Sample records for metal hydride number

  1. Metal Hydrides - Science Needs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with traditions in metal hydride research Metal and Ceramic Sciences Condensed Matter Physics Materials Chemistry Chemical and Biological Sciences Located on campus of Tier...

  2. Metal Hydrides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMay 18-19,DepartmentEnergyMetalMetal

  3. Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ron, M.; Gruen, D.M.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Sheft, I.

    1980-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

  4. Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ron, Moshe (Haifa, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Sheft, Irving (Oak Park, IL)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

  5. Metastable Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Graetz, Jason

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of using hydrogen as a reliable energy carrier for both stationary and mobile applications has gained renewed interest in recent years due to improvements in high temperature fuel cells and a reduction in hydrogen production costs. However, a number of challenges remain and new media are needed that are capable of safely storing hydrogen with high gravimetric and volumetric densities. Metal hydrides and complex metal hydrides offer some hope of overcoming these challenges; however, many of the high capacity “reversible” hydrides exhibit a large endothermic decomposition enthalpy making it difficult to release the hydrogen at low temperatures. Onmore »the other hand, the metastable hydrides are characterized by a low reaction enthalpy and a decomposition reaction that is thermodynamically favorable under ambient conditions. The rapid, low temperature hydrogen evolution rates that can be achieved with these materials offer much promise for mobile PEM fuel cell applications. However, a critical challenge exists to develop new methods to regenerate these hydrides directly from the reactants and hydrogen gas. This spotlight paper presents an overview of some of the metastable metal hydrides for hydrogen storage and a few new approaches being investigated to address the key challenges associated with these materials.« less

  6. Proposed Virtual Center for Excellence for Metal Hydride Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    & Engineering Sciences Center Atoms to Continuum Proposed Virtual Center of Excellence Proposed Virtual Center of Excellence for Metal Hydride Development for Metal Hydride...

  7. Liquid suspensions of reversible metal hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Winsche, W.E.

    1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The reversibility of the process M + x/2 H/sub 2/ ..-->.. MH/sub x/, where M is a metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under a liquid, thereby to reduce contamination, provide better temperature control and provide in situ mobility of the reactants. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen (at high pressures) and to release (at low pressures) previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the former is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

  8. Low density metal hydride foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maienschein, Jon L. (Oakland, CA); Barry, Patrick E. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a low density foam having a porosity of from 0 to 98% and a density less than about 0.67 gm/cc, prepared by heating a mixture of powered lithium hydride and beryllium hydride in an inert atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 455 to about 490 K for a period of time sufficient to cause foaming of said mixture, and cooling the foam thus produced. Also disclosed is the process of making the foam.

  9. Encapsulated Metal Hydride for Hydrogen Separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    concentration feed stock, not for low concentration ­ Hydrogen economy will need hydrogen recovery from lowEncapsulated Metal Hydride for Hydrogen Separation (Formerly Separation Membrane Development) DOE Hydrogen Program 2003 Merit Review and Peer Evaluation L. Kit Heung, Jim Congdon Savannah River Technology

  10. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Yu, Conrad (Antioch, CA)

    2006-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a metal hydride fuel storage cartridge having integrated resistive heaters that can be used in conjunction with fuel cells such as MEMS-based fuel cells. The cartridge is fabricated using micromachining methods and thin/thick film materials synthesis techniques.

  11. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D [Martinez, CA; Jankowski, Alan F [Livermore, CA; Yu, Conrad [Antioch, CA

    2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a metal hydride fuel storage cartridge having integrated resistive heaters that can be used in conjunction with fuel cells such as MEMS-based fuel cells. The cartridge is fabricated using micromachining methods and thin/thick film materials synthesis techniques.

  12. METAL HYDRIDE HYDROGEN COMPRESSORS: A REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman Jr, Robert C [ORNL] [ORNL; Yartys, Dr. Volodymyr A. [Institute for Energy Technology (IFE)] [Institute for Energy Technology (IFE); Lototskyy, Dr. Michael V [University of the Western Cape, South Africa] [University of the Western Cape, South Africa; Pollet, Dr. B.G. [University of the Western Cape, South Africa

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal hydride (MH) thermal sorption compression is an efficient and reliable method allowing a conversion of energy from heat into a compressed hydrogen gas. The most important component of such a thermal engine the metal hydride material itself should possess several material features in order to achieve an efficient performance in the hydrogen compression. Apart from the hydrogen storage characteristics important for every solid H storage material (e.g. gravimetric and volumetric efficiency of H storage, hydrogen sorption kinetics and effective thermal conductivity), the thermodynamics of the metal-hydrogen systems is of primary importance resulting in a temperature dependence of the absorption/desorption pressures). Several specific features should be optimized to govern the performance of the MH-compressors including synchronisation of the pressure plateaus for multi-stage compressors, reduction of slope of the isotherms and hysteresis, increase of cycling stability and life time, together with challenges in system design associated with volume expansion of the metal matrix during the hydrogenation. The present review summarises numerous papers and patent literature dealing with MH hydrogen compression technology. The review considers (a) fundamental aspects of materials development with a focus on structure and phase equilibria in the metal-hydrogen systems suitable for the hydrogen compression; and (b) applied aspects, including their consideration from the applied thermodynamic viewpoint, system design features and performances of the metal hydride compressors and major applications.

  13. Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ELEMENTS) funding program, is developing a concept for high energy density thermochemical energy storage for concentrating solar power (CSP) using metal hydrides. These materials...

  14. Proposed Virtual Center for Excellence for Metal Hydride Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Center for Excellence for Metal Hydride Development Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC....

  15. A novel plating process for microencapsulating metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, H.H.; Vyas, B.; Zahurak, S.M.; Kammlott, G.W. [AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One approach to increasing the lifetime of the metal hydride electrode has been the use of conventional electroless plating to produce a coating of copper or nickel on the surface of the metal hydride powders. In this paper, a novel method for microencapsulating the active electrode powders is presented. This new plating technique takes advantage of the reducing power of hydrogen already stored inside the metal hydride to plate a variety of metals onto metal hydride materials. This method greatly simplifies electroless plating for these powders, eliminating the need for stabilizers and additives typically required for conventional electroless plating solutions. Metals that can be electrolessly plated with stored hydrogen have been identified based on thermodynamic considerations. Experimentally, micrometers thick coatings of copper, silver, and nickel have been plated on several metal hydrides.

  16. Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNL’s metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800°C). A high-temperature tank in PNNL’s storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNL’s thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

  17. METALLIC HYDRIDES. Magnetic properties of laves-phase rare earth hydrides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    METALLIC HYDRIDES. Magnetic properties of laves-phase rare earth hydrides J. J. Rhyne and G. E on the rare earth site. The rare earth spins disorder at a temperature lower than the bulk Tc in ErFe2 H3 5 per formula unit assuming complete occupation of 3 tetrahedral sites. The heavy rare earth (RFe2

  18. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Yu, Conrad (Antioch, CA)

    2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus having a first substrate having (1) a cavity, (2) one or more resistive heaters, and (3) one or more coatings forming a diffusion barrier to hydrogen; a second substrate having (1) an outlet valve comprising a pressure relief structure and (2) one or more coatings forming a diffusion barrier to hydrogen, wherein said second substrate is coupled to said first substrate forming a sealed volume in said cavity; a metal hydride material contained within said cavity; and a gas distribution system formed by coupling a microfluidic interconnect to said pressure relief structure. Additional apparatuses and methods are also disclosed.

  19. Separation Membrane Development (Separation Using Encapsulated Metal Hydride)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Separation Membrane Development (Separation Using Encapsulated Metal Hydride) L. Kit Heung Savannah: The first is to produce a sol-gel encapsulated metal hydride packing material that will a) absorbs hydrogen may be that hydrogen must come from multiple sources. These sources will include renewable (solar

  20. Process for production of a metal hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for production of a metal hydride compound MH.sub.x, wherein x is one or two and M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg. The process comprises combining a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.xM with aluminum, hydrogen and at least one metal selected from among titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula MH.sub.x. R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group. A mole ratio of aluminum to (R.sup.1O).sub.xM is from 0.1:1 to 1:1. The catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum.

  1. Characterization and High Throughput Analysis of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barcelo, Steven James

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrides for Energy Storage. A.F. Andresen and A.J. Maeland,Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage by Steven James BarceloMetal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage by Steven James Barcelo

  2. Ni/metal hydride secondary element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauerlein, Peter

    2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A Ni/metal hydride secondary element having a positive nickel hydroxide electrode, a negative electrode having a hydrogen storage alloy, and an alkaline electrolyte, the positive electrode, provided with a three-dimensional metallic conductive structure, also contains an aluminum compound which is soluble in the electrolyte, in addition to nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxide. The aluminum compound is aluminum hydroxide and/or aluminum oxide, and the mass of the aluminum compound which is present in the positive bulk material mixture is 0.1 to 2% by weight relative to the mass of the nickel hydroxide which is present. In combination with aluminum hydroxide or aluminum oxide, the positive electrode further contains lanthanoid oxidic compounds Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, La.sub.2 O.sub.3 and Ca(OH).sub.2, as well as mixtures of these compounds.

  3. Porous metal hydride composite and preparation and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, W.A.; Olsen, C.E.

    1980-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite formed from large pieces of aggregate formed from (1) metal hydride (or hydride-former) powder and (2) either metal powder or plastic powder or both is prepared. The composite has large macroscopic interconnected pores (much larger than the sizes of the powders which are used) and will have a very fast heat transfer rate and low windage loss. It will be useful, for example, in heat engines, hydrogen storage devices, and refrigerator components which depend for their utility upon both a fast rate of hydriding and dehydriding. Additionally, a method of preparing the composite and a method of increasing the rates of hydriding and dehydriding of metal hydrides are also given.

  4. Porous metal hydride composite and preparation and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, William A. (Los Alamos, NM); Olsen, Clayton E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite formed from large pieces of aggregate formed from (1) metal hydride (or hydride-former) powder and (2) either metal powder or plastic powder or both is prepared. The composite has large macroscopic interconnected pores (much larger than the sizes of the powders which are used) and will have a very fast heat transfer rate and low windage loss. It will be useful, for example, in heat engines, hydrogen storage devices, and refrigerator components which depend for their utility upon both a fast rate of hydriding and dehydriding. Additionally, a method of preparing the composite and a method of increasing the rates of hydriding and dehydriding of metal hydrides are also given.

  5. Hydridable material for the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride storage battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knosp, Bernard (Neuilly-sur-Seine, FR); Bouet, Jacques (Paris, FR); Jordy, Christian (Dourdan, FR); Mimoun, Michel (Neuilly-sur-Marne, FR); Gicquel, Daniel (Lanorville, FR)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monophase hydridable material for the negative electrode of a nickel-metal hydride storage battery with a "Lave's phase" structure of hexagonal C14 type (MgZn.sub.2) has the general formula: Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x Ni.sub.a Mn.sub.b Al.sub.c Co.sub.d V.sub.e where ##EQU1##

  6. Ionic hydrogenations of hindered olefins at low temperature. Hydride transfer reactions of transition metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, R.M.; Song, J.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1994-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Sterically hindered olefins can be hydrogenated at -50[degree]C in dichloromethane using triflic acid (CF[sub 3]SO[sub 3]H) and a hydride donor. Mechanistic studies indicate that these reactions proceed by hydride transfer to the carbenium ion that is formed by protonation of the olefin. Olefins that form tertiary carbenium ions upon protonation are hydrogenated in high yields (90-100%). Styrenes generally produce lower yields of hydrogenated products (50-60%). Suitable hydride donors include HSiE[sub 3] and several transition metal carbonyl hydrides HW(CO)[sub 3]Cp, HW(CO)[sub 3]Cp[sup +], HMo-(CO)[sub 3]Cp, HMn(CO)[sub 5], HRe(CO)[sub 3], and HO[sub 3](CO)[sub 1]Cp*; Cp = [eta][sup 5]-C[sub 3]H[sub 5+], Cp* = [eta][sup 5]-C[sub 5]Me[sub 5]. A characteristic that is required for transition metal hydrides to be effective is that the cationic dihydrides (or dihydrogen complexes) that result from their protonation must have sufficient acidity to transfer a proton to the olefin, as well as sufficient thermal stability to avoid significant decomposition on the time scale of the hydrogenation reaction. Metal hydrides that fall due to insufficient stability of their protonated forms include HMo(CO)[sub 2](PPH[sub 3])Cp, HMo(CO)[sub 3]Cp*, and HFe(CO)[sub 2]Cp*. 62 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Metal Hydride Chemical Heat Pumps for Industrial Use 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ally, M. R.; Rebello, W. J.; Rosso, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydriding alloys are intermetallic absorbent compounds which have the remarkable quality of absorbing very large quantities of hydrogen gas per unit volume of metallic powder. The absorption and desorption of hydrogen are exothermic and endothermic...

  8. Metal Hydride Chemical Heat Pumps for Industrial Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ally, M. R.; Rebello, W. J.; Rosso, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydriding alloys are intermetallic absorbent compounds which have the remarkable quality of absorbing very large quantities of hydrogen gas per unit volume of metallic powder. The absorption and desorption of hydrogen are exothermic and endothermic...

  9. Influence of uranium hydride oxidation on uranium metal behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, N.; Hambley, D. [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom); Clarke, S.A. [Sellafield Ltd (United Kingdom); Simpson, K.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work addresses concerns that the rapid, exothermic oxidation of active uranium hydride in air could stimulate an exothermic reaction (burning) involving any adjacent uranium metal, so as to increase the potential hazard arising from a hydride reaction. The effect of the thermal reaction of active uranium hydride, especially in contact with uranium metal, does not increase in proportion with hydride mass, particularly when considering large quantities of hydride. Whether uranium metal continues to burn in the long term is a function of the uranium metal and its surroundings. The source of the initial heat input to the uranium, if sufficient to cause ignition, is not important. Sustained burning of uranium requires the rate of heat generation to be sufficient to offset the total rate of heat loss so as to maintain an elevated temperature. For dense uranium, this is very difficult to achieve in naturally occurring circumstances. Areas of the uranium surface can lose heat but not generate heat. Heat can be lost by conduction, through contact with other materials, and by convection and radiation, e.g. from areas where the uranium surface is covered with a layer of oxidised material, such as burned-out hydride or from fuel cladding. These rates of heat loss are highly significant in relation to the rate of heat generation by sustained oxidation of uranium in air. Finite volume modelling has been used to examine the behaviour of a magnesium-clad uranium metal fuel element within a bottle surrounded by other un-bottled fuel elements. In the event that the bottle is breached, suddenly, in air, it can be concluded that the bulk uranium metal oxidation reaction will not reach a self-sustaining level and the mass of uranium oxidised will likely to be small in relation to mass of uranium hydride oxidised. (authors)

  10. Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin composite material indicating that the polymer is physically intact upon cycling. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride in the form of a composite material reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. This

  11. Models for Metal Hydride Particle Shape, Packing, and Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyle C. Smith; Timothy S. Fisher

    2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiphysics modeling approach for heat conduction in metal hydride powders is presented, including particle shape distribution, size distribution, granular packing structure, and effective thermal conductivity. A statistical geometric model is presented that replicates features of particle size and shape distributions observed experimentally that result from cyclic hydride decreptitation. The quasi-static dense packing of a sample set of these particles is simulated via energy-based structural optimization methods. These particles jam (i.e., solidify) at a density (solid volume fraction) of 0.665+/-0.015 - higher than prior experimental estimates. Effective thermal conductivity of the jammed system is simulated and found to follow the behavior predicted by granular effective medium theory. Finally, a theory is presented that links the properties of bi-porous cohesive powders to the present systems based on recent experimental observations of jammed packings of fine powder. This theory produces quantitative experimental agreement with metal hydride powders of various compositions.

  12. Process of forming a sol-gel/metal hydride composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Congdon, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An external gelation process is described which produces granules of metal hydride particles contained within a sol-gel matrix. The resulting granules are dimensionally stable and are useful for applications such as hydrogen separation and hydrogen purification. An additional coating technique for strengthening the granules is also provided.

  13. air metal hydride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air metal hydride First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Carbon-Fluorine Bond Cleavage by...

  14. Thermomechanics of hydrogen storage in metallic hydrides: modeling and analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomas Roubicek; Giuseppe Tomassetti

    2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermodynamically consistent mathematical model for hydrogen adsorption in metal hydrides is proposed. Beside hydrogen diffusion, the model accounts for phase transformation accompanied by hysteresis, swelling, temperature and heat transfer, strain, and stress. We prove existence of solutions of the ensuing system of partial differential equations by a carefully-designed, semi-implicit approximation scheme. A generalization for a drift-diffusion of multi-component ionized "gas" is outlined, too.

  15. Metal Hydrides - Science Needs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMay 18-19,DepartmentEnergyMetalMetalMetal

  16. Diffusional exchange of isotopes in a metal hydride sphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfer, Wilhelm G.; Hamilton, John C.; James, Scott Carlton

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the Spherical Particle Exchange Model (SPEM), which simulates exchange of one hydrogen isotope by another hydrogen isotope in a spherical metal hydride particle. This is one of the fundamental physical processes during isotope exchange in a bed of spherical metal particles and is thus one of the key components in any comprehensive physics-based model of exchange. There are two important physical processes in the model. One is the entropy of mixing between the two isotopes; the entropy of mixing is increased by having both isotopes randomly placed at interstitial sites on the lattice and thus impedes the exchange process. The other physical process is the elastic interaction between isotope atoms on the lattice. The elastic interaction is the cause for {beta}-phase formation and is independent of the isotope species. In this report the coupled diffusion equations for two isotopes in the {beta}-phase hydride are solved. A key concept is that the diffusion of one isotope depends not only on its concentration gradient, but also on the concentration gradient of the other isotope. Diffusion rate constants and the chemical potentials for deuterium and hydrogen in the {beta}-phase hydride are reviewed because these quantities are essential for an accurate model of the diffusion process. Finally, a summary of some of the predictions from the SPEM model are provided.

  17. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paxton, B K [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  18. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities - Metal Hydride Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat is abigpresentedMetal Hydride Laboratories

  19. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films T. J. Richardsona@lbl.gov Abstract Mixed metal thin films containing magnesium and a first-row transition element exhibit very large of magnesium hydride. Keywords: A. hydrogen storage materials, thin films; C. EXAFS, NEXAFS, X-ray diffraction

  20. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  1. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy (Aiken, SC); Ritter, James A. (Lexington, SC); Ebner, Armin D. (Lexington, SC); Wang, Jun (Columbia, SC); Holland, Charles E. (Cayce, SC)

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  2. Final report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Jay O.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the R&D activities within the U.S. Department of Energy Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) from March 2005 to June 2010. The purpose of the MHCoE has been to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE 2010 and 2015 system goals for hydrogen storage materials. The MHCoE combines three broad areas: mechanisms and modeling (which provide a theoretically driven basis for pursuing new materials), materials development (in which new materials are synthesized and characterized) and system design and engineering (which allow these new materials to be realized as practical automotive hydrogen storage systems). This Final Report summarizes the organization and execution of the 5-year research program to develop practical hydrogen storage materials for light duty vehicles. Major results from the MHCoE are summarized, along with suggestions for future research areas.

  3. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  4. Materials Down-selection Decisions Made within the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) - September-October 2007

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Reports on which hydrogen storage materials offer potential for further research as decided by DOE's Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

  5. Method and composition in which metal hydride particles are embedded in a silica network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A silica embedded metal hydride composition and a method for making such a composition. The composition is made via the following process: A quantity of fumed silica is blended with water to make a paste. After adding metal hydride particles, the paste is dried to form a solid. According to one embodiment of the invention, the solid is ground into granules for use of the product in hydrogen storage. Alternatively, the paste can be molded into plates or cylinders and then dried for use of the product as a hydrogen filter. Where mechanical strength is required, the paste can be impregnated in a porous substrate or wire network.

  6. New binding materials for metal hydride electrodes which permit good recyclability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hara, T.; Yasuda, N. (Japan Synthetic Rubber Co., Ltd., Yokkaichi (Japan). Development Center); Takeuchi, Y. (Japan Synthetic Rubber Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Electronics Project Dept.); Sakai, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Miyamura, H.; Kuriyama, N.; Ishikawa, H. (Government Industrial Research Inst., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoplastic elastomers such as styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) and styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene block copolymer (SEBS) were used successfully as binding materials for metal hydride (MH) electrodes of a nickel-metal hydride battery. These binding materials have a rubber-like nature and are soluble in organic solvents. It was easy to remove the alloy powder from a used electrode for recycling. The battery performance depended on both the kind and amount of binding materials. The best discharge capacity and rate capability were obtained for MH electrodes containing 2--5 weight percent (w/o) SEBS. The particle size distributions for the alloy were examined successfully.

  7. First Principles Studies of Phase Stability and Reaction Dynamics in Complex Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Mei-Yin

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex metal hydrides are believed to be one of the most promising materials for developing hydrogen storage systems that can operate under desirable conditions. At the same time, these are also a class of materials that exhibit intriguing properties. We have used state-of-the-art computational techniques to study the fundamental properties of these materials.

  8. Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Two Wheeler with on-board Metal Hydride Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Two Wheeler with on-board Metal Hydride Storage K. Sapru*, S, as a transition, the hydrogen internal combustion engine can lead the way to a hydrogen economy, allowing of these can ease India's dependence on foreign oil, and also eliminate the drastic power shortage, which

  9. Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    concentration) in the gas volume between glass panes of the insulated glass units (IGUs). The elimination is an option but it requires well controlled gas exchange processes. Alternatively, and from many pointsElectrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy

  10. Improving nickel metal hydride batteries through research in negative electrode corrosion control and novel electrode materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Michael Scott

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to improve the negative electrode of the metal hydride electrodes. Three areas were investigated: corrosion inhibition through Zn additives to the electrolyte, the use of AB5 and AB2 alloy mixtures, and novel AB2...

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRON EXCITATION SPECTRA IN HEAVY RARE EARTH METALS, HYDRIDES AND OXIDES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    397 ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRON EXCITATION SPECTRA IN HEAVY RARE EARTH METALS, HYDRIDES AND OXIDES C thin evaporated foils of heavy rare earths (Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) in three different chemical of high energy incident electrons (75 keV) transmitted through thin foils of yttric rare earth elements

  12. Mathematical Modelling of a Metal Hydride Hydrogen Storage System Brendan David MacDonald

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    storage technology, such as gasoline tanks and batteries, it is important to have fast reaction ratesMathematical Modelling of a Metal Hydride Hydrogen Storage System by Brendan David MacDonald B Hydrogen Storage System by Brendan David MacDonald B.A.Sc., University of Waterloo, 2004 Supervisory

  13. The Use of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Recovery from Industrial Off-Gas Streams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebello, W. J.; Guerrero, P. S.; Goodell, P. D.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . and with allo s based on certain intermetall c compounds. Lanthanium penta-nicke , LaNis, is one of the earliest sUfh compounds to be widely studied, and others will be discussed shortIt. Its reaction with hydrogen can e represented by: LaNis + 3H2 = La... Hydride Alloy TYPBS OF HYDRIDIHG ALLOYS Outside of a few elemental metals (Pd, V, Hb and Mg) most hydride formers that are reversible under conditions of practicai interest are based on intermetallic compounds. These usually consist of a strong...

  14. Improving nickel metal hydride batteries through research in negative electrode corrosion control and novel electrode materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Michael Scott

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the Adsorption of Hydrogen on and Absorption into Metal, Alloys, and Intermetallics, The Electrochemical Society, PV 97-16, p. 277. vn1 TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT Page DEDICATION. lv ACKNOWLEGEMENTS . TABLE OF CONTENTS vnr LIST OF FIGURES. . LIST... of a new family of the intermetallic alloys containing one transition metal (4, 7, 8-10). The major family of such intermetallic alloys and their hydrides are listed in Table 1. 2 which also shows the gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen density...

  15. Metal hydrides as electrode/catalyst materials for oxygen evolution/reduction in electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA); Halpert, Gerald (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent (Pasadena, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Hightower, Adrian (Whittier, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An at least ternary metal alloy of the formula, AB.sub.(5-Y)X(.sub.y), is claimed. In this formula, A is selected from the rare earth elements, B is selected from the elements of groups 8, 9, and 10 of the periodic table of the elements, and X includes at least one of the following: antimony, arsenic, and bismuth. Ternary or higher-order substitutions, to the base AB.sub.5 alloys, that form strong kinetic interactions with the predominant metals in the base metal hydride are used to form metal alloys with high structural integrity after multiple cycles of hydrogen sorption.

  16. URANIUM METAL POWDER PRODUCTION, PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS, AND REACTION RATE STUDIES OF A HYDRIDE-DEHYDRIDE PROCESS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sames, William

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Work was done to study a hydride-dehydride method for producing uranium metal powder. Particle distribution analysis was conducted using digital microscopy and grayscale image analysis software. The particle size was found to be predominantly...

  17. Advanced Hydride Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motyka, T.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal hydrides have been used at the Savannah River Tritium Facilities since 1984. However, the most extensive application of metal hydride technology at the Savannah River Site is being planned for the Replacement Tritium Facility, a $140 million facility schedules for completion in 1990 and startup in 1991. In the new facility, metal hydride technology will be used to store, separate, isotopically purify, pump, and compress hydrogen isotopes. In support of the Replacement Tritium Facility, a $3.2 million, cold,'' process demonstration facility, the Advanced Hydride Laboratory began operation in November of 1987. The purpose of the Advanced Hydride Laboratory is to demonstrate the Replacement Tritium Facility's metal hydride technology by integrating the various unit operations into an overall process. This paper will describe the Advanced Hydride Laboratory, its role and its impact on the application of metal hydride technology to tritium handling.

  18. Advanced Hydride Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motyka, T.

    1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal hydrides have been used at the Savannah River Tritium Facilities since 1984. However, the most extensive application of metal hydride technology at the Savannah River Site is being planned for the Replacement Tritium Facility, a $140 million facility schedules for completion in 1990 and startup in 1991. In the new facility, metal hydride technology will be used to store, separate, isotopically purify, pump, and compress hydrogen isotopes. In support of the Replacement Tritium Facility, a $3.2 million, ``cold,`` process demonstration facility, the Advanced Hydride Laboratory began operation in November of 1987. The purpose of the Advanced Hydride Laboratory is to demonstrate the Replacement Tritium Facility`s metal hydride technology by integrating the various unit operations into an overall process. This paper will describe the Advanced Hydride Laboratory, its role and its impact on the application of metal hydride technology to tritium handling.

  19. alkali metal hydrides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    metal complexes to cleave strong carbon Jones, William D. 4 Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping with Alkali-Metal Vapors Physics Websites Summary: Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping with...

  20. Theoretical Standard Model Rates of Proton to Neutron Conversions Near Metallic Hydride Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widom, A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The process of radiation induced electron capture by protons or deuterons producing new ultra low momentum neutrons and neutrinos may be theoretically described within the standard field theoretical model of electroweak interactions. For protons or deuterons in the neighborhoods of surfaces of condensed matter metallic hydride cathodes, such conversions are determined in part by the collective plasma modes of the participating charged particles, e.g. electrons and protons. The radiation energy required for such low energy nuclear reactions may be supplied by the applied voltage required to push a strong charged current across a metallic hydride surface employed as a cathode within a chemical cell. The electroweak rates of the resulting ultra low momentum neutron production are computed from these considerations.

  1. Method for preparing hydride configurations and reactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1988-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing highly hydrogen-reactive surfaces on metals which normally require substantial heating, high pressures, or an extended induction period, which involves pretreatment of said surfaces with either a non-oxidizing acid or hydrogen gas to form a hydrogen-bearing coating on said surfaces, and subsequently heating said coated metal in the absence of moisture and oxygen for a period sufficient to decompose said coating and cooling said metal to room temperature. Surfaces so treated will react almost instantaneously with hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure. The method is particularly applicable to uranium, thorium, and lanthanide metals.

  2. Analysis of Heat Transfer in Metal Hydride Based Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, W.H. Jr.

    1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a transient heat transfer analysis to model the heat transfer in the Pd/k packed column, and the impact of adding metallic foam.

  3. annulus metal hydride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to the infinite strip A which has zero Lebesgue measure rotation number. If the rotation number of f restricted of its rotation set. This is a partial solution to a conjecture of...

  4. LaNi{sub 5}-based metal hydride electrode in Ni-MH rechargeable cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bugga, R.V.; Fultz, B.; Bowman, R.; Surampudi, S.R.; Witham, C.K.; Hightower, A.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An at least ternary metal alloy of the formula AB{sub (Z-Y)}X{sub (Y)} is disclosed. In this formula, A is selected from the rare earth elements, B is selected from the elements of Groups 8, 9, and 10 of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and X includes at least one of the following: antimony, arsenic, germanium, tin or bismuth. Z is greater than or equal to 4.8 and less than or equal to 6.0. Y is greater than 0 and less than 1. Ternary or higher-order substitutions to the base AB{sub 5} alloys that form strong kinetic interactions with the predominant metals in the base metal hydride are used to form metal alloys with high structural integrity after multiple cycles of hydrogen sorption. 16 figs.

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF INTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE TANKS UTILIZING METAL HYDRIDES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, S.; Tamburello, D.; Hardy, B.; Anton, D.; Gorbounov, M.; Cognale, C.; van Hassel, B.; Mosher, D.

    2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Two detailed, unit-cell models, a transverse fin design and a longitudinal fin design, of a combined hydride bed and heat exchanger are developed in COMSOL{reg_sign} Multiphysics incorporating and accounting for heat transfer and reaction kinetic limitations. MatLab{reg_sign} scripts for autonomous model generation are developed and incorporated into (1) a grid-based and (2) a systematic optimization routine based on the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method to determine the geometrical parameters that lead to the optimal structure for each fin design that maximizes the hydrogen stored within the hydride. The optimal designs for both the transverse and longitudinal fin designs point toward closely-spaced, small cooling fluid tubes. Under the hydrogen feed conditions studied (50 bar), a 25 times improvement or better in the hydrogen storage kinetics will be required to simultaneously meet the Department of Energy technical targets for gravimetric capacity and fill time. These models and methodology can be rapidly applied to other hydrogen storage materials, such as other metal hydrides or to cryoadsorbents, in future work.

  6. Short-range order of low-coverage Ti/Al,,111...: Implications for hydrogen storage in complex metal hydrides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciobanu, Cristian

    - sition to a hydrogen economy.1 Solid-state storage in hydrogen-rich compounds, e.g., complex hydridesShort-range order of low-coverage Ti/Al,,111...: Implications for hydrogen storage in complex metal-coverage Ti atoms on Al 111 as a model surface system for transition metal doped alanate hydrogen storage

  7. Mathematical model of a NiOOH/metal hydride cell. Final report, September 15, 1993--November 14, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, R.E.; Popov, B.N.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the objectives of work on the nickel/metal hydride cell has been to develop a mathematical model of the performance of the cell. This is a summary of work to date and is meant to be a Final Report of the BES project. Mathematical model of the nickel/metal hydride cell depends on the kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport properties of the metal hydride electrode. Consequently, investigations were carried out to determine: (1) the exchange current density and the equilibrium potential as a function of hydrogen content in the electrode; (2) the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in the bulk of the alloy; (3) the hydrogen reaction rate order; (4) the symmetry factor for hydrogen evolution reaction and (5) to determine the reaction mechanisms of the hydrogen charge and discharge processes including overcharge and overdischarge mechanism.

  8. Identification of a new pseudo-binary hydroxide during calendar corrosion of (La, Mg)2Ni7-type hydrogen storage alloys for Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    hydrogen storage alloys for Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries J. Monnier 1 , H. Chen 1 , S. Joiret2,3 , J-MH batteries have been extensively studied during calendar storage and cycling [6-8]. In these alloys To improve the performances of Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries, an important step is the understanding

  9. Non-stoichiometric AB5 alloys for metal hydride electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, James J. (Bellport, NY); Adzic, Gordana D. (Setauket, NY); Johnson, John R. (Calverton, NY); Vogt, Thomas (Cold Spring Harbor, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a non-stoichiometric alloy comprising a composition having the formula AB.sub.5+X an atomic ratio wherein A is selected from the group consisting of the rare earth metals, yttrium, mischmetal, or a combination thereof; B is nickel and tin, or nickel and tin and at least a third element selected from the group consisting of the elements in group IVA of the periodic table, aluminum, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, antimony or a combination thereof; X is greater than 0 and less than or equal to about 2.0; and wherein at least one substituted A site is occupied by at least one of the B elements. An electrode incorporating said alloy and an electrochemical cell incorporating said electrode are also described.

  10. Metal hydride/chemical heat-pump development project. Phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argabright, T.A.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The metal hydride/chemical heat pump (MHHP) is a chemical heat pump containing two hydrides for the storage and/or recovery of thermal energy. It utilizes the heat of reaction of hydrogen with specific metal alloys. The MHHP design can be tailored to provide heating and/or cooling or temperature upgrading over a wide range of input and ambient temperatures. The system can thus be used with a variety of heat sources including waste heat, solar energy or a fossil fuel. The conceptual design of the MHHP was developed. A national market survey including a study of applications and market sectors was conducted. The technical tasks including conceptual development, thermal and mechanical design, laboratory verification of design and material performance, cost analysis and the detailed design of the Engineering Development Test Unit (EDTU) were performed. As a result of the market study, the temperature upgrade cycle of the MHHP was chosen for development. Operating temperature ranges for the upgrader were selected to be from 70 to 110/sup 0/C (160 to 230/sup 0/F) for the source heat and 140 to 190/sup 0/C (280 to 375/sup 0/F) for the product heat. These ranges are applicable to many processes in industries such as food, textile, paper and pulp, and chemical. The hydride pair well suited for these temperatures is LaNi/sub 5//LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 5/Al/sub 0/ /sub 5/. The EDTU was designed for the upgrade cycle. It is a compact finned tube arrangement enclosed in a pressure vessel. This design incorporates high heat transfer and low thermal mass in a system which maximizes the coefficient of performance (COP). It will be constructed in Phase II. Continuation of this effort is recommended.

  11. Trends in the electron-phonon coupling parameter in some metallic hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, M.; Burger, J.P.

    1981-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an evaluation of the electron-phonon coupling parameter lambda, using the McMillan formalism, for several classes of stoichiometric mono- and dihydrides with a metallic underlying fcc structure. We calculate the electronic term eta and use experimental estimates for the phonon energies when available. We derive systematic trends concerning both contributions to eta stemming, respectively, from the metallic site M and the hydrogen site H. We show that eta/sub H/ is generally small, but it may become large if the Fermi energy is in the metal s-p band as in the filled d-band transition-metal (TM) hydrides such as PdH; eta/sub H/ may also be large when a metal-hydrogen antibonding band crosses the Fermi level, a case which happens in AlH and may happen for some unstable dihydrides. The metallic contribution eta/sub M/ is calculated to be small for all stable mono- and dihydrides like PdH, NiH, ZrH/sub 2/, NbH/sub 2/, etc., but nothing in principle prevents this contribution from becoming as large as in some pure TM, if one sweeps the Fermi level through the whole metallic d band. Good agreement with the available experimental data is obtained concerning the occurrence of superconductivity in the compounds considered.

  12. Erroneous Wave Functions of Ciuchi et al for Collective Modes in Neutron Production on Metallic Hydride Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widom, A; Larsen, L

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a recent comment (Ciuchi et al., 2012) concerning the theory of collective many body effects on the neutron production rates in a chemical battery cathode. Ciuchi et al employ an inverse beta decay expression that contains a two body amplitude. Only one electron and one proton may exist in the Ciuchi et al model initial state wave function. A flaw in their reasoning is that one cannot in reality describe collective many body correlations with only a two particle wave function. One needs very many particles to describe collective effects. In the model wave functions of Ciuchi et al there are no metallic hydrides, there are no cathodes and there are no chemical batteries. Employing a wave function with only one electron and one proton is inadequate for describing collective metallic hydride surface quantum plasma physics in cathodes accurately.

  13. Erroneous Wave Functions of Ciuchi et al for Collective Modes in Neutron Production on Metallic Hydride Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava; L. Larsen

    2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a recent comment (Ciuchi et al., 2012) concerning the theory of collective many body effects on the neutron production rates in a chemical battery cathode. Ciuchi et al employ an inverse beta decay expression that contains a two body amplitude. Only one electron and one proton may exist in the Ciuchi et al model initial state wave function. A flaw in their reasoning is that one cannot in reality describe collective many body correlations with only a two particle wave function. One needs very many particles to describe collective effects. In the model wave functions of Ciuchi et al there are no metallic hydrides, there are no cathodes and there are no chemical batteries. Employing a wave function with only one electron and one proton is inadequate for describing collective metallic hydride surface quantum plasma physics in cathodes accurately.

  14. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  15. Advanced nickel-metal hydride cell development. Final report, September 1993--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Hong S.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inert gas atomization using metal hydride alloys for a Ni/MH{sub x}cell was studied. Atomization of the alloys was demonstrated on a small production scale up to batch size of several kg. Relative performance of the atomized and nonatomized alloys was investigated for the electrode material in a Ni/MH{sub x} cell. The study included effects of charge-discharge rates, temperature, and particle size on cell voltage (polarization) and specific capacity. Results show that the specific capacity of the present atomized alloys was apprecialy smaller than that of the nonatomized powder, especially for initial cycles. Full activation of the atomized alloys oftentook several hundreds of cycles. However, no appreciable difference in discharge rate capability was observed with R10 and R12 alloys. Chemical compositions were indistinguishable, although the oxygen contents of the atomized alloys were always higher. Effects of Ni and Cu coating on alloy performance were studied after electroless coating; the coatings noticeably improved the electrode rate capability for all the alloys. The electrode polarization was esecially improved, but not the cycle life. Further studies are needed.

  16. Discovery of Novel Complex Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage through Molecular Modeling and Combinatorial Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesch, David A; Adriaan Sachtler, J.W. J.; Low, John J; Jensen, Craig M; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Siegel, Don

    2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, Ford Motor Company, and Striatus, Inc., collaborated with Professor Craig Jensen of the University of Hawaii and Professor Vidvuds Ozolins of University of California, Los Angeles on a multi-year cost-shared program to discover novel complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. This innovative program combined sophisticated molecular modeling with high throughput combinatorial experiments to maximize the probability of identifying commercially relevant, economical hydrogen storage materials with broad application. A set of tools was developed to pursue the medium throughput (MT) and high throughput (HT) combinatorial exploratory investigation of novel complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. The assay programs consisted of monitoring hydrogen evolution as a function of temperature. This project also incorporated theoretical methods to help select candidate materials families for testing. The Virtual High Throughput Screening served as a virtual laboratory, calculating structures and their properties. First Principles calculations were applied to various systems to examine hydrogen storage reaction pathways and the associated thermodynamics. The experimental program began with the validation of the MT assay tool with NaAlH4/0.02 mole Ti, the state of the art hydrogen storage system given by decomposition of sodium alanate to sodium hydride, aluminum metal, and hydrogen. Once certified, a combinatorial 21-point study of the NaAlH4 â?? LiAlH4 â??Mg(AlH4)2 phase diagram was investigated with the MT assay. Stability proved to be a problem as many of the materials decomposed during synthesis, altering the expected assay results. This resulted in repeating the entire experiment with a mild milling approach, which only temporarily increased capacity. NaAlH4 was the best performer in both studies and no new mixed alanates were observed, a result consistent with the VHTS. Powder XRD suggested that the reverse reaction, the regeneration of the alanate from alkali hydride, Al and hydrogen, was hampering reversibility. The reverse reaction was then studied for the same phase diagram, starting with LiH, NaH, and MgH2, and Al. The study was extended to phase diagrams including KH and CaH2 as well. The observed hydrogen storage capacity in the Al hexahydrides was less than 4 wt. %, well short of DOE targets. The HT assay came on line and after certification with studies on NaAlH4, was first applied to the LiNH2 - LiBH4 - MgH2 phase diagram. The 60-point study elucidated trends within the system locating an optimum material of 0.6 LiNH2 â?? 0.3 MgH2 â?? 0.1 LiBH4 that stored about 4 wt. % H2 reversibly and operated below 220 °C. Also present was the phase Li4(NH2)3BH4, which had been discovered in the LiNH2 -LiBH4 system. This new ternary formulation performed much better than the well-known 2 LiNH2 â?? MgH2 system by 50 °C in the HT assay. The Li4(NH2)3BH4 is a low melting ionic liquid under our test conditions and facilitates the phase transformations required in the hydrogen storage reaction, which no longer relies on a higher energy solid state reaction pathway. Further study showed that the 0.6 LiNH2 â?? 0.3 MgH2 â?? 0.1 LiBH4 formulation was very stable with respect to ammonia and diborane desorption, the observed desorption was from hydrogen. This result could not have been anticipated and was made possible by the efficiency of HT combinatorial methods. Investigation of the analogous LiNH2 â?? LiBH4 â?? CaH2 phase diagram revealed new reversible hydrogen storage materials 0.625 LiBH4 + 0.375 CaH2 and 0.375 LiNH2 + 0.25 LiBH4 + 0.375 CaH2 operating at 1 wt. % reversible hydrogen below 175 °C. Powder x-ray diffraction revealed a new structure for the spent materials which had not been previously observed. While the storage capacity was not impressive, an important aspect is that it boron appears to participate in a low temperature reversible reaction. The last major area of study also focused

  17. LaNi.sub.5 is-based metal hydride electrode in Ni-MH rechargeable cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA); Fultz, Brent (Pasadena, CA); Bowman, Robert (La Mesa, CA); Surampudi, Subra Rao (Glendora, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Hightower, Adrian (Pasadena, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An at least ternary metal alloy of the formula AB.sub.(Z-Y) X.sub.(Y) is disclosed. In this formula, A is selected from the rare earth elements, B is selected from the elements of Groups 8, 9, and 10 of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and X includes at least one of the following: antimony, arsenic, germanium, tin or bismuth. Z is greater than or equal to 4.8 and less than or equal to 6.0. Y is greater than 0 and less than 1. Ternary or higher-order substitutions to the base AB.sub.5 alloys that form strong kinetic interactions with the predominant metals in the base metal hydride are used to form metal alloys with high structural integrity after multiple cycles of hydrogen sorption.

  18. Regeneration of Aluminum Hydride - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydride is an attractive alternative to the traditional metal hydrides for the storage of hydrogen for its use as an energy source. Alanes use as the primary source of hydrogen has...

  19. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandrock, Gary (Ringwood, NJ); Reilly, James (Bellport, NY); Graetz, Jason (Mastic, NY); Wegrzyn, James E. (Brookhaven, NY)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

  20. VOLUME 86, NUMBER 23 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 4 JUNE 2001 Light-Induced Metal-Insulator Transition in a Switchable Mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wijngaarden, Rinke J.

    possibility to tune yttrium hydride through the T 0 metal-insulator transition. Conductivity and Hall

  1. Variations of the infrared transmission properties with the metal{endash}insulator transition in thin films of the yttrium-hydride system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M. W.; Kuo, C. Y.; Lin, H. C.; Wang, H. C.

    2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work investigates the variations of the infrared transmission spectra of yttrium-hydride films YH{sub x} during the hydrogen loading process for the frequency range 500{endash}4000 cm{minus}1. The results indicate that the transmittance slightly decreases in the dihydride phase, followed by a significant increase in the trihydride phase. In addition, the carrier concentration decreases, whereas the carrier relaxation time increases with hydrogen content. The hydrogen vibration modes at interstitial sites are completely screened in the dihydride phase. The screening effect decreases as the system goes through the metal{endash}insulator transition. Moreover, the screening effect can be continuously tuned by simply varying the hydrogen content in the yttrium-hydride system. Analysis indicates that the absorption intensity of the vibration mode depends on the carrier concentration. This effect can be used as a diagnostic tool for estimating the carrier concentration and hydrogen content in rare-earth hydrides. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  3. The effects of phosphorous donor ligand substitution on the reactivity of anionic group 6 transition metal carbonyl hydrides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lusk, Richard Jay

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in THP, followed by protonation with methanol, gave rise to a new group of chromium and tungsten hydrides, 7 HM(CO) P . The importance of the P-substituted hydr ides is enhanced 4 reactivity as well as the possibility of selective hydride transfer... found to be similar to those of the unsubstituted tungsten hydride. Reaction of this phosphite hydride with HC1, HOAc 7 (acetic acid), or phenol results in formation of W(CO)&(OAc)P(OMe) W(CO)&P(OMe) Cl , and (u-H)W (CO)S(P(OMe) ) , respectively...

  4. ALKYL, HYDRIDE, AND RELATED BIS (TRIMETHYLSILYL)-AMIDE DERIVATIVES OF THE 4f- AND 5f- BLOCK METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersen, R.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    shifts to 1060 c m in the deuteride. The paramagnetic (u -The first step is hydride for deuteride exchange by way of a

  5. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange of the anionic group 6B transition-metal hydrides. Convenient, in-situ-deuterium transfer reagents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaus, P.L.; Kao, S.C.; Darensbourg, M.Y.; Arndt, L.W.

    1984-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The facile exchange of hydrogen for detuerium in the anionic group 6B carbonyl hydrides HM(CO)/sub 4/L/sup -/(M = Cr, W; L = CO P(OMe)/sub 3/) has been studied in THF/sub 4/ (tetrahydrofuran) with CH/sub 3/OD, D/sub 2/O, and CH/sub 3/CO/sub 2/D. This has provided a synthesis of the deuterides, DM(CO)/sub 4/L/sup -/, as well as a convenient in situ source of deuteride reducing reagents for organic halides. A number of such reductions are described, using /sup 2/H NMR to demonstrate both selectivity and stereospecificity for certain systems. The carbonyl region of the infrared spectra of the hydrides is not affected by deuteration of the hydrides, suggesting that the M-H or M-D vibrational modes are not coupled significantly to CO vibrations in these hydrides. The mechanism of the H/D exchange and of a related H/sub 2/ elimination reaction is discussed.

  6. Hydride compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Myung, W.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are a composition for use in storing hydrogen and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the H equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to H, and then heating below the softening temperature of any of the constituents. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P{sub H}{sub 2} and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

  7. First-principles studies of phase stability and the structural and dynamical properties of metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.Y.

    1991-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We decided to investigate first the interaction of hydrogen with the 4d transition-metal series, with the first element being hcp Y. Because of the recent development of soft pseudopotentials, we chose to use the plane wave basis set to carry out the calculation. Since problems had been associated with the slow convergence in transition metals, we first tested the computational methods by studying the structural properties of Y; results were encouraging. We started the calculation of YH[sub x] with hydrogen occupying different interstitial sites.

  8. Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Slack, Jonathan L.; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2008-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Proof-of-principle gas-reservoir MnNiMg electrochromic mirror devices have been investigated. In contrast to conventional electrochromic approaches, hydrogen is stored (at low concentration) in the gas volume between glass panes of the insulated glass units (IGUs). The elimination of a solid state ion storage layer simplifies the layer stack, enhances overall transmission, and reduces cost. The cyclic switching properties were demonstrated and system durability improved with the incorporation a thin Zr barrier layer between the MnNiMg layer and the Pd catalyst. Addition of 9 percent silver to the palladium catalyst further improved system durability. About 100 full cycles have been demonstrated before devices slow considerably. Degradation of device performance appears to be related to Pd catalyst mobility, rather than delamination or metal layer oxidation issues originally presumed likely to present significant challenges.

  9. Direct synthesis of catalyzed hydride compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Karl J.; Majzoub, Eric

    2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for directly preparing alkali metal aluminum hydrides such as NaAlH.sub.4 and Na.sub.3 AlH.sub.6 from either the alkali metal or its hydride, and aluminum. The hydride thus prepared is doped with a small portion of a transition metal catalyst compound, such as TiCl.sub.3, TiF.sub.3, or a mixture of these materials, in order to render them reversibly hydridable. The process provides for mechanically mixing the dry reagents under an inert atmosphere followed by charging the mixed materials with high pressure hydrogen while heating the mixture to about 125.degree. C. The method is relatively simple and inexpensive and provides reversible hydride compounds which are free of the usual contamination introduced by prior art wet chemical methods.

  10. Possible hydride and methide transfer reactions: Reactions of Fe(CO){sub 4}R{sup -} (R=H, CH{sub 3}) and W(CO){sub 5}R{sup -} (R = H, CH{sub 3}, CL, Br, I) with metal carbonyl cations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, P.; Striejewske, W.S.; Atwood, J.D. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactions of metal carbonyl cations (M(CO){sub 6}{sup +}, M = Mn, Re) with hydride-, methide- or halide-containing metal carbonyl anions Fe(CO){sub 4}R{sup -}, R = H, Me; W(CO){sub 5} (CH{sub 3}CN) and W(CO){sub 5}X{sup -}. In contrast, the tungsten hydride and methide complexes react, predominantly, by transfer of the hydride or methide to a carbonyl of the cation at a much faster rate. The iron hydride and methide complexes react by iron-based nucleophilicity involving a two-electron process.

  11. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen storage material and process of forming the material is provided in which complex hydrides are combined under conditions of elevated temperatures and/or elevated temperature and pressure with a titanium metal such as titanium butoxide. The resulting fused product exhibits hydrogen desorption kinetics having a first hydrogen release point which occurs at normal atmospheres and at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 90.degree. C.

  12. High capacity stabilized complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Mohtadi, Rana F; Fewox, Christopher; Sivasubramanian, Premkumar

    2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex hydrides based on Al(BH.sub.4).sub.3 are stabilized by the presence of one or more additional metal elements or organic adducts to provide high capacity hydrogen storage material.

  13. Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Franklin E. (18 Shadow Oak Rd., Danville, CA 94526); Wasley, Richard J. (4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

  14. Metal Hydrides | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    applications is in the range of 1-10 atm and 25-120C. This is based on using the waste heat from the fuel cell to "release" the hydrogen from the media. In the near-term,...

  15. Metal Hydrides | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMay

  16. Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis C. Kunerth

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report fulfills the M4 milestone, M4FT-14IN0805023, Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides, under Work Package Number FT-14IN080502. During service, zirconium alloy fuel cladding will degrade via corrosion/oxidation. Hydrogen, a byproduct of the oxidation process, will be absorbed into the cladding and eventually form hydrides due to low hydrogen solubility limits. The hydride phase is detrimental to the mechanical properties of the cladding and therefore it is important to be able to detect and characterize the presence of this constituent within the cladding. Presently, hydrides are evaluated using destructive examination. If nondestructive evaluation techniques can be used to detect and characterize the hydrides, the potential exists to significantly increase test sample coverage while reducing evaluation time and cost. To demonstrate the viability this approach, an initial evaluation of eddy current and ultrasonic techniques were performed to demonstrate the basic ability to these techniques to detect hydrides or their effects on the microstructure. Conventional continuous wave eddy current techniques were applied to zirconium based cladding test samples thermally processed with hydrogen gas to promote the absorption of hydrogen and subsequent formation of hydrides. The results of the evaluation demonstrate that eddy current inspection approaches have the potential to detect both the physical damage induced by hydrides, e.g. blisters and cracking, as well as the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates on the electrical properties of the zirconium alloy. Similarly, measurements of ultrasonic wave velocities indicate changes in the elastic properties resulting from the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates as well as changes in geometry in regions of severe degradation. However, for both approaches, the signal responses intended to make the desired measurement incorporate a number of contributing parameters. These contributing factors need to be recognized and a means to control them or separate their contributions will be required to obtain the desired information.

  17. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClaine, Andrew W.

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston University have demonstrated the technical viability of the process and have provided data for the cost analyses that have been performed. We also concluded that a carbothermic process could also produce magnesium at acceptable costs. The use of slurry as a medium to carry chemical hydrides has been shown during this project to offer significant advantages for storing, delivering, and distributing hydrogen: • Magnesium hydride slurry is stable for months and pumpable. • The oils of the slurry minimize the contact of oxygen and moisture in the air with the metal hydride in the slurry. Thus reactive chemicals, such as lithium hydride, can be handled safely in the air when encased in the oils of the slurry. • Though magnesium hydride offers an additional safety feature of not reacting readily with water at room temperatures, it does react readily with water at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Thus when hydrogen is needed, the slurry and water are heated until the reaction begins, then the reaction energy provides heat for more slurry and water to be heated. • The reaction system can be relatively small and light and the slurry can be stored in conventional liquid fuel tanks. When transported and stored, the conventional liquid fuel infrastructure can be used. • The particular metal hydride of interest in this project, magnesium hydride, forms benign byproducts, magnesium hydroxide (“Milk of Magnesia”) and magnesium oxide. • We have estimated that a magnesium hydride slurry system (including the mixer device and tanks) could meet the DOE 2010 energy density goals. ? During the investigation of hydriding techniques, we learned that magnesium hydride in a slurry can also be cycled in a rechargeable fashion. Thus, magnesium hydride slurry can act either as a chemical hydride storage medium or as a rechargeable hydride storage system. Hydrogen can be stored and delivered and then stored again thus significantly reducing the cost of storing and delivering hydrogen. Further evaluation and development of this concept will be performed as follow-on work under a

  18. Thermodynamic Studies and Hydride Transfer Reactions from a Rhodium Complex to BX3 Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mock, Michael T.; Potter, Robert G.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Li, Jun; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Twamley, Brendan; DuBois, Daniel L.

    2009-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines the use of transition-metal hydride complexes that can be generated by the heterolytic cleavage of H2 gas to form B–H bonds. Specifically, these studies are focused on providing a reliable and quantitative method for determining when hydride transfer from transition-metal hydrides to three-coordinate BX3 compounds will be favorable. This involves both experimental and theoretical determinations of hydride transfer abilities. Thermodynamic hydride donor abilities (?G°H-) were determined for HRh(dmpe)2 and HRh(depe)2, where dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphinoethane) and depe = 1,2-bis(diethylphosphinoethane), on a previously established scale in acetonitrile. This hydride donor ability was used to determine the hydride donor ability of [HBEt3]? on this scale. Isodesmic reactions between [HBEt3]? and various BX3 complexes to form BEt3 and [HBX3]? were examined computationally to determine the relative hydride affinities of various BX3 compounds. The use of these scales of hydride donor abilities and hydride affinities for transition-metal hydrides and BX3 compounds is illustrated with a few selected reactions relevant to the regeneration of ammonia borane. Our findings indicate that it is possible to form B?H bonds from B?X bonds, and the extent to which BX3 compounds are reduced by transition-metal hydride complexes forming species containing multiple B?H bonds depends on the heterolytic B?X bond energy. An example is the reduction of B(SPh)3 using HRh(dmpe)2 in the presence of triethylamine to form Et3N-BH3 in high yields. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  19. Optimization of Hydride Rim Formation in Unirradiated Zr 4 Cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Hanson, Brady D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this work is to build on the results reported in the M2 milestone M2FT 13PN0805051, document number FCRD-USED-2013-000151 (Hanson, 2013). In that work, it was demonstrated that unirradiated samples of zircaloy-4 cladding could be pre-hydrided at temperatures below 400°C in pure hydrogen gas and that the growth of hydrides on the surface could be controlled by changing the surface condition of the samples and form a desired hydride rim on the outside diameter of the cladding. The work performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory since the issuing of the M2 milestone has focused its efforts to optimize the formation of a hydride rim on available zircaloy-4 cladding samples by controlling temperature variation and gas flow control during pre-hydriding treatments. Surface conditioning of the outside surface was also examined as a variable. The results of test indicate that much of the variability in the hydride thickness is due to temperature variation occurring in the furnaces as well as how hydrogen gas flows across the sample surface. Efforts to examine other alloys, gas concentrations, and different surface conditioning plan to be pursed in the next FY as more cladding samples become available

  20. A STUDY OF FUNDAMENTAL REACTION PATHWAYS FOR TRANSITION METAL ALKYL COMPLEXES. I. THE REACTION OF A NICKEL METHYL COMPLEX WITH ALKYNES. II. THE MECHANISM OF ALDEHYDE FORMATION IN THE REACTION OF A MOLYBDENUM HYDRIDE WITH MOLYBDENUM ALKYLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, John Mitchell

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I. This study reports the rapid reaction under mild conditions of internal or terminal alkynes with methyl (acetyl~ acetonato) (triphenylphosphine) nickel (1) in either aromatic or ether solvents. In all cases vinylnickel products 2 are formed by insertion of the alkyne into the nickel=methyl bond. These complexes may be converted into a variety of organic products (e.g. alkenes, esters, vinyl halides) by treatment with appropriate reagents. Unsymmetrical alkynes give selectively the one regioisomer with the sterically largest substituent next to the nickel atom. In order to investigate the stereochemistry of the initial insertion, a x-ray diffraction study of the reaction of 1 with diphenylacetylene was carried out. This showed that the vinylnickel complex formed by overall trans insertion was the product of the reaction. Furthermore, subsequent slow isomerization of this complex, to a mixture of it and the corresponding cis isomer, demonstrated that this trans addition product is the kinetic product of the reaction. In studies with other alkynes, the product of trans addition was not always exclusively (or even predominantly) formed, but the ratio of the stereoisomers formed kinetically was substantially different from the thermodynamic ratio. Isotope labeling, added phosphine, and other experiments have allowed us to conclude that the mechanism of this reaction does involve initial cis addition. However, a coordinatively unsaturated vinylnickel complex is initially formed which can undergo rapid, phosphine-catalyzed cis-trans isomerization in competition with its conversion to the isolable phosphine-substituted kinetic reaction products. II. The reaction of CpMo(CO){sub 3}H (1a) with CpMo(CO){sub 3}R (2, R= CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}) at 50{degrees} C in THF gives the aldehyde RCHO and the dimers [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sub 2} (3a) and [CpMo(CO){sub 2}]{sub 2} (4a). Labeling one of the reactants with a methylcyclopentadienyl ligand it was possible to show that the mixed dimers MeCpMo(CO){sub 3}-(CO){sub 3}MoCp (3b) and MeCpMo(CO){sub 2}{triple_bond}(CO){sub 2}MoCp (4b) are the predominant kinetic products of the reaction. Additionally labeling the carbonyl ligands of 1a with {sup 13}CO led to the conclusion that all three of the carbonyl ligands in 1a end up in the tetracarbonyl dimers 4a if the reaction is carried out under a continuous purge of argon Trapping studies failed to find any evidence for the intermediacy of either [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup -} or [CpMo(CO){sub 3}]{sup +} in this reaction. A mechanism is proposed that involves the initial migration of the alkyl ligand in 2 to CO forming an unsaturated acyl complex which reacts with 1a to give a binuclear complex containing a three center-two electron Mo-H-Mo bond. This complex then selectively looses a carbonyl from the acyl molybdenum, migrates the hydride to that same metal, and forms a metal-metal bond. This binuclear complex with the hydride and acyl ligands on one metal reductively eliminates aldehyde, and migrates a carbonyl ligand, to give 4a directly. The other product 3a is formed by addition of two molecules of free CO to 4a.

  1. Electronic structures of transition metal to hydrogen bonds: oxidative addition of dihydrogen to a square planar rhodium complex and quantum mechanical prediction of the geometry of a metal hydride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halpin, Carolyn F.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and applications is dihydrogen or molecular hydrogen. Both the Heber process, in which nitrogen is converted to ammonia on an iron catalyst, and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, in which carbon monoxide is converted to hydrocarbons over iron and cobalt catalysts... systems containing hydride ligands. This work presents a computational method for examining the energetics and structures of two systems. The reaction RhC1(CO)(PHs)z + Hz ~ (H)zRhC1(CO)(PHs)z was examined to a~plain why the oxidation of RhCI(CO...

  2. Modular hydride beds for mobile applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malinowski, M.E.; Stewart, K.D.

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design, construction, initial testing and simple thermal modeling of modular, metal hydride beds have been completed. Originally designed for supplying hydrogen to a fuel cell on a mobile vehicle, the complete bed design consists of 8 modules and is intended for use on the Palm Desert Vehicle (PDV) under development at the Schatz Energy Center, Humbolt State University. Each module contains approximately 2 kg of a commercially available, low temperature, hydride-forming metal alloy. Waste heat from the fuel cell in the form of heated water is used to desorb hydrogen from the alloy for supplying feed hydrogen to the fuel cell. In order to help determine the performance of such a modular bed system, six modules were constructed and tested. The design and construction of the modules is described in detail. Initial testing of the modules both individually and as a group showed that each module can store {approximately} 30 g of hydrogen (at 165 PSIA fill pressure, 17 C), could be filled with hydrogen in 6 minutes at a nominal, 75 standard liters/min (slm) fueling rate, and could supply hydrogen during desorption at rates of 25 slm, the maximum anticipated hydrogen fuel cell input requirement. Tests made of 5 modules as a group indicated that the behavior of the group run in parallel both in fueling and gas delivery could be directly predicted from the corresponding, single module characteristics by using an appropriate scaling factor. Simple thermal modeling of a module as an array of cylindrical, hydride-filled tubes was performed. The predictions of the model are in good agreement with experimental data.

  3. First-principles studies of phase stability and the structural and dynamical properties of metal hydrides. Annual technical progress report, September 15, 1990--May 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.Y.

    1991-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We decided to investigate first the interaction of hydrogen with the 4d transition-metal series, with the first element being hcp Y. Because of the recent development of soft pseudopotentials, we chose to use the plane wave basis set to carry out the calculation. Since problems had been associated with the slow convergence in transition metals, we first tested the computational methods by studying the structural properties of Y; results were encouraging. We started the calculation of YH{sub x} with hydrogen occupying different interstitial sites.

  4. Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

  5. Synthesis and Hydride Transfer Reactions of Cobalt and Nickel Hydride Complexes to BX3 Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mock, Michael T.; Potter, Robert G.; O'Hagan, Molly J.; Camaioni, Donald M.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; DuBois, Daniel L.

    2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrides of numerous transition metal complexes can be generated by the heterolytic cleavage of H{sub 2} gas such that they offer alternatives to using main group hydrides in the regeneration of ammonia borane, a compound that has been intensely studied for hydrogen storage applications. Previously, we reported that HRh(dmpe){sub 2}, dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphinoethane) was capable of reducing a variety of BX{sub 3} compounds having hydride affinity (HA) greater than or equal to HA of BEt{sub 3}. This study examines the reactivity of less expensive cobalt and nickel hydride complexes, (HCo(dmpe){sub 2} and [HNi(dmpe){sub 2}]{sup +}), to form B-H bonds. The hydride donor abilities ({Delta}G{sub H{sup -}}{sup o}) of HCo(dmpe){sub 2} and [HNi(dmpe){sub 2}]{sup +} were positioned on a previously established scale in acetonitrile that is cross-referenced with calculated HAs of BX{sub 3} compounds. The collective data guided our selection of BX{sub 3} compounds to investigate and aided our analysis of factors that determine favorability of hydride transfer. HCo(dmpe){sub 2} was observed to transfer H{sup -} to BX{sub 3} compounds with X = H, OC{sub 6}F{sub 5} and SPh. The reaction with B(SPh){sub 3} is accompanied by formation of (BH{sub 3}){sub 2}-dmpe and (BH{sub 2}SPh){sub 2}-dmpe products that follow from reduction of multiple BSPh bonds and loss of a dmpe ligand from Co. Reactions between HCo(dmpe){sub 2} and B(SPh){sub 3} in the presence of triethylamine result in formation of Et{sub 3}N-BH{sub 2}SPh and Et{sub 3}N-BH{sub 3} with no loss of dmpe ligand. Reactions of the cationic complex [HNi(dmpe){sub 2}]{sup +} with B(SPh){sub 3} under analogous conditions give Et{sub 3}N-BH{sub 2}SPh as the final product along with the nickel-thiolate complex [Ni(dmpe){sub 2}(SPh)]{sup +}. The synthesis and characterization of HCo(dedpe){sub 2} (dedpe = diethyldiphenyl(phosphino)ethane) from H{sub 2} and a base is also discussed; including the formation of an uncommon trans dihydride species, trans-[(H{sub 2})Co(dedpe){sub 2}][BF{sub 4}].

  6. Photogeneration of Hydride Donors and Their Use Toward CO2 Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita,E.; Muckerman, J.T.; Polyansky, D.E.

    2009-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite substantial effort, no one has succeeded in efficiently producing methanol from CO2 using homogeneous photocatalytic systems. We are pursuing reaction schemes based on a sequence of hydride-ion transfers to carry out stepwise reduction of CO2 to methanol. We are using hydride-ion transfer from photoproduced C-H bonds in metal complexes with bio-inspired ligands (i.e., NADH-like ligands) that are known to store one proton and two electrons.

  7. Moessbauer studies of iron hydride at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choe, I.; Ingalls, R. (Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (USA)); Brown, J.M.; Sato-Sorensen, Y. (Geophysics Program, AK-50, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (USA)); Mills, R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (USA))

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured {ital in} {ital situ} Moessbauer spectra of iron hydride made in a diamond anvil cell at high pressure and room temperature. The spectra show a sudden change at 3.5{plus minus}0.5 GPa from a single hyperfine pattern to a superposition of three. The former pattern results from normal {alpha}-iron with negligible hydrogen content, and the latter from residual {alpha}-iron plus newly formed iron hydride. Between 3.5 and 10.4 GPa, the extra hydride pattern have hyperfine fields for one ranging from 276 to 263 kOe, and the other, from 317 to 309 kOe. Both have isomer shifts of about 0.4 mm/sec, and negligible quadrupole splittings. X-ray studies on quenched samples have shown that iron hydride is of double hexagonal close-packed structure, whose two nonequivalent iron sites may account for the observation of two different patterns. Even allowing for the effect of volume expansion, the observed isomer shifts for the hydride are considerably more positive than those of other metallic phases of iron. At the same time, the hyperfine fields are slightly smaller than that of {alpha}-iron. As a possible explanation, one may expect a bonding of hydrogen with iron, which would result in a small reduction of 4{ital s} electrons, possibly accompanied by a small increase of 3{ital d} electrons compared with the neutral atom in metallic iron. The difference between the hyperfine fields in the two spectra are presumably due to the different symmetry at the two iron sites.

  8. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, Leslie D. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  9. Thermodynamic properties of metal hydride nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bérubé, Vincent, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen is considered a good energy carrier candidate for future automotive applications because of its high abundance and its potential role in a carbon-free cycle. The high gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities ...

  10. CRADA (AL-C-2009-02) Final Report: Phase I. Lanthanum-based Start Materials for Hydride Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl [Ames Laboratory; Schmidt, Frederick [Ames Laboratory] [Ames Laboratory; Frerichs, A.E. [Ames Laboratory] [Ames Laboratory; Ament, Katherine A. [Ames Laboratory] [Ames Laboratory

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of Phase I of this work is to focus on developing a La-based start material for making nickel-metal (lanthanum)-hydride batteries based on our carbothermic-silicon process. The goal is to develop a protocol for the manufacture of (La{sub 1-x}R{sub x})(Ni{sub 1-y}M{sub y})(Si{sub z}), where R is a rare earth metal and M is a non-rare earth metal, to be utilized as the negative electrode in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries.

  11. Ab initio treatment of electron correlations in polymers: Lithium hydride chain and beryllium hydride polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkenheuer, Uwe

    Ab initio treatment of electron correlations in polymers: Lithium hydride chain and berylliumH and beryllium hydride Be2H4 . First, employing a Wannier-function-based approach, the systems are studiedH and the beryllium hydride polymer Be2H4 . As a simple, but due to its ionic character, non- trivial model polymer

  12. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, L.D.

    1980-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator was designed to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  13. Igniter containing titanium hydride and potassium perchlorate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietzel, Russel W. (Albuquerque, NM); Leslie, William B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An explosive device is described which employs a particular titanium hydride-potassium perchlorate composition directly ignitible by an electrical bridgewire.

  14. argon hydrides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    authors 2 Geoneutrino and Hydridic Earth model CERN Preprints Summary: Uranium, Thorium and Potassium-40 abundances in the Earth were calculated in the frame of Hydridic...

  15. aluminium hydrides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Norman A. 3 Geoneutrino and Hydridic Earth model CERN Preprints Summary: Uranium, Thorium and Potassium-40 abundances in the Earth were calculated in the frame of Hydridic...

  16. automated hydride generation-cryotrapping-atomic: Topics by E...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mohammad 3 Geoneutrino and Hydridic Earth model CERN Preprints Summary: Uranium, Thorium and Potassium-40 abundances in the Earth were calculated in the frame of Hydridic...

  17. aluminum hydride phases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University of 19 Geoneutrino and Hydridic Earth model CERN Preprints Summary: Uranium, Thorium and Potassium-40 abundances in the Earth were calculated in the frame of Hydridic...

  18. Incorporation of Hydride Nuclear Fuels in Commercial Light Water Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrani, Kurt Amir

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.2.1 PWRs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2Actinides Multi-Recycling in PWR Using Hydride Fuels. InRecycling in Hydride Fueled PWR Cores. Nuclear Engineering

  19. Comprehensive Thermodynamics of Nickel Hydride Bis(Diphosphine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermodynamics of Nickel Hydride Bis(Diphosphine) Complexes: A Predictive Model through Computations. Comprehensive Thermodynamics of Nickel Hydride Bis(Diphosphine) Complexes: A...

  20. Intramolecular hydride migration from formyl to carbonyl and nitrene ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luan, L.; Brookhart, M.; Templeton, J.L. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reaction of [Tp{prime}W(CO){sub 2}(NPh)][PF{sub 6}] [Tp{prime} = hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)borate] with lithium borohydride at -40 {degrees}C generates Tp{prime}W(CO)(Nph)(CHO) (1), which undergoes hydride migration from carbon to nitrogen (at -70 {degrees}C, k{sub obs} = 7.2 x 10{sup -6} s{sup -1}, {Delta}G{sup {double_dagger}} = 16.5 kcal/mol, t{sub {1/2}} = 27 h) to form Tp{prime}W(CO){sub 2}(NHPh). Crossover experiments indicate that the hydride migration is intramolecular. The metal formyl intermediate is fluxional; hydride migration interconverts the formyl and carbonyl ligands. The rate constant for this degenerate migration is 40 s{sup -1} at -41 {degrees}C with {Delta}G{sup {double_dagger}} = 11.7 kcal/mol. The analogous acyl complex Tp{prime}W(CO)(Nph)[C(O)Ph] (3) has been synthesized from the reaction of [Tp{prime}W(CO){sub 2}-(NPh)][PF{sub 6}] with PhMgBr. 9 refs.

  1. Proposal to Lead the Virtual Center on Carbon Materials, and support the Chemical Hydrides Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of nanoscale carbons, SWNTs, MWNTs by laser vaporization, chemical vapor deposition, hot wire CVD, and arc-discharge methods. Experience with dopant and/or catalyst incorporation NREL Capabilities in Carbon Materials laser by transition metal hydride complexes (funded by DOE BES) Lead DOE lab for new SiH4 production process ­ pilot

  2. Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage Darlene K. Slattery and Michael D. Hampton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Center 1679 Clearlake Road Cocoa, FL 32922 Abstract Complex hydrides, containing a minimum of 7 must be capable of being regenerated with a minimal energy penalty. It also must release the hydrogen of combinations of these transition metal compounds for use as catalysts. It was found that titanium and iron

  3. A non-isothermal model of a nickelmetal hydride cell , M. Mohammedb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) to avoid oxygen gas generation during over discharge and has extra capacity to avoid hydrogen gas generation during over- charge. Since the metal hydride material gradually loses capacity through usage due. The side reaction at the positive electrode is oxygen evolu- tion and at the negative electrode oxygen

  4. Wire Wrapped Hexagonal Pin Arrays for Hydride Fueled PWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diller, Peter

    This work contributes to the Hydride Fuels Project, a collaborative effort between UC Berkeley and MIT

  5. Effects of outgassing of loader chamber walls on hydriding of thin films for commercial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Provo, James L., E-mail: jlprovo@verizon.net [Consultant, J.L. Provo Consulting, Trinity, Florida 34655-7179 (United States)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An important aspect of understanding industrial processing is to know the characteristics of the materials used in such processes. A study was performed to determine the effects of hydriding chamber material on the degree of hydriding for the commercial production of thin film hydride targets for various research universities, commercial companies, and government national laboratories. The goal was to increase the degree of hydriding of various thin film hydrides and to study the vacuum environment during air-exposure hydriding. For this purpose, dynamic residual gas analysis during deuterium gas hydride processing was utilized with erbium thin films, employing a special set-up for direct dynamic hydride gas sampling during processing at elevated temperature and full loading gas pressure. Complete process data for (1) a copper–(1.83?wt.?%)beryllium wet hydrogen fired passivated (600?°C–1?h) externally heated pipe hydriding chamber are reported. Dynamic residual gas analysis comparisons during hydriding are presented for hydriding chambers made from (2) alumina (99.8 wt.?%), (3) copper (with an interior aluminum coating ?10 k Å thick, and (4) for a stainless-steel air-fired passivated (900?°C–1?h) chamber. Dynamic data with deuterium gas in the chamber at the hydriding temperature (450?°C) showed the presence and growth of water vapor (D{sub 2}O) and related mixed ion species(H{sub 2}O{sup +}, HDO{sup +}, D{sub 2}O{sup +}, and OD{sup +}) from hydrogen isotope exchange reactions during the 1?h process time. Peaks at mass-to-charge ratios (i.e., m/e) of 12(C{sup +}), 16(CD{sub 2}{sup +}), 17(CHD{sub 2}{sup +}), and 18(CD{sub 3}{sup +}, OD{sup +}) increased for approximately the first half hour of a 1?h hydriding process and then approach steady state. Mass-to-charge peaks at 19(HDO{sup +}) and 20(D{sub 2}O{sup +}) continue to increase throughout the process cycle. Using the m/e?=?20 (D{sub 2}O{sup +}) peak intensity from chamber (1)–Cu(1.83 wt.?%)Be as a standard, the peak intensity from chamber (4)—stainless-steel (air-fired) was 7.1× higher, indicating that the surface of stainless-steel had a larger concentration of reactive oxygen and/or water than hydrogen. The (D{sub 2}O{sup +}) peak intensity from chamber (3)—Cu (interior Al coating) was 1.55× larger and chamber (2)—alumina(99.8%) was 1.33× higher than Cu(1.83 wt.?%)Be. Thus copper–(1.83 wt.?%)beryllium was the best hydriding chamber material studied followed closely by the alumina (99.8 wt.?%) chamber. Gas take-up by Er occluder targets processed in Cu(1.83?wt.?%)Be hydriding chambers (i.e., gas/metal atomic ratios) correlate with the dynamic RGA data.

  6. Hydrogen-storing hydride complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Sesha S. (Tampa, FL); Niemann, Michael U. (Venice, FL); Goswami, D. Yogi (Tampa, FL); Stefanakos, Elias K. (Tampa, FL)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

  7. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  8. Titanium tritide radioisotope heat source development : palladium-coated titanium hydriding kinetics and tritium loading tests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Blarigan, Peter; Shugard, Andrew D.; Walters, R. Tom (Savannah River National Labs, Aiken, SC)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have found that a 180 nm palladium coating enables titanium to be loaded with hydrogen isotopes without the typical 400-500 C vacuum activation step. The hydriding kinetics of Pd coated Ti can be described by the Mintz-Bloch adherent film model, where the rate of hydrogen absorption is controlled by diffusion through an adherent metal-hydride layer. Hydriding rate constants of Pd coated and vacuum activated Ti were found to be very similar. In addition, deuterium/tritium loading experiments were done on stacks of Pd coated Ti foil in a representative-size radioisotope heat source vessel. The experiments demonstrated that such a vessel could be loaded completely, at temperatures below 300 C, in less than 10 hours, using existing department-of-energy tritium handling infrastructure.

  9. A PROTOTYPE FOUR INCH SHORT HYDRIDE (FISH) BED AS A REPLACEMENT TRITIUM STORAGE BED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Estochen, E.; Shanahan, K.; Heung, L.

    2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1st generation (Gen1) metal hydride storage bed assemblies with process vessels (PVs) fabricated from 3 inch nominal pipe size (NPS) pipe to hold up to 12.6 kg of LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} metal hydride for tritium gas absorption, storage, and desorption for over 15 years. The 2nd generation (Gen2) of the bed design used the same NPS for the PV, but the added internal components produced a bed nominally 1.2 m long, and presented a significant challenge for heater cartridge replacement in a footprint limited glove-box. A prototype 3rd generation (Gen3) metal hydride storage bed has been designed and fabricated as a replacement candidate for the Gen2 storage bed. The prototype Gen3 bed uses a PV pipe diameter of 4 inch NPS so the bed length can be reduced below 0.7 m to facilitate heater cartridge replacement. For the Gen3 prototype bed, modeling results show increased absorption rates when using hydrides with lower absorption pressures. To improve absorption performance compared to the Gen2 beds, a LaNi{sub 4.15}Al{sub 0.85} material was procured and processed to obtain the desired pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) properties. Other bed design improvements are also presented.

  10. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  11. Porous metallic bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.

    1984-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous metallic bodies having a substantially uniform pore size of less than about 200 microns and a density of less than about 25 percent theoretical, as well as the method for making them, are disclosed. Group IIA, IIIB, IVB, VB, and rare earth metal hydrides a

  12. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zidan, R; Christopher Fewox, C; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B; Joshua Gray, J

    2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen storage is one of the challenges to be overcome for implementing the ever sought hydrogen economy. Here we report a novel cycle to reversibly form high density hydrogen storage materials such as aluminium hydride. Aluminium hydride (AlH{sub 3}, alane) has a hydrogen storage capacity of 10.1 wt% H{sub 2}, 149 kg H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric density and can be discharged at low temperatures (< 100 C). However, alane has been precluded from use in hydrogen storage systems because of the lack of practical regeneration methods. The direct hydrogenation of aluminium to form AlH{sub 3} requires over 10{sup 5} bars of hydrogen pressure at room temperature and there are no cost effective synthetic means. Here we show an unprecedented reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically, using alkali metal alanates (e.g. NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}) in aprotic solvents. To complete the cycle, the starting alanates can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride being the other compound formed in the electrochemical cell. The process of forming NaAlH{sub 4} from NaH and Al is well established in both solid state and solution reactions. The use of adducting Lewis bases is an essential part of this cycle, in the isolation of alane from the mixtures of the electrochemical cell. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to pure, unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum.

  13. High-Spin Cobalt Hydrides for Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, Patrick L. [Yale University] [Yale University

    2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Organometallic chemists have traditionally used catalysts with strong-field ligands that give low-spin complexes. However, complexes with a weak ligand field have weaker bonds and lower barriers to geometric changes, suggesting that they may lead to more rapid catalytic reactions. Developing our understanding of high-spin complexes requires the use of a broader range of spectroscopic techniques, but has the promise of changing the mechanism and/or selectivity of known catalytic reactions. These changes may enable the more efficient utilization of chemical resources. A special advantage of cobalt and iron catalysts is that the metals are more abundant and cheaper than those currently used for major industrial processes that convert unsaturated organic molecules and biofeedstocks into useful chemicals. This project specifically evaluated the potential of high-spin cobalt complexes for small-molecule reactions for bond rearrangement and cleavage reactions relevant to hydrocarbon transformations. We have learned that many of these reactions proceed through crossing to different spin states: for example, high-spin complexes can flip one electron spin to access a lower-energy reaction pathway for beta-hydride elimination. This reaction enables new, selective olefin isomerization catalysis. The high-spin cobalt complexes also cleave the C-O bond of CO2 and the C-F bonds of fluoroarenes. In each case, the detailed mechanism of the reaction has been determined. Importantly, we have discovered that the cobalt catalysts described here give distinctive selectivities that are better than known catalysts. These selectivities come from a synergy between supporting ligand design and electronic control of the spin-state crossing in the reactions.

  14. Friction Stir Welding of Hydrided Titanium Alloys Mark Taylor, D.P. Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Friction Stir Welding of Hydrided Titanium Alloys Mark Taylor, D.P. Field Multi-Scale Engineering for Undergraduates program under grant number EEC-0754370 During Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a non-consumable tool-state welding process, much frictional heating and force is required of the tool. This steep demand on the tool

  15. arsenic hydrides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2005-12-02 3 Geoneutrino and Hydridic Earth model CERN Preprints Summary: Uranium, Thorium and Potassium-40 abundances in the Earth were calculated in the frame of Hydridic...

  16. americium hydrides: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2012-01-01 3 Geoneutrino and Hydridic Earth model CERN Preprints Summary: Uranium, Thorium and Potassium-40 abundances in the Earth were calculated in the frame of Hydridic...

  17. Incorporation of Hydride Nuclear Fuels in Commercial Light Water Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrani, Kurt Amir

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Zirconium Hydride and Deuteride. Journal of Alloysof ThZr 2 hydrides and deuterides using X-ray and neutronX-ray Diffraction Deuteride - X-ray Diffraction Deuteride -

  18. Interaction of Lithium Hydride and Ammonia Borane in THF . |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Hydride and Ammonia Borane in THF . Interaction of Lithium Hydride and Ammonia Borane in THF . Abstract: The two-step reaction between LiH and NH3BH3 in THF leads to the...

  19. Optimization of hydride fueled pressurized water reactor cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuffler, Carter Alexander

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis contributes to the Hydride Fuels Project, a collaborative effort between UC Berkeley and MIT aimed at investigating the potential benefits of hydride fuel use in light water reactors (LWRs). This pursuit involves ...

  20. HYDRIDE-RELATED DEGRADATION OF SNF CLADDING UNDER REPOSITORY CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. McCoy

    2000-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose and scope of this analysis/model report is to analyze the degradation of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) cladding under repository conditions by the hydride-related metallurgical processes, such as delayed hydride cracking (DHC), hydride reorientation and hydrogen embrittlement, thereby providing a better understanding of the degradation process and clarifying which aspects of the process are known and which need further evaluation and investigation. The intended use is as an input to a more general analysis of cladding degradation.

  1. Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Strategy This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride d-ZrH1.5...

  2. LANL/PNNL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrides and New Concepts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LANLPNNL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrides and New Concepts for Hydrogen Storage LANLPNNL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrides and New Concepts for Hydrogen Storage...

  3. Method of making crack-free zirconium hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Richard W. (Denver, CO)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crack-free hydrides of zirconium and zirconium-uranium alloys are produced by alloying the zirconium or zirconium-uranium alloy with beryllium, or nickel, or beryllium and scandium, or nickel and scandium, or beryllium and nickel, or beryllium, nickel and scandium and thereafter hydriding.

  4. Highly Concentrated Palladium Hydrides/Deuterides; Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papaconstantopoulos, Dimitrios

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Accomplishments are reported in these areas: tight-binding molecular dynamics study of palladium; First-principles calculations and tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations of the palladium-hydrogen system; tight-binding studies of bulk properties and hydrogen vacancies in KBH{sub 4}; tight-binding study of boron structures; development of angular dependent potentials for Pd-H; and density functional and tight-binding calculations for the light-hydrides NaAlH4 and NaBH4

  5. Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    stable, the carbon aerogels are more widely available. For LiBH 4 confined in carbon aerogel, preliminary measurements of CH 4 formation during dehydrogenation showed that CH...

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: metal hydride storage thermal-management...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thermal-management issues ECIS, Boeing, Caltrans, and Others: Fuel-Cell-Powered Mobile Lighting Applications On March 29, 2013, in Capabilities, CRF, Energy, Energy Efficiency,...

  7. Isotope exchange kinetics in metal hydrides I : TPLUG model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, Rich; James, Scott Carlton; Nilson, Robert H.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-dimensional isobaric reactor model is used to simulate hydrogen isotope exchange processes taking place during flow through a powdered palladium bed. This simple model is designed to serve primarily as a platform for the initial development of detailed chemical mechanisms that can then be refined with the aid of more complex reactor descriptions. The one-dimensional model is based on the Sandia in-house code TPLUG, which solves a transient set of governing equations including an overall mass balance for the gas phase, material balances for all of the gas-phase and surface species, and an ideal gas equation of state. An energy equation can also be solved if thermodynamic properties for all of the species involved are known. The code is coupled with the Chemkin package to facilitate the incorporation of arbitrary multistep reaction mechanisms into the simulations. This capability is used here to test and optimize a basic mechanism describing the surface chemistry at or near the interface between the gas phase and a palladium particle. The mechanism includes reversible dissociative adsorptions of the three gas-phase species on the particle surface as well as atomic migrations between the surface and the bulk. The migration steps are more general than those used previously in that they do not require simultaneous movement of two atoms in opposite directions; this makes possible the creation and destruction of bulk vacancies and thus allows the model to account for variations in the bulk stoichiometry with isotopic composition. The optimization code APPSPACK is used to adjust the mass-action rate constants so as to achieve the best possible fit to a given set of experimental data, subject to a set of rigorous thermodynamic constraints. When data for nearly isothermal and isobaric deuterium-to-hydrogen (D {yields} H) and hydrogen-to-deuterium (H {yields} D) exchanges are fitted simultaneously, results for the former are excellent, while those for the latter show pronounced deviations at long times. These discrepancies can be overcome by postulating the presence of a surface poison such as carbon monoxide, but this explanation is highly speculative. When the method is applied to D {yields} H exchanges intentionally poisoned by known amounts of CO, the fitting results are noticeably degraded from those for the nominally CO-free system but are still tolerable. When TPLUG is used to simulate a blowdown-type experiment, which is characterized by large and rapid changes in both pressure and temperature, discrepancies are even more apparent. Thus, it can be concluded that the best use of TPLUG is not in simulating realistic exchange scenarios, but in extracting preliminary estimates for the kinetic parameters from experiments in which variations in temperature and pressure are intentionally minimized.

  8. ab5 metal hydride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Hydrogen Research, for providing me wreath a generous assistantship and a great environment to conduct my... continued interest in my research long after I left BNL....

  9. Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you wantJoin us for|Idaho | DepartmentEnergy Steps to

  10. Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+ Report Presentation:inEnergy Dual-Purpose Heat Transfer

  11. Proposed Virtual Center for Excellence for Metal Hydride Development |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+ ReportEnergy NationalDepartment of31548 Vol. 77, No. 1032 of

  12. Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative JC3 RSS September 9,AwardGradsSites PendingAgreementsSteam Systems Steam

  13. Designation of Sites for Remedial Action - Metal Hydrides, Beverly,

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling CorpNew 1325.8. (8-89)p,Departtient,of EndrgyT:

  14. Metal Hydride Hydrogen Storage Research and Development | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & GasTechnicalMeetingand NorthernMessaging Strategies

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL REACTIVITY OF SOLID STATE HYDRIDE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J; Donald Anton, D

    2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In searching for high gravimetric and volumetric density hydrogen storage systems, it is inevitable that higher energy density materials will be used. In order to make safe and commercially acceptable condensed phase hydrogen storage systems, it is important to understand quantitatively the risks involved in using and handling these materials and to develop appropriate mitigation strategies to handle potential material exposure events. A crucial aspect of the development of risk identification and mitigation strategies is the development of rigorous environmental reactivity testing standards and procedures. This will allow for the identification of potential risks and implementation of risk mitigation strategies. Modified testing procedures for shipping air and/or water sensitive materials, as codified by the United Nations, have been used to evaluate two potential hydrogen storage materials, 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}. The modified U.N. procedures include identification of self-reactive substances, pyrophoric substances, and gas-emitting substances with water contact. The results of these tests for air and water contact sensitivity will be compared to the pure material components where appropriate (e.g. LiBH{sub 4} and MgH{sub 2}). The water contact tests are divided into two scenarios dependent on the hydride to water mole ratio and heat transport characteristics. Air contact tests were run to determine whether a substance will spontaneously react with air in a packed or dispersed form. In the case of the 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2} material, the results from the hydride mixture compared to the pure materials results showed the MgH{sub 2} to be the least reactive component and LiBH{sub 4} the more reactive. The combined 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2} resulted in a material having environmental reactivity between these two materials. Relative to 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2}, the chemical hydride NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} was observed to be less environmentally reactive.

  16. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  17. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  18. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  19. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  20. Use of Solid Hydride Fuel for Improved long-Life LWR Core Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenspan, E

    2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of improving the performance of PWR and BWR cores by using solid hydride fuels instead of the commonly used oxide fuel. The primary measure of performance considered is the bus-bar cost of electricity (COE). Additional performance measures considered are safety, fuel bundle design simplicity – in particular for BWR’s, and plutonium incineration capability. It was found that hydride fuel can safely operate in PWR’s and BWR’s without restricting the linear heat generation rate of these reactors relative to that attainable with oxide fuel. A couple of promising applications of hydride fuel in PWR’s and BWR’s were identified: (1) Eliminating dedicated water moderator volumes in BWR cores thus enabling to significantly increase the cooled fuel rods surface area as well as the coolant flow cross section area in a given volume fuel bundle while significantly reducing the heterogeneity of BWR fuel bundles thus achieving flatter pin-by-pin power distribution. The net result is a possibility to significantly increase the core power density – on the order of 30% and, possibly, more, while greatly simplifying the fuel bundle design. Implementation of the above modifications is, though, not straightforward; it requires a design of completely different control system that could probably be implemented only in newly designed plants. It also requires increasing the coolant pressure drop across the core. (2) Recycling plutonium in PWR’s more effectively than is possible with oxide fuel by virtue of a couple of unique features of hydride fuel – reduced inventory of U-238 and increased inventory of hydrogen. As a result, the hydride fuelled core achieves nearly double the average discharge burnup and the fraction of the loaded Pu it incinerates in one pass is double that of the MOX fuel. The fissile fraction of the Pu in the discharged hydride fuel is only ~2/3 that of the MOX fuel and the discharged hydride fuel is more proliferation resistant. Preliminary feasibility assessment indicates that by replacing some of the ZrH1.6 by ThH2 it will be possible to further improve the plutonium incineration capability of PWR’s. Other possibly promising applications of hydride fuel were identified but not evaluated in this work. A number of promising oxide fueled PWR core designs were also found as spin-offs of this study: (1) The optimal oxide fueled PWR core design features smaller fuel rod diameter of D=6.5 mm and a larger pitch-to-diameter ratio of P/D=1.39 than presently practiced by industry – 9.5mm and 1.326. This optimal design can provide a 30% increase in the power density and a 24% reduction in the cost of electricity (COE) provided the PWR could be designed to have the coolant pressure drop across the core increased from the reference 29 psia to 60 psia. (2) Using wire wrapped oxide fuel rods in hexagonal fuel assemblies it is possible to design PWR cores to operate at 54% higher power density than the reference PWR design that uses grid spacers and a square lattice, provided 60 psia coolant pressure drop across the core could be accommodated. Uprating existing PWR’s to use such cores could result in 40% reduction in the COE. The optimal lattice geometry is D = 8.08 mm and P/D = 1.41. The most notable advantages of wire wraps over grid spacers are their significant lower pressure drop, higher critical heat flux and improved vibrations characteristics.

  1. Transient analysis of hydride fueled pressurized water reactor cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trant, Jarrod Michael

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis contributes to the hydride nuclear fuel project led by U. C. Berkeley for which MIT is to perform the thermal hydraulic and economic analyses. A parametric study has been performed to determine the optimum ...

  2. CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PROPERTIES AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF TITANIUM HYDRIDE LAYERS GROWN ON TITANIUM IMPLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC PROPERTIES AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF TITANIUM HYDRIDE LAYERS GROWN ON TITANIUM, Switzerland Keywords: SLA treated titanium - bone-anchored dental implants - transmission and scanning electron microscopy - titanium hydride sub-surface layer - epitaxy Abstract Commercially pure titanium

  3. Synthesis and small molecule chemistry of the niobaziridine-hydride functional group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueroa, Joshua S

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1. Synthesis and Divergent Reactivity of the Niobaziridine-Hydride Functional Group The synthesis, characterization and reactivity of the niobaziridine-hydride complex Nb(H)([eta]²-t- ]Bu(H)C=NAr)(N[Np]Ar)? (la-H; ...

  4. THERMAL ENHANCEMENT CARTRIDGE HEATER MODIFIED TECH MOD TRITIUM HYDRIDE BED DEVELOPMENT PART I DESIGN AND FABRICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Estochen, E.

    2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1{sup st} generation (Gen1) LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA0.75) metal hydride storage beds for tritium absorption, storage, and desorption. The Gen1 design utilizes hot and cold nitrogen supplies to thermally cycle these beds. Second and 3{sup rd} generation (Gen2 and Gen3) storage bed designs include heat conducting foam and divider plates to spatially fix the hydride within the bed. For thermal cycling, the Gen2 and Gen 3 beds utilize internal electric heaters and glovebox atmosphere flow over the bed inside the bed external jacket for cooling. The currently installed Gen1 beds require replacement due to tritium aging effects on the LANA0.75 material, and cannot be replaced with Gen2 or Gen3 beds due to different designs of these beds. At the end of service life, Gen1 bed desorption efficiencies are limited by the upper temperature of hot nitrogen supply. To increase end-of-life desorption efficiency, the Gen1 bed design was modified, and a Thermal Enhancement Cartridge Heater Modified (TECH Mod) bed was developed. Internal electric cartridge heaters in the new design to improve end-of-life desorption, and also permit in-bed tritium accountability (IBA) calibration measurements to be made without the use of process tritium. Additional enhancements implemented into the TECH Mod design are also discussed.

  5. A Novel Zr-1Nb Alloy and a New Look at Hydriding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert D. Mariani; James I. Cole; Assel Aitkaliyeva

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel Zr-1Nb has begun development based on a working model that takes into account the hydrogen permeabilities for zirconium and niobium metals. The beta-Nb secondary phase particles (SPPs) in Zr-1Nb are believed to promote more rapid hydrogen dynamics in the alloy in comparison to other zirconium alloys. Furthermore, some hydrogen release is expected at the lower temperatures corresponding to outages when the partial pressure of H2 in the coolant is less. These characteristics lessen the negative synergism between corrosion and hydriding that is otherwise observed in cladding alloys without niobium. In accord with the working model, development of nanoscale precursors was initiated to enhance the performance of existing Zr-1Nb alloys. Their characteristics and properties can be compared to oxide-dispersion strengthened alloys, and material additions have been proposed to zirconium-based LWR cladding to guard further against hydriding and to fix the size of the SPPs for microstructure stability enhancements. A preparative route is being investigated that does not require mechanical alloying, and 10 nanometer molybdenum particles have been prepared which are part of the nanoscale precursors. If successful, the approach has implications for long term dry storage of used fuel and for new routes to nanoferritic and ODS alloys.

  6. Final Report: Metal Perhydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, J-Y.; Shi, S.; Hackney, S.; Swenson, D.; Hu, Y.

    2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen is a promising energy source for the future economy due to its environmental friendliness. One of the important obstacles for the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel source for applications such as fuel cells is the storage of hydrogen. In the infrastructure of the expected hydrogen economy, hydrogen storage is one of the key enabling technologies. Although hydrogen possesses the highest gravimetric energy content (142 KJ/g) of all fuels, its volumetric energy density (8 MJ/L) is very low. It is desired to increase the volumetric energy density of hydrogen in a system to satisfy various applications. Research on hydrogen storage has been pursed for many years. Various storage technologies, including liquefaction, compression, metal hydride, chemical hydride, and adsorption, have been examined. Liquefaction and high pressure compression are not desired due to concerns related to complicated devices, high energy cost and safety. Metal hydrides and chemical hydrides have high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities but encounter issues because high temperature is required for the release of hydrogen, due to the strong bonding of hydrogen in the compounds. Reversibility of hydrogen loading and unloading is another concern. Adsorption of hydrogen on high surface area sorbents such as activated carbon and organic metal frameworks does not have the reversibility problem. But on the other hand, the weak force (primarily the van der Waals force) between hydrogen and the sorbent yields a very small amount of adsorption capacity at ambient temperature. Significant storage capacity can only be achieved at low temperatures such as 77K. The use of liquid nitrogen in a hydrogen storage system is not practical. Perhydrides are proposed as novel hydrogen storage materials that may overcome barriers slowing advances to a hydrogen fuel economy. In conventional hydrides, e.g. metal hydrides, the number of hydrogen atoms equals the total valence of the metal ions. One LiH molecule contains one hydrogen atom because the valence of a Li ion is +1. One MgH2 molecule contains two hydrogen atoms because the valence of a Mg ion is +2. In metal perhydrides, a molecule could contain more hydrogen atoms than expected based on the metal valance, i.e. LiH1+n and MgH2+n (n is equal to or greater than 1). When n is sufficiently high, there will be plenty of hydrogen storage capacity to meet future requirements. The existence of hydrogen clusters, Hn+ (n = 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15) and transition metal ion-hydrogen clusters, M+(H2)n (n = 1-6), such as Sc(H2)n+, Co(H2)n+, etc., have assisted the development of this concept. Clusters are not stable species. However, their existence stimulates our approach on using electric charges to enhance the hydrogen adsorption in a hydrogen storage system in this study. The experimental and modeling work to verify it are reported here. Experimental work included the generation of cold hydrogen plasma through a microwave approach, synthesis of sorbent materials, design and construction of lab devices, and the determination of hydrogen adsorption capacities on various sorbent materials under various electric field potentials and various temperatures. The results consistently show that electric potential enhances the adsorption of hydrogen on sorbents. NiO, MgO, activated carbon, MOF, and MOF and platinum coated activated carbon are some of the materials studied. Enhancements up to a few hundred percents have been found. In general, the enhancement increases with the electrical potential, the pressure applied, and the temperature lowered. Theoretical modeling of the hydrogen adsorption on the sorbents under the electric potential has been investigated with the density functional theory (DFT) approach. It was found that the interaction energy between hydrogen and sorbent is increased remarkably when an electric field is applied. This increase of binding energy offers a potential solution for DOE when looking for a compromise between chemisorption and physisorption for hydrogen storage. Bonding of chemisorption is too

  7. Raman Spectroscopy of Lithium Hydride Corrosion: Selection of an Appropriate Excitation Wavelength to Minimize Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stowe, A. C.; Smyrl, N. R.

    2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent interest in a hydrogen-based fuel economy has renewed research into metal hydride chemistry. Many of these compounds react readily with water to release hydrogen gas and form a caustic. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFT) has been used to study the hydrolysis reaction. The LiOH stretch appears at 3670 cm{sup -1}. Raman spectroscopy is a complementary technique that employs monochromatic excitation (laser) allowing access to the low energy region of the vibrational spectrum (<600 cm{sup -1}). Weak scattering and fluorescence typically prevent Raman from being used for many compounds. The role of Li{sub 2}O in the moisture reaction has not been fully studied for LiH. Li{sub 2}O can be observed by Raman while being hidden in the Infrared spectrum.

  8. Metallization for Self Aligned Technology: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-295

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginley, D.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this CRADA NREL will modify/develop metallization inks that are compatible with 1366 Technologies technology. Various methods of deposition will be used to apply the inks to the textured silicon substrates. The goal of the project is to minimize the contact resistance while maximizing the cell efficiency.

  9. Metallic Inks for Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-370

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Hest, M.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the statement of work for National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as a subcontractor for Applied Nanotech, Inc. (ANI) for the Phase II SBIR contract with the Department of Energy to build silicon solar cells using non-contact printed, nanoparticle-based metallic inks. The conductive inks are based upon ANI's proprietary method for nanoparticle dispersion. The primary inks under development are aluminum for silicon solar cell back plane contacts and copper for top interdigitated contacts. The current direction of silicon solar cell technology is to use thinner silicon wafers. The reduction in wafer thickness reduces overall material usage and can increase efficiency. These thin silicon wafers are often very brittle and normal methods used for conductive feed line application, such as screen-printing, are detrimental. The Phase II program will be focused on materials development for metallic inks that can be applied to a silicon solar cell using non-contact methods. Uniform BSF (Back Surface Field) formation will be obtained by optimizing ink formulation and curing conditions to improve cell efficiency.

  10. FEASIBILITY OF RECYCLING PLUTONIUM AND MINOR ACTINIDES IN LIGHT WATER REACTORS USING HYDRIDE FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenspan, Ehud; Todreas, Neil; Taiwo, Temitope

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this DOE NERI program sponsored project was to assess the feasibility of improving the plutonium (Pu) and minor actinide (MA) recycling capabilities of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) by using hydride instead of oxide fuels. There are four general parts to this assessment: 1) Identifying promising hydride fuel assembly designs for recycling Pu and MAs in PWRs 2) Performing a comprehensive systems analysis that compares the fuel cycle characteristics of Pu and MA recycling in PWRs using the promising hydride fuel assembly designs identified in Part 1 versus using oxide fuel assembly designs 3) Conducting a safety analysis to assess the likelihood of licensing hydride fuel assembly designs 4) Assessing the compatibility of hydride fuel with cladding materials and water under typical PWR operating conditions Hydride fuel was found to offer promising transmutation characteristics and is recommended for further examination as a possible preferred option for recycling plutonium in PWRs.

  11. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE STORAGE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zidan, R; Christopher Fewox, C; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B; Joshua Gray, J

    2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the challenges of implementing the hydrogen economy is finding a suitable solid H{sub 2} storage material. Aluminium (alane, AlH{sub 3}) hydride has been examined as a potential hydrogen storage material because of its high weight capacity, low discharge temperature, and volumetric density. Recycling the dehydride material has however precluded AlH{sub 3} from being implemented due to the large pressures required (>10{sup 5} bar H{sub 2} at 25 C) and the thermodynamic expense of chemical synthesis. A reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically using NaAlH{sub 4} in THF been successfully demonstrated. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum. To complete the cycle, the starting alanate can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride (NaH) This novel reversible cycle opens the door for alane to fuel the hydrogen economy.

  12. Mixed metal films with switchable optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Slack, Jonathan L.; Farangis, Baker; Rubin, Michael D.

    2001-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin, Pd-capped metallic films containing magnesium and first row transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co) switch reversibly from their initial reflecting state to visually transparent states when exposed to gaseous hydrogen or following cathodic polarization in an alkaline electrolyte. Reversion to the reflecting state is achieved by exposure to air or by anodic polarization. The films were prepared by co-sputtering from one magnesium target and one manganese, iron, or cobalt target. Both the dynamic optical switching range and the speed of the transition depend on the magnesium-transition metal ratio. Infrared spectra of films in the transparent, hydrided (deuterided) states support the presence of the intermetallic hydride phases Mg3MnH7, Mg2FeH6, and Mg2CoH5.

  13. Ground-state energy and relativistic corrections for positronium hydride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bubin, Sergiy; Varga, Kalman [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Variational calculations of the ground state of positronium hydride (HPs) are reported, including various expectation values, electron-positron annihilation rates, and leading relativistic corrections to the total and dissociation energies. The calculations have been performed using a basis set of 4000 thoroughly optimized explicitly correlated Gaussian basis functions. The relative accuracy of the variational energy upper bound is estimated to be of the order of 2x10{sup -10}, which is a significant improvement over previous nonrelativistic results.

  14. Hydrogen Storage Properties of New Hydrogen-Rich BH3NH3-Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Properties of New Hydrogen-Rich BH3NH3-Metal Hydride (TiH2, ZrH2, MgH2, andor CaH2) Composite Systems. Hydrogen Storage Properties of New Hydrogen-Rich BH3NH3-Metal...

  15. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  16. Solid-State Gadolinium-Magnesium Hydride Optical Switch R. Armitage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -state electrochromic device. With positive polarization of the hydride electrode, the visible reflectance approaches 35 and reflecting states. Keywords: gadolinium-magnesium; electrochromic hydride; optical switching device. 2 #12;A conventional electrochromics5 . Optical switching has also been demonstrated by varying the H content

  17. Microstructure and hydriding studies of AB/sub 5/ hydrogen storage compounds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodell, P.D.; Sandrock, G.D.; Huston, E.L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New data on the microstructure, pressure-composition-temperature, and absorption/desorption kinetics of AB/sub 5/ metal hydrides are presented. The most significant result to emerge from the investigation is that many of the AB/sub 5/ metal hydrides, especially the LaNi/sub 5/ related materials, show instantaneous absorption and desorption response in proportion to the amount of cooling or heating which is provided. Eight categories of materials were studied: reference alloys (LaNi/sub 5/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 9/Al/sub 0/ /sub 1/, LaNi/sub 3/Co/sub 2/); Ni second phase particles (LaNi/sub 5/ /sub 67/, LaNi/sub 7/, LaNi/sub 11/ /sub 3/); eutectoid microstructure (SmCo/sub 5/); other second phases (LaNi/sub 3/ /sub 8/Fe/sub 1/ /sub 2/, LaNi/sub 3/ /sub 5/Cr/sub 1/ /sub 5/, LaNi/sub 4/Cr, LaNi/sub 4/Si; LaNi/sub 4/Sn, MNi/sub 4/Sn, MNi/sub 4/ /sub 3/Al/sub 0/ /sub 7/); substitutional elements (LaNi/sub 4/Cu, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 5/Pd/sub 0/ /sub 5/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 7/Sn/sub 0/ /sub 3/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 8/C/sub 0/ /sub 2/, MNi/sub 4/ /sub 3/Mn/sub 0/ /sub 7/); surface active elements (LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 8/B/sub 0/ /sub 2/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 9/S/sub 0/ /sub 1/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 9/Se/sub 0/ /sub 1/); large diameter atom substitutions (Mg/sub 0/ /sub 1/La/sub 0/ /sub 9/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/La/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Sr/sub 0/ /sub 2/La/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ba/sub 0/ /sub 2/La/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/); other compositions (LaNi/sub 3/); and Pd plating (electroless plated samples and mechanically alloyed specimens).

  18. ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fewox, C; Ragaiy Zidan, R; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen storage is one of the greatest challenges for implementing the ever sought hydrogen economy. Here we report a novel cycle to reversibly form high density hydrogen storage materials such as aluminium hydride. Aluminium hydride (AlH{sub 3}, alane) has a hydrogen storage capacity of 10.1 wt% H{sub 2}, 149 kg H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric density and can be discharged at low temperatures (< 100 C). However, alane has been precluded from use in hydrogen storage systems because of the lack of practical regeneration methods; the direct hydrogenation of aluminium to form AlH{sub 3} requires over 10{sup 5} bars of hydrogen pressure at room temperature and there are no cost effective synthetic means. Here we show an unprecedented reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically, using alkali alanates (e.g. NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}) in aprotic solvents. To complete the cycle, the starting alanates can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride being the other compound formed in the electrochemical cell. The process of forming NaAlH{sub 4} from NaH and Al is well established in both solid state and solution reactions. The use of adducting Lewis bases is an essential part of this cycle, in the isolation of alane from the mixtures of the electrochemical cell. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to pure, unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum.

  19. The calculated rovibronic spectrum of scandium hydride, ScH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lodi, Lorenzo; Tennyson\\, Jonathan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic structure of six low-lying electronic states of scandium hydride, $X\\,{}^{1}\\Sigma^+$, $a\\,{}^{3}\\Delta$, $b\\,{}^{3}\\Pi$, $A\\,{}^{1}\\Delta$ $c\\,{}^{3}\\Sigma^+$, and $B\\,{}^{1}\\Pi$, is studied using multi-reference configuration interaction as a function of bond length. Diagonal and off-diagonal dipole moment, spin-orbit coupling and electronic angular momentum curves are also computed. The results are benchmarked against experimental measurements and calculations on atomic scandium. The resulting curves are used to compute a line list of molecular ro-vibronic transitions for $^{45}$ScH.

  20. Electrochemical process and production of novel complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of using an electrochemical cell to generate aluminum hydride (AlH.sub.3) is provided. The electrolytic cell uses a polar solvent to solubilize NaAlH.sub.4. The resulting electrochemical process results in the formation of AlH.sub.3. The AlH.sub.3 can be recovered and used as a source of hydrogen for the automotive industry. The resulting spent aluminum can be regenerated into NaAlH.sub.4 as part of a closed loop process of AlH.sub.3 generation.

  1. Proximity breakdown of hydrides in superconducting niobium cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romanenko, A; Cooley, L D; Grassellino, A

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many modern and proposed future particle accelerators rely on superconducting radio frequency cavities made of bulk niobium as primary particle accelerating structures. Such cavities suffer from the anomalous field dependence of their quality factors Q0. High field degradation - so-called high field Q-slope - is yet unexplained even though an empirical cure is known. Here we propose a mechanism based on the presence of proximity-coupled niobium hydrides, which can explain this effect. Furthermore, the same mechanism can be present in any surface-sensitive experiments or superconducting devices involving niobium.

  2. Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Senkov, Oleg N. (Moscow, ID)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

  3. Method of generating hydrogen-storing hydride complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Sesha S; Niemann, Michael U; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias K

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

  4. GAS-PHASE REACTIONS OF HYDRIDE ANION, H{sup -}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, Oscar; Yang Zhibo; Demarais, Nicholas J.; Bierbaum, Veronica M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 215 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0215 (United States); Snow, Theodore P., E-mail: Oscar.Martinez@colorado.ed, E-mail: Zhibo.Yang@colorado.ed, E-mail: Nicholas.Demarais@colorado.ed, E-mail: Veronica.Bierbaum@colorado.ed, E-mail: Theodore.Snow@colorado.ed [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, 391 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0391 (United States)

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rate constants were measured at 300 K for the reactions of the hydride anion, H{sup -}, with neutral molecules C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}CN, CH{sub 3}OH, (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO, CH{sub 3}CHO, N{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 3}Cl, (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}CCl, (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}O, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, and D{sub 2} using a flowing-afterglow instrument. Experimental work was supplemented by ab initio calculations to provide insight into the viability of reaction pathways. Our reported rate constants should prove useful to models of astrophysical environments where conditions prevail for the existence of both H{sup -} and neutral species. The variety of neutral reactants studied includes representative species from prototypical chemical groups, effectively mapping reactivity trends for the hydride anion.

  5. Light-Induced Metal-Insulator Transition in a Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoekstra, A. F. Th.; Roy, A. S.; Rosenbaum, T. F.; Griessen, R.; Wijngaarden, R. J.; Koeman, N. J.

    2001-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Rare earth hydride films can be converted reversibly from metallic mirrors to insulating windows simply by changing the surrounding hydrogen gas pressure at room temperature. At low temperatures, in situ doping is not possible in this way as hydrogen cannot diffuse. However, our finding of persistent photoconductivity under ultraviolet illumination offers an attractive possibility to tune yttrium hydride through the T=0 metal-insulator transition. Conductivity and Hall measurements are used to determine critical exponents. The unusually large value for the product of the static and dynamical critical exponents appears to signify the important role played by electron-electron interactions.

  6. Electronic band structure and optical properties of the cubic, Sc, Y and La hydride systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterman, D.J.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electronic band structure calculations are used to interpret the optical spectra of the cubic Sc, Y and La hydride systems. Self-consistent band calculations of ScH/sub 2/ and YH/sub 2/ were carried out. The respective joint densities of states are computed and compared to the dielectric functions determined from the optical measurements. Additional calculations were performed in which the Fermi level or band gap energies are rigidly shifted by a small energy increment. These calculations are then used to simulate the derivative structure in thermomodulation spectra and relate the origin of experimental interband features to the calculated energy bands. While good systematic agreement is obtained for several spectral features, the origin of low-energy interband transitions in YH/sub 2/ cannot be explained by these calculated bands. A lattice-size-dependent premature occupation of octahedral sites by hydrogen atoms in the fcc metal lattice is suggested to account for this discrepancy. Various non-self-consistent calculations are used to examine the effect of such a premature occupation. Measurements of the optical absorptivity of LaH/sub x/ with 1.6 < x < 2.9 are presented which, as expected, indicate a more premature occupation of the octahedral sites in the larger LaH/sub 2/ lattice. These experimental results also suggest that, in contrast to recent calculations, LaH/sub 3/ is a small-band-gap semiconductor.

  7. Polar intermetallic compounds of the silicon and arsenic family elements and their ternary hydrides and fluorides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leon-Escamilla, E.A.

    1996-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation has been made on the effects of hydrogen and fluoride in the solid state chemistry of alkaline-earth and divalent rare-earth metal pnictide (Pn) and tetrelide (Tt) phases A{sub 5}(Pn,Tt,){sub 3}Z{sub x}, where A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Sm, Eu, Yb; Pn = As, Sb, Bi; Tt = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb and Z = H, F. Several trivalent rare-earth-metal pnictides, RE{sub 5}Pn{sub 3} (RE = Y, La, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) and alkaline-earth-metal trielides, A{sub 5}Tr{sub 3}Z{sub x} (Tr = Ga, In, Tl) have been included in an effort to complete observed structural trends. Two main experimental techniques were followed throughout this work, (a) reactions in absence of hydrogen or under continuous high vacuum, and (b) reactions with binary metal hydrides, AH{sub x}, in closed containers. The results demonstrate that all the phases reported with the {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type structure in the A{sub 5}Pn{sub 3} systems are hydrogen-stabilized compounds. Reactions in absence of hydrogen lead to compounds with the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type structure. The structure type {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} (= Ca{sub 5}SB{sub 3}F) was found to be characteristic of ternary systems and inaccurately associated with phases that form in the Y{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}-type. A new series of isomorphous Zintl compounds with the Ca{sub 16}Sb{sub 11}-type structure were prepared and studied as well. All the alkaline-earth-metal tetrelides, A{sub 5}Tt{sub 3}, that crystallize in the Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}-type structure can be interstitially derivatized by hydrogen or fluoride. Binary and ternary compounds were characterized by Guinier powder patterns, single crystal X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. In an effort to establish property-structure relationships, electrical resistivity and magnetic measurements were performed on selected systems, and the results were explained in terms of the Zintl concepts, aided by extended Hueckel band calculations.

  8. First-principles calculations of niobium hydride formation in superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, Denise C.; Cooley, Lance D.; Seidman, David N.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Niobium hydride is suspected to be a major contributor to degradation of the quality factor of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. In this study, we connect the fundamental properties of hydrogen in niobium to SRF cavity performance and processing. We modeled several of the niobium hydride phases relevant to SRF cavities and present their thermodynamic, electronic, and geometric properties determined from calculations based on density-functional theory. We find that the absorption of hydrogen from the gas phase into niobium is exothermic and hydrogen becomes somewhat anionic. The absorption of hydrogen by niobium lattice vacancies is strongly preferred over absorption into interstitial sites. A single vacancy can accommodate six hydrogen atoms in the symmetrically equivalent lowest-energy sites and additional hydrogen in the nearby interstitial sites affected by the strain field: this indicates that a vacancy can serve as a nucleation center for hydride phase formation. Small hydride precipitates may then occur near lattice vacancies upon cooling. Vacancy clusters and extended defects should also be enriched in hydrogen, potentially resulting in extended hydride phase regions upon cooling. We also assess the phase changes in the niobium-hydrogen system based on charge transfer between niobium and hydrogen, the strain field associated with interstitial hydrogen, and the geometry of the hydride phases. The results of this study stress the importance of not only the hydrogen content in niobium, but also the recovery state of niobium for the performance of SRF cavities.

  9. Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into Moose-Bison and Validation Strategy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weck, Philippe F; Tikare, Veena; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Clark, B (SNL); Mitchell, J (SNL); Glazoff, Michael V.; Homer, Eric R.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride ?-ZrH{sub 1.5} precipitation in the cladding of used nuclear fuels that may occur during long-term dry storage. While the Zr-based claddings are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service, in the reactor by a process commonly termed ‘hydrogen pick-up’. The precipitation and growth of zirconium hydrides during dry storage is one of the most likely fuel rod integrity failure mechanisms either by embrittlement or delayed hydride cracking of the cladding (Hanson et al., 2011). While the phenomenon is well documented and identified as a potential key failure mechanism during long-term dry storage (Birk et al., 2012 and NUREG/CR-7116), the ability to actually predict the formation of hydrides is poor. The model being documented in this work is a computational capability for the prediction of hydride formation in different claddings of used nuclear fuels. This work supports the Used Fuel Disposition Research and Development Campaign in assessing the structural engineering performance of the cladding during and after long-term dry storage. In this work, a model to numerically simulate hydride precipitation at the microstructural scale, in a wide variety of Zr-based claddings, under dry-storage conditions is being developed. It will be used to aid in the evaluation of the mechanical integrity of used fuel rods during dry storage and transportation by providing the structural conditions from the microstructural scale to the continuum scale to engineering component scale models to predict if the used fuel rods will perform without failure under normal and off-normal conditions. The microstructure, especially, the hydride structure is thought to be a primary determinant of cladding failure, thus this component of UFD’s storage and transportation analysis program is critical. The model development, application and validation of the model are documented and the limitations of the current model are discussed. The model has been shown to simulate hydride precipitation in Zircaloy-4 cladding with correct morphology, thermodynamics and kinetics. An unexpected insight obtained from simulations hydride formation in Zircaloy-4 is that small (sub-micron) precipitates need to order themselves to form the larger hydrides typically described as radially-reoriented precipitates. A limitation of this model is that it does not currently solve the stress state that forms dynamically in the precipitate or matrix surrounding the precipitate. A method to overcome the limitations is suggested and described in detail. The necessary experiments to provide key materials physics and to validate the model are also recommended.

  10. Journal of Solid State Chemistry 178 (2005) 25272532 Gas sorption properties of microporous metal organic frameworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    , liquefaction, metal hydrides and porous carbon-based adsorbents, have various difficulties that must be overcome before large-scale commercialization can be considered [1]. Developing new storage materials of these porous materials are well-characterized pores, small pore dimension, high micropore volume, and high

  11. The affect of erbium hydride on the conversion efficience to accelerated protons from ultra-shsort pulse laser irradiated foils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Offermann, D

    2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis work explores, experimentally, the potential gains in the conversion efficiency from ultra-intense laser light to proton beams using erbium hydride coatings. For years, it has been known that contaminants at the rear surface of an ultra-intense laser irradiated thin foil will be accelerated to multi-MeV. Inertial Confinement Fusion fast ignition using proton beams as the igniter source requires of about 10{sup 16} protons with an average energy of about 3MeV. This is far more than the 10{sup 12} protons available in the contaminant layer. Target designs must include some form of a hydrogen rich coating that can be made thick enough to support the beam requirements of fast ignition. Work with computer simulations of thin foils suggest the atomic mass of the non-hydrogen atoms in the surface layer has a strong affect on the conversion efficiency to protons. For example, the 167amu erbium atoms will take less energy away from the proton beam than a coating using carbon with a mass of 12amu. A pure hydrogen coating would be ideal, but technologically is not feasible at this time. In the experiments performed for my thesis, ErH{sub 3} coatings on 5 {micro}m gold foils are compared with typical contaminants which are approximately equivalent to CH{sub 1.7}. It will be shown that there was a factor of 1.25 {+-} 0.19 improvement in the conversion efficiency for protons above 3MeV using erbium hydride using the Callisto laser. Callisto is a 10J per pulse, 800nm wavelength laser with a pulse duration of 200fs and can be focused to a peak intensity of about 5 x 10{sup 19}W/cm{sup 2}. The total number of protons from either target type was on the order of 10{sup 10}. Furthermore, the same experiment was performed on the Titan laser, which has a 500fs pulse duration, 150J of energy and can be focused to about 3 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. In this experiment 10{sup 12} protons were seen from both erbium hydride and contaminants on 14 {micro} m gold foils. Significant improvements were also observed but possibly because of the depletion of hydrogen in the contaminant layer case.

  12. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullendore, A.W.

    1988-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides,e.g., transition metal carbonyl, such as nickel carbonyl and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit. 1 fig.

  13. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullendore, Arthur W. (Sandia Park, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures or organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides, e.g., transition metal carbonyl such as nickel carbonyl, and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit.

  14. Raman Spectroscopy as a Probe of Surface Oxides and Hydrides on Niobium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Zasadzinski, B. Albee, S. Bishnoi, C. Cao, G. Ciovati, L.D. Cooley, D.C. Ford, Th. Proslier

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Raman microscopy/spectroscopy has been used in conjunction with AFM, tunneling and magnetic susceptibility to identify surface oxides and hydrides on annealed, recrystallized foils of high purity Nb and on single crystals of cavity grade Nb. Cold worked regions of the Nb foil as well as rough regions near grain boundaries showed clear evidence of ordered hydride phases which were identified by VASP phonon calculations. Cold worked regions also displayed enhanced surface paramagnetism. Surface enhanced Raman spectra have also been obtained using 1.0 nm Au depositon. The SERS spectra reveal hydride molecular species which are not observable by conventional Raman. These results indicate that Raman is a useful probe of Nb surfaces relevant for cavity performance

  15. A mechanistic study of aryl halide reactions with lithium aluminum hydride 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Fu-Fan

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A M:"CHA~JISTIC STUDv OF ARYL HALID RHAC IC~JS ' ITH LITHIUM ALUM 'J"M HYDRIDE A Thesis FU-FAJJ CHUI'JG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in nartial fulfillment of the reauirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCI- JC... August Jo80 Major Subject: Chemistry A MECHANISTIC STUDY OF ARYL HALIDE REACTIONS 1'IITH LITHIUM ALUMINUM HYDRIDE A Thesis by FU-FAN CHUNG Approved as to style and content by; (Chairman of Co ittee) (Member) , . 7 1 (Member) (Member) i (Head...

  16. A mechanistic study of aryl halide reactions with lithium aluminum hydride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Fu-Fan

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A M:"CHA~JISTIC STUDv OF ARYL HALID RHAC IC~JS ' ITH LITHIUM ALUM 'J"M HYDRIDE A Thesis FU-FAJJ CHUI'JG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in nartial fulfillment of the reauirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCI- JC... of this stud!y :a to investigate possibility o f a. fr ee r a . 1 ca machina=--. by;;h:ch ". thium alum'num hydride may reduce organic ccmnounds. evzcus results have irdicated that thc reductior of o-allylcxy- 'oenzene diazonium icn by . ributyltin hydrioe...

  17. Method of production of pure hydrogen near room temperature from aluminum-based hydride materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Balema, Viktor P.

    2004-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a cost-effective method of producing pure hydrogen gas from hydride-based solid materials. The hydride-based solid material is mechanically processed in the presence of a catalyst to obtain pure gaseous hydrogen. Unlike previous methods, hydrogen may be obtained from the solid material without heating, and without the addition of a solvent during processing. The described method of hydrogen production is useful for energy conversion and production technologies that consume pure gaseous hydrogen as a fuel.

  18. Calculation of properties of crystalline lithium hydride using correlated wave function theory S. J. Nolan,1 M. J. Gillan,2,3 D. Alf,2,3,4 N. L. Allan,1 and F. R. Manby1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfè, Dario

    . All calculated properties of lithium hydride and deuteride agree with empirical observations to within

  19. Low-Cost Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage System- FY13 Q2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this SRNL project, funded by SunShot, for the second quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  20. Method Of Charging Maintenance-Free Nickel Metal Hydride Storage Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berlureau, Thierry (Bordeaux, FR); Liska, Jean-Louis (Bordeaux, FR)

    1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of charging an industrial maintenance-free Ni-MH storage cell, the method comprising in combination a first stage at a constant current I.sub.1 lying in the range I.sub.c /10 to I.sub.c /2, and a second stage at a constant current I.sub.2 lying in the range I.sub.c /50 to I.sub.c /10, the changeover from the first stage to the second stage taking place when the time derivative of the temperature reaches a threshold value which varies as a function of the temperature at the time of the changeover.

  1. Materials Go/No-Go Decisions Made Within the Department of Energy Metal Hydride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laboratories (currently at University of Missouri St. Louis) Dr. Ragaiy Zidan Savannah River National Laboratory Dr. Donald Anton Savannah River National Laboratory Prof. Bruce Clemens Stanford University Dr-selection Lennie Klebanoff, Director Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, CA 94551 September/October 2007

  2. Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas-reservoir MnNiMg electrochromic mirror devices have beencontrast to conventional electrochromic approaches, hydrogenThe application of electrochromic devices based on tungsten

  3. The Use of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Recovery from Industrial Off-Gas Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebello, W. J.; Guerrero, P. S.; Goodell, P. D.

    that for hydrogen produced from steam reforming of natural gas, are at best marginal relative to the competing technologies such as cryogenic, membrane and pressure s~ing adsorption systems. INTRODUCTION Hydrogen is one of the most important chemical species... commercial technologies for hydrogen recovery ar cryogenic separation, pressure swin adsorption CPSA) and membrane separ ation. The two former processes purify the stream by adsorbing 0 freezing out the non-hydrogen com ponents. Cryogenic systems have...

  4. Low-Cost Metal Hydride TES Systems- FY13 Q1

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress for this Savannah Reiver National Laboratory project, funded by SunShot, for the first quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  5. Low-Cost Metal Hydride TES Systems- FY13 Q3

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the progress of this SRNL project, funded by SunShot, for the third quarter of fiscal year 2013.

  6. Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature Power Generation Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  7. Evaluation of Protected Metal Hydride Slurries in a H2 Mini-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    waste heat can be used for hot water or space heating in buildings (i.e. "cogen") Distributed FCPS if dehydrogenation heat can be supplied by waste heat (e.g. fuel cell) Requires less space than low pressure cH2

  8. Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy June 6-7, 2013 Meeting FederalThorium,DepartmentGrid

  9. Project Profile: Low-Cost Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage System |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptember 2010 | DepartmentEnergyThermalDepartment of

  10. Preparation of Ag Schottky contacts on n-type GaN bulk crystals grown in nitrogen rich atmosphere by the hydride vapor phase epitaxy technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stübner, R., E-mail: ronald.stuebner@physik.tu-dresden.de; Kolkovsky, Vl.; Weber, J. [Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Leibiger, Gunnar; Habel, Frank [Freiberger Compound Materials GmbH, 09599 Freiberg (Germany)

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical properties of Schottky contacts on n-type GaN grown in nitrogen rich atmosphere with different N/Ga ratios by hydride vapor phase epitaxy were investigated. We show that tunneling of electrons from the conduction band of GaN to the metal is dominant in our samples. The quality of Schottky contacts does not only depend on surface preparation but also on the growth conditions of the crystals. Schottky contacts on these crystals show an increasing deterioration when higher N/Ga growth ratios are used. We correlate our results with the presence of negatively charged gallium vacancies in the samples. These charges compensate the positively charged donors and lead to a significant increase in series resistance.

  11. Development of encapsulated lithium hydride thermal energy storage for space power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, D.G.; Foote, J.P.; Olszewski, M.

    1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inclusion of thermal energy storage in a pulsed space power supply will reduce the mass of the heat rejection system. In this mode, waste heat generated during the brief high-power burst operation is placed in the thermal store; later, the heat in the store is dissipated to space via the radiator over the much longer nonoperational period of the orbit. Thus, the radiator required is of significantly smaller capacity. Scoping analysis indicates that use of lithium hydride as the thermal storage medium results in system mass reduction benefits for burst periods as long as 800 s. A candidate design for the thermal energy storage component utilizes lithium hydride encapsulated in either 304L stainless steel or molybdenum in a packed-bed configuration with a lithium or sodium-potassium (NaK) heat transport fluid. Key issues associated with the system design include phase-change induced stresses in the shell, lithium hydride and shell compatibility, lithium hydride dissociation and hydrogen loss from the system, void presence and movement associated with the melt-freeze process, and heat transfer limitations on obtaining the desired energy storage density. 58 refs., 40 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. First-row hydrides: Dissociation and ground state energies using quantum Monte Carlo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, James B.

    First-row hydrides: Dissociation and ground state energies using quantum Monte Carlo Arne Lu, Pennsylvania 16802 Received 20 May 1996; accepted 24 July 1996 Accurate ground state energies comparable FN-DQMC method. The residual energy, the nodal error due to the error in the nodal structure

  13. Threat of Hydride Re-orientation to Spent Fuel Integrity During Transportation Accidents: Myth or Reality?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rashid, Joe [ANATECH, 5435 Oberlin Drive, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Machiels, Albert [EPRI, 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The source-term study conducted by Sandia National Laboratories nearly two decades ago for the spent fuel inventory known at the time, which was in the low-to-medium burnup range ({approx}35 GWd/MTU), showed that the effects of transportation accidents on spent fuel failures, and consequential radioactivity release to the environment, were relatively benign. However, with today's discharged fuel burnups routinely greater than 45 GWd/MTU, potential hydride reorientation during interim dry storage, and its effects on cladding properties, has become one of the primary concerns for spent fuel transportation. Laboratory tests of un-irradiated cladding specimens subjected to heat treatments promoting hydride dissolution followed by re-precipitation in the radial direction have shown that relatively moderate concentrations ({approx}70 ppm) of radial hydrides can significantly degrade cladding ductility, at least at room temperature. The absence of specific data that are relevant to high-burnup spent fuel under dry storage conditions have led to the conjecture, deduced from those tests, that massive cladding failures, possibly resulting in fuel reconfiguration, can be expected during cask drop events. Such conclusions are not borne out by the findings in this paper. The analysis results indicate that cladding failure is bi-modal: a state of failure initiation at the cladding ID remaining as part-wall damage with less than 2% probability of occurrence, and a through-wall failure at a probability of 1 E-5. These results indicate that spent fuel conditions that could promote the formation of radial hydrides during dry storage are not sufficient to produce radial hydrides concentrations of significant levels to cause major threat to spent fuel integrity. It is important to note in this regard that the through-wall cladding failure probability of 1 E-5 is of the same order of magnitude as calculated in the cited Sandia study for low burnup fuel. (authors)

  14. Hydrogenation of anthraquinone on metal-containing catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunin, V.V.; Markaryan, G.L.; Chetina, O.V.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work studied the reaction of hydrogen activated on metal-containing catalysts (platinum black, Pt/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (AP-15), and the hydride ZrNiH/sub 2.8/ with anthraquinone. The hydrogenation of anthraquinone bound into a strong donor-acceptor complex on the surface of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and AP-15 and physically absorbed on silica gel was investigated. Results indicated that under conditions of mechanical mixing of silica gel with catalysts containing platinum or hydrides of intermetallic compounds in an atmosphere of hydrogen, anthraquinone physically adsorbed on silica gel is able to undergo hydrogenation at temperature above 100/sup 0/ C with formation of anthracene.

  15. Effect of Gaseous Impurities on Long-Term Thermal Cycling and Aging Properties of Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandra, Dhanesh (Primary Contact); Lamb, Joshua; Chien, Wen-Ming; Talekar, Anjali; and Pal, Narendra.

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This program was dedicated to understanding the effect of impurities on Long-Term Thermal Cycling and aging properties of Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage. At the start of the program we found reversibility between Li2NH+LiH ? LiH+LiNH2 (yielding ~5.8 wt.%H capacity). Then we tested the effect of impurity in H2 gas by pressure cycling at 255oC; first with industrial gas containing ppm levels of O2 and H2O as major impurities. Both these impurities had a significant impact on the reversibility and decreased the capacity by 2.65 wt.%H. Further increase in number of cycles from 500 to 1100 showed only a 0.2 wt%H more weight loss, showing some capacity is still maintained after a significant number of cycles. The loss of capacity is attributed to the formation of ~55 wt% LiH and ~30% Li2O, as major contaminant phases, along with the hydride Li2NH phase; suggesting loss of nitrogen during cycling. The effect of 100 ppm H2O in H2 also showed a decrease of ~2.5 wt.%H (after 560 cycles), and 100ppm O2 in H2; a loss of ~4.1 wt.%. Methane impurity (100 ppm, 100cycles), showed a very small capacity loss of 0.9 wt.%H under similar conditions. However, when Li3N was pressure cycled with 100ppmN2-H2 there were beneficial effects were observed (255oC); the reversible capacity increased to 8.4wt.%H after 853 cycles. Furthermore, with 20 mol.%N2-H2 capacity increased to ~10 wt.%H after 516 cycles. We attribute this enhancement to the reaction of nitrogen with liquid lithium during cycling as the Gibbs free energy of formation of Li3N (?Go = -98.7 kJ/mol) is more negative than that of LiH (?Go = -50.3 kJ/mol). We propose that the mitigation of hydrogen capacity losses is due to the destabilization of the LiH phase that tends to accumulate during cycling. Also more Li2NH phase was found in the cycled product. Mixed Alanates (3LiNH2:Li3AlH6) showed that 7 wt% hydrogen desorbed under dynamic vacuum. Equilibrium experiments (maximum 12 bar H2) showed up to 4wt% hydrogen reversibly stored in the material after the first desorption. The activation energy was found to be 51 kJ/mol, as compared to 81 kJ/mol for pure lithium alanate. It is proposed that based on the data obtained and CALPHAD modeling that the improvement in cycling is due to the formation of pure lithium (liquid at 255oC), which is able to react with nitrogen specifically forming Li3N. The presence of nitrogen in the 80/20 molar mixtures in a hydride bed along with hydrogen causes Li to form Li3N rather than LiH, and subsequently regenerates the Li2NH phase and yields a ~10 wt.%H reversibly.

  16. Thermal analysis of uranium zirconium hydride fuel using a lead-bismuth gap at LWR operating temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ensor, Brendan M. (Brendan Melvin)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Next generation nuclear technology calls for more advanced fuels to maximize the effectiveness of new designs. A fuel currently being studied for use in advanced light water reactors (LWRs) is uranium zirconium hydride ...

  17. J. Phys. F: Metal Phys., Vol. 7, No. 11, 1977. Printed in Great Britain. @ 1977 LElTER TO THE EDITOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gimzewski, James

    * - . I , I f---J:. I * , ' . 'J I ' / pias mon energy-loss satellites ~ ' ' ' ' l ' ' ! ' ' ' ' lw Watson and S Affrossmanz Department of Metallurgy, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow Received 5 September 1977 Abstract. Binding energies for the core levels of scandium metal and its oxide and hydride

  18. Process for production of an aluminum hydride compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Miller, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y, wherein R.sup.1 is phenyl substituted by at least one of: (i) an alkoxy group having from one to six carbon atoms; and (ii) an alkyl group having from three to twelve carbon atoms; wherein M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg; and y is one or two.

  19. Fast, Quantitative, and Nondestructive Evaluation on Hydrided LWR Fuel Cladding by Small Angle Incoherent Neutron Scattering of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Yong [ORNL; Qian, Shuo [ORNL; Littrell, Ken [ORNL; Parish, Chad M [ORNL; Plummer, Lee K [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-destructive neutron scattering method to precisely measure the uptake of hydrogen and the distribution of hydride precipitates in light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding was developed. Zircaloy-4 cladding used in commercial LWRs was used to produce hydrided specimens. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zr alloy specimens and hydrogen gas. Following hydrogen charging, the hydrogen content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method, by which the samples with desired hydrogen concentration were selected for the neutron study. Optical microscopy shows that our hydriding procedure results in uniform distribution of circumferential hydrides across the wall. Small angle neutron incoherent scattering was performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Our study demonstrates that the hydrogen in commercial Zircaloy-4 cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes by this nondestructive method over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations from a very small amount ( 20 ppm) to over 1000 ppm. The hydrogen distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor determined by a calibration process using standard, destructive direct chemical analysis methods on the specimens. This scale factor can be used in future tests with unknown hydrogen concentrations, thus providing a nondestructive method for absolute hydrogen concentration determination.

  20. Method to predict relative hydriding within a group of zirconium alloys under nuclear irradiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Levy, I.S.; Trimble, D.J.; Lanning, D.D.; Gerber, F.S.

    1990-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An out-of-reactor method for screening to predict relative in-reactor hydriding behavior of zirconium-based materials is disclosed. Samples of zirconium-based materials having different compositions and/or fabrication methods are autoclaved in a relatively concentrated (0.3 to 1.0M) aqueous lithium hydroxide solution at constant temperatures within the water reactor coolant temperature range (280 to 316 C). Samples tested by this out-of-reactor procedure, when compared on the basis of the ratio of hydrogen weight gain to oxide weight gain, accurately predict the relative rate of hydriding for the same materials when subject to in-reactor (irradiated) corrosion. 1 figure.

  1. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene Triple Junction Points. Stabilization of Electrocatalytic Metal Nanoparticles at Metal-Metal Oxide-Graphene...

  2. Engineering of the band gap and optical properties of thin films of yttrium hydride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, Chang Chuan; Mongstad, Trygve; Maehlen, Jan Petter; Karazhanov, Smagul, E-mail: smagulk@ife.no [Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of oxygen-containing yttrium hydride show photochromic effect at room temperature. In this work, we have studied structural and optical properties of the films deposited at different deposition pressures, discovering the possibility of engineering the optical band gap by variation of the oxygen content. In sum, the transparency of the films and the wavelength range of photons triggering the photochromic effect can be controlled by variation of the deposition pressure.

  3. Draft of M2 Report on Integration of the Hybrid Hydride Model into INL’s MBM Framework for Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikare, Veena; Weck, Philippe F.; Schultz, Peter A.; Clark, Blythe; Glazoff, Michael; Homer, Eric

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride {delta}-ZrH{sub 1.5} precipitation in the cladding of used nuclear fuels that may occur during long-term dry storage. While the Zr-based claddings are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service, in the reactor by a process commonly termed ‘hydrogen pick-up’. The precipitation and growth of zirconium hydrides during dry storage is one of the most likely fuel rod integrity failure mechanisms either by embrittlement or delayed hydride cracking of the cladding (Hanson et al., 2011). While the phenomenon is well documented and identified as a potential key failure mechanism during long-term dry storage (Birk et al., 2012 and NUREG/CR-7116), the ability to actually predict the formation of hydrides is poor. The model being documented in this work is a computational capability for the prediction of hydride formation in different claddings of used nuclear fuels. This work supports the Used Fuel Disposition Research and Development Campaign in assessing the structural engineering performance of the cladding during and after long-term dry storage. This document demonstrates a basic hydride precipitation model that is built on a recently developed hybrid Potts-phase field model that combines elements of Potts-Monte Carlo and the phase-field models (Homer et al., 2013; Tikare and Schultz, 2012). The model capabilities are demonstrated along with the incorporation of the starting microstructure, thermodynamics of the Zr-H system and the hydride formation mechanism.

  4. Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Cordes; A. Donaldson

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.

  5. Metal Matrix Microencapsulated (M3) fuel neutronics performance in PWRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fratoni, Massimiliano [Pennsylvania State University] [Pennsylvania State University; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal Matrix Microencapsulated (M3) fuel consists of TRISO or BISO coated fuel particles directly dispersed in a matrix of zirconium metal to form a solid rod (Fig. 1). In this integral fuel concept the cladding tube and the failure mechanisms associated with it have been eliminated. In this manner pellet-clad-interactions (PCI), thin tube failure due to oxidation and hydriding, and tube pressurization and burst will be absent. M3 fuel, given the high stiffness of the integral rod design, could as well improve grid-to-rod wear behavior. Overall M3 fuel, compared to existing fuel designs, is expected to provide greatly improved operational performance. Multiple barriers to fission product release (ceramic coating layers in the coated fuel particle and te metal matrix) and the high thermal conductivity zirconium alloy metal matrix contribute to the enhancement in fuel behavior. The discontinuous nature of fissile material encapsulated in coated particles provides additional assistance; for instance if the M3 fuel rod is snapped into multiple pieces, only the limited number of fuel particles at the failure cross section are susceptible to release fission products. This is in contrast to the conventional oxide fuel where the presence of a small opening in the cladding provides the pathway for release of the entire inventory of fission products from the fuel rod. While conventional metal fuels (e.g. U-Zr and U-Mo) are typically expected to experience large swelling under irradiation due to the high degree of damage from fission fragments and introduction of fission gas into the lattice, this is not the case for M3 fuels. The fissile portion of the fuel is contained within the coated particle where enough room is available to accommodate fission gases and kernel swelling. The zirconium metal matrix will not be exposed to fission products and its swelling is known to be very limited when exposed solely to neutrons. Under design basis RIA and LOCA, fuel performance will be superior to the conventional oxide fuel since PCMI and rod burst, respectively, have been mitigated. Under beyond design basis accident scenarios where the fuel is exposed to high temperature steam for prolonged periods, larger inventory of zirconium metal in the core could negatively affect the accident progression. A thin steam resistant layer (e.g. alumina forming alloy steel), integrated into the solid rod during fabrication by co-extrusion or hot-isostatic-pressing, offers the potential to provide additional fuel protection from steam interaction: blanketing under a range of boiling regimes and under severe accident conditions up to high temperatures well beyond what is currently possible in the conventional fuel. A crucial aspect to the viability of M3 fuel in light water reactors is the reduced heavy metal load compared to standard pellet fuel. This study evaluated the design requirements to operate a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with M3 fuel in order to obtain fuel cycle length, reactivity coefficients, and power peaking factors comparable to that of standard fuel.

  6. Metal aminoboranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya; Shrestha, Roshan P.

    2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH2BH3)n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

  7. Theory of Hydride-Proton Transfer (HPT) Carbonyl Reduction by [Os(III)(tpy)(Cl)(NH=CHCH3)(NSAr)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ess, Daniel H.; Schauer, Cynthia; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum mechanical analysis reveals that carbonyl reduction of aldehydes and ketones by the imine-based reductant cis-[Os{sup III}(tpy)(Cl)(NH?CHCH{sub 3})(NSAr)] (2), which is accessible by reduction of the analogous nitrile, occurs by hydride-proton transfer (HPT) involving both the imine and sulfilimido ligands. In carbonyl reduction, water or alcohol is necessary to significantly lower the barrier for proton shuttling between ligands. The ?N(H)SAr group activates the carbonyl group through hydrogen bonding while the ?NC(H)CH{sub 3} ligand delivers the hydride.

  8. Composite Metal-hydrogen Electrodes for Metal-Hydrogen Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruckman, M W; Wiesmann, H; Strongin, M; Young, K; Fetcenko, M

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to develop and conduct a feasibility study of metallic thin films (multilayered and alloy composition) produced by advanced sputtering techniques for use as anodes in Ni-metal hydrogen batteries. The anodes could be incorporated in thin film solid state Ni-metal hydrogen batteries that would be deposited as distinct anode, electrolyte and cathode layers in thin film devices. The materials could also be incorporated in secondary consumer batteries (i.e. type AF(4/3 or 4/5)) which use electrodes in the form of tapes. The project was based on pioneering studies of hydrogen uptake by ultra-thin Pd-capped metal-hydrogen ratios exceeding and fast hydrogen charging and Nb films, these studies suggested that materials with those of commercially available metal hydride materials discharging kinetics could be produced. The project initially concentrated on gas phase and electrochemical studies of Pd-capped niobium films in laboratory-scale NiMH cells. This extended the pioneering work to the wet electrochemical environment of NiMH batteries and exploited advanced synchrotron radiation techniques not available during the earlier work to conduct in-situ studies of such materials during hydrogen charging and discharging. Although batteries with fast charging kinetics and hydrogen-metal ratios approaching unity could be fabricated, it was found that oxidation, cracking and corrosion in aqueous solutions made pure Nb films-and multiiayers poor candidates for battery application. The project emphasis shifted to alloy films based on known elemental materials used for NiMH batteries. Although commercial NiMH anode materials contain many metals, it was found that 0.24 µm thick sputtered Zr-Ni films cycled at least 50 times with charging efficiencies exceeding 95% and [H]/[M] ratios of 0.7-1.0. Multilayered or thicker Zr-Ni films could be candidates for a thin film NiMH battery that may have practical applications as an integrated power source for modern electronic devices.

  9. Rapid hydrogen gas generation using reactive thermal decomposition of uranium hydride.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanouff, Michael P.; Van Blarigan, Peter; Robinson, David B.; Shugard, Andrew D.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Buffleben, George M.; James, Scott Carlton; Mills, Bernice E.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen gas injection has been studied as one method for rapidly generating hydrogen gas from a uranium hydride storage system. Small scale reactors, 2.9 g UH{sub 3}, were used to study the process experimentally. Complimentary numerical simulations were used to better characterize and understand the strongly coupled chemical and thermal transport processes controlling hydrogen gas liberation. The results indicate that UH{sub 3} and O{sub 2} are sufficiently reactive to enable a well designed system to release gram quantities of hydrogen in {approx} 2 seconds over a broad temperature range. The major system-design challenge appears to be heat management. In addition to the oxidation tests, H/D isotope exchange experiments were performed. The rate limiting step in the overall gas-to-particle exchange process was found to be hydrogen diffusion in the {approx}0.5 {mu}m hydride particles. The experiments generated a set of high quality experimental data; from which effective intra-particle diffusion coefficients can be inferred.

  10. Thermodynamics and kinetics of ceramic/metal interfacial interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arróyave, Raymundo, 1975-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramic/metal interfaces occur in a great number of important applications, such as ceramic/metal composites, microelectronics packaging, ceramic/metal seals, and so forth. Understanding the formation and evolution of such ...

  11. THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF NICKEL HYDRIDE By J. W. CABLE, E. O. WOLLAN, and W. C. KOEHLER,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    460. THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF NICKEL HYDRIDE By J. W. CABLE, E. O. WOLLAN, and W. C. KOEHLER, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Résumé. 2014 L'hydrure de nickel est cubique à faces centrées. H occupe les sites octaédriques avec un rapport H/Ni égal à 0,6 ± 0,1. Abstract. 2014 Nickel

  12. Verification and Validation Strategy for Implementation of Hybrid Potts-Phase Field Hydride Modeling Capability in MBM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason D. Hales; Veena Tikare

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) program has initiated a project to develop a hydride formation modeling tool using a hybrid Potts­phase field approach. The Potts model is incorporated in the SPPARKS code from Sandia National Laboratories. The phase field model is provided through MARMOT from Idaho National Laboratory.

  13. Metal inks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

    2014-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

  14. Sub-Nanostructured Non Transition Metal Complex Grids for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Orhan Talu; Dr. Surendra N. Tewari

    2007-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involved growing sub-nanostructured metal grids to increase dynamic hydrogen storage capacity of metal hydride systems. The nano particles of any material have unique properties unlike its bulk form. Nano-structuring metal hydride materials can result in: {sm_bullet}Increased hydrogen molecule dissociation rate, {sm_bullet} Increased hydrogen atom transport rate, {sm_bullet} Decreased decrepitation caused by cycling, {sm_bullet} Increased energy transfer in the metal matrix, {sm_bullet} Possible additional contribution by physical adsorption, and {sm_bullet} Possible additional contribution by quantum effects The project succeeded in making nano-structured palladium using electrochemical growth in templates including zeolites, mesoporous silica, polycarbonate films and anodized alumina. Other metals were used to fine-tune the synthesis procedures. Palladium was chosen to demonstrate the effects of nano-structuring since its bulk hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics are well known. Reduced project funding was not sufficient for complete characterization of these materials for hydrogen storage application. The project team intends to seek further funding in the future to complete the characterization of these materials for hydrogen storage.

  15. Permanent Home Number: Residential Number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viglas, Anastasios

    Permanent Home Number: Residential Number: Mobile: Please update my contact details. Signature nominated correspondence address as indicated below. Permanent Home Adress Residential Address Other Address (Must not be a PO Box) Residential Address (Must not be a PO Box) Other - Postal/Optional Address

  16. UNIT NUMBER:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    193 UNIT NUMBER: 197 UNIT NAME: CONCRETE RUBBLE PILE (30) REGULATORY STATUS: AOC LOCATION: Outside plant security fence, north of the plant on Big Bayou Creek on private property....

  17. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  18. Mechanistic Insights into Hydride Transfer for Catalytic Hydrogenation of CO2 with Cobalt Complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Neeraj; Camaioni, Donald M.; Dupuis, Michel; Raugei, Simone; Appel, Aaron M.

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 to formate by Co(dmpe)2H can proceeds via direct hydride transfer or via CO2 coordination to Co followed by reductive elimination of formate. Both pathways have activation barriers consistent with experiment (~17.5 kcal/mol). Controlling the basicity of Co by ligand design is key to improve catalysis. The research by N.K., D.M.C. and A.M.A. was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. The research by S.R. and M.D. was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for the DOE by Battelle.

  19. Quantum Simulation of Helium Hydride in a Solid-State Spin Register

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ya Wang; Florian Dolde; Jacob Biamonte; Ryan Babbush; Ville Bergholm; Sen Yang; Ingmar Jakobi; Philipp Neumann; Alán Aspuru-Guzik; James D. Whitfield; Jörg Wrachtrup

    2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    \\emph{Ab initio} computation of molecular properties is one of the most promising applications of quantum computing. While this problem is widely believed to be intractable for classical computers, efficient quantum algorithms exist which have the potential to vastly accelerate research throughput in fields ranging from material science to drug discovery. Using a solid-state quantum register realized in a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect in diamond, we compute the bond dissociation curve of the minimal basis helium hydride cation, HeH$^+$. Moreover, we report an energy uncertainty (given our model basis) of the order of $10^{-14}$ Hartree, which is ten orders of magnitude below desired chemical precision. As NV centers in diamond provide a robust and straightforward platform for quantum information processing, our work provides several important steps towards a fully scalable solid state implementation of a quantum chemistry simulator.

  20. Predicting the Reactivity of Hydride Donors in Water: Thermodynamic Constants for Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connelly, Samantha J.; Wiedner, Eric S.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical reactivity of hydride complexes can be predicted by comparing bond strengths for homolytic and heterolytic cleavage of bonds to hydrogen. To determine these bond strengths, thermodynamic constants for H+, H•, H–, and H2 are essential and need to be used uniformly to enable the prediction of reactivity and equilibria. One of the largest challenges is quantifying the stability of solvated H– in water, which is discussed. Due to discrepancies in the literature for the constants used in water, we propose the use of a set of self-consistent constants with convenient standard states. The work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences.

  1. URANIUM METAL POWDER PRODUCTION, PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS, AND REACTION RATE STUDIES OF A HYDRIDE-DEHYDRIDE PROCESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sames, William

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    -12 plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee for providing the depleted uranium used in this project. vi NOMENCLATURE ? Reaction Fraction ACV Atmosphere Containment Vessel AFCI Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative FCML Fuel Cycle and Materials Laboratory...

  2. ALKYL, HYDRIDE, AND RELATED BIS (TRIMETHYLSILYL)-AMIDE DERIVATIVES OF THE 4f- AND 5f- BLOCK METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andersen, R.A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is commonly found for europium and ytterbium, though somepreparative Method for the europium der­ ivative is shown (7). The chloroaaide of europium (III) is 2 EulN(SiMe ) ] +

  3. The effect of fluence and irradiation temperature on delayed hydride cracking in Zr-2.5Nb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sagat, S.; Coleman, C.E.; Griffiths, M. [AECL Research, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Wilkins, B.J.S. [AECL Research, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Zirconium alloys are susceptible to a stable cracking process called delayed hydride cracking (DHC). DHC has two stages: (a) crack initiation that requires a minimum crack driving force (the threshold stress intensity factor, K{sub IH}) and (b) stable crack growth that is weakly dependent on K{sub l}. The value of K{sub lH} is an important element in determining the tolerance of components to sharp flaws. The rate of cracking is used in estimating the action time for detecting propagating cracks before they become unstable. Hence, it is important for reactor operators to know how these properties change during service in reactors where the components are exposed to neutron irradiation at elevated temperatures. DHC properties were measured on a number of components, made from the two-phase alloy Zr-2.5 Nb, irradiated at temperatures in the range of 250 to 290 C in fast neutron fluxes (E {>=} 1 MeV) between 1.6 {times} 10{sup 17} and 1.8 {times} 10{sup 18} n/m{sup 2} {center_dot} s to fluences between 0.01 {times} 10{sup 25} and 9.8 {times} 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}. The neutron irradiation reduced K{sub IH} by about 20% and increased the velocity of cracking by a factor of about five. The increase in crack velocity was greatest with the lowest irradiation temperature. These changes in the rack velocity by neutron irradiation are explained in terms of the combined effects of irradiation hardening associated with increased -type dislocation density, and {beta}-phase decomposition. While the former process increases crack velocity, the latter process decrease it. The combined contribution is controlled by the irradiation temperature. X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the degree of {beta}-phase decomposition was highest with an irradiation temperature of 290 C while -type dislocation densities were highest with an irradiation temperature of 250 C.

  4. Change Number

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamos LaboratoryCertified Reference6-02-01Change Number

  5. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  6. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy and characterization of high-quality ScN epilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oshima, Yuichi, E-mail: OSHIMA.Yuichi@nims.go.jp; Víllora, Encarnación G.; Shimamura, Kiyoshi [Environment and Energy Materials Research Division, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The heteroepitaxial growth of ScN films was investigated on various substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). Single crystalline mirror-like ScN(100) and ScN(110) layers were successfully deposited on r- and m-plane sapphire substrates, respectively. Homogeneous stoichiometric films (N/Sc ratio 1.01?±?0.10) up to 40??m in thickness were deposited. Their mosaicity drastically improved with increasing the film thickness. The band gap was determined by optical methods to be 2.06?eV. Impurity concentrations including H, C, O, Si, and Cl were investigated through energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry. As a result, it was found that the presence of impurities was efficiently suppressed in comparison with that of HVPE-grown ScN films reported in the past, which was possible thanks to the home-designed corrosion-free HVPE reactor. Room-temperature Hall measurements indicated that the residual free electron concentrations ranged between 10{sup 18}–10{sup 20}?cm{sup ?3}, which was markedly lower than the reported values. The carrier mobility increased monotonically with the decreasing in carrier concentration, achieving the largest value ever reported, 284?cm{sup 2}?V{sup ?1}?s{sup ?1} at n?=?3.7?×?10{sup 18}?cm{sup ?3}.

  7. Atomic-Scale Chemical, Physical and Electronic Properties of the Subsurface Hydride of Palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Paul

    2014-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We employed low-temperature, extreme-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to investigate the roles of subsurface hydride (H) and deuteride (D) in the surface reconstruction and surface reactivity of Pd{110}. Specifically, we gained the ability to tailor the surface structure of Pd{110} both by preparation method and by deposition of deuterium from the gas phase. We observed thiophene at low coverage on Pd{110} to determine its adsorption orientation and electronic structure through scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) – namely, conductance spectroscopy and differential conductance imaging. We developed the methods necessary to coadsorb D adatoms with thiophene molecules, and to induce the reaction of individual molecules with predefined subsurface H or D features. In the case of Pd{110}, we found a much more pronounced effect from subsurface D, as it is influenced by the surface directionality. These experiments facilitate an understanding of the role of surface and subsurface H and D in heterogeneous catalytic processes, specifically in the hydrodesulfuization (HDS) of thiophene, an important and ubiquitous component found to be detrimental to petroleum refining.

  8. Metals 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison, S.W.; Rogers, L.C.; Slaughter, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Boensch, F.D. [6025 Oak Hill Lane, Centerville, OH (United States); Claus, R.O.; de Vries, M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This strategic planning exercise identified and characterized new and emerging advanced metallic technologies in the context of the drastic changes in global politics and decreasing fiscal resources. In consideration of a hierarchy of technology thrusts stated by various Department of Defense (DOD) spokesmen, and the need to find new and creative ways to acquire and organize programs within an evolving Wright Laboratory, five major candidate programs identified are: C-17 Flap, Transport Fuselage, Mach 5 Aircraft, 4.Fighter Structures, and 5. Missile Structures. These results were formed by extensive discussion with selected major contractors and other experts, and a survey of advanced metallic structure materials. Candidate structural applications with detailed metal structure descriptions bracket a wide variety of uses which warrant consideration for the suggested programs. An analysis on implementing smart skins and structures concepts is given from a metal structures perspective.

  9. Dendritic metal nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM); Song, Yujiang (Albuquerque, NM); Pereira, Eulalia F. (Vila Nova de Gaia, PT); Medforth, Craig J. (Winters, CA)

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dendritic metal nanostructures made using a surfactant structure template, a metal salt, and electron donor species.

  10. Please cite this article in press as: Malen, J.A., et al., Thermal hydraulic design of a hydride-fueled inverted PWR core. Nucl. Eng. Des. (2009), doi:10.1016/j.nucengdes.2009.02.026

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malen, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Please cite this article in press as: Malen, J.A., et al., Thermal hydraulic design of a hydride hydraulic design of a hydride-fueled inverted PWR core J.A. Malena, , N.E. Todreasb , P. Hejzlarb , P and its thermal hydraulic performance is compared to that of a standard rod bundle core design also fueled

  11. Method For Characterizing Residual Stress In Metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Loren A. (Santa Fe, NM); Michel, David J. (Alexandria, VA); Wyatt, Jeffrey R. (Burke, VA)

    2002-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for measuring the residual stress in metals. The method includes the steps of drilling one or more holes in a metal workpiece to a preselected depth and mounting one or more acoustic sensors on the metal workpiece and connecting the sensors to an electronic detecting and recording device. A liquid metal capable of penetrating into the metal workpiece placed at the bottom of the hole or holes. A recording is made over a period of time (typically within about two hours) of the magnitude and number of noise events which occur as the liquid metal penetrates into the metal workpiece. The magnitude and number of noise events are then correlated to the internal stress in the region of the workpiece at the bottom of the hole.

  12. A coupled transport and solid mechanics formulation with improved reaction kinetics parameters for modeling oxidation and decomposition in a uranium hydride bed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salloum, Maher N.; Shugard, Andrew D.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling of reacting flows in porous media has become particularly important with the increased interest in hydrogen solid-storage beds. An advanced type of storage bed has been proposed that utilizes oxidation of uranium hydride to heat and decompose the hydride, releasing the hydrogen. To reduce the cost and time required to develop these systems experimentally, a valid computational model is required that simulates the reaction of uranium hydride and oxygen gas in a hydrogen storage bed using multiphysics finite element modeling. This SAND report discusses the advancements made in FY12 (since our last SAND report SAND2011-6939) to the model developed as a part of an ASC-P&EM project to address the shortcomings of the previous model. The model considers chemical reactions, heat transport, and mass transport within a hydride bed. Previously, the time-varying permeability and porosity were considered uniform. This led to discrepancies between the simulated results and experimental measurements. In this work, the effects of non-uniform changes in permeability and porosity due to phase and thermal expansion are accounted for. These expansions result in mechanical stresses that lead to bed deformation. To describe this, a simplified solid mechanics model for the local variation of permeability and porosity as a function of the local bed deformation is developed. By using this solid mechanics model, the agreement between our reacting bed model and the experimental data is improved. Additionally, more accurate uranium hydride oxidation kinetics parameters are obtained by fitting the experimental results from a pure uranium hydride oxidation measurement to the ones obtained from the coupled transport-solid mechanics model. Finally, the coupled transport-solid mechanics model governing equations and boundary conditions are summarized and recommendations are made for further development of ARIA and other Sandia codes in order for them to sufficiently implement the model.

  13. Hydride production in zircaloy-4 as a function of time and temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parkison, Adam Joseph

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The experiments performed for this thesis were designed to define the primary process variables of time, temperature, and atmosphere for an engineering system that will produce metal powder from recycled nuclear fuel cladding. The proposed system...

  14. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing...

  15. MOSSBAUER STUDIES OF DILUTE ERBIUM IMPURITIES IN ZIRCONIUM HYDRIDES* G.K. Shenoy, B.D. Dunlap, D.G. Westlake and A.E. Dwight*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    MOSSBAUER STUDIES OF DILUTE ERBIUM IMPURITIES IN ZIRCONIUM HYDRIDES* G.K. Shenoy, B.D. Dunlap, D previously shown 15,6/ that Mossbauer effect measurements can be used to investigate the electronic.6 keV Mossbauer transition in 16G Er. The re- sonance spectra were measured using conventional

  16. Gas-Phase Reactions of Doubly Charged Lanthanide Cations with Alkanes and Alkenes. Trends in Metal(2+) Reactivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, John K.; Marcalo, Joaquim; Santos, Marta; Pires de Matos, Antonio; Haire, Richard G.

    2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The gas-phase reactivity of doubly-charged lanthanide cations, Ln2+ (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu), with alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane) and alkenes (ethene, propene, 1-butene) was studied by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The reaction products consisted of different combinations of doubly-charged organometallic ions?adducts or species formed via metal-ion-induced hydrogen, dihydrogen, alkyl, or alkane eliminations from the hydrocarbons?and singly-charged ions that resulted from electron, hydride, or methide transfers from the hydrocarbons to the metal ions. The only lanthanide cations capable of activating the hydrocarbons to form doubly-charged organometallic ions were La2+, Ce2+, Gd2+, and Tb2+, which have ground-state or low-lying d1 electronic configurations. Lu2+, with an accessible d1 electronic configuration but a rather high electron affinity, reacted only through transfer channels. The remaining Ln2+ reacted via transfer channels or adduct formation. The different accessibilities of d1 electronic configurations and the range of electron affinities of the Ln2+ cations allowed for a detailed analysis of the trends for metal(2+) reactivity and the conditions for occurrence of bond activation, adduct formation, and electron, hydride, and methide transfers.

  17. Transition metal-free olefin polymerization catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Wojcinski, II, Louis M. (State College, PA); Liu, Shengsheng (State College, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethylene and/or propylene are polymerized to form high molecular weight, linear polymers by contacting ethylene and/or propylene monomer, in the presence of an inert reaction medium, with a catalyst system which consists essentially of (1) an aluminum alkyl component, such as trimethylaluminum, triethylaluminum, triisobutylaluminum, tri-n-octylaluminum and diethylaluminum hydride and (2) a Lewis acid or Lewis acid derivative component, such as B (C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.3, [(CH.sub.3).sub.2 N (H) (C.sub.6 H.sub.5)].sup.+ [B (C.sub.6 F.sub.5)4].sup.-, [(C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.3 NH].sup.+ [B C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.4 ],.sup.-, [C(C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.3 ].sup.+ [B(C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.4 ].sup.-, (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(OCH.sub.3), (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methylphenoxide), (C.sub.2 H.sub.5)Al(2,6 -di-t-butylphenoxide).sub.2, (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(2,6-di-t-butylphonoxide) , 2,6 -di-t-butylphenol.multidot.methylaluminoxane or an alkylaluminoxane, and which may be completely free any transition metal component(s).

  18. Synthesis of organometallic complexes containing Group 13 elements and transition metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, G.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New organometallic complexes containing Group 13 elements and transition metals were synthesized characterized by X-ray diffraction methods. (C[sub 5]H[sub 5])[sub 2]W[l brace]In(CH[sub 3])[sub 2][r brace][sub 2], (C[sub 5]H[sub 5])[sub 2]Mo[l brace]In(CH[sub 3])[sub 2][r brace][sub 2], and (C[sub 5]H[sub 5])[sub 2]W(I)[l brace]In(CH[sub 3])[sub 2][r brace] were synthesized by alkane elimination reactions between trimethylindium and metal hydride complexes (C[sub 5]H[sub 5])[sub 2]MH[sub 2] (M = W, Mo). [K]-[In[l brace]Fe[sub 2] (CO[sub 8])[r brace][sub 2

  19. Composite metal-hydrogen electrodes for metal-hydrogen batteries. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.; Weismann, H. [and others

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to develop and conduct a feasibility study of metallic thin films (multilayered and alloy composition) produced by advanced sputtering techniques for use as anodes in Ni-metal hydrogen batteries that would be deposited as distinct anode, electrolyte and cathode layers in thin film devices. The materials could also be incorporated in secondary consumer batteries (i.e. type AF(4/3 or 4/5)) which use electrodes in the form of tapes. The project was based on pioneering studies of hydrogen uptake by ultra-thin Pd-capped Nb films, these studies suggested that materials with metal-hydrogen ratios exceeding those of commercially available metal hydride materials and fast hydrogen charging and discharging kinetics could be produced. The project initially concentrated on gas phase and electrochemical studies of Pd-capped niobium films in laboratory-scale NiMH cells. This extended the pioneering work to the wet electrochemical environment of NiMH batteries and exploited advanced synchrotron radiation techniques not available during the earlier work to conduct in-situ studies of such materials during hydrogen charging and discharging. Although batteries with fast charging kinetics and hydrogen-metal ratios approaching unity could be fabricated, it was found that oxidation, cracking and corrosion in aqueous solutions made pure Nb films and multilayers poor candidates for battery application. The project emphasis shifted to alloy films based on known elemental materials used for NiMH batteries. Although commercial NiMH anode materials contain many metals, it was found that 0.24 {mu}m thick sputtered Zr-Ni films cycled at least 50 times with charging efficiencies exceeding 95% and [H]/[M] ratios of 0.7-1.0. Multilayered or thicker Zr-Ni films could be candidates for a thin film NiMH battery that may have practical applications as an integrated power source for modern electronic devices.

  20. Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6}: Iron-containing complex hydride with high gravimetric hydrogen density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saitoh, Hiroyuki, E-mail: cyto@spring8.or.jp [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Takagi, Shigeyuki; Matsuo, Motoaki; Aoki, Katsutoshi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Iijima, Yuki [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Endo, Naruki [Renewable Energy Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Fukushima 963-0215 (Japan); Orimo, Shin-ichi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6}, which has the highest gravimetric hydrogen density of iron-containing complex hydrides reported so far, is synthesized by hydrogenation of a powder mixture of iron and LiH above 6.1 GPa at 900?°C. In situ synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that while kinetics require high temperature and thus high pressure for the synthesis, Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6} is expected to be thermodynamically stable slightly below room temperature at ambient pressure; further synthetic studies to suppress the kinetic effects may enable us to synthesize Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6} at moderate pressures. Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6} can be recovered at ambient conditions where Li{sub 4}FeH{sub 6} is metastable.

  1. Electronic properties and electron-phonon coupling in zirconium and niobium hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, M.

    1982-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electronic structure of the two 4d transition-metal cubic dihydrides ZrH/sub 2/ and NbH/sub 2/ is investigated by means of an augmented-plane-wave (APW) band-structure calculation. The position of the Fermi level in a peak of the density of states (DOS) in the case of cubic ZrH/sub 2/ leads to an interpretation of the tetragonal distortion observed in all the group-IV transition-metal dihydrides in terms of a Jahn-Teller effect which lifts the degeneracy of the doubly degenerate band in the GAMMAL direction; these results are in agreement with magnetic susceptibility, electronic specific heat and thermoelectric power data. The main features of the DOS of the metal 4d states are similar for ZrH/sub 2/ and NbH/sub 2/, while the position and width of the low-lying bands are found to depend substantially upon the compound under study. These two bands which result from metal-hydrogen and hydrogen-hydrogen interactions overlap the metal d bands located at higher energies, contrary to the case of rare-earth dihydrides for which an energy gap was obtained. Our theoretical results are in good agreement with photoemission and x-ray emission spectra. We have evaluated the electron-phonon coupling constant lambda using the results of our APW calculation in conjunction with neutron scattering data. For both ZrH/sub 2/ and NbH/sub 2/, and contrary to the case of superconducting PdH, the electron-optical phonon contribution is small, due essentially to the low value of the DOS of s type at the H site at the Fermi energy and to the hardening of the optic modes. Moreover, the electronic term of the electron--acoustic-phonon contribution is reduced from its value in the pure metal. The two compounds are not found to be superconducting, in agreement with experimental results.

  2. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  3. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  4. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J. (both Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (both Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Nigel J. (Durham, GB2); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Furlong, Clement (Seattle, WA)

    1990-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat unit for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heayv metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  5. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Paul J. (Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Nigel J. (Durham, GB2); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Furlong, Clement (Seattle, WA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  6. RARE-EARTH METALS--1997 61.1 RARE-EARTH METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RARE-EARTH METALS--1997 61.1 RARE-EARTH METALS By James B. Hedrick The rare earths are a relatively million, to thulium and lutetium, the least abundant rare-earth elements at about 0.5 parts per million. Scandium, atomic number 21, is the lightest rare-earth element. It is the 31st most abundant element

  7. INEL metal recycle radioactive scrap metal survey report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Funk, D.M.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE requested that inventory and characterization of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) be conducted across the DOE complex. Past studies have estimated the metal available from unsubstantiated sources. In meetings held in FY-1993, with seven DOE sites represented and several DOE-HQ personnel present, INEL personnel discovered that these numbers were not reliable and that large stockpiles did not exist. INEL proposed doing in-field measurements to ascertain the amount of RSM actually available. This information was necessary to determine the economic viability of recycling and to identify feed stock that could be used to produce containers for radioactive waste. This inventory measured the amount of RSM available at the selected DOE sites. Information gathered included radionuclide content and chemical form, general radiation field, alloy type, and mass of metal.

  8. Metal-phosphate binders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howe, Beth Ann [Lewistown, IL; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe [Coahuila, MX

    2009-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  9. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Synthetic, Structural and Mechanistic Investigations of Olefin Polymerization Catalyzed by Early Transition Metal Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bercaw, John E. [California Institute of Technology

    2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to develop new catalysts and provide understanding of ligand effects on catalyst composition in order to guide development of superior catalyst systems for polymerization of olefins. Our group is designing and synthesizing new “LX2”,“pincer” type ligands and complexing early transition metals to afford precatalysts. In a collaboration with Hans Brintzinger from the University of Konstanz, we are also examining the structures of the components of catalyst systems obtained from reaction of zirconocene dichlorides with aluminum alkyls and aluminum hydrides. Such systems are currently used commercially to produce polyolefins, but the nature of the active and dormant species as well as the mechanisms of their interconversions are not understood. New information on catalyst design and performance may lead to new types of polymers and/or new chemical transformations between hydrocarbons and transition metal centers, ultimately contributing to the development of catalytic reactions for the production of fuels, commodity and polymeric materials.

  10. Magnetic metallic multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hood, R.Q.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilizing self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations, several aspects of multilayers and interfaces are explored: enhancement and reduction of the local magnetic moments, magnetic coupling at the interfaces, magnetic arrangements within each film and among non-neighboring films, global symmetry of the systems, frustration, orientation of the various moments with respect to an outside applied field, and magnetic-field induced transitions. Magnetoresistance of ferromagnetic-normal-metal multilayers is found by solving the Boltzmann equation. Results explain the giant negative magnetoresistance encountered in these systems when an initial antiparallel arrangement is changed into a parallel configuration by an external magnetic field. The calculation depends on (1) geometric parameters (thicknesses of layers), (2) intrinsic metal parameters (number of conduction electrons, magnetization, and effective masses in layers), (3) bulk sample properties (conductivity relaxation times), (4) interface scattering properties (diffuse scattering versus potential scattering at the interfaces, and (5) outer surface scattering properties (specular versus diffuse surface scattering). It is found that a large negative magnetoresistance requires considerable asymmetry in interface scattering for the two spin orientations. Features of the interfaces that may produce an asymmetrical spin-dependent scattering are studied: varying interfacial geometric random roughness with no lateral coherence, correlated (quasi-periodic) roughness, and varying chemical composition of the interfaces. The interplay between these aspects of the interfaces may enhance or suppress the magnetoresistance, depending on whether it increases or decreases the asymmetry in the spin-dependent scattering of the conduction electrons.

  11. Hyper Space Complex Number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shanguang Tan

    2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A new kind of numbers called Hyper Space Complex Numbers and its algebras are defined and proved. It is with good properties as the classic Complex Numbers, such as expressed in coordinates, triangular and exponent forms and following the associative and commutative laws of addition and multiplication. So the classic Complex Number is developed from in complex plane with two dimensions to in complex space with N dimensions and the number system is enlarged also.

  12. Heavy metal biosensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hillson, Nathan J; Shapiro, Lucille; Hu, Ping; Andersen, Gary L

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions and methods are provided for detection of certain heavy metals using bacterial whole cell biosensors.

  13. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  14. A Liquid Metal PMI/PFC Initiative ! R. Maingi, on behalf of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Liquid Metal PMI/PFC Initiative ! R. Maingi, on behalf of a Liquid Metal PFC Working Group FESAC a number of challenges; focal area of worldwide PMI program 3 · Accepted heat flux exhaust limit for W is 5

  15. Application of quantum theory of electrons to the mechanical and thermal properties of metals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Hwan-Wu

    The first successful application of quantum mechanics to the problem of metallic cohesion was made by Wigner and Seitz (1938) They appoximated sodium metal by a number of isolated spheres of equal atomic volume and integrated, ...

  16. Comprehensive Thermodynamics of Nickel Hydride Bis(Diphosphine) Complexes: A Predictive Model through Computations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Shentan; Rousseau, Roger J.; Raugei, Simone; Dupuis, Michel; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2011-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Prediction of thermodynamic quantities such as redox potentials and homolytic and heterolytic metal hydrogen bond energies is critical to the a priori design of molecular catalysts. In this paper we expound upon a density functional theory (DFT)-based isodesmic methodology for the accurate computation of the above quantities across a series of Ni(diphosphine)2 complexes compounds that are potential catalysts for production of H2 from protons and electrons, or oxidation of H2 to electrons and protons. Isodesmic schemes give relative free energies between the complex of interest and a reference system. A natural choice is to use as a reference a compound that shares similarities with the chemical species under study and for which the properties of interest have been measured with accuracy. However, this is not always possible as in the case of the Ni complexes considered here where data are experimentally available for only some species. To overcome this difficulty we employed a theoretical reference compound, Ni(PH3)4, which is amenable to highly accurate electron-correlated calculations, which allows one to explore thermodynamics properties even when no experimental input is accessible. The reliability of this reference is validated against the available thermodynamics data in acetonitrile solution. Overall the proposed protocol yields excellent accuracy for redox potentials (~ 0.10 eV of accuracy), for acidities (~1.5 pKa units of accuracy), for hydricities (~2 kcal/mol of accuracy), and for homolytic bond dissociation free energies (~ 1-2 kcal/mol of accuracy). The calculated thermodynamic properties are then analyzed for a broad set of Ni complexes. The power of the approach is demonstrated through the validation of previously reported linear correlations among properties. New correlations are revealed. It emerges that only two quantities, the Ni(II)/Ni(I) and Ni(I)/Ni(0) redox potentials (which are easily accessible experimentally), suffice to predict with high confidence the energetics of all relevant species involved in the catalytic cycles for H2 oxidation and production. The approach is extendable to other transition metal complexes. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  17. Control of trace metal emissions during coal combustion. Technical progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Thomas C.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold end of the process by air-pollution control devices such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions at the hot end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and capture volatized metal vapors. The objectives of this project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor. The following progress has been made during the performance period from Oct. 1, 1995 through Dec. 31, 1995: (1) Additional combustion experiments involving both coal and wood pellets were carried out in the constructed quartz fluidized bed combustor. (2) A new Buck Scientific Model 210VGP Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer equipped with a continuous flow hydride generator especially for arsenic and selenium was installed for the project. (3) A paper, entitled ``Capture of Toxic Metals by Various Sorbents during Fluidized Bed Coal Combustion,`` was presented at the 1995 AIChE Annual Meeting held in Miami, November 13--17, 1995. (4) A manuscript, entitled ``Trace Metal Capture by Various Sorbents during Fluidized Bed Coal Combustion,`` was submitted to the 26th International Symposium on Combustion for presentation and for publication in the symposium proceedings. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  18. Ultrafast K{alpha} x-ray Thomson scattering from shock compressed lithium hydride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kritcher, A. L. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Neumayer, P.; Castor, J.; Doeppner, T.; Landen, O. L.; Ng, A.; Pollaine, S.; Price, D.; Glenzer, S. H. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Falcone, R. W.; Lee, H. J. [Physics Department, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Lee, R. W. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Physics Department, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Holst, B.; Redmer, R. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Morse, E. C. [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States)

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectrally and temporally resolved x-ray Thomson scattering using ultrafast Ti K{alpha} x rays has provided experimental validation for modeling of the compression and heating of shocked matter. The coalescence of two shocks launched into a solid density LiH target by a shaped 6 ns heater beam was observed from rapid heating to temperatures of 2.2 eV, enabling tests of shock timing models. Here, the temperature evolution of the target at various times during shock progression was characterized from the intensity of the elastic scattering component. The observation of scattering from plasmons, electron plasma oscillations, at shock coalescence indicates a transition to a dense metallic plasma state in LiH. From the frequency shift of the measured plasmon feature the electron density was directly determined with high accuracy, providing a material compression of a factor of 3 times solid density. The quality of data achieved in these experiments demonstrates the capability for single shot dynamic characterization of dense shock compressed matter. The conditions probed in this experiment are relevant for the study of the physics of planetary formation and to characterize inertial confinement fusion targets for experiments such as on the National Ignition Facility, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  19. Ultrafast K-(alpha) X-ray Thomson Scattering from Shock Compressed Lithium Hydride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kritcher, A L; Neumayer, P; Castor, J; Doeppner, T; Falcone, R W; Landen, O L; Lee, H J; Lee, R W; Holst, B; Redmer, R; Morse, E C; Ng, A; Pollaine, S; Price, D; Glenzer, S H

    2008-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectrally and temporally resolved x ray Thomson scattering using ultrafast Ti K-{alpha} x-rays has provided experimental validation for modeling of the compression and heating of shocked matter. The coalescence of two shocks launched into a solid density LiH target by a shaped 6 nanosecond heater beam was observed from rapid heating to temperatures of 2.2 eV, enabling tests of shock timing models. Here, the temperature evolution of the target at various times during shock progression was characterized from the intensity of the elastic scattering component. The observation of scattering from plasmons, electron plasma oscillations, at shock coalescence indicates a transition to a dense metallic plasma state in LiH. From the frequency shift of the measured plasmon feature the electron density was directly determined with high accuracy, providing a material compression of a factor of three times solid density. The quality of data achieved in these experiments demonstrates the capability for single-shot dynamic characterization of dense shock compressed matter. The conditions probed in this experiment are relevant for the study of the physics of planetary formation and to characterize inertial confinement fusion targets for experiments such as on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), LLNL.

  20. A Cobalt Hydride Catalyst for the Hydrogenation of CO2: Pathways for Catalysis and Deactivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeletic, Matthew S.; Helm, Monte L.; Hulley, Elliott B.; Mock, Michael T.; Appel, Aaron M.; Linehan, John C.

    2014-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The complex Co(dmpe)?H catalyzes the hydrogenation of CO? at one atm and 21 ºC with significant improvement in turnover frequency relative to previously reported second and third row transition metal complexes. New studies are presented to elucidate the catalytic mechanism as well as pathways for catalyst deactivation. The catalytic rate was optimized through the choice of the base to match the pKa of the [Co(dmpe)?(H)?]? intermediate. By using a strong enough base, the catalytic rate has a zero order dependence on the concentration of base and pressure of hydrogen, and a first order dependence on the pressure of CO?. However, upon exceeding CO?:H? ratios of greater than one, the catalytically inactive species [(?-dmpe)(Co(dmpe)?)?]²? and [Co(dmpe)?CO]? are observed. Research by M.S.J., M.T.M., A.M.A., and J.C.L. was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Research by M.L.H. and E.B.H. was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for the DOE by Battelle.

  1. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  2. Gas Diffusion in Metals: Fundamental Study of Helium-Point Defect Interactions in Iron and Kinetics of Hydrogen Desorption from Zirconium Hydride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Xunxiang

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preparation and Properties of Zirconium-Uranium- Hydrogenhydrogen. The resulting microstructural and damage evolution cause profound macroscopic propertyhydrogen pickup by the cladding. Radiation damage also affects the properties

  3. Gas Diffusion in Metals: Fundamental Study of Helium-Point Defect Interactions in Iron and Kinetics of Hydrogen Desorption from Zirconium Hydride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Xunxiang

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    spallation, fusion and Generation IV fission applications,steels: fusion, and Generation IV fission applications as058101. W.R. Corwin. U.S. Generation IV reactor integrated

  4. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Collogue C6, supplement au n" 8, Tome 39, aout 1978, page C6-1395 ISOTOPE EFFECTS IN SUPERCONDUCTING TRANSITION METAL HYDRIDES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - tivite plus basse pour le deuteride, une energie d'octivation plus elevee pour la diffusion et une the normal isotope effect with a lower su- perconducting temperature for the deuteride, a higher activation

  5. Gas Diffusion in Metals: Fundamental Study of Helium-Point Defect Interactions in Iron and Kinetics of Hydrogen Desorption from Zirconium Hydride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Xunxiang

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kohyama, A. Hishinuma, D.S. Gelles, R.L. Klueh, W. Dietz, K.J. Nucl. Mater. D.S. Gelles. On quantification of helium

  6. Metal phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a new composition of matter, alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

  7. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  8. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ritter, James A. (Lexington, SC); Wang, Tao (Columbia, SC); Ebner, Armin D. (Lexington, SC); Holland, Charles E. (Cayce, SC)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  9. Multispecies weighted Hurwitz numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harnad, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The construction of hypergeometric 2D Toda $\\tau$-functions as generating functions for weighted Hurwitz numbers is extended to multispecies families. Both the enumerative geometrical significance of multispecies weighted Hurwitz numbers as weighted enumerations of branched coverings of the Riemann sphere and their combinatorial significance in terms of weighted paths in the Cayley graph of $S_n$ are derived. The particular case of multispecies quantum weighted Hurwitz numbers is studied in detail.

  10. Curvature and Tachibana numbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stepanov, Sergey E [Finance Academy under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to define the rth Tachibana number t{sub r} of an n-dimensional compact oriented Riemannian manifold as the dimension of the space of conformally Killing r-forms, for r=1,2,...,n-1. We also describe properties of these numbers, by analogy with properties of the Betti numbers b{sub r} of a compact oriented Riemannian manifold. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  11. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, Paul O. (Golden, CO); Kennedy, Cheryl E. (Lafayette, CO); Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Shinton, Yvonne D. (Northglenn, CO); Goggin, Rita M. (Englewood, CO)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

  12. PHYTOEXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

    Plants Chelating agents Pb hyperaccumulation Effects of pH on metal extraction Disposal options contaminants from soils Contaminants must be in harvestable portions of the plant (Wongkongkatep et al. 2003) Chelating Agents: desorb heavy metals from soil matrix and form water-soluble metal complexes (Shen et al

  13. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  14. Definitions Numbered Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    Definitions · Numbered Space ­ a single space marked with a number and reserved for a single permit 24/7 · Unnumbered Space ­ a space which can be used by any customer allowed to park in that lot. High Low Average Question 4: If I buy a staff permit for an UNNUMBERED* space in a non-gated surface

  15. HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT OF METALS: A PRIMER FOR THE FAILURE ANALYST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louthan, M

    2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen reduces the service life of many metallic components. Such reductions may be manifested as blisters, as a decrease in fatigue resistance, as enhanced creep, as the precipitation of a hydride phase and, most commonly, as unexpected, macroscopically brittle failure. This unexpected, brittle fracture is commonly termed hydrogen embrittlement. Frequently, hydrogen embrittlement occurs after the component has been is service for a period of time and much of the resulting fracture surface is distinctly intergranular. Many failures, particularly of high strength steels, are attributed to hydrogen embrittlement simply because the failure analyst sees intergranular fracture in a component that served adequately for a significant period of time. Unfortunately, simply determining that a failure is due to hydrogen embrittlement or some other form of hydrogen induced damage is of no particular help to the customer unless that determination is coupled with recommendations that provide pathways to avoid such damage in future applications. This paper presents qualitative and phenomenological descriptions of the hydrogen damage processes and outlines several metallurgical recommendations that may help reduce the susceptibility of a particular component or system to the various forms of hydrogen damage.

  16. First Principles Contributions to the Thermodynamic Assessment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Assessment of Solid State Metal Hydride and Complex Hydride Phases given at the DOE Theory Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage Materials on May 18, 2006. storagetheorysessionop...

  17. ALKYL AND HYDRIDE BIS (TRIMETHYLSILYL)AMIDO DERIVATIVES OF THE ACTINIDE ELEMENTS: PREPARATION AND HYDROGEN-DEUTERIUM EXCHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simpson, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    monohydrides and mono- deuterides of the actinide metals (solvent. solvent the deuteride, DM[N(SiMe ) ] M =Thor u, In1480 em 1060 cm-l and the deuteride absorbs at The uranium-

  18. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Sheng; Jie Zhang; Jing Liu

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clarified. Such events are hard to achieve otherwise on rigid metal or conventional liquid spheres. This finding has both fundamental and practical significances which suggest a generalized way of making smart soft machine, collecting discrete metal fluids, as well as flexibly manipulating liquid metal objects including accompanying devices.

  19. Synthesis of main group, rare-earth, and d{sup 0} metal complexes containing beta-hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Ka King [Ames Laboratory

    2013-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of organometallic compounds containing the tris(dimethylsilyl)methyl ligand are described. The potassium carbanions KC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3} and KC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}TMEDA are synthesized by deprotonation of the hydrocarbon HC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3} with potassium benzyl. KC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}TMEDA crystallizes as a dimer with two types of three-center-two-electron KH- Si interactions. Homoleptic Ln(III) tris(silylalkyl) complexes containing ?-SiH groups M{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 3} (Ln = Y, Lu, La) are synthesized from salt elimination of the corresponding lanthanide halide and 3 equiv. of KC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}. The related reactions with Sc yield bis(silylalkyl) ate-complexes containing either LiCl or KCl. The divalent calcium and ytterbium compounds M{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 2}L (M = Ca, Yb; L = THF{sub 2} or TMEDA) are prepared from MI{sub 2} and 2 equiv of KC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}. The compounds M{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 2}L (M = Ca, Yb; L = THF{sub 2} or TMEDA) and La{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 3} react with 1 equiv of B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3} to give 1,3- disilacyclobutane {Me2Si-C(SiHMe2)2}2 and MC(SiHMe2)3HB(C6F5)3L, and La{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 2}HB(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3}, respectively. The corresponding reactions of Ln{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 3} (Ln = Y, Lu) give the ?-SiH abstraction product [{(Me{sub 2}HSi){sub 3}C}{sub 2}LnC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 2}SiMe{sub 2}][HB(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3}] (Ln = Y, Lu), but the silene remains associated with the Y or Lu center. The abstraction reactions of M{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 2}L (M = Ca, Yb; L = THF{sub 2 }or TMEDA) and Ln{C(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}}{sub 3} (Ln = Y, Lu, La) and 2 equiv of B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3} give the expected dicationic M{HB(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3}}{sub 2}L (M = Ca, Yb; L = THF{sub 2} or TMEDA) and dicationic mono(silylalkyl) LnC(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 3}{HB(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3}}{sub 2} (Ln = Y, Lu, La), respectively. Salt metathesis reactions of Cp{sub 2}(NR{sub 2})ZrX (X = Cl, I, OTf; R = t-Bu, SiHMe{sub 2}) and lithium hydrosilazide ultimately afford hydride products Cp{sub 2}(NR{sub 2})ZrH that suggest unusual ?-hydrogen elimination processes. A likely intermediate in one of these reactions, Cp{sub 2}Zr[N(SiHMe{sub 2})t-Bu][N(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 2}], is isolated under controlled synthetic conditions. Addition of alkali metal salts to this zirconium hydrosilazide compound produces the corresponding zirconium hydride. However as conditions are varied, a number of other pathways are also accessible, including C-H/Si-H dehydrocoupling, ?-abstraction of a CH, and ?-abstraction of a SiH. Our observations suggest that the conversion of (hydrosilazido)zirconocene to zirconium hydride does not follow the classical four-center ?- elimination mechanism. Elimination and abstraction reactions dominate the chemistry of ligands containing ?- hydrogen. In contrast, Cp{sub 2}Zr{N(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 2}}H and Cp{sub 2}Zr{N(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 2}}Me undergo selective ?-CH bond activation to yield the azasilazirconacycle Cp{sub 2Zr}{?{sup 2}-N(SiHMe{sub 2})SiHMeCH{sub 2}}, even though there are reactive ?-hydrogen available for abstraction. The ?-SiH groups in metallacycle provide access to new pathways for sixteen-electron zirconium alkyl compounds, in which Cp{sub 2}Zr{?{sup 2}-N(SiHMe{sub 2})SiHMeCH{sub 2}} undergoes a rare ?-bond metathesis reaction with ethylene. The resulting vinyl intermediate undergoes ?-hydrogen abstraction to reform ethylene and a silanimine zirconium species that reacts with ethylene to give a metallacyclopentane as the isolated product. The pendent ?-SiH in metallocycle also reacts with paraformaldehyde through an uncatalyzed hydrosilylation to form an exocyclic methoxysilyl moiety, while the zirconium-carbon bond in metallocycle is surprisingly inert toward formaldehyde. Still, the Zr-C moiety in metallocycle is available for chemistry, and it interacts with the carbon monoxide and strong electrophile B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 3} to provide Cp{sub 2}Zr[?{sup 2}- OC(=CH{sub 2})SiMeHN(SiHMe

  20. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Royer, Lamar T. (Knoxville, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  1. Solubility Behavior and Phase Stability of Transition Metal Oxides in Alkaline Hydrothermal Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.E. Ziemniak

    2000-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The solubility behavior of transition metal oxides in high temperature water is interpreted by recognizing three types of chemical reaction equilibria: metal oxide hydration/dehydration, metal oxide dissolution and metal ion hydroxocomplex formation. The equilibria are quantified using thermodynamic concepts and the thermochemical properties of the metal oxides/ions representative of the most common constituents of construction metal alloys, i.e., element shaving atomic numbers between Z = 22 (Ti) and Z = 30 (Zn), are summarized on the basis of metal oxide solubility studies conducted in the laboratory. Particular attention is devoted to the uncharged metal ion hydrocomplex, M{sup Z}(OH){sub Z}(aq), since its thermochemical properties define minimum solubilities of the metal oxide at a given temperature. Experimentally-extracted values of standard partial molal entropy (S{sup 0}) for the transition metal ion neutral hydroxocomplex are shown to be influenced by ligand field stabilization energies and complex symmetry.

  2. The use of zirconium hydride blankets in a minor actinide/thorium burner sodium-cooled reactor for void coefficient control with particular reference to UK's plutonium disposition problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arias, Francisco J.; Parks, Geoffrey T.

    2015-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of zirconium hydride (Th–ZrH1.6) blankets in a thorium-fuelled sodium-cooled reactor for void reactivity control with particular reference to UK's plutonium disposition problem is proposed and considered. It is shown that, with the use...

  3. Ultra-fast x-ray Thomson scattering measurements of insulator-metal transition in shock-compressed matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kritcher, A; Neumayer, P; Castor, J; Doppner, T; Falcone, R W; Landen, O L; Lee, H J; Lee, R W; Morse, E C; Ng, A; Pollaine, S; Price, D; Glenzer, S H

    2008-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectrally resolved scattering of ultra-short pulse laser-generated K-{alpha} x rays has been applied to measure the heating and compression of shocked solid-density lithium hydride. Two shocks launched by a nanosecond laser pulse coalesce yielding pressures of 400 gigapascals. The evolution of the intensity of the elastic (Rayleigh) scattering component indicates rapid heating to temperatures of 25,000 K on a 100 ps time scale. At shock coalescence, the scattering spectra show the collective plasmon oscillations indicating the transition to the dense metallic plasma state. The plasmon frequency determines the material compression, which is found to be a factor of three thereby reaching conditions in the laboratory important for studying astrophysics phenomena.

  4. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huxford, T.J.

    1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

  5. Report number codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  6. Metallomics of two microorganisms relevant to heavy metal bioremediation reveal fundamental differences in metal assimilation and utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lancaster, Andrew [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Menon, Angeli [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Scott, Israel [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Poole, Farris [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Vaccaro, Brian [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Thorgersen, Michael P [ORNL] [ORNL; Geller, Jil [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hazen, Terry C [ORNL] [ORNL; Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL] [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL] [ORNL; Adams, Michael W. W. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA] [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although as many as half of all proteins are thought to require a metal cofactor, the metalloproteomes of microorganisms remain relatively unexplored. Microorganisms from different environments are likely to vary greatly in the metals that they assimilate, not just among the metals with well-characterized roles but also those lacking any known function. Herein we investigated the metal utilization of two microorganisms that were isolated from very similar environments and are of interest because of potential roles in the immobilization of heavy metals, such as uranium and chromium. The metals assimilated and their concentrations in the cytoplasm of Desulfovibrio vulgaris strain Hildenborough (DvH) and Enterobacter cloacae strain Hanford (EcH) varied dramatically, with a larger number of metals present in Enterobacter. For example, a total of 9 and 19 metals were assimilated into their cytoplasmic fractions, respectively, and DvH did not assimilate significant amounts of zinc or copper whereas EcH assimilated both. However, bioinformatic analysis of their genome sequences revealed a comparable number of predicted metalloproteins, 813 in DvH and 953 in EcH. These allowed some rationalization of the types of metal assimilated in some cases (Fe, Cu, Mo, W, V) but not in others (Zn, Nd, Ce, Pr, Dy, Hf and Th). It was also shown that U binds an unknown soluble protein in EcH but this incorporation was the result of extracellular U binding to cytoplasmic components after cell lysis.

  7. Method for adhesion of metal films to ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowndes, D.H.; Pedraza, A.J.; DeSilva, M.J.; Kumar, R.A.

    1997-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for making strongly bonded metal-ceramic materials are disclosed. The methods include irradiating a portion of the surface of the ceramic material with a pulsed ultraviolet laser having an energy density sufficient to effect activation of the irradiated surface of the ceramic material so that adhesion of metals subsequently deposited onto the irradiated surface is substantially increased. Advantages of the invention include (i) the need for only a small number of laser pulses at relatively low focused energy density, (ii) a smoother substrate surface, (iii) activation of the laser-treated surface which provides a chemical bond between the surface and a metal deposited thereon, (iv) only low temperature annealing is required to produce the strong metal-ceramic bond; (v) the ability to obtain strong adhesion between ceramic materials and oxidation resistant metals; (vi) ability to store the laser treated ceramic materials for later deposition of metals thereon. 7 figs.

  8. Method for adhesion of metal films to ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowndes, Douglas H. (Knoxville, TN); Pedraza, Anthony J. (Oak Ridge, TN); DeSilva, Melvin J. (Ithaca, NY); Kumar, Rajagopalan A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for making strongly bonded metal-ceramic materials. The methods include irradiating a portion of the surface of the ceramic material with a pulsed ultraviolet laser having an energy density sufficient to effect activation of the irradiated surface of the ceramic material so that adhesion of metals subsequently deposited onto the irradiated surface is substantially increased. Advantages of the invention include (i) the need for only a small number of laser pulses at relatively low focused energy density, (ii) a smoother substrate surface, (iii) activation of the laser-treated surface which provides a chemical bond between the surface and a metal deposited thereon, (iv) only low temperature annealing is required to produce the strong metal-ceramic bond; (v) the ability to obtain strong adhesion between ceramic materials and oxidation resistant metals; (vi) ability to store the laser treated ceramic materials for later deposition of metals thereon.

  9. A number of organizations,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    installed solar electric systems on a number of the city's buildings, including the Chicago Center for Green Technology shown here. CityofChicago Aggregated Purchasing--A Clean Energy Strategy SOLAR TODAY Aggregated Purchasing--A Clean Energy Strategy by Lori A. Bird and Edward A. Holt #12;November/December 2002 35 Power

  10. ALARA notes, Number 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.; Beckman, M.C. [eds.] [eds.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains information dealing with the lessons learned from the experience of nuclear plants. In this issue the authors tried to avoid the `tyranny` of numbers and concentrated on the main lessons learned. Topics include: filtration devices for air pollution abatement, crack repair and inspection, and remote handling equipment.

  11. Heavy Metal Humor: Reconsidering Carnival in Heavy Metal Culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Gary Botts

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis considers Bakhtin?s carnivalesque theory by analyzing comedic rhetoric performed by two comedic metal bands. Through the theories of Johan Huizinga and Mikhail Bakhtin, Chapter I: I Play Metal argues that heavy metal culture is a modern...

  12. Transition Metal Dopants Essential for Producing Ferromagnetism...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Dopants Essential for Producing Ferromagnetism in Metal Oxide Nanoparticles. Transition Metal Dopants Essential for Producing Ferromagnetism in Metal Oxide Nanoparticles....

  13. Crack growth in the through-thickness direction of hydrided thin-wall Zircaloy Patrick A. Raynaud a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    to oxidation by the coolant water, which in turn results in hydrogen ingress into the metal. Unlike radiation oxide layers (>80 lm), exhibit an increased incidence of oxide spallation which causes a `cold spot can initiate in the rim or blister, which can lead to failure if such crack can propagate through

  14. Metal roofing Shingle roofing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Metal roofing panel Shingle roofing Water & ice barrier Thermal Barrier Plywood Student: Arpit between the roof and the attic. · Apply modifications to traditional roofing assembly and roofing roof with only a water barrier between the plywood and the roofing panels. Metal roofing panel Shingle

  15. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN) [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN) [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA) [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  16. Metal-Insulating-Semi-Incorporation of Silicon Nanoparticles into

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates under grant number DMR-1063150, Renewable Energy Materials Research Science and Engineering Center under grant number DMR-0820518 and the Department of Energy SunMetal-Insulating-Semi- Conductor Incorporation of Silicon Nanoparticles into Silicon Based Solar

  17. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graetz, Jason Allan (Mastic, NY); Reilly, James J. (Bellport, NY)

    2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  18. PNNL Chemical Hydride Capabilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    * Quantum chemistry, density functional theory, Car- Parinello, ab initio dynamics, variational transition state theory, molecular dynamics Strategy * Bring some of the...

  19. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  20. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  1. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  2. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  3. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, Nancy N. (Los Alamos, NM); Watkin, John G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  4. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  5. Hydrogen storage materials and method of making by dry homogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, Craig M. (Kailua, HI); Zidan, Ragaiy A. (Honolulu, HI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dry homogenized metal hydrides, in particular aluminum hydride compounds, as a material for reversible hydrogen storage is provided. The reversible hydrogen storage material comprises a dry homogenized material having transition metal catalytic sites on a metal aluminum hydride compound, or mixtures of metal aluminum hydride compounds. A method of making such reversible hydrogen storage materials by dry doping is also provided and comprises the steps of dry homogenizing metal hydrides by mechanical mixing, such as be crushing or ball milling a powder, of a metal aluminum hydride with a transition metal catalyst. In another aspect of the invention, a method of powering a vehicle apparatus with the reversible hydrogen storage material is provided.

  6. Nonlinear resonance of superconductor/normal metal structures to microwaves E. Kandelaki,1 A. F. Volkov,1,2 K. B. Efetov,1 and V. T. Petrashov3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    Nonlinear resonance of superconductor/normal metal structures to microwaves E. Kandelaki,1 A. F.024502 PACS number s : 74.45. c, 74.50. r, 85.25.Dq, 03.67.Lx I. INTRODUCTION Superconductor/normal metal S conductance G=dj/dV of a normal metal wire in a superconductor/ normal metal heterostructure with a cross

  7. NSR Key Number Retrieval

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency VisitSilver Toyota PriusNSR Key Number Retrieval Pease

  8. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  9. Divalent metal nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeVries, Gretchen Anne

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal nanoparticles hold promise for many scientific and technological applications, such as chemical and biological sensors, vehicles for drug delivery, and subdiffraction limit waveguides. To fabricate such devices, a ...

  10. Production of magnesium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN); Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN); Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN); Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  11. Functionalized Silicone Nanospheres: Synthesis, Transition Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Functionalized Silicone Nanospheres: Synthesis, Transition Metal Immobilization, and Catalytic Applications. Functionalized Silicone Nanospheres: Synthesis, Transition Metal...

  12. Grant Application Package CFDA Number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talley, Lynne D.

    Grant Application Package CFDA Number: Opportunity Title: Offering Agency: Agency Contact: Opportunity Open Date: Opportunity Close Date: CFDA Description: Opportunity Number: Competition ID

  13. Molten metal reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  14. Grant Title: KNOWLEDGE DISSEMINATION CONFERENCE GRANTS PROGRAM ANNOUNCEMENT Funding Opportunity Number: CFDA Number(s) -93.243; Funding Opportunity Number -OA-08-002.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    Number: CFDA Number(s) - 93.243; Funding Opportunity Number - OA-08-002. Agency/Department: Department

  15. Electron-Transport in La100-Xalx Metallic Glasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DELGADO, R.; ARMBRUSTER, H.; Naugle, Donald G.; TSAI, CL; JOHNSON, WL; WILLIAMS, A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of an understanding of electron transport in liquid and amorphous transition-metal alloys. The recent review article by Naugle' discusses the most popular scattering mechanisms which have been proposed to ex- plain the systematic trends in the transport... coefficients. Gallagher and Greig had noted that the sign of the ther- mopower for a large number of amorphous transition metal alloys could be explained in terms of the Mott s d- model in which the sign of the thermopower should be the same...

  16. Sounding Number Dr. Rachel Hall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Rachel W.

    searching for "drum modes vibration" and "chladni plates." (Chladni plates are lat square metal plates-generated animations. Chladni plate experiment and Chladni patterns published by John Tyndall in 1869. From the UCLA

  17. Method for forming metal contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reddington, Erik; Sutter, Thomas C; Bu, Lujia; Cannon, Alexandra; Habas, Susan E; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of forming metal contacts with metal inks in the manufacture of photovoltaic devices are disclosed. The metal inks are selectively deposited on semiconductor coatings by inkjet and aerosol apparatus. The composite is heated to selective temperatures where the metal inks burn through the coating to form an electrical contact with the semiconductor. Metal layers are then deposited on the electrical contacts by light induced or light assisted plating.

  18. Organolanthanide and organoyttrium hydride chemistry. 6. Direct synthesis and /sup 1/H NMR spectral analysis of the trimetallic yttrium and yttrium-zirconium tetrahydride complexes, (((C/sub 5/H/sub 5/)/sub 2/YH)/sub 3/H)(Li(THF)/sub 4/) and ((CCH/sub 3/C/sub 5/H/sub 4/)/sub 2/YH)/sub 2/((CH/sub 3/C/sub 5/H/sub 4/)/sub 2/ZrH)H)/sup 1/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, W.J.; Meadows, J.H.; Hanusa, T.P.

    1984-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved syntheses of several trimetallic tetrahydride complexes (tri(diphenyl lanthanon hydride)-lithium tetrahydrofuran) were studied using lithium hydride, methyl hydride, and tetra-butyl lithium reacted with diphenyl yttrium hydride tetrahydrofuran dimer. The reaction with tetra-butyl lithium yields the trimer as above while the reaction with diphenyl yttrium deuteride tetrahydrofuran with tert-butyl lithium forms a perdeuterio trimer indicating that the tert-butyl group does not provide a negative hydrogen ion for the trimer. Proton NMR spectra of some of the compounds are presented with H-H, Y-H, and Y-Y couplng constants derived from computer simulation of the spectra.

  19. High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed MetalMetal Oxide Internal Reference...

  20. The concrete theory of numbers: initial numbers and wonderful properties of numbers repunit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boris V. Tarasov

    2007-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work initial numbers and repunit numbers have been studied. All numbers have been considered in a decimal notation. The problem of simplicity of initial numbers has been studied. Interesting properties of numbers repunit are proved: $gcd(R_a, R_b) = R_{gcd(a,b)}$; $R_{ab}/(R_aR_b)$ is an integer only if $gcd(a,b) = 1$, where $a\\geq1$, $b\\geq1$ are integers. Dividers of numbers repunit, are researched by a degree of prime number.

  1. Final Report for DOE Project Number: DE-FG02-05ER46241

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gang Chen; Mildred S. Dresselhaus; Costas P. Grigoropoulos; Samuel S. Mao; Xiaodong Xiang; Taofang Zeng

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen storage is the most challenging task for the hydrogen economy. We established a multidisciplinary research program for high throughput combinatorial synthesis and characterization of novel nanoporous and metastable complex hydrides, coupled to fundamental material studies including electronic, structural and kinetic transport modeling, and pump-probe experiments. Our research is based the concept of hybrid nanostructures that store hydrogen by a combination of chemi- and physorption: atomic hydrogen is stored in metastable hydrides while molecule hydrogen is stored in the nanometer pores of the hydrides. Metastable nanostructured hydride has been achieved by introducing structural and compositional disorders through high throughput elemental substitution/doping, catalyst addition, and nonequilibrium processing. Fast screening compatible with the combinatorial synthesis was achieved by combining X-ray structural characterization with the development of a laser-based microbalance. Manufacturing of nanoporous metahydrides that are identified as promising by the combinatorial synthesis has been explored along with the materials search.

  2. Nitrided Metallic Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Tortorelli, Peter F [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Vitek, John Michael [ORNL; Wang, Heli [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Turner, John [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Wilson, Mahlon [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Garzon, Fernando [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Connors, Dan [GenCell Corp; Rakowski, Jim [Allegheny Ludlum; Gervasio, Don [Arizona State University

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives are: (1) Develop and optimize stainless steel alloys amenable to formation of a protective Cr-nitride surface by gas nitridation, at a sufficiently low cost to meet DOE targets and with sufficient ductility to permit manufacture by stamping. (2) Demonstrate capability of nitridation to yield high-quality stainless steel bipolar plates from thin stamped alloy foils (no significant stamped foil warping or embrittlement). (3) Demonstrate single-cell fuel cell performance of stamped and nitrided alloy foils equivalent to that of machined graphite plates of the same flow-field design ({approx}750-1,000 h, cyclic conditions, to include quantification of metal ion contamination of the membrane electrode assembly [MEA] and contact resistance increase attributable to the bipolar plates). (4) Demonstrate potential for adoption in automotive fuel cell stacks. Thin stamped metallic bipolar plates offer the potential for (1) significantly lower cost than currently-used machined graphite bipolar plates, (2) reduced weight/volume, and (3) better performance and amenability to high volume manufacture than developmental polymer/carbon fiber and graphite composite bipolar plates. However, most metals exhibit inadequate corrosion resistance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) environments. This behavior leads to high electrical resistance due to the formation of surface oxides and/or contamination of the MEA by metallic ions, both of which can significantly degrade fuel cell performance. Metal nitrides offer electrical conductivities up to an order of magnitude greater than that of graphite and are highly corrosion resistant. Unfortunately, most conventional coating methods (for metal nitrides) are too expensive for PEMFC stack commercialization or tend to leave pinhole defects, which result in accelerated local corrosion and unacceptable performance.

  3. Metallic coating of microspheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, S.F.

    1980-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Extremely smooth, uniform metal coatings of micrometer thicknesses on microscopic glass spheres (microspheres) are often needed as targets for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. The first part of this paper reviews those methods used successfully to provide metal coated microspheres for ICF targets, including magnetron sputtering, electro- and electroless plating, and chemical vapor pyrolysis. The second part of this paper discusses some of the critical aspects of magnetron sputter coating of microspheres, including substrate requirements, the sticking of microspheres during coating (preventing a uniform coating), and the difficulties in growing the desired dense, smooth, uniform microstructure on continuously moving spherical substrates.

  4. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, Haskell (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 weight percent boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90 percent tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 to 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  5. Hard metal composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheinberg, H.

    1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition of matter having a Rockwell A hardness of at least 85 is formed from a precursor mixture comprising between 3 and 10 wt % boron carbide and the remainder a metal mixture comprising from 70 to 90% tungsten or molybdenum, with the remainder of the metal mixture comprising nickel and iron or a mixture thereof. The composition has a relatively low density of between 7 and 14 g/cc. The precursor is preferably hot pressed to yield a composition having greater than 100% of theoretical density.

  6. Metal alloy identifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, William D. (Avondale, MD); Brown, Jr., Robert D. (Avondale, MD)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  7. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal

  8. Wick for metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

  9. Method for the preparation of metal colloids in inverse micelles and product preferred by the method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcoxon, Jess P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for preparing catalytic elemental metal colloidal particles (e.g. gold, palladium, silver, rhodium, iridium, nickel, iron, platinum, molybdenum) or colloidal alloy particles (silver/iridium or platinum/gold). A homogeneous inverse micelle solution of a metal salt is first formed in a metal-salt solvent comprised of a surfactant (e.g. a nonionic or cationic surfactant) and an organic solvent. The size and number of inverse micelles is controlled by the proportions of the surfactant and the solvent. Then, the metal salt is reduced (by chemical reduction or by a pulsed or continuous wave UV laser) to colloidal particles of elemental metal. After their formation, the colloidal metal particles can be stabilized by reaction with materials that permanently add surface stabilizing groups to the surface of the colloidal metal particles. The sizes of the colloidal elemental metal particles and their size distribution is determined by the size and number of the inverse micelles. A second salt can be added with further reduction to form the colloidal alloy particles. After the colloidal elemental metal particles are formed, the homogeneous solution distributes to two phases, one phase rich in colloidal elemental metal particles and the other phase rich in surfactant. The colloidal elemental metal particles from one phase can be dried to form a powder useful as a catalyst. Surfactant can be recovered and recycled from the phase rich in surfactant.

  10. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries. Abstract: Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those...

  11. Material Safety Data Sheet Revision Number: 003.2 Issue date: 11/17/2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    : LOCTITE® ANTI-SEIZE STICK COPPER IDH number: 504468 Product type: Lubricant Item number: 37616 Region Potential Health Effects Inhalation: Inhalation of copper fumes may result in metal fume fever. Symptoms 7782-42-5 10 - 30 Mineral oil light naphthenic hydrotreat.

  12. Data Compression with Prime Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon Chalmers

    2005-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A compression algorithm is presented that uses the set of prime numbers. Sequences of numbers are correlated with the prime numbers, and labeled with the integers. The algorithm can be iterated on data sets, generating factors of doubles on the compression.

  13. Metallicity and Quasar Outflows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Huiyuan; Yuan, Weimin; Wang, Tinggui

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Correlations are investigated of the outflow strength of quasars, as measured by the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) of the CIV line (Wang et al. 2011), with intensities and ratios of broad emission lines, based on composite quasar spectra built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that most of the line ratios of other ions to CIV prominently increases with BAI. These behaviors can be well understood in the context of increasing metallicity with BAI. The strength of dominant coolant, CIV line, decreases and weak collisionally excited lines increase with gas metallicity as a result of the competition between different line coolants. Using SiIV+OIV]/CIV as an indicator of gas metallicity, we present, for the first time, a strong correlation between the metallicitiy and the outflow strength of quasars over a wide range of 1.7 to 6.9 times solar abundance. Our result implies that the metallicity plays an important role in the formation of quasar outflows, likely via affecting outflow acceleration. This ...

  14. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conner, W.V.

    1981-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as souces of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  15. Speed of Sound in metal Speed of Sound in metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Jaehoon

    the metal rod and metal bar. 2. Acquire a metal bar or rod and measure its mass. Use the meter stick and measure and record the length in meters. Use the vernier calipers and measure the other dimensionBar Select the Smart Tool. Position the Smart tool so that the vertical line bisects the pulse. The (x

  16. Method of producing adherent metal oxide coatings on metallic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, Michael H. (Clifton Park, NY); Varrin, Jr., Robert D. (McLean, VA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a process of producing an adherent synthetic corrosion product (sludge) coating on metallic surfaces. The method involves a chemical reaction between a dry solid powder mixture of at least one reactive metal oxide with orthophosphoric acid to produce a coating in which the particles are bound together and the matrix is adherent to the metallic surface.

  17. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Means to decrease the rate of hydrogen gas generation from the chemical reaction of uranium metal with water were identified by surveying the technical literature. The underlying chemistry and potential side reactions were explored by conducting 61 principal experiments. Several methods achieved significant hydrogen gas generation rate mitigation. Gas-generating side reactions from interactions of organics or sludge constituents with mitigating agents were observed. Further testing is recommended to develop deeper knowledge of the underlying chemistry and to advance the technology aturation level. Uranium metal reacts with water in K Basin sludge to form uranium hydride (UH3), uranium dioxide or uraninite (UO2), and diatomic hydrogen (H2). Mechanistic studies show that hydrogen radicals (H·) and UH3 serve as intermediates in the reaction of uranium metal with water to produce H2 and UO2. Because H2 is flammable, its release into the gas phase above K Basin sludge during sludge storage, processing, immobilization, shipment, and disposal is a concern to the safety of those operations. Findings from the technical literature and from experimental investigations with simple chemical systems (including uranium metal in water), in the presence of individual sludge simulant components, with complete sludge simulants, and with actual K Basin sludge are presented in this report. Based on the literature review and intermediate lab test results, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, Nochar Acid Bond N960, disodium hydrogen phosphate, and hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] were tested for their effects in decreasing the rate of hydrogen generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water. Nitrate and nitrite each were effective, decreasing hydrogen generation rates in actual sludge by factors of about 100 to 1000 when used at 0.5 molar (M) concentrations. Higher attenuation factors were achieved in tests with aqueous solutions alone. Nochar N960, a water sorbent, decreased hydrogen generation by no more than a factor of three while disodium phosphate increased the corrosion and hydrogen generation rates slightly. U(VI) showed some promise in attenuating hydrogen but only initial testing was completed. Uranium metal corrosion rates also were measured. Under many conditions showing high hydrogen gas attenuation, uranium metal continued to corrode at rates approaching those observed without additives. This combination of high hydrogen attenuation with relatively unabated uranium metal corrosion is significant as it provides a means to eliminate uranium metal by its corrosion in water without the accompanying hazards otherwise presented by hydrogen generation.

  18. Calixarene supported transition metal clusters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Stephanie Merac

    2013-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes a series of calix[n]arene polynuclear transition metal and lanthanide complexes. Calix[4]arenes possess lower-rim polyphenolic pockets that are ideal for the complexation of various transition metal ...

  19. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Lawrence J. (Chicago, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  20. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, L.J.

    1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  1. Electroless metal plating of plastics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krause, Lawrence J. (Chicago, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process for plating main group metals on aromatic polymers is carried out by the use of a nonaqueous solution of a salt of an alkali metal in a positive valence state and a main group metal in a negative valence state with contact between the solution and polymer providing a redox reaction causing the deposition of the main group metal and the reduction of the polymer. Products from the process exhibit useful decorative and electrical properties.

  2. Upgrading platform using alkali metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for removing sulfur, nitrogen or metals from an oil feedstock (such as heavy oil, bitumen, shale oil, etc.) The method involves reacting the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and a radical capping substance. The alkali metal reacts with the metal, sulfur or nitrogen content to form one or more inorganic products and the radical capping substance reacts with the carbon and hydrogen content to form a hydrocarbon phase. The inorganic products may then be separated out from the hydrocarbon phase.

  3. Methods of recovering alkali metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumhansl, James L; Rigali, Mark J

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Approaches for alkali metal extraction, sequestration and recovery are described. For example, a method of recovering alkali metals includes providing a CST or CST-like (e.g., small pore zeolite) material. The alkali metal species is scavenged from the liquid mixture by the CST or CST-like material. The alkali metal species is extracted from the CST or CST-like material.

  4. Fabrication of metallic glass structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cline, C.F.

    1983-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous metal powders or ribbons are fabricated into solid shapes of appreciable thickness by the application of compaction energy. The temperature regime wherein the amorphous metal deforms by viscous flow is measured. The metal powders or ribbons are compacted within the temperature regime.

  5. Integrated decontamination process for metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Thomas S. (Oakmont, PA); Whitlow, Graham A. (Murrysville, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated process for decontamination of metals, particularly metals that are used in the nuclear energy industry contaminated with radioactive material. The process combines the processes of electrorefining and melt refining to purify metals that can be decontaminated using either electrorefining or melt refining processes.

  6. Cyclopentadienyl-containing low-valent early transition metal olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Luo, Lubin; Yoon, Sung Cheol

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst system useful to polymerize and co-polymerize polar and non-polar olefin monomers is formed by in situ reduction with a reducing agent of a catalyst precursor comprising {Cp*MRR'.sub.n}.sup.+{A}.sup.- wherein Cp* is a cyclopentadienyl or substituted cyclopentadienyl moiety; M is an early transition metal; R is a C.sub.1 C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl; R' are independently selected from hydride, C.sub.1 C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl, SiR''.sub.3, NR''.sub.2, OR'', SR'', GeR''.sub.3, SnR''.sub.3, and C.dbd.C-containing groups (R''=C.sub.1 C.sub.10 hydrocarbyl); n is an integer selected to balance the oxidation state of M; and A is a suitable non-coordinating anionic cocatalyst or precursor. This catalyst system may form stereoregular olefin polymers including syndiotactic polymers of styrene and methylmethacrylate and isotactic copolymers of polar and nonpolar olefin monomers such as methylmethacrylate and styrene.

  7. Cyclopentadienyl-containing low-valent early transition metal olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Luo, Lubin; Yoon, Sung Cheol

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst system useful to polymerize and co-polymerize polar and non-polar olefin monomers is formed by in situ reduction with a reducing agent of a catalyst precursor comprising {Cp*MRR'.sub.n}.sup.+{A}.sup.- wherein Cp* is a cyclopentadienyl or substituted cyclopentadienyl moiety; M is an early transition metal; R is a C.sub.1 C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl; R' are independently selected from hydride, C.sub.1 C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl, SiR''.sub.3, NR''.sub.2, OR'', SR'', GeR''.sub.3, SnR''.sub.3, and C.dbd.C-containing groups (R''=C.sub.1 C.sub.10 hydrocarbyl); n is an integer selected to balance the oxidation state of M; and A is a suitable non-coordinating anionic cocatalyst or precursor. This catalyst system may form stereoregular olefin polymers including syndiotactic polymers of styrene and methylmethacrylate and isotactic copolymers of polar and nonpolar olefin monomers such as methylmethacrylate and styrene.

  8. Automated Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography System for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography System for Enrichment of Escherichia coli Phosphoproteome. Automated Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography System for Enrichment of...

  9. Industrially challenging separations via adsorption in metal-organic frameworks : a computational exploration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lennox, Matthew James

    2015-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been identified as promising adsorbents in a number of industrially relevant, yet challenging, separations, including the removal of propane from propane/propylene ...

  10. Spray casting of metallic preforms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Burch, Joseph V. (Shelley, ID); Sears, James W. (Niskayuna, NY)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal alloy is melted in a crucible and ejected from the bottom of the crucible as a descending stream of molten metal. The descending stream is impacted with a plurality of primary inert gas jets surrounding the molten metal stream to produce a plume of atomized molten metal droplets. An inert gas is blown onto a lower portion of the plume with a plurality of auxiliary inert gas jets to deflect the plume into a more restricted pattern of high droplet density, thereby substantially eliminating unwanted overspray and resulting wasted material. The plume is projected onto a moving substrate to form a monolithic metallic product having generally parallel sides.

  11. Functional Metal Phosphonates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry, Houston Phillipp

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ......................................................... 39 12 Zr6 prepared at 205 ?C with HF as a solubilizing agent ................................ 43 13 Layered structure of Zn(O3PC6H4CN)(H2O) and Mn(O3PC6H4CN)(H2O) viewed along the c-axis. The coordinating water molecules are between... acid groups form hydrogen-bonded pairs in in Zn(O3PC6H4CO2H)(H2O) and Mn(O3PC6H4CO2H)(H2O). ..................... 55 15 Inorganic layered structure common to divalent metal phosphonates. Octahedral metal ions are coordinated by five phosphonate...

  12. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  13. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  14. Metal enrichment processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Schindler; A. Diaferio

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many processes that can transport gas from the galaxies to their environment and enrich the environment in this way with metals. These metal enrichment processes have a large influence on the evolution of both the galaxies and their environment. Various processes can contribute to the gas transfer: ram-pressure stripping, galactic winds, AGN outflows, galaxy-galaxy interactions and others. We review their observational evidence, corresponding simulations, their efficiencies, and their time scales as far as they are known to date. It seems that all processes can contribute to the enrichment. There is not a single process that always dominates the enrichment, because the efficiencies of the processes vary strongly with galaxy and environmental properties.

  15. Waste site reclamation with recovery of radionuclides and metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, Arokiasamy J. (Middle Island, NY); Dodge, Cleveland J. (Wading River, NY)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for decontaminating radionuclides and other toxic metal-contaminate The U.S. government has certain rights in this invention pursuant to Contract Number DE-AC02-76CH00016 between the U.S. Department of Energy and Associated Universities, Inc.

  16. Waste site reclamation with recovery of radionuclides and metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

    1994-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for decontaminating radionuclides and other toxic metal-contaminate The U.S. government has certain rights in this invention pursuant to Contract Number DE-AC02-76CH00016 between the U.S. Department of Energy and Associated Universities, Inc.

  17. MSE 445 Corrosion of Metals -Syllabus Carl Altstetter ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, John H.

    MSE 445 Corrosion of Metals - Syllabus Carl Altstetter , 302 MSEB, 217-333-4985 Topic Page Numbers I. Introduction 1 - 39 a) costs of corrosion b) types of corrosion c) corrosion rates) batteries b) fuel cells V. Electrochemical Corrosion a) mixed potential 86-108 b) Evans diagram c) effect

  18. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchheit, Rudolph G. (Albuquerque, NM); Martinez, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds.

  19. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchheit, R.G.; Martinez, M.A.

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides is disclosed. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds. 1 fig.

  20. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfs, Denise Y. (Houston, TX); Clavenna, Le Roy R. (Baytown, TX); Eakman, James M. (Houston, TX); Kalina, Theodore (Morris Plains, NJ)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  1. BNL Gas Storage Achievements, Research Capabilities, Interests...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    BNL Complex Metal Hydride Project Team Dr. James Wegrzyn (ES&T) Project Manager James Reilly (ES&T) Nanocomposite metal hydride; 95 papers and 17 patents Dr. Gary...

  2. Reduction of Metal Oxide to Metal using Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ramana Reddy

    2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel pathway for the high efficiency production of metal from metal oxide means of electrolysis in ionic liquids at low temperature was investigated. The main emphasis was to eliminate the use of carbon and high temperature application in the reduction of metal oxides to metals. The emphasis of this research was to produce metals such as Zn, and Pb that are normally produced by the application of very high temperatures. The reduction of zinc oxide to zinc and lead oxide to lead were investigated. This study involved three steps in accomplishing the final goal of reduction of metal oxide to metal using ionic liquids: 1) Dissolution of metal oxide in an ionic liquid, 2) Determination of reduction potential using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 3) Reduction of the dissolved metal oxide. Ionic liquids provide additional advantage by offering a wide potential range for the deposition. In each and every step of the process, more than one process variable has been examined. Experimental results for electrochemical extraction of Zn from ZnO and Pb from PbO using eutectic mixtures of Urea ((NH2)2CO) and Choline chloride (HOC2H4N(CH3)3+Cl-) or (ChCl) in a molar ratio 2:1, varying voltage and temperatures were carried out. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of ionic liquids with and without metal oxide additions were conducted. FTIR and induction coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICPS) was used in the characterization of the metal oxide dissolved ionic liquid. Electrochemical experiments were conducted using EG&G potentiostat/galvanostat with three electrode cell systems. Cyclic voltammetry was used in the determination of reduction potentials for the deposition of metals. Chronoamperometric experiments were carried out in the potential range of -0.6V to -1.9V for lead and -1.4V to -1.9V for zinc. The deposits were characterized using XRD and SEM-EDS for phase, morphological and elemental analysis. The results showed that pure metal was deposited on the cathode. Successful extraction of metal from metal oxide dissolved in Urea/ChCl (2:1) was accomplished. The current efficiencies were relatively high in both the metal deposition processes with current efficiency greater than 86% for lead and 95% for zinc. This technology will advance the metal oxide reduction process by increasing the process efficiency and also eliminate the production of CO2 which makes this an environmentally benign technology for metal extraction.

  3. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; McCormick, R. L.; Taylor, J. D.; Murphy, M. J.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an updated version of the 2004 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until March 2014 as well as a number of unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This Compendium contains cetane values for 389 pure compounds, including 189 hydrocarbons and 201 oxygenates. More than 250 individual measurements are new to this version of the Compendium. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines; it is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous Compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed, and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane has been expanded and the data has been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.

  4. Radiation Induced Nanocrystal Formation in Metallic Glasses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Jesse

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    simple system consisting of only two elements, several intermetallic compounds can exist, each with their own crystal structure (face-centered cubic, body-centered, etc), and the system gets much more complicated when the number of constituents... of Alloys and Compounds, Vol 431, Q.S. Zhang, W. Zhang, G.Q. Xie, K.S. Nakayama, H. Kimura and A. Inoue, Formation of bulk metallic glass in situ composites in Cu50Zr45Ti5 alloy, Pages 236-240, Copyright 2007, with permission from Elsevier. 16 Fig. 9...

  5. Number

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona, DisposalFourthN V O 1 8 7 +New York, New

  6. Integrated Hydrogen Production, Purification and Compression System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -system complexity. · Increase efficiency by: ­ directly producing high-purity hydrogen using high temperature, H2 in hot water or hot air. 100 50 Step 2: Hot fluid heats the alloy causing the hydrogen to be released Hydride Alloy 2 Hydride Alloy 3 Hydride Alloy 4 Hot Fluid Cold Fluid Metal Hydride Hydrogen Compressor

  7. Brookhaven National Laboratory Number: Revision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    Brookhaven National Laboratory Number: Revision: PS-ESH-0057 01 Effective: Page 1 of 9 06 Chris Weilandics Signature on file Department ES&H Approval printed name Signature Date Lori Stiegler Signature on file #12;Number: PS-ESH-0057 Revision: 01 Effective: 06/08/12 Page 2 of 9 The only official

  8. ANHARMONICITY, PHONON LOCALIZATION, TWO-PHONON BOUND STATES AND VIBRATIONAL SPECTRA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimball, J.C.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is given only for the deuterides because of deuterium'sand metal hydrides and deuterides 16 able. are interesting

  9. Study of the Secondary Benefits of the ZEV Mandate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Kurani, Ken; Kenney, E.J.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    metal hydride and lithium batteries -- Electrochemical capacitors (ultracapacitors) -- Pulse power batteries -- Improved lead-acid batteries -- Zinc-air batteries --

  10. ASTROBIOLOGY Volume 2, Number 4, 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - phiphilic molecules are thought to be products of Fischer­Tropsch reactions catalyzed by metal or mineral

  11. Durability of Metallic Interconnects and Protective Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To build up a useful voltage, a number of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrically connected into series in a stack via interconnects, which are placed between adjacent cells. In addition to functioning as a bi-polar electrical connector, the interconnect also acts as a separator plate that separates the fuel at the anode side of one cell from the air at the cathode side on an adjacent cell. During SOFC operation at the high temperatures, the interconnects are thus simultaneously exposed to the oxidizing air at one side and a reducing fuel that can be either hydrogen or hydrocarbon at the other. Besides, they are in contact with adjacent components, such as electrodes or electrical contacts, seals, etc. With steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures into the low or intermediate range 600-850oC, oxidation resistant alloys are often used to construct interconnects. However, the metallic interconnects may degrade via interactions at their interfaces with surrounding environments or adjacent components, potentially affecting the stability and performance of interconnects and the SOFC stacks. Thus protection layers are applied to metallic interconnects that also intend to mitigate or prevent chromium migration into cells and the cell poisoning. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of materials for metallic interconnects, their degradation and coating protection.

  12. Specific-Heat of the Organic Metal Bis(tetrathiotetracene) Tri-Iodide from 20-K to 100-K, the Vicinity of the Metal-Nonmetal Phase-Transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CORT, B.; Naugle, Donald G.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    selenium ana- log, the transition-metal complex KCP, ' and tetrathiofulvalenium-thiocyanate [TTF(SCN) 0588] and its selenium analog' which are similar to the organic metal studied in this work. That the metallic state is stabilized by impurities...PHYSICAL REVIEW B VOLUME 24, NUMBER 7 1 OCTOBER 1981 Specific heat of the organic metal bis(tetrathiotetracene) tri-iodide from 20 to 100 K, the vicinity of the metal-nonmetal phase transition B. Cort' and D. G. Naugle Department of Physics...

  13. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Z Site Map OrganizationFAQTrending: Metal Oxo

  14. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Z Site Map OrganizationFAQTrending: Metal

  15. METALS DESIGN HANDBOOK DISCLAIMER

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found TheHot electron dynamics in807 DE899 06 Revision 0 METALS

  16. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliancesTrending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print

  17. Metal coupled emission process

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMayEnergy Metal Organic Heat Carrierscom,

  18. Multiple metals predict prolactin and thyrotropin (TSH) levels in men

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meeker, John D., E-mail: meekerj@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 6635 SPH Tower, 109 S. Observatory St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Rossano, Mary G. [Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)] [Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Protas, Bridget [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Daly, Douglas [Grand Rapids Fertility and IVF, Grand Rapids, MI (United States)] [Grand Rapids Fertility and IVF, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Paneth, Nigel [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Wirth, Julia J. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States) [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Exposure to a number of metals can affect neuroendocrine and thyroid signaling, which can result in adverse effects on development, behavior, metabolism, reproduction, and other functions. The present study assessed the relationship between metal concentrations in blood and serum prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels, markers of dopaminergic, and thyroid function, respectively, among men participating in a study of environmental influences on male reproductive health. Blood samples from 219 men were analyzed for concentrations of 11 metals and serum levels of PRL and TSH. In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, BMI and smoking, PRL was inversely associated with arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc, but positively associated with chromium. Several of these associations (Cd, Pb, Mo) are consistent with limited studies in humans or animals, and a number of the relationships (Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo) remained when additionally considering multiple metals in the model. Lead and copper were associated with non-monotonic decrease in TSH, while arsenic was associated with a dose-dependent increase in TSH. For arsenic these findings were consistent with recent experimental studies where arsenic inhibited enzymes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis and signaling. More research is needed for a better understanding of the role of metals in neuroendocrine and thyroid function and related health implications.

  19. Metal to ceramic sealed joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasecki, John V. (Livonia, MI); Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); McBride, James R. (Ypsilanti, MI)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system.

  20. Metal to ceramic sealed joint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasecki, J.V.; Novak, R.F.; McBride, J.R.

    1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system. 11 figures.

  1. Supported molten-metal catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datta, Ravindra (Iowa City, IA); Singh, Ajeet (Iowa City, IA); Halasz, Istvan (Iowa City, IA); Serban, Manuela (Iowa City, IA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An entirely new class of catalysts called supported molten-metal catalysts, SMMC, which can replace some of the existing precious metal catalysts used in the production of fuels, commodity chemicals, and fine chemicals, as well as in combating pollution. SMMC are based on supporting ultra-thin films or micro-droplets of the relatively low-melting (<600.degree. C.), inexpensive, and abundant metals and semimetals from groups 1, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16, of the periodic table, or their alloys and intermetallic compounds, on porous refractory supports, much like supported microcrystallites of the traditional solid metal catalysts. It thus provides orders of magnitude higher surface area than is obtainable in conventional reactors containing molten metals in pool form and also avoids corrosion. These have so far been the chief stumbling blocks in the application of molten metal catalysts.

  2. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Peter C. (Pleasanton, CA); Von Holtz, Erica H. (Livermore, CA); Hipple, David L. (Livermore, CA); Summers, Leslie J. (Livermore, CA); Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Adamson, Martyn G. (Danville, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  3. Metal-ceramic joint assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Jian (New Milford, CT)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal-ceramic joint assembly in which a brazing alloy is situated between metallic and ceramic members. The metallic member is either an aluminum-containing stainless steel, a high chromium-content ferritic stainless steel or an iron nickel alloy with a corrosion protection coating. The brazing alloy, in turn, is either an Au-based or Ni-based alloy with a brazing temperature in the range of 9500 to 1200.degree. C.

  4. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  5. Metal deposition using seed layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  6. ``Towards Strange Metallic Holography'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartnoll, Sean A.; /Harvard U., Phys. Dept. /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara; Polchinski, Joseph; Silverstein, Eva; /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara; Tong, David; /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara

    2010-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We initiate a holographic model building approach to 'strange metallic' phenomenology. Our model couples a neutral Lifshitz-invariant quantum critical theory, dual to a bulk gravitational background, to a finite density of gapped probe charge carriers, dually described by D-branes. In the physical regime of temperature much lower than the charge density and gap, we exhibit anomalous scalings of the temperature and frequency dependent conductivity. Choosing the dynamical critical exponent z appropriately we can match the non-Fermi liquid scalings, such as linear resistivity, observed in strange metal regimes. As part of our investigation we outline three distinct string theory realizations of Lifshitz geometries: from F theory, from polarized branes, and from a gravitating charged Fermi gas. We also identify general features of renormalization group flow in Lifshitz theories, such as the appearance of relevant charge-charge interactions when z {ge} 2. We outline a program to extend this model building approach to other anomalous observables of interest such as the Hall conductivity.

  7. Clean Metal Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  8. Departmental Business Instrument Numbering System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    To prescribe procedures for assigning identifying numbers to all Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, business instruments. Cancels DOE 1331.2B. Canceled by DOE O 540.1A.

  9. Departmental Business Instrument Numbering System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Order prescribes the procedures for assigning identifying numbers to all Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) business instruments. Cancels DOE O 540.1. Canceled by DOE O 540.1B.

  10. The Jacobi-Stirling Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, George E; Gawronski, Wolfgang; Littlejohn, Lance L

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Jacobi-Stirling numbers were discovered as a result of a problem involving the spectral theory of powers of the classical second-order Jacobi differential expression. Specifically, these numbers are the coefficients of integral composite powers of the Jacobi expression in Lagrangian symmetric form. Quite remarkably, they share many properties with the classical Stirling numbers of the second kind which, as shown in LW, are the coefficients of integral powers of the Laguerre differential expression. In this paper, we establish several properties of the Jacobi-Stirling numbers and its companions including combinatorial interpretations thereby extending and supplementing known contributions to the literature of Andrews-Littlejohn, Andrews-Gawronski-Littlejohn, Egge, Gelineau-Zeng, and Mongelli.

  11. In situ remediation process using divalent metal cations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Patrick V.; Khandaker, Nadim R.; Krumhansl, James L.; Teter, David M.

    2004-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ process for treating ambient solid materials (e.g., soils, aquifer solids, sludges) by adding one or more divalent metal cations to the ambient solid material. The added divalent metal cations, such as Cu.sup.2+ or Zn.sup.2+, combine with metal oxide/hydroxides (e.g., ferric oxide/hydroxide or aluminum oxide/hydroxide) already present in the ambient solid material to form an effective sorbent material having a large number of positively-charged surface complexes that binds and immobilizes anionic contaminant species (e.g., arsenic or chromate). Divalent metal cations can be added, for example, by injecting an aqueous solution of CuSO.sub.4 into an aquifer contaminated with arsenic or chromate. Also, sludges can be stabilized against leaching of anionic contaminants through the addition of divalent metal cations. Also, an inexpensive sorbent material can be easily formed by mixing divalent metal cations with soil that has been removed from the ground.

  12. Microfabrication of freestanding metal structures released from graphite substrates.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarova, O. V.; Tang, C.-M.; Mancini, D. C.; Moldovan, N.; Divan, R.; Ryding, D. G.; Lee, R. H.

    2002-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A sacrificial layer is usually used to release electroformed microstructures. Because of the chemistry applied to the sacrificial layer, only a limited number of metals can be used for electroforming. A novel method to fabricate freestanding electroformed copper structures is presented. A graphite substrate allows the release of the metal part, by abrasive removal of the graphite after electroforming. Results on fabrication of high-aspect-ratio freestanding copper grids are presented; these can be used as x-ray collimator in medical imaging to reduce scattered radiation. This process has potential application to the fabrication of injection molds and microparts on pick-and-place carriers for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

  13. Unanticipated potential cancer risk near metal recycling facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raun, Loren, E-mail: raun@rice.edu [Department of Statistics, MS 138, Rice University, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251-1892 (United States)] [Department of Statistics, MS 138, Rice University, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251-1892 (United States); Pepple, Karl, E-mail: pepple.karl@epa.gov [State and Local Programs Group, Air Quality Policy Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Policy, Analysis, and Communications Staff, Mail Drop C404-03, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)] [State and Local Programs Group, Air Quality Policy Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Policy, Analysis, and Communications Staff, Mail Drop C404-03, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hoyt, Daniel, E-mail: hoyt.daniel@epa.gov [Air Surveillance Section, US EPA, Region 6, 6EN-AS, 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, TX 75202-2733 (United States)] [Air Surveillance Section, US EPA, Region 6, 6EN-AS, 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, TX 75202-2733 (United States); Richner, Donald, E-mail: Donald.Richner@houstontx.gov [Houston Department of Health and Human Services, Bureau of Pollution Control and Prevention, 7411 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77087 (United States)] [Houston Department of Health and Human Services, Bureau of Pollution Control and Prevention, 7411 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77087 (United States); Blanco, Arturo, E-mail: arturo.blanco@houstontx.gov [Pollution Control and Prevention, Environmental Health Division, Houston Department of Health and Human Services, 7411 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77087 (United States)] [Pollution Control and Prevention, Environmental Health Division, Houston Department of Health and Human Services, 7411 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77087 (United States); Li, Jiao, E-mail: jiao.li@rice.edu [Wiess School of Natural Science, Rice University, 6100 Main St., Houston, TX 77005 (United States)] [Wiess School of Natural Science, Rice University, 6100 Main St., Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal recycling is an important growing industry. Prior to this study, area sources consisting of metal recycling facilities fell in a category of limited regulatory scrutiny because of assumed low levels of annual emissions. Initiating with community complaints of nuisance from smoke, dust and odor, the Houston Department of Health and Human Services (HDHHS) began a monitoring program outside metal recycler facilities and found metal particulates in outdoor ambient air at levels which could pose a carcinogenic human health risk. In a study of five similar metal recycler facilities which used a torch cutting process, air downwind and outside the facility was sampled for eight hours between 6 and 10 times each over 18 months using a mobile laboratory. Ten background locations were also sampled. Iron, manganese, copper, chromium, nickel, lead, cobalt, cadmium and mercury were detected downwind of the metal recyclers at frequencies ranging from 100% of the time for iron to 2% of the time for mercury. Of these metals, chromium, nickel, lead, cobalt, cadmium and mercury were not detected in any sample in the background. Two pairs of samples were analyzed for total chromium and hexavalent chromium to establish a ratio of the fraction of hexavalent chromium in total chromium. This fraction was used to estimate hexavalent chromium at all locations. The carcinogenic risk posed to a residential receptor from metal particulate matter concentrations in the ambient air attributed to the metal recyclers was estimated from each of the five facilities in an effort to rank the importance of this source and inform the need for further investigation. The total risk from these area sources ranged from an increased cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000 to 6 in 10,000 using the 95th upper confidence limit of the mean of the carcinogenic metal particulate matter concentration, assuming the point of the exposure is the sample location for a residential receptor after accounting for wind direction and the number of shifts that could operate a year. Further study is warranted to better understand the metal air pollution levels in the community and if necessary, to evaluate the feasibility of emission controls and identify operational improvements and best management practices for this industry. This research adds two new aspects to the literature: identification of types and magnitude of metal particulate matter air pollutants associated with a previously unrecognized area source, metal recyclers and their potential risk to health. -- Highlights: • Air monitoring study in response to community complaints found metal contamination. • Metal recyclers found to potentially pose cancer from metal particulates • Chromium, nickel, cobalt and cadmium samples were detected in five metal recyclers. • These metals were not detected in background air samples. • Estimated increased cancer risk ranges from 1 in 1,000,000 to 8 in 10,000.

  14. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing gas. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream. 1 fig.

  15. Anionic group 6B metal carbonyls as homogeneous catalysts for carbon dioxide/hydrogen activation: the production of alkyl formates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darensbourg, D.J.; Ovalles, C.

    1984-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of alkyl formates from the hydrocondensation of carbon dioxide in alcohols utilizing anionic group 6B carbonyl hydrides as catalysts is herein reported. HM(CO)/sub 5//sup -/ (M = Cr, W; derived from ..mu..-H(M/sub 2/(CO)/sub 10/)/sup -/) and their products of carbon dioxide insertion, HCO/sub 2/M(CO)/sub 5//sup -/, have been found to be effective catalysts for the hydrogenation of CO/sub 2/ in alcohols under rather mild conditions (loading pressures of CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/, 250 psi each, and 125/sup 0/C) to provide alkyl formates. The only metal carbonyl species detected in solution via spectroscopy, both at the end of a catalytic period and during catalysis, were M(CO)/sub 6/ and HCO/sub 2/M(CO)/sub 5//sup -/. The metal hexacarbonyls were independently shown to be catalytically inactive. A catalytic cycle is proposed which initially involves release of formic acid from the metal center, either by reductive elimination of the hydrido formato ligands or ligand-assisted heterolytic splitting of dihydrogen with loss of formic acid. In a rapid subsequent process HCOOH reacts with alcohols to yield HCOOR. The addition of carbon monoxide retards alkyl formate production, strongly implying CO/sub 2/ to be the primary source of the carboxylic carbon atom in HCOOR. This was verified by carrying out reactions in the presence of HCO/sub 2/W(/sup 13/CO)/sub 5//sup -/ which provided only H/sup 12/COOR after short reaction periods. However, in the absence of hydrogen and carbon dioxide ..mu..-H(M/sub 2/(CO)/sub 10/)/sup -/ species were observed to be effective catalyst precursors for converting CO and methanol into methyl formate. 36 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Saldana, Christopher J. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  17. Expanding hollow metal rings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peacock, Harold B. (Evans, GA); Imrich, Kenneth J. (Grovetown, GA)

    2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A sealing device that may expand more planar dimensions due to internal thermal expansion of a filler material. The sealing material is of a composition such that when desired environment temperatures and internal actuating pressures are reached, the sealing materials undergoes a permanent deformation. For metallic compounds, this permanent deformation occurs when the material enters the plastic deformation phase. Polymers, and other materials, may be using a sealing mechanism depending on the temperatures and corrosivity of the use. Internal pressures are generated by either rapid thermal expansion or material phase change and may include either liquid or solid to gas phase change, or in the gaseous state with significant pressure generation in accordance with the gas laws. Sealing material thickness and material composition may be used to selectively control geometric expansion of the seal such that expansion is limited to a specific facing and or geometric plane.

  18. Metal-carbon nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puretzky, A.A.; Hettich, R.L.; Jin, Changming; Haufler, R.E.; Compton, R.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tuinman, A.A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafine particles formed by XeCl laser photolysis of M(CO){sub 6}, M = V, Cr, Mo, and W, have been analyzed by Fourier transform mass spectrometry and other techniques. Novel metal carbide clusters, (MoC{sub 4}){sub n}, n = 1 {minus} 4 and (WC{sub 4}){sub m}, m = 1 {minus} 8, were detected and studied. The material produced by photolysis of V(CO){sub 6} shows a series of vanadium-oxygen clusters, V{sub x}O{sub 2x+2}, x = 2 {minus} 10. No clusters of any type were detected in the photolysis product of Cr(CO){sub 6}. Structures based on the experimental evidence are proposed and discussed in light of their chemical reactivity.

  19. Nanostructured metal-polyaniline composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Li, Wenguang (Elgin, IL); Bailey, James A. (Los Alamos, NM); Gao, Yuan (Brewer, ME)

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-polyaniline (PANI) composites are provided together with a process of preparing such composites by an electrodeless process. The metal of the composite can have nanoscale structural features and the composites can be used in applications such as catalysis for hydrogenation reactions and for analytical detection methods employing SERS.

  20. Metal recovery from porous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sturcken, E.F.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to recovery of metals. More specifically, the present invention relates to the recovery of plutonium and other metals from porous materials using microwaves. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  1. Synthesis metal nanoparticle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunge, Scott D.; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2005-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for providing an anhydrous route for the synthesis of amine capped coinage-metal (copper, silver, and gold) nanoparticles (NPs) using the coinage-metal mesityl (mesityl=C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3 -2,4,6) derivatives. In this method, a solution of (Cu(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5, (Ag(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.4, or (Au(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5 is dissolved in a coordinating solvent, such as a primary, secondary, or tertiary amine; primary, secondary, or tertiary phosphine, or alkyl thiol, to produce a mesityl precursor solution. This solution is subsequently injected into an organic solvent that is heated to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. After washing with an organic solvent, such as an alcohol (including methanol, ethanol, propanol, and higher molecular-weight alcohols), oxide free coinage NP are prepared that could be extracted with a solvent, such as an aromatic solvent (including, for example, toluene, benzene, and pyridine) or an alkane (including, for example, pentane, hexane, and heptane). Characterization by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the NPs were approximately 9.2.+-.2.3 nm in size for Cu.degree., (no surface oxide present), approximately 8.5.+-.1.1 nm Ag.degree. spheres, and approximately 8-80 nm for Au.degree..

  2. Alleviation of fermi-level pinning effect at metal/germanium interface by the insertion of graphene layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek, Seung-heon Chris; Seo, Yu-Jin; Oh, Joong Gun; Albert Park, Min Gyu; Bong, Jae Hoon; Yoon, Seong Jun; Lee, Seok-Hee, E-mail: seokheelee@ee.kaist.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Minsu; Park, Seung-young [Division of Materials Science, Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI), 169-148 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byong-Guk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we report the alleviation of the Fermi-level pinning on metal/n-germanium (Ge) contact by the insertion of multiple layers of single-layer graphene (SLG) at the metal/n-Ge interface. A decrease in the Schottky barrier height with an increase in the number of inserted SLG layers was observed, which supports the contention that Fermi-level pinning at metal/n-Ge contact originates from the metal-induced gap states at the metal/n-Ge interface. The modulation of Schottky barrier height by varying the number of inserted SLG layers (m) can bring about the use of Ge as the next-generation complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor material. Furthermore, the inserted SLG layers can be used as the tunnel barrier for spin injection into Ge substrate for spin-based transistors.

  3. Electrochemical Oxidation of H2 Catalyzed by Ruthenium Hydride Complexes Bearing P2N2 Ligands With Pendant Amines as Proton Relays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Tianbiao L.; Rakowski DuBois, Mary; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Two Ru hydride complexes (Cp*Ru(PPh2NBn2)H, 1-H and (Cp*Ru(PtBu2NBn2)H, 2-H) supported by cyclic PR2NR'2 ligands (Cp* = ?5-C5Me5; 1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane, where R = Ph or tBu and R' = Bn) have been synthesized and fully characterized. Both complexes are demonstrated to be electrocatalysts for oxidation of H2 (1 atm, 22 °C) in the presence of external base, DBU (1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene). The turnover frequency of 2-H is 1.2 s-1, with an overpotential at Ecat/2 of 0.45 V, while catalysis by 1-H has a turnover frequency of 0.6 s-1 and an overpotential of 0.6 V at Ecat/2. Addition of H2O facilitates oxidation of H2 by 2-H and increases its turnover frequency to 1.9 s-1 while , H2O slows down the catalysis by 1-H. The different effects of H2O for 1-H and 2-H are ascribed to different binding affinities of H2O to the Ru center of the corresponding unsaturated species, [Cp*Ru(PPh2NBn2)]+ and [Cp*Ru(PPh2NBn2)]+. In addition, studies of Cp*Ru(dmpm)H (where dmpm = bis(dimethylphosphino)methane), a control complex lacking pendent amines in its diphosphine ligand, confirms the critical roles of the pendent amines of P2N2 ligands for oxidation of H2. We thank the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, for supporting initial parts of the work. Current work is supported by the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Method for preparing metal powder, device for preparing metal powder, method for processing spent nuclear fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Jong-Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing metal powder is provided the comprising supplying a molten bath containing a reducing agent, contacting a metal oxide with the molten bath for a time and at a temperature sufficient to reduce the metal in the metal oxide to elemental metal and produce free oxygen; and isolating the elemental metal from the molten bath.

  5. Pressure-Induced Electronic Phase Transitions Transition Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islam, M. Saif

    Pressure-Induced Electronic Phase Transitions in Transition Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals Metal Oxides and Rare Earth Metals by Brian Ross Maddox Electron correlation can affect profound changes transition in a transition metal monoxide. iv #12;The lanthanides (the 4f metals also known as rare-earths

  6. Modeling the glass forming ability of metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheney, Justin Lee

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compositions without rare earth metals in the Fe-Cr-Mo-C-B-Wsmall percentages of rare earth metals as the oxide formingmore, often containing rare earth metals, are among the best

  7. Superconducting ``metals'' and ``insulators'' Smitha Vishveshwara

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Superconducting ``metals'' and ``insulators'' Smitha Vishveshwara Department of Physics, University to the distinction between normal metals and insulators: the superconducting ``metal'' with delocalized qua- siparticle excitations and the superconducting ``insulator'' with localized quasiparticles. We describe

  8. Report/Product Number(s) DOE/ER/64701 DOE Award/Contract Number(s)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Foundenhancer activity than FINAL Report/Product Number(s)

  9. Cosmic metal production and the mean metallicity of the Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Calura; F. Matteucci

    2004-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    By means of detailed chemo-photometric models for elliptical, spiral and irregular galaxies, we evaluate the cosmic history of the production of chemical elements as well as the metal mass density of the present-day universe. We then calculate the mean metal abundances for galaxies of different morphological types, along with the average metallicity of galactic matter in the universe (stars, gas and intergalactic medium). For the average metallicity of galaxies in the local universe, we find Z_gal= 0.0175, i.e. close to the solar value. We find the main metal production in spheroids (ellipticals and bulges) to occur at very early times, implying an early peak in the metal production and a subsequent decrease. On the other hand, the metal production in spirals and irregulars is always increasing with time. We perform a self-consistent census of the baryons and metals in the local universe finding that, while the vast majority of the baryons lies outside galaxies in the inter-galactic medium (IGM), 52 % of the metals (with the exception of the Fe-peak elements) is locked up in stars and in the interstellar medium. We estimate indirectly the amount of baryons which resides in the IGM and we derive its mean Fe abundance, finding a value of X_Fe,IGM=0.05 X_Fe,sun. We believe that this estimate is uncertain by a factor of 2, owing to the normalization of the local luminosity function. This means that the Fe abundance of 0.3 solar inferred from X-ray observations of the hot intra-cluster medium (ICM) is higher than the average Fe abundance of the inter-galactic gas in the field.

  10. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, Oscar H. (Danville, CA); Curtis, Paul G. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof.

  11. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, O.H.; Curtis, P.G.

    1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof. 1 figure.

  12. Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchangers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, R.G.; Stephens, H.P.; Stohl, F.V.

    1983-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

  13. Hydrogen Storage in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omar M. Yaghi

    2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional storage of large amounts of hydrogen in its molecular form is difficult and expensive because it requires employing either extremely high pressure gas or very low temperature liquid. Because of the importance of hydrogen as a fuel, the DOE has set system targets for hydrogen storage of gravimetric (5.5 wt%) and volumetric (40 g L-1) densities to be achieved by 2015. Given that these are system goals, a practical material will need to have higher capacity when the weight of the tank and associated cooling or regeneration system is considered. The size and weight of these components will vary substantially depending on whether the material operates by a chemisorption or physisorption mechanism. In the latter case, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have recently been identified as promising adsorbents for hydrogen storage, although little data is available for their sorption behavior. This grant was focused on the study of MOFs with these specific objectives. (1) To examine the effects of functionalization, catenation, and variation of the metal oxide and organic linkers on the low-pressure hydrogen adsorption properties of MOFs. (2) To develop a strategy for producing MOFs with high surface area and porosity to reduce the dead space and increase the hydrogen storage capacity per unit volume. (3) To functionalize MOFs by post synthetic functionalization with metals to improve the adsorption enthalpy of hydrogen for the room temperature hydrogen storage. This effort demonstrated the importance of open metal sites to improve the adsorption enthalpy by the systematic study, and this is also the origin of the new strategy, which termed isoreticular functionalization and metalation. However, a large pore volume is still a prerequisite feature. Based on our principle to design highly porous MOFs, guest-free MOFs with ultrahigh porosity have been experimentally synthesized. MOF-210, whose BET surface area is 6240 m2 g-1 (the highest among porous solids), takes up 15 wt% of total H2 uptake at 80 bar and 77 K. More importantly, the total H2 uptake by MOF-210 was 2.7 wt% at 80 bar and 298 K, which is the highest number reported for physisorptive materials.

  14. Enhancing H[subscript 2] Uptake by 'Close-Packing' Alignment of Open Copper Sites in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xi-Sen; Ma, Shengqian; Forster, Paul M.; Yuan, Daqiang; Eckert, Juergen; López, Joseph J.; Murphy, Brandon J.; Parise, John B.; Zhou, Hong-Cai (TAM); (SBU); (UCSB)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Inspired by close-packing of spheres, to strengthen the framework-H{sub 2} interaction in MOFs (metal-organic frameworks), a strategy is devised to increase the number of nearest neighboring open metal sites ofe ach H{sub 2}-hosting cage, and to align the open metal sites toward the H{sub 2} molecules. Two MOF polymorphs were made, one exhibiting a record high hydrogen uptake of 3.0 wt% at 1 bar and 77 k.

  15. On Normal Numbers Veronica Becher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueira, Santiago

    ends with all zeros; hence, q is not simply normal to base b. 3/23 #12;The problem is still open Theorem (Borel 1909) Almost all real numbers are absolutely normal. Problem (Borel 1909) Give an example transducers. Huffman 1959 calls them lossless compressors. A direct proof of the above theorem Becher

  16. Brookhaven National Laboratory Number: Revision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    NATIONAL LABORATORY LASER CONTROLLED AREA STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE (SOP) This document defines OPERATIONS Operation Maintenance Service Specific Operation (specify) #12;Number: PS-ESH-0083 Revision: 01 the safety management program for the laser system(s) listed below. All American National Standard Institute

  17. Heterogeneous Catalysis on Atomically Dispersed Supported Metals...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalysis on Atomically Dispersed Supported Metals: CO2 Reduction on Multifunctional Pd Catalysts. Heterogeneous Catalysis on Atomically Dispersed Supported Metals: CO2 Reduction...

  18. Recommendation 221: Recommendation Regarding Recycling of Metals...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    221: Recommendation Regarding Recycling of Metals and Materials Recommendation 221: Recommendation Regarding Recycling of Metals and Materials In addition to the DOE making a final...

  19. Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Metal Impurities in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Print Transition metals are one of the main culprits in degrading the efficiency of multicrystalline solar...

  20. Formation of metal oxides by cathodic arc deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, S.; Anders, A.; Rubin, M.; Wang, Z.; Raoux, S.; Kong, F.; Brown, I.G.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal oxide thin films are of interest for a number of applications. Cathodic arc deposition, an established, industrially applied technique for formation of nitrides (e.g. TiN), can also be used for metal oxide thin film formation. A cathodic arc plasma source with desired cathode material is operated in an oxygen atmosphere, and metal oxides of various stoichiometric composition can be formed on different substrates. We report here on a series of experiments on metal oxide formation by cathodic arc deposition for different applications. Black copper oxide has been deposited on ALS components to increase the radiative heat transfer between the parts. Various metal oxides such as tungsten oxide, niobium oxide, nickel oxide and vanadium oxide have been deposited on ITO glass to form electrochromic films for window applications. Tantalum oxide films are of interest for replacing polymer electrolytes. Optical waveguide structures can be formed by refractive index variation using oxide multilayers. We have synthesized multilayers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si as possible basic structures for passive optoelectronic integrated circuits, and Al{sub 2-x}Er{sub x}O{sub 3} thin films with a variable Er concentration which is a potential component layer for the production of active optoelectronic integrated devices such as amplifiers or lasers at a wavelength of 1.53 {mu}m. Aluminum and chromium oxide films have been deposited on a number of substrates to impart improved corrosion resistance at high temperature. Titanium sub-oxides which are electrically conductive and corrosion resistant and stable in a number of aggressive environments have been deposited on various substrates. These sub-oxides are of great interest for use in electrochemical cells.

  1. Heavy Metal Humor: Reconsidering Carnival in Heavy Metal Culture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Gary Botts

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    the majority of the land and maintained a social hierarchy that created a vast wealth disparity between the peasants and the church and upper classes. The Church?s feudal ownership of the land meant that it had power over the peasants, limiting social... manifest itself in metal culture. It may further 16 be suggested that the socio-economic climate from which metal culture developed has analogous threads to 16th century French feudal society. While feudalism and capitalism differ, both French...

  2. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Xianghong (Pasadena, CA); Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  3. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  4. Layer-by-Layer Fabrication of Oriented Porous Thin Films Based on Porphyrin-Containing Metal-Organic Frameworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with number of growth cycles. Polarization excitation and fluorescence measurements indicate, Papanikolas et al. have reported on the fabrication and energy migration dynamics of metal for its exploitation for the preparation of molecular devices.19 Example materials include HKUST-1

  5. Maine Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 0 07,755,432Commercial Consumers (Number

  6. Minnesota Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet)Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

  7. Minnesota Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet)Commercial Consumers (Number of

  8. Kansas Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

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  9. Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan FebDecadeDecade217523,552.1Residential Consumers (Number

  10. Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYearFuel5,266 6,090Industrial Consumers (Number

  11. Vermont Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan FebIncreasesCommercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

  12. Vermont Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

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  13. Georgia Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear JanPriceIndustrial Consumers (Number of

  14. Metal-Organic Heat Carrier Nanofluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrail, B. Peter; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Nune, Satish K.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Dang, Liem X.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofluids, dispersions of metal or oxide nanoparticles in a base working fluid, are being intensively studied due to improvements they offer in thermal properties of the working fluid. However, these benefits have been erratically demonstrated and proven impacts on thermal conductivity are modest and well described from long-established effective medium theory. In this paper, we describe a new class of metal-organic heat carrier (MOHC) nanofluid that offers potential for a larger performance boost in thermal vapor-liquid compression cycles. MOHCs are nanophase porous coordination solids designed to reversibly uptake the working fluid molecules in which the MOHCs are suspended. Additional heat can be extracted in a heat exchanger or solar collector from the endothermic enthalpy of desorption, which is then released as the nanofluid transits through a power generating device such as a turboexpander. Calculations for an R123 MOHC nanofluid indicated potential for up to 15% increase in power output. Capillary tube experiments show that liquid-vapor transitions occur without nanoparticle deposition on the tube walls provided entrance Reynolds number exceeds approximately 100.

  15. High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett

    2005-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (i) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (ii) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (iii) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

  16. Metal-sensing layer-semiconductor and metal-sensing layer-metal heterostructure gas sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, M.; Li, Zheng; Fonash, S.J.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extremely sensitive gas sensors can be fabricated using heterostructures of the form metal-sensing layer-semiconductor or metal-sensing layer-metal. These structures are heterostructure diodes which have the barrier controlling transport at least partially located in the sensing layer. In the presence of the gas species to be detected, the electrical properties of the sensing layer evolve, resulting in a modification of the barrier to electric current transport and, hence, resulting in detection due to changes in the current-voltage characteristics of the device. This type of sensor structure is demonstrated using the Pd/Ti-O/sub x/Ti heterostructure hydrogen detector.

  17. A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Kafesaki, Maria; Soukoulis, Costas

    2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent advancements in metamaterials and plasmonics have promised a number of exciting applications, in particular at terahertz and optical frequencies. Unfortunately, the noble metals used in these photonic structures are not particularly good conductors at high frequencies, resulting in significant dissipative loss. Here, we address the question of what is a good conductor for metamaterials and plasmonics. For resonant metamaterials, we develop a figure-of-merit for conductors that allows for a straightforward classification of conducting materials according to the resulting dissipative loss in the metamaterial. Application of our method predicts that graphene and high-T{sub c} superconductors are not viable alternatives for metals in metamaterials. We also provide an overview of a number of transition metals, alkali metals and transparent conducting oxides. For plasmonic systems, we predict that graphene and high-T{sub c} superconductors cannot outperform gold as a platform for surface plasmon polaritons, because graphene has a smaller propagation length-to-wavelength ratio.

  18. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  19. Metal sponge for cryosorption pumping applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, G.R.; Kneisel, P.

    1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A system has been developed for adsorbing gases at high vacuum in a closed area. The system utilizes large surface clean anodized metal surfaces at low temperatures to adsorb the gases. The large surface clean anodized metal is referred to as a metal sponge. The metal sponge generates or maintains the high vacuum by increasing the available active cryosorbing surface area. 4 figs.

  20. Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

    2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

  1. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  2. Horizontal electromagnetic casting of thin metal sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Lari, Robert J. (Aurora, IL); Praeg, Walter F. (Palos Park, IL); Turner, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin metal sheets are cast by magnetically suspending molten metal deposited within a ferromagnetic yoke and between AC conducting coils and linearly displacing the magnetically levitated liquid metal while it is being cooled to form a solid metal sheet. Magnetic flux increases as the molten metal sheet moves downward and decreases as the molten metal sheet moves upward to stabilize the sheet and maintain it in equilibrium as it is linearly displaced and solidified by cooling gases. A conducting shield is electrically coupled to the molten metal sheet by means of either metal sheet engaging rollers or brushes on the solidified metal, and by means of an electrode in the vessel containing the molten metal thereby providing a return path for the eddy currents induced in the metal sheet by the AC coil generated magnetic flux. Variation in the geometry of the conducting shield allows the magnetic flux between the metal sheet and the conducting shield to be varied and the thickness in surface quality of the metal sheet to be controlled. Side guards provide lateral containment for the molten metal sheet and stabilize and shape the magnetic field while a leader sheet having electromagnetic characteristics similar to those of the metal sheet is used to start the casting process and precedes the molten metal sheet through the magnet and forms a continuous sheet therewith. The magnet may be either U-shaped with a single racetrack coil or may be rectangular with a pair of facing bedstead coils.

  3. Maskless laser writing of microscopic metallic interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, L.

    1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a metal pattern on a substrate is disclosed. The method includes depositing an insulative nitride film on a substrate and irradiating a laser beam onto the nitride film, thus decomposing the metal nitride into a metal constituent and a gaseous constituent, the metal constituent remaining in the nitride film as a conductive pattern. 4 figs.

  4. Maskless laser writing of microscopic metallic interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, Leon (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a metal pattern on a substrate. The method includes depositing an insulative nitride film on a substrate and irradiating a laser beam onto the nitride film, thus decomposing the metal nitride into a metal constituent and a gaseous constituent, the metal constituent remaining in the nitride film as a conductive pattern.

  5. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Tzou, M.S.; Jiang, H.J.

    1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  6. TRANSITION DE MOTT METAL-INSULATOR TRANSITIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    TRANSITION DE MOTT METAL-INSULATOR TRANSITIONS IN TRANSITION METAL OXIDES by D. B. McWHAN, A. MENTH oxydes de metaux de transition on observe une transition d'isolant a metal puis de metal a isolant de type Mott lorsque l'on augmentelenombre d'electrons d. Danslesysthe(V1-~Cr~)203une transition de Mott

  7. Metal nanoparticles as a conductive catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coker, Eric N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal nanocluster composite material for use as a conductive catalyst. The metal nanocluster composite material has metal nanoclusters on a carbon substrate formed within a porous zeolitic material, forming stable metal nanoclusters with a size distribution between 0.6-10 nm and, more particularly, nanoclusters with a size distribution in a range as low as 0.6-0.9 nm.

  8. Metal oxide nanostructures with hierarchical morphology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Yu (Saline, MI); Banerjee, Debasish (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates generally to metal oxide materials with varied symmetrical nanostructure morphologies. In particular, the present invention provides metal oxide materials comprising one or more metallic oxides with three-dimensionally ordered nanostructural morphologies, including hierarchical morphologies. The present invention also provides methods for producing such metal oxide materials.

  9. Metal sponge for cryosorption pumping applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ganapati R. (Yorktown, VA); Kneisel, Peter (Williamsburg, VA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system has been developed for adsorbing gases at high vacuum in a closed area. The system utilizes large surface clean anodized metal surfaces at low temperatures to adsorb the gases. The large surface clean anodized metal is referred to as a metal sponge. The metal sponge generates or maintains the high vacuum by increasing the available active cryosorbing surface area.

  10. Molten metal injector system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA); Kinosz, Michael J. (Apollo, PA); Bigler, Nicolas (Morin Heights, CA); Arnaud, Guy (Riviere-Beaudette, CA)

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a molten metal injector system including a holder furnace, a casting mold supported above the holder furnace, and a molten metal injector supported from a bottom side of the mold. The holder furnace contains a supply of molten metal having a metal oxide film surface. The bottom side of the mold faces the holder furnace. The mold defines a mold cavity for receiving the molten metal from the holder furnace. The injector projects into the holder furnace and is in fluid communication with the mold cavity. The injector includes a piston positioned within a piston cavity defined by a cylinder for pumping the molten metal upward from the holder furnace and injecting the molten metal into the mold cavity under pressure. The piston and cylinder are at least partially submerged in the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. The cylinder further includes a molten metal intake for receiving the molten metal into the piston cavity. The molten metal intake is located below the metal oxide film surface of the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. A method of injecting molten metal into a mold cavity of a casting mold is also disclosed.

  11. Anaerobic microbial remobilization of coprecipitated metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

    1994-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for solubilizing coprecipitated metals. Metals in waste streams are concentrated by treatment with an iron oxide coprecipitating agent. The coprecipitated metals are solubilized by contacting the coprecipitate with a bacterial culture of a Clostridium species ATCC 53464. The remobilized metals can then be recovered and recycled. 4 figs.

  12. Chemical Hydrides Ken Stroh, facilitator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development Approach To Deliver Economic H2 via NaBH4 NaBH4 Natural Gas Solar Energy Hydro Power H2 Catalyst and distributed generation applications could be early markets that help establish the infrastructure #12;Refining

  13. Bridged transition-metal complexes and uses thereof for hydrogen separation, storage and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

    1990-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention constitutes a class of organometallic complexes which reversibly react with hydrogen to form dihydrides and processes by which these compounds can be utilized. The class includes bimetallic complexes in which two cyclopentadienyl rings are bridged together and also separately [pi]-bonded to two transition metal atoms. The transition metals are believed to bond with the hydrogen in forming the dihydride. Transition metals such as Fe, Mn or Co may be employed in the complexes although Cr constitutes the preferred metal. A multiple number of ancillary ligands such as CO are bonded to the metal atoms in the complexes. Alkyl groups and the like may be substituted on the cyclopentadienyl rings. These organometallic compounds may be used in absorption/desorption systems and in facilitated transport membrane systems for storing and separating out H[sub 2] from mixed gas streams such as the producer gas from coal gasification processes. 3 figs.

  14. Bridged transition-metal complexes and uses thereof for hydrogen separation, storage and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lilga, Michael A. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention constitutes a class of organometallic complexes which reversibly react with hydrogen to form dihydrides and processes by which these compounds can be utilized. The class includes bimetallic complexes in which two cyclopentadienyl rings are bridged together and also separately .pi.-bonded to two transition metal atoms. The transition metals are believed to bond with the hydrogen in forming the dihydride. Transition metals such as Fe, Mn or Co may be employed in the complexes although Cr constitutes the preferred metal. A multiple number of ancilliary ligands such as CO are bonded to the metal atoms in the complexes. Alkyl groups and the like may be substituted on the cyclopentadienyl rings. These organometallic compounds may be used in absorption/desorption systems and in facilitated transport membrane systems for storing and separating out H.sub.2 from mixed gas streams such as the product gas from coal gasification processes.

  15. Bridged transition-metal complexes and uses thereof for hydrogen separation, storage and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

    1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention constitutes a class of organometallic complexes which reversibly react with hydrogen to form dihydrides and processes by which these compounds can be utilized. The class includes bimetallic complexes in which two cyclopentadienyl rings are bridged together and also separately [pi]-bonded to two transition metal atoms. The transition metals are believed to bond with the hydrogen in forming the dihydride. Transition metals such as Fe, Mn or Co may be employed in the complexes although Cr constitutes the preferred metal. A multiple number of ancillary ligands such as CO are bonded to the metal atoms in the complexes. Alkyl groups and the like may be substituted on the cyclopentadienyl rings. These organometallic compounds may be used in absorption/desorption systems and in facilitated transport membrane systems for storing and separating out H[sub 2] from mixed gas streams such as the product gas from coal gasification processes. 3 figures.

  16. Bridged transition-metal complexes and uses thereof for hydrogen separation, storage and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lilga, Michael A. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention constitutes a class of organometallic complexes which reversibly react with hydrogen to form dihydrides and processes by which these compounds can be utilized. The class includes bimetallic complexes in which two cyclopentadienyl rings are bridged together and also separately .pi.-bonded to two transition metal atoms. The transition metals are believed to bond with the hydrogen in forming the dihydride. Transition metals such as Fe, Mn or Co may be employed in the complexes although Cr constitutes the preferred metal. A multiple number of ancilliary ligands such as CO are bonded to the metal atoms in the complexes. Alkyl groups and the like may be substituted on the cyclopentadienyl rings. These organometallic compounds may be used in absorption/desorption systems and in facilitated transport membrane systems for storing and separating out H.sub.2 from mixed gas streams such as the produce gas from coal gasification processes.

  17. Valence, coordination number, and PAV cells in metallic rare earth compounds F. L. Carter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    that the effective radius of the rare earth atoms is surprisingly variable and may even be anisotropic in some SmCo5], is indicated not only by the prediction [4] of the unstability of the SmCo5 structure [9], but even to the likely nature of one of the SmCo5-type distortions. For the first time this paper demonstrated

  18. Vibration-Induced Kondo Tunneling through Metal-Organic Complexes with Even Electron Occupation Number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - neling Hamiltonian H Hmol Hres Htun: (1) Here Hmol includes the 3d electron levels in a ligand field of the cage electrons, the molecular orbitals of these ligands, as well as interactions within the 3d shell with tunneling electrons (vibration assisted tunneling) [8­13] and modulation of the tunnel barriers (shuttling

  19. Stopband optimised E-plane filters with multiple metal inserts of variable number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bornemann, Jens

    element Prof. F. Arndt, Dr.-Ing., Sen.Mem.I.E.E.E., D. Heckmann, Dipl.-lng., H. Semmerow, Dipl.-lng., J

  20. alloy nuclear fuels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were characterized in this research. Metal uranium powder was produced from pieces of depleted uranium metal acquired from the Y-12 plant via hydriding... Helmreich, Grant...

  1. alloyed uranium transformation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were characterized in this research. Metal uranium powder was produced from pieces of depleted uranium metal acquired from the Y-12 plant via hydriding... Helmreich, Grant...

  2. alloyed uranium sicral: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were characterized in this research. Metal uranium powder was produced from pieces of depleted uranium metal acquired from the Y-12 plant via hydriding... Helmreich, Grant...

  3. Method of bonding metals to ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, V.A.

    1991-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic or glass having a thin layer of silver, gold or alloys thereof at the surface thereof is disclosed. A first metal is bonded to the thin layer and a second metal is bonded to the first metal. The first metal is selected from the class consisting of In, Ga, Sn, Bi, Zn, Cd, Pb, Tl and alloys thereof, and the second metal is selected from the class consisting of Cu, Al, Pb, Au and alloys thereof. 3 figures.

  4. Coated metal articles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boller, Ernest R. (Van Buren Township, IN); Eubank, Lowell D. (Wilmington, DE)

    2004-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  5. Coated Metal Articles and Method of Making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boller, Ernest R.; Eubank, Lowell D.

    2004-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of protectively coating metallic uranium which comprises dipping the metallic uranium in a molten alloy comprising about 20-75% of copper and about 80-25% of tin, dipping the coated uranium promptly into molten tin, withdrawing it from the molten tin and removing excess molten metal, thereupon dipping it into a molten metal bath comprising aluminum until it is coated with this metal, then promptly withdrawing it from the bath.

  6. Hydrides of CeNi/sub 5/, MmNi/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/(Ce/sub 0/ /sub 65/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 35/)/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Ce/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, and mixed CeNi/sub 5//MmNi/sub 5/

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lakner, J.F.; Chow, T.S.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six intermetallic alloys (CeNi/sub 5/, MmNi/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/(Ce/sub 0/ /sub 65/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 35/)/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Ce/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/Mm/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, and a mixed alloy, CeNi/sub 5//MmNi/sub 5/) were investigated with respect to their suitability to provide high hydrogen capacity and their potential for use in providing substantial hydrogen pressure at both low and high temperatures. A second phase of our investigation dealt with ball-milling and hydriding and dehydriding cycles to produce fine particles for use in hydride powder transfer studies. A summary of several Van't Hoff plots is also included for hydride-forming alloys.

  7. Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro VI' Heavy-duty Engine using the PMP Methodologies Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro...

  8. Hydrogen Storage atHydrogen Storage at Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electrochemistry research for batteries and fuel cells · Metal hydrides · Nanostructured materials #12, and FE · Lithium batteries for pure- and hydrid-electric vehicles: materials, diagnostics, test cells, modeling · PEM fuel cells: Phil Ross (electrocatalysts), John Newman (modeling), Elton Cairns (systems

  9. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, M.S.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  10. Random number stride in Monte Carlo calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, J.S.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monte Carlo radiation transport codes use a sequence of pseudorandom numbers to sample from probability distributions. A common practice is to start each source particle a predetermined number of random numbers up the pseudorandom number sequence. This number of random numbers skipped between each source particles the random number stride, S. Consequently, the jth source particle always starts with the j{center dot}Sth random number providing correlated sampling'' between similar calculations. A new machine-portable random number generator has been written for the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP providing user's control of the random number stride. First the new MCNP random number generator algorithm will be described and then the effects of varying the stride will be presented. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Methods for reducing the loss of metal in a metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Auburn, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are provided for reducing loss of metal from a metal vapor laser by collecting metal present outside the hot zone of the laser and introducing or confining it in the hot zone.

  12. Device Independent Random Number Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mataj Pivoluska; Martin Plesch

    2015-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Randomness is an invaluable resource in today's life with a broad use reaching from numerical simulations through randomized algorithms to cryptography. However, on the classical level no true randomness is available and even the use of simple quantum devices in a prepare-measure setting suffers from lack of stability and controllability. This gave rise to a group of quantum protocols that provide randomness certified by classical statistical tests -- Device Independent Quantum Random Number Generators. In this paper we review the most relevant results in this field, which allow the production of almost perfect randomness with help of quantum devices, supplemented with an arbitrary weak source of additional randomness. This is in fact the best one could hope for to achieve, as with no starting randomness (corresponding to no free will in a different concept) even a quantum world would have a fully deterministic description.

  13. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation. 2 figs.

  14. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Timothy W. (Ames, IA); Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

  15. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  16. Metal volatilization and separation during incineration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, T.C.; Chu, H.W.; Hopper, J.R. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has reported that metals can account for almost all of the identified risks from a thermal treatment process. Fundamental research leading to better understanding of their behavior and improved control of their emissions is greatly needed. This paper reports studies on metal volatilization and separation during incineration. Metal volatilization studies were carried out in two separate experiments. In the first experiment, the dynamic volatilization characteristics of various metals during the combustion of metal-containing wood pellets were investigated in a high-temperature electric furnace. In addition to uncontrolled volatilization, the potential of employing chemical additives to bind metals and prevent them from volatilizing during combustion was also investigated. The second experiment involved the investigation of metal volatilization characteristics during the thermal treatment of metal-contaminated clay in a fluidized bed unit. The metal species tested in both experiments were compounds of lead and cadmium. Metal capture/separation studies were also carried out in two separate experiments. The first involved the use of sorbents in the combustion chamber to capture metals during the fluidized bed incineration of metal-containing wood pellets. The second experiments, however, employed sorbents to absorb metal vapors in a fluidized-bed waste-heat boiler. The objective of both the experiments is to characterize the metal absorption efficiency associated with the processes.

  17. U.S. Department of Energy National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, V.; Bennett, M.; Bishop, L. [Dept. of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle has recently been established. The vision of this new program is to develop a DOE culture that promotes pollution prevention by considering the recycle and reuse of metal as the first and primary disposition option and burial as a last option. The Center of Excellence takes the approach that unrestricted release of metal is the first priority because it is the most cost-effective disposition pathway. Where this is not appropriate, restricted release, beneficial reuse, and stockpile of ingots are considered. Current recycling activities include the sale of 40,000 tons of scrap metal from the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly K-25 Plant) K-770 scrap yard, K-1064 surplus equipment and machinery, 7,000 PCB-contaminated drums, 12,000 tons of metal from the Y-l2 scrap yard, and 1,000 metal pallets. In addition, the Center of Excellence is developing a toolbox for project teams that will contain a number of specific tools to facilitate metals recycle. This Internet-based toolbox will include primers, computer programs, and case studies designed to help sites to perform life cycle analysis, perform ALARA (As Low As is Reasonably Achievable) analysis for radiation exposures, provide pollution prevention information and documentation, and produce independent government estimates. The use of these tools is described for two current activities: disposition of scrap metal in the Y-12 scrapyard, and disposition of PCB-contaminated drums.

  18. Cadmium, copper, and lead in soils and garden produce near a metal smelter at Flin Flon, Manitoba

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pip, E. (Univ. of Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada))

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Towns in the vicinity of base metal smelters are subject to contamination from atmospheric fallout containing heavy metals. Many smelters have been in operation for decades, and have resulted in substantial accumulation of metals in the surrounding soils. Metal contamination of edible vegetation near mines and smelters has been the source of health concerns in a number of countries. One smelter that has operated for more than half a century is located at Flin Flon, Manitoba. Many Flin Flon residents utilize home vegetable gardens year after year. However little is known regarding heavy metal contamination of locally grown garden produce. Since food can contribute as much as 90% of total body uptake of metals it is important to identify any sources which may account for the disproportionate share. The objective of the present study was to examine concentrations of cadmium, copper and lead in soils and garden produce in the vicinity of the Flin Flon smelter.

  19. Approximating Metal-Insulator Transitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Danieli; K. Rayanov; B. Pavlov; G. Martin; S. Flach

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider quantum wave propagation in one-dimensional quasiperiodic lattices. We propose an iterative construction of quasiperiodic potentials from sequences of potentials with increasing spatial period. At each finite iteration step the eigenstates reflect the properties of the limiting quasiperiodic potential properties up to a controlled maximum system size. We then observe approximate metal-insulator transitions (MIT) at the finite iteration steps. We also report evidence on mobility edges which are at variance to the celebrated Aubry-Andre model. The dynamics near the MIT shows a critical slowing down of the ballistic group velocity in the metallic phase similar to the divergence of the localization length in the insulating phase.

  20. Metallization and insulization during impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilman, J.J.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is pointed out that the large strains produced by hypervelocity impacts can be expected to produce dramatic changes in the chemical bonding (electronic structures) of materials. This will change the mechanical behavior towards increased ductility when a semiconductor is compressed until it becomes metallic; and towards increased brittleness when a transition metal is expanded so as to localize its d-band electrons. Both isotropic compression (expansion) and shear strains can cause these transformations. Critical deformation criteria are given based on the observed cubic to tetragonal transformations in compressed semiconductors.