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect in diamond, we compute the bond dissociation curve of the minimal basis helium hydride cation, HeH$^+$. Moreover, we report an energy uncertainty (given our model basis) of the order of $10^{-14}$ Hartree, which is ten orders of magnitude below desired chemical precision. As NV centers in diamond provide a robust and straightforward platform for quantum information processing, our work provides several important steps towards a fully scalable solid state implementation of a quantum chemistry simulator.

Ya Wang; Florian Dolde; Jacob Biamonte; Ryan Babbush; Ville Bergholm; Sen Yang; Ingmar Jakobi; Philipp Neumann; Alán Aspuru-Guzik; James D. Whitfield; Jörg Wrachtrup

2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

246

FeP precipitates in hydride?vapor phase epitaxially grown InP:Fe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fe?doped InP was grown by hydride?vapor phase epitaxy.Doping levels up to 8×1018 cm?3 were determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Additionally performed photoluminescence measurements revealed a homogeneous distribution of electrically active Fe atoms. From microstructural investigations by analytical transmission electron microscopy spherical?shaped precipitates were detected in plan?view samples. These precipitates with diameters up to 13 nm are homogeneously arranged in the epilayer. For conglomerates of precipitates a distinct enrichment with Fe and P was measured by a comparative energy dispersive x?ray analysis. The lattice plane distances of the precipitates were deduced from the electron diffraction patterns and from high?resolution electron micrographs. A comparison with calculated values for different Fe–P alloys indicates that the precipitates consist mainly of orthorhombic FeP.

M. Luysberg; R. Göbel; H. Janning

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

RF sputtering for controlling dihydride and monohydride bond densities in amorphous silicon hydride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for controlling the dihydride and monohydride bond densities in hydrogenated amorphous silicone produced by reactive rf sputtering of an amorphous silicon target. There is provided a chamber with an amorphous silicon target and a substrate therein with the substrate and the target positioned such that when rf power is applied to the target the substrate is in contact with the sputtering plasma produced thereby. Hydrogen and argon are fed to the chamber and the pressure is reduced in the chamber to a value sufficient to maintain a sputtering plasma therein, and then rf power is applied to the silicon target to provide a power density in the range of from about 7 watts per square inch to about 22 watts per square inch to sputter an amorphous solicone hydride onto the substrate, the dihydride bond density decreasing with an increase in the rf power density. Substantially pure monohydride films may be produced.

Jeffery, F.R.; Shanks, H.R.

1980-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

248

Prediction of a multicenter-bonded solid boron hydride for hydrogen storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A layered solid boron hydride structure (B2H2) consisting of a hexagonal boron network and bridge hydrogen which has a gravimetric capacity of 8wt% hydrogen is predicted. The structural, electronic, and dynamical properties of the proposed structure are investigated using first-principles electronic structure methods. The absence of soft phonon modes confirms the dynamical stability of the proposed structure. Charging the structure significantly softens hydrogen related phonon modes. Boron modes, in contrast, are either hardened or not significantly affected by electron doping. Furthermore, self-doping the structure considerably reduces the energy barrier against hydrogen release. These results suggest that electrochemical charging or self-doping mechanisms may facilitate hydrogen release while the underlying boron network remains intact for subsequent rehydrogenation.

Tesfaye A. Abtew; Bi-ching Shih; Pratibha Dev; Vincent H. Crespi; Peihong Zhang

2011-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

249

Metal Oxides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metal oxides are the class of materials having the widest application in gas sensors. This chapter presents information related to the application of various metal oxides in gas sensors designed on different p...

Ghenadii Korotcenkov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Silicone metalization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

2006-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

251

Thermal behavior of nickel–metal hydride battery during charging at a wide range of ambient temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermal behavior of D-type Ni–MH battery during charging was investigated at a wide ... this work. The temperature measurement of the battery was conducted by using a thermal infrared imager put in a high–low...

Kai Zheng Fang; Dao Bin Mu; Shi Chen…

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Water supply and sludge metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultimate sludge disposal is one of the major tasks facing wastewater treatment facilities today. Where adequate farmland exists in proximity to the treatment facility and where sludge characteristics are suitable, land application is often the most economical method. In some cases, however, metal concentrations in the sludge either limit the site life or the application rate to the point where land application is not economical. When metals are above regulatory limits, land application may become impossible. The origin of the metals has largely been credited to industrial users and stormwater runoff and have, in fact, often represented significant sources of metals. Another potentially significant source of metals that has been frequently overlooked is the water supply system (including the distribution and home piping systems). Data from some treatment facilities suggest that the water supply system is the major source of metals and is the reason that sewage sludge metal levels are above allowable land application limits.

Brown, W.E. (Wright-Pierce Engineers, Topsham, ME (USA))

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Rate schedule  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Firm Power Service Provided by Rate/Charges Firm Power Service Provided by Rate/Charges Rate/Charges Effective Through (or until superceded) Firm Sales (SLIP-F9) Composite Rate SLIP 29.62 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Demand Charge SLIP $5.18/kW-month 9/30/2015 Energy Charge SLIP 12.19 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) SLIP 0 mills/kWh 9/30/2015 Transmission Service Provided by Current Rates effective10/12 - 9/15 (or until superceded) Rate Schedule Effective Through Firm Point-to-Point Transmission (SP-PTP7) CRSP $1.14 per kW-month $13.69/kW-year $0.00156/kW-hour $0.04/kW-day $0.26/kW-week 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Network Integration Transmission (SP-NW3) CRSP see rate schedule 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Non-Firm Point-to-Point Transmission (SP-NFT6) CRSP see rate schedule 10/1/2008-9/30/2015 Ancillary Services Provided by Rate Rate Schedule

254

Metals Production Requirements for Rapid Photovoltaics Deployment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

If global photovoltaics (PV) deployment grows rapidly, the required input materials need to be supplied at an increasing rate. In this paper, we quantify the effect of PV deployment levels on the scale of metals production. For example, we find that if cadmium telluride {copper indium gallium diselenide} PV accounts for more than 3% {10%} of electricity generation by 2030, the required growth rates for the production of indium and tellurium would exceed historically-observed production growth rates for a large set of metals. In contrast, even if crystalline silicon PV supplies all electricity in 2030, the required silicon production growth rate would fall within the historical range. More generally, this paper highlights possible constraints to the rate of scaling up metals production for some PV technologies, and outlines an approach to assessing projected metals growth requirements against an ensemble of past growth rates from across the metals production sector. The framework developed in this paper may be...

Kavlak, Goksin; Jaffe, Robert L; Trancik, Jessika E

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

The effect of oxide layers on gas-generating hydride particles during production of aluminium foams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Melt routes to metallic foam production offer attractions of low cost and the potential for good microstructural control. In situ gas generation may be preferable to external gas injection in terms of the important objective of generating a fine and uniform cell structure. The main difficulty with this approach has been that of ensuring that the gas-generating powder is suitably dispersed throughout the melt before the gas is released and the cells are formed. In the present paper, procedures are outlined for preparation of powders for use in aluminium melts, where gas will be released only after a suitable delay, allowing the powders to first become well-dispersed in the melt and solidification to start. Pre-treatment of the foaming agent also facilitates a flexible production of castings with various porosity at the same processing conditions simply by varying the thickness of a diffusion barrier layer on the gas-releasing agent. The role of the melt viscosity history, as a function of a heat extraction rate from the solidifying melt and an alloy composition, on the final porosity of the castings is also briefly discussed.

Gergely, V.; Clyne, T.W. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

256

Systems Modeling of Chemical Hydride Hydrogen Storage Materials for Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fixed bed reactor was designed, modeled and simulated for hydrogen storage on-board the vehicle for PEM fuel cell applications. Ammonia Borane (AB) was selected by DOE's Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) as the initial chemical hydride of study because of its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to {approx}16% by weight for the release of {approx}2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions. The design evaluated consisted of a tank with 8 thermally isolated sections in which H2 flows freely between sections to provide ballast. Heating elements are used to initiate reactions in each section when pressure drops below a specified level in the tank. Reactor models in Excel and COMSOL were developed to demonstrate the proof-of-concept, which was then used to develop systems models in Matlab/Simulink. Experiments and drive cycle simulations showed that the storage system meets thirteen 2010 DOE targets in entirety and the remaining four at greater than 60% of the target.

Brooks, Kriston P.; Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

257

Hydride vapor phase epitaxy and characterization of high-quality ScN epilayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The heteroepitaxial growth of ScN films was investigated on various substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). Single crystalline mirror-like ScN(100) and ScN(110) layers were successfully deposited on r- and m-plane sapphire substrates, respectively. Homogeneous stoichiometric films (N/Sc ratio 1.01?±?0.10) up to 40??m in thickness were deposited. Their mosaicity drastically improved with increasing the film thickness. The band gap was determined by optical methods to be 2.06?eV. Impurity concentrations including H, C, O, Si, and Cl were investigated through energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry. As a result, it was found that the presence of impurities was efficiently suppressed in comparison with that of HVPE-grown ScN films reported in the past, which was possible thanks to the home-designed corrosion-free HVPE reactor. Room-temperature Hall measurements indicated that the residual free electron concentrations ranged between 10{sup 18}–10{sup 20}?cm{sup ?3}, which was markedly lower than the reported values. The carrier mobility increased monotonically with the decreasing in carrier concentration, achieving the largest value ever reported, 284?cm{sup 2}?V{sup ?1}?s{sup ?1} at n?=?3.7?×?10{sup 18}?cm{sup ?3}.

Oshima, Yuichi, E-mail: OSHIMA.Yuichi@nims.go.jp; Víllora, Encarnación G.; Shimamura, Kiyoshi [Environment and Energy Materials Research Division, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

258

Cold nuclear fusion in metallic hydrogen and normal metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rate of nuclear fusion from tunneling in very dense metallic hydrogen in the core of Jupiter is calculated to be 10-50 per hydrogen-deuterium pair per second. It is estimated that the width of the fusion barrier for deuterium in palladium or a similar metal must be reduced to, of order, 0.1 A? for the fusion rate to be 10-25 per deuterium per second. If this scale is achieved, the ratios of various nuclear reaction rates will be very different for cold versus thermonuclear fusion.

Charles J. Horowitz

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Metal oxide films on metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Metal Toxicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Problems posed to plants by metal toxicity in the soils of the world are basically of two kinds. The first kind are of natural origin. These arise either as a consequence of the nature of the parent material f...

T. McNeilly

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Electron Tunneling in Normal Metal-Insulator-Metal Junctions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Structure in the conductance of normal metal-insulator-metal junctions at very low bias is explained through a nonequilibrium treatment of the tunneling process. In particular, the related peak in the derivative d?(V)dV is quantitatively accounted for by the blocking of otherwise available electron tunneling states due to the finite electron relaxation rates in the metal electrodes.

P. N. Trofimenkoff; H. J. Kreuzer; W. J. Wattamaniuk; J. G. Adler

1972-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

262

Dendritic metal nanostructures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dendritic metal nanostructures made using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Song, Yujiang (Albuquerque, NM); Pereira, Eulalia F. (Vila Nova de Gaia, PT); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA)

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

263

A coupled transport and solid mechanics formulation with improved reaction kinetics parameters for modeling oxidation and decomposition in a uranium hydride bed.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modeling of reacting flows in porous media has become particularly important with the increased interest in hydrogen solid-storage beds. An advanced type of storage bed has been proposed that utilizes oxidation of uranium hydride to heat and decompose the hydride, releasing the hydrogen. To reduce the cost and time required to develop these systems experimentally, a valid computational model is required that simulates the reaction of uranium hydride and oxygen gas in a hydrogen storage bed using multiphysics finite element modeling. This SAND report discusses the advancements made in FY12 (since our last SAND report SAND2011-6939) to the model developed as a part of an ASC-P&EM project to address the shortcomings of the previous model. The model considers chemical reactions, heat transport, and mass transport within a hydride bed. Previously, the time-varying permeability and porosity were considered uniform. This led to discrepancies between the simulated results and experimental measurements. In this work, the effects of non-uniform changes in permeability and porosity due to phase and thermal expansion are accounted for. These expansions result in mechanical stresses that lead to bed deformation. To describe this, a simplified solid mechanics model for the local variation of permeability and porosity as a function of the local bed deformation is developed. By using this solid mechanics model, the agreement between our reacting bed model and the experimental data is improved. Additionally, more accurate uranium hydride oxidation kinetics parameters are obtained by fitting the experimental results from a pure uranium hydride oxidation measurement to the ones obtained from the coupled transport-solid mechanics model. Finally, the coupled transport-solid mechanics model governing equations and boundary conditions are summarized and recommendations are made for further development of ARIA and other Sandia codes in order for them to sufficiently implement the model.

Salloum, Maher N.; Shugard, Andrew D.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Electron-electron scattering in metal-insulator-metal sandwiches  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have studied weak localization and electron-electron interaction effects in samples consisting of two thin metal films separated by an insulating layer of SiO. When the SiO thickness was less than about 200 Å, the electron-electron scattering rate was enhanced with respect to that found in isolated, i.e., well-separated, films. This suggests that in the sandwich structures, electrons in one metal film are able to ‘‘communicate’’ with, i.e., scatter from, electrons in the other film across distances of order 200 Å, and that this process enhances the phase-breaking rate.

N. Giordano and N. R. Dilley

1993-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

Andersen C, Hoogendoom S, Hudson B, Prince J, Teichert K, Wood J, Chase K

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

266

Directed Light Fabrication of Refractory Metals and Alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers work performed under Order No. FA0000020 AN Contract DE-AC12-76SN00052 for deposition of refractory pure metals and alloys using the Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) process and represents the progress in depositing these materials through September 1998. In extending the DLF process technology to refractory metals for producing fully dense, structurally sound deposits, several problems have become evident. 1. Control of porosity in DLF-deposited refractory metal is difficult because of gases, apparently present in commercially purchased refractory metal powder starting materials. 2. The radiant heat from the molten pool during deposition melts the DLF powder feed nozzle. 3. The high reflectivity of molten refractory metals, at the Nd-YAG laser wavelength (1.06{micro}m), produces damaging back reflections to the optical train and fiber optic delivery system that can terminate DLF processing. 4. The current limits on the maximum available laser power to prevent back reflection damage limit the parameter range available for densification of refractory metals. The work to date concentrated on niobium, W-25Re, and spherodized tungsten. Niobium samples, made from hydride-dehydride powder, had minimal gas porosity and the deposition parameters were optimized; however, test plates were not made at this time. W-25Re samples, containing sodium and potassium from a precipitation process, were made and porosity was a problem for all samples although minimized with some process parameters. Deposits made from potassium reduced tungsten that was plasma spherodized were made with minimized porosity. Results of this work indicate that further gas analysis of starting powders and de-gassing of starting powders and/or gas removal during deposition of refractory metals is required.

Fonseca, J.C.; Lewis, G.K.; Dickerson, P.G.; Nemec, R.B.

1999-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

267

Directed light fabrication of refractory metals and alloys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report covers deposition of refractory pure metals and alloys using the Directed Light Fabrication (DLF) process and represents progress in depositing these materials through September 1998. In extending the DLF process technology to refractory metals for producing fully dense, structurally sound deposits, several problems have become evident. (1) Control of porosity in DLF-deposited refractory metal is difficult because of gases, apparently present in commercially purchased refractory metal powder starting materials. (2) The radiant heat from the molten pool during deposition melts the DLF powder feed nozzle. (3) The high reflectivity of molten refractory metals, at the Nd-YAG laser wavelength (1.06{micro}m), produces damaging back reflections to the optical train and fiber optic delivery system that can terminate DLF processing. (4) The current limits on the maximum available laser power to prevent back reflection damage limit the parameter range available for densification of refractory metals. The work to date concentrated on niobium, W-25Re, and spherodized tungsten. Niobium samples, made from hydride-dehydride powder, had minimal gas porosity and the deposition parameters were optimized; however, test plates were not made at this time. W-25Re samples, containing sodium and potassium from a precipitation process, were made and porosity was a problem for all samples although minimized with some process parameters. Deposits made from potassium reduced tungsten that was plasma spherodized were made with minimized porosity. Results of this work indicate that further gas analysis of starting powders and de-gassing of starting powders and/or gas removal during deposition of refractory metals is required.

Fonseca, J.C.; Lewis, G.K.; Dickerson, P.G.; Nemec, R.B.

1999-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

268

Composite metal membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

Peachey, Nathaniel M. (Espanola, NM); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Ronny C. (Los Alamos, NM); Birdsell, Stephan A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Composite metal membrane  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

270

Three-Electrode Metal Oxide Reduction Cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

271

Three-electrode metal oxide reduction cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Groves, IL); Ackerman, John P. (Downers Grove, IL)

2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

272

Transition metal-free olefin polymerization catalyst  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ethylene and/or propylene are polymerized to form high molecular weight, linear polymers by contacting ethylene and/or propylene monomer, in the presence of an inert reaction medium, with a catalyst system which consists essentially of (1) an aluminum alkyl component, such as trimethylaluminum, triethylaluminum, triisobutylaluminum, tri-n-octylaluminum and diethylaluminum hydride and (2) a Lewis acid or Lewis acid derivative component, such as B (C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.3, [(CH.sub.3).sub.2 N (H) (C.sub.6 H.sub.5)].sup.+ [B (C.sub.6 F.sub.5)4].sup.-, [(C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.3 NH].sup.+ [B C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.4 ],.sup.-, [C(C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.3 ].sup.+ [B(C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.4 ].sup.-, (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(OCH.sub.3), (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methylphenoxide), (C.sub.2 H.sub.5)Al(2,6 -di-t-butylphenoxide).sub.2, (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(2,6-di-t-butylphonoxide) , 2,6 -di-t-butylphenol.multidot.methylaluminoxane or an alkylaluminoxane, and which may be completely free any transition metal component(s).

Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Wojcinski, II, Louis M. (State College, PA); Liu, Shengsheng (State College, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

The affect of erbium hydride on the conversion efficience to accelerated protons from ultra-shsort pulse laser irradiated foils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This thesis work explores, experimentally, the potential gains in the conversion efficiency from ultra-intense laser light to proton beams using erbium hydride coatings. For years, it has been known that contaminants at the rear surface of an ultra-intense laser irradiated thin foil will be accelerated to multi-MeV. Inertial Confinement Fusion fast ignition using proton beams as the igniter source requires of about 10{sup 16} protons with an average energy of about 3MeV. This is far more than the 10{sup 12} protons available in the contaminant layer. Target designs must include some form of a hydrogen rich coating that can be made thick enough to support the beam requirements of fast ignition. Work with computer simulations of thin foils suggest the atomic mass of the non-hydrogen atoms in the surface layer has a strong affect on the conversion efficiency to protons. For example, the 167amu erbium atoms will take less energy away from the proton beam than a coating using carbon with a mass of 12amu. A pure hydrogen coating would be ideal, but technologically is not feasible at this time. In the experiments performed for my thesis, ErH{sub 3} coatings on 5 {micro}m gold foils are compared with typical contaminants which are approximately equivalent to CH{sub 1.7}. It will be shown that there was a factor of 1.25 {+-} 0.19 improvement in the conversion efficiency for protons above 3MeV using erbium hydride using the Callisto laser. Callisto is a 10J per pulse, 800nm wavelength laser with a pulse duration of 200fs and can be focused to a peak intensity of about 5 x 10{sup 19}W/cm{sup 2}. The total number of protons from either target type was on the order of 10{sup 10}. Furthermore, the same experiment was performed on the Titan laser, which has a 500fs pulse duration, 150J of energy and can be focused to about 3 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. In this experiment 10{sup 12} protons were seen from both erbium hydride and contaminants on 14 {micro} m gold foils. Significant improvements were also observed but possibly because of the depletion of hydrogen in the contaminant layer case.

Offermann, D

2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

274

Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

275

Silica, Hybrid Silica, Hydride Silica and Non-Silica Stationary Phases for Liquid Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Marcon G., Tolon-Becerra A. Inputs of heavy metals due to agrochemical use in tobacco fields in Brazil's Southern Region. Environmental...chromatography influence of sorbent character, mobile phase composition, and pH on retention of basic compounds. Journal of Chromatography......

Endler M. Borges

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Metal-based reactive nanomaterials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent developments in materials processing and characterization resulted in the discovery of a new type of reactive materials containing nanoscaled metal components. The well-known high oxidation energies of metallic fuels can now be released very rapidly because of the very high reactive interface areas in such metal-based reactive nanomaterials. Consequently, these materials are currently being examined for an entire range of applications in energetic formulations inappropriate for conventional, micron-sized metal fuels having relatively low reaction rates. New application areas, such as reactive structural materials, are also being explored. Research remains active in manufacturing and characterization of metal-based reactive nanomaterials including elemental metal nanopowders and various nanocomposite material systems. Because of the nanometer scale of the individual particles, or phase domains, and because of the very high enthalpy of reaction between components of the nanocomposite materials, the final phase compositions, morphology, and thermodynamic properties of the reactive nanocomposite materials may be different from those of their micron-scaled counterparts. Ignition mechanisms in such materials can be governed by heterogeneous reactions that are insignificant for materials with less developed reactive interface areas. New combustion regimes are being observed that are affected by very short ignition delays combined with very high metal combustion temperatures. Current progress in this rapidly growing research area is reviewed and some potential directions for the future research are discussed.

Edward L. Dreizin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Rates & Repayment  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current and Historical Rate Information Collbran Power Rates CRSP Power Rates CRSP Transmission System Rates CRSP Management Center interest rates Falcon-Amistad Power Rates Provo River Power Rates Rio Grande Power Rates Seedskadee Power Rates SLCA/IP Power Rates Rate Schedules & Supplemental Rate Information Current Rates for Firm Power, Firm & Non-firm Transmission Service, & Ancillary Services Current Transmission & Ancillary Services Rates Tariffs Components of the SLCA/IP Existing Firm Power Rate Cost Recovery Charge (CRC) Page MOA Concerning the Upper Colorado River Basin

278

The influence of prestrained metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial gallium-nitride templates on hydride vapor phase epitaxial growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have varied the strain situation in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial (MOVPE) grown gallium-nitride (GaN) by exchanging the nucleation layer and by inserting a submono-Si x N y -interlayer in the first few hundred nanometers of growth on sapphire substrates. The influence on the MOVPE template and subsequent hydride vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) growth could be shown by in-situ measurements of the sample curvature. Using the results of these investigations we have established a procedure to confine the curvature development in MOVPE and HVPE growth to a minimum. By increasing the layer thickness in HVPE we could create self-separated freestanding GaN layers with small remaining curvature.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6}: Iron-containing complex hydride with high gravimetric hydrogen density  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6}, which has the highest gravimetric hydrogen density of iron-containing complex hydrides reported so far, is synthesized by hydrogenation of a powder mixture of iron and LiH above 6.1 GPa at 900?°C. In situ synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that while kinetics require high temperature and thus high pressure for the synthesis, Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6} is expected to be thermodynamically stable slightly below room temperature at ambient pressure; further synthetic studies to suppress the kinetic effects may enable us to synthesize Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6} at moderate pressures. Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6} can be recovered at ambient conditions where Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6} is metastable.

Saitoh, Hiroyuki, E-mail: cyto@spring8.or.jp [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Takagi, Shigeyuki; Matsuo, Motoaki; Aoki, Katsutoshi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Iijima, Yuki [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Endo, Naruki [Renewable Energy Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Fukushima 963-0215 (Japan); Orimo, Shin-ichi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Composite metal-hydrogen electrodes for metal-hydrogen batteries. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 15, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to develop and conduct a feasibility study of metallic thin films (multilayered and alloy composition) produced by advanced sputtering techniques for use as anodes in Ni-metal hydrogen batteries that would be deposited as distinct anode, electrolyte and cathode layers in thin film devices. The materials could also be incorporated in secondary consumer batteries (i.e. type AF(4/3 or 4/5)) which use electrodes in the form of tapes. The project was based on pioneering studies of hydrogen uptake by ultra-thin Pd-capped Nb films, these studies suggested that materials with metal-hydrogen ratios exceeding those of commercially available metal hydride materials and fast hydrogen charging and discharging kinetics could be produced. The project initially concentrated on gas phase and electrochemical studies of Pd-capped niobium films in laboratory-scale NiMH cells. This extended the pioneering work to the wet electrochemical environment of NiMH batteries and exploited advanced synchrotron radiation techniques not available during the earlier work to conduct in-situ studies of such materials during hydrogen charging and discharging. Although batteries with fast charging kinetics and hydrogen-metal ratios approaching unity could be fabricated, it was found that oxidation, cracking and corrosion in aqueous solutions made pure Nb films and multilayers poor candidates for battery application. The project emphasis shifted to alloy films based on known elemental materials used for NiMH batteries. Although commercial NiMH anode materials contain many metals, it was found that 0.24 {mu}m thick sputtered Zr-Ni films cycled at least 50 times with charging efficiencies exceeding 95% and [H]/[M] ratios of 0.7-1.0. Multilayered or thicker Zr-Ni films could be candidates for a thin film NiMH battery that may have practical applications as an integrated power source for modern electronic devices.

Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.; Weismann, H. [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Strain rate effects in porous materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The behavior of metal foams under rapid loading conditions is assessed. Dynamic loading experiments were conducted in their laboratory using a split Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus and a drop weight tester; Strain rates ranged from 45 s{sup {minus}1} to 1200 s{sup {minus}1}. The implications of these experiments on open-cell, porous metals, and closed- and open-cell polymer foams are described. It is shown that there are two possible strain-rate dependent contributors to the impact resistance of cellular metals: (i) elastic-plastic resistance of the cellular metal skeleton, and (ii) the gas pressure generated by gas flow within distorted open cells. A theoretical basis for these implications is presented.

Lankford, J. Jr.; Dannemann, K.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

282

Synthesis of poly(vinyl alcohol)-graft-poly(-caprolactone) and poly(vinyl alcohol)-graft-poly(lactide) in melt with magnesium hydride as catalyst  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)-graft-poly(lactide) in melt with magnesium hydride as catalyst Nadia Guerrouani, André Mas* , François Schué UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2%) was investigated using MgH2 environmental catalyst and melt-grown ring opening polymerization (ROP) of -caprolactone (CL) and L- lactide (LA), that avoiding undesirable toxic catalyst and solvent. The ability of Mg

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

283

Electronic Structure of Noble-Metal-Noble-Metal Alloys  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We describe optical studies of dilute noble-metal-noble-metal alloys. A differential technique compared the reflectance of the alloy with the reflectance of the pure metal and measured a quantity proportional to just the difference in reflectance. The method was particularly sensitive to small changes in reflectances and could be used to study very dilute alloys-the alloys here were between 110- and 3-at.% impurity concentration. The measurements indicated that the noble alloys are of two types. In copper-gold and silver-gold alloys the electron energy bands shift smoothly as the concentration varies. The rates and directions of shifts are determined not only by differences in the host and impurity potentials, but also by the changes in lattice constant, and we emphasize the importance of the latter. In contrast, in copper-silver alloys separate host and impurity d bands are formed.

David Beaglehole and Erich Erlbach

1972-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressurized tundish for controlling a continous flow of molten metal characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate.

Lewis, Thomas W. (964 Cork Dr., Bethel Park, PA 15102); Hamill, Jr., Paul E. (R.D. #1, Box 173A1, Jeannette, PA 15644); Ozgu, Mustafa R. (790 Yorkshire Rd., Bethlehem, PA 18017); Padfield, Ralph C. (1918 Paul Ave., Bethlehem, PA 18018); Rego, Donovan N. (1703 W. Brown St., Allentown, PA 18104); Brita, Guido P. (3225 Edna Terrace Ave., Bethlehem, PA 18017)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal is characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate. 1 fig.

Lewis, T.W.; Hamill, P.E. Jr.; Ozgu, M.R.; Padfield, R.C.; Rego, D.N.; Brita, G.P.

1990-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

286

Metal-phosphate binders  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

287

Probing metal solidification nondestructively  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Probing metal solidification nondestructively This is the first time that high-energy protons have been used to nondestructively image a large metal sample during melting and...

288

Probing metal solidification nondestructively  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Probing metal solidification nondestructively This is the first time that high-energy protons have been used to nondestructively image a large metal sample during melting...

289

Flavin Amine Oxidases from the Monoamine Oxidase Structural Family Utilize a Hydride Transfer Mechanism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-acetylspermine, stopped-flow traces were fit to equation 2.4, which describes a triphasic exponential decay, where k1, k2, and k3 are first order rate constants, A1, A2, A3 correspond to the absorbance changes in each phase, and A? is the final absorbance...

Henderson Pozzi, Michelle

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

290

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Wednesday, 29 May 2013 00:00 Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

291

FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Synthetic, Structural and Mechanistic Investigations of Olefin Polymerization Catalyzed by Early Transition Metal Compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop new catalysts and provide understanding of ligand effects on catalyst composition in order to guide development of superior catalyst systems for polymerization of olefins. Our group is designing and synthesizing new “LX2”,“pincer” type ligands and complexing early transition metals to afford precatalysts. In a collaboration with Hans Brintzinger from the University of Konstanz, we are also examining the structures of the components of catalyst systems obtained from reaction of zirconocene dichlorides with aluminum alkyls and aluminum hydrides. Such systems are currently used commercially to produce polyolefins, but the nature of the active and dormant species as well as the mechanisms of their interconversions are not understood. New information on catalyst design and performance may lead to new types of polymers and/or new chemical transformations between hydrocarbons and transition metal centers, ultimately contributing to the development of catalytic reactions for the production of fuels, commodity and polymeric materials.

Bercaw, John E. [California Institute of Technology

2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

292

Role of Pyridine as a Biomimetic Organo-Hydride for Homogeneous Reduction of CO2 to Methanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use quantum chemical calculations to elucidate a viable homogeneous mechanism for pyridine-catalyzed reduction of CO2 to methanol. In the first component of the catalytic cycle, pyridine (Py) undergoes a H+ transfer (PT) to form pyridinium (PyH+) followed by an e- transfer (ET) to produce pyridinium radical (PyH0). Examples of systems to effect this ET to populate the LUMO of PyH+(E0calc ~ -1.3V vs. SCE) to form the solution phase PyH0 via highly reducing electrons include the photo-electrochemical p-GaP system (ECBM ~ -1.5V vs. SCE at pH= 5) and the photochemical [Ru(phen)3]2+/ascorbate system. We predict that PyH0 undergoes further PT-ET steps to form the key closed-shell, dearomatized 1,2-dihydropyridine (PyH2) species. Our proposed sequential PT-ET-PT-ET mechanism transforming Py into PyH2 is consistent with the mechanism described in the formation of related dihydropyridines. Because it is driven by its proclivity to regain aromaticity, PyH2 is a potent recyclable organo-hydride donor that mimics the ...

Lim, Chern-Hooi; Hynes, James T; Musgrave, Charles B

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LOCAL TITANIUM ENVIRONMENT IN DOPED SODIUM ALUMINUM HYDRIDE USING X-RAY ADSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ti K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to explore the local titanium environment and valence in 2-4 mol% Ti-doped sodium alanate. An estimate of the oxidation state of the dopant, based upon known standards, revealed a zero-valent titanium atom. An analysis of the near-edge and extended fine structures indicates that the Ti does not enter substitutional or interstitial sites in the NaAlH{sub 4} lattice. Rather, the Ti is located on/near the surface and is coordinated by 10.2 {+-} 1 aluminum atoms with an interatomic distance of 2.82 {+-} 0.01 {angstrom}, similar to that of TiAl{sub 3}. The Fourier transformed EXAFS spectra reveals a lack of long-range order around the Ti dopant indicating that the Ti forms nano-clusters of TiAl{sub 3}. The similarity of the spectra in the hydrided and dehydrided samples suggests that the local Ti environment is nearly invariant during hydrogen cycling.

GRAETZ, J.; IGNATOV, A. YU; TYSON, T.A.; REILLY, J.J.; JOHNSON, J.

2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

294

New plasma source of hydrides for epitaxial growth. Final subcontract report, 15 April 1991--3 September 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a novel plasma-activated selenium source that was developed during the course of this subcontract and which is significantly different than any other heretofore reported in the scientific literature. It involves microwave excited, magnetically confined plasma sources that are intended to operate under electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) conditions at 2.455 GHz. This source is designed to excite and dissociate the molecular vapor evaporating or subliming from a heated solid or liquid reservoir. It can combine an effusion cell vapor flux with a stream of hydrogen or helium gas, enabling the in-situ generation of hydrides for use in low-pressure growth techniques where long mean free paths are desirable. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate a stable discharge within the source, and measures were identified to improve its operational characteristics. Application of this novel source is anticipated to enable a low-temperature, safe process for the growth of high-quality epitaxial compound semiconductor films. This reduction of epitaxial growth temperatures may enable the fabrication of novel photovoltaic devices that have heretofore been impossible due to the deleterious effects of interdiffusion at heterointerfaces resulting from the high temperatures required to grow adequate quality material using conventional processes.

Stanbery, B.J. [Boeing Defense & Space Group, Seattle, WA (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Chlorite Dissolution Rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

Carroll, Susan

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Chlorite Dissolution Rates  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

Carroll, Susan

297

Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Choices (2003-06) Power Function Review (PFR) Firstgov Power Rate Cases BPA's wholesale power rates are set to recover its costs and repay the U.S. Treasury for the Federal...

298

Heavy metal biosensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions and methods are provided for detection of certain heavy metals using bacterial whole cell biosensors.

Hillson, Nathan J; Shapiro, Lucille; Hu, Ping; Andersen, Gary L

2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

299

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

300

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

302

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

303

Reactive cluster model of metallic glasses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Though discovered more than a half century ago metallic glasses remain a scientific enigma. Unlike crystalline metals, characterized by short, medium, and long-range order, in metallic glasses short and medium-range order persist, though long-range order is absent. This fact has prompted research to develop structural descriptions of metallic glasses. Among these are cluster-based models that attribute amorphous structure to the existence of clusters that are incommensurate with crystalline periodicity. Not addressed, however, are the chemical factors stabilizing these clusters and promoting their interconnections. We have found that glass formers are characterized by a rich cluster chemistry that above the glass transformation temperature promotes exchange as well as static and vibronic sharing of atoms between clusters. The vibronic mechanism induces correlated motions between neighboring clusters and we hypothesize that the distance over which these motions are correlated mediates metallic glass stability and influences critical cooling rates.

Jones, Travis E. [Molecular Theory Group, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States) [Molecular Theory Group, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Miorelli, Jonathan; Eberhart, Mark E. [Molecular Theory Group, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)] [Molecular Theory Group, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

304

Process for etching mixed metal oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An etching process using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstom range may be achieved by this method.

Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

KINETIC CONDENSATION AND EVAPORATION OF METALLIC IRON AND IMPLICATIONS FOR METALLIC IRON DUST FORMATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metallic iron is one of the most abundant condensing materials in systems of solar abundance. Because metallic iron is responsible for the continuum opacity of dust particles, it has a large contribution to the thermal structure of circumstellar environments and hence to dust evolution itself. In order to understand the formation processes of metallic iron in circumstellar environments, condensation and evaporation kinetics of metallic iron were studied experimentally. Metallic iron condenses at the maximum rate with the condensation coefficient (a parameter ranging from 0 to 1 to represent kinetic hindrance for surface reaction) of unity under high supersaturation conditions, and evaporates nearly ideally (evaporation coefficient of unity) in vacuum. On the other hand, evaporation of metallic iron takes place with more kinetic hindrance in the presence of metallic iron vapor. It is also found that metallic iron atoms nucleate heterogeneously on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Metallic iron does not necessarily condense homogeneously in circumstellar environments, but might condense through heterogeneous nucleation on pre-existing dust. Metallic iron formation proceeds with little kinetic hindrance for highly unequilibrated conditions, but the effects of kinetic hindrance may appear for evaporation and condensation occurring near equilibrium with a timescale of months to years in protoplanetary disks.

Tachibana, Shogo; Nagahara, Hiroko; Ozawa, Kazuhito; Ikeda, Youhei; Nomura, Ryuichi; Tatsumi, Keisuke; Joh, Yui, E-mail: tachi@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

306

High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective Develop ultrafast laser and precise motion control technologies for micromachining difficult-to-machine...

307

Measuring Evaporation Rates of Metal Compounds from Solid Samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A thermogravimeter (TGA, Mettler-Toledo TGA/SDTA851e) was connected to an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES, Varian Liberty 110) using a condensation interface (CI), which transforms gaseous high-boiling-temperature substances into solid (or liquid) aerosols. ... This project was financially supported as GRS-058/00 by Gebert Rüf Foundation. ...

Christian Ludwig; Jörg Wochele; Urs Jörimann

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Fundamental Studies of Advanced High-Capacity, Reversible Metal Hydrides - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Craig M. Jensen (Primary Contact) and Marina Chong University of Hawaii Department of Chemistry Honolulu, HI 96822 Phone: (808) 956-2769 Email: jensen@hawaii.edu DOE Managers HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FC36-05GO15063 Project Start Date: April 1, 2005 Project End Date: September 30, 2012 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives The objective of this project is to develop a new class of reversible materials that have the potential to meet the DOE kinetic and system gravimetric storage capacity targets. During the past year, our investigations have focused on the study of novel, high hydrogen capacity, borohydrides that can

309

Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of Lithium-Ion and Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries for Plug-In Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Infrastructure and transport requirements, though often generic, were always included. ... vehicles (PHEV), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a role in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector; however, meaningful GHG emissions redns. ... storage systems in renewable energy plants, as well as power systems for sustainable vehicles, such as hybrid and elec. ...

Guillaume Majeau-Bettez; Troy R. Hawkins; Anders Hammer Strømman

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

310

Investigation of ZrNi, ZrMn2 and Zn(BH4)2 metal/complex hydrides for hydrogen storage.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The demand for efficient and clean fuel alternatives has been increasing in recent years and is expected to become more pronounced in the future. Utilization… (more)

Escobar, Diego

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Gas Diffusion in Metals: Fundamental Study of Helium-Point Defect Interactions in Iron and Kinetics of Hydrogen Desorption from Zirconium Hydride  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sources for electricity constitute a diverse group, from wind, solar, tidal and wave energy to hydro, geothermal and

Hu, Xunxiang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Gas Diffusion in Metals: Fundamental Study of Helium-Point Defect Interactions in Iron and Kinetics of Hydrogen Desorption from Zirconium Hydride  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

structural materials for fusion reactors. Philos. Trans. R.temperature windows for fusion reactor structural materials.facing components of fusion reactors. J. Nucl. Mater. 329–

Hu, Xunxiang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Metal-Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Synthesis Of Fluorescent Metal Nanoclusters  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Synthesis Of Fluorescent Metal Nanoclusters Synthesis Of Fluorescent Metal Nanoclusters Fluorescent metal nanoclusters were prepared. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center...

315

Metal phthalocyanine catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

As a new composition of matter, alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

MECS 2006- Fabricated Metals  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Fabricated Metals (NAICS 332) Sector with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

317

Deposition of Contiguous Metal Adlayer on Transition Metal Nanostructu...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Abstract Primary Lab Date Application 20100099012 Application 20100099012 Electrocatalyst Synthesized by Depositing a Contiguous Metal Adlayer on Transition Metal...

318

Determination of extractable arsenic in soils using slurry sampling-on-line microwave extraction-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A flow injection procedure has been developed for the determination of acid-extractable arsenic in soils by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Several parameters, including acid and borohydride concentrations, exposure time to microwave energy, and the microwave power applied, were optimized. The on-line microwave extraction increased the recovery of the adsorbed arsenic significantly; whereas, preparation of the slurry in 10% hydrochloric acid instead of water increased the recovery only when the microwave oven was off. Low recoveries, which were investigated by removing the hydride generation manifold and connecting the system via an on-line filter to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, were due to the irreversible adsorption of arsenic on the soil. This irreversible adsorption does not allow standard additions calibration. The solution detection limit was 0.2 ?g l?1 for a 212-?l injection loop, corresponding to 7 ng g?1 in solid for a 2.5% m/v slurry prepared in 25 ml.

Hakan Gürleyük; Julian F. Tyson; Peter C Uden

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Storage Systems Analysis Working Group | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

to achieve common objectives. The systems under consideration include physical storage (tankscryogenic storage), metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and high-surface-area...

320

On the relationship between the prices of oil and the precious metals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/US dollar exchange rates, the S&P500 equity indices, and the prices of WTI crude oil and the precious metals

Boyer, Edmond

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Chemistry and cooling in metal-free and metal-poor gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I summarize four of the most important areas of uncertainty in the study of the chemistry and cooling of gas with zero or very low metallicity. These are: i) the importance and effects of HD cooling in primordial gas; ii) the importance of metal-line and dust cooling in low metallicity gas; iii) the impact of the large uncertainties that exist in the rate coefficients of several key reactions involved in the formation of H2; and iv) the effectiveness of grain surface chemistry at high redshifts.

S. C. O. Glover

2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

322

rates | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

rates rates Dataset Summary Description This dataset, compiled by NREL and Ventyx, provides average residential, commercial and industrial electricity rates by zip code for both investor owned utilities (IOU) and non-investor owned utilities. Note: the file includes average rates for each utility, but not the detailed rate structure data found in the database available via the zip-code look-up feature on the OpenEI Utilities page (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Utilities). The data was released by NREL/Ventyx in February 2011. Source NREL and Ventyx Date Released February 24th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords electric rates rates US utilities Data text/csv icon IOU rates by zipcode (csv, 1.7 MiB) text/csv icon Non-IOU rates by zipcode (csv, 2.1 MiB)

323

Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

Royer, L.T.

1987-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

324

Historical Interest Rates  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Current and Historical Interest Rates Current and Historical Interest Rates The table lists interest rates, from the project's inception through the present, for all projects with repayment supervised by the CRSP MC. The latest available interest rate is used for all future interest rate calculations. The Amistad-Falcon, Collbran, Provo River, and Rio Grande Projects are all assigned the average daily "Yield Rate" calculated by the U.S. Treasury, on an annual basis, for Treasury bonds having terms of 15 years or more remaining to maturity. The calculated yield rate is rounded to the nearest one-eighth of one percent. The yield rate is based upon the bond's interest rate, as well as its market value. The Colorado River Storage Project and its participating projects, Dolores and Seedskadee, are assigned the average daily "Coupon Rate," annualized for the same U.S. Treasury bonds used in "Yield Rate" calculations. The coupon rate is the interest rate that the bond carries upon its face.

325

Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd Sumitomo Metals | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd Sumitomo Metals Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd Sumitomo Metals Jump to: navigation, search Name Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd (Sumitomo Metals) Place Osaka-shi, Osaka, Japan Zip 540-0041 Sector Solar Product Engaged in the steel, engineering, and electronics businesses; works on fuel cell component technology and manufactures silicon wafers for the solar sector. References Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd (Sumitomo Metals)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd (Sumitomo Metals) is a company located in Osaka-shi, Osaka, Japan . References ↑ "Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd (Sumitomo Metals)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Sumitomo_Metal_Industries_Ltd_Sumitomo_Metals&oldid=351744"

326

Cost Analysis Rate Settin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cost Analysis and Rate Settin for Animal Research Facilities #12;#12;Cost Analysis and Rate ... .. . ...................... . . . ................................. . .... 7 Chapter 2 Preparation for Cost Analysis ......................................................... 9 Chapter 3 Assignment of Costs to Animal Research Facility Cost Centers

Baker, Chris I.

327

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Complex Metal Hydrides Complex Metal Hydrides Savannah River Site Aiken/Aiken/South Carolina This project develops new complex metal hydride materials for hydrogen storage. The alkali-metal hydrides, alanates, borohydrides, hydrocarbon solvents, metallorganic complexes, nanomaterials, metals and their salts will be acquired, stored and processed in an Argon-filled glovebox due to their sensitivity to air and moisture. The processes include but are not limited to hydride dissolution in organic solvents, impurities filtration, hydrides recrystallization, and hydrides blending with additives (metallorganic complexes, metals and salts), melt processing, and absorption/ desorption for material property testing. B3.6 - Small-scale research and development, laboratory operations, and pilot projects

328

Photoactivated metal removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors propose the use of photochromic dyes as light activated switches to bind and release metal ions. This process, which can be driven by solar energy, can be used in environmental and industrial processes to remove metals from organic and aqueous solutions. Because the metals can be released from the ligands when irradiated with visible light, regeneration of the ligands and concentration of the metals may be easier than with conventional ion exchange resins. Thus, the process has the potential to be less expensive than currently used metal extraction techniques. In this paper, the authors report on their studies of the metal binding of spirogyran dyes and the hydrolytic stability of these dyes. They have prepared a number of spirogyrans and measured their binding constants for calcium and magnesium. They discuss the relationship of the structure of the dyes to their binding strengths. These studies are necessary towards determining the viability of this technique.

Nimlos, M.R.; Filley, J.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Watt, A.S.; Blake, D.M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Metal atomization spray nozzle  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

Huxford, T.J.

1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

330

Metallic nut for use with ceramic threads  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nozzle guide vane assembly has ceramic components therein having a conventional thread thereon including a preestablished pitch and having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion. The nozzle guide vane assembly has a metallic components therein having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being greater that the rate of thermal expansion of the ceramic components is positioned in a gas turbine engine. The metallic component, a nut, has a thread therein including a plurality of crests being spaced on a pitch equal to that of the ceramic component and has a pair of contacting surfaces extending from the plurality of crests. A notch spirally extends intermediate adjacent ones of the plurality of crests and has a preestablished depth which is at least twice the size of the conventional pitch. Furthermore, the pair of contacting surfaces are in contact with only a portion of the threaded surface of the ceramic components.

Norton, Paul F. (San Diego, CA); Shaffer, James E. (Maitland, FL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Fabricated Metals (2010 MECS)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Fabricated Metals Sector (NAICS 332) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014

332

EMSL - trace metals  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

trace-metals en Microbial Reductive Transformation of Phyllosilicate Fe(III) and U(VI) in Fluvial Subsurface Sediments. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

333

Regeneration of aluminum hydride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

Graetz, Jason Allan (Mastic, NY); Reilly, James J. (Bellport, NY)

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

334

PNNL Chemical Hydride Capabilities  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and surface reactions * High resolution transmission and analytical electron microscopy * Hydrogen charging system - Microchannel reformer technology for enhancing reaction...

335

Sensing the gas metal arc welding process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Control of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) requires real-time sensing of the process. Three sensing techniques for GMAW are being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These are (1) noncontacting ultrasonic sensing using a laser/EMAT (electromagnetic acoustic transducer) to detect defects in the solidified weld on a pass-bypass basis, (2) integrated optical sensing using a CCD camera and a laser stripe to obtain cooling rate and weld bead geometry information, and (3) monitoring fluctuations in digitized welding voltage data to detect the mode of metal droplet transfer and assure that the desired mass input is achieved.

Carlson, N.M.; Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.; Watkins, A.D.; Larsen, E.D.; Taylor, P.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Waddoups, M.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Sensing the gas metal arc welding process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Control of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) requires real-time sensing of the process. Three sensing techniques for GMAW are being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These are (1) noncontacting ultrasonic sensing using a laser/EMAT (electromagnetic acoustic transducer) to detect defects in the solidified weld on a pass-bypass basis, (2) integrated optical sensing using a CCD camera and a laser stripe to obtain cooling rate and weld bead geometry information, and (3) monitoring fluctuations in digitized welding voltage data to detect the mode of metal droplet transfer and assure that the desired mass input is achieved.

Carlson, N.M.; Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.; Watkins, A.D.; Larsen, E.D.; Taylor, P.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Waddoups, M.A. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

Brueck, Steven R. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Myers, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Sharma, Ashwani K. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Silicon metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Silicon MSM photodiodes sensitive to radiation in the visible to near infrared spectral range are produced by altering the absorption characteristics of crystalline Si by ion implantation. The implantation produces a defected region below the surface of the silicon with the highest concentration of defects at its base which acts to reduce the contribution of charge carriers formed below the defected layer. The charge carriers generated by the radiation in the upper regions of the defected layer are very quickly collected between biased Schottky barrier electrodes which form a metal-semiconductor-metal structure for the photodiode.

Brueck, Steven R. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Myers, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Sharma, Ashwani K. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Symmetry reduction of metal phthalocyanines on metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The temperature-dependent adsorption behavior of fourfold symmetric metal phthalocyanines (MPcs) on metals with commensurate and incommensurate symmetries was investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. On the fourfold symmetric Cu(100) surface, planar and fourfold molecular structures in two equivalent orientations were found for MPcs when prepared at room temperature. In addition, two metastable orientations were identified when prepared at low temperature, which can be depopulated upon annealing. MPcs adsorbed on the sixfold symmetric Cu(111) surface showed a disturbed molecular appearance. The symmetry of molecular structures changed from fourfold to twofold, which is discussed in terms of molecule-substrate interaction.

Shih-Hsin Chang; Stefan Kuck; Jens Brede; Leonid Lichtenstein; Germar Hoffmann; Roland Wiesendanger

2008-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

340

About the Ratings  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2008 Ratings Changes 2008 Ratings Changes EPA's "New" Fuel Economy Ratings Video about EPA's New Fuel Economy Ratings Windows Media Video (6.8 MB) Quicktime Video (7.8 MB) Text Version EPA changed the way it estimates fuel economy starting with the 2008 model year. This "new" way of estimating fuel economy supplements the previous method by incorporating the effects of Faster speeds and acceleration Air conditioner use Colder outside temperatures What else do I need to know about the "new" ratings? The tests lower MPG estimates for most vehicles. View old/new MPG ratings for a specific vehicle The actual mileage you get will still vary based on your driving habits, traffic conditions, and other factors. All MPG estimates in Find-a-Car have been converted to the new

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

In situ x-ray absorption study of Zr(V0.29Ni0.71)3 hydride electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present an in situ x-ray absorption study of hydrogen absorption into the bulk of an electrode material while it is operating in an electrochemical cell. The active material is an overstoichiometric AB2-type alloy, namely, Zr(V0.29Ni0.71)3, with a cubic C15 Laves phase structure. Hydrogen absorption induces both structural and electronic changes due to the bonding between interstitial H atoms and each alloy element. The role of each element is revealed, allowing us to determine the inert role of Ni atoms and the dominant effect of the H-V interaction on the hydride formation process. Comparison between the alloyed element behavior and the H affinity of each pure element allows us to determine the influence of structural and alloying effects on bonding formation.

R. G. Agostino; G. Liberti; V. Formoso; E. Colavita; A. Züttel; C. Nützenadel; L. Schlapbach; A. Santaniello; C. Gauthier

2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

342

Effective Rate Period  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fiscal Year 2014 Fiscal Year 2014 Effective Rate Period As of Beginning of the FY 10/01/2013 - 09/30/2014 Mid-Year Changes (if applicable) 10/01/2013 - 09/30/2014 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement $73,441,557 CV-F13 Base Resource Revenue Requirement $69,585,875 First Preference Revenue Requirement $3,855,682

343

LCC Guidance Rates  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

344

Draft Tiered Rate Methodology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

year's weather and other specific factors are removed from the loads of irrigated agriculture. ( ) "Irrigation Rate Mitigation" means the form of a discount by BPA to...

345

Heart Rate Artifact Suppression.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Motion artifact strongly corrupts heart rate measurements in current pulse oximetry systems. In many, almost any motion will greatly diminish the system’s ability to extract… (more)

Dickson, Christopher

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Residential Solar Valuation Rates  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Residential Solar Valuation Rates Karl R. Rbago Rbago Energy LLC 1 The Ideal Residential Solar Tariff Fair to the utility and non-solar customers Fair compensation to...

347

PHYTOEXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Type of phytoremediation Cost effective form of environmental remediation (Glass 1999) Chelating Agents: desorb heavy metals from soil matrix and form water-soluble metal complexes (Shen et al -using hyperaccumulator plant biomass to produce a bio-ore for commercial use -Li et al. look at using Ni

Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

348

Metallization of fluid hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...P. Tunstall Metallization of fluid hydrogen W. J. Nellis 1 A. A. Louis 2 N...The electrical resistivity of liquid hydrogen has been measured at the high dynamic...which structural changes are paramount. hydrogen|metallization of hydrogen|liquid...

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Electroreflectance in Metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Calculations have been made which suggest that the prominent maximum in the electroreflectance spectra of metals observed by Feinleib is not due to modulation of the optical constants of the electrolyte, but to modulation of the optical constants of the metal.

Arnold Prostak and Wilford N. Hansen

1967-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

350

Production of magnesium metal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN) [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN) [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA) [Martinsville, VA

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

351

Metal-Nonmetal Transition in Metal-Ammonia Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A review is given of the properties of metal-ammonia solutions together with a summary of the evidence for the existence of a metal-nonmetal transition.

J. C. THOMPSON

1968-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Advertising Rate Information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advertising Rate Information ... ACS MEMBER RATES "Situations Wanted" advertisements will be classified by the chemical held designated by the members. ... State ACS membership status and mail advertisements to: Chemical & Engineering News, Classified Advertising, 676 East Swedesford Road, Suite 202, Wayne, PA 19087-1612. ...

2000-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

353

Advertising Rate Information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advertising Rate Information ... ACS MEMBER RATES "Situations Wanted" advertisements will be classified by the chemical field designated by the members. ... State ACS membership status and mail advertisements to: Chemical & Engineering News, Classified Advertising, 676 East Swedesford Road, Suite 202, Wayne, PA 19087-1612. ...

1997-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

354

2007-2009 Power Rate Adjustments (pbl/rates)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Function Review (PFR) Firstgov FY 2007 2009 Power Rate Adjustments BPA's 2007-2009 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (GRSPs) took effect on...

355

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

356

Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

Jensen, Craig M. (Kailua, HI); Zidan, Ragaiy A. (Honolulu, HI)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

OpenEI - rates  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

U.S. Electric Utility U.S. Electric Utility Companies and Rates: Look-up by Zipcode (Feb 2011) http://en.openei.org/datasets/node/899 This dataset, compiled by NREL and Ventyx, provides average residential, commercial and industrial electricity rates by zip code for both investor owned utilities (IOU) and non-investor owned utilities. Note: the file includes average rates for each utility, but not the detailed rate structure data found in the database available via the zip-code look-up feature on the OpenEI Utilities page (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Utilities). The data was released by NREL/Ventyx in February 2011.

358

Water Rate Escalations  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Federal agencies need accurate water cost escalation rates to perform life cycle cost analyses for water efficiency projects to meet Executive Order 13514 and Energy Independence and Security Act...

359

Before a Rate Case  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is made up of two processes. The first part of the IBR is the Integrated Program Review (IPR), which will address proposed program costs prior to their inclusion in a rate case,...

360

Advertising Rate Information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advertising Rate Information ... "Situations Wanted "advertisements will be classified by the chemical field designated by the members. ... State ACS membership status and mail advertisements to: Chemical & Engineering News, Classified Advertising, 676 East Swedesford Road, Suite 202. ...

2002-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Tiered Rate Methodology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rate Period limit. This 23 exception is limited for the duration of this TRM to the first ten requesting utilities that 24 BP-12-A-03 Section 4 Page 46 meet the size threshold and...

362

PLUTONIUM METALLIC FUELS FOR FAST REACTORS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Early interest in metallic plutonium fuels for fast reactors led to much research on plutonium alloy systems including binary solid solutions with the addition of aluminum, gallium, or zirconium and low-melting eutectic alloys with iron and nickel or cobalt. There was also interest in ternaries of these elements with plutonium and cerium. The solid solution and eutectic alloys have most unusual properties, including negative thermal expansion in some solid-solution alloys and the highest viscosity known for liquid metals in the Pu-Fe system. Although metallic fuels have many potential advantages over ceramic fuels, the early attempts were unsuccessful because these fuels suffered from high swelling rates during burn up and high smearing densities. The liquid metal fuels experienced excessive corrosion. Subsequent work on higher-melting U-PuZr metallic fuels was much more promising. In light of the recent rebirth of interest in fast reactors, we review some of the key properties of the early fuels and discuss the challenges presented by the ternary alloys.

STAN, MARIUS [Los Alamos National Laboratory; HECKER, SIEGFRIED S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2007-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

363

Stocking Rate Decisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to predict potential forage shortfalls, determine the im- pact of the decision on finances and other ranch re- sources, and make any necessary adjustments before the forage resource is harmed or financial problems occur. Through adequate planning and periodic... rates with limited knowledge of future forage and market conditions. But they can use past records, experience and range surveys to make realistic projections of forage and market conditions (Figure 3). Then, the planned stock- ing rate should...

White, Larry D.; McGinty, Allan

1999-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

364

On Thermonuclear Reaction Rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear reactions govern major aspects of the chemical evolution od galaxies and stars. Analytic study of the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals is attempted here. Exact expressions for the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals for nuclear reactions in the case of nonresonant, modified nonresonant, screened nonresonant and resonant cases are given. These are expressed in terms of H-functions, G-functions and in computable series forms. Computational aspects are also discussed.

H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

1996-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

365

Divalent metal nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Metal nanoparticles hold promise for many scientific and technological applications, such as chemical and biological sensors, vehicles for drug delivery, and subdiffraction limit waveguides. To fabricate such devices, a ...

DeVries, Gretchen Anne

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

to meet 5000 h automotive durability goal at cost < 5kW Year 1 Goals: Single-cell fuel cell test performance for 25 cm 2 stamped and nitrided metallic bipolar plates...

367

Metal stocks and sustainability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...dissipated through corrosion and wear, and some enters waste repositories...landfills. Dissipation from wear and corrosion is generally small...dispersion of metals from wear and corrosion is an important...transportation (railroad, marine, aircraft, and aerospace equipment...

R. B. Gordon; M. Bertram; T. E. Graedel

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

2002-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

369

Excitons in Metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that exciton states exist in metals, occurring near the interband threshold in optical absorption and substantially altering the shape and strength of the absorption edge. Their relation to the corresponding donor states is discussed.

G. D. Mahan

1967-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

370

Cat Heart Rate Monitoring  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cat Heart Rate Monitoring Cat Heart Rate Monitoring Name: Shakti Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: TX Country: USA Date: Summer 2010 Question: What is the best way to find a cat's heart rate using a stethoscope? Because I have tried to hear their heart beat but their purring is all I can hear. If I shouldn't use a stethoscope, then what should I use? Replies: Hi Shakti! If you want to use a stethoscope, the trick is to get your cat to stop purring. Two good ways that I have found to help stop the purring 1. Cover their nose (generally cats don't like this and will stop purring) or 2. Put on the tap to drip or lightly stream water (also, they generally don't like this and will stop purring). Alternatively, you can get their heart rate from feeling their pulse. A good place to try to feel a pulse is right where the leg attaches to the abdomen - in an area called the inguinal region. Now granted there are some heart conditions that will cause an animals pulse and their heart rates don't match up, and it's hard to feel if you have a fat cat, but it's a good place to try if you are really trying to get a heart rate in a healthy kitty!

371

October 2001 - September 2006 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

October 2001 - September 2006 The 2002 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules (base rates) for the FY 2002-2006 rate period were originally established in May 2000 during the WP-02 Rate...

372

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Metallic glass composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A metallic glass alloy that is either iron-based or nickel-based or based on a mixture of iron and nickel, containing lesser amounts of elements selected from the group boron, silicon carbon and phosphorous to which is added an amount of a ductility enhancing element selected from the group cerium, lanthanum, praseodymium and neodymium sufficient to increase ductility of the metallic glass upon annealing.

Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Koch, Carl C. (Raleigh, NC)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Molten metal reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

375

Functionalized Silicone Nanospheres: Synthesis, Transition Metal...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Functionalized Silicone Nanospheres: Synthesis, Transition Metal Immobilization, and Catalytic Applications. Functionalized Silicone Nanospheres: Synthesis, Transition Metal...

376

Corrosion behavior of mesoporous transition metal nitrides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transition metal nitrides (TMN) have many desirable characteristics such as high hardness and good thermal stability under reducing conditions. This work reports an initial survey of the chemical stability of mesoporous TMNs (TM=Nb, V, Cr and Ti) in water at 80 °C at neutral, acidic and alkaline pH. The mesoporous TMNs had specific surface areas of 25–60 m{sup 2}/g with average pore sizes ranging from 10 to 50 nm. The high surface areas of these materials enhance the rate of corrosion per unit mass over that of a bulk material, making detection of corrosion much easier. The products were characterized by Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Several nitrides have corrosion rates that are, within error, not distinguishable from zero (±1 Å/day). Of the nitrides examined, CrN appears to be the most corrosion resistant under acidic conditions. None of the nitrides studied are corrosion resistant under alkaline conditions. - Graphical abstract: Corrosion behavior of mesoporous transition metal nitrides (TM=Nb, V, Cr and Ti) in acidic and alkaline solutions at 80 °C for 2 weeks. Display Omitted - highlights: • Corrosion rates of mesoporous transition metal nitrides in aqueous solution is reported. • The mesoporous TMNs had surface areas of 25–60 m{sup 2}/g. • CrN is the most corrosion resistant under the conditions studied.

Yang, Minghui, E-mail: m.yang@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry, Cornell University, Ithaca 14853-1301, NY (United States); Allen, Amy J.; Nguyen, Minh T. [Department of Chemistry, Cornell University, Ithaca 14853-1301, NY (United States); Ralston, Walter T. [College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley 94720-1460, CA (United States); MacLeod, Michelle J. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139-4307, MA (United States); DiSalvo, Francis J., E-mail: fjd3@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry, Cornell University, Ithaca 14853-1301, NY (United States)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

Columbia University Environmental Health and Safety The Safe Use of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aluminum Metallic hydrides, such as sodium hydride, potassium hydride, lithium aluminum hydride and some boranes. Finely divided metals, such as: aluminum, lithium, magnesium, titanium, zinc, zirconium, sodium of reagents. Mineral oil bubblers must be employed at all times to release excess pressure from reagent

Jia, Songtao

378

Challenges to achievement of metal sustainability in our high-tech society  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Achievement of sustainability in metal life cycles from mining of virgin ore to consumer and industrial devices to end-of-life products requires greatly increased recycling and improved processing of metals. Electronic and other high-tech products containing precious, toxic, and specialty metals usually have short lifetimes and low recycling rates. Products containing these metals generally are incinerated, discarded as waste in landfills, or dismantled in informal recycling using crude and environmentally irresponsible procedures. Low metal recycling rates coupled with increasing demand for products containing them necessitate increased mining with attendant environmental, health, energy, water, and carbon-footprint consequences. In this tutorial review, challenges to achieving metal sustainability in present high-tech society are presented; health, environmental, and economic incentives for various stakeholders to improve metal sustainability are discussed; a case for technical improvements in separations technology, especially employing molecular recognition, is given; and global consequences of continuing on the present path are examined.

Izatt, Reed M. [IBC Advanced Technologies, INC] [IBC Advanced Technologies, INC; Izatt, Steven R. [IBC Advanced Technologies, INC] [IBC Advanced Technologies, INC; Bruening, Ronald L. [IBC Advanced Technologies, INC] [IBC Advanced Technologies, INC; Izatt, Neil [IBC Advanced Technologies, INC] [IBC Advanced Technologies, INC; Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Upper Great Plains Rates information  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rates and Repayment Services Rates and Repayment Services Rates 2010 Firm Power Rate (effective January 1, 2010) Rate Adjustments 2010 Firm Power Rate Adjustment 2009 Firm Power Rate Adjustment IS Rate Adjustments Rate Adjustment Process Rate Orders Signed, December 23, 2009 (16kb pdf) Announcements Firm Electric Service Customer Letter - Preliminary Review of Drought Adder Component, June 27, 2013 (74kb pdf) Customer Letter - Final Notice of Drought Adder Component, October 2, 2013 (68kb pdf) Integrated System (IS) Rates 2014 IS Rates Customer Information Meeting Presentation, October 15, 2013 (611kb pdf) Customer Letter - Notification of 2014 Rates, September 13, 2013 (160kb pdf) 2014 Transmission and Ancillary Services Rate Calculation and 2012 Rate True-up Calculation (4.9mb pdf) 2013 IS Rates

380

BCP Annual Rate Process  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2013 BCP Annual Rate Process 2013 BCP Annual Rate Process Informal Process Rate Activity Schedule (doc) Informal Customer Meeting Thursday March 6, 2013 at 10:30 A.M. Conf Rms 3&4 Informal Customer Meeting Presentation (Pdf) PRS Executive Summary (Mar 07, 2013) (Pdf) FY2014 Final Ten Year Operating Plan PRS Executive Summary (PDF) FORM for Foreign Visits (doc) Formal Process Initial Federal Register Notice (pdf) Public Information Forum March 27,2013 at 10:30 A.M. Conf Rms3&4 Customer Meeting Presentation PIF Presentation (PPT) Presentation Details (pdf) Reclamation Fund Status Report PIF PRS Executive Summary (pdf) PIF Transcripts (PDF) Visitor Center Cost Analysis Questions - Responses Public Comment Forum April 10, 2013 at 10:30 A.M. Conf Rms3&4 PCF Transcripts Customer Letters

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Multiple System Rate Process  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DSW Multiple System Transmission Rate Process DSW Multiple System Transmission Rate Process Federal Register Notice Withdrawing Rate Proposal (PDF) Formal Process Extension Federal Register Notice (PDF) Customer Savings Under Various MSTR (XLS) Public Information Forum March 29, 2005 Customer Meeting Overview (Power Point) Customer Meeting Overview (PDF) Customer Meeting Transcript (PDF) Public Comment Forum April 6, 2005 Customer Meeting Transcript (PDF) Response Letter 5-17-05 (PDF) Customer Letters Tonopah ID-5/25/05 (PDF) APS-5/26/05 (PDF) SRP-5/27/05 (PDF) RSLynch-6/1/05 (PDF) KRSaline-6/1/05 (PDF) Formal Process Federal Register Notice (Word) Federal Register Notice (PDF) Brochure (Word) Appendices to Brochure: A B C D E1 E2 F1 F2 GH Public Information Forum July 14, 2004 Customer Meeting Overview (Power Point)

382

Liquid metal thermal electric converter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference...

384

Obsidian Hydration Rates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...OBSIDIAN HYDRATION RATE FOR KLAMATH BASIN OF CALIFORNIA AND OREGON...as the material is excreted, falls through the air, and dries...Friedman. Table 1 presents two new groups of hydra-tion readings for...the true age is believed to fall (3). The Snaketown age is...

Clement W. Meighan

1970-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

385

Advertising Rate Information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advertising Rate Information ... "Situations Wanted" advertisements will be classified by the chemical field designated by the members. ... State ACS membership status and mail advertisements to: Chemical & Engineering News, Classified Advertising, 676 East Swedesford Road, Suite 202, Wayne, PA 19087-1612. ...

2002-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

386

Advertising Rate Information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advertising Rate Information ... "Situations Wanted" advertisements will be classified by the chemical field designated by the members. ... State ACS membership status and mail advertisements to: Chemical & Engineering News, Classified Advertising, 676 East Swedesford Road, Suite 202, Wayne, PA 19087-1612. ...

1999-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

387

Advertising Rate Information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advertising Rate Information ... "Situations Wanted"advertisements will be classified by the chemical field designated by the members. ... State ACS membership status and mail advertisements to: Chemical & Engineering News, Classified Advertising, 676 East Swedesford Road, Suite 202, Wayne, PA 19087-1612. ...

2002-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

388

Advertising Rate Information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advertising Rate Information ... "Situations Wanted" advertisements will be classified by the chemical field designated by the members. ... State ACS membership status and mail advertisements to: Chemical & Engineering News, Classified Advertising, 676 East Swedesford Road, Suite 202, Wayne, PA 19067-1612. ...

1997-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

389

Advertising Rate Information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advertising Rate Information ... "Situations Wanted" advertisements wilt be classified by the chemical field designated by the members. ... State ACS membership status and mail advertisements to: Chemical & Engineering News, Classified Advertising, 676 East Swedesford Road, Suite 202, Wayne, PA 19087-1612. ...

2003-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

390

Advertising Rate Information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advertising Rate Information ... "Situations Wanted"advertisements will be classified by the chemical field designated by the members. ... State ACS membership status and mail advertisements to: Chemical & Engineering News, Classified Advertising, 676 East Swedesford Road, Suite 202, Wayne, PA 19087-1612. ...

2002-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

391

Advertising Rate Information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advertising Rate Information ... "Situations Wanted" advertisements will be classified by the chemical field designated by the members. ... State ACS membership status and mail advertisements to: Chemical & Engineering News, Classified Advertising, 676 East Swedesford Road, Suite 202, Wayne, PA 19087-1612. ...

1999-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

392

Advertising Rate Information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advertising Rate Information ... "Situations Wanted" advertisements will be classified by the chemical field designated by the members. ... State ACS membership status and mail advertisements to: Chemical & Engineering News, Classified Advertising, 676 East Swedesford Road, Suite 202, Wayne, PA 19087-1612. ...

2000-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

393

Advertising Rate Information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advertising Rate Information ... "Situations Wanted"advertisements wilt be classified by the chemical field designated by the members, if not designated, placement will be determined by the first word of the text submitted. ... State ACS membership status and mail advertisements to: Chemical & Engineering News, Classified Advertising, 676 East Swedesford Road, Suite 202, Wayne, PA 19087-1612. ...

2002-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

394

Advertising Rate Information  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Advertising Rate Information ... "Situations Wanted" advertisements will be classified by the chemical field designated by the members. ... State ACS membership status and mail advertisements to: Chemical & Engineering News, Classified Advertising, 676 East Swedesford Koad, Suite 202, Wayne, PA 19087-1612. ...

1998-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

395

Rare-earth neutral metal injection into an electron beam ion trap plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have designed and implemented a neutral metal vapor injector on the SuperEBIT high-energy electron beam ion trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A horizontally directed vapor of a europium metal is created using a thermal evaporation technique. The metal vapor is then spatially collimated prior to injection into the trap. The source's form and quantity constraints are significantly reduced making plasmas out of metal with vapor pressures ?10{sup ?7} Torr at ?1000?°C more obtainable. A long pulsed or constant feed metal vapor injection method adds new flexibility by varying the timing of injection and rate of material being introduced into the trap.

Magee, E. W., E-mail: magee1@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hell, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, 96049 Bamberg (Germany)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

396

Hard metal composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

Sheinberg, H.

1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

397

Hard metal composition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Catalysis Without Precious Metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Written for chemists in industry and academia, this ready reference and handbook summarizes recent progress in the development of new catalysts that do not require precious metals. The research thus presented points the way to how new catalysts may ultimately supplant the use of precious metals in some types of reactions, while highlighting the remaining challenges. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

Bullock, R. Morris

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Metal alloy identifier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

Riley, William D. (Avondale, MD); Brown, Jr., Robert D. (Avondale, MD)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Metal-oxide-based energetic materials and synthesis thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of preparing energetic metal-oxide-based energetic materials using sol-gel chemistry has been invented. The wet chemical sol-gel processing provides an improvement in both safety and performance. Essentially, a metal-oxide oxidizer skeletal structure is prepared from hydrolyzable metals (metal salts or metal alkoxides) with fuel added to the sol prior to gelation or synthesized within the porosity metal-oxide gel matrix. With metal salt precursors a proton scavenger is used to destabilize the sol and induce gelation. With metal alkoxide precursors standard well-known sol-gel hydrolysis and condensation reactions are used. Drying is done by standard sol-gel practices, either by a slow evaporation of the liquid residing within the pores to produce a high density solid nanocomposite, or by supercritical extraction to produce a lower density, high porous nanocomposite. Other ingredients may be added to this basic nanostructure to change physical and chemical properties, which include organic constituents for binders or gas generators during reactions, burn rate modifiers, or spectral emitters.

Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA), Simpson; Randall L. (Livermore, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Wick for metal vapor laser  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Rail Coal Transportation Rates  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

reports reports Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector With Data through 2010 | Release Date: November 16, 2012 | Next Release Date: December 2013 | Correction Previous editions Year: 2011 2004 Go Figure 1. Deliveries from major coal basins to electric power plants by rail, 2010 Background In this latest release of Coal Transportation Rates to the Electric Power Sector, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) significantly expands upon prior versions of this report with the incorporation of new EIA survey data. Figure 1. Percent of total U.S. rail shipments represented in data figure data Previously, EIA relied solely on data from the U.S. Surface Transportation Board (STB), specifically their confidential Carload Waybill Sample. While valuable, due to the statistical nature of the Waybill data,

403

Plant Tumor Growth Rates  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Plant Tumor Growth Rates Plant Tumor Growth Rates Name: Gina and Maria Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: We are doing a science fair project on if B. Carotene, Green tea, and Grape Seed Extract helps plants against the crown gall disease. We injected sunflowers with agrobacterium tum. one week ago (Sun. Feb. 27, 2000). Our questions is how long will it take for the tumors to grow? We scratched the surface of the stems and injected the agrobacterium in the wound. Also which do you think, in your opinion, will do the best, if any? Our science fair is April 13, do you think we'll have growth before then, atleast enough time to do our conclusion and results? Thank you, any information you forward will be very helpful. Replies: Sunflowers form galls relatively quickly. I usually get them in two weeks at least. Good luck.

404

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Jan. '99 to Feb. '99: -1.7% Feb. '98 to Feb. '99: +19.8% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +15.0% 4,100 4,400 4,700 5,000 5,300 5,600 5,900 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons U.S. Distillate Fuel Sales 2011 2012 2013 Adjusted Growth Rates* Jul '13 to Aug '13: 2.5% Aug '12 to Aug '13: -1.3% YTD '12 to YTD '13: 1.5% 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons U.S. Residual Fuel Sales 2011 2012 2013 Adjusted Growth Rates* Jul '13 to Aug '13: -0.8%

405

Adjusted Growth Rates* Jan.  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Adjusted Adjusted Growth Rates* Jan. '99 to Feb. '99: -1.7% Feb. '98 to Feb. '99: +19.8% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +15.0% U.S. Distillate Fuel Sales 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 5,500 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1998 1999 2000 Adjusted Growth Rates* Dec '99 to Jan '00: -7.4% Jan '99 to Jan '00: -0.1% YTD '99 to YTD '00: -0.1% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1998 1999 2000 Adjusted Growth Rates* Dec '99 to Jan '00: -16.8% Jan '99 to Jan '00: -3.2% YTD '99 to YTD '00: -3.2% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1998 1999 2000 Adjusted Growth Rates* Dec '99 to Jan '00: -9.3% Jan '99 to Jan '00: +3.5% YTD '99 to YTD '00: +3.5% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul

406

Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement Documents Rate Adjustments and Public Involvement Documents CRSP Transmission 9/16/2013 WAPA-161 FRN, CRSP transmission and ancillary services rates extension Letter announcing two-year extension to CRSP transmission and ancillary services rates Letter announcing revised CRSP transmission rates for FY 2014 Accompanying calculation table for FY 2014 CRSP transmission rate letter Letter announcing revised CRSP transmission rates for FY 2013 Letter announcing revised CRSP transmission rates for FY 2012 Letter announcing revised CRSP transmission rates for FY 2011 Letter announcing revised CRSP transmission rates for FY 2010 SLCA/IP 9/16/2013 WAPA-161 FRN, SLCA/IP firm power rate extension Letter announcing two-year extension to SLCA/IP firm power rate SLCA/IP Tentative Rate Adjustment Schedule

407

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

June '99 to July '99: -5.4% June '99 to July '99: -5.4% July '98 to July '99: +3.3% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +6.3% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* June '99 to July '99: -0.5% July '98 to July '99: -0.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.1% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* June '99 to July '99: +0.5% July '98 to July '99: +1.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: -0.3% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* June '99 to July '99: +1.5% July '98 to July '99: +10.2% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +7.2%

408

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Nov '99 to Dec '99: +5.3% Nov '99 to Dec '99: +5.3% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +8.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +5.0% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Nov '99 to Dec '99: +6.0% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +4.5% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.3% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Nov '99 to Dec '99: +2.4% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +3.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.9% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Nov '99 to Dec '99: +32.3% Dec '98 to Dec '99: +2.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +5.5%

409

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

July '99 to Aug. '99: +4.7% July '99 to Aug. '99: +4.7% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: +1.3% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.7% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* July '99 to Aug. '99: -1.9% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: -0.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.9% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* July '99 to Aug. '99: -0.1% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: -1.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: -0.7% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* July '99 to Aug. '99: +22.3% Aug. '98 to Aug. '99: +21.1%

410

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Aug '99 to Sep '99: +4.9% Aug '99 to Sep '99: +4.9% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +4.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.7% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Aug '99 to Sep '99: -2.4% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +0.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.3% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Aug '99 to Sep '99: -2.1% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +4.6% YTD '98 to YTD '99: 0.0% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Aug '99 to Sep '99: +7.3% Sep '98 to Sep '99: +8.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +8.3%

411

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Oct '99 to Nov '99: +0.1% Oct '99 to Nov '99: +0.1% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +5.5% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.5% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Oct '99 to Nov '99: -0.7% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +1.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.1% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Oct '99 to Nov '99: +2.5% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +6.0% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.8% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Oct '99 to Nov '99: +9.7% Nov '98 to Nov '99: +2.2% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +6.2%

412

Adjusted Growth Rates*  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sep '99 to Oct '99: +3.9% Sep '99 to Oct '99: +3.9% Oct '98 to Oct '99: +2.3% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +4.4% U.S. Motor Gasoline Sales 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Sep '99 to Oct '99: -0.2% Oct '98 to Oct '99: -0.9% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +1.0% U.S. Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Sales 1,500 1,600 1,700 1,800 1,900 2,000 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Sep '99 to Oct '99: -1.9% Oct '98 to Oct '99: -0.7% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +0.4% U.S. Propane Sales 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Millions of Gallons 1997 1998 1999 Adjusted Growth Rates* Sep '99 to Oct '99: -2.1% Oct '98 to Oct '99: -6.4% YTD '98 to YTD '99: +6.6%

413

Transportation Rates For Fishery Products  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

express (Railway Express Agency), and motor carriers. Air transporta- tion and water transportation 2 Rail-freight rates 2 Rail-express rates 3 Motor-carrier rates 3 Protective-service charges 4 used in sample 7 2. Rail-express rate index: Routes used in sample 7 3. Motor-carrier rate index

414

Thermal conductance of metal-metal interfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermal conductance of interfaces between Al and Cu is measured in the temperature range 78metal-dielectric interfaces. The magnitude and the linear temperature dependence of the conductance are described well by a diffuse-mismatch model for electron transport at interfaces.

Bryan C. Gundrum; David G. Cahill; Robert S. Averback

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

415

October 1996 - September 2001 Wholesale Power Rates (rates/previous...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

affecting a specific power purchase. For more specific information see: 1996 Final Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules: Power Rates (PDF, 84 pages, 188 kb) Ancillary...

416

Moving to Metal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is possible to 3D print in metal starting with a powder that...sintered...) by a laser or glued with a binder. As of this writing, this remains a very expensive process, and these are not desktop consumer prin...

Joan Horvath

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Mathematics in metal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...sculptures begin as a piece of computer code that dictates how the metal-printed parts fit together. She’s been using 3D printing for 15 years to forge her work and says the recent surge in popularity of the technology has opened up a few new opportunities...

Stephen Ornes

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Serpentine metal gasket  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A metallic seal or gasket for use in the joining of cryogenic fluid conduits, the seal or gasket having a generally planar and serpentine periphery defining a central aperture. According to a preferred embodiment, the periphery has at least two opposing elongated serpentine sides and two opposing arcuate ends joining the opposing elongated serpentine sides and is of a hexagonal cross-section.

Rothgeb, Timothy Moore (Norfolk, VA); Reece, Charles Edwin (Yorktown, VA)

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

419

Metal stocks and sustainability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1–4). Unlike oil, which is irremediably...relative scarcity (or price) of the material substituted...interior wiring; plumbing, heating, and architectural uses; and...defined in terms of current prices and costs of production; this...cost-effective at current metal prices. Because the real price of copper has remained...

R. B. Gordon; M. Bertram; T. E. Graedel

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Pile on the metal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Discovering superconductivity above room temperature is a dream for modern science and technology. Now, theorists propose that for certain types of superconductors, contact with a metal layer could greatly increase the transition temperatures of these materials—in some cases by as much as an order of magnitude.

Dung-Hai Lee

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Photomagnetism of metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A photoinduced magnetic moment has been observed in Cu and Al samples exposed to unpolarized visible light at low temperatures. It is shown that the light refected from a metal surface transfers some of its quasimomentum to conduction electrons. This mechanism creates surface currents which, for an appropriate geometry, bring about the photomagnetic effect.

V. L. Gurevich; R. Laiho; A. V. Lashkul

1992-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

422

Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. Abstract: Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those...

423

Extensive Interstitial Solid Solutions of Metals in Metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new type of metallic solid solution has been prepared in which <~12.5 at.% of comparatively small metal atoms (Cu) fill interstitial sites in a host metal composed of larger atoms (Y). At higher solute concentrations, both interstitial and substitutional sites are occupied. These solid solutions are metastable; they were formed by ultrarapid quenching from the liquid.

B. C. Giessen; R. Ray; S. H. Hahn

1971-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Tier 2 Vintage Rate Workshop  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 Tier 2 Rate Alternatives Tier 2 Rate Alternatives Load Growth Rate BPA commits to meet Load Following customers' load growth placed on BPA for the term of the commitment period...

425

Purification of alkali metal nitrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

Fiorucci, Louis C. (Hamden, CT); Gregory, Kevin M. (Woodridge, IL)

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

426

Metal Aminoboranes - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other...

427

Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions Metal-Ion-Mediated Reactions Print Monday, 19 December 2011 18:29 While mononuclear, polynuclear, and polymeric metal complexes are most often synthesized by the reaction of a metal precursor and a presynthesized organic ligand, it is also possible to generate the ligand in situ from an easily available organic compound. This approach allows the reactivity of the metal ion to activate a proligand, transforming it through an in situ reaction, sometimes providing coordination compounds with ligands not accessible by conventional organic synthesis. The intense interest in the reactivity of coordinated ligands is mainly due to the necessity of interpreting the mechanisms of homogeneous metal-catalyzed processes, in which a substrate is activated upon its coordination to one or more metal sites. A coordinated oxime group contains three active sites (C, N, O) for reactivity.

428

Plasma Adiabatic Lapse Rate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The plasma analog of an adiabatic lapse rate (or temperature variation with height) in atmospheric physics is obtained. A new source of plasma temperature gradient in a binary ion species mixture is found that is proportional to the concentration gradient ??? and difference in average ionization states Z2-Z1. Application to inertial-confinement-fusion implosions indicates a potentially strong effect in plastic (CH) ablators that is not modeled with mainline (single-fluid) simulations. An associated plasma thermodiffusion coefficient is derived, and charge-state diffusion in a single-species plasma is also predicted.

Peter Amendt; Claudio Bellei; Scott Wilks

2012-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

429

Theory of Hydrogen Storage in Complex Hydrides - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

53 53 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Christopher Wolverton Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Northwestern University 2220 Campus Drive, Room 2036 Evanston, IL 60208-3108 Phone: (734) 678-6319 Email: c-wolverton@northwestern.edu Vidvuds Ozolins Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles DOE Program Officer: James Davenport Program Manager Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics Office of Basic Energy Sciences Email: James.Davenport@science.doe.gov Phone: (301) 903-0035 Objectives Using first-principles methods, determine the atomic- level processes that are rate limiting in hydrogen storage

430

Upgrading platform using alkali metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

Gordon, John Howard

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

431

Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA); Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

trace metals | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

decreased in incubated Hanford sediments with the rate and extent being greater in sediment amended with organic carbon. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of bioreduced sediments...

434

Integrated decontamination process for metals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An integrated process for decontamination of metals, particularly metals that are used in the nuclear energy industry contaminated with radioactive material. The process combines the processes of electrorefining and melt refining to purify metals that can be decontaminated using either electrorefining or melt refining processes.

Snyder, Thomas S. (Oakmont, PA); Whitlow, Graham A. (Murrysville, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Metal-binding polymesr as chelating agents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract Metal chelating polymers are functional polymers that bear specified chemical groups capable of selectively binding metals. Heavy metal contamination is considered a serious problem because these metals, even at ...

Mohammadi, Zahra

2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

436

Cyclopentadienyl-containing low-valent early transition metal olefin polymerization catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst system useful to polymerize and co-polymerize polar and non-polar olefin monomers is formed by in situ reduction with a reducing agent of a catalyst precursor comprising {Cp*MRR'.sub.n }.sup.+ {A}.sup.- wherein Cp* is a cyclopentadienyl or substituted cyclopentadienyl moiety; M is an early transition metal; R is a C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl; R' are independently selected from hydride, C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl, SiR".sub.3, NR".sub.2, OR", SR", GeR".sub.3, and SnR".sub.3 containing groups (R"=C.sub.1 -C.sub.10 hydrocarbyl); n is an integer selected to balance the oxidation state of M; and A is a suitable non-coordinating anionic cocatalyst or precursor. This catalyst system may form stereoregular olefin polymers including syndiotactic polymers of styrene and methylmethacrylate and isotactic copolymers of polar and nonpolar olefin monomers such as methylmethacrylate and styrene.

Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Luo, Lubin (Baton Rouge, LA); Yoon, Sung Cheol (Evanston, IL)

2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

437

Cyclopentadienyl-Containing Low-Valent Early Transition Metal Olefin Polymerization Catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalyst system useful to polymerize and co-polymerize polar and non-polar olefin monomers is formed by in situ reduction with a reducing agent of a catalyst precursor comprising {Cp*MRR'.sub.n }.sup.+ {A}.sup.- wherein Cp* is a cyclopentadienyl or substituted cyclopentadienyl moiety; M is an early transition metal; R is a C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl; R' are independently selected from hydride, C.sub.1 -C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl, SiR".sub.3, NR".sub.2, OR", SR", GeR".sub.3, SnR".sub.3, and C.dbd.C-containing groups (R"=C.sub.1 -C.sub.10 hydrocarbyl); n is an integer selected to balance the oxidation state of M; and A is a suitable non-coordinating anionic cocatalyst or precursor. This catalyst system may form stereoregular olefin polymers including syndiotactic polymers of styrene and methylmethacrylate and isotactic copolymers of polar and nonpolar olefin monomers such as methylmethacrylate and styrene.

Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Luo, Lubin (Baton Rouge, LA); Yoon, Sung Cheol (Evanston, IL)

2004-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

438

Observation of Metal-insulator and Metal-Metal Transitions in Hydrogen Iodide under Pressure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen iodide has been studied up to pressures of 70 GPa at low temperatures in a diamondanvil cell. Electrical-conductivity and optical measurements have been used to observe pressure-induced phase transitions which are interpreted as follows: First a metal-insulator transition takes place in the molecular solid; with increased pressure a metal-metal molecular-to-atomic transition occurs. An additional transition due to intrinsic impurities has been observed. Implications for metallic hydrogen are discussed.

J. van Straaten and Isaac F. Silvera

1986-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

439

FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

Friesen, Cody

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

440

FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

Friesen, Cody

2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Numerical simulation of the Tayler instability in liquid metals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electrical current through an incompressible, viscous and resistive liquid conductor produces an azimuthal magnetic field that becomes unstable when the corresponding Hartmann number exceeds a critical value in the order of 20. This Tayler instability, which is not only discussed as a key ingredient of a non-linear stellar dynamo model (Tayler-Spruit dynamo), but also as a limiting factor for the maximum size of large liquid metal batteries, was recently observed experimentally in a column of a liquid metal (Seilmayer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 244501, 2012}. On the basis of an integro-differential equation approach, we have developed a fully three-dimensional numerical code, and have utilized it for the simulation of the Tayler instability at typical viscosities and resistivities of liquid metals. The resulting growth rates are in good agreement with the experimental data. We illustrate the capabilities of the code for the detailed simulation of liquid metal battery problems in realistic geometries.

Weber, Norbert; Stefani, Frank; Weier, Tom; Wondrak, Thomas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Apoferritin Templated Synthesis of Metal Phosphate Nanoparticle...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Apoferritin Templated Synthesis of Metal Phosphate Nanoparticle Labels for Electrochemical Immunoassay. Apoferritin Templated Synthesis of Metal Phosphate Nanoparticle Labels for...

443

THE COORDINATION CHEMISTRY OF METAL SURFACES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

result 7 ' 30 u 31 in metal carbide cluster chemistry willin metal chemistry. Oxidation of the iron carbide cluster

Muetterties, Earl L.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Stress-corrosion fatiguecrack growth in a Zr-based bulk amorphous metal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the work was to determine the rate and mechanisms of subcritical crack growth in this metallic glassStress-corrosion fatigue­crack growth in a Zr-based bulk amorphous metal V. Schroeder 1 , R. Results indicate that crack growth in aqueous solution in this alloy is driven by a stress-assisted anodic

Ritchie, Robert

445

Rate types for stream programs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We introduce RATE TYPES, a novel type system to reason about and optimize data-intensive programs. Built around stream languages, RATE TYPES performs static quantitative reasoning about stream rates -- the frequency of data items in a stream being ... Keywords: data processing rates, data throughput, performance reasoning, stream programming, type systems

Thomas W. Bartenstein, Yu David Liu

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

Wolfs, Denise Y. (Houston, TX); Clavenna, Le Roy R. (Baytown, TX); Eakman, James M. (Houston, TX); Kalina, Theodore (Morris Plains, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Coated metal fiber coalescing cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A cell is described for coalescing oil droplets dispersed in a water emulsion including an elongated perforated tube core into which the emulsion is injected, layers of oleophilic plastic covered metal mat wound about the core through which the emulsion is forced to pass, the fibers of the metal mat being covered by oleophilic plastic such as vinyl, acrylic, polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, the metal being in the form of layers of expanded metal or metal fibers, either aluminum or stainless steel. In manufacturing the cell a helix wound wire is formed around the cylindrical plastic coated metal to retain it in place and resist pressure drop of fluid flowing through the metal fibers. In addition, the preferred arrangement includes the use of an outer sleeve formed of a mat of fibrous material such as polyester fibers, acrylic fibers, modacrylic fibers and mixtures thereof.

Rutz, W.D.; Swain, R.J.

1980-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

448

Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds.

Buchheit, Rudolph G. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides is disclosed. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds. 1 fig.

Buchheit, R.G.; Martinez, M.A.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

450

Prediction of PWSCC in nickel base alloys using crack growth rate models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Ford/Andresen slip-dissolution SCC model, originally developed for stainless steel components in BWR environments, has been applied to Alloy 600 and Alloy X-750 tested in deaerated pure water chemistry. A method is described whereby the crack growth rates measured in compact tension specimens can be used to estimate crack growth in a component. Good agreement was found between model prediction and measured SCC in X-750 threaded fasteners over a wide range of temperatures, stresses, and material conditions. Most data support the basic assumption of this model that cracks initiate early in life. The evidence supporting a particular SCC mechanism is mixed. Electrochemical repassivation data and estimates of oxide fracture strain indicate that the slip-dissolution model can account for the observed crack growth rates, provided primary rather than secondary creep rates are used. However, approximately 100 cross-sectional TEM foils of SCC cracks including crack tips reveal no evidence of enhanced plasticity or unique dislocation patterns at the crack tip or along the crack to support a classic slip-dissolution mechanism. No voids, hydrides, or microcracks are found in the vicinity of the crack tips creating doubt about classic hydrogen related mechanisms. The bulk oxide films exhibit a surface oxide which is often different than the oxides found within a crack. Although bulk chromium concentration affects the rate of SCC, analytical data indicates the mechanism does not result from chromium depletion at the grain boundaries. The overall findings support a corrosion/dissolution mechanism but not one necessarily related to slip at the crack tip.

Thompson, C.D.; Krasodomski, H.T.; Lewis, N.; Makar, G.L. [Knolls Atomic Power Lab., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

451

On Star Formation Rates in Dwarf Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present evolutionary synthesis models of starbursts on top of old stellar populations to investigate in detailed time evolution the relation between Ha luminosity and star formation rate (SFR). The models show that several effects have an impact on the ratio between L(Ha) and SFR. Metallicity different from solar abundance, a time delay between star formation and maximum Ha-luminosity, and a varying stellar initial mass function give rise to strong variations in the ratio of Ha luminosity to SFR and can cause large errors in the determination of the SFR when employing well-known calibrations. When studying star-bursting dwarf galaxies, and sub-galactic fragments at high redshift, which show SFR fluctuating on short timescales, these effects can add up to errors of two orders of magnitude compared with the calibrations. To accurately determine the true current SFR additional data in combination with models for the spectral energy distribution are needed.

Peter M. Weilbacher; Uta Fritze-v. Alvensleben

2001-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

452

electric rates | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

electric rates electric rates Dataset Summary Description This dataset, compiled by NREL and Ventyx, provides average residential, commercial and industrial electricity rates by zip code for both investor owned utilities (IOU) and non-investor owned utilities. Note: the file includes average rates for each utility, but not the detailed rate structure data found in the database available via the zip-code look-up feature on the OpenEI Utilities page (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway:Utilities). The data was released by NREL/Ventyx in February 2011. Source NREL and Ventyx Date Released February 24th, 2012 (2 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords electric rates rates US utilities Data text/csv icon IOU rates by zipcode (csv, 1.7 MiB) text/csv icon Non-IOU rates by zipcode (csv, 2.1 MiB)

453

Rate Schedules | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Rate Schedules Rate Schedules Rate Schedules One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate levels and these studies for each of Southeastern's four power marketing systems are updated annually. They demonstrate the adequacy of the rates for each system. Rates are considered to be adequate when revenues are sufficient to repay all costs associated with power production and transmission costs, which include the amortization of the Federal investment allocated to power. Latest Rate Schedules October 1, 2012 ALA-1-N Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: PowerSouth Energy Cooperative System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina October 1, 2012

454

2007-2009 Power Rates Quarterly Updates (pbl/rates)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(PFR) Firstgov FY 2007 2009 Power Rates Quarterly Updates In BPAs 2007-2009 Wholesale Power Rate Case (WP-07), BPA agreed that it would post reports about BPAs power...

455

WP-07 Power Rate Case (rates/ratecases)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rate Cases Financial Choices (2003-06) Power Function Review (PFR) Firstgov 2007 Wholesale Power (WP-07) Rate Case Related Links: Power Function Review (PFR) On July 17, 2006,...

456

Hydrogen Storage - Current Technology | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Current on-board hydrogen storage approaches involve compressed hydrogen gas tanks, liquid hydrogen tanks, cryogenic compressed hydrogen, metal hydrides,...

457

Study of the Secondary Benefits of the ZEV Mandate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

metal hydride and lithium batteries -- Electrochemical capacitors (ultracapacitors) -- Pulse power batteries -- Improved lead-acid batteries -- Zinc-air batteries --

Burke, Andrew; Kurani, Ken; Kenney, E.J.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Thermodynamically Tuned Nanophase Materials for Reversible Hydrogen Storage: Structure and Kinetics of Nanoparticle and Model System Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report of our program on hydrogen storage in thin film and nanoparticle metal hydrides.

Bruce M. Clemens

2010-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

459

National Utility Rate Database: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Rating the NRF's rating system Michael I. Cherry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the NRF's raison d'être--thetrainingofhigh-qualityresearch manpower. The progress of the rating systemRating the NRF's rating system Michael I. Cherry a* and Mark J. Gibbons b T HE LATEST REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL Research Foundation (NRF), chaired by Wieland Gevers, and released surreptitiously

Wagner, Stephan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride rated" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

ITP Metal Casting: Implementation of Metal Casting Best Practices  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The project examined cases where metal casters had implemented ITP research results and detailed the benefits they received due to that implementation.

462

Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500{degree}C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li-Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

Gay, E.C.

1993-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

463

Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500.degree. C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

Gay, Eddie C. (Park Forest, IL)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

International Recycling of LLW Metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Melting of radioactive scrap metal has been successfully practiced for more than 15 years, with approximately 60,000 tons of steel being processed into beneficial reuse applications. This process has converted radioactive scrap metal at a licensed facility into useful products such as shield blocks, security barriers and shield containers. These products are used within the nuclear industry, such as nuclear power plants, waste disposal facilities and high-energy physics research facilities. Recycling provides the following benefits by comparison with direct disposal: - Preserving metal resources. - Conserving valuable Low Level Waste (LLW) disposal site resources, thereby extending disposal site life. - Reducing the cost of metal products to end users by using materials less expensive than virgin metals. This paper outlines international metal recycling practices implemented at EnergySolutions' Bear Creek Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. (authors)

Eshleman, T.; Jansen, J. [EnergySolutions (United States); Shinya, Sawada [KEK - High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (Japan)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Metal to ceramic sealed joint  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system.

Lasecki, John V. (Livonia, MI); Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); McBride, James R. (Ypsilanti, MI)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Metal to ceramic sealed joint  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system. 11 figures.

Lasecki, J.V.; Novak, R.F.; McBride, J.R.

1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

467

Reactions of plutonium and uranium with water: Kinetics and potential hazards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The chemistry and kinetics of reactions between water and the metals and hydrides of plutonium and uranium are described in an effort to consolidate information for assessing potential hazards associated with handling and storage. New experimental results and data from literature sources are presented. Kinetic dependencies on pH, salt concentration, temperature and other parameters are reviewed. Corrosion reactions of the metals in near-neutral solutions produce a fine hydridic powder plus hydrogen. The corrosion rate for plutonium in sea water is a thousand-fold faster than for the metal in distilled water and more than a thousand-fold faster than for uranium in sea water. Reaction rates for immersed hydrides of plutonium and uranium are comparable and slower than the corrosion rates for the respective metals. However, uranium trihydride is reported to react violently if a quantity greater than twenty-five grams is rapidly immersed in water. The possibility of a similar autothermic reaction for large quantities of plutonium hydride cannot be excluded. In addition to producing hydrogen, corrosion reactions convert the massive metals into material forms that are readily suspended in water and that are aerosolizable and potentially pyrophoric when dry. Potential hazards associated with criticality, environmental dispersal, spontaneous ignition and explosive gas mixtures are outlined.

Haschke, J.M.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Trace and ultratrace metals in bottled waters: Survey of sources worldwide and comparison with refillable metal bottles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bottled waters from diverse natural and industrial sources are becoming increasingly popular worldwide. Several potentially harmful trace metals (Ag, Be, Li, Ge, Sb, Sc, Te, Th, U) are not monitored regularly in such waters. As a consequence, there is extremely limited data on the abundance and potential health impacts of many potentially toxic trace elements. Containers used for the storage of bottled waters might also increase trace metal levels above threshold limits established for human consumption by the EPA or WHO. Applying strict clean room techniques and sector field ICP–MS, 23 elements were determined in 132 brands of bottled water from 28 countries. In addition, leaching experiments with high purity water and various popular metal bottles investigated the release of trace metals from these containers. The threshold limits for elements such as Al, Be, Mn and U in drinking water were clearly exceeded in some waters. Several bottled waters had Li concentrations in the low mg/L range, a level which is comparable to blood plasma levels of patients treated against manic depression with Li-containing drugs. The rate of release of trace metals from metal bottles assessed after 13 days was generally low, with one exception: Substantial amounts of both Sb and Tl were released from a commercially available pewter pocket flask, exceeding international guidelines 5- and 11-fold, respectively. Trace metal levels of most bottled waters are below guideline levels currently considered harmful for human health. The few exceptions that exist, however, clearly reveal that health concerns are likely to manifest through prolonged use of such waters. The investigated coated aluminium and stainless steel bottles are harmless with respect to leaching of trace metals into drinking water. Pocket flasks, in turn, should be selected with great care to avoid contamination of beverages with harmful amounts of potentially toxic trace metals such as Sb and Tl.

Michael Krachler; William Shotyk

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

SCHOOL OF MEDICINE TELECOMMUNICATIONS RATE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SCHOOL OF MEDICINE TELECOMMUNICATIONS RATE BACKGROUND The University recently the desktop phone service costs back to individual units/departments by creating a telecommunications rate in the Other Expenses category of the budget as a "Telecommunications Charge". NOTE- direct charging

Straight, Aaron

470

ITP Metal Casting: A Vision for the U.S. Metal Casting Industry...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

mcvision.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Metal Casting: Metalcasting Industry Technology Roadmap ITP Metal Casting: Implementation of Metal Casting Best Practices ITP...

471

2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Fixation and partitioning of heavy metals in slag after incineration of sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The contents and partitioning of HMs in slag of sludge incineration were examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fixation rate decreases with residential time and finally keeps a constant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water mass fraction of 55% is optimal for the sediment for Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu and Cr. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Water mass fraction of 75% is optimal for the sediment for Pb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found higher temperature versus lower non-residual fraction except that of Pb. - Abstract: Fixation of heavy metals in the slag produced during incineration of sewage sludge will reduce emission of the metals to the atmosphere and make the incineration process more environmentally friendly. The effects of incineration conditions (incineration temperature 500-1100 Degree-Sign C, furnace residence time 0-60 min, mass fraction of water in the sludge 0-75%) on the fixation rates and species partitioning of Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Mn and Ni in slag were investigated. When the incineration temperature was increased from 500 to 1100 Degree-Sign C, the fixation rate of Cd decreased from 87% to 49%, while the fixation rates of Cu and Mn were stable. The maximum fixation rates for Pb and Zn and for Ni and Cr were reached at 900 and 1100 Degree-Sign C, respectively. The fixation rates of Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr and Zn decreased as the residence time increased. With a 20 min residence time, the fixation rates of Pb and Mn were low. The maximum fixation rates of Ni, Mn, Zn, Cu and Cr were achieved when the mass fraction of water in the sludge was 55%. The fixation rate of Cd decreased as the water mass fraction increased, while the fixation rate of Pb increased. Partitioning analysis of the metals contained in the slag showed that increasing the incineration temperature and residence time promoted complete oxidation of the metals. This reduced the non-residual fractions of the metals, which would lower the bioavailability of the metals. The mass fraction of water in the sludge had little effect on the partitioning of the metals. Correlation analysis indicated that the fixation rates of heavy metals in the sludge and the forms of heavy metals in the incinerator slag could be controlled by optimization of the incineration conditions. These results show how the bioavailability of the metals can be reduced for environmentally friendly disposal of the incinerator slag.

Chen Tao [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100082 (China); Yan Bo, E-mail: yanbo2007@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

473

Metal-ceramic joint assembly  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A metal-ceramic joint assembly in which a brazing alloy is situated between metallic and ceramic members. The metallic member is either an aluminum-containing stainless steel, a high chromium-content ferritic stainless steel or an iron nickel alloy with a corrosion protection coating. The brazing alloy, in turn, is either an Au-based or Ni-based alloy with a brazing temperature in the range of 9500 to 1200.degree. C.

Li, Jian (New Milford, CT)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Commercial Building Asset Rating Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Slides from a Commercial Building Initiative webinar outlining the Commercial Building Asset Rating Program on August 23, 2011.

475

Validation of corrosion rates measured by the Tafel extrapolation method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper discusses the validity and limitations of the Tafel extrapolation method for the determination of corrosion rates for activation-controlled corrosion processes. Experimental corrosion rates determined by the Tafel method are compared with corrosion rates obtained by an independent chemical (i.e., non-electrochemical) method for iron in hydrochloric acid, iron in 3.5% NaCl, and for titanium in boiling 1 M sulfuric acid. The methods of confirmation of the corrosion rates involved colorimetric analysis of the dissolved cation or the use of an ion-implanted inert Xe marker. Additional examples taken from the literature involving other metals and other methods of validation are also discussed.

E. McCafferty

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Clean Metal Casting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

2002-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

477

``Towards Strange Metallic Holography'  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We initiate a holographic model building approach to 'strange metallic' phenomenology. Our model couples a neutral Lifshitz-invariant quantum critical theory, dual to a bulk gravitational background, to a finite density of gapped probe charge carriers, dually described by D-branes. In the physical regime of temperature much lower than the charge density and gap, we exhibit anomalous scalings of the temperature and frequency dependent conductivity. Choosing the dynamical critical exponent z appropriately we can match the non-Fermi liquid scalings, such as linear resistivity, observed in strange metal regimes. As part of our investigation we outline three distinct string theory realizations of Lifshitz geometries: from F theory, from polarized branes, and from a gravitating charged Fermi gas. We also identify general features of renormalization group flow in Lifshitz theories, such as the appearance of relevant charge-charge interactions when z {ge} 2. We outline a program to extend this model building approach to other anomalous observables of interest such as the Hall conductivity.

Hartnoll, Sean A.; /Harvard U., Phys. Dept. /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara; Polchinski, Joseph; Silverstein, Eva; /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara; Tong, David; /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara

2010-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

478

Metal deposition using seed layers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

479

Metal-Insulator Transition in Metal—Rare-Gas Alloys  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present the results of electrical resistivity and optical absorption measurements for compositions spanning the metal-insulator transition in RbKr and CsXe alloys. The two transitions are similar and exhibit an apparently percolative character. No marked emergence of excitons accompanies the disappearance of conductivity. Spectral features associated with metallic conduction also persist through the transitions.

D. J. Phelps; R. Avci; C. P. Flynn

1975-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

480

Nonequilibrium electron tunneling in metal-insulator-metal junctions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The small structure in the conductance curve near zero bias of metal-insulator-metal tunnel junctions has been studied extensively. These experiments are analyzed in detail in a nonequilibrium model. It is shown that this type of zero-bias anomaly can be accounted for entirely by an electron bottleneck arising from the blocking of tunneling states due to nonzero electron relaxation times.

J. G. Adler; H. J. Kreuzer; J. Straus

1975-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Theory of bonding of transition metals to nontransition metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a theory of the chemical bond in compounds consisting of both transition metals and nontransition metals. Chemical trends in the bonding properties are established by directly comparing the total energies of a large number of such compounds with the total energies of their constituents. These chemical trends are analyzed in terms of the s-, p-, and d-like state densities of the compounds and the constituents. Rather different types of bonding are shown to result when the atomic s and p levels of the nontransition metal lie above, below, and near the energy of the transition-metal d level. The heat of compound formation is shown to result from a competition between two simple physical effects: (1) the weakening of the transition-metal bonds by the lattice dilatation required for the accommodation of the nontransition metal, and (2) the increased bonding which results from the occupation of the bonding members of the hybrid states formed from the interaction between the transition-metal d states and the s-p states on the nontransition metal. Our theoretical values for the heats of formation of these compounds are generally similar to those given by Miedema's empirical formula. Distinctive aspects of the variation of the heat of formation with the number of valence electrons reveal, however, that the microscopic picture on which the empirical formula is based is quite different from that given by our self-consistent energy-band theory.

C. D. Gelatt; Jr.; A. R. Williams; V. L. Moruzzi

1983-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

482

Catalytic production of metal carbonyls from metal oxides  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to the formation of metal carbonyls from metal oxides and specially the formation of molybdenum carbonyl and iron carbonyl from their respective oxides. Copper is used here in admixed form or used in chemically combined form as copper molybdate. The copper/metal oxide combination or combined copper is utilized with a solvent, such as toluene and subjected to carbon monoxide pressure of 25 atmospheres or greater at about 150 to 260/sup 0/C. The reducing metal copper is employed in catalytic concentrations or combined concentrations as CuMoO/sub 4/ and both hydrogen and water present serve as promoters. It has been found that the yields by this process have been salutary and that additionally the catalytic metal may be reused in the process to good effect. 3 tables.

Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; Foran, M.T.

1984-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

483

Asymptotic Cellular Growth Rate as the Effective Information Utilization Rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the average asymptotic growth rate of cells in randomly fluctuating environments. Using a game-theoretic perspective, we show that any response strategy has an asymptotic growth rate, which is the sum of: (i) the maximal growth rate at the worst possible distribution of environments, (ii) relative information between the actual distribution of environments to the worst one, and (iii) information utilization rate which is the information rate of the sensory devices minus the "information dissipation rate", the amount of information not utilized by the cell for growth. In non-stationary environments, the optimal strategy is the time average of the instantaneous optimal strategy and the optimal switching times are evenly spaced in the statistical (Fisher) metric.

Pugatch, Rami; Tlusty, Tsvi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

IS THE METALLICITY OF THE PROGENITOR OF LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS REALLY LOW?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Observations of long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) offer a unique opportunity to probe the history of cosmic star formation, although whether LGRBs are biased tracers remains highly debated. Based on an extensive sample of LGRBs compiled by Robertson and Ellis, we analyze various models of star formation rate, combining the possible effect of the cosmic metallicity evolution under the assumption that LGRBs preferentially occur in low-metallicity galaxies. The models of star formation rate tested in this work include empirical fits from observational data as well as a self-consistent model calculated from the hierarchical structure formation scenario. Comparing with the observational data, we find a relatively higher metallicity cut of Z {approx}> 0.6 Z{sub Sun} for the empirical fits and no metallicity cut for the self-consistent model. These results imply that there is no strong bias toward low metallicity in LGRB host galaxies, in contrast to previous studies suggesting a cut of Z {approx} 0.1-0.3 Z{sub Sun }, and that the inferred low-metallicity dependencies of LGRBs are strongly related to the specific models of star formation rate. Furthermore, a significant fraction of LGRBs that occur in small halos down to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} can provide an alternative explanation for the difference between the star formation rate and the LGRB rate.

Hao Jingmeng; Yuan Yefei, E-mail: yfyuan@ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology CAS, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

485

Argonne CNM Highlight: Coupling of Single Quantum Dots to Smooth Metal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coupling of Single Quantum Dots to Smooth Metal Films Single Quantum Dots Coupledl to Smooth Metal Films Artist¹s rendition of semiconductor nanocrystals near a gold film. The metal increases nanocrystal emission rates depending on their orientation. [selected as cover image for Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 11, 5853 (2009)] Staff in the CNM Nanophotonics Group have measured how light emission from individual colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots, is modified when in proximity to smooth metal films. Metal nanostructures can strongly modify how quantum dots emit light because of their coupling to electron oscillations in the metal, known as surface plasmons. Emission modification is important for the improvement of light-emitting devices,

486

The Inverted Block Rate:The Inverted Block Rate: An Alternative to Flat Rate BillingAn Alternative to Flat Rate Billing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Inverted Block Rate:The Inverted Block Rate: An Alternative to Flat Rate BillingAn Alternative;Inverted Block RateInverted Block Rate 22 IntroductionIntroduction ·· Modern societies rely on electrical collectionMetering and Rate Models facilitate collection #12;Inverted Block RateInverted Block Rate 33 Rate

Hughes, Larry

487

Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

488