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1

Silica Embedded Metal Hydrides  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method to produce silica embedded metal hydride was developed. The product is a composite in which metal hydride particles are embedded in a matrix of silica. The silica matrix is highly porous. Hydrogen gas can easily reach the embedded metal hydride particles. The pores are small so that the metal hydride particles cannot leave the matrix. The porous matrix also protects the metal hydride particles from larger and reactive molecules such as oxygen, since the larger gas molecules cannot pass through the small pores easily. Tests show that granules of this composite can absorb hydrogen readily and withstand many cycles without making fines.

Heung, L.K. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wicks, G.G.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Transition-Metal Hydrides  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transition-Metal Hydride Electrochromics Transition-Metal Hydride Electrochromics A new type of electrochromic hydride material has interesting and unusual properties. Thin Ni-Mg films, for example, are mirror-like in appearance and have very low visible transmittance. On exposure to hydrogen gas or on reduction in alkaline electrolyte, the films become transparent. The transition is believed to result from formation of nickel magnesium hydride, Mg2NiH4. Switchable mirrors based on rare earth hydrides were discovered in 1996 at Vrije University in the Netherlands, Rare earth-magnesium alloy films were subsequently found to be superior to the pure lanthanides in maximum transparency and mirror-state reflectivity by Philips Laboratories. The newer transition-metal types which use less expensive and less reactive materials were discovered at LBNL. This has now become a very active area of study with a network of researchers.

3

Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

Ron, M.; Gruen, D.M.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Sheft, I.

1980-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

4

Dimensionally stable metallic hydride composition  

SciTech Connect

A stable, metallic hydride composition and a process for making such a composition. The composition comprises a uniformly blended mixture of a metal hydride, kieselguhr, and a ballast metal, all in the form of particles. The composition is made by subjecting a metal hydride to one or more hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles to disintegrate the hydride particles to less than approximately 100 microns in size. The particles are partly oxidized, then blended with the ballast metal and the kieselguhr to form a uniform mixture. The mixture is compressed into pellets and calcined. Preferably, the mixture includes approximately 10 vol. % or more kieselguhr and approximately 50 vol. % or more ballast. Metal hydrides that can be used in the composition include Zr, Ti, V, Nb, Pd, as well as binary, tertiary, and more complex alloys of La, Al, Cu, Ti, Co, Ni, Fe, Zr, Mg, Ca, Mn, and mixtures and other combinations thereof. Ballast metals include Al, Cu and Ni.

Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Dimensionally stable metallic hydride composition  

SciTech Connect

A stable, metallic hydride composition and a process for making such a composition are described. The composition comprises a uniformly blended mixture of a metal hydride, kieselguhr, and a ballast metal, all in the form of particles. The composition is made by subjecting a metal hydride to one or more hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles to disintegrate the hydride particles to less than approximately 100 microns in size. The particles are partly oxidized, then blended with the ballast metal and the kieselguhr to form a uniform mixture. The mixture is compressed into pellets and calcined. Preferably, the mixture includes approximately 10 vol. % or more kieselguhr and approximately 50 vol. % or more ballast. Metal hydrides that can be used in the composition include Zr, Ti, V, Nb, Pd, as well as binary, tertiary, and more complex alloys of La, Al, Cu, Ti, Co, Ni, Fe, Zr, Mg, Ca, Mn, and mixtures and other combinations thereof. Ballast metals include Al, Cu and Ni.

Heung, L.K.

1994-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

6

Dimensionally stable metal hydrides - major problem with hydrides is resolved  

SciTech Connect

A patented innovation designed to stabilize metal hydrides and prevent breakbown is described. The innovation is a five step process: reduction of the metal hydride to a particle size less than 10 microns in size; oxidation of particle surfaces; blending of the particles with a porous component and a ballast metal; compression into pellets; calcination of the pellets.

McCarthy, K.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Liquid suspensions of reversible metal hydrides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The reversibility of the process M + x/2 H/sub 2/ ..-->.. MH/sub x/, where M is a metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under a liquid, thereby to reduce contamination, provide better temperature control and provide in situ mobility of the reactants. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen (at high pressures) and to release (at low pressures) previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the former is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Winsche, W.E.

1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

8

Hydrogen storage technology for metal hydrides  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The advantages of using hydrogen as a secondary energy carrier are stated, and numerous factors pertinent to the technology of hydrogen storage via metal hydrides are briefly described. The technology is centered on iron-titanium hydride, FeTiH/sub x/, as the most practical choice for the safe and compact storage of hydrogen. Uses of hydride hydrogen as a fuel or energy carrier are given. The features of hydride reservoir designs are explained, and some performance data are given for two reservoirs constructed at BNL. Results of tests on the long-term behavior of FeTiH/sub x/ are presented along with information on pressure drop in a hydride bed. Two methods of accommodating hydride expansion are described. Other topics include: container materials selection, safety testing of FeTiH/sub x/, hydride materials development, storage systems work at BNL, the proposed Hydrogen-Halogen Energy Storage System, a proposed technique of storing hydrogen in hollow glass microspheres at very high pressure, and information on the commercial availability of materials and equipment for hydride hydrogen. Current development needs are included in the various sections.

Strickland, G

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Using Metal Hydride to Store Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen is the lightest element. At ambient conditions on a volume basis it stores the least amount of energy compared to other fuel carriers such as natural gas and gasoline. For hydrogen to become a practical fuel carrier, a way must be found to increase its volumetric energy density to a practical level. Present techniques being developed include compressed gas, cryogenic liquid and absorbed solid. Each of these techniques has its advantages and disadvantages. And none of them appears to be satisfactory for use in a hydrogen economy. In the interim all of them are used for demonstration purposes. Metal hydrides store hydrogen in a solid form under moderate temperature and pressure that gives them a safety advantage. They require the least amount of energy to operate. Their stored hydrogen density is nearing that of liquid hydrogen. But they are heavy and the weight is their main disadvantage. Current usable metal hydrides can hold no more than about 1.8 percent hydrogen by weight. However much effort is underway to find lighter materials. These include other solid materials other than the traditional metal hydrides. Their operation is expected to be similar to that of metal hydride and can use the technology developed for metal hydrides.

Heung, L.K.

2003-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

10

Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed herein is a metal hydride fuel storage cartridge having integrated resistive heaters that can be used in conjunction with fuel cells such as MEMS-based fuel cells. The cartridge is fabricated using micromachining methods and thin/thick film materials synthesis techniques.

Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Yu, Conrad (Antioch, CA)

2006-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

11

Hydrogen isotope exchange in metal hydride columns  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several metal hydrides were shown to act as chromatographic media for hydrogen isotopes. The procedure was to equilibrate a column of hydride with flowing hydrogen, inject a small quantity of tritium tracer, and observe its elution behavior. Characteristic retention times were found. From these and the extent of widening of the tritium band, the heights equivalent to a theoretical plate could be calculated. Values of around 1 cm were obtained. The following are the metals whose hydrides were studied, together with the temperature ranges in which chromatographic behavior was observed: vanadium, 0 to 70/sup 0/C; zirconium, 500 to 600/sup 0/C; LaNi/sub 5/, -78 to +30/sup 0/C; Mg/sub 2/Ni, 300 to 375/sup 0/C; palladium, 0 to 70/sup 0/C. A dual-temperature isotope separation process based on hydride chromatography was demonstrated. In this, a column was caused to cycle between two temperatures while being supplied with a constant stream of tritium-traced hydrogen. Each half-cycle was continued until ''breakthrough,'' i.e., until the tritium concentration in the effluent was the same as that in the feed. Up to that point, the effluent was enriched or depleted in tritium, by up to 20%.

Wiswall, R; Reilly, J; Bloch, F; Wirsing, E

1977-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

12

Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows Title Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-1089E Year of Publication 2008 Authors Anders, André, Jonathan L. Slack, and Thomas J. Richardson Journal Thin Solid Films Volume 1 Date Published 08/2003 Call Number LBNL-1089E Abstract Proof-of-principle gas-reservoir MnNiMg electrochromic mirror devices have been investigated. In contrast to conventional electrochromic approaches, hydrogen is stored (at low concentration) in the gas volume between glass panes of the insulated glass units (IGUs). The elimination of a solid state ion storage layer simplifies the layer stack, enhances overall transmission, and reduces cost. The cyclic switching properties were demonstrated and system durability improved with the incorporation a thin Zr barrier layer between the MnNiMg layer and the Pd catalyst. Addition of 9% silver to the palladium catalyst further improved system durability. About 100 full cycles have been demonstrated before devices slow considerably. Degradation of device performance appears to be related to Pd catalyst mobility, rather than delamination or metal layer oxidation issues originally presumed likely to present significant challenges.

13

Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof - Energy ...  

Disclosed herein is a metal hydride fuel storage cartridge having integrated resistive heaters that can be used in conjunction with fuel cells such as MEMS-based fuel ...

14

Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at nightwhen the sun is not outto drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNLs metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800C). A high-temperature tank in PNNLs storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNLs thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

None

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

15

Recent advances in metal hydrides for clean energy applications  

SciTech Connect

Metal hydrides are a fascinating class of materials that can be utilized for a surprising variety of clean energy applications, including smart solar collectors, smart windows, sensors, thermal energy storage, and batteries, in addition to their traditional application for hydrogen storage. Over the past decade, research on metal hydrides for hydrogen storage increased due to global governmental incentives and an increased focus on hydrogen storage research for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell operation. Tremendous progress has been made in so-called complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage applications with the discovery of many new hydrides containing covalently bound complex anions. Many of these materials have applications beyond hydrogen storage and are being investigated for lithium-ion battery separator and anode materials. In this issue of MRS Bulletin , we present the state of the art of key evolving metal-hydride-based clean energy technologies with an outlook toward future needs.

Ronnebro, Ewa; Majzoub, Eric H.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Porous metal hydride composite and preparation and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite formed from large pieces of aggregate formed from (1) metal hydride (or hydride-former) powder and (2) either metal powder or plastic powder or both is prepared. The composite has large macroscopic interconnected pores (much larger than the sizes of the powders which are used) and will have a very fast heat transfer rate and low windage loss. It will be useful, for example, in heat engines, hydrogen storage devices, and refrigerator components which depend for their utility upon both a fast rate of hydriding and dehydriding. Additionally, a method of preparing the composite and a method of increasing the rates of hydriding and dehydriding of metal hydrides are also given.

Steyert, William A. (Los Alamos, NM); Olsen, Clayton E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Porous metal hydride composite and preparation and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite formed from large pieces of aggregate formed from (1) metal hydride (or hydride-former) powder and (2) either metal powder or plastic powder or both is prepared. The composite has large macroscopic interconnected pores (much larger than the sizes of the powders which are used) and will have a very fast heat transfer rate and low windage loss. It will be useful, for example, in heat engines, hydrogen storage devices, and refrigerator components which depend for their utility upon both a fast rate of hydriding and dehydriding. Additionally, a method of preparing the composite and a method of increasing the rates of hydriding and dehydriding of metal hydrides are also given.

Steyert, W.A.; Olsen, C.E.

1980-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

18

Electronic structure, bonding and chemisorption in metallic hydrides  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Problems that can arise during the cycling steps for a hydride storage system usually involve events at surfaces. Chemisorption and reaction processes can be affected by small amounts of contaminants that may act as catalytic poisons. The nature of the poisoning process can vary greatly for the different metals and alloys that form hydrides. A unifying concept is offered, which satisfactorily correlates many of the properties of transition-metal, rare-earth and actinide hydrides. The metallic hydrides can be differentiated on the basis of electronegativity, metallic radius (valence) and electronic structure. For those systems where there are d (transition metals) or f (early actinides) electrons near the Fermi level a broad range of chemical and catalytic behaviors are found, depending on bandwidth and energy. The more electropositive metals (rare-earths, actinides, transition metals with d < 5) tend to strongly chemisorb electrophilic molecules; this is a consequence of the manner in which new bonding states are introduced. More electronegative metals (d >> 5) dissolve hydrogen and form hydrides by an electronically somewhat different process, and as a class tend to adsorb electrophobic molecules. The net charge-transfer in either situation is subtle; however, the small differences are responsible for many of the observed structural, chemical, and catalytic properties in these hydride systems.

Ward, J.W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Hydridable material for the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride storage battery  

SciTech Connect

A monophase hydridable material for the negative electrode of a nickel-metal hydride storage battery with a "Lave's phase" structure of hexagonal C14 type (MgZn.sub.2) has the general formula: Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x Ni.sub.a Mn.sub.b Al.sub.c Co.sub.d V.sub.e where ##EQU1##

Knosp, Bernard (Neuilly-sur-Seine, FR); Bouet, Jacques (Paris, FR); Jordy, Christian (Dourdan, FR); Mimoun, Michel (Neuilly-sur-Marne, FR); Gicquel, Daniel (Lanorville, FR)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries October 17, 2011 - 10:42am Addthis Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries Matthew Loveless Matthew Loveless Data Integration Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Through licensing and collaborative work, Energy Department-sponsored research can yield great economic benefits and help bring important new products to market. The Energy Department funds cutting-edge research on a broad range of topics ranging from advanced battery construction to the modeling of industrial processes and supercomputer simulation of supernovae. But this research is not only about furthering our understanding of the world around

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films Title X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-50574 Year of Publication 2002 Authors Richardson, Thomas J., Baker Farangis, Jonathan L. Slack, Ponnusamy Nachimuthu, Rupert C. C. Perera, Nobumichi Tamura, and Michael D. Rubin Journal Journal of Alloys and Compounds Volume 356-357 Start Page 204 Pagination 204-207 Date Published 08/2003 Keywords A. hydrogen storage materials, NEXAFS, thin film s; C. EXAFS, x-ray diffraction Abstract Mixed metal thin films containing magnesium and a first-row transition element exhibit very large changes in both reflectance and transmittance on exposure to hydrogen gas. Changes in electronic structure and coordination of the magnesium and transition metal atoms during hydrogen absorption were studied using dynamic in situ transmission mode X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Mg K-edge and Ni, Co, and Ti L-edge spectra reflect both reversible and irreversible changes in the metal environments. A significant shift in the nickel L absorption edge shows it to be an active participant in hydride formation. The effect on cobalt and titanium is much less dramatic, suggesting that these metals act primarily as catalysts for formation of magnesium hydride.

22

Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SANDIA REPORT SANDIA REPORT SAND2012-0786 Unlimited Release Printed February 2012 Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence Lennie Klebanoff Director, Metal Hydride Center of Excellence Jay Keller Deputy Director, Metal Hydride Center of Excellence Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited. Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy

23

Heat-actuated metal hydride hydrogen compressor testing  

SciTech Connect

Electric utilities use hydrogen for cooling turbine generators. The majority of the utilities purchase the gas from industrial gas markets. On-site electrolytic hydrogen production may prove advantageous both logistically and economically. In order to demonstrate this concept, Public Service Electric and Gas Co. (PSE and G) and EPRI installed an electrolyzer at the Sewaren (NJ) station. To compress the gas, PSE and G purchased a heat-activated metal hydride compressor from Ergenics, Inc. This report describes closed- and open-cycle tests conducted on this metal hydride hydrogen compressor. Test systems, plans, methodologies, and results are presented. A brief discussion evaluates these performance results, addresses some of the practical problems involved with electrolyzer-compressor interface, and compares the costs and benefits of metal hydride versus mechanical hydrogen compression for utility generator cooling.

Piraino, M.; Metz, P.D.; Nienke, J.L.; Freitelberg, A.S.; Rahaman, R.S.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Models for Metal Hydride Particle Shape, Packing, and Heat Transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A multiphysics modeling approach for heat conduction in metal hydride powders is presented, including particle shape distribution, size distribution, granular packing structure, and effective thermal conductivity. A statistical geometric model is presented that replicates features of particle size and shape distributions observed experimentally that result from cyclic hydride decreptitation. The quasi-static dense packing of a sample set of these particles is simulated via energy-based structural optimization methods. These particles jam (i.e., solidify) at a density (solid volume fraction) of 0.665+/-0.015 - higher than prior experimental estimates. Effective thermal conductivity of the jammed system is simulated and found to follow the behavior predicted by granular effective medium theory. Finally, a theory is presented that links the properties of bi-porous cohesive powders to the present systems based on recent experimental observations of jammed packings of fine powder. This theory produces quantitative experimental agreement with metal hydride powders of various compositions.

Kyle C. Smith; Timothy S. Fisher

2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

25

METHOD OF PREPARING SINTERED ZIRCONIUM METAL FROM ITS HYDRIDES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to the preparation of metal shapes from zirconium hydride by powder metallurgical techniques. The zirconium hydride powder which is to be used for this purpose can be prepared by rendering massive pieces of crystal bar zirconium friable by heat treatment in purified hydrogen. This any then be ground into powder and powder can be handled in the air without danger of it igniting. It may then be compacted in the normal manner by being piaced in a die. The compact is sintered under vacuum conditions preferably at a temperature ranging from 1200 to 1300 deg C and for periods of one to three hours.

Angier, R.P.

1958-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

26

Synthesis and characterization of metal hydride/carbon aerogel composites for hydrogen storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two materials currently of interest for onboard lightweight hydrogen storage applications are sodium aluminum hydride (NaAlH4), a complex metal hydride, and carbon aerogels (CAs), a light porous material connected by several spherical nanoparticles. ...

Kuen-Song Lin; Yao-Jen Mai; Su-Wei Chiu; Jing-How Yang; Sammy L. I. Chan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Thermomechanics of hydrogen storage in metallic hydrides: modeling and analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A thermodynamically consistent mathematical model for hydrogen adsorption in metal hydrides is proposed. Beside hydrogen diffusion, the model accounts for phase transformation accompanied by hysteresis, swelling, temperature and heat transfer, strain, and stress. We prove existence of solutions of the ensuing system of partial differential equations by a carefully-designed, semi-implicit approximation scheme. A generalization for a drift-diffusion of multi-component ionized "gas" is outlined, too.

Tomas Roubicek; Giuseppe Tomassetti

2013-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

28

Diffusional exchange of isotopes in a metal hydride sphere.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the Spherical Particle Exchange Model (SPEM), which simulates exchange of one hydrogen isotope by another hydrogen isotope in a spherical metal hydride particle. This is one of the fundamental physical processes during isotope exchange in a bed of spherical metal particles and is thus one of the key components in any comprehensive physics-based model of exchange. There are two important physical processes in the model. One is the entropy of mixing between the two isotopes; the entropy of mixing is increased by having both isotopes randomly placed at interstitial sites on the lattice and thus impedes the exchange process. The other physical process is the elastic interaction between isotope atoms on the lattice. The elastic interaction is the cause for {beta}-phase formation and is independent of the isotope species. In this report the coupled diffusion equations for two isotopes in the {beta}-phase hydride are solved. A key concept is that the diffusion of one isotope depends not only on its concentration gradient, but also on the concentration gradient of the other isotope. Diffusion rate constants and the chemical potentials for deuterium and hydrogen in the {beta}-phase hydride are reviewed because these quantities are essential for an accurate model of the diffusion process. Finally, a summary of some of the predictions from the SPEM model are provided.

Wolfer, Wilhelm G.; Hamilton, John C.; James, Scott Carlton

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Thermodynamics of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage applications using first principles calculations .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Metal hydrides are promising candidates for H2 storage, but high stability and poor kinetics are the important challenges which have to be solved for vehicular (more)

Kim, Ki Chul

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

Paxton, B.K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Designation of Sites for Remedial Action - Metal Hydrides, Beverly,  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

T: T: Designation of Sites for Remedial Action - Metal Hydrides, Beverly, MA; Bridgeport Brass, Adrian, MI and Seymour, Chicago, IL CT; National Guard Armory, 0: Joe LaGrone, Manager Oak Ridge Operations Office Based on the attached radiological survey data (Attachments 1 through 3) and an appropriate authority review, the following properties are being authorized for remedial action. It should be noted that the attached survey data are for designation purposes only and that Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) should conduct appropriate comprehensive characterization studies to determine the extent'and magnitude of contamination on properties. Site Location Priority Former Bridgeport Brass Co. (General Motors) Adrian, MI Low Former Bridgeport Brass Co.

32

Metal hydride based isotope separation: Large-scale operations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A program to develop a metal hydride based hydrogen isotope separation process began at the Savannah River Laboratory in 1980. This semi-continuous gas chromatographic separation process will be used in new tritium facilities at the Savannah River Site. A tritium production unit is scheduled to start operation in 1993. An experimental, large-scale unit is currently being tested using protium and deuterium. Operation of the large-scale unit has demonstrated separation of mixed hydrogen isotopes (55% protium and 45% deuterium), resulting in protium and deuterium product streams with purities better than 99.5%. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Horen, A.S.; Lee, Myung W.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Metal hydride based isotope separation: Large-scale operations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A program to develop a metal hydride based hydrogen isotope separation process began at the Savannah River Laboratory in 1980. This semi-continuous gas chromatographic separation process will be used in new tritium facilities at the Savannah River Site. A tritium production unit is scheduled to start operation in 1993. An experimental, large-scale unit is currently being tested using protium and deuterium. Operation of the large-scale unit has demonstrated separation of mixed hydrogen isotopes (55% protium and 45% deuterium), resulting in protium and deuterium product streams with purities better than 99.5%. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Horen, A.S.; Lee, Myung W.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

34

Mathematical Modelling of a Metal Hydride Hydrogen Storage System Brendan David MacDonald  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Member Abstract In order for metal hydride hydrogen storage systems to compete with existing energyMathematical Modelling of a Metal Hydride Hydrogen Storage System by Brendan David MacDonald B Hydrogen Storage System by Brendan David MacDonald B.A.Sc., University of Waterloo, 2004 Supervisory

Victoria, University of

35

ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

2011-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

36

HYDRIDES AND METAL-HYDROGEN SYSTEMS. Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work reported deals with the preparation and physical properties, especially thermal dissociation pressures, and densities of hydrides, hydrogen- metal systems, and mixtures of hydrides with other substances. Possible applicatlons as moderators, high-temperature neutron shields, and low-temperature shields are cited and design problems discussed. Most of the data on dissociation pressures cover ranges and compounds not hltherto explored because of experimental difficulties and the basic knowledge of the thermal behavior of hydrides was substantially increased. New hydrldes were prepared and several reported in the literature were shown not to exist. The following compounds, mixtures, and systems were studled: Tl-H, U-H, Ll-H, Na-H, Ca-H, Ba-H, Th-H, Sr- H; NaH-NaF, NaH-NaOH, NaH-CaH/, LlH-LiF, CaH/sub 2/-CaF/sub 2/, CaH/sub 2/-CaC/ sub 2/,CaH/sub 2/-Ca/sub 3/N/sub 2/; FeH/sub 3/ (alleged), NiH/sub 2/ (alleged), Ti(BH/sub 4/)/sub 3/, Th(BH/sub 4/)/sub 4/, WH/sub 4/ (attempted), W(BH/sub 4/)/ sub 4/ (attempted), /sub 4/NBH/sub 4/, (CH , and ydrides are ing an N/sub H/ comparable to water yet stable at red heat, compounds giving a neutron shield weight less than half that of water, and compounds suitable for use as hightemperature moderators containing large amounts of hydrogen. (auth)

Gibb, T.R.P. Jr.

1951-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

37

Hydrogen storage via metal hydrides for utility and automotive energy storage applications. [HCl electrolysis for H/sub 2/--Cl/sub 2/ fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Brookhaven National Laboratory is currently supported by ERDA to develop the technology and techniques for storing hydrogen via metal hydrides. Hydrogen is able to react with a wide variety of metal and metal alloy materials to form hydride compounds of hydrogen and metals. These compounds differ in stability--some are relatively unstable and can be readily formed and decomposed at low temperatures. The use of these systems for hydrogen storage involves the design of heat exchanger and mass transfer systems, i.e., removal of heat during the charging reaction and addition of heat during the discharge reaction. The most notable example of a metal hydride material is iron titanium which shows promise of being economical for a number of near term hydrogen storage applications. Recent work and progress on the development of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage connected with utility energy storage applications and natural gas supplementation are discussed and electric-to-electric storage system is described in some detail. A system of energy storage involving the electrolysis of hydrochloric acid is described which would utilize metal hydrides to store the hydrogen. In addition, the use of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage in automotive systems is described.

Salzano, F J; Braun, C; Beaufrere, A; Srinivasan, S; Strickland, G; Reilly, J J; Waide, C

1976-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

Zidan, Ragaiy (Aiken, SC); Ritter, James A. (Lexington, SC); Ebner, Armin D. (Lexington, SC); Wang, Jun (Columbia, SC); Holland, Charles E. (Cayce, SC)

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

39

Final report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the R&D activities within the U.S. Department of Energy Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) from March 2005 to June 2010. The purpose of the MHCoE has been to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE 2010 and 2015 system goals for hydrogen storage materials. The MHCoE combines three broad areas: mechanisms and modeling (which provide a theoretically driven basis for pursuing new materials), materials development (in which new materials are synthesized and characterized) and system design and engineering (which allow these new materials to be realized as practical automotive hydrogen storage systems). This Final Report summarizes the organization and execution of the 5-year research program to develop practical hydrogen storage materials for light duty vehicles. Major results from the MHCoE are summarized, along with suggestions for future research areas.

Keller, Jay O.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Nickel-metal hydride battery development. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Rechargeable batteries are used as the power source for a broad range of portable equipment. Key battery selection criteria typically are weight, volume, first cost, life cycle cost, and environmental impact. Rechargeable batteries are favored from a life cycle cost and environmental impact standpoint over primary batteries. The nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery system has emerged as the battery of choice for many applications based on its superior characteristics when judged on the above criteria against other battery types. In most cases commercial Ni-MH batteries are constructed with coiled electrodes in cylindrical metal containers. Electro Energy, Inc. (EEI) has been developing a novel flat bipolar configuration of the Ni-MH system that offers weight, volume, and cost advantages when compared to cylindrical cells. The unique bipolar approach consists of fabricating individual flat wafer cells in conductive, carbon-filled, plastic face plates. The individual cells contain a nonconductive plastic border which is heat sealed around the perimeter to make a totally sealed unit cell. Multi-cell batteries are fabricated by stacking the individual wafer cells in such a way that the positive face of one cell contacts the negative face of the adjacent cell. The stack is then contained in an outer housing with end contacts. The purpose of this program was to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate the capabilities of the EEI Ni-MH battery system for consumer applications. The work was directed at the development and evaluation of the compact bipolar construction for its potential advantages of high power and energy density. Experimental investigations were performed on various nickel electrode types, hydride electrode formulations, and alternate separator materials. Studies were also directed at evaluating various oxygen recombination techniques for low pressure operation during charge and overcharge.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

DEVELOPMENT OF A FABRICATION PROCESS FOR SOL-GEL/METAL HYDRIDE COMPOSITE GRANULES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An external gelation process was developed to produce spherical granules that contain metal hydride particles in a sol-gel matrix. Dimensionally stable granules containing metal hydrides are needed for applications such as hydrogen separation and hydrogen purification that require columns containing metal hydrides. Gases must readily flow through the metal hydride beds in the columns. Metal hydrides reversibly absorb and desorb hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes. This is accompanied by significant volume changes that cause the metal hydride to break apart or decrepitate. Repeated cycling results in very fine metal hydride particles that are difficult to handle and contain. Fine particles tend to settle and pack making it more difficult to flow gases through a metal hydride bed. Furthermore, the metal hydrides can exert a significant force on the containment vessel as they expand. These problems associated with metal hydrides can be eliminated with the granulation process described in this report. Small agglomerates of metal hydride particles and abietic acid (a pore former) were produced and dispersed in a colloidal silica/water suspension to form the feed slurry. Fumed silica was added to increase the viscosity of the feed slurry which helped to keep the agglomerates in suspension. Drops of the feed slurry were injected into a 27-foot tall column of hot ({approx}70 C), medium viscosity ({approx}3000 centistokes) silicone oil. Water was slowly evaporated from the drops as they settled. The drops gelled and eventually solidified to form spherical granules. This process is referred to as external gelation. Testing was completed to optimize the design of the column, the feed system, the feed slurry composition, and the operating parameters of the column. The critical process parameters can be controlled resulting in a reproducible fabrication technique. The residual silicone oil on the surface of the granules was removed by washing in mineral spirits. The granules were dried in air at 40 C. The granules were heated to 230 C for 30 minutes in argon to remove the remaining water and organic materials. The resulting product was spherical composite granules (100 to 2000 micron diameter) with a porous silica matrix containing small agglomerates of metal hydride particles. Open porosity in the silica matrix allows hydrogen to permeate rapidly through the matrix but the pores are small enough to contain the metal hydride particles. Additional porosity around the metal hydride particles, induced using abietic acid as a pore former, allows the particles to freely expand and contract without fracturing the brittle sol-gel matrix. It was demonstrated that the granules readily absorb and desorb hydrogen while remaining integral and dimensionally stable. Microcracking was observed after the granules were cycled in hydrogen five times. The strength of the granules was improved by coating them with a thin layer of a micro-porous polymer sol-gel that would allow hydrogen to freely pass through the coating but would filter out metal hydride poisons such as water and carbon monoxide. It was demonstrated that if a thin sol-gel coating was applied after the granules were cycled, the coating not only improved the strength of the granules but the coated granules retained their strength after additional hydrogen cycling tests. This additional strength is needed to extend the lifetime of the granules and to survive the compressive load in a large column of granules. Additional hydrogen adsorption tests are planned to evaluate the performance of coated granules after one hundred cycles. Tests will also be performed to determine the effects of metal hydride poisons on the granules. The results of these tests will be documented in a separate report. The process that was developed to form these granules could be scaled to a production process. The process to form granules from a mixture of metal hydride particles and pore former such as abietic acid can be scaled up using commercial granulators. The current laboratory-scale external gelation column produc

Hansen, E; Eric Frickey, E; Leung Heung, L

2004-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

42

Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The teams innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

None

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Recovering hydrogen from gas stream using metal hydride  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to an improved adiabatic process for separating hydrogen from mixed gas streams using hydridable materials as the absorbing medium. The improvement comprises utilizing a composite comprising a thermal ballast in admixture with the hydride material to absorb the heat of reaction and to aid in desorption. By virtue of the intimate contact of the ballast with the hydridable material rapid cycle times plus good bed utilization are achieved.

Cheng, G.C.; Eisenberg, F.G.; Huston, E.L.; Sandrock, G.D.; Sheridan, J.J.; Snape, E.; Stickles, R.P.

1982-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

44

On-board hydrogen storage system using metal hydride  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A hydrogen powered hybrid electric bus has been developed for demonstration in normal city bus service in the City of Augusta, Georgia, USA. The development team, called H2Fuel Bus Team, consists of representatives from government, industry and research institutions. The bus uses hydrogen to fuel an internal combustion engine which drives an electric generator. The generator charges a set of batteries which runs the electric bus. The hydrogen fuel and the hybrid concept combine to achieve the goal of near-zero emission and high fuel efficiency. The hydrogen fuel is stored in a solid form using an on-board metal hydride storage system. The system was designed for a hydrogen capacity of 25 kg. It uses the engine coolant for heat to generate a discharge pressure higher than 6 atm. The operation conditions are temperature from ambient to 70 degrees C, hydrogen discharge rate to 6 kg/hr, and refueling time 1.5 hours. Preliminary tests showed that the performance of the on-board storage system exceeded the design requirements. Long term tests have been planned to begin in 2 months. This paper discusses the design and performance of the on-board hydrogen storage system.

Heung, L.K.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Synthesis and characterization of metal hydride electrodes. Interim report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to elucidate the compositional and structural parameters that affect the thermodynamics, kinetics and stability of alloy hydride electrodes and to use this information in the development of new high capacity long life hydride electrodes for rechargeable batteries. The work focuses on the development of AB{sub 5} alloys and the application of in situ methods, at NSLS, such as x-ray absorption (XAS), to elucidate the role of the alloying elements in hydrogen storage and corrosion inhibition. The most significant results to date are: The decay of electrode capacity on cycling was directly related to alloy corrosion. The rate of corrosion depended in part on both the alloy composition and the partial molar volume of hydrogen, V{sub H}. The corrosion rate depended on the composition of the A component in AB{sub 5} (LaNi{sub 5} type) alloys. Partial substitution of La with Ce in AB{sub 5} alloys substantially inhibits electrode corrosion on cycling. Recent results indicate that Co also greatly inhibits electrode corrosion, possibly by minimizing V{sub H}. The AB{sub 5} alloys investigated included LaNi{sub 5}, ternary alloys (e.g. LaN{sub 4.8}Sn{sub 0.2} and La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}Ni{sub 5}), alloys with various substitutions for both La and Ni (e.g. La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}Ni{sub 4.8}Sn{sub 0.2}) and mischmetal (Mm) alloys of the type normally used in batteries, such as MmB{sub 5} (B = Ni{sub 3.55}Mn{sub 0.4}A1{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.75}). A major effort was devoted to the effects of La substitution in the A component. Both in situ and ex situ XAS measurements are used to study the electronic effects that occur on the addition of various metal substitutions and on the ingress of hydrogen.

McBreen, J.; Reilly, J.J.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Metal hydrides: Relevant Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reactivity of MgH2 with lithium is a reversible conversion reaction (reversible capacity of 1500 mAh/g) generalized to many hydrides as: MHx + xLi+ + xe- ? M +...

47

Materials Down-selection Decisions Made within the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) - September-October 2007  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

Reports on which hydrogen storage materials offer potential for further research as decided by DOE's Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

48

Evaluation of Protected Metal Hydride Slurries in a H2 Mini-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaluation of Protected Metal Hydride Slurries in a H2 Mini- Grid TIAX, LLC Acorn Park Cambridge_MERIT_REVIEW_MAY2003 2 Introduction Hydrogen Mini-Grid Concept Distributed FCPS utilizing a H2 Mini-Grid can provide waste heat can be used for hot water or space heating in buildings (i.e. "cogen") Distributed FCPS

49

INVESTIGATION OF THE THERMODYNAMICS GOVERNING METAL HYDRIDE SYNTHESIS IN THE MOLTEN STATE PROCESS.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Complex metal hydrides have been synthesized for hydrogen storage through a new synthetic technique utilizing high hydrogen overpressure at elevated temperatures (molten state processing). This synthesis technique holds the potential of fusing different complex hydrides at elevated temperatures and pressures to form new species with enhanced hydrogen storage properties. Formation of these compounds is driven by thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. We report on investigations of the thermodynamics. Novel synthetic complexes were formed, structurally characterized, and their hydrogen desorption properties investigated. The effectiveness of the molten state process is compared with mechanicosynthetic ball milling.

Stowe, A; Polly Berseth, P; Ragaiy Zidan, R; Donald Anton, D

2007-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

50

HYCSOS: a chemical heat pump and energy conversion system based on metal hydrides. 1979 status report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current status of the HYCSOS chemical heat pump and energy conversion system based on metal hydrides is described. Heat transfer fluid loops were insulated and modified for isothermal operation. Software development for HYCSOS manual mode operation was completed. Routines to handle data acquisition, logging, compression, correction and plotting, using a Tektronix Graphics system with flexible disk data storage, provide a rapid and versatile means of presenting HYCSOS data for analysis. Advanced concept heat exchangers to improve the heat transfer of the hydride bed with the heat transfer fluid are discussed. Preliminary tests made with a LaNi/sub 5/ loaded aluminum foam test unit showed that heat transfer properties are very markedly improved. Thermodynamic expressions are applied to the selection of alloys for use in HYCSOS. The substitution of aluminum for nickel in AB/sub 5/ type alloys is shown to reduce hysteresis and permits the use of potentially lower cost materials with added flexibility for the optimization of engineering design and performance characteristics of the hydride heat pump system. Transient thermal measurements on hydride beds of CaNi/sub 5/ and LaNi/sub 5/ show no deterioration with cycling. Relatively slow heat transfer between the hydride beds and heat transfer fluid in the coiled tube heat exchangers is indicated by temperature lag of the bed and heat transfer fluid. Improved heat transfer is anticipated with aluminum foam heat exchangers.

Sheft, I.; Gruen, D.M.; Lamich, G.

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Methodology of Materials Discovery in Complex Metal Hydrides Using Experimental and Computational Tools  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a review of the experimental and theoretical methods used in the discovery of new metal-hydrogen materials systems for hydrogen storage applications. Rather than a comprehensive review of all new materials and methods used in the metal hydride community, we focus on a specific subset of successful methods utilizing theoretical crystal structure prediction methods, computational approaches for screening large numbers of compound classes, and medium-throughput experimental methods for the preparation of such materials. Monte Carlo techniques paired with a simplified empirical Hamiltonian provide crystal structure candidates that are refined using Density Functional Theory. First-principle methods using high-quality structural candidates are further screened for an estimate of reaction energetics, decomposition enthalpies, and determination of reaction pathways. Experimental synthesis utilizes a compacted-pellet sintering technique under high-pressure hydrogen at elevated temperatures. Crystal structure determination follows from a combination of Rietveld refinements of diffraction patterns and first-principles computation of total energies and dynamical stability of competing structures. The methods presented within are general and applicable to a wide class of materials for energy storage.

Majzoub, Eric H.; Ronnebro, Ewa

2012-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

52

Characteristics of the high-rate discharge capability of a nickel/metal hydride battery electrode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high rate discharge capability of the negative electrode in a Ni/MH battery is mainly determined by the charge transfer process at the interface between the metal hydride (MH) alloy powder and the electrolyte, and the mass transfer process in the bulk MH alloy powder. In this study, the anodic polarization curves of a MH electrode were measured and analyzed. An alloy of nominal composition Mm{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05}Ni{sub 3.85}Co{sub 0.45}Mn{sub 0.35}Al{sub 0.35} was used as the negative electrode material. With increasing number of charge/discharge cycles, the MH alloy powders microcrack into particles several micrometers in diameter. The decrease in the MH alloy particle size results in an increase in both the activation surface area and the exchange current density of the MH alloy electrode. The electrode overpotentials of the MH electrode decreases with increasing number of cycles at a large value of anodic polarization current. The decrease in electrode overpotential leads to an increase in the high rate discharge capability of the MH electrode. By using the limiting current, the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in the MH alloy was estimated to be 1.2 x 10{sup {minus}11}cm{sup 2}s{sup {minus}1} assuming an average particle radius of 5 {micro}m.

Geng, M.; Han, J.; Feng, F.; Northwood, D.O.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Tritium storage development. Progress report No. 10, October--December 1976. [In metal hydride; polymer-impregnated tritiated concrete  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Laboratory and engineering scale work has been initiated on the storage of tritium in a metal hydride. Laboratory hydriding apparatus has been assembled and a preliminary series of experiments was carried out on zirconium. Several engineering design concepts for the reaction and storage of tritium in a metal hydride are presented. The design of a three 3-in.-diam. bench scale reaction system is in progress. Developmental work is continuing on the injector technique for the fixation of tritium in polymer-impregnated concrete.

Colombo, P; Steinberg, M

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Nickel-Metal-Hydride Batterie--High Energy Storage for Electric Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freedomcar & Vehicle Technologies Program Freedomcar & Vehicle Technologies Program Nickel-Metal-Hydride Batteries - High Energy Storage for Electric Vehicles Background The key to making electric vehicles (EVs) practical is the development of batteries that can provide performance comparable with that of con ventional vehicles at a similar cost. Most EV batteries have limited energy storage capabili ties, permitting only relatively short driving distances before the batteries must be recharged. In 1991, under a coopera tive agreement with The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) initiated development of nickel- metal-hydride (NiMH) battery technology and established it as a prime mid-term candidate for use in EVs. DOE funding has been instru

55

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF METAL HYDRIDES. Summary Report for October 1, 1958-September 30, 1960  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A detailed study of the fundamental relations in the zirconium -- hydrogen system was made in order to clarify the many points of dispute and to evolve a complete picture describing all phases of this system. An engineering evaluation was made of means for utillzing the various high cross-section metal hydrides in shielding or control applications. These materials would combine the processes of thermalization and absorption. Consequently, they are of considerable interest for use in shielding or controlling epithermal reactors. (auth)

Beck, R.L.

1960-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Develop improved metal hydride technology for the storage of hydrogen. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective was to develop commercially viable metal hydrides capable of reversibly storing at least 3 wt.% hydrogen for use with PEM fuel cells and hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine (HICE) applications. Such alloys are expected to result in system capacities of greater than 2 wt.%, making metal hydride storage systems (MHSS`s) a practical means of supplying hydrogen for many consumer applications. ECD`s (Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.) past work on sputtered thin films of transition metal-based alloys led to the commercialization of it`s nickel/metal hydride batteries, and similar work on thin film Mg-based alloys demonstrated potential to achieve very high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities approaching 2,500 Wh/Kg and 2,500 Wh/M{sup 3} respectively. Under this 2-year cost shared project with the DOE, the authors have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of scaling up the Mg-based hydrides from thin film to bulk production without substantial loss of storage capacity. ECD made progress in alloy development by means of compositional and process modification. Processes used include Mechanical Alloying, Melt spinning and novel Gas Phase Condensation. It was showed that the same composition when prepared by melt-spinning resulted in a more homogeneous material having a higher PCT plateau pressure as compared to mechanical alloying. It was also shown that mechanically alloyed Mg-Al-Zn results in much higher plateau pressures, which is an important step towards reducing the desorption temperature. While significant progress has been made during the past two years in alloy development and understanding the relationship between composition, structure, morphology, and processing parameters, additional R and D needs to be performed to achieve the goals of this work.

Sapru, K.

1998-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

57

Advanced Hydride Laboratory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metal hydrides have been used at the Savannah River Tritium Facilities since 1984. However, the most extensive application of metal hydride technology at the Savannah River Site is being planned for the Replacement Tritium Facility, a $140 million facility schedules for completion in 1990 and startup in 1991. In the new facility, metal hydride technology will be used to store, separate, isotopically purify, pump, and compress hydrogen isotopes. In support of the Replacement Tritium Facility, a $3.2 million, cold,'' process demonstration facility, the Advanced Hydride Laboratory began operation in November of 1987. The purpose of the Advanced Hydride Laboratory is to demonstrate the Replacement Tritium Facility's metal hydride technology by integrating the various unit operations into an overall process. This paper will describe the Advanced Hydride Laboratory, its role and its impact on the application of metal hydride technology to tritium handling.

Motyka, T.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Alternatives for metal hydride storage bed heating and cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The reaction of hydrogen isotopes with the storage bed hydride material is exothermic during absorption and endothermic during desorption. Therefore, storage bed operation requires a cooling system to remove heat during absorption, and a heating system to add the heat needed for desorption. Three storage bed designs and their associated methods of heating and cooling and accountability are presented within. The first design is the current RTF (Replacement Tritium Facility) nitrogen heating and cooling system. The second design uses natural convection cooling with ambient glove box nitrogen and electrical resistance for heating. This design is referred to as the Naturally Cooled/Electrically Heated (NCEH) design. The third design uses forced convection cooling with ambient glove box nitrogen and electrical resistance for heating. The design is referred to as the Forced Convection Cooled/Electrically Heated (FCCEH) design. In this report the operation, storage bed design, and equipment required for heating, cooling, and accountability of each design are described. The advantages and disadvantages of each design are listed and discussed. Based on the information presented within, it is recommended that the NCEH design be selected for further development.

Fisher, I.A.; Ramirez, F.B.; Koonce, J.E.; Ward, D.E.; Heung, L.K.; Weimer, M.; Berkebile, W.; French, S.T.

1991-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

59

Analysis of Heat Transfer in Metal Hydride Based Hydrogen Separation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This thesis presents a transient heat transfer analysis to model the heat transfer in the Pd/k packed column, and the impact of adding metallic foam.

Fleming, W.H. Jr.

1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

60

X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF TRANSITION METAL-MAGNESIUM HYDRIDE FILMS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films T. J. Richardson a, *, B. Farangis a , J. L. Slack a , P. Nachimuthu b , R. Pereira b , N. Tamura b , and M. Rubin a a Environmental Energy Technologies Division, b Advanced Light Source, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, California 94720, USA *Corresponding author, E-mail address: tjrichardson@lbl.gov Abstract Mixed metal thin films containing magnesium and a first-row transition element exhibit very large changes in both reflectance and transmittance on exposure to hydrogen gas. Changes in electronic structure and coordination of the magnesium and transition metal atoms during hydrogen absorption were studied using dynamic in situ transmission mode X-ray absorption

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

LaNi{sub 5}-based metal hydride electrode in Ni-MH rechargeable cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An at least ternary metal alloy of the formula AB{sub (Z-Y)}X{sub (Y)} is disclosed. In this formula, A is selected from the rare earth elements, B is selected from the elements of Groups 8, 9, and 10 of the Periodic Table of the Elements, and X includes at least one of the following: antimony, arsenic, germanium, tin or bismuth. Z is greater than or equal to 4.8 and less than or equal to 6.0. Y is greater than 0 and less than 1. Ternary or higher-order substitutions to the base AB{sub 5} alloys that form strong kinetic interactions with the predominant metals in the base metal hydride are used to form metal alloys with high structural integrity after multiple cycles of hydrogen sorption. 16 figs.

Bugga, R.V.; Fultz, B.; Bowman, R.; Surampudi, S.R.; Witham, C.K.; Hightower, A.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

62

OPTIMIZATION OF INTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE TANKS UTILIZING METAL HYDRIDES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two detailed, unit-cell models, a transverse fin design and a longitudinal fin design, of a combined hydride bed and heat exchanger are developed in COMSOL{reg_sign} Multiphysics incorporating and accounting for heat transfer and reaction kinetic limitations. MatLab{reg_sign} scripts for autonomous model generation are developed and incorporated into (1) a grid-based and (2) a systematic optimization routine based on the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method to determine the geometrical parameters that lead to the optimal structure for each fin design that maximizes the hydrogen stored within the hydride. The optimal designs for both the transverse and longitudinal fin designs point toward closely-spaced, small cooling fluid tubes. Under the hydrogen feed conditions studied (50 bar), a 25 times improvement or better in the hydrogen storage kinetics will be required to simultaneously meet the Department of Energy technical targets for gravimetric capacity and fill time. These models and methodology can be rapidly applied to other hydrogen storage materials, such as other metal hydrides or to cryoadsorbents, in future work.

Garrison, S.; Tamburello, D.; Hardy, B.; Anton, D.; Gorbounov, M.; Cognale, C.; van Hassel, B.; Mosher, D.

2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

63

Non-stoichiometric AB5 alloys for metal hydride electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a non-stoichiometric alloy comprising a composition having the formula AB.sub.5+X an atomic ratio wherein A is selected from the group consisting of the rare earth metals, yttrium, mischmetal, or a combination thereof; B is nickel and tin, or nickel and tin and at least a third element selected from the group consisting of the elements in group IVA of the periodic table, aluminum, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, antimony or a combination thereof; X is greater than 0 and less than or equal to about 2.0; and wherein at least one substituted A site is occupied by at least one of the B elements. An electrode incorporating said alloy and an electrochemical cell incorporating said electrode are also described.

Reilly, James J. (Bellport, NY); Adzic, Gordana D. (Setauket, NY); Johnson, John R. (Calverton, NY); Vogt, Thomas (Cold Spring Harbor, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Feasibility study for the recycling of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This feasibility study examined three possible recycling processes for two compositions (AB{sub 2} and AB{sub 5}) of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries to determine possible rotes for recovering battery materials. Analysts examined the processes, estimated the costs for capital equipment and operation, and estimated the value of the reclaimed material. They examined the following three processes: (1) a chemical process that leached battery powders using hydrochloric acid, (2) a pyrometallurical process, and (3) a physical separation/chemical process. The economic analysis revealed that the physical separation/chemical process generated the most revenue.

Sabatini, J.C.; Field, E.L.; Wu, I.C.; Cox, M.R.; Barnett, B.M.; Coleman, J.T. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Self-discharge mechanism of sealed-type nickel/metal-hydride battery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Factors affecting the self-discharge rate of a nickel/metal-hydride (Ni-MH) battery, generally much higher than that of nickel/cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery, are investigated, and the self-discharge mechanism is discussed. Ammonia and amine participate in the shuttle reaction like nitrate ion in the Ni-Cd battery, resulting in acceleration of the self-discharge. When nonwoven fabric made of sulfonated-polypropylene is used as a separator instead of conventional polyamide separator, the self-discharge rate of the Ni-MH battery is strongly depressed, to the same level as that of Ni-Cd battery.

Ikoma, Munehisa; Hoshina, Yasuko; Matsumoto, Isao [Matsushita Battery Industrial Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Iwakura, Chiaki [Univ. of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

High cycle life, cobalt free, AB{5} metal hydride electrodes [Revised 11/10/98  

SciTech Connect

Cobalt-free La(Ni,Sn)5+x alloys have been identified as low cost, corrosion resistant electrodes for nickel-metal-hydride batteries. The structure of theses alloys are similar to non-stoichiometric La(Ni,Cu)5+x compounds; i.e., they retain the P6/mmm space group while Ni dumbbells occupy La sites. Electrodes fabricated from some of these novel alloys have capacities and cycle lives equivalent to those made from commercial, battery grade, AB5 alloys with cobalt.

Vogt, Tom; Reilly, J.J.; Johnson, J.R.; Adzic, G.D.; Ticianelli, E.A.; Mukerjee, S.; McBreen, J.

1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

67

Mathematical model of a NiOOH/metal hydride cell. Final report, September 15, 1993--November 14, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the objectives of work on the nickel/metal hydride cell has been to develop a mathematical model of the performance of the cell. This is a summary of work to date and is meant to be a Final Report of the BES project. Mathematical model of the nickel/metal hydride cell depends on the kinetics, thermodynamics, and transport properties of the metal hydride electrode. Consequently, investigations were carried out to determine: (1) the exchange current density and the equilibrium potential as a function of hydrogen content in the electrode; (2) the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in the bulk of the alloy; (3) the hydrogen reaction rate order; (4) the symmetry factor for hydrogen evolution reaction and (5) to determine the reaction mechanisms of the hydrogen charge and discharge processes including overcharge and overdischarge mechanism.

White, R.E.; Popov, B.N.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

68

Metal hydride/chemical heat-pump development project. Phase I. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The metal hydride/chemical heat pump (MHHP) is a chemical heat pump containing two hydrides for the storage and/or recovery of thermal energy. It utilizes the heat of reaction of hydrogen with specific metal alloys. The MHHP design can be tailored to provide heating and/or cooling or temperature upgrading over a wide range of input and ambient temperatures. The system can thus be used with a variety of heat sources including waste heat, solar energy or a fossil fuel. The conceptual design of the MHHP was developed. A national market survey including a study of applications and market sectors was conducted. The technical tasks including conceptual development, thermal and mechanical design, laboratory verification of design and material performance, cost analysis and the detailed design of the Engineering Development Test Unit (EDTU) were performed. As a result of the market study, the temperature upgrade cycle of the MHHP was chosen for development. Operating temperature ranges for the upgrader were selected to be from 70 to 110/sup 0/C (160 to 230/sup 0/F) for the source heat and 140 to 190/sup 0/C (280 to 375/sup 0/F) for the product heat. These ranges are applicable to many processes in industries such as food, textile, paper and pulp, and chemical. The hydride pair well suited for these temperatures is LaNi/sub 5//LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 5/Al/sub 0/ /sub 5/. The EDTU was designed for the upgrade cycle. It is a compact finned tube arrangement enclosed in a pressure vessel. This design incorporates high heat transfer and low thermal mass in a system which maximizes the coefficient of performance (COP). It will be constructed in Phase II. Continuation of this effort is recommended.

Argabright, T.A.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

REACTION KINETICS AND X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY STUDIES OF YTTRIUM CONTAINING METAL HYDRIDE ELECTRODES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This was a study of electrode degradation mechanisms and the reaction kinetics of LaNi{sub 4.7}Sn{sub 0.3}, La{sub (1{minus}x)}, (x = 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3) and La{sub 0.7}Y{sub 0.3}Ni{sub 4.6}Sn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.1} metal hydride electrodes. Alloy characterization included x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray absorption (XAS), hydrogen absorption in a Sieverts apparatus, and electrochemical cycling of alloy electrodes. The atomic volume of H was determined for two of the alloys. Electrochemical kinetic measurements were made using steady state galvanostatic measurements, galvanodynamic sweep, and electrochemical impedance techniques. XAS was used to examine the degree of corrosion of the alloys with cycling. Alloying with Y decreased the corrosion rate. The results are consistent with corrosion inhibition by a Y containing passive film. The increase in the kinetics of the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) with increasing depth of discharge was much greater on the Y containing alloys. This may be due to the dehydriding of the catalytic species on the surface of the metal hydride particles.

TICIANELLI,E.A.; MUKERJEE,S.; MCBREEN,J.; ADZIC,G.D.; JOHNSON,J.R.; REILLY,J.J.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

First-Principles Modeling of Hydrogen Storage in Metal Hydride Systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to complement experimental efforts of MHoCE partners by using state-of-the-art theory and modeling to study the structure, thermodynamics, and kinetics of hydrogen storage materials. Specific goals include prediction of the heats of formation and other thermodynamic properties of alloys from first principles methods, identification of new alloys that can be tested experimentally, calculation of surface and energetic properties of nanoparticles, and calculation of kinetics involved with hydrogenation and dehydrogenation processes. Discovery of new metal hydrides with enhanced properties compared with existing materials is a critical need for the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. New materials discovery can be aided by the use of first principles (ab initio) computational modeling in two ways: (1) The properties, including mechanisms, of existing materials can be better elucidated through a combined modeling/experimental approach. (2) The thermodynamic properties of novel materials that have not been made can, in many cases, be quickly screened with ab initio methods. We have used state-of-the-art computational techniques to explore millions of possible reaction conditions consisting of different element spaces, compositions, and temperatures. We have identified potentially promising single- and multi-step reactions that can be explored experimentally.

J. Karl Johnson

2011-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

71

Progress in the development of Ovonic nickel-metal hydride batteries  

SciTech Connect

Proprietary, multicomponent hydrogen storage alloys using the principles of atomic engineering form the heart of Ovonic Nickel-Metal Hydride (Ni/MH) battery technology. This battery system, in development for 10 years, has been licensed to several manufacturers both for consumer cells and electric vehicle batteries. These cells have achieved a specific energy of over 80 Wh/kg, a peak power in excess of 200 W/kg, and over 1000 cycles at 100% depth of discharge. They also have an intrinsic ability to withstand overcharge and overdischarge abuse. Ovonic Ni/MH batteries are environmentally friendly and can be recycled. Performance data will be presented showing the successful scale-up of this technology for electric vehicle applications.

Venkatesan, S.; Corrigan, D.A.; Gifford, P.R.; Fetcenko, M.A.; Dhar, S.K.; Ovshinsky, S.R. (Ovonic Battery Co., Troy, MI (United States))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

First principles screening of destabilized metal hydrides for high capacity H2 storage using scandium (presentation had varying title: Accelerating Development of Destabilized Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage Using First Principles Calculations)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Favorable thermodynamics are a prerequisite for practical H2 storage materials for vehicular applications. Destabilization of metal hydrides is a versatile route to finding materials that reversibly store large quantities of H2. First principles calculations have proven to be a useful tool for screening large numbers of potential destabilization reactions when tabulated thermodynamic data are unavailable. We have used first principles calculations to screen potential destabilization schemes that involve Sc-containing compounds. Our calculations use a two-stage strategy in which reactions are initially assessed based on their reaction enthalpy alone, followed by more detailed free energy calculations for promising reactions. Our calculations indicate that mixtures of ScH2 + 2LiBH4, which will release 8.9 wt.% H2 at completion and will have an equilibrium pressure of 1 bar at around 330 K, making this compound a promising target for experimental study. Along with thermodynamics, favorable kinetics are also of enormous importance for practical usage of these materials. Experiments would help identify possible kinetic barriers and modify them by developing suitable catalysts.

Alapati, S.; Johnson, J.K.; Sholl, D.S.; Dai, B. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA)--last author not shown on publication, only presentation

2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

73

Materials Go/No-Go Decisions Made Within the Department of Energy Metal Hydride Center of Excellence  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Go/No-Go Decisions Made Within Materials Go/No-Go Decisions Made Within the Department of Energy Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) In fulfillment of the end of Fiscal Year 2007 Project Milestone on Materials Down-selection Lennie Klebanoff, Director Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, CA 94551 September/October 2007 1 Acknowledgements The author wishes to acknowledge the contributions of all Principal Investigators within the Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) to the work summarized herein. Their names and affiliations are listed below. Especially significant contributions to this document were made by Dr. Ewa Ronnebro (SNL), Dr. John Vajo (HRL), Prof. Zak Fang (U. Utah), Dr. Robert Bowman Jr. (JPL), Prof. David Sholl (CMU) and Prof. Craig Jensen (U. Hawaii). The author thanks Dr.

74

Erroneous Wave Functions of Ciuchi et al for Collective Modes in Neutron Production on Metallic Hydride Cathodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is a recent comment (Ciuchi et al., 2012) concerning the theory of collective many body effects on the neutron production rates in a chemical battery cathode. Ciuchi et al employ an inverse beta decay expression that contains a two body amplitude. Only one electron and one proton may exist in the Ciuchi et al model initial state wave function. A flaw in their reasoning is that one cannot in reality describe collective many body correlations with only a two particle wave function. One needs very many particles to describe collective effects. In the model wave functions of Ciuchi et al there are no metallic hydrides, there are no cathodes and there are no chemical batteries. Employing a wave function with only one electron and one proton is inadequate for describing collective metallic hydride surface quantum plasma physics in cathodes accurately.

A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava; L. Larsen

2012-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

75

Advanced nickel-metal hydride cell development. Final report, September 1993--March 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Inert gas atomization using metal hydride alloys for a Ni/MH{sub x}cell was studied. Atomization of the alloys was demonstrated on a small production scale up to batch size of several kg. Relative performance of the atomized and nonatomized alloys was investigated for the electrode material in a Ni/MH{sub x} cell. The study included effects of charge-discharge rates, temperature, and particle size on cell voltage (polarization) and specific capacity. Results show that the specific capacity of the present atomized alloys was apprecialy smaller than that of the nonatomized powder, especially for initial cycles. Full activation of the atomized alloys oftentook several hundreds of cycles. However, no appreciable difference in discharge rate capability was observed with R10 and R12 alloys. Chemical compositions were indistinguishable, although the oxygen contents of the atomized alloys were always higher. Effects of Ni and Cu coating on alloy performance were studied after electroless coating; the coatings noticeably improved the electrode rate capability for all the alloys. The electrode polarization was esecially improved, but not the cycle life. Further studies are needed.

Lim, Hong S.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Discovery of Novel Complex Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage through Molecular Modeling and Combinatorial Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, Ford Motor Company, and Striatus, Inc., collaborated with Professor Craig Jensen of the University of Hawaii and Professor Vidvuds Ozolins of University of California, Los Angeles on a multi-year cost-shared program to discover novel complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. This innovative program combined sophisticated molecular modeling with high throughput combinatorial experiments to maximize the probability of identifying commercially relevant, economical hydrogen storage materials with broad application. A set of tools was developed to pursue the medium throughput (MT) and high throughput (HT) combinatorial exploratory investigation of novel complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. The assay programs consisted of monitoring hydrogen evolution as a function of temperature. This project also incorporated theoretical methods to help select candidate materials families for testing. The Virtual High Throughput Screening served as a virtual laboratory, calculating structures and their properties. First Principles calculations were applied to various systems to examine hydrogen storage reaction pathways and the associated thermodynamics. The experimental program began with the validation of the MT assay tool with NaAlH4/0.02 mole Ti, the state of the art hydrogen storage system given by decomposition of sodium alanate to sodium hydride, aluminum metal, and hydrogen. Once certified, a combinatorial 21-point study of the NaAlH4 ?? LiAlH4 ??Mg(AlH4)2 phase diagram was investigated with the MT assay. Stability proved to be a problem as many of the materials decomposed during synthesis, altering the expected assay results. This resulted in repeating the entire experiment with a mild milling approach, which only temporarily increased capacity. NaAlH4 was the best performer in both studies and no new mixed alanates were observed, a result consistent with the VHTS. Powder XRD suggested that the reverse reaction, the regeneration of the alanate from alkali hydride, Al and hydrogen, was hampering reversibility. The reverse reaction was then studied for the same phase diagram, starting with LiH, NaH, and MgH2, and Al. The study was extended to phase diagrams including KH and CaH2 as well. The observed hydrogen storage capacity in the Al hexahydrides was less than 4 wt. %, well short of DOE targets. The HT assay came on line and after certification with studies on NaAlH4, was first applied to the LiNH2 - LiBH4 - MgH2 phase diagram. The 60-point study elucidated trends within the system locating an optimum material of 0.6 LiNH2 ?? 0.3 MgH2 ?? 0.1 LiBH4 that stored about 4 wt. % H2 reversibly and operated below 220 °C. Also present was the phase Li4(NH2)3BH4, which had been discovered in the LiNH2 -LiBH4 system. This new ternary formulation performed much better than the well-known 2 LiNH2 ?? MgH2 system by 50 °C in the HT assay. The Li4(NH2)3BH4 is a low melting ionic liquid under our test conditions and facilitates the phase transformations required in the hydrogen storage reaction, which no longer relies on a higher energy solid state reaction pathway. Further study showed that the 0.6 LiNH2 ?? 0.3 MgH2 ?? 0.1 LiBH4 formulation was very stable with respect to ammonia and diborane desorption, the observed desorption was from hydrogen. This result could not have been anticipated and was made possible by the efficiency of HT combinatorial methods. Investigation of the analogous LiNH2 ?? LiBH4 ?? CaH2 phase diagram revealed new reversible hydrogen storage materials 0.625 LiBH4 + 0.375 CaH2 and 0.375 LiNH2 + 0.25 LiBH4 + 0.375 CaH2 operating at 1 wt. % reversible hydrogen below 175 °C. Powder x-ray diffraction revealed a new structure for the spent materials which had not been previously observed. While the storage capacity was not impressive, an important aspect is that it boron appears to participate in a low temperature reversible reaction. The last major area of study also focused

Lesch, David A; Adriaan Sachtler, J.W. J.; Low, John J; Jensen, Craig M; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Siegel, Don

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

77

Discovery of Novel Complex Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage through Molecular Modeling and Combinatorial Methods  

SciTech Connect

UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, Ford Motor Company, and Striatus, Inc., collaborated with Professor Craig Jensen of the University of Hawaii and Professor Vidvuds Ozolins of University of California, Los Angeles on a multi-year cost-shared program to discover novel complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. This innovative program combined sophisticated molecular modeling with high throughput combinatorial experiments to maximize the probability of identifying commercially relevant, economical hydrogen storage materials with broad application. A set of tools was developed to pursue the medium throughput (MT) and high throughput (HT) combinatorial exploratory investigation of novel complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. The assay programs consisted of monitoring hydrogen evolution as a function of temperature. This project also incorporated theoretical methods to help select candidate materials families for testing. The Virtual High Throughput Screening served as a virtual laboratory, calculating structures and their properties. First Principles calculations were applied to various systems to examine hydrogen storage reaction pathways and the associated thermodynamics. The experimental program began with the validation of the MT assay tool with NaAlH4/0.02 mole Ti, the state of the art hydrogen storage system given by decomposition of sodium alanate to sodium hydride, aluminum metal, and hydrogen. Once certified, a combinatorial 21-point study of the NaAlH4 ?? LiAlH4 ??Mg(AlH4)2 phase diagram was investigated with the MT assay. Stability proved to be a problem as many of the materials decomposed during synthesis, altering the expected assay results. This resulted in repeating the entire experiment with a mild milling approach, which only temporarily increased capacity. NaAlH4 was the best performer in both studies and no new mixed alanates were observed, a result consistent with the VHTS. Powder XRD suggested that the reverse reaction, the regeneration of the alanate from alkali hydride, Al and hydrogen, was hampering reversibility. The reverse reaction was then studied for the same phase diagram, starting with LiH, NaH, and MgH2, and Al. The study was extended to phase diagrams including KH and CaH2 as well. The observed hydrogen storage capacity in the Al hexahydrides was less than 4 wt. %, well short of DOE targets. The HT assay came on line and after certification with studies on NaAlH4, was first applied to the LiNH2 - LiBH4 - MgH2 phase diagram. The 60-point study elucidated trends within the system locating an optimum material of 0.6 LiNH2 ?? 0.3 MgH2 ?? 0.1 LiBH4 that stored about 4 wt. % H2 reversibly and operated below 220 °C. Also present was the phase Li4(NH2)3BH4, which had been discovered in the LiNH2 -LiBH4 system. This new ternary formulation performed much better than the well-known 2 LiNH2 ?? MgH2 system by 50 °C in the HT assay. The Li4(NH2)3BH4 is a low melting ionic liquid under our test conditions and facilitates the phase transformations required in the hydrogen storage reaction, which no longer relies on a higher energy solid state reaction pathway. Further study showed that the 0.6 LiNH2 ?? 0.3 MgH2 ?? 0.1 LiBH4 formulation was very stable with respect to ammonia and diborane desorption, the observed desorption was from hydrogen. This result could not have been anticipated and was made possible by the efficiency of HT combinatorial methods. Investigation of the analogous LiNH2 ?? LiBH4 ?? CaH2 phase diagram revealed new reversible hydrogen storage materials 0.625 LiBH4 + 0.375 CaH2 and 0.375 LiNH2 + 0.25 LiBH4 + 0.375 CaH2 operating at 1 wt. % reversible hydrogen below 175 °C. Powder x-ray diffraction revealed a new structure for the spent materials which had not been previously observed. While the storage capacity was not impressive, an important aspect is that it boron appears to participate in a low temperature reversible reaction. The last major area of study also focused

Lesch, David A; Adriaan Sachtler, J.W. J.; Low, John J; Jensen, Craig M; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Siegel, Don

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

78

URANIUM METAL POWDER PRODUCTION, PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS, AND REACTION RATE STUDIES OF A HYDRIDE-DEHYDRIDE PROCESS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Work was done to study a hydride-dehydride method for producing uranium metal powder. Particle distribution analysis was conducted using digital microscopy and grayscale image analysis software. The particle size was found to be predominantly in the 40 ?m range, which agreed with previous work. The effects of temperature, pressure, and time on the reaction fraction of powder were measured by taking experimental data. The optimum hydride temperature for the system was found to be 233.4C. Higher gas pressures resulted in higher reaction fractions, over the range studied. For the sample parameters studied, a time of 371 minutes was calculated to achieve complete powderization. System design parameters for commercialization are proposed.

Sames, William

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Some new techniques in tritium gas handling as applied to metal hydride synthesis  

SciTech Connect

A state-of-the-art tritium Hydride Synthesis System (HSS) was designed and built to replace the existing system within the Tritium Salt Facility (TSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This new hydriding system utilized unique fast-cycling 5.63 mole uranium beds (50.9 g to T/sub 2/ at 100% loading) and novel gas circulating hydriding furnaces. Tritium system components discussed include fast-cycling uranium beds, circulating gas hydriding furnaces, valves, storage volumes, manifolds, gas transfer pumps, and graphic display and control consoles. Many of the tritium handling and processing techniques incorporated into this system are directly applicable to today's fusion fuel loops.

Nasise, J.E.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Some new techniques in tritium gas handling as applied to metal hydride synthesis  

SciTech Connect

A state-of-the-art tritium Hydriding Synthesis System (HSS) was designed and built to replace the existing system within the Tritium Salt Facility (TSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This new hydriding system utilizes unique fast-cycling 7.9 mole uranium beds (47.5g of T at 100% loading) and novel gas circulating hydriding furnaces. Tritium system components discussed include fast-cycling uranium beds, circulating gas hydriding furnaces, valves, storage volumes, manifolds, gas transfer pumps, and graphic display and control consoles. Many of the tritium handling and processing techniques incorporated into this system are directly applicable to today's fusion fuel loops. 12 refs., 7 figs.

Nasise, J.E.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Gas atomization processing of tin and silicon modified LaNi{sub 5} for nickel-metal hydride battery applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Numerous researchers have studied the relevant material properties of so-called AB{sub 5} alloys for battery applications. These studies involved LaNi{sub 5} substituted alloys which were prepared using conventional cast and crush alloying techniques. While valuable to the understanding of metal hydride effects, the previous work nearly ignored the potential for alternative direct powder production methods, like high pressure gas atomization (HPGA). Thus, there is a need to understand the relationship between gas atomization processes, powder particle solidification phases, and hydrogen absorption properties of ultra fine (< 25 {micro}m) atomized powders with high surface area for enhanced battery performance. Concurrently, development of a gas atomization nozzle that is more efficient than all current designs is needed to increase the yield of ultrafine AB{sub 5} alloy powder for further processing advantage. Gas atomization processing of the AB{sub 5} alloys was demonstrated to be effective in producing ultrafine spherical powders that were resilient to hydrogen cycling for the benefit of improving corrosion resistance in battery application. These ultrafine powders benefited from the rapid solidification process by having refined solute segregation in the microstructure of the gas atomized powders which enabled a rapid anneal treatment of the powders. The author has demonstrated the ability to produce high yields of ultrafine powder efficiently and cost effectively, using the new HPGA-III technology. Thus, the potential benefits of processing AB{sub 5} alloys using the new HPGA technology could reduce manufacturing cost of nickel-metal hydride powder. In the near future, the manufacture of AB{sub 5} alloy powders could become a continuous and rapid production process. The economic benefit of an improved AB{sub 5} production process may thereby encourage the use of nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries in electrical vehicle applications in the foreseeable future.

Ting, J.

1999-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

82

Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of nickel metal-hydride batteries for electric vehicles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report identifies important environment, health, and safety issues associated with nickel metal-hydride (Ni-MH) batteries and assesses the need for further testing and analysis. Among the issues discussed are cell and battery safety, workplace health and safety, shipping requirements, and in-vehicle safety. The manufacture and recycling of Ni-MH batteries are also examined. This report also overviews the ``FH&S`` issues associated with other nickel-based electric vehicle batteries; it examines venting characteristics, toxicity of battery materials, and the status of spent batteries as a hazardous waste.

Corbus, D.; Hammel, C.J.; Mark, J.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Model based design of an automotive-scale, metal hydride hydrogen storage system.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia and General Motors have successfully designed, fabricated, and experimentally operated a vehicle-scale hydrogen storage system using the complex metal hydride sodium alanate. Over the 6 year project, the team tackled the primary barriers associated with storage and delivery of hydrogen including mass, volume, efficiency and cost. The result was the hydrogen storage demonstration system design. The key technologies developed for this hydrogen storage system include optimal heat exchange designs, thermal properties enhancement, a unique catalytic hydrogen burner and energy efficient control schemes. The prototype system designed, built, and operated to demonstrate these technologies consists of four identical hydrogen storage modules with a total hydrogen capacity of 3 kg. Each module consists of twelve stainless steel tubes that contain the enhanced sodium alanate. The tubes are arranged in a staggered, 4 x 3 array and enclosed by a steel shell to form a shell and tube heat exchanger. Temperature control during hydrogen absorption and desorption is accomplished by circulating a heat transfer fluid through each module shell. For desorption, heat is provided by the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen within a high efficiency, compact heat exchanger. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to the circulating heat transfer fluid. The demonstration system module design and the system control strategies were enabled by experiment-based, computational simulations that included heat and mass transfer coupled with chemical kinetics. Module heat exchange systems were optimized using multi-dimensional models of coupled fluid dynamics and heat transfer. Chemical kinetics models were coupled with both heat and mass transfer calculations to design the sodium alanate vessels. Fluid flow distribution was a key aspect of the design for the hydrogen storage modules and computational simulations were used to balance heat transfer with fluid pressure requirements. An overview of the hydrogen storage system will be given, and examples of these models and simulation results will be described and related to component design. In addition, comparisons of demonstration system experimental results to model predictions will be reported.

Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.; Jorgensen, Scott W. (General Motors R& D); Dedrick, Daniel E.; Evans, Gregory Herbert

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

A unified view of coherent and incoherent dihydrogen exchange in transition metal hydrides by nuclear resonance and inelastic neutron scattering  

SciTech Connect

In this paper a unified view of coherent and incoherent dihydrogen exchange in transition metal hydrides by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) is presented. It is shown that both exchange processes coexist i.e. do not transform into each other although they may dominate the spectra in different temperature ranges. This superposition is the consequence of the incorporation of the tunnel frequency J of the coherent process into the nuclear two-spin hamiltonian of hydrogen pairs which allows to treat the problem using the well known density matrix theory of NMR line-shapes developed by Alexander and Binsch. It is shown that this theory can also be used to predict the line-shapes of the rotational tunneling transitions observed in the INS spectra of transition metal dihydrogen complexes and that both NMR and INS spectra depend on similar parameters.

Limbach, H.H.; Ulrich, S.; Buntkowsky, G. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie; Sabo-Etienne, S.; Chaudret, B. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Lab. de Chimie de Coordination du C.N.R.S.; Kubas, G.J.; Eckert, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

85

SYNTHESIS OF METAL HYDRIDES BY MECHANICAL ALLOYING IN AN ATTRITOR MILL: FY07 STATUS REPORT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this task was to demonstrate that metal hydrides could be produced by mechanical alloying in the quantities needed to support the tritium production facilities at the Savannah River Site. The objective for the FY07 portion of this task was to demonstrate the production of Zr-Fe getter materials by mechanical alloying and begin to optimize the milling parameters. Three starting compositions (ratios of elemental Zr and Fe powders) were selected and attritor milled under argon for times of 8 to 60 hours. Hexane and liquid nitrogen were used as process control agents. In general, milling times of at least 24 hours were required to form the desired Zr{sub 2}Fe and Zr{sub 3}Fe phases, although a considerable amount of unalloyed Zr and Fe remained. Milling in liquid nitrogen does not appear to provide any advantages over milling in hexane, particularly due to the formation of ZrN after longer milling times. Carbides of Zr formed during some of the milling experiments in hexane. Formation of carbides during milling appears to be much less of an issue than formation of nitrides, although some of the phases that were not able to be identified in the XRD results may also be carbides. Additional XRD experiments should be designed to improve signal to noise ratio (i.e., longer count times) and use a wider scan range to better identify phases that were not clear in the original data. Elemental Zr was present in the as-milled material but not detected after annealing for milling times of 48 and 60 hours. It may be that after intimate mixing of the powders in the attritor mill the annealing temperature was sufficient to allow for the formation of a Zr-Fe alloy. The phase diagram for the binary Zr-Fe system agrees with this proposition. If this is the case, then the annealing conditions should also be investigated and optimized to form as much of the Zr-Fe alloy as possible in the milled powder. Also, this finding would mean that milling times of more than 48 hours are not necessary. Further investigation of this conversion is necessary, and could provide an opportunity for reducing the amount of unreacted metal powder after milling. Elemental Fe remained in all of the powders after annealing for all of the milling times tested. This may indicate that the ratio of Zr to Fe needs to be increased in order to improve the yield of the desired Zr-Fe alloys. Particle size analysis data are presented to aid in the selection of filters for future hydrogen sorption testing. Based on the XRD results, four samples were suggested for further XRD analysis and hydrogen sorption testing: (1) Zr{sub 2}Fe, 24 hr milling, annealed; (2) Zr{sub 2}Fe, 24 hr milling in LN{sub 2}, annealed; (3) Zr{sub 3}Fe, 24 hr milling, annealed; and (4) Zr{sub 3}Fe, 48 hr milling, annealed. These four samples showed the largest volume (based on relative peak intensities) of the desired Zr{sub 2}Fe and Zr{sub 3}Fe alloys.

Fox, K

2007-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

86

Hydride heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for the use of hydrides to exhaust heat from one temperature source and deliver the thermal energy extracted for use at a higher temperature, thereby acting as a heat pump. For this purpose there are employed a pair of hydridable metal compounds having different characteristics working together in a closed pressure system employing a high temperature source to upgrade the heat supplied from a low temperature source.

Cottingham, James G. (Center Moriches, NY)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

Sandrock, Gary (Ringwood, NJ); Reilly, James (Bellport, NY); Graetz, Jason (Mastic, NY); Wegrzyn, James E. (Brookhaven, NY)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

88

Effect of Ce composition on the structural and electronic characteristics of some metal hydride electrodes: A XANES and EXAFS investigation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Substitution of the B component in the prototype AB{sub 5} type (LaNi{sub 5}) metal hydride alloys have resulted in their increased acceptance as anodes for rechargeable alkaline batteries. Recently substitution of the A component (La) for imparting properties such as increased corrosion resistance has received attention. This investigation deals with the role of Ce as a substituent for the La and its effect in terms of corrosion resistance. The alloys chosen have the general composition of La{sub x}Ce{sub 1-x}B{sub 5} (x = 1, 0.8, 0.5 and 0.25) where B is Ni{sub 3.55}CO{sub 0.75}Mn{sub 0.4}Al{sub 0.3} together with alloys containing the mischmetal (Mm) as the A component (both synthetic and commercial). Electrochemical cycling results show that Ce lowers the capacity loss in the alloys and that this effect is not a simple function of the extent of lattice expansion during hydriding as was previously suggested. Correlation of the electrochemical and XAS results show that capacity loss is directly related to the extent of Ni corrosion. Effect of Ce substitution seems to result in a stable Ce oxide hydroxide coating which imparts the corrosion resistance.

Mukerjee, S.; McBreen, J.; Reilly, J.J.; Johnson, J.R.; Adzic, G. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Kumar, M.P.S.; Zhang, W.; Srinivasan, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Center for Electrochemical Systems and Hydrogen Research

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

89

Hydride compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method of producing high energy pressurized gas working fluid power from a low energy, low temperature heat source, wherein the compression energy is gained by using the low energy heat source to desorb hydrogen gas from a metal hydride bed and the desorbed hydrogen for producing power is recycled to the bed, where it is re-adsorbed, with the recycling being powered by the low energy heat source. In one embodiment, the adsorption-desorption cycle provides a chemical compressor that is powered by the low energy heat source, and the compressor is connected to a regenerative gas turbine having a high energy, high temperature heat source with the recycling being powered by the low energy heat source.

Powell, James R. (Wading River, NY); Salzano, Francis J. (Patchogue, NY)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Lightweight Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Ji-Cheng Zhao (Primary Contact), Xuenian Chen, Sheldon G. Shore The Ohio State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 286 Watts Hall, 2041 College Road Columbus, OH 43210 Phone: (614) 292-9462 Email: zhao.199@osu.edu DOE Managers HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FC3605GO15062 Project Start Date: January 1, 2005 Project End Date: August 31, 2011 (No-cost extension to December 31, 2012) Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Develop a high-capacity lightweight hydride for * reversible vehicular hydrogen storage, capable of meeting or exceeding the 2010 DOE FreedomCAR

91

Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

92

Executive Summaries for the Hydrogen Storage Materials Center of Excellence - Chemical Hydrogen Storage CoE, Hydrogen Sorption CoE, and Metal Hydride CoE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Executive Summaries Executive Summaries for the Hydrogen Storage Materials Centers of Excellence Chemical Hydrogen Storage CoE, Hydrogen Sorption CoE, and Metal Hydride CoE Period of Performance: 2005-2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U. S. Department of Energy April 2012 2 3 Primary Authors: Chemical Hydrogen Storage (CHSCoE): Kevin Ott, Los Alamos National Laboratory Hydrogen Sorption (HSCoE): Lin Simpson, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Metal Hydride (MHCoE): Lennie Klebanoff, Sandia National Laboratory Contributors include members of the three Materials Centers of Excellence and the Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Team in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program.

93

Hydride compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition for use in storing hydrogen, and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the hydrogen equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to hydrogen and then heating at a temperature below the softening temperature of any of the. constituents so that their chemical and structural integrity is preserved. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P.sub.H.sbsb.2 and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

Lee, Myung W. (North Augusta, SC)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Hydride compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are a composition for use in storing hydrogen and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the H equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to H, and then heating below the softening temperature of any of the constituents. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P{sub H}{sub 2} and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

Lee, Myung, W.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Discovery of Novel Complex Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage through Molecular Modeling and Combinatorial Methods  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Once certified, a combinatorial 21-point study of the NaAlH4 ?? LiAlH4 ??Mg(AlH4)2 phase diagram was investigated with the MT assay. Stability proved to be a problem as many of the materials decomposed during synthesis, altering the expected assay results. This resulted in repeating the entire experiment with a mild milling approach, which only temporarily increased capacity. NaAlH4 was the best performer in both studies and no new mixed alanates were observed, a result consistent with the VHTS. Powder XRD suggested that the reverse reaction, the regeneration of the alanate from alkali hydride, Al and hydrogen, was hampering reversibility. The reverse reaction was then studied for the same phase diagram, starting with LiH, NaH, and MgH2, and Al. The study was extended to phase diagrams including KH and CaH2 as well. The observed hydrogen storage capacity in the Al hexahydrides was less than 4 wt. %, well short of DOE targets. The HT assay came on line and after certification with studies on NaAlH4, was first applied to the LiNH2 - LiBH4 - MgH2 phase diagram. The 60-point study elucidated trends within the system locating an optimum material of 0.6 LiNH2 ?? 0.3 MgH2 ?? 0.1 LiBH4 that stored about 4 wt. % H2 reversibly and operated below 220 °C. Also present was the phase Li4(NH2)3BH4, which had been discovered in the LiNH2 -LiBH4 system. This new ternary formulation performed much better than the well-known 2 LiNH2 ?? MgH2 system by 50 °C in the HT assay. The Li4(NH2)3BH4 is a low melting ionic liquid under our test conditions and facilitates the phase transformations required in the hydrogen storage reaction, which no longer relies on a higher energy solid state reaction pathway. Further study showed that the 0.6 LiNH2 ?? 0.3 MgH2 ?? 0.1 LiBH4 formulation was very stable with respect to ammonia and diborane desorption, the observed desorption was from hydrogen. This result could not have been anticipated and was made possible by the efficiency of HT combinatorial methods. Investigation of the analogous LiNH2 ?? LiBH4 ?? CaH2 phase diagram revealed new reversible hydrogen storage materials 0.625 LiBH4 + 0.375 CaH2 and 0.375 LiNH2 + 0.25 LiBH4 + 0.375 CaH2 operating at 1 wt. % reversible hydrogen below 175 °C. Powder x-ray diffraction revealed a new structure for the spent materials which had not been previously observed. While the storage capacity was not impressive, an important aspect is that it boron appears to participate in a low temperature reversible reaction. The last major area of study also focused

Lesch, David A; Adriaan Sachtler, J.W. J.; Low, John J; Jensen, Craig M; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Siegel, Don

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

96

Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes research into the use of complex hydrides for hydrogen storage. The synthesis of a number of alanates, (AIH4) compounds, was investigated. Both wet chemical and mechano-chemical methods were studied.

Slattery, Darlene; Hampton, Michael

2003-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

97

Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Proof-of-principle gas-reservoir MnNiMg electrochromic mirror devices have been investigated. In contrast to conventional electrochromic approaches, hydrogen is stored (at low concentration) in the gas volume between glass panes of the insulated glass units (IGUs). The elimination of a solid state ion storage layer simplifies the layer stack, enhances overall transmission, and reduces cost. The cyclic switching properties were demonstrated and system durability improved with the incorporation a thin Zr barrier layer between the MnNiMg layer and the Pd catalyst. Addition of 9 percent silver to the palladium catalyst further improved system durability. About 100 full cycles have been demonstrated before devices slow considerably. Degradation of device performance appears to be related to Pd catalyst mobility, rather than delamination or metal layer oxidation issues originally presumed likely to present significant challenges.

Anders, Andre; Slack, Jonathan L.; Richardson, Thomas J.

2008-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

98

Method for controlled hydrogen charging of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for controlling hydrogen charging of hydride forming metals through a window of a superimposed layer of a non-hydriding metal overlying the portion of the hydride forming metals to be charged.

Cheng, Bo-Ching (Fremont, CA); Adamson, Ronald B. (Fremont, CA)

1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

99

METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING URANIUM-HYDRIDE COMPACTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are presented for making compacts of pyrophoric hydrides in a continuous operation out of contact with air. It is particularly useful for the preparation of a canned compact of uranium hydride possessing high density and purity. The metallic uranium is enclosed in a container, positioned in a die body evacuated and nvert the uranium to the hydride is admitted and the container sealed. Heat is applied to bring about the formation of the hydride, following which compression is used to form the compact sealed in a container ready for use.

Wellborn, W.; Armstrong, J.R.

1959-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

100

Computational Modeling of Uranium Hydriding and Complexes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Uranium hydriding is one of the most important processes that has received considerable attention over many years. Although many experimental and modeling studies have been carried out concerning thermochemistry, diffusion kinetics and mechanisms of U-hydriding, very little is known about the electronic structure and electronic features that govern the U-hydriding process. Yet it is the electronic feature that controls the activation barrier and thus the rate of hydriding. Moreover the role of impurities and the role of the product UH{sub 3} on hydriding rating are not fully understood. An early study by Condon and Larson concerns with the kinetics of U-hydrogen system and a mathematical model for the U-hydriding process. They proposed that diffusion in the reactant phase by hydrogen before nucleation to form hydride phase and that the reaction is first order for hydriding and zero order for dehydriding. Condon has also calculated and measures the reaction rates of U-hydriding and proposed a diffusion model for the U-hydriding. This model was found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental reaction rates. From the slopes of the Arrhenius plot the activation energy was calculated as 6.35 kcal/mole. In a subsequent study Kirkpatrick formulated a close-form for approximate solution to Condon's equation. Bloch and Mintz have proposed the kinetics and mechanism for the U-H reaction over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. They have discussed their results through two models, one, which considers hydrogen diffusion through a protective UH{sub 3} product layer, and the second where hydride growth occurs at the hydride-metal interface. These authors obtained two-dimensional fits of experimental data to the pressure-temperature reactions. Kirkpatrick and Condon have obtained a linear solution to hydriding of uranium. These authors showed that the calculated reaction rates compared quite well with the experimental data at a hydrogen pressure of 1 atm. Powell et al. have studied U-hydriding in ultrahigh vacuum and obtained the linear rate data over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. They found reversible hydrogen sorption on the UH{sub 3} reaction product from kinetic effects at 21 C. This demonstrates restarting of the hydriding process in the presence of UH{sub 3} reaction product. DeMint and Leckey have shown that Si impurities dramatically accelerate the U-hydriding rates. We report our recent results of relativistic computations that vary from complete active space multi-configuration interaction (CAS-MCSCF) followed by multi-reference configuration interaction (MRSDCI) computations that included up to 50 million configurations for modeling of uranium-hydriding with cluster models will be presented.

Balasubramanian, K; Siekhaus, W J; McLean, W

2003-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

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101

Chemistry of intermetallic hydrides  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Certain intermetallic hydrides are safe, convenient and inexpensive hydrogen storage compounds. A particular advantage of such compounds is the ease with which their properties can be modified by small changes in alloy composition or preparation. This quality can be exploited to optimize their storage properties for particular applications, e.g. as intermetallic hydride electrodes in batteries. We will be concerned herein with the more important aspects of the thermodynamic and structural principles which regulate the behavior of intermetallic hydrogen systems and then illustrate their application using the archetype hydrides of LaNi5, FeTi and Mg alloys. The practical utility of these classes of materials will be briefly noted.

Reilly, J.J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

DOE/ID-Number  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

y). Irradiated pre-hydrided metallic materials will generate baseline data to benchmark hot-cell testing of high-burnup used fuel cladding at relatively low cost, and more...

103

Development of the Low-Pressure Hydride/Dehydride Process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The low-pressure hydride/dehydride process was developed from the need to recover thin-film coatings of plutonium metal from the inner walls of an isotope separation chamber located at Los Alamos and to improve the safety operation of a hydride recovery process using hydrogen at a pressure of 0.7 atm at Rocky Flats. This process is now the heart of the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) project.

Rueben L. Gutierrez

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston University have demonstrated the technical viability of the process and have provided data for the cost analyses that have been performed. We also concluded that a carbothermic process could also produce magnesium at acceptable costs. The use of slurry as a medium to carry chemical hydrides has been shown during this project to offer significant advantages for storing, delivering, and distributing hydrogen: Magnesium hydride slurry is stable for months and pumpable. The oils of the slurry minimize the contact of oxygen and moisture in the air with the metal hydride in the slurry. Thus reactive chemicals, such as lithium hydride, can be handled safely in the air when encased in the oils of the slurry. Though magnesium hydride offers an additional safety feature of not reacting readily with water at room temperatures, it does react readily with water at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Thus when hydrogen is needed, the slurry and water are heated until the reaction begins, then the reaction energy provides heat for more slurry and water to be heated. The reaction system can be relatively small and light and the slurry can be stored in conventional liquid fuel tanks. When transported and stored, the conventional liquid fuel infrastructure can be used. The particular metal hydride of interest in this project, magnesium hydride, forms benign byproducts, magnesium hydroxide (Milk of Magnesia) and magnesium oxide. We have estimated that a magnesium hydride slurry system (including the mixer device and tanks) could meet the DOE 2010 energy density goals. ? During the investigation of hydriding techniques, we learned that magnesium hydride in a slurry can also be cycled in a rechargeable fashion. Thus, magnesium hydride slurry can act either as a chemical hydride storage medium or as a rechargeable hydride storage system. Hydrogen can be stored and delivered and then stored again thus significantly reducing the cost of storing and delivering hydrogen. Further evaluation and development of this concept will be performed as follow-on work under a

McClaine, Andrew W.

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

105

Boron hydride polymer coated substrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

Pearson, R.K.; Bystroff, R.I.; Miller, D.E.

1986-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

106

Boron hydride polymer coated substrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); Bystroff, Roman I. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Dale E. (Livermore, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Mechanochemical processing for metals and metal alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A set of processes for preparing metal powders, including metal alloy powders, by ambient temperature reduction of a reducible metal compound by a reactive metal or metal hydride through mechanochemical processing. The reduction process includes milling reactants to induce and complete the reduction reaction. The preferred reducing agents include magnesium and calcium hydride powders. A process of pre-milling magnesium as a reducing agent to increase the activity of the magnesium has been established as one part of the invention.

Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Prisbrey, Keith (Moscow, ID)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Gas Diffusion in Metals: Fundamental Study of Helium-Point Defect Interactions in Iron and Kinetics of Hydrogen Desorption from Zirconium Hydride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas Diffusion in Metals: Fundamental Study of Helium-PointGas Diffusion in Metals: Fundamental Study of Helium-Point138 8.1.1 Fundamental study of helium-point defect

Hu, Xunxiang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

THE PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM POWDER BY A HYDRIDING PROCESS-INITIAL STUDIES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Micron-sized plutonium powder was produced by hydriding massive metal, then grinding and decomposing the hydride. An apparatus containing clean plutonium metal was evacuated to a pressure of 10 mu . Dry oxygen-free hydrogen was introduced and the apparatus placed in a furnace. After the reaction started, the apparatus was removed from the furnace and hydrogen added until the reaction was complete. The hydride was decomposed by heating to 400 deg C. Plutonium metal produced in this manner was porous. (C.J.G.)

Stiffler, G.L.; Curtis, M.H.

1960-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

110

Number  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

' ' , /v-i 2 -i 3 -A, This dow'at consists ~f--~-_,_~~~p.~,::, Number -------of.-&--copies, 1 Series.,-a-,-. ! 1 THE UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER 1; r-.' L INTRAMURALCORRESPONDENCE i"ks' 3 2.. September 25, 1947 Memo.tor Dr. A. H, Dovdy . From: Dr. H. E, Stokinger Be: Trip Report - Mayvood Chemical Works A trip vas made Nednesday, August 24th vith Messrs. Robert W ilson and George Sprague to the Mayvood Chemical F!orks, Mayvood, New Jersey one of 2 plants in the U.S.A. engaged in the production of thorium compounds. The purpose of the trip vas to: l 1. Learn the type of chemical processes employed in the thorium industry (thorium nitrate). 2. Survey conditions of eeosure of personnel associated vith these chemical processes. 3. Obtain samples of atmospheric contaminants in the plant, as

111

Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and ...  

In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of ...

112

Analytical and numerical models of uranium ignition assisted by hydride formation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Analytical and numerical models of uranium ignition assisted by the oxidation of uranium hydride are described. The models were developed to demonstrate that ignition of large uranium ingots could not occur as a result of possible hydride formation during storage. The thermodynamics-based analytical model predicted an overall 17 C temperature rise of the ingot due to hydride oxidation upon opening of the storage can in air. The numerical model predicted locally higher temperature increases at the surface; the transient temperature increase quickly dissipated. The numerical model was further used to determine conditions for which hydride oxidation does lead to ignition of uranium metal. Room temperature ignition only occurs for high hydride fractions in the nominally oxide reaction product and high specific surface areas of the uranium metal.

Totemeier, T.C.; Hayes, S.L. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Engineering Div.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

A non-isothermal model of a nickelmetal hydride cell , M. Mohammedb  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

generation during over- charge. Since the metal hydride material gradually loses capacity through usage due KOH solution, which has good electric conductivity for a wide range of temperatures. Some Li

114

Hydride production in zircaloy-4 as a function of time and temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The experiments performed for this thesis were designed to define the primary process variables of time, temperature, and atmosphere for an engineering system that will produce metal powder from recycled nuclear fuel cladding. The proposed system will hydride and mill Zircaloy cladding tubes to produce fine hydride powder and then dehydride the powder to produce metal; this thesis is focused on the hydride formation reaction. These experiments were performed by hydriding nuclear grade Zircaloy-4 tubes under flowing argon-5% hydrogen for various times and temperatures. The result of these experiments is a correlation which relates the rate of zirconium hydride formation to the process temperature. This correlation may now be used to design a method to efficiently produce zirconium hydride powder. It was observed that it is much more effective to hydride the Zircaloy-4 tubes at temperatures below the a-B-d eutectoid temperature of 540C. These samples tended to readily disassemble during the hydride formation reaction and were easily ground to powder. Hydrogen pickup was faster above this temperature but the samples were generally tougher and it was difficult to pulverize them into powder.

Parkison, Adam Joseph

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Optimization of Hydride Rim Formation in Unirradiated Zr 4 Cladding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to build on the results reported in the M2 milestone M2FT 13PN0805051, document number FCRD-USED-2013-000151 (Hanson, 2013). In that work, it was demonstrated that unirradiated samples of zircaloy-4 cladding could be pre-hydrided at temperatures below 400C in pure hydrogen gas and that the growth of hydrides on the surface could be controlled by changing the surface condition of the samples and form a desired hydride rim on the outside diameter of the cladding. The work performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory since the issuing of the M2 milestone has focused its efforts to optimize the formation of a hydride rim on available zircaloy-4 cladding samples by controlling temperature variation and gas flow control during pre-hydriding treatments. Surface conditioning of the outside surface was also examined as a variable. The results of test indicate that much of the variability in the hydride thickness is due to temperature variation occurring in the furnaces as well as how hydrogen gas flows across the sample surface. Efforts to examine other alloys, gas concentrations, and different surface conditioning plan to be pursed in the next FY as more cladding samples become available

Shimskey, Rick W.; Hanson, Brady D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

Modular hydride beds for mobile applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Design, construction, initial testing and simple thermal modeling of modular, metal hydride beds have been completed. Originally designed for supplying hydrogen to a fuel cell on a mobile vehicle, the complete bed design consists of 8 modules and is intended for use on the Palm Desert Vehicle (PDV) under development at the Schatz Energy Center, Humbolt State University. Each module contains approximately 2 kg of a commercially available, low temperature, hydride-forming metal alloy. Waste heat from the fuel cell in the form of heated water is used to desorb hydrogen from the alloy for supplying feed hydrogen to the fuel cell. In order to help determine the performance of such a modular bed system, six modules were constructed and tested. The design and construction of the modules is described in detail. Initial testing of the modules both individually and as a group showed that each module can store {approximately} 30 g of hydrogen (at 165 PSIA fill pressure, 17 C), could be filled with hydrogen in 6 minutes at a nominal, 75 standard liters/min (slm) fueling rate, and could supply hydrogen during desorption at rates of 25 slm, the maximum anticipated hydrogen fuel cell input requirement. Tests made of 5 modules as a group indicated that the behavior of the group run in parallel both in fueling and gas delivery could be directly predicted from the corresponding, single module characteristics by using an appropriate scaling factor. Simple thermal modeling of a module as an array of cylindrical, hydride-filled tubes was performed. The predictions of the model are in good agreement with experimental data.

Malinowski, M.E.; Stewart, K.D.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

A REVIEW OF THE RARE-EARTH HYDRIDES  

SciTech Connect

Some of the properties of rare earth hydrides are reviewed. Information on the hydrides of Tm, Lu, Tb, and Ho is not included because no work has been done on these elements. Eu and Yb are different from other rare earths in that MH/sub 2/ is their highest hydride and the crystal structures of EuH/sub 2/ and YbH/sub 2/ are orthorhombic. ra, Ce, Pr, and Nd form a dihydride which will take hydrogen into solid solution up to MH/sub 3/ without a change in crystal structure. The heavy rare earths form the same type of dihydride as the light, but as the hydrogen content increases from MH/sub 2/ the cubic structure becomes unstable and is replaced by a hexagonal structare. With increasing atomic number, thermal stability and hydrogen deusity increase. (J.R.D.)

Mulford, R.N.R.

1950-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Photogeneration of Hydride Donors and Their Use Toward CO2 Reduction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Despite substantial effort, no one has succeeded in efficiently producing methanol from CO2 using homogeneous photocatalytic systems. We are pursuing reaction schemes based on a sequence of hydride-ion transfers to carry out stepwise reduction of CO2 to methanol. We are using hydride-ion transfer from photoproduced C-H bonds in metal complexes with bio-inspired ligands (i.e., NADH-like ligands) that are known to store one proton and two electrons.

Fujita,E.; Muckerman, J.T.; Polyansky, D.E.

2009-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

120

Hydride Rim Formation in Unirradiated Zircaloy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The purpose of this work is to develop the means of pre-hydriding unirradiated Zircaloy cladding such that a high concentration, or rim, of hydrides is formed at the cladding outside diameter.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Fundamental Studies of Advanced High-Capacity, Reversible Metal Hydrides - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Craig M. Jensen (Primary Contact) and Marina Chong University of Hawaii Department of Chemistry Honolulu, HI 96822 Phone: (808) 956-2769 Email: jensen@hawaii.edu DOE Managers HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FC36-05GO15063 Project Start Date: April 1, 2005 Project End Date: September 30, 2012 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives The objective of this project is to develop a new class of reversible materials that have the potential to meet the DOE kinetic and system gravimetric storage capacity targets. During the past year, our investigations have focused on the study of novel, high hydrogen capacity, borohydrides that can

122

Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

Christensen, Leslie D. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Method of producing a chemical hydride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing a chemical hydride is described and which includes selecting a composition having chemical bonds and which is capable of forming a chemical hydride; providing a source of a hydrocarbon; and reacting the composition with the source of the hydrocarbon to generate a chemical hydride.

Klingler, Kerry M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Zollinger, William T. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilding, Bruce M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Bingham, Dennis N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wendt, Kraig M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

124

Complex Hydride Compounds with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), in collaboration with major partners Albemarle Corporation (Albemarle) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), conducted research to discover new hydride materials for the storage of hydrogen having on-board reversibility and a target gravimetric capacity of ? 7.5 weight percent (wt %). When integrated into a system with a reasonable efficiency of 60% (mass of hydride / total mass), this target material would produce a system gravimetric capacity of ? 4.5 wt %, consistent with the DOE 2007 target. The approach established for the project combined first principles modeling (FPM - UTRC) with multiple synthesis methods: Solid State Processing (SSP - UTRC), Solution Based Processing (SBP - Albemarle) and Molten State Processing (MSP - SRNL). In the search for novel compounds, each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages; by combining them, the potential for success was increased. During the project, UTRC refined its FPM framework which includes ground state (0 Kelvin) structural determinations, elevated temperature thermodynamic predictions and thermodynamic / phase diagram calculations. This modeling was used both to precede synthesis in a virtual search for new compounds and after initial synthesis to examine reaction details and options for modifications including co-reactant additions. The SSP synthesis method involved high energy ball milling which was simple, efficient for small batches and has proven effective for other storage material compositions. The SBP method produced very homogeneous chemical reactions, some of which cannot be performed via solid state routes, and would be the preferred approach for large scale production. The MSP technique is similar to the SSP method, but involves higher temperature and hydrogen pressure conditions to achieve greater species mobility. During the initial phases of the project, the focus was on higher order alanate complexes in the phase space between alkaline metal hydrides (AmH), Alkaline earth metal hydrides (AeH2), alane (AlH3), transition metal (Tm) hydrides (TmHz, where z=1-3) and molecular hydrogen (H2). The effort started first with variations of known alanates and subsequently extended the search to unknown compounds. In this stage, the FPM techniques were developed and validated on known alanate materials such as NaAlH4 and Na2LiAlH6. The coupled predictive methodologies were used to survey over 200 proposed phases in six quaternary spaces, formed from various combinations of Na, Li Mg and/or Ti with Al and H. A wide range of alanate compounds was examined using SSP having additions of Ti, Cr, Co, Ni and Fe. A number of compositions and reaction paths were identified having H weight fractions up to 5.6 wt %, but none meeting the 7.5 wt%H reversible goal. Similarly, MSP of alanates produced a number of interesting compounds and general conclusions regarding reaction behavior of mixtures during processing, but no alanate based candidates meeting the 7.5 wt% goal. A novel alanate, LiMg(AlH4)3, was synthesized using SBP that demonstrated a 7.0 wt% capacity with a desorption temperature of 150C. The deuteride form was synthesized and characterized by the Institute for Energy (IFE) in Norway to determine its crystalline structure for related FPM studies. However, the reaction exhibited exothermicity and therefore was not reversible under acceptable hydrogen gas pressures for on-board recharging. After the extensive studies of alanates, the material class of emphasis was shifted to borohydrides. Through SBP, several ligand-stabilized Mg(BH4)2 complexes were synthesized. The Mg(BH4)2*2NH3 complex was found to change behavior with slightly different synthesis conditions and/or aging. One of the two mechanisms was an amine-borane (NH3BH3) like dissociation reaction which released up to 16 wt %H and more conservatively 9 wt%H when not including H2 released from the NH3. From FPM, the stability of the Mg(BH4)2*2NH3 compound was found to increase with the inclusion of NH3 groups in the inner-Mg coordination

Mosher, Daniel A.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Tang, Xia; Laube, Bruce L.; Brown, Ronald J.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Anton, Donald L.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Berseth, Polly

2008-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

125

A new phase in palladium hydride technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two plateaux are observed in both the absorption and desorption isotherms of palladium hydride. For the absorption isotherm, a change in plateau pressure is observed at a hydrogen-to-metal (H/M) ratio of about 0.35 for all temperatures studied. For the desorption isotherm, the change in plateau pressure appears to be a function of temperature, ranging from an H/M ratio of 0.18 at 80{degrees}C to 0.3 at 140{degrees}C. These data are interpreted as being experimentally observed boundaries to an equilibrium phase line located in the miscibility gap of the palladium/hydrogen phase diagram. This new phase does not appear to be a stoichiometric compounds, but rather its composition seems to vary with temperature. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Walters, R.T.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

126

A new phase in palladium hydride technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two plateaux are observed in both the absorption and desorption isotherms of palladium hydride. For the absorption isotherm, a change in plateau pressure is observed at a hydrogen-to-metal (H/M) ratio of about 0.35 for all temperatures studied. For the desorption isotherm, the change in plateau pressure appears to be a function of temperature, ranging from an H/M ratio of 0.18 at 80{degrees}C to 0.3 at 140{degrees}C. These data are interpreted as being experimentally observed boundaries to an equilibrium phase line located in the miscibility gap of the palladium/hydrogen phase diagram. This new phase does not appear to be a stoichiometric compounds, but rather its composition seems to vary with temperature. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Walters, R.T.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

The Hydriding Kinetics of Organic Hydrogen Getters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The aging of hermetically sealed systems is often accompanied by the gradual production of hydrogen gas that is a result of the decay of environmental gases and the degradation of organic materials. In particular, the oxygen, water, hydrogen ''equilibrium'' is affected by the removal of oxygen due the oxidation of metals and organic materials. This shift of the above ''equilibrium'' towards the formation of hydrogen gas, particularly in crevices, may eventually reach an explosive level of hydrogen gas or degrade metals by hydriding them. The latter process is generally delayed until the oxidizing species are significantly reduced. Organic hydrogen getters introduced by Allied Signal Aerospace Company, Kansas City Division have proven to be a very effective means of preventing hydrogen gas accumulation in sealed containers. These getters are relatively unaffected by air and environmental gases. They can be packaged in a variety of ways to fit particular needs such as porous pellets, fine or coarse [gravel] powder, or loaded into silicone rubber. The hydrogen gettering reactions are extremely irreversible since the hydrogen gas is converted into an organic hydrocarbon. These getters are based on the palladium-catalyzed hydrogenation of triple bonds to double and then single bonds in aromatic aryl compounds. DEB (1,4 bis (phenyl ethynyl) benzene) typically mixed with 25% by weight carbon with palladium (1% by weight of carbon) is one of the newest and best of these organic hydrogen getters. The reaction mechanisms are complex involving solid state reaction with a heterogeneous catalyst leading to the many intermediates, including mixed alkyl and aryl hydrocarbons with the possibilities of many isomers. The reaction kinetics mechanisms are also strongly influenced by the form in which they are packaged. For example, the hydriding rates for pellets and gravel have a strong dependence on reaction extent (i.e., DEB reduction) and a kinetic order in pressure of 0.76. Silicone rubber based DEB getters hydride at a much lower rate, have little dependence on reaction extent, have a higher kinetic order in pressure (0.87), and have a lower activation energy. The kinetics of the reaction as a function of hydrogen pressure, stoichiometry, and temperature for hydrogen and deuterium near ambient temperature (0 to 75 C) for pressures near or below 100 Pa over a wide range (in some cases, the complete) hydrogenation range are presented along with multi-dimensional rate models.

Powell, G. L.

2002-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

128

Thermodynamic properties of metal hydride nanostructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen is considered a good energy carrier candidate for future automotive applications because of its high abundance and its potential role in a carbon-free cycle. The high gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities ...

Brub, Vincent, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Design of an Integrated System to Recycle Zircaloy Cladding Using a Hydride-Milling-Dehydride Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A process for recycling spent nuclear fuel cladding, a zirconium alloy (Zircaloy), into a metal powder that may be used for advanced nuclear fuel applications, was investigated to determine if it is a viable strategy. The process begins with hydriding the Zircaloy cladding hulls after the spent nuclear fuel has been dissolved from the cladding. The addition of hydrogen atoms to the zirconium matrix stresses the lattice and forms brittle zirconium hydride, which is easily pulverized into a powder. The dehydriding process removes hydrogen by heating the powder in a vacuum, resulting in a zirconium metal powder. The two main objectives of this research are to investigate the dehydriding process and to design, build and demonstrate a specialized piece of equipment to process the zirconium from cladding hulls to metal powder without intermediate handling. The hydriding process (known from literature) took place in a 95 percent argon - 5 percent hydrogen atmosphere at 500 degrees C while the dehydriding process conditions were researched with a Thermogavimetric Analyzer (TGA). Data from the TGA showed the dehydriding process requires vacuum conditions (~0.001 bar) and 800 degrees C environment to decompose the zirconium hydride. Zirconium metal powder was created in two separate experiments with different milling times, 45 minutes (coarse powder) and 12 hours (fine powder). Both powders were analyzed by three separate analytical methods, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), size characterization and digital micrographs. XRD analysis proved that the process produced a zirconium metal. Additionally, visual observations of the samples silvery color confirmed the presence of zirconium metal. The presence on zirconium metal in the two samples confirmed the operation of the hydriding / milling / hydriding machine. Further refining of the hydride / milling / dehydride machine could make this process commercially favorable when compared to the high cost of storing nuclear waste and its components. An additional important point is that this process can easily be used on other metals that are subject to hydrogen embrittlement, knowing the relevant temperatures and pressures associated with the hydriding / dehydriding of that particular metal.

Kelley, Randy Dean

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties Title Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-49043 Year of Publication 2001 Authors Richardson, Thomas J., Jonathan L. Slack, Baker Farangis, and Michael D. Rubin Journal Applied Physics Letters Volume 80 Pagination 1349-1351 Call Number LBNL-49043 Abstract Thin, Pd-capped metallic films containing magnesium and first row transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co) switch reversibly from their initial reflecting state to visually transparent states when exposed to gaseous hydrogen or following reduction cathodic polarization in an alkaline electrolyte. Reversion to the reflecting state is achieved by exposure to air or by anodic polarization. The films were prepared by co-sputtering from one magnesium target and one manganese, iron, or cobalt target. Both the dynamic optical switching range and the speed of the transition depend on the magnesium-transition metal ratio. Infrared spectra of films in the transparent, hydrided (deuterided) states support the presence of the intermetallic hydride phases Mg3MnH7, Mg2FeH6, and Mg2CoH5.

131

Composition and function in AB{sub 5} hydride electrodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Multicomponent AB, hydrides are attractive replacements for the cadmium electrode in nickel - cadmium batteries. This paper is concerned with the differential effects of Ni substitution by cobalt, Mn and Al upon electrode corrosion and capacity, using alloys having the generic composition of Al(NiCoMnAl){sub 5} and similar to those used for the preparation of commercial battery electrodes. The corrosion of metal hydride electrodes is determined by two factors, surface passivation due to the presence of surface oxides or hydroxides and crystal lattice expansion - contraction the charge - discharge process. Thus, in addition to determining the effects of Ni substitution we will also address the question of whether an observed change is due to a change lattice expansion or to a change in surface passivation, e.g. the formation a corrosion resistant oxide layer.

Adzic, G.D.; Johnson, J.R.; Mukerjee, S.; McBreen, J.; Reilly, J.J.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

132

Fabrication of Porous Metals with Directional Pores through ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas-forming compounds such as hydrides were added into the molten metal to ... of Iron Compounds Complex Particles by Pulsed Laser Irradiation in Liquids.

133

Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrides for Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage George Thomas, Consultant Sandia National Laboratories G. J. Thomas Efficient onboard hydrogen storage is a critical enabling technology for the use of hydrogen in vehicles * The low volumetric density of gaseous fuels requires a storage method which densifies the fuel. - This is particularly true for hydrogen because of its lower energy density relative to hydrocarbon fuels. * Storage methods result in additional weight and volume above that of the fuel. How do we achieve adequate stored energy in an efficient, safe and cost-effective system? G. J. Thomas However, the storage media must meet certain requirements: - reversible hydrogen uptake/release - lightweight - low cost - cyclic stability - rapid kinetic properties - equilibrium properties (P,T) consistent

134

Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator was designed to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

Christensen, L.D.

1980-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

135

Activated Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Compositions ...  

Aluminum hydride is the best known alane and has been known for over 60 years. It is potentially a very attractive medium for onboard automotive hydrogen storage ...

136

Phase Field Modeling of Coherent Zirconium Hydrides ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Mechanical properties of hydrided Zircaloy claddings under external load lie in the center of nuclear reactor safety. Numerous experimental...

137

Hydrogen Storage property of sandwiched magnesium hydride naoparticle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Storage property of sandwiched magnesium hydride naoparticle thin film Title Hydrogen Storage property of sandwiched magnesium hydride naoparticle thin film Publication Type...

138

Rare Earth Metal research, at DOE  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Energy Citations Database - Intermultiplet transitions in rare-earth metals DOE Green Energy - LaNi.sub.5 is-based metal hydride electrode in Ni-MH rechargeable cells...

139

Hydrogenation using hydrides and acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a very rapid, non-catalytic process for hydrogenating unsaturated organic compounds that can be carried out at temperatures generally lower than previously utilized. In this process organic compounds which contain at least one reducible functional group are hydrogenated non-catalytically by reacting them with a hydride complex and a strong acid. The reducible functional group may be, for example, C=C, C-OH, C-O-C, or a strained cyclic structure. If the reactants are not mutually soluble, they are dissolved in an appropriate inert solvent. 3 tabs.

Bullock, R.M.

1989-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

140

Automotive storage of hydrogen using modified magnesium hydrides. Final report, March 1976-March 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Metal hydrides can store more hydrogen per unit volume than normal high pressure or cryogenic techniques. Little energy is required to store the hydrogen in the hydride, and high stability at room temperature ensures low losses over long storage periods. Safety features of metal hydride storage are favorable. Because of its low weight and high hydrogen storage densities, modified magnesium hydride offers the greatest potential for automotive storage of hydrogen. Experimental and analytical work in this program has been directed toward the optimization of this storage system. Due to the relative stability of MgH/sub 2/, modifications of the MgMH/sub x/ (M = metal ion) have been made to decrease the dissociation temperature while retaining high hydrogen capacity. This parameter is crucial since vehicle exhaust will supply the thermal energy to dissociate the hydride in an automobile. System studies indicate that hydride dissociation temperature (T/sub D/) should be 200/sup 0/C to ensure uninterrupted fuel flow at all driving and idle conditions. From experimental data developed in this four task study, we conclude that alloys comprised of Mg, Cu and Ni have come closest to meeting the dissociation temperature goal. Small additions of rare-earth elements to the basic alloy also contribute to a reduction of T/sub D/. The best alloy developed in this program exhibits a T/sub D/ = 223/sup 0/C and a hydrogen capacity near four weight percent compared to a theoretical 7.65 percent for MgH/sub 2/. That alloy has been characterized for dissociation temperature, hydrogen capacity, kinetics, and P-C-T relationships. Dissociation temperature, hydrogen capacity and material cost are reported for each alloy tested in this program.

Rohy, D. A.; Nachman, J. F.; Hammer, A. N.; Duffy, T. E.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Wire Wrapped Hexagonal Pin Arrays for Hydride Fueled PWRs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work contributes to the Hydride Fuels Project, a collaborative effort between UC Berkeley and MIT

Diller, Peter

142

Hydrogen-storing hydride complexes  

SciTech Connect

A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

Srinivasan, Sesha S. (Tampa, FL); Niemann, Michael U. (Venice, FL); Goswami, D. Yogi (Tampa, FL); Stefanakos, Elias K. (Tampa, FL)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

143

Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

?\tDuring the investigation of hydriding techniques, we learned that magnesium hydride in a slurry can also be cycled in a rechargeable fashion. Thus, magnesium hydride slurry can act either as a chemical hydride storage medium or as a rechargeable hydride storage system. Hydrogen can be stored and delivered and then stored again thus significantly reducing the cost of storing and delivering hydrogen. Further evaluation and development of this concept will be performed as follow-on work under a

McClaine, Andrew W.

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

144

Titanium tritide radioisotope heat source development : palladium-coated titanium hydriding kinetics and tritium loading tests.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have found that a 180 nm palladium coating enables titanium to be loaded with hydrogen isotopes without the typical 400-500 C vacuum activation step. The hydriding kinetics of Pd coated Ti can be described by the Mintz-Bloch adherent film model, where the rate of hydrogen absorption is controlled by diffusion through an adherent metal-hydride layer. Hydriding rate constants of Pd coated and vacuum activated Ti were found to be very similar. In addition, deuterium/tritium loading experiments were done on stacks of Pd coated Ti foil in a representative-size radioisotope heat source vessel. The experiments demonstrated that such a vessel could be loaded completely, at temperatures below 300 C, in less than 10 hours, using existing department-of-energy tritium handling infrastructure.

Van Blarigan, Peter; Shugard, Andrew D.; Walters, R. Tom (Savannah River National Labs, Aiken, SC)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

2007-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

146

Porous metallic bodies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Porous metallic bodies having a substantially uniform pore size of less than about 200 microns and a density of less than about 25 percent theoretical, as well as the method for making them, are disclosed. Group IIA, IIIB, IVB, VB, and rare earth metal hydrides a

Landingham, R.L.

1984-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

147

Liquid metal hydrogen barriers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogen barriers which comprise liquid metals in which the solubility of hydrogen is low and which have good thermal conductivities at operating temperatures of interest. Such barriers are useful in nuclear fuel elements containing a metal hydride moderator which has a substantial hydrogen dissociation pressure at reactor operating temperatures.

Grover, George M. (Los Alamos, NM); Frank, Thurman G. (Los Alamos, NM); Keddy, Edward S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixtures is then cooled to a temperature less than -100/sup 0/C in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

Duerksen, W.K.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen storage is one of the challenges to be overcome for implementing the ever sought hydrogen economy. Here we report a novel cycle to reversibly form high density hydrogen storage materials such as aluminium hydride. Aluminium hydride (AlH{sub 3}, alane) has a hydrogen storage capacity of 10.1 wt% H{sub 2}, 149 kg H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric density and can be discharged at low temperatures (< 100 C). However, alane has been precluded from use in hydrogen storage systems because of the lack of practical regeneration methods. The direct hydrogenation of aluminium to form AlH{sub 3} requires over 10{sup 5} bars of hydrogen pressure at room temperature and there are no cost effective synthetic means. Here we show an unprecedented reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically, using alkali metal alanates (e.g. NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}) in aprotic solvents. To complete the cycle, the starting alanates can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride being the other compound formed in the electrochemical cell. The process of forming NaAlH{sub 4} from NaH and Al is well established in both solid state and solution reactions. The use of adducting Lewis bases is an essential part of this cycle, in the isolation of alane from the mixtures of the electrochemical cell. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to pure, unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum.

Zidan, R; Christopher Fewox, C; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B; Joshua Gray, J

2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

151

High-Spin Cobalt Hydrides for Catalysis  

SciTech Connect

Organometallic chemists have traditionally used catalysts with strong-field ligands that give low-spin complexes. However, complexes with a weak ligand field have weaker bonds and lower barriers to geometric changes, suggesting that they may lead to more rapid catalytic reactions. Developing our understanding of high-spin complexes requires the use of a broader range of spectroscopic techniques, but has the promise of changing the mechanism and/or selectivity of known catalytic reactions. These changes may enable the more efficient utilization of chemical resources. A special advantage of cobalt and iron catalysts is that the metals are more abundant and cheaper than those currently used for major industrial processes that convert unsaturated organic molecules and biofeedstocks into useful chemicals. This project specifically evaluated the potential of high-spin cobalt complexes for small-molecule reactions for bond rearrangement and cleavage reactions relevant to hydrocarbon transformations. We have learned that many of these reactions proceed through crossing to different spin states: for example, high-spin complexes can flip one electron spin to access a lower-energy reaction pathway for beta-hydride elimination. This reaction enables new, selective olefin isomerization catalysis. The high-spin cobalt complexes also cleave the C-O bond of CO2 and the C-F bonds of fluoroarenes. In each case, the detailed mechanism of the reaction has been determined. Importantly, we have discovered that the cobalt catalysts described here give distinctive selectivities that are better than known catalysts. These selectivities come from a synergy between supporting ligand design and electronic control of the spin-state crossing in the reactions.

Holland, Patrick L. [Yale University] [Yale University

2013-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

152

HIGH-TEMPERATURE LIQUID-METAL TECHNOLOGY REVIEW. A Bimonthly Technical Progress Review. Volume 1, Number 2  

SciTech Connect

Metals ---technology of high-temperature liquid, review; Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP-2) ---coolant boiling research for; Nuclear Power Plants ---development research on thermionic, Los Alamos Molten Plutonium Reactor Experiments ---fuel element analysis; Heat Transfer Systems ---conference on liquid metal; Bearings --coating for liquid metal, performance of; Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP-8) ---component development; Sodium---heat transfer research on; Mercury --heat transfer research on; Potassium ---heat transfer research on; Nitrogen Systems ---Hg --N, flow characteristics for two-phase; Mercury Systems ---Hg --N, flow characteristics for two-phase; Nuclear Power Plants ---heat transfer rejection by space, research on; Alkali Metals ---heat transfer research on; Turbines ---development of twostage potassium; Bearings --- development of liquid-metal lubricated; Niobium Alloys ---properties for alkali metal containment, research on; Rubidium ---thermophysical properties of; Los Alamos Molten Plutonium Reactor Experiments ---design of LAMPRE-1. (D.C.W.)

Dwyer, O.E. ed.

1963-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Optimization of hydride fueled pressurized water reactor cores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis contributes to the Hydride Fuels Project, a collaborative effort between UC Berkeley and MIT aimed at investigating the potential benefits of hydride fuel use in light water reactors (LWRs). This pursuit involves ...

Shuffler, Carter Alexander

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Thermal hydraulic analysis of hydride fuels in BWR's  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis contributes to the hydride nuclear fuel project being completed by UC Berkeley and MIT to assess the possible benefits of using hydride fuel in light water nuclear reactors (LWR's). More specifically, this ...

Creighton, John Everett

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Preparation of Prototypic Irradiated Hydrided-Zircaloy Cladding for UFDC Programs  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) has tasked ORNL to investigate the behavior of light-water-reactor fuel cladding material performance related to extended storage and transportation of used fuel. Fast neutron irradiation of pre-hydrided zirconium-alloy cladding in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at elevated temperatures has been used to simulate the effects of high burnup on used fuel cladding for use in understanding the materials properties relevant to very long-term storage (VLTS) and subsequent transportation. The irradiated pre-hydrided metallic materials will generate baseline data to benchmark hot-cell testing of high-burnup used fuel cladding; and, more importantly, samples free of alpha contamination can be provided to the researchers who do not have hot cell facilities to handle highly contaminated high-burnup used fuel cladding to support their research projects for the UFDC. In order to accomplish this research, ORNL has produced unirradiated zirconium-based cladding tubes with a certain hydrogen concentration. Two capsules (HYCD-1 and HYCD-2) containing hydrided zirconium-based samples, 9.50 mm (0.374 in) in diameter, were inserted in HFIR for neutron irradiation. HYCD-1 was removed after Cycle 440B and HYCD-2 after Cycle 442. This paper will describe the general HYCD experiment configuration, achieved temperatures, and temperature gradients within the cladding, and current results of the PIE of the irradiated hydrided cladding samples.

Ott, Larry J [ORNL] [ORNL; Howard, Richard H [ORNL] [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL] [ORNL; McDuffee, Joel Lee [ORNL] [ORNL; Yan, Yong [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

PREPARATION OF METAL POWDER COMPACTS PRIOR TO PRESSING  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of fabricating uranium by a powder metallurgical technique is described. It consists in introducing powdered uranium hydride into a receptacle shaped to coincide with the coatour of the die cavity and heating the hydride so that it decomposes to uranium metal. The metal particles cohere in the shapw of the receptacle and thereafter the prefurmed metal powder is pressed and sintered to obtain a dense compact.

Mansfield, H.

1958-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

157

Metallization for Self Aligned Technology: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-295  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this CRADA NREL will modify/develop metallization inks that are compatible with 1366 Technologies technology. Various methods of deposition will be used to apply the inks to the textured silicon substrates. The goal of the project is to minimize the contact resistance while maximizing the cell efficiency.

Ginley, D.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Dissipative hydride precipitates in superconducting niobium cavities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the first direct observation of the microstructural features exhibiting RF losses at high surface magnetic fields of above 100 mT in field emission free superconducting niobium cavities. The lossy areas were identified by advanced thermometry. Surface investigations using different techniques were carried out on cutout samples from lossy areas and showed the presence of dendritic niobium hydrides. This finding has possible implications to the mechanisms of RF losses in superconducting niobium at all field levels.

Romanenko, A.; Cooley, L.D.; /Fermilab; Ciovati, G.; / /Jefferson Lab; Wu, G.; /Argonne

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Metallic Inks for Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-10-370  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document describes the statement of work for National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as a subcontractor for Applied Nanotech, Inc. (ANI) for the Phase II SBIR contract with the Department of Energy to build silicon solar cells using non-contact printed, nanoparticle-based metallic inks. The conductive inks are based upon ANI's proprietary method for nanoparticle dispersion. The primary inks under development are aluminum for silicon solar cell back plane contacts and copper for top interdigitated contacts. The current direction of silicon solar cell technology is to use thinner silicon wafers. The reduction in wafer thickness reduces overall material usage and can increase efficiency. These thin silicon wafers are often very brittle and normal methods used for conductive feed line application, such as screen-printing, are detrimental. The Phase II program will be focused on materials development for metallic inks that can be applied to a silicon solar cell using non-contact methods. Uniform BSF (Back Surface Field) formation will be obtained by optimizing ink formulation and curing conditions to improve cell efficiency.

van Hest, M.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Materials compatibility of hydride storage materials with austenitic stainless steels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This task evaluated the materials compatibility of LaNi[sub 5-x]Al[sub x] (x= 0.3, 0.75) hydrides and palladium coated kieselguhr with austenitic stainless steel in hydrogen and tritium process environments. Based on observations of retired prototype hydride storage beds and materials exposure testing samples designed for this study, no materials compatibility problem was indicated. Scanning electron microscopy observations of features on stainless steel surfaces after exposure to hydrides are also commonly found on as-received materials before hydriding. These features are caused by either normal heat treating and acid cleaning of stainless steel or reflect the final machining operation.

Clark, E.A.

1992-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Materials compatibility of hydride storage materials with austenitic stainless steels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This task evaluated the materials compatibility of LaNi{sub 5-x}Al{sub x} (x= 0.3, 0.75) hydrides and palladium coated kieselguhr with austenitic stainless steel in hydrogen and tritium process environments. Based on observations of retired prototype hydride storage beds and materials exposure testing samples designed for this study, no materials compatibility problem was indicated. Scanning electron microscopy observations of features on stainless steel surfaces after exposure to hydrides are also commonly found on as-received materials before hydriding. These features are caused by either normal heat treating and acid cleaning of stainless steel or reflect the final machining operation.

Clark, E.A.

1992-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

162

Development of a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydride and Storage / Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Tritium Science and Technology Tsukuba, Japan November 12-16, 2001

J. E. Klein; J. R. Brenner; E. F. Dyer

163

Method of making crack-free zirconium hydride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Crack-free hydrides of zirconium and zirconium-uranium alloys are produced by alloying the zirconium or zirconium-uranium alloy with beryllium, or nickel, or beryllium and scandium, or nickel and scandium, or beryllium and nickel, or beryllium, nickel and scandium and thereafter hydriding.

Sullivan, Richard W. (Denver, CO)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Nano-engineering of magnesium hydride for hydrogen storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The destabilization of magnesium hydride (MgH"2) by solid-state reaction with Si in a nanoscale under vacuum was studied. The nanostructured Si films were deposited on the nanocrystalline MgH"2/Mg composite substrate by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD). ... Keywords: Destabilization, Magnesium hydride, Microstructure, Nano-engineering, Silicon

J. Bystrzycki; T. P?oci?ski; W. Zieli?ski; Z. Winiewski; M. Polanski; W. Mrz; Z. Bojar; K. J. Kurzd?owski

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities Irradiation is known to have a significant impact on the properties and performance of Zircaloy cladding and structural materials (material degradation processes, e.g., effects of hydriding). This UFD study examines the behavior and performance of unirradiated cladding and actual irradiated cladding through testing and simulation. Three capsules containing hydrogen-charged Zircaloy-4 cladding material have been placed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Irradiation of the capsules was conducted for post-irradiation examination (PIE) metallography. Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of

166

Method and apparatus for regenerating cold traps within liquid-metal systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oxide and hydride impurities of a liquid metal such as sodium are removed from a cold trap by heating to a temperature at which the metal hydroxide is stable in a molten state. The partial pressure of hydrogen within the system is measured to determine if excess hydride or oxide is present. Excess hydride is removed by venting hydrogen gas while excess oxide can be converted to molten hydroxide through the addition of hydrogen. The resulting, molten hydroxide is drained from the trap which is then returned to service at cold trap temperatures within the liquid-metal system.

McKee, Jr., John M. (Hinsdale, IL)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Metal Hydrides for Thermal Energy Storage Applications - A review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Energy Storage: Materials, Systems and Applications. Presentation Title ... Hydrogen Generation Using Cyclic Redox Reaction of Iron Oxide ... The Effect the Distribution of the Conducting Phase on SiCO-Li+ Anode Performance.

168

Metal hydride switchable mirrors: Factors in?uencing dynamic ...  

2 was introduced are designated by vertical lines with long dashes, air ... actual limits of switching. The maximum transmission achieved was slightly

169

Effects of Metal Hydride Properties on the Performance of Hydrogen ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sep 16, 2007 ... Volumetric and gravimetric energy density are the primary performance metrics for the evaluation of automotive hydrogen storage systems.

170

DISPERSION HARDENING OF URANIUM METAL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of hardening U metal involves the forming of a fine dispersion of UO/sub 2/. This method consists of first hydriding the U to form a finely divided powder and then exposing the powder to a very dilute O gas in an inert atmosphere under such pressure and temperature conditions as to cause a thin oxide film to coat each particle of the U hydride, The oxide skin prevents agglomeration of the particles as the remaining H is removed, thus preserving the small particle size. The oxide skin coatings remain as an oxide dispersion. The resulting product may be workhardened to improve its physical characteristics. (AEC)

Arbiter, W.

1963-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

ENVIRONMENTAL REACTIVITY OF SOLID STATE HYDRIDE MATERIALS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In searching for high gravimetric and volumetric density hydrogen storage systems, it is inevitable that higher energy density materials will be used. In order to make safe and commercially acceptable condensed phase hydrogen storage systems, it is important to understand quantitatively the risks involved in using and handling these materials and to develop appropriate mitigation strategies to handle potential material exposure events. A crucial aspect of the development of risk identification and mitigation strategies is the development of rigorous environmental reactivity testing standards and procedures. This will allow for the identification of potential risks and implementation of risk mitigation strategies. Modified testing procedures for shipping air and/or water sensitive materials, as codified by the United Nations, have been used to evaluate two potential hydrogen storage materials, 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}. The modified U.N. procedures include identification of self-reactive substances, pyrophoric substances, and gas-emitting substances with water contact. The results of these tests for air and water contact sensitivity will be compared to the pure material components where appropriate (e.g. LiBH{sub 4} and MgH{sub 2}). The water contact tests are divided into two scenarios dependent on the hydride to water mole ratio and heat transport characteristics. Air contact tests were run to determine whether a substance will spontaneously react with air in a packed or dispersed form. In the case of the 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2} material, the results from the hydride mixture compared to the pure materials results showed the MgH{sub 2} to be the least reactive component and LiBH{sub 4} the more reactive. The combined 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2} resulted in a material having environmental reactivity between these two materials. Relative to 2LiBH{sub 4} {center_dot} MgH{sub 2}, the chemical hydride NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} was observed to be less environmentally reactive.

Gray, J; Donald Anton, D

2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

172

Use of Solid Hydride Fuel for Improved long-Life LWR Core Designs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of improving the performance of PWR and BWR cores by using solid hydride fuels instead of the commonly used oxide fuel. The primary measure of performance considered is the bus-bar cost of electricity (COE). Additional performance measures considered are safety, fuel bundle design simplicity in particular for BWRs, and plutonium incineration capability. It was found that hydride fuel can safely operate in PWRs and BWRs without restricting the linear heat generation rate of these reactors relative to that attainable with oxide fuel. A couple of promising applications of hydride fuel in PWRs and BWRs were identified: (1) Eliminating dedicated water moderator volumes in BWR cores thus enabling to significantly increase the cooled fuel rods surface area as well as the coolant flow cross section area in a given volume fuel bundle while significantly reducing the heterogeneity of BWR fuel bundles thus achieving flatter pin-by-pin power distribution. The net result is a possibility to significantly increase the core power density on the order of 30% and, possibly, more, while greatly simplifying the fuel bundle design. Implementation of the above modifications is, though, not straightforward; it requires a design of completely different control system that could probably be implemented only in newly designed plants. It also requires increasing the coolant pressure drop across the core. (2) Recycling plutonium in PWRs more effectively than is possible with oxide fuel by virtue of a couple of unique features of hydride fuel reduced inventory of U-238 and increased inventory of hydrogen. As a result, the hydride fuelled core achieves nearly double the average discharge burnup and the fraction of the loaded Pu it incinerates in one pass is double that of the MOX fuel. The fissile fraction of the Pu in the discharged hydride fuel is only ~2/3 that of the MOX fuel and the discharged hydride fuel is more proliferation resistant. Preliminary feasibility assessment indicates that by replacing some of the ZrH1.6 by ThH2 it will be possible to further improve the plutonium incineration capability of PWRs. Other possibly promising applications of hydride fuel were identified but not evaluated in this work. A number of promising oxide fueled PWR core designs were also found as spin-offs of this study: (1) The optimal oxide fueled PWR core design features smaller fuel rod diameter of D=6.5 mm and a larger pitch-to-diameter ratio of P/D=1.39 than presently practiced by industry 9.5mm and 1.326. This optimal design can provide a 30% increase in the power density and a 24% reduction in the cost of electricity (COE) provided the PWR could be designed to have the coolant pressure drop across the core increased from the reference 29 psia to 60 psia. (2) Using wire wrapped oxide fuel rods in hexagonal fuel assemblies it is possible to design PWR cores to operate at 54% higher power density than the reference PWR design that uses grid spacers and a square lattice, provided 60 psia coolant pressure drop across the core could be accommodated. Uprating existing PWRs to use such cores could result in 40% reduction in the COE. The optimal lattice geometry is D = 8.08 mm and P/D = 1.41. The most notable advantages of wire wraps over grid spacers are their significant lower pressure drop, higher critical heat flux and improved vibrations characteristics.

Greenspan, E

2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

173

Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Nonaqueous actinide hydride dissolution and production of actinide $beta$- diketonates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Actinide beta-diketonate complex molecular compounds are produced by reacting a beta-diketone compound with a hydride of the actinide material in a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and methanol. (auth)

Crisler, L.R.

1975-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

175

Transient analysis of hydride fueled pressurized water reactor cores  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis contributes to the hydride nuclear fuel project led by U. C. Berkeley for which MIT is to perform the thermal hydraulic and economic analyses. A parametric study has been performed to determine the optimum ...

Trant, Jarrod Michael

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Advanced technology and manufacturing practices for machining and inspecting metal matrix composites. Final CRADA report for CRADA number Y-1292-0092  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) and the Lanxide Corporation (Lanxide) negotiated a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop advanced technology and manufacturing practices for machining and inspecting metal matrix composites (MMC). The objective of this CRADA was to develop machining parameters to allow manufacturing of automotive components from MMCs. These parts exhibit a range of shapes and dimensional tolerances and require a large number of machining operations. The common characteristic of the components is the use of the light weight MMC materials to replace heavier materials. This allows smaller and lighter moving parts and supporting structural components thereby increasing fuel mileage. The CRADA was divided into three areas: basic investigation of cutting parameters, establishment of a mock production line for components, and optimization of parameters in the mock facility. This report covers the manufacturing of MMCs and preliminary Phase I testing for silicon carbide having various loading percentages and extensive Phase I testing of cutting parameters on 30% alumina loaded aluminum. On January 26, 1995, a letter from the vice president, technology at Lanxide was issued terminating the CRADA due to changes in business. 9 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

Fell, H.A.; Shelton, J.E.; LaMance, G.M.; Kennedy, C.R.

1995-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

177

Synthesis and small molecule chemistry of the niobaziridine-hydride functional group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 1. Synthesis and Divergent Reactivity of the Niobaziridine-Hydride Functional Group The synthesis, characterization and reactivity of the niobaziridine-hydride complex Nb(H)([eta]-t- ]Bu(H)C=NAr)(N[Np]Ar)? (la-H; ...

Figueroa, Joshua S

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Final Report: Metal Perhydrides for Hydrogen Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen is a promising energy source for the future economy due to its environmental friendliness. One of the important obstacles for the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel source for applications such as fuel cells is the storage of hydrogen. In the infrastructure of the expected hydrogen economy, hydrogen storage is one of the key enabling technologies. Although hydrogen possesses the highest gravimetric energy content (142 KJ/g) of all fuels, its volumetric energy density (8 MJ/L) is very low. It is desired to increase the volumetric energy density of hydrogen in a system to satisfy various applications. Research on hydrogen storage has been pursed for many years. Various storage technologies, including liquefaction, compression, metal hydride, chemical hydride, and adsorption, have been examined. Liquefaction and high pressure compression are not desired due to concerns related to complicated devices, high energy cost and safety. Metal hydrides and chemical hydrides have high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities but encounter issues because high temperature is required for the release of hydrogen, due to the strong bonding of hydrogen in the compounds. Reversibility of hydrogen loading and unloading is another concern. Adsorption of hydrogen on high surface area sorbents such as activated carbon and organic metal frameworks does not have the reversibility problem. But on the other hand, the weak force (primarily the van der Waals force) between hydrogen and the sorbent yields a very small amount of adsorption capacity at ambient temperature. Significant storage capacity can only be achieved at low temperatures such as 77K. The use of liquid nitrogen in a hydrogen storage system is not practical. Perhydrides are proposed as novel hydrogen storage materials that may overcome barriers slowing advances to a hydrogen fuel economy. In conventional hydrides, e.g. metal hydrides, the number of hydrogen atoms equals the total valence of the metal ions. One LiH molecule contains one hydrogen atom because the valence of a Li ion is +1. One MgH2 molecule contains two hydrogen atoms because the valence of a Mg ion is +2. In metal perhydrides, a molecule could contain more hydrogen atoms than expected based on the metal valance, i.e. LiH1+n and MgH2+n (n is equal to or greater than 1). When n is sufficiently high, there will be plenty of hydrogen storage capacity to meet future requirements. The existence of hydrogen clusters, Hn+ (n = 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15) and transition metal ion-hydrogen clusters, M+(H2)n (n = 1-6), such as Sc(H2)n+, Co(H2)n+, etc., have assisted the development of this concept. Clusters are not stable species. However, their existence stimulates our approach on using electric charges to enhance the hydrogen adsorption in a hydrogen storage system in this study. The experimental and modeling work to verify it are reported here. Experimental work included the generation of cold hydrogen plasma through a microwave approach, synthesis of sorbent materials, design and construction of lab devices, and the determination of hydrogen adsorption capacities on various sorbent materials under various electric field potentials and various temperatures. The results consistently show that electric potential enhances the adsorption of hydrogen on sorbents. NiO, MgO, activated carbon, MOF, and MOF and platinum coated activated carbon are some of the materials studied. Enhancements up to a few hundred percents have been found. In general, the enhancement increases with the electrical potential, the pressure applied, and the temperature lowered. Theoretical modeling of the hydrogen adsorption on the sorbents under the electric potential has been investigated with the density functional theory (DFT) approach. It was found that the interaction energy between hydrogen and sorbent is increased remarkably when an electric field is applied. This increase of binding energy offers a potential solution for DOE when looking for a compromise between chemisorption and physisorption for hydrogen storage. Bonding of chemisorption is too

Hwang, J-Y.; Shi, S.; Hackney, S.; Swenson, D.; Hu, Y.

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

179

A Novel Zr-1Nb Alloy and a New Look at Hydriding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel Zr-1Nb has begun development based on a working model that takes into account the hydrogen permeabilities for zirconium and niobium metals. The beta-Nb secondary phase particles (SPPs) in Zr-1Nb are believed to promote more rapid hydrogen dynamics in the alloy in comparison to other zirconium alloys. Furthermore, some hydrogen release is expected at the lower temperatures corresponding to outages when the partial pressure of H2 in the coolant is less. These characteristics lessen the negative synergism between corrosion and hydriding that is otherwise observed in cladding alloys without niobium. In accord with the working model, development of nanoscale precursors was initiated to enhance the performance of existing Zr-1Nb alloys. Their characteristics and properties can be compared to oxide-dispersion strengthened alloys, and material additions have been proposed to zirconium-based LWR cladding to guard further against hydriding and to fix the size of the SPPs for microstructure stability enhancements. A preparative route is being investigated that does not require mechanical alloying, and 10 nanometer molybdenum particles have been prepared which are part of the nanoscale precursors. If successful, the approach has implications for long term dry storage of used fuel and for new routes to nanoferritic and ODS alloys.

Robert D. Mariani; James I. Cole; Assel Aitkaliyeva

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

THE EFFECT OF 3HE ON LOW PRESSURE HYDRIDE ABSORPTION MEASUREMENTS WITH TRITIUM  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Absorption isotherm data exists for a wide variety of hydrogen-metal systems. When working with high purity gases, appropriately sized equipment, and hydrides with equilibrium pressures above several hundred Pa, data collection is relatively straightforward. Special consideration must be given to experiments involving low equilibrium pressure hydrides, as even sub-ppm levels of gas impurities can generate partial pressures many times greater than the equilibrium pressures to be measured. Tritium absorption experiments are further complicated by the continuous generation of helium-3. The time required to transfer and absorb a known quantity of tritium onto a sample ultimately limits the minimum pressure range that can be studied using the standard technique. Equations are presented which show the pressure of helium-3 in a sample cell based on the amount of tritium to be absorbed, the sample cell volume and temperature, and the decay time of tritium. Sample calculations for zirconium show that at 300 C, the estimated helium-3 pressure in the cell will be equal to the hydrogen absorption pressure after only milliseconds of tritium decay. An alternate method is presented that permits the collection of equilibrium data at pressures orders of magnitude lower than possible using a direct approach.

Staack, G.; Klein, J.

2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

OBSERVATION AND MECHANISM OF HYDRIDE IN ZIRCALOY-4 AND LOCAL HYDRIDE RE-ORIENTATION INDUCED BY HIGH PRESSURE AT HIGH TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect

Hydrided Zircaloy-4 samples were produced by a gas charging method to desired amounts of hydrogen. For low hydrogen content samples, the hydrided platelets appear elongated and needle-like, orientated in the circumferential direction. Mechanical testing was carried out by the ring compression method at various temperatures. Samples with higher hydrogen concentration resulted in lower strain before fracture and reduced maximum load. The trend between temperature and ductility was also very clear: increasing temperatures resulted in increased ductility of the hydrided cladding. A single through-wall crack was observed for a hydrided sample having very high hydrogen concentration under ring compression testing. For samples having lower hydrogen concentrations, the fracture surfaces traversed both circumferential and radial directions, and for which voids were observed near the hydrides. Mechanical tests to study hydride reorientation in these samples are under way, and the results will be reported in the near future.

Yan, Yong [ORNL; Blackwell, Andrew S [ORNL; Plummer, Lee K [ORNL; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam [ORNL; Gorti, Sarma B [ORNL; Clarno, Kevin T [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Raman Spectroscopy of Lithium Hydride Corrosion: Selection of an Appropriate Excitation Wavelength to Minimize Fluorescence  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The recent interest in a hydrogen-based fuel economy has renewed research into metal hydride chemistry. Many of these compounds react readily with water to release hydrogen gas and form a caustic. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFT) has been used to study the hydrolysis reaction. The LiOH stretch appears at 3670 cm{sup -1}. Raman spectroscopy is a complementary technique that employs monochromatic excitation (laser) allowing access to the low energy region of the vibrational spectrum (<600 cm{sup -1}). Weak scattering and fluorescence typically prevent Raman from being used for many compounds. The role of Li{sub 2}O in the moisture reaction has not been fully studied for LiH. Li{sub 2}O can be observed by Raman while being hidden in the Infrared spectrum.

Stowe, A. C.; Smyrl, N. R.

2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

183

Magnetic properties and crystal structure of RENiA1 and UniA1 hydrides.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

RENiAl (RE = rare-earth metal) and UNiAl compounds crystallizing in the hexagonal ZrNiAl-type structure (space group P{bar 6}2m) can absorb up to 2 and 3 hydrogen (deuterium) atoms per formula unit, respectively. Hydrogenation leads to a notable lattice expansion and modification of magnetic properties. However, the impact of hydrogenation on magnetism is the opposite for 4f- and 5f-materials: TN(T{sub c})is lowered in the case of rare-earth hydrides, while for UNiAlH(D){sub x} it increases by an order of magnitude. Here we present results of magnetic and structure studies performed of these compounds, focusing on the correlation between magnetic and structural variations and discussing possible reasons of the striking difference in effect of hydrogenation on rare-earth and actinide intermetallics.

Bordallo, H. N.; Drulis, H.; Havela, L.; Iwasieczko, W.; Kolomiets, A. V.; Nakotte, H.; Refaja, D.; Yartys, V. A.

1999-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

184

Mixed metal films with switchable optical properties  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thin, Pd-capped metallic films containing magnesium and first row transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co) switch reversibly from their initial reflecting state to visually transparent states when exposed to gaseous hydrogen or following cathodic polarization in an alkaline electrolyte. Reversion to the reflecting state is achieved by exposure to air or by anodic polarization. The films were prepared by co-sputtering from one magnesium target and one manganese, iron, or cobalt target. Both the dynamic optical switching range and the speed of the transition depend on the magnesium-transition metal ratio. Infrared spectra of films in the transparent, hydrided (deuterided) states support the presence of the intermetallic hydride phases Mg3MnH7, Mg2FeH6, and Mg2CoH5.

Richardson, Thomas J.; Slack, Jonathan L.; Farangis, Baker; Rubin, Michael D.

2001-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

185

FEASIBILITY OF RECYCLING PLUTONIUM AND MINOR ACTINIDES IN LIGHT WATER REACTORS USING HYDRIDE FUEL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this DOE NERI program sponsored project was to assess the feasibility of improving the plutonium (Pu) and minor actinide (MA) recycling capabilities of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) by using hydride instead of oxide fuels. There are four general parts to this assessment: 1) Identifying promising hydride fuel assembly designs for recycling Pu and MAs in PWRs 2) Performing a comprehensive systems analysis that compares the fuel cycle characteristics of Pu and MA recycling in PWRs using the promising hydride fuel assembly designs identified in Part 1 versus using oxide fuel assembly designs 3) Conducting a safety analysis to assess the likelihood of licensing hydride fuel assembly designs 4) Assessing the compatibility of hydride fuel with cladding materials and water under typical PWR operating conditions Hydride fuel was found to offer promising transmutation characteristics and is recommended for further examination as a possible preferred option for recycling plutonium in PWRs.

Greenspan, Ehud; Todreas, Neil; Taiwo, Temitope

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

186

ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE STORAGE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the challenges of implementing the hydrogen economy is finding a suitable solid H{sub 2} storage material. Aluminium (alane, AlH{sub 3}) hydride has been examined as a potential hydrogen storage material because of its high weight capacity, low discharge temperature, and volumetric density. Recycling the dehydride material has however precluded AlH{sub 3} from being implemented due to the large pressures required (>10{sup 5} bar H{sub 2} at 25 C) and the thermodynamic expense of chemical synthesis. A reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically using NaAlH{sub 4} in THF been successfully demonstrated. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum. To complete the cycle, the starting alanate can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride (NaH) This novel reversible cycle opens the door for alane to fuel the hydrogen economy.

Zidan, R; Christopher Fewox, C; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B; Joshua Gray, J

2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

187

Postirradiation examination of pressure tubes 2954 and 3053: Corrosion, hydriding and fluence measurements  

SciTech Connect

Pressure Tubes 2954 and 3053 were removed from N Reactor in March 1987 for postirradiation examinations (PIE) including hydriding, corrosion, fluence and mechanical property measurements. The results of the corrosion, hydriding, and fluence measurements are the subject of this report. These data will be used to evaluate the trends in corrosion and hydriding behavior which are important to the structural integrity of the tubes. The trend evaluations as well as the mechanical property data are or will be reported elsewhere.

Chastain, S.A.; Trimble, D.J.; Boyd, S.M.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Measurement and modeling of strain fields in zirconium hydrides precipitated at a stress concentration  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen adsorption into zirconium, as a result of corrosion in aqueous environments, leads to the precipitation of a secondary brittle hydride phase. These hydrides tend to first form at stress concentrations such as fretting flaws or cracks in engineering components, potentially degrading the structural integrity of the component. One mechanism for component failure is a slow crack growth mechanism known as Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC), where hydride fracture occurs followed by crack arrest in the ductile zirconium matrix. The current work employs both an experimental and a modeling approach to better characterize the effects and behavior of hydride precipitation at such stress concentrations. Strains around stress concentrations containing hydrides were mapped using High Energy X-ray Diffraction (HEXRD). These studies highlighted important differences in the behavior of the hydride phase and the surrounding zirconium matrix, as well as the strain associated with the precipitation of the hydride. A finite element model was also developed and compared to the X-ray strain mapping results. This model provided greater insight into details that could not be obtained directly from the experimental approaches, as well as providing a framework for future modeling to predict the effects of hydride precipitation under varied conditions.

Allen, Gregory B.; Kerr, Matthew; Daymond, Mark R. (Queens)

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

189

DOE Science Showcase - Rare Earth Metal Research from DOE Databases |  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Rare Earth Metal Research from DOE Databases Rare Earth Metal Research from DOE Databases Information Bridge Energy Citations Database Highlighted documents of Rare Earth Metal research in DOE databases Information Bridge - Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces DOE R&D Project Summaries - Structural and magnetic studies on heavy rare earth metals at high pressures using designer diamonds Energy Citations Database - Intermultiplet transitions in rare-earth metals DOE Green Energy - LaNi.sub.5 is-based metal hydride electrode in Ni-MH rechargeable cells Science.gov - H.R.4866 - Rare Earths Supply-Chain Technology and Resources Transformation Act of 2010 WorldWideScience.org - China produces most of the world's rare earth metals DOepatents - Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

190

Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Senkov, Oleg N. (Moscow, ID)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

ALUMINUM HYDRIDE: A REVERSIBLE MATERIAL FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen storage is one of the greatest challenges for implementing the ever sought hydrogen economy. Here we report a novel cycle to reversibly form high density hydrogen storage materials such as aluminium hydride. Aluminium hydride (AlH{sub 3}, alane) has a hydrogen storage capacity of 10.1 wt% H{sub 2}, 149 kg H{sub 2}/m{sup 3} volumetric density and can be discharged at low temperatures (< 100 C). However, alane has been precluded from use in hydrogen storage systems because of the lack of practical regeneration methods; the direct hydrogenation of aluminium to form AlH{sub 3} requires over 10{sup 5} bars of hydrogen pressure at room temperature and there are no cost effective synthetic means. Here we show an unprecedented reversible cycle to form alane electrochemically, using alkali alanates (e.g. NaAlH{sub 4}, LiAlH{sub 4}) in aprotic solvents. To complete the cycle, the starting alanates can be regenerated by direct hydrogenation of the dehydrided alane and the alkali hydride being the other compound formed in the electrochemical cell. The process of forming NaAlH{sub 4} from NaH and Al is well established in both solid state and solution reactions. The use of adducting Lewis bases is an essential part of this cycle, in the isolation of alane from the mixtures of the electrochemical cell. Alane is isolated as the triethylamine (TEA) adduct and converted to pure, unsolvated alane by heating under vacuum.

Fewox, C; Ragaiy Zidan, R; Brenda Garcia-Diaz, B

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

192

Sintering of sponge and hydride-dehydride titanium powders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sintering behavior of compacts produced from sponge and hydride-dehydride (HDH) Ti powders was examined. Compacts were vacuum sintered at 1200 or 1300 deg C for 30, 60, 120, 240, 480 or 960 minutes. The porosity decreased with sintering time and/or temperature in compacts produced from the HDH powders. Compacts produced from these powders could be sintered to essentially full density. However, the sintering condition did not influence the amount of porosity present in compacts produced from the sponge powders. These samples could only be sintered to a density of 97% theoretical. The sintering behavior was attributed to the chemical impurities in the powders.

Alman, David E.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Chemical Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of 2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions, ammonia borane (AB) is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications in transportation sector. Several systems models for chemical hydride materials such as solid AB, liquid AB and alane were developed and evaluated at PNNL to determine an optimal configuration that would meet the 2010 and future DOE targets for hydrogen storage. This paper presents an overview of those systems models and discusses the simulation results for various transient drive cycle scenarios.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

194

Electrochemical process and production of novel complex hydrides  

SciTech Connect

A process of using an electrochemical cell to generate aluminum hydride (AlH.sub.3) is provided. The electrolytic cell uses a polar solvent to solubilize NaAlH.sub.4. The resulting electrochemical process results in the formation of AlH.sub.3. The AlH.sub.3 can be recovered and used as a source of hydrogen for the automotive industry. The resulting spent aluminum can be regenerated into NaAlH.sub.4 as part of a closed loop process of AlH.sub.3 generation.

Zidan, Ragaiy

2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

195

Method of generating hydrogen-storing hydride complexes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

Srinivasan, Sesha S; Niemann, Michael U; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias K

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

196

Electronic band structure and optical properties of the cubic, Sc, Y and La hydride systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electronic band structure calculations are used to interpret the optical spectra of the cubic Sc, Y and La hydride systems. Self-consistent band calculations of ScH/sub 2/ and YH/sub 2/ were carried out. The respective joint densities of states are computed and compared to the dielectric functions determined from the optical measurements. Additional calculations were performed in which the Fermi level or band gap energies are rigidly shifted by a small energy increment. These calculations are then used to simulate the derivative structure in thermomodulation spectra and relate the origin of experimental interband features to the calculated energy bands. While good systematic agreement is obtained for several spectral features, the origin of low-energy interband transitions in YH/sub 2/ cannot be explained by these calculated bands. A lattice-size-dependent premature occupation of octahedral sites by hydrogen atoms in the fcc metal lattice is suggested to account for this discrepancy. Various non-self-consistent calculations are used to examine the effect of such a premature occupation. Measurements of the optical absorptivity of LaH/sub x/ with 1.6 < x < 2.9 are presented which, as expected, indicate a more premature occupation of the octahedral sites in the larger LaH/sub 2/ lattice. These experimental results also suggest that, in contrast to recent calculations, LaH/sub 3/ is a small-band-gap semiconductor.

Peterman, D.J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Composition and cycle life of multicomponent AB{sub 5} hydride electrodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Multicomponent AB{sub 5} hydrides are attractive replacements for the cadmium electrode in nickel -- cadmium batteries. The archetype compound of the AB{sub 5} alloy class is LaNi{sub 5}, but in a typical battery electrode mischmetal is substituted for La and Ni is substituted in part by variety of metals. While the effects of Ni substitution have been widely studied, relatively little effort has focused on the effect of La substitution. This paper deals with the effect on cycle life due to the increasing presence of Ce in the alloy series La{sub 1-x}Ce{sub x}Ni{sub 3.55}Co{sub .75}Mn{sub .4}Al{sub .3}. Alloys were characterized by the determination of pressure-composition relationships, molar volume of H and electrode cycle life. The effects due to lattice expansion are taken into account. It was concluded that the rate of loss of electrochemical capacity per charge/discharge cycle was significantly decreased due to the presence of Ce.

Adzic, G.D.; Johnson, J.R.; Reilly, J.J.; McBreen, J.; Mukerjee, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Kumar, M.P.S.; Zhang, W.; Srinivasan, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Center for Electrochemical Systems and Hydrogen Research

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

A deformation and thermodynamic model for hydride precipitation kinetics in spent fuel cladding  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen is contained in the Zircaloy cladding of spent fuel rods from nuclear reactors. All the spent fuel rods placed in a nuclear waste repository will have a temperature history that decreases toward ambient; and as a result, most all of the hydrogen in the Zircaloy will eventually precipitate as zirconium hydride platelets. A model for the density of hydride platelets is a necessary sub-part for predicting Zircaloy cladding failure rate in a nuclear waste repository. A model is developed to describe statistically the hydride platelet density, and the density function includes the orientation as a physical attribute. The model applies concepts from statistical mechanics to derive probable deformation and thermodynamic functionals for cladding material response that depend explicitly on the hydride platelet density function. From this model, hydride precipitation kinetics depend on a thermodynamic potential for hydride density change and on the inner product of a stress tensor and a tensor measure for the incremental volume change due to hydride platelets. The development of a failure response model for Zircaloy cladding exposed to the expected conditions in a nuclear waste repository is supported by the US DOE Yucca Mountain Project. 19 refs., 3 figs.

Stout, R.B.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Wall pressure exerted by hydrogenation of sodium aluminum hydride.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wall pressure exerted by the bulk expansion of a sodium aluminum hydride bed was measured as a function of hydrogen content. A custom apparatus was designed and loaded with sodium alanates at densities of 1.0, 1.1, and 1.16 g/cc. Four complete cycles were performed to identify variations in measured pressure. Results indicated poor correlation between exerted pressure and hydrogen capacity of the sodium alanate beds. Mechanical pressure due to the hydrogenation of sodium alanates does not influence full-scale system designs as it falls within common design factors of safety. Gas pressure gradients within the porous solid were identified and may limit reaction rates, especially for high aspect ratio beds.

Perras, Yon E.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Zimmerman, Mark D.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Case Number:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Name of Petitioner: Name of Petitioner: Date of Filing: Case Number: Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 JUL 2 2 2009 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Appeal Dean P. Dennis March 2, 2009 TBA-0072 Dean D. Dennis filed a complaint of retaliation under the Department of Energy (DOE) Contractor Employee Protection Program, 10 C.F.R. Part 708. Mr. Dennis alleged that he engaged in protected activity and that his employer, National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec ), subsequently terminated him. An Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) Hearing Officer denied relief in Dean P. Dennis, Case No. TBH-0072, 1 and Mr. Dennis filed the instant appeal. As discussed below, the appeal is denied. I. Background The DOE established its Contractor Employee Protection Program to "safeguard public

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

JOB NUMBER  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

. . . . . . . . . .: LEAVE BLANK (NARA use only) JOB NUMBER N/-&*W- 9d - 3 DATE RECEIVED " -1s - 9 J - NOTIFICATION TOAGENCY , In accordance with the provisions of 44 U.S.C. 3303a the disposition request. including amendments, is ap roved except , . l for items that may be marke,, ,"dis osition not approved" or "withdrawn in c o i m n 10. 4. NAME OF PERSON WITH WHOM TO CONFER 5 TELEPHONE Jannie Kindred (202) 5&-333 5 - 2 -96 6 AGENCYCERTIFICATION -. ~ - I hereby certify that I am authorized to act for this agency in matters pertaining to the disposition of its records and that the records roposed for disposal are not now needed for the business of this agency or wiRnot be needed after t G t r & s s d ; and that written concurrence from

202

KPA Number  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Supports CMM-SW Level 3 Supports CMM-SW Level 3 Mapping of the DOE Information Systems Engineering Methodology to the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Software Capability Maturity Model (CMM-SW) level 3. Date: September 2002 Page 1 KPA Number KPA Activity SEM Section SEM Work Product SQSE Web site http://cio.doe.gov/sqse ORGANIZATION PROCESS FOCUS OPF-1 The software process is assessed periodically, and action plans are developed to address the assessment findings. Chapter 1 * Organizational Process Management * Process Improvement Action Plan * Methodologies ! DOE Methodologies ! SEM OPF-2 The organization develops and maintains a plan for its software process development and improvement activities. Chapter 1 * Organizational Process Management * Process Improvement

203

Model for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel Claddings: A Status Report on Current Model Capabilities Model for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel Claddings: A Status Report on Current Model Capabilities The report demonstrates a meso-scale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride precipitation in the cladding of used fuels during long-term dry-storage. While the Zr-based claddings (regarded as a barrier for containment of radioactive fission products and fuel) are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service in the reactor. The amount of hydrogen that the cladding picks up is primarily a function of the exact chemistry and microstructure of the claddings and reactor operating conditions, time-temperature history, and

204

Development of lightweight hydrides. Annual task report, August 1978-September 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of the first years effort to develop lightweight hydrides for automotive storage of hydrogen are described. A test fixture to subject a magnesium alloy hydride to hundreds of hydriding cycles has been designed and is being constructed. Extensive testing of the magnesium lithium and magnesium aluminum alloy hydrides has been performed. Several alloys demonstrate significantly higher hydrogen dissociation pressures than the baseline alloy Mg/sub 2/Ni-Mg. No alloy has yet demonstrated one atmosphere of hydrogen pressure at the goal temperature of 200/sup 0/C. Hydrogen capacity varies greatly with alloy composition. Alloys with high dissociation pressures have hydrogen capacities up to 3.6% by weight. Plans include the reduction of aluminum content in the alloys to increase the hydrogen capacity.

Rohy, D.A.; Nachman, J.F.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Wednesday, 29 May 2013 00:00 Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

206

Postirradiation examination of Pressure Tubes 2755 and 1054 Part 1: Dimensional, hydride, inner surface defects, and corrosion measurements: Addendum 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This addendum is issued to document additional postirradiation examinations that were conducted on Pressure Tubes 2755 and 1054 for evaluation of inner surface defects, corrosion and hydride measurements.

Chastain, S.A.; Trimble, D.J.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

THE STABILITY AND REVERSIBILITY OF METALLIC BOROHYDRIDES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In effort to develop reversible metallic borohydrides with high hydrogen storage capacity and low dehydriding temperature, several new materials have been synthesized by modifying LiBH{sub 4} with various metal halides and hydrides. The investigation shows that the halide modification effectively reduced the dehydriding temperature through ion exchange interaction. The effective halides are TiCl{sub 3}, TiF{sub 3}, ZnF{sub 2} and AlF{sub 3}. The material LiBH{sub 4}+0.1TiF{sub 3} desorbs 3.5wt% and 8.5wt% hydrogen at 150 C and 450 C respectively. It re-absorbed 6wt% hydrogen at 500 C and 70 bar after dehydrogenation. The XRD of the rehydrided samples confirmed the formation of LiBH{sub 4}. It indicates that the materials are reversible at the conditions given. However, a number of other halides: MgF{sub 2}, MgCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2}, SrCl{sub 2} and FeCl{sub 3}, did not reduce dehydriding temperature of LiBH{sub 4} significantly. TGA-RGA analysis indicated that some halide modified lithium borohydrides such as LiBH{sub 4}+0.1ZnF{sub 2} evolved diborane during dehydrogenation, but some did not such as LiBH{sub 4}+0.1TiCl{sub 3}. The formation of diborane caused unrecoverable capacity loss resulting in irreversibility. It is suggested that the lithium borohydrides modified by the halides containing the metals that can not form metal borides with boron are likely to evolve diborane during dehydriding. It was discovered that halide modification reduces sensitivity of LiBH{sub 4}. The materials such as LiBH{sub 4}+0.1TiCl{sub 3} and LiBH{sub 4}+0.5TiCl{sub 3} can be handled in open air without visible reaction.

Au, M

2007-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

208

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

209

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

210

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

211

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

212

An Electrolytic Method to Form Zirconium Hydride Phases in Zirconium Alloys with Morphologies Similar to Hydrides Formed in Used Nuclear Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An electrolytic cell was designed, built, and tested with several proof-of-concept experiments in which Zircaloy material was charged with hydrogen in order to generate zirconium hydride formations. The Electrolytic Charging with Hydrogen and a Thermal Gradient (ECH-TG) system has the ability to generate static 20C to 120C temperatures for a H2SO4 and H2O bath for isothermal experiment conditions. This system was designed to accommodate a molten salt bath in future experiments to achieve higher isothermal temperatures. Additionally, the design accommodates a cartridge heater, which when placed on the inside of the sample tube, can be set at temperatures up to 350 C and create a thermal gradient across the sample. Finally, a custom LABVIEW VI, L2.vi, was developed to control components and record data during experimentation. This program, along with web cameras and the commercial StirPC software package, enables remote operation for extended periods of time with only minor maintenance during an experiment. While proving the concept for this design, 19 experiments where performed, which form the basis for a future parametric study. Initial results indicate formations of zirconium hydrides which formed rim structures between 8.690 +/- 0.982 ?m and 12.365 +/- 0.635 ?m thick. These electrolytically produced rims were compared with hydrides formed under a previous vapor diffusion experiment via Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) imaging and Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. While the existing vapor diffusion method formed gradients of zirconium hydride, it failed to produce the gradient in the correct direction and also failed to create a hydride rim. The successful use of the ECH-TG system to create said rim, and some of the methods used to direct that rim to the OD of the tube can be used for future work with the vapor diffusion method in order to create zirconium hydrides of the correct geometry. The procedures and apparatus created for this project represent a reliable method for creating zirconium hydride rim structures.

Kuhr, Samuel Houston

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

The affect of erbium hydride on the conversion efficience to accelerated protons from ultra-shsort pulse laser irradiated foils  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This thesis work explores, experimentally, the potential gains in the conversion efficiency from ultra-intense laser light to proton beams using erbium hydride coatings. For years, it has been known that contaminants at the rear surface of an ultra-intense laser irradiated thin foil will be accelerated to multi-MeV. Inertial Confinement Fusion fast ignition using proton beams as the igniter source requires of about 10{sup 16} protons with an average energy of about 3MeV. This is far more than the 10{sup 12} protons available in the contaminant layer. Target designs must include some form of a hydrogen rich coating that can be made thick enough to support the beam requirements of fast ignition. Work with computer simulations of thin foils suggest the atomic mass of the non-hydrogen atoms in the surface layer has a strong affect on the conversion efficiency to protons. For example, the 167amu erbium atoms will take less energy away from the proton beam than a coating using carbon with a mass of 12amu. A pure hydrogen coating would be ideal, but technologically is not feasible at this time. In the experiments performed for my thesis, ErH{sub 3} coatings on 5 {micro}m gold foils are compared with typical contaminants which are approximately equivalent to CH{sub 1.7}. It will be shown that there was a factor of 1.25 {+-} 0.19 improvement in the conversion efficiency for protons above 3MeV using erbium hydride using the Callisto laser. Callisto is a 10J per pulse, 800nm wavelength laser with a pulse duration of 200fs and can be focused to a peak intensity of about 5 x 10{sup 19}W/cm{sup 2}. The total number of protons from either target type was on the order of 10{sup 10}. Furthermore, the same experiment was performed on the Titan laser, which has a 500fs pulse duration, 150J of energy and can be focused to about 3 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. In this experiment 10{sup 12} protons were seen from both erbium hydride and contaminants on 14 {micro} m gold foils. Significant improvements were also observed but possibly because of the depletion of hydrogen in the contaminant layer case.

Offermann, D

2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

214

Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition  

SciTech Connect

Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures or organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides, e.g., transition metal carbonyl such as nickel carbonyl, and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit.

Mullendore, Arthur W. (Sandia Park, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

The Absorption of Hydrogen on Low Pressure Hydride Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Planar Sodium Metal Halide Battery for Renewable Integration and Grid ... Progress on Technology of Redox Flow Battery and Its Application in China.

216

Glossary Term - Atomic Number  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Particle Previous Term (Alpha Particle) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Avogadro's Number) Avogadro's Number Atomic Number Silver's atomic number is 47 The atomic number is equal to...

217

Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Two Wheeler with on-board Metal Hydride Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in India and China as compared to worldwide averages (Tables 1, 2). While the growth rate of renewable. The eventual goal is to fuel the vehicle with domestically produced renewable hydrogen. Renewable hydrogen can of renewable energy sources is very limited and needs to be aggressively increased. This will help combat

218

Light-Metal Hydrides as Novel Conversion Mateirals for Li-ion ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the phase diagram as a function of lithium chemical potential and ... 3D Nanostructured Bicontinuous Electrodes: Path to Ultra-High Power and Energy ... The Electrochemical Flow Capacitor for Efficient Grid-Scale Energy Storage.

219

Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to energy-efficient windows Andr Anders, Jonathan L. Slack,to electrochromic windows for vehicles and buildings [1].in conventional electrochromic windows because of its high

Anders, Andre

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Characterization and High Throughput Analysis of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

L. Schlapbach, Ed. , Hydrogen as a Future Energy Carrier .M.S. Dresselhaus, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 33 (2008) 4122-Kojima, T. Haga, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 28 9 (2003) 989-993

Barcelo, Steven James

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Characterization and High Throughput Analysis of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

low volume, energy efficient hydrogen storage system if fuelof Energy (DOE) for on-board hydrogen storage. However,hydrogen storage system as defined by the Department of Energy.

Barcelo, Steven James

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Metal Aminoboranes  

Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be ...

223

Development of encapsulated lithium hydride thermal energy storage for space power systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Inclusion of thermal energy storage in a pulsed space power supply will reduce the mass of the heat rejection system. In this mode, waste heat generated during the brief high-power burst operation is placed in the thermal store; later, the heat in the store is dissipated to space via the radiator over the much longer nonoperational period of the orbit. Thus, the radiator required is of significantly smaller capacity. Scoping analysis indicates that use of lithium hydride as the thermal storage medium results in system mass reduction benefits for burst periods as long as 800 s. A candidate design for the thermal energy storage component utilizes lithium hydride encapsulated in either 304L stainless steel or molybdenum in a packed-bed configuration with a lithium or sodium-potassium (NaK) heat transport fluid. Key issues associated with the system design include phase-change induced stresses in the shell, lithium hydride and shell compatibility, lithium hydride dissociation and hydrogen loss from the system, void presence and movement associated with the melt-freeze process, and heat transfer limitations on obtaining the desired energy storage density. 58 refs., 40 figs., 11 tabs.

Morris, D.G.; Foote, J.P.; Olszewski, M.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Internal hydriding in irradiated defected Zircaloy fuel rods: A review (LWBR Development Program)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Although not a problem in recent commercial power reactors, including the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor, internal hydriding of Zircaloy cladding was a persistent cause of gross cladding failures during the 1960s. It occurred in the fuel rods of water-cooled nuclear power reactors that had a small cladding defect. This report summarizes the experimental findings, causes, mechanisms, and methods of minimizing internal hydriding in defected Zircaloy-clad fuel rods. Irradiation test data on the different types of defected fuel rods, intentionally fabricated defected and in-pile operationally defected rods, are compared. Significant factors affecting internal hydriding in defected Zircaloy-clad fuel rods (defect hole size, internal and external sources of hydrogen, Zircaloy cladding surface properties, nickel alloy contamination of Zircaloy, the effect of heat flux and fluence) are discussed. Pertinent in-pile and out-of-pile test results from Bettis and other laboratories are used as a data base in constructing a qualitative model which explains hydrogen generation and distribution in Zircaloy cladding of defected water-cooled reactor fuel rods. Techniques for minimizing internal hydride failures in Zircaloy-clad fuel rods are evaluated.

Clayton, J C

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Model for the Prediction of the Hydriding Thermodynamics of Pd-Rh-Co Ternary Alloys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A dilute solution model (with respect to the substitutional alloying elements) has been developed, which accurately predicts the hydride formation and decomposition thermodynamics and the storage capacities of dilute ternary Pd-Rh-Co alloys. The effect of varying the rhodium and cobalt compositions on the thermodynamics of hydride formation and decomposition and hydrogen capacity of several palladium-rhodium-cobalt ternary alloys has been investigated using pressure-composition (PC) isotherms. Alloying in the dilute regime (<10 at.%) causes the enthalpy for hydride formation to linearly decrease with increasing alloying content. Cobalt has a stronger effect on the reduction in enthalpy than rhodium for equivalent alloying amounts. Also, cobalt reduces the hydrogen storage capacity with increasing alloying content. The plateau thermodynamics are strongly linked to the lattice parameters of the alloys. A near-linear dependence of the enthalpy of hydride formation on the lattice parameter was observed for both the binary Pd-Rh and Pd-Co alloys, as well as for the ternary Pd-Rh-Co alloys. The Pd-5Rh-3Co (at. %) alloy was found to have similar plateau thermodynamics as a Pd-10Rh alloy, however, this ternary alloy had a diminished hydrogen storage capacity relative to Pd-10Rh.

Teter, D.F.; Thoma, D.J.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Lithium hydride and lithium amide for hydrogen storage J. Engbk, G. Nielsen, I. Chorkendorff  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lithium hydride and lithium amide for hydrogen storage J. Engbæk, G. Nielsen, I. Chorkendorff 1 interest. Lithium amid has a high hydrogen storage capability; 10.4wt.% hydrogen. In this study surface reactions of thin films of lithium with hydrogen and ammonia is studied under well controlled conditions

Mosegaard, Klaus

227

STANDARDIZED TESTING PROGRAM FOR EMERGENT CHEMICAL HYDRIDE AND CARBON STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydride/carbon hydrogen storage systems. The development of a standardized protocol and testing system to an urgent need for accelerated development of hydrogen storage systems. In vehicular applications, hydrogen storage and distribution presents the greatest challenge in creating the hydrogen fuel infrastructure

228

Glossary Term - Avogadro's Number  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atomic Number Previous Term (Atomic Number) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Beta Decay) Beta Decay Avogadro's Number Avogadro's number is the number of particles in one mole of a...

229

Effect of Gaseous Impurities on Long-Term Thermal Cycling and Aging Properties of Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program was dedicated to understanding the effect of impurities on Long-Term Thermal Cycling and aging properties of Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage. At the start of the program we found reversibility between Li2NH+LiH ? LiH+LiNH2 (yielding ~5.8 wt.%H capacity). Then we tested the effect of impurity in H2 gas by pressure cycling at 255oC; first with industrial gas containing ppm levels of O2 and H2O as major impurities. Both these impurities had a significant impact on the reversibility and decreased the capacity by 2.65 wt.%H. Further increase in number of cycles from 500 to 1100 showed only a 0.2 wt%H more weight loss, showing some capacity is still maintained after a significant number of cycles. The loss of capacity is attributed to the formation of ~55 wt% LiH and ~30% Li2O, as major contaminant phases, along with the hydride Li2NH phase; suggesting loss of nitrogen during cycling. The effect of 100 ppm H2O in H2 also showed a decrease of ~2.5 wt.%H (after 560 cycles), and 100ppm O2 in H2; a loss of ~4.1 wt.%. Methane impurity (100 ppm, 100cycles), showed a very small capacity loss of 0.9 wt.%H under similar conditions. However, when Li3N was pressure cycled with 100ppmN2-H2 there were beneficial effects were observed (255oC); the reversible capacity increased to 8.4wt.%H after 853 cycles. Furthermore, with 20 mol.%N2-H2 capacity increased to ~10 wt.%H after 516 cycles. We attribute this enhancement to the reaction of nitrogen with liquid lithium during cycling as the Gibbs free energy of formation of Li3N (?Go = -98.7 kJ/mol) is more negative than that of LiH (?Go = -50.3 kJ/mol). We propose that the mitigation of hydrogen capacity losses is due to the destabilization of the LiH phase that tends to accumulate during cycling. Also more Li2NH phase was found in the cycled product. Mixed Alanates (3LiNH2:Li3AlH6) showed that 7 wt% hydrogen desorbed under dynamic vacuum. Equilibrium experiments (maximum 12 bar H2) showed up to 4wt% hydrogen reversibly stored in the material after the first desorption. The activation energy was found to be 51 kJ/mol, as compared to 81 kJ/mol for pure lithium alanate. It is proposed that based on the data obtained and CALPHAD modeling that the improvement in cycling is due to the formation of pure lithium (liquid at 255oC), which is able to react with nitrogen specifically forming Li3N. The presence of nitrogen in the 80/20 molar mixtures in a hydride bed along with hydrogen causes Li to form Li3N rather than LiH, and subsequently regenerates the Li2NH phase and yields a ~10 wt.%H reversibly.

Chandra, Dhanesh (Primary Contact); Lamb, Joshua; Chien, Wen-Ming; Talekar, Anjali; and Pal, Narendra.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

230

Thermal analysis of uranium zirconium hydride fuel using a lead-bismuth gap at LWR operating temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Next generation nuclear technology calls for more advanced fuels to maximize the effectiveness of new designs. A fuel currently being studied for use in advanced light water reactors (LWRs) is uranium zirconium hydride ...

Ensor, Brendan M. (Brendan Melvin)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Role of electronic, geometric, and surface properties on the mechanism of the electrochemical hydriding/dehydriding reactions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Since 1990 there has been an ongoing collaboration among the authors to investigate the role of individual elements on the thermodynamics and kinetics of hydriding/dehydriding reactions. This review article presents the electrochemical and physicochemical characteristics of hydriding/dehydriding reactions from the point of view of their dependence on electronic, geometric and surface properties of the hydride materials. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) and scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) studies were based on AB{sub 5} type alloys, partially substituted by other elements. Expansion of the unit cell volume and a larger Ni d band vacancy are beneficial for increasing the amount of the hydrogen storage. XAS and SVET showed that the Ce substitution for La in an AB{sub 5} alloy enhances the lifetime of hydride electrode.

Srinivasan, S.; Zhang, W.; Kumar, M.P.S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Texas Engineering Experiment Station] [and others

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Process for production of an aluminum hydride compound  

SciTech Connect

A compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y, wherein R.sup.1 is phenyl substituted by at least one of: (i) an alkoxy group having from one to six carbon atoms; and (ii) an alkyl group having from three to twelve carbon atoms; wherein M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg; and y is one or two.

Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Miller, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

233

Metal Aminoboranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Metal Aminoboranes Metal Aminoboranes Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. June 25, 2013 Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Metal Aminoboranes Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit. U.S. Patent No.: 7,713,506 (DOE S-112,798)

234

Aluminum Hydride - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Jason Graetz (Primary Contact), James Wegrzyn Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Building 815 Upton, NY 11973 Phone: (631) 344-3242 Email: graetz@bnl.gov DOE Manager HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov Project Start Date: October 1, 2011 Project End Date: Project continuation and direction determined annually by DOE Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Develop onboard vehicle storage systems using aluminum hydride that meets all of DOE's targets for proton exchange membrane fuel cell vehicles. Produce aluminum hydride material with a hydrogen * storage capacity greater than 9.7% gravimetric (kg-H 2 /kg) and 0.13 kg-H 2 /L volumetric. Develop practical and economical processes for *

235

Pressure Acceleration of Hydride Formation on a Cobalt(I) Macrocycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pressure Acceleration of Hydride Formation via Pressure Acceleration of Hydride Formation via Proton Binding to a Cobalt(I) Macrocycle Etsuko Fujita, James F. Wishart, and Rudi van Eldik Inorg. Chem. 41, 1579-1583 (2002) [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: The effect of pressure on proton binding to the racemic isomer of the cobalt(I) macrocycle, CoL+ (L = 5,7,7,12,14,14-hexamethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradeca-4,11-diene), has been studied for a series of proton donors using pulse radiolysis techniques. The second-order rate constants for the reaction of CoL+ with proton donors decrease with increasing pKa of the donor acid, consistent with a reaction occurring via proton transfer. Whereas the corresponding volumes of activation (DVý) are rather small and negative for all acids (proton donors) with pKa values below 8.5, significantly larger negative

236

Method to predict relative hydriding within a group of zirconium alloys under nuclear irradiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An out-of-reactor method for screening to predict relative in-reactor hydriding behavior of zirconium-based materials is disclosed. Samples of zirconium-based materials having different compositions and/or fabrication methods are autoclaved in a relatively concentrated (0.3 to 1.0M) aqueous lithium hydroxide solution at constant temperatures within the water reactor coolant temperature range (280 to 316 C). Samples tested by this out-of-reactor procedure, when compared on the basis of the ratio of hydrogen weight gain to oxide weight gain, accurately predict the relative rate of hydriding for the same materials when subject to in-reactor (irradiated) corrosion. 1 figure.

Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Levy, I.S.; Trimble, D.J.; Lanning, D.D.; Gerber, F.S.

1990-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

237

Systems Modeling, Simulation and Material Operating Requirements for Chemical Hydride Based Hydrogen Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research on ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) has shown it to be a promising material for chemical hydride based hydrogen storage. AB was selected by DOE's Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) as the initial chemical hydride of study because of its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of {approx}2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions. A new systems concept based on augers, ballast tank, hydrogen heat exchanger and H2 burner was designed and implemented in simulation. In this design, the chemical hydride material was assumed to produce H2 on the augers itself, thus minimizing the size of ballast tank and reactor. One dimensional models based on conservation of mass, species and energy were used to predict important state variables such as reactant and product concentrations, temperatures of various components, flow rates, along with pressure, in various components of the storage system. Various subsystem components in the models were coded as C language S-functions and implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment. The control variable AB (or alane) flow rate was determined through a simple expression based on the ballast tank pressure, H2 demand from the fuel cell and hydrogen production from AB (or alane) in the reactor. System simulation results for solid AB, liquid AB and alane for both steady state and transient drive cycle cases indicate the usefulness of the model for further analysis and prototype development.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Method for the prediction of the hydriding thermodynamics of ternary PD-based alloys.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method has been developed to calculate the hydriding thermodynamics of ternary Pd-X-Y systems, where X and Y are substitutional alloying elements, by using the properties of the binary Pd-X and Pd-Y systems. Experimental data was collected on the Pd-Rh-Co system to test the validity of this method. Hydrogen pressure-composition isotherms of several binary Pd-Rh and Pd-Co alloys and Pd-Rh-Co ternary alloys were measured to determine the thermodynamics of hydrogen absorption, hydride formation and decomposition, and hydrogen capacity. Good agreement between the calculated and measured values for the ternary Pd-Rh-Co system, in the dilute alloying regime (< 10 at.% total alloying additions), was obtained using our method. Examining literature results on other ternary Pd-X-Y systems checked the universality of this method. Again, the method succeeds in predicting the hydriding thermodynamics for both lattice contracted and lattice expanded alloy systems, Pd-Ni-Rh and Pd-Ag-Y respectively.

Teter, D. F. (David F.); Mauro, M. E. (Michael Ernest)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Metal Matrix Microencapsulated (M3) fuel neutronics performance in PWRs  

SciTech Connect

Metal Matrix Microencapsulated (M3) fuel consists of TRISO or BISO coated fuel particles directly dispersed in a matrix of zirconium metal to form a solid rod (Fig. 1). In this integral fuel concept the cladding tube and the failure mechanisms associated with it have been eliminated. In this manner pellet-clad-interactions (PCI), thin tube failure due to oxidation and hydriding, and tube pressurization and burst will be absent. M3 fuel, given the high stiffness of the integral rod design, could as well improve grid-to-rod wear behavior. Overall M3 fuel, compared to existing fuel designs, is expected to provide greatly improved operational performance. Multiple barriers to fission product release (ceramic coating layers in the coated fuel particle and te metal matrix) and the high thermal conductivity zirconium alloy metal matrix contribute to the enhancement in fuel behavior. The discontinuous nature of fissile material encapsulated in coated particles provides additional assistance; for instance if the M3 fuel rod is snapped into multiple pieces, only the limited number of fuel particles at the failure cross section are susceptible to release fission products. This is in contrast to the conventional oxide fuel where the presence of a small opening in the cladding provides the pathway for release of the entire inventory of fission products from the fuel rod. While conventional metal fuels (e.g. U-Zr and U-Mo) are typically expected to experience large swelling under irradiation due to the high degree of damage from fission fragments and introduction of fission gas into the lattice, this is not the case for M3 fuels. The fissile portion of the fuel is contained within the coated particle where enough room is available to accommodate fission gases and kernel swelling. The zirconium metal matrix will not be exposed to fission products and its swelling is known to be very limited when exposed solely to neutrons. Under design basis RIA and LOCA, fuel performance will be superior to the conventional oxide fuel since PCMI and rod burst, respectively, have been mitigated. Under beyond design basis accident scenarios where the fuel is exposed to high temperature steam for prolonged periods, larger inventory of zirconium metal in the core could negatively affect the accident progression. A thin steam resistant layer (e.g. alumina forming alloy steel), integrated into the solid rod during fabrication by co-extrusion or hot-isostatic-pressing, offers the potential to provide additional fuel protection from steam interaction: blanketing under a range of boiling regimes and under severe accident conditions up to high temperatures well beyond what is currently possible in the conventional fuel. A crucial aspect to the viability of M3 fuel in light water reactors is the reduced heavy metal load compared to standard pellet fuel. This study evaluated the design requirements to operate a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) with M3 fuel in order to obtain fuel cycle length, reactivity coefficients, and power peaking factors comparable to that of standard fuel.

Fratoni, Massimiliano [Pennsylvania State University; Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Gaussian random number generators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rapid generation of high quality Gaussian random numbers is a key capability for simulations across a wide range of disciplines. Advances in computing have brought the power to conduct simulations with very large numbers of random numbers and with it, ... Keywords: Gaussian, Random numbers, normal, simulation

David B. Thomas; Wayne Luk; Philip H.W. Leong; John D. Villasenor

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Postirradiation examination of pressure tubes 2954 and 3053: Corrosion, hydriding and fluence measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pressure Tubes 2954 and 3053 were removed from N Reactor in March 1987 for postirradiation examinations (PIE) including hydriding, corrosion, fluence and mechanical property measurements. The results of the corrosion, hydriding, and fluence measurements are the subject of this report. These data will be used to evaluate the trends in corrosion and hydriding behavior which are important to the structural integrity of these tubes. The trend evaluations as well as the mechanical property data are or will be reported elsewhere. Both tubes operated at high power accumulating 101,800 hours of service since reactor startup in 1964. Fabricated by the Harvey Aluminum Company, Tube 2954 was cold drawn to 30% reduction of area as were 86% of the reactor tubes. Tube 3053 was also a Harvey Tube but was cold worked 18% representing 2.5% of the reactor tubes. Corrosion measurements were made from metallographic sections. The inner surface oxide thickness peaks at 2 to 5 ft downstream of the center of the fueled zone. This profile is typical of previous examined N Reactor pressure tubes. The maximum measured oxide thickness on tube 2954 was 64 microns, 17% greater than for tubes removed in 1984. The corrosion product hydrogen that is absorbed by the tube has distribution gradients in the azimuthal, axial, and radial directions. Radical surveys confirmed previous observations that most of the hydrogen is concentrated near the tube ID surfaces. For Tubes 2954 and 3053, 50% to 80% of the hydrogen is found in 20% of the tube wall. The radial as well as the azimuthal gradients are caused by thermal gradients in the tubes, with the hydrogen redistributing to the cooler parts of the tube wall. 6 refs., 50 figs., 2 tabs.

Chastain, S.A.; Trimble, D.J.; Boyd, S.M.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Quantum Random Number Generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... trusted beacon of random numbers. You could conduct secure auctions, or certify randomized audits of data. One of the most ...

2013-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

243

Thermodynamics and kinetics of ceramic/metal interfacial interactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ceramic/metal interfaces occur in a great number of important applications, such as ceramic/metal composites, microelectronics packaging, ceramic/metal seals, and so forth. Understanding the formation and evolution of such ...

Arryave, Raymundo, 1975-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Thermodynamic Guidelines for the Prediction of Hydrogen Storage Reactions and Their Application to Destabillzed Hydride Mixtures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermodynamic guidelines for the prediction of hydrogen Thermodynamic guidelines for the prediction of hydrogen storage reactions and their application to destabilized hydride mixtures Hydrogen Storage & Nanoscale Modeling Group Ford Motor Company Don Siegel dsiegel2@ford.com Phys. Rev. B 76, 134102 (2007) 1 Acknowledgements C. Wolverton V. Ozolins Computation Northwestern UCLA J. Yang A. Sudik Experiments Ford Ford 2 Computational Methodology * Atomistic computer simulations based on quantum mechanics (Density Functional Theory) * First-principles approach: - Only empirical input are crystal structure and fundamental physical constants - VASP code - PAW potentials - PW91 GGA - Temperature-dependent thermodynamic contributions evaluated within harmonic approximation * "Direct method" for construction of dynamical matrix

245

An apparatus for studies of hydrogen isotope exchange over metals using laser-Raman spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An apparatus that uses laser-Raman spectroscopy measures the dynamic gas composition and pressure of mixed hydrogen isotopes as they exchange over hydride-forming metals or alloys. Data for the exchange of protium and deuterium over ZrCo alloy at 260{degree}C indicate that this alloy begins exchanging at temperatures only slightly above room temperature and rapidly and completely exchanges at the higher temperature. The method is suitable for studies of bulk hydrogen/metal interactions. 10 refs., 3 figs.

Carstens, D.H.W.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Light Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alternative processes; Anode design and operation; Cell fundamentals and ... Hot-rolling technologies; Deformation of materials; Primary metal production.

247

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FOR THE ISOTOPIC EXCHANGE OF A 1600 LITER TITANIUM HYDRIDE STORAGE VESSEL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Titanium is used as a low pressure tritium storage material. The absorption/desorption rates and temperature rise during air passivation have been reported previously for a 4400 gram prototype titanium hydride storage vessel (HSV). A desorption limit of roughly 0.25 Q/M was obtained when heating to 700 C which represents a significant residual tritium process vessel inventory. To prepare an HSV for disposal, batchwise isotopic exchange has been proposed to reduce the tritium content to acceptable levels. A prototype HSV was loaded with deuterium and exchanged with protium to determine the effectiveness of a batch-wise isotopic exchange process. A total of seven exchange cycles were performed. Gas samples were taken nominally at the beginning, middle, and end of each desorption cycle. Sample analyses showed the isotopic exchange process does not follow the standard dilution model commonly reported. Samples taken at the start of the desorption process were lower in deuterium (the gas to be removed) than those taken later in the desorption cycle. The results are explained in terms of incomplete mixing of the exchange gas in the low pressure hydride.

Klein, J.

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

248

METHOD FOR PRODUCING ISOTOPIC METHANES FROM LITHIUM CARBONATE AND LITHIUM HYDRIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is descrlbed for the production of methane and for the production of methane containing isotopes of hydrogen and/or carbon. Finely divided lithium hydrlde and litldum carbonate reactants are mixed in intimate contact and subsequently compacted under pressures of from 5000 to 60,000 psl. The compacted lithium hydride and lithium carbenate reactunts are dispised in a gas collecting apparatus. Subsequently, the compact is heated to a temperature in the range 350 to 400 deg C whereupon a solid-solid reaction takes place and gaseous methane is evolved. The evolved methane is contaminated with gaseous hydrogen and a very small amount of CO/sub 2/; however, the desired methane product is separated from sald impurities by well known chemical processes, e.g., condensation in a cold trap. The product methane contalns isotopes of carbon and hydrogen, the Isotopic composition being determined by the carbon isotopes originally present In the lithium carbonate and the hydrogen isotopes originally present in the lithium hydride.

Frazer, J.W.

1959-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

249

ALUMINUM HYDRIDE, A1H3, AS A HYDROGEN STORAGE COMPOUND.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Aluminum hydride is a covalent, binary hydride that has been known for more than 60 years and is an attractive medium for on-board automotive hydrogen storage, since it contains 10.1% by wt. hydrogen with a density of 1.48 g/ml. There are at least 7 non-solvated AlH{sub 3} phases, namely {alpha}, {alpha}{prime}, {beta}, {gamma}, {var_epsilon} and {zeta}. The properties of {alpha}-AlH{sub 3}, obtained from the Dow Chemical Co. in 1980, have been previously reported. Here we present a description of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of freshly prepared {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} phases of AlH{sub 3}. In all cases the decomposition kinetics are appreciable below 100 C and all will meet the DOE 2010 gravimetric and volumetric vehicular system targets (6 wt% H{sub 2} and 0.045 kg/L). However, further research will be required to develop an efficient and economical process to regenerate AlH{sub 3} from the spent Al powder.

GRAETZ, J.; REILLY, J.; SANDROCK, G.; JOHNSON, J.; ZHOU, W.M.; WEGRZYN, J.

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

250

Hydride transfer made easy in the oxidation of alcohols catalyzed by choline oxidase  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Choline oxidase (E.C. 1.1.3.17) catalyzes the two-step, four-electron oxidation of choline to glycine betaine with betaine aldehyde as enzyme-associated intermediate and molecular oxygen as final electron acceptor (Scheme 1). The gem-diol, hydrated species of the aldehyde intermediate of the reaction acts as substrate for aldehyde oxidation, suggesting that the enzyme may use similar strategies for the oxidation of the alcohol substrate and aldehyde intermediate. The determination of the chemical mechanism for alcohol oxidation has emerged from biochemical, mechanistic, mutagenetic, and structural studies. As illustrated in the mechanism of Scheme 2, the alcohol substrate is initially activated in the active site of the enzyme by removal of the hydroxyl proton. The resulting alkoxide intermediate is then stabilized in the enzyme-substrate complex via electrostatic interactions with active site amino acid residues. Alcohol oxidation then occurs quantum mechanically via the transfer of the hydride ion from the activated substrate to the N(5) flavin locus. An essential requisite for this mechanism of alcohol oxidation is the high degree of preorganization of the activated enzyme-substrate complex, which is achieved through an internal equilibrium of the Michaelis complex occurring prior to, and independently from, the subsequent hydride transfer reaction. The experimental evidence that support the mechanism for alcohol oxidation shown in Scheme 2 is briefly summarized in the Results and Discussion section.

Gadda, G.; Orville, A.; Pennati, A.; Francis, K.; Quaye, O.; Yuan, H.; Rungsrisuriyachai, K.; Finnegan, S.; Mijatovic, S.; Nguyen, T.

2008-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

251

Rapid hydrogen gas generation using reactive thermal decomposition of uranium hydride.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oxygen gas injection has been studied as one method for rapidly generating hydrogen gas from a uranium hydride storage system. Small scale reactors, 2.9 g UH{sub 3}, were used to study the process experimentally. Complimentary numerical simulations were used to better characterize and understand the strongly coupled chemical and thermal transport processes controlling hydrogen gas liberation. The results indicate that UH{sub 3} and O{sub 2} are sufficiently reactive to enable a well designed system to release gram quantities of hydrogen in {approx} 2 seconds over a broad temperature range. The major system-design challenge appears to be heat management. In addition to the oxidation tests, H/D isotope exchange experiments were performed. The rate limiting step in the overall gas-to-particle exchange process was found to be hydrogen diffusion in the {approx}0.5 {mu}m hydride particles. The experiments generated a set of high quality experimental data; from which effective intra-particle diffusion coefficients can be inferred.

Kanouff, Michael P.; Van Blarigan, Peter; Robinson, David B.; Shugard, Andrew D.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Buffleben, George M.; James, Scott Carlton; Mills, Bernice E.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Mechanical Behavior Studies of Depleted Uranium in the Presence of Hydrides  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project addresses critical issues related to aging in the presence of hydrides (UH{sub 3}) in DU and the subsequent effect on mechanical behavior. Rolled DU specimens with three different hydrogen concentrations and the as-rolled condition were studied. The texture measurements indicate that the hydrogen charging is affecting the initial as-rolled DU microstructure/texture. The macroscopic mechanical behavior suggests the existence of a threshold between the 0 wpmm H and 0.3 wppm H conditions. A VPSC simulation of the macroscopic strain-stress behavior, when taking into account only a texture effect, shows no agreement with the experiment. This suggests that the macroscopic mechanical behavior observed is indeed due to the presence of hydrogen/hydrides in the DU bulk. From the lattice strain variation it can be concluded that the hydrogen is affecting the magnitude and/or the nature of CRSS. The metallography indicates the specimens that underwent the hydrogen charging process, developed large grains and twinning, which were enhanced by the presence of hydrogen. Further studies using electron microscopy and modeling will be conducted to learn about the deformation mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior.

Garlea, E.; Morrell, J. S.; Bridges, R. L.; Powell, G. L.; Brown, d. W.; Sisneros, T. A.; Tome, C. N.; Vogel, S. C.

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

253

RL-721 Document ID Number:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4 4 NEPA REVIEW SCREENING FORM DOE/CX-00075 I. Project Title: Project 1-718, Electrical Utili ties Transformer Management Support Facility II. Project Description and Location (including Time Period over which proposed action will occur and Project Dimensions -e.g., acres displaced/disturbed, excavation length/depth, area/location/number of buildings, etc.): The proposed action includes design, procurement, and construction of a pre-engineered metal building for transformer management; including inspections, routine maintenance, testing, refurbishing, and disposition of excess transformers. The building will be constructed in the previously disturbed, gravel-covered electrical utilities lay-down yard west of the 2101-M Building in 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The building footprint

254

Sub-Nanostructured Non Transition Metal Complex Grids for Hydrogen Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project involved growing sub-nanostructured metal grids to increase dynamic hydrogen storage capacity of metal hydride systems. The nano particles of any material have unique properties unlike its bulk form. Nano-structuring metal hydride materials can result in: {sm_bullet}Increased hydrogen molecule dissociation rate, {sm_bullet} Increased hydrogen atom transport rate, {sm_bullet} Decreased decrepitation caused by cycling, {sm_bullet} Increased energy transfer in the metal matrix, {sm_bullet} Possible additional contribution by physical adsorption, and {sm_bullet} Possible additional contribution by quantum effects The project succeeded in making nano-structured palladium using electrochemical growth in templates including zeolites, mesoporous silica, polycarbonate films and anodized alumina. Other metals were used to fine-tune the synthesis procedures. Palladium was chosen to demonstrate the effects of nano-structuring since its bulk hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics are well known. Reduced project funding was not sufficient for complete characterization of these materials for hydrogen storage application. The project team intends to seek further funding in the future to complete the characterization of these materials for hydrogen storage.

Dr. Orhan Talu; Dr. Surendra N. Tewari

2007-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

255

Texas Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) Texas Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Texas Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of...

256

Review of Uranium Hydriding and Dehydriding Rate Models in GOTH_SNF for Spent Fuel MCO Calculations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present report is one of a series of three. The series provides an independent technical review of certain aspects of the GOTH_SNF code that is used for accident analysis of the multicanister overpack (MCO) that is proposed for permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel in the planned repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The work documented in the present report and its two companions was done under the auspices of the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program. The other reports in the series are DOE/SNF/REP-087 and DOE/SNF/REP-088. This report analyzes the model for uranium hydriding and dissociation of the hydride that was documented in the SNF report titled MCO Work Book GOTH_SNF Input Data.1 Reference 1 used a single expression from a model by Bloch and Mintz for both the uranium hydriding and dehydriding reactions. This report compares the results of the GOTH_SNF expression for both phenomena with those from the models proposed by J. B. Condon and further developed by Condon and J. R. Kirkpatrick. The expression for the uranium hydriding rate used in GOTH_SNF (from the model of Bloch and Mintz) gives consistently lower values than those from the models of Condon and Kirkpatrick. This is true for all hydrogen pressures and for all temperatures. For a hydrogen pressure of 1 atm, the hydriding rates given by the models of Condon and Kirkpatrick are zero by the time the temperature reaches 400C. That is, the term representing the dehydriding reaction has become large enough to overwhelm the term representing the hydriding reaction. The same is true for the expression used in GOTH_SNF. For lower hydrogen pressures, the hydriding rates reach zero at even lower temperatures for the Bloch and Mintz model and also for the Condon and Kirkpatrick models. Uranium dehydriding rates can be calculated for temperatures as high as 2,000C. The dehydriding rates from GOTH_SNF contain an assumption that there is a 0.22 psia hydrogen pressure in the atmosphere surrounding the hydride. For temperatures >~700C, the expression from GOTH_SNF (the model of Bloch and Mintz) gives higher dehydriding rates than that from Condon. However, in calculations of MCOs using GOTH_SNF, the dehydriding is complete by ~400C so that rates for temperatures higher than that are not relevant. In the temperature range 275400C, the dehydriding rate from the Condon model is much higher than that from GOTH_SNF. The practical consequences of the differences in hydriding and dehydriding rates are not obvious. A way to evaluate the consequences is to repeat an important MCO calculation on GOTH_SNF using hydriding and dehydriding rates that have been artificially modified to be closer to those given by the expressions of Condon and Kirkpatrick and see if the conclusions about the safety of the MCO are changed.

John R. Kirkpatrick; Chris A. Dahl

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Number | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Number More Documents & Publications Analysis of Open Office of Inspector General Recommendations, OAS-L-08-07 Policy and International Affairs (WFP) Open Government Plan 2.0...

258

Expected Frobenius numbers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that for large instances the order of magnitude of the expected Frobenius number is (up to a constant depending only on the dimension) given by its lower bound.

Aliev, Iskander; Hinrichs, Aicke

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Development of Regenerable High Capacity Boron Nitrogen Hydrides as Hydrogen Storage Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this three-phase project is to develop synthesis and hydrogen extraction processes for nitrogen/boron hydride compounds that will permit exploitation of the high hydrogen content of these materials. The primary compound of interest in this project is ammonia-borane (NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}), a white solid, stable at ambient conditions, containing 19.6% of its weight as hydrogen. With a low-pressure on-board storage and an efficient heating system to release hydrogen, ammonia-borane has a potential to meet DOE's year 2015 specific energy and energy density targets. If the ammonia-borane synthesis process could use the ammonia-borane decomposition products as the starting raw material, an efficient recycle loop could be set up for converting the decomposition products back into the starting boron-nitrogen hydride. This project is addressing two key challenges facing the exploitation of the boron/nitrogen hydrides (ammonia-borane), as hydrogen storage material: (1) Development of a simple, efficient, and controllable system for extracting most of the available hydrogen, realizing the high hydrogen density on a system weight/volume basis, and (2) Development of a large-capacity, inexpensive, ammonia-borane regeneration process starting from its decomposition products (BNHx) for recycle. During Phase I of the program both catalytic and non-catalytic decomposition of ammonia borane are being investigated to determine optimum decomposition conditions in terms of temperature for decomposition, rate of hydrogen release, purity of hydrogen produced, thermal efficiency of decomposition, and regenerability of the decomposition products. The non-catalytic studies provide a base-line performance to evaluate catalytic decomposition. Utilization of solid phase catalysts mixed with ammonia-borane was explored for its potential to lower the decomposition temperature, to increase the rate of hydrogen release at a given temperature, to lead to decomposition products amenable for regeneration, and direct catalytic hydrogenation of the decomposition products. Two different approaches of heating ammonia-borane are being investigated: (a) 'heat to material approach' in which a fixed compartmentalized ammonia-borane is heated by a carefully controlled heating pattern, and (b) 'material to heat approach' in which a small amount of ammonia-borane is dispensed at a time in a fixed hot zone. All stages of AB decomposition are exothermic which should allow the small 'hot zone' used in the second approach for heating to be self-sustaining. During the past year hydrogen release efforts focused on the second approach determining the amount of hydrogen released, kinetics of hydrogen release, and the amounts of impurities released as a function of AB decomposition temperature in the 'hot zone.'

Damle, A.

2010-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

260

Precious Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

"Advances in the Extractive Metallurgy of Selected Rare and Precious Metals" ( 1991 Review of Extractive Metallurgy), J.E. Hoffmann, April 1991, pp. 18-23.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Development of encapsulated lithium hydride sink-side thermal energy storage for pulsed space power systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Value analysis indicates that inclusion of thermal energy storage (TES) as an element in a pulsed space power supply will reduce the mass of the heat rejection system. A candidate design for the TES component utilizes lithium hydride (LiH) encapsulated in 304L stainless steel or molybdenum in a packed-bed configuration with a lithium or sodium-potassium (NaK) heat transport fluid. Critical concerns with this concept are the need to (1) accommodate shell stresses induced by volumetric expansion of the melting salt or surface gripping by the freezing salt and (2) minimize hydrogen loss through the shell due to LiH dissociation at high temperatures. Experimental observation of significant cracking of the LiH during cooling mitigates the first of these issues by providing a leakage path into the interior void as melting occurs at the salt-containment interface, thus allowing use of thin shells.

Morris, D.G.; Foote, J.P.; Olszewski, M.; Whittaker, J.W.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Report number codes  

SciTech Connect

This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Metastability And Crystal Structure of The Bialkali Complex Metal Hydride NaK(BH4)2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new bialkali borohydride, NaK(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}, was synthesized by mechanical milling of NaBH4 and KBH4 in a 1:1 ratio. The synthesis was conducted based on a prediction from a computational screening of hydrogen storage materials suggesting the potential stability of NaK(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}. The new phase was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The Raman measurements indicated B-H vibrations of the (BH{sub 4}){sup -} anion, while magnetic resonance chemical shifts in {sup 23}Na, and {sup 39}K MAS NMR spectra showed new chemical environments for Na and K resulting from the formation of the new bialkali phase. X-ray diffraction spectra indicated a new crystal structure with rhombohedral symmetry, most likely in the space group R3, distinct from the starting materials NaBH{sub 4}, and KBH{sub 4}. Although in-situ XRD measurements indicated the material to be metastable, decomposing to the starting materials NaBH{sub 4} and KBH{sub 4}, the successful synthesis of NaK(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} demonstrates the ability of computational screening to predict candidates for hydrogen storage materials.

Seballos, L; Zhang, J Z; Ronnebro, E; Herberg, J L; Majzoub, E H

2008-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

264

Number | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Number Number Jump to: navigation, search Properties of type "Number" Showing 200 properties using this type. (previous 200) (next 200) A Property:AvgAnnlGrossOpCpcty Property:AvgTempGeoFluidIntoPlant Property:AvgWellDepth B Property:Building/FloorAreaChurchesChapels Property:Building/FloorAreaGroceryShops Property:Building/FloorAreaHealthServices24hr Property:Building/FloorAreaHealthServicesDaytime Property:Building/FloorAreaHeatedGarages Property:Building/FloorAreaHotels Property:Building/FloorAreaMiscellaneous Property:Building/FloorAreaOffices Property:Building/FloorAreaOtherRetail Property:Building/FloorAreaResidential Property:Building/FloorAreaRestaurants Property:Building/FloorAreaSchoolsChildDayCare Property:Building/FloorAreaShops Property:Building/FloorAreaSportCenters

265

Using Fractional Numbers of . . .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the design parameters in closed queueing networks is Np, the number of customers of class p. It has been assumed that Np must be an integer. However, integer choices will usually not achieve the target throughput for each class simultaneously. We use Mean Value Analysis with the Schweitzer-Bard approximation and nonlinear programming to determine the value of Np needed to achieve the production targets exactly, although the values of Np may be fractional. We interpret these values to represent the average number of customers of each class in the network. We implement a control rule to achieve these averages and verify our approach through simulation.

Rajan Suri; Rahul Shinde; Mary Vernon

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

CHEMICAL SAFETY Emergency Numbers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- 1 - CHEMICAL SAFETY MANUAL 2010 #12;- 2 - Emergency Numbers UNBC Prince George Campus Security Prince George Campus Chemstores 6472 Chemical Safety 6472 Radiation Safety 5530 Biological Safety 5530 use, storage, handling, waste and emergency management of chemicals on the University of Northern

Bolch, Tobias

267

Disjunctive Rado numbers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If L1 and L2 are linear equations, then the disjunctive Rado number of the set {L1, L2} is the least integer n, provided that it exists, such that for every 2-coloring of ... Keywords: Rado, Ramsey, Schur, disjunctive

Brenda Johnson; Daniel Schaal

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

A number of organizations,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

buying power to purchase green power. The city of Chicago has formed an alliance with 47 other local installed solar electric systems on a number of the city's buildings, including the Chicago Center for Green to competition, the city of Chicago and 47 other local government agencies formed the Local Government Power

269

South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers...

270

South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Residential...

271

South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

View History: Annual Download Data (XLS File) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers...

272

ELECTRICAL DISTRICT NUMBER EIGHT  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ELECTRICAL DISTRICT NUMBER EIGHT ELECTRICAL DISTRICT NUMBER EIGHT Board of Directors Reply to: Ronald Rayner C. W. Adams James D. Downing, P.E. Chairman Billy Hickman 66768 Hwy 60 Brian Turner Marvin John P.O. Box 99 Vice-Chairman Jason Pierce Salome, AZ 85348 Denton Ross Jerry Rovey Secretary James N. Warkomski ED8@HARCUVARCO.COM John Utz Gary Wood PHONE:(928) 859-3647 Treasurer FAX: (928) 859-3145 Sent via e-mail Mr. Darrick Moe, Regional Manager Western Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Region P. O. Box 6457 Phoenix, AZ 85005-6457 moe@wapa.gov; dswpwrmrk@wapa.gov Re: ED5-Palo Verde Hub Project Dear Mr. Moe, In response to the request for comments issued at the October 6 Parker-Davis Project customer th meeting, and in conjunction with comments previously submitted by the Southwest Public Power

273

Preventive Action Number:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 Preventive Action Report Planning Worksheet 11_0414 1 of 3 8 Preventive Action Report Planning Worksheet 11_0414 1 of 3 EOTA - Business Form Document Title: Preventive Action Report Planning Worksheet Document Number: F-018 Rev 11_0414 Document Owner: Elizabeth Sousa Backup Owner: Melissa Otero Approver(s): Melissa Otero Parent Document: P-008, Corrective/Preventive Action Notify of Changes: EOTA Employees Referenced Document(s): N/A F-018 Preventive Action Report Planning Worksheet 11_0414 2 of 3 Revision History: Rev. Description of Change 08_0613 Initial Release 09_0924 Worksheet modified to reflect External Audit recommendation for identification of "Cause for Potential Nonconformance". Minor editing changes. 11_0414 Added Preventive Action Number block to match Q-Pulse

274

Preventive Action Number:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 Corrective Action Report Planning Worksheet 11_0414 1 of 3 7 Corrective Action Report Planning Worksheet 11_0414 1 of 3 EOTA - Business Form Document Title: Corrective Action Report Planning Worksheet Document Number: F-017 Rev 11_0414 Document Owner: Elizabeth Sousa Backup Owner: Melissa Otero Approver(s): Melissa Otero Parent Document: P-008, Corrective/Preventive Action Notify of Changes: EOTA Employees Referenced Document(s): N/A F-017 Corrective Action Report Planning Worksheet 11_0414 2 of 3 Revision History: Rev. Description of Change 08_0613 Initial Release 11_0414 Added problem statement to first block. F-017 Corrective Action Report Planning Worksheet 11_0414 3 of 3 Corrective Action Report Planning Worksheet Corrective Action Number: Source: Details/Problem Statement: Raised By: Raised Date: Target Date:

275

Preparation of thin metallic titanium foils as hydrogen targets.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In a recently proposed study to resolve the discrepancy for the cross-section from the inverse reaction {sup 21}Ne(p,{alpha}){sup 18}F, important in calculations of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stellar nucleosynthesis, a hydrogen target was required. Another important consideration for studying this reaction involves the isotopic abundance of Ne measured in stellar silicon carbide (SiC) grains found in meteorites. The measurement consists of the time-reversed reaction in inverse kinematics {sup 1}H({sup 21}Ne,{alpha}){sup 18}F at the resonance energy. Using a stable {sup 21}Ne beam, high currents are anticipated requiring a robust hydrogen-containing target. A metal hydride foil would be more apt to withstand the bombardment over a plastic polyethylene target. For this purpose we chose titanium hydride, as the easily produced titanium foils can be reacted with hydrogen to produce the needed targets. Details of the methods of production as well as target characteristics and performance are discussed.

Greene, J. P.; Lee, H. Y.; Becker, H.-W.; Physics; Ruhr Univ. Bochum

2010-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

276

Finite Neutrosophic Complex Numbers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this book for the first time the authors introduce the notion of real neutrosophic complex numbers. Further the new notion of finite complex modulo integers is defined. For every $C(Z_n)$ the complex modulo integer $i_F$ is such that $2F_i = n - 1$. Several algebraic structures on $C(Z_n)$ are introduced and studied. Further the notion of complex neutrosophic modulo integers is introduced. Vector spaces and linear algebras are constructed using these neutrosophic complex modulo integers.

W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Construction Project Number  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

North Execution - (2009 - 2011) North Execution - (2009 - 2011) Construction Project Number 2009 2010 2011 Project Description ANMLPL 0001C 76,675.32 - - Animas-Laplata circuit breaker and power rights CRGRFL 0001C - - 7,177.09 Craig Rifle Bay and transfer bay upgrade to 2000 amps; / Convert CRG RFL to 345 kV out of Bears Ear Sub FGE 0019C - - 39,207.86 Replace 69/25kV transformer KX2A at Flaming Gorge FGE 0020C - - 52,097.12 Flaming Gorge: Replace failed KW2A transformer HDN 0069C 16,638.52 208,893.46 3,704,578.33 Replace failed transformer with KZ1A 250 MVA 230/138kv

278

KPA Activity Number  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

supports CMM-SW Level 2 supports CMM-SW Level 2 Mapping of the DOE Systems Engineering Methodology to the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Software Capability Maturity Model (CMM- SW) level 2. Date: September 2002 Page 1 KPA Activity Number KPA Activity SEM Section SME Work Product SQSE Web Site http://cio.doe.gov/sqse REQUIREMENTS MANAGEMENT RM-1 The software engineering group reviews the allocated requirements before they are incorporated in the software project. Chapter 3.0 * Develop High-Level Project Requirements Chapter 4.0 * Establish Functional Baseline * Project Plan * Requirements Specification Document * Requirements Management awareness * Defining Project Requirements RM-2 The software engineering group uses the allocated requirements as the basis for

279

Utah Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Utah Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

280

Utah Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Utah Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Utah Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Utah Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

282

Illinois Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Illinois Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

283

Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

284

Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

285

Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

286

California Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) California Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

287

California Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) California Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

288

Ohio Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Ohio Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

289

Ohio Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Ohio Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

290

Ohio Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Ohio Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

291

Colorado Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

292

Colorado Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

293

Colorado Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

294

Vermont Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Vermont Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

295

Vermont Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Vermont Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

296

Vermont Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Vermont Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

297

Michigan Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

298

Michigan Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

299

Idaho Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Idaho Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

300

Idaho Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Idaho Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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301

Idaho Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Idaho Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

302

Connecticut Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Connecticut Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

303

Hawaii Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Hawaii Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

304

Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

305

Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

306

Maryland Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Maryland Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

307

Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

308

Alabama Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Alabama Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

309

Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

310

Alaska Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Alaska Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

311

Kansas Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Kansas Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

312

Illinois Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Illinois Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

313

Maine Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Maine Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

314

Florida Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Florida Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

315

Iowa Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Iowa Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

316

Georgia Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Georgia Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

317

Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

318

Missouri Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Missouri Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

319

Montana Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Montana Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

320

Nevada Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Nevada Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

322

Arizona Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Arizona Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

323

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

324

Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

325

Minnesota Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Minnesota Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

326

Massachusetts Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Massachusetts Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

327

Delaware Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Delaware Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

328

New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

329

New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

(Number of Elements) New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

330

New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

(Number of Elements) New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's...

331

Texas Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Texas Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

332

Texas Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Texas Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

333

OXIDATION, HYDRIDING, AND AQUEOUS CORROSION OF U$sub 3$Si ALLOYS.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Specimens of U{sub 3}Si were heated in air and in hydrogen at temperatures up to 550 degC and the products of reaction studied. The phases observed in these tests are compared with those which form in U{sub 3}Si samples corroded in high temperature water. The aqueous corrosion of U{sub 3}Si is mainly an oxidation reaction although limited hydriding may also occur as a secondary reaction. The oxidation of U{sub 3}Si either in air or water appears to be a multi-step process in which most of the phases of the uranium-silicon system form. Due to the kinetics of formation and stability of the phases at various temperatures all are not observed in an individual test. Although molecular hydrogen will not react with U{sub 3)Si directly, in some cases it will react with free uranium to form UH{sub 3}. If the UH{sub 3} is subsequently oxidized, nascent hydrogen will be released which will react with the U{sub 3}Si.

Feraday, M.A.

1971-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Systems Modeling of Chemical Hydride Hydrogen Storage Materials for Fuel Cell Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fixed bed reactor was designed, modeled and simulated for hydrogen storage on-board the vehicle for PEM fuel cell applications. Ammonia Borane (AB) was selected by DOE's Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence (HSECoE) as the initial chemical hydride of study because of its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to {approx}16% by weight for the release of {approx}2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions. The design evaluated consisted of a tank with 8 thermally isolated sections in which H2 flows freely between sections to provide ballast. Heating elements are used to initiate reactions in each section when pressure drops below a specified level in the tank. Reactor models in Excel and COMSOL were developed to demonstrate the proof-of-concept, which was then used to develop systems models in Matlab/Simulink. Experiments and drive cycle simulations showed that the storage system meets thirteen 2010 DOE targets in entirety and the remaining four at greater than 60% of the target.

Brooks, Kriston P.; Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

335

Thermostat Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...A thermostat metal is a composite material (usually in the form of sheet or strip) that consists of two or more materials bonded together, of which one can be a nonmetal. Because the materials bonded together to form the composite differ in

336

METAL COMPOSITIONS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alloys of uranium which are strong, hard, and machinable are presented, These alloys of uranium contain bctween 0.1 to 5.0% by weight of at least one noble metal such as rhodium, palladium, and gold. The alloys may be heat treated to obtain a product with iniproved tensile and compression strengths,

Seybolt, A.U.

1959-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Particle size effect of hydride formation and surface hydrogen absorption of nanosized palladium catalysts : L{sub 3} edge vs K edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The particle size effect on the formation of palladium hydride and on surface hydrogen adsorption was studied at room temperature using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Pd K and L{sub 3} edges. Hydride formation was indirectly observed by lattice expansion in Pd K edge XANES spectra and by EXAFS analysis. Hydride formation was directly detected in the L{sub 3} edge spectra. A characteristic spectral feature caused by the formation of a Pd-H antibonding state showed strong particle size dependence. The L{sub 3} edge spectra were reproduced using full multiple scattering analysis and density of state calculations, and the contributions of bulk absorbed and surface hydrogen to the XANES spectra could be distinguished. The ratio of hydrogen on the surface versus that in the bulk increased with decreasing particle size, and smaller particles dissolved less hydrogen.

Tew, M. W.; Miller, J. T.; van Bokhoven, J. A. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); ( SUF-USR); (ETH Zurich)

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Number: 305 Most Dangerous Vehicles ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... top> Number: 314 Marine Vegetation Description: Commercial harvesting of marine vegetation such as algae, seaweed and ...

2002-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

339

Engineering analysis of low enriched uranium fuel using improved zirconium hydride cross sections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A neutronic and thermal hydraulic analysis of the 1-MW TRIGA research reactor at the Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center using a new low enriched uranium fuel (named 30/20 fuel) was completed. This analysis provides safety assessment for the change out of the existing high enriched uranium fuel to this high-burnup, low enriched uranium fuel design. The codes MCNP and Monteburns were utilized for the neutronic analysis while the code PARET was used to determine fuel and cladding temperatures. All of these simulations used improved zirconium hydride cross sections that were provided by Dr. Ayman Hawari at North Carolina State University. The neutronic and thermal analysis showed that the reactor will operate with approximately the same fuel lifetime as the current high enriched uranium fuel and stay within the thermal and safety limits for the facility. It was also determined that the control rod worths and the temperature coefficient of reactivity would provide sufficient negative reactivity to control the reactor during the fuelâ??s complete lifetime. An assessment of the fuelâ??s viability for use with the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiativeâ??s Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiments program was also performed. The objective of this study was to confirm the continued viability of these experiments with the reactor operating using this new fuel. For these experiments, the accelerator driven system must produce fission heating in excess of 1 kW when driven by a 20 kW accelerator system. This criterion was met using the new fuel. Therefore the change out of the fuel will not affect the viability of these experiments.

Candalino, Robert Wilcox

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Energy Conservation in Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Symposium. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium, Energy Conservation in Metals. Sponsorship, The Minerals, Metals and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Metallic Glasses for Electro-Catalytic Applications - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Motivated by these characteristics, we have explored the use of a number of metallic glasses as electro-catalysts in direct alcohol fuel cells. We demonstrate that...

342

CHANGE OF NAME TIAA Annuity Number CREF Annuity Number TIAA Policy Number  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHANGE OF NAME TIAA Annuity Number CREF Annuity Number TIAA Policy Number Social Security Number and only use black or dark blue ink. Return this form to: TIAA-CREF P.O. Box 1264 Charlotte, NC 28201 NOTE City State Zip Code For TIAA-CREF USE ONLY Accepted -- Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association

Snider, Barry B.

343

Transition metal-free olefin polymerization catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ethylene and/or propylene are polymerized to form high molecular weight, linear polymers by contacting ethylene and/or propylene monomer, in the presence of an inert reaction medium, with a catalyst system which consists essentially of (1) an aluminum alkyl component, such as trimethylaluminum, triethylaluminum, triisobutylaluminum, tri-n-octylaluminum and diethylaluminum hydride and (2) a Lewis acid or Lewis acid derivative component, such as B (C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.3, [(CH.sub.3).sub.2 N (H) (C.sub.6 H.sub.5)].sup.+ [B (C.sub.6 F.sub.5)4].sup.-, [(C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.3 NH].sup.+ [B C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.4 ],.sup.-, [C(C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.3 ].sup.+ [B(C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.4 ].sup.-, (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(OCH.sub.3), (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methylphenoxide), (C.sub.2 H.sub.5)Al(2,6 -di-t-butylphenoxide).sub.2, (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(2,6-di-t-butylphonoxide) , 2,6 -di-t-butylphenol.multidot.methylaluminoxane or an alkylaluminoxane, and which may be completely free any transition metal component(s).

Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Wojcinski, II, Louis M. (State College, PA); Liu, Shengsheng (State College, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Desulfurization with transition metal catalysts. Quarterly summary  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this research is to develop desulfurizing transition metal catalysts, which are active in homogeneous media at moderate temperatures and pressures for the purification of coal-derived fuels and chemicals. To this end, the mechanism of action is being examined whereby newly identified nickel(0) complexes desulfurize organosulfur compounds in solution at 65 to 70/sup 0/C. The sulfur compounds under investigation are typical of those commonly encountered in coal-derived liquids and solids, such as thiophenes, sulfides and mercaptans. The following studies on the homogeneous, stoichiometric desulfurizing agent, bis(1,5-cyclooctadiene) nickel(0) ((COD)/sub 2/Ni), were continued: (a) activation of the agent by means of added mono-, bi-/sup 2/ and tri-dentate amines, either of the tertiary or primary amine type; (b) labeling studies designed to reveal the source of the hydrogen that replaces the sulfur in the desulfurization of dibenzothiophene; (c) comparison of the desulfurizing activity of (COD)/sub 2/Ni, both in the presence and in the absence of lithium aluminum hydride; and (d) testing for the role of any biphenylene intermediate in these desulfurizations. Results are reported.

Eisch, J J

1980-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

345

Plutonium Immobilization Task 5.6 Metal Conversion: Milestone Report - Perform Feasibility Demonstrations on Pu-Al Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Plutonium Conversion Task within the Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) transforms incoming plutonium (Pu) feed materials into an oxide acceptable for blending with ceramic precursors. One of the feed materials originally planned for PIP was unirradiated fuel, which consisted mainly of the Zero Power Plutonium Reactor (ZPPR) fuel. Approximately 3.5 metric tons of Pu is in ZPPR fuel. The ZPPR fuel is currently stored at the Argonne National Laboratory-West as stainless steel clad metal plates and oxide pellets, with the vast majority of the Pu in the metal plates. The metal plates consist of a Pu-U-Mo alloy (containing 90% of the ZPPR plutonium metal) and a Pu-Al alloy (containing 10% of the ZPPR plutonium metal). The Department of Energy (DOE) decided that ZPPR fuel is a national asset and, therefore, not subject to disposition. This report documents work done prior to that decision. The Hydnde-Oxidation (HYDOX) Process was selected as the method for Metal Conversion in PIP because it provides a universal means for preparing oxide from all feed materials. HYDOX incorporates both the hydride process, originally developed to separate Pu from other pit materials, as well as the oxide formation step. Plutonium hydride is very reactive and is readily converted to either the nitride or the oxide. A previous feasibility study demonstrated that the Pu-U-Mo alloy could be successfully converted to oxide via the HYDOX Process. Another Metal Conversion milestone was to demonstrate the feasibility of the HYDOX Process for converting plutonium-aluminum (Pu-Al) alloy in ZPPR fuel plates to an acceptable oxide. This report documents the results of the latter feasibility study which was performed before the DOE decision to retain ZPPR fuel rather than immobilize it.

Zundelevich, Y; Kerns, J; Bannochie, C

2001-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

346

The Distribution of Ramsey Numbers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We prove that the number of integers in the interval [0,x] that are non-trivial Ramsey numbers r(k,n) (3 order of magnitude (x ln x)**(1/2).

Clark, Lane

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Fully relativistic calculation of nuclear magnetic shieldings and indirect nuclear spin-spin couplings in group-15 and -16 hydrides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fully relativistic calculations of the isotropic and anisotropic parts of both indirect nuclear spinspin couplings 1 J(X- H ) and 2 J( H-H ) and nuclear magnetic shieldings ?(X) and ?(H) for the group-15 and -16 hydrides are presented. Relativistic calculations were performed with DiracFock wave functions and the random phase approximation method. Results are compared to its nonrelativistic counterpart. Paramagnetic and diamagnetic contributions to the nuclear magnetic shielding constants are also reported. We found very large relativistic corrections to both properties in the sixth-row hydrides ( BiH 3 and PoH 2 ). Our calculations of the relativistic corrections to the isotropic part of ? at the heavy nucleus X show that it is roughly proportional to Z 3.2 in both series of molecules. Paramagnetic term ? p is more sensitive to the effects of relativity than the diamagnetic one ? d even though both have a behavior proportional to third power of the nuclear charge Z.

Sergio S. Gomez; Rodolfo H. Romero; Gustavo A. Aucar

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Number  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY STATUS REPORT on Implementation of NEP Recommendations January, 2005 1 NEP RECOMMENDATIONS: STATUS OF IMPLEMENTATION Chapter 1 1. That the President issue an Executive Order to direct all federal agencies to include in any regulatory action that could significantly and adversely affect energy supplies, distribution, or use, a detailed statement of energy effects and alternatives in submissions to the Office of Management and Budget of proposed regulations covered and all notices of proposed regulations published in the Federal Register. STATUS: IMPLEMENTED. In May 2001, President Bush issued Executive Order 13211 requiring federal agencies to include, in any regulatory action that could significantly and

349

Number: 1394 Description: In what ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Number: 1752 Description: When was the Oklahoma City bombing? ... name of the plane that dropped the Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima? ...

2003-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

350

Gas-Phase Reactions of Doubly Charged Lanthanide Cations with Alkanes and Alkenes. Trends in Metal(2+) Reactivity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The gas-phase reactivity of doubly-charged lanthanide cations, Ln2+ (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu), with alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane) and alkenes (ethene, propene, 1-butene) was studied by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The reaction products consisted of different combinations of doubly-charged organometallic ions?adducts or species formed via metal-ion-induced hydrogen, dihydrogen, alkyl, or alkane eliminations from the hydrocarbons?and singly-charged ions that resulted from electron, hydride, or methide transfers from the hydrocarbons to the metal ions. The only lanthanide cations capable of activating the hydrocarbons to form doubly-charged organometallic ions were La2+, Ce2+, Gd2+, and Tb2+, which have ground-state or low-lying d1 electronic configurations. Lu2+, with an accessible d1 electronic configuration but a rather high electron affinity, reacted only through transfer channels. The remaining Ln2+ reacted via transfer channels or adduct formation. The different accessibilities of d1 electronic configurations and the range of electron affinities of the Ln2+ cations allowed for a detailed analysis of the trends for metal(2+) reactivity and the conditions for occurrence of bond activation, adduct formation, and electron, hydride, and methide transfers.

Gibson, John K.; Marcalo, Joaquim; Santos, Marta; Pires de Matos, Antonio; Haire, Richard G.

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

351

Data Compression with Prime Numbers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A compression algorithm is presented that uses the set of prime numbers. Sequences of numbers are correlated with the prime numbers, and labeled with the integers. The algorithm can be iterated on data sets, generating factors of doubles on the compression.

Gordon Chalmers

2005-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

352

Composite metal-hydrogen electrodes for metal-hydrogen batteries. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 15, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to develop and conduct a feasibility study of metallic thin films (multilayered and alloy composition) produced by advanced sputtering techniques for use as anodes in Ni-metal hydrogen batteries that would be deposited as distinct anode, electrolyte and cathode layers in thin film devices. The materials could also be incorporated in secondary consumer batteries (i.e. type AF(4/3 or 4/5)) which use electrodes in the form of tapes. The project was based on pioneering studies of hydrogen uptake by ultra-thin Pd-capped Nb films, these studies suggested that materials with metal-hydrogen ratios exceeding those of commercially available metal hydride materials and fast hydrogen charging and discharging kinetics could be produced. The project initially concentrated on gas phase and electrochemical studies of Pd-capped niobium films in laboratory-scale NiMH cells. This extended the pioneering work to the wet electrochemical environment of NiMH batteries and exploited advanced synchrotron radiation techniques not available during the earlier work to conduct in-situ studies of such materials during hydrogen charging and discharging. Although batteries with fast charging kinetics and hydrogen-metal ratios approaching unity could be fabricated, it was found that oxidation, cracking and corrosion in aqueous solutions made pure Nb films and multilayers poor candidates for battery application. The project emphasis shifted to alloy films based on known elemental materials used for NiMH batteries. Although commercial NiMH anode materials contain many metals, it was found that 0.24 {mu}m thick sputtered Zr-Ni films cycled at least 50 times with charging efficiencies exceeding 95% and [H]/[M] ratios of 0.7-1.0. Multilayered or thicker Zr-Ni films could be candidates for a thin film NiMH battery that may have practical applications as an integrated power source for modern electronic devices.

Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.; Weismann, H. [and others

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Effect of amorphous Mg{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} on hydriding and dehydriding behavior of Mg{sub 2}Ni alloy  

SciTech Connect

Composite Mg{sub 2}Ni (25 wt.%) amorphous Mg{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} was prepared by mechanical milling starting with nanocrystalline Mg{sub 2}Ni and amorphous Mg{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} powders, by using a SPEX 8000 D mill. The morphological and microstructural characterization of the powders was performed via scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The hydriding characterization of the composite was performed via a solid gas reaction method in a Sievert's-type apparatus at 363 K under an initial hydrogen pressure of 2 MPa. The dehydriding behavior was studied by differential thermogravimetry. On the basis of the results, it is possible to conclude that amorphous Mg{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} improved the hydriding and dehydriding kinetics of Mg{sub 2}Ni alloy upon cycling. A tentative rationalization of experimental observations is proposed. - Research Highlights: {yields} First study of the hydriding behavior of composite Mg{sub 2}Ni (25 wt.%) amorphous Mg{sub 50}Ni{sub 50}. {yields} Microstructural characterization of composite material using XRD and SEM was obtained. {yields} An improved effect of Mg{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} on the Mg{sub 2}Ni hydriding behavior was verified. {yields} The apparent activation energy for the hydrogen desorption of composite was obtained.

Guzman, D., E-mail: danny.guzman@uda.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria en Metalurgia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Atacama y Centro Regional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Sustentable de Atacama (CRIDESAT), Av. Copayapu 485, Copiapo (Chile); Ordonez, S. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Av. Lib. Bernardo O'Higgins 3363, Santiago (Chile); Fernandez, J.F.; Sanchez, C. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain); Serafini, D. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Materials, CIMAT, Av. Lib. Bernardo O'Higgins 3363, Santiago (Chile); Rojas, P.A. [Escuela de Ingenieria Mecanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Av. Los Carrera 01567, Quilpue, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, PUCV (Chile); Aguilar, C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Metalurgica y Materiales, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Av. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Tapia, P. [Departamento de Ingenieria en Metalurgia, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Atacama, Av. Copayapu 485, Copiapo (Chile)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Extracting metals directly from metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Smart, Neil G. (Moscow, ID); Phelps, Cindy (Moscow, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Extracting metals directly from metal oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

356

untitled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Battery Specifications Manufacturer: Cobasys Type: Nickel-Metal Hydride Number of Modules: 240 Weight of Pack: 145 lbs Module Weight: 0.55 lbs Nominal Module Voltage: 1.2 V Nominal...

357

untitled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Battery Specifications Manufacturer: Sanyo Type: Nickel-Metal Hydride Number of Modules: 204 Nominal Module Voltage: 1.35 V Nominal System Voltage: 275 V Nominal Pack Capacity: 5.5...

358

MODIFIED BOROHYDRIDES FOR REVERSIBLE HYDROGEN STORAGE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper reports the results in the effort to destabilize lithium borohydride for reversible hydrogen storage. A number of metals, metal hydrides, metal chlorides and complex hydrides were selected and evaluated as the destabilization agents for reducing dehydriding temperature and generating dehydriding-rehydriding reversibility. It is found that some additives are effective. The Raman spectroscopic analysis shows the change of B-H binding nature.

Au, Ming

2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

359

Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

Jackson, Paul J. (Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Nigel J. (Durham, GB2); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Furlong, Clement (Seattle, WA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat unit for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heayv metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

Jackson, Paul J. (both Los Alamos, NM); Delhaize, Emmanuel (both Los Alamos, NM); Robinson, Nigel J. (Durham, GB2); Unkefer, Clifford J. (Los Alamos, NM); Furlong, Clement (Seattle, WA)

1990-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly ({gamma}-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly ({gamma}-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

Jackson, P.J.; Delhaize, E.; Robinson, N.J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Furlong, C.

1988-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

362

Dynamic virtual credit card numbers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Theft of stored credit card information is an increasing threat to e-commerce.We propose a dynamic virtual credit card number scheme that reduces the damage caused by stolen credit card numbers. A user can use an existing credit card account to generate ... Keywords: credit card theft, e-commerce

Ian Molloy; Jiangtao Li; Ninghui Li

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Metallic Glass II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 8, 2013 ... Application of Metallic Glass for High Performance Si Solar Cell: ... of the metallic glasses during heating is dependent on the thermal stability of...

364

Light Metals 2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 1, 2010 ... Softcover book: Light Metals 2008 Volume 2: Aluminum Reduction. Hardcover book and CD-ROM: Light Metals 2009...

365

Bulk Metallic Glasses IX  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of elements to form metallic-glass alloys] have resulted in the required cooling rate ... Bauschinger Effect in Metallic Glass Nanowires under Cyclic Loading.

366

Refractory Metals Committee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Refractory Metals Committee is part of the Structural Materials Division. Our Mission: Includes all technical aspects of the science of refractory metals and...

367

Principal Metals Online  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Topic Title: WEB RESOURCE: Principal Metals Online Topic Summary: Principal Metals inventory database. Created On: 2/9/2007 5:41 AM, Topic View:.

368

Bulk Metallic Glasses XI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 15, 2013 ... A Bulk Metallic Glass with Record-breaking Damage Tolerance ... Oxidation on the Surface Characteristics of Zr-based Bulk Metallic Glasses.

369

Kinetics and Mechanism of Hydrogen-Atom Abstraction from Rhodium Hydrides by Alkyl Radicals in Aqueous Solutions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The kinetics of the reaction of benzyl radicals with [L{sup 1}(H{sub 2}O)RhH{l_brace}D{r_brace}]{sup 2+} (L{sup 1}=1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) were studied directly by laser-flash photolysis. The rate constants for the two isotopologues, k=(9.3 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup 7} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} (H) and (6.2 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup 7} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} (D), lead to a kinetic isotope effect k{sub H}/k{sub D}=1.5 {+-} 0.1. The same value was obtained from the relative yields of PhCH{sub 3} and PhCH{sub 2}D in a reaction of benzyl radicals with a mixture of rhodium hydride and deuteride. Similarly, the reaction of methyl radicals with {l_brace}[L{sup 1}(H{sub 2}O)RhH]{sup 2+} + [L{sup 1}(H{sub 2}O)RhD]{sup 2+}{r_brace} produced a mixture of CH{sub 4} and CH{sub 3}D that yielded k{sub H}/k{sub D}=1.42 {+-} 0.07. The observed small normal isotope effects in both reactions are consistent with reduced sensitivity to isotopic substitution in very fast hydrogen-atom abstraction reactions. These data disprove a literature report claiming much slower kinetics and an inverse kinetic isotope effect for the reaction of methyl radicals with hydrides of L{sup 1}Rh.

Pestovsky, Oleg; Veysey, Stephen W.; Bakac, Andrej

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

370

Intermetallics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

"Metal Hydrides for Vehicular Applications: The State of the Art" (Metal Hydrides), D. Chandra, J.J. Reilly, and R. Chellappa, February 2006, pp. 26-32.

371

OPERATION OF A TRITIUM GLOVEBOX CLEAN-UP SYSTEM USING ZIRCONIUM MANGANESE IRON AND ZIRCONIUM TWO IRON METAL GETTERS  

SciTech Connect

A metal hydride-based tritium clean-up system has been successfully operated for more than four years on an 11 m{sup 3} helium/nitrogen glovebox which was used for handling metal tritide powders. The clean-up system consists of two beds: (1) a Zr-Mn-Fe (in a 10% by weight Al binder, SAES ST909) bed operating at 675 C followed by (2) a Zr{sub 2}Fe (SAES ST198) bed operating at 250 C. The Zr-Mn-Fe bed serves to condition the gas stream by cracking hydrogenous impurities (such as H{sub 2}O and hydrocarbons) and absorbing oxygen and carbon. The Zr{sub 2}Fe bed absorbs the hydrogen isotopes from the flowing stream by forming a solid hydride compound. These beds contain 3 kilograms of Zr{sub 2}Fe and have been loaded routinely with 230-250 STP liters of hydrogen isotopes in earlier trials. The Zr-Mn-Fe alloy exhibits an anomaly during activation, namely an exotherm upon initial exposure to nitrogen. The purpose of this work is to better understand this reaction. Nitrogen absorption studies were done in order to quantify the nitrogen taken up by the getter and to characterize the reaction kinetics. In addition, ST909 phases before and after the reaction were studied with x-ray diffraction.

E. LARSON; K. COOK

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

California Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) California Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 7,626 7,904,858 8,113,034 8,313,776 1990's 8,497,848 8,634,774 8,680,613 8,726,187 8,790,733 8,865,541 8,969,308 9,060,473 9,181,928 9,331,206 2000's 9,370,797 9,603,122 9,726,642 9,803,311 9,957,412 10,124,433 10,329,224 10,439,220 10,515,162 10,510,950 2010's 10,542,584 10,625,190 10,681,916 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: Number of Natural Gas Residential

373

Dissolution of plutonium metal in sulfamic acid at elevated temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The kinetics of the dissolution of plutonium metal in sulfamic acid at varying temperatures was determined. Hydrogen off-gas rates and plutonium concentrations were determined as functions of time for different dissolving conditions. Nominal 2.2 kg Pu buttons (surface area, 171 cm/sup 2/) should yield solutions containing 190 to 260 g Pu/L and 3.3M sulfamate ion after a one-hour dissolving time at 70/sup 0/C. Hydrogen off-gas rates were calculated to vary from a high of 2.7L of gaseous hydrogen per minute (STP) at the beginning of a dissolving cycle to 50 mL of hydrogen gas per minute at the end of a one-hour dissolving time. Sludge formation, which is a problem at ambient temperatures, does not occur at dissolving temperatures of 60 to 80/sup 0/C. Dissolution curves suggest that the mechanism of dissolution changes at about 50 to 55/sup 0/C. Below this temperature, a surface coating of plutonium hydride may form; above this temperature, plutonium metal appears to be converted directly to Pu/sup 3 +/. 13 figures, 1 table.

Gray, L.W.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Corrosion of valve metals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A general survey related to the corrosion of valve metals or film-forming metals. The way these metals corrode with some general examples is described. Valve metals form relatively perfect oxide films with little breakdown or leakage when anodized. (FS)

Draley, J.E.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Precious Metals Conversion Information  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Precious Metals Conversion Information. The Office of Weights and Measures (OWM) has prepared a Conversion Factors ...

2012-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

376

METAL PRODUCTION AND CASTING  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent covers a method and apparatus for collecting the molten metal produced by high temperature metal salt reduction. It consists essentially of subjecting the reaction vessel to centrifugal force in order to force the liberatcd molten metal into a coherent molten mass, and allowing it to solidify there. The apparatus is particularly suitable for use with small quantities of rare metals.

Magel, T.T.

1958-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Ceramic to metal seal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Providing a high strength, hermetic ceramic to metal seal by essentially heating a wire-like metal gasket and a ceramic member, which have been chemically cleaned, while simultaneously deforming from about 50 to 95 percent the metal gasket against the ceramic member at a temperature of about 30 to 75 percent of the melting temperature of the metal gasket.

Snow, Gary S. (Albuquerque, NM); Wilcox, Paul D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Document ID Number: RL-721  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Document ID Number: Document ID Number: RL-721 REV 4 NEPA REVIEW SCREENING FORM DOE/CX-00066 I. Project Title: Nesting Bird Deterrent Study at the 241-C Tank Farm CX B3.8, "Outdoor Terrestrial Ecological and Environmental Research" II. Project Description and Location (including Time Period over which proposed action will occur and Project Dimensions - e.g., acres displaced/disturbed, excavation length/depth, area/location/number of buildings, etc.): Washington River Protection Solutions LLC (WRPS) will perform an outdoor, terrestrial ecological research study to attempt to control and deter nesting birds at the 241-C Tank Farm. This will be a preventative study to test possible methods for controlling &/or minimizing the presence and impacts of nesting birds inside the tank farm. A nesting bird

379

Stochastic Low Reynolds Number Swimmers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As technological advances allow us to fabricate smaller autonomous self-propelled devices, it is clear that at some point directed propulsion could not come from pre-specified deterministic periodic deformation of the swimmer's body and we need to develop strategies to extract a net directed motion from a series of random transitions in the conformation space of the swimmer. We present a theoretical formulation to describe the "stochastic motor" that drives the motion of low Reynolds number swimmers based on this concept, and use it to study the propulsion of a simple low Reynolds number swimmer, namely, the three-sphere swimmer model. When the detailed-balanced is broken and the motor is driven out of equilibrium, it can propel the swimmer in the required direction. The formulation can be used to study optimal design strategies for molecular-scale low Reynolds number swimmers.

Ramin Golestanian; Armand Ajdari

2009-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

380

Undergraduate Catalog Phone Numbers & Address  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interest Research Exemption Programs 11 ReglsJrationPeriod III 6 Group (WashPIRG) 14 Faculty Number 9 State NaUonal Guard ' . , Full-Time Student Requirements __'_ 9 Service and Research Credit 10 Tuition notice. All announcements in the Time Schedule are subject to change without notice and do not constitute

Kelly, Scott David

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

MOTOR POOL RESERVATIONS Reservation Number:_______________  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MOTOR POOL RESERVATIONS Reservation Number:_______________ Evanston campus: Chicago campus: 2020: 312/503-9243 E-mail: motor-pool@northwestern.edu E-mail: motor-pool@northwestern.edu Hours: 8:00 a reservations require the "Organization Authorization for University Vehicles" form to be faxed to Motor Pool

Shull, Kenneth R.

382

Property:NumberOfUnits | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NumberOfUnits NumberOfUnits Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Number. Subproperties This property has the following 8 subproperties: B Black River Farm Solar Project H Hall's Warehouse Corp Solar Project L Lightning Dock Geothermal Facility S Sacramento Municipal Utility District Solar Array Sacramento Soleil Solar Project Salton Sea IV Geothermal Facility Sun Harvest Solar Project W Windy Flats Phase III Pages using the property "NumberOfUnits" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) 3 3-D Metals + 1 + A AB Tehachapi Wind Farm + 31 + AFCEE MMR Turbines + 2 + AG Land 1 + 1 + AG Land 2 + 1 + AG Land 3 + 1 + AG Land 4 + 1 + AG Land 5 + 1 + AG Land 6 + 1 + AVTEC + 1 + Adair Wind Farm I + 1 + Adair Wind Farm II + 230 + Adams Wind Project + 12 +

383

Metal-Air Batteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Alkali metal nitrate purification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

Fiorucci, Louis C. (Hamden, CT); Morgan, Michael J. (Guilford, CT)

1986-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

385

APPARATUS FOR VACUUM DEPOSITION OF METALS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and a method are described for continuous vacuum deposition of metals for metallic coatings, for ultra-high vacuum work, for purification of metals, for maintaining high-density electron currents, and for other uses. The apparatus comprises an externally cooled feeder tube extending into a container and adapted to feed metal wire or strip so that it emerges in a generally vertical position therein. The tube also provides shielding from the heat produced by an electron beam therein focused to impinge from a vertical direction upon the tip of the emerging wire. By proper control of the wire feed, coolant feed, and electron beam intensity, a molten ball of metal forms upon the emerging tip and remains self-supported thereon by the interaction of various forces. The metal is vaporized and travels in a line of sight direction, while additional wire is fed from the tube, so that the size of the molten ball remains constant. In the preferred embodiments, the wire is selected from a number of gettering metals and is degassed by electrical resistance in an adjacent chamber which is also partially evacuated. The wire is then fed through the feed tube into the electron beam and vaporizes and adsorbs gases to provide pumping action while being continuously deposited upon surfaces within the chamber. Ion pump electrodes may also be provided within line of sight of the vaporizing metal source to enhance the pumping action. (AEC)

Milleron, N.

1962-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

386

RIN Number 1904-AB68  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Federal Procurement of Energy Efficient Products Federal Procurement of Energy Efficient Products RIN NUMBER: 1904-AB68 CLOSING DATE: August 20, 2007 COMMENT NUMBER DATE RECEIVED/ DATE OF LETTER NAME & TITLE OF COMMENTATOR AFFILIATION & ADDRESS OF COMMENTATOR 1 ? 7/31/07 Edwin Pinero Federal Environmental Executive Office of the Federal Environmental Executive 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Mail Code 1600J Washington, DC 20460 2 8/8/07 (e-mail) Bob Null President Arkansas Lamp Manufacturing bnull@arkansaslamp.com 3 8/10/07 (e-mail) Dawn Gunning Environmental Program Manager Department of Justice Dawn.M.Gunning@usdoj.gov 4 8/14/07 8/14/07 Kyle Pitsor Vice President, Government Relations National Electrical Manufacturers Association 1300 North 17th Street, Suite 1752 Rosslyn, VA 22209

387

RIN Number 1904-AB68  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

RULEMAKING TITLE: Federal Procurement of Energy Efficient Products RULEMAKING TITLE: Federal Procurement of Energy Efficient Products RIN NUMBER: 1904-AB68 CLOSING DATE: August 20, 2007 COMMENT NUMBER DATE RECEIVED/ DATE OF LETTER NAME & TITLE OF COMMENTATOR AFFILIATION & ADDRESS OF COMMENTATOR 1 ? 7/31/07 Edwin Pinero Federal Environmental Executive Office of the Federal Environmental Executive 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Mail Code 1600J Washington, DC 20460 2 8/8/07 (e-mail) Bob Null President Arkansas Lamp Manufacturing bnull@arkansaslamp.com 3 8/10/07 (e-mail) Dawn Gunning Environmental Program Manager Department of Justice Dawn.M.Gunning@usdoj.gov 4 8/14/07 8/14/07 Kyle Pitsor Vice President, Government Relations National Electrical Manufacturers Association 1300 North 17th Street, Suite 1752

388

RL·721 Document ID Number:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Document ID Number: Document ID Number: REV 3 NEPA REVIEW SCREENING FORM DOE/CX-00045 . J.proj(;l~t Titl~: - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- --------- ------_. . _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - LIMITED FIREBREAK MAINTENANCE ON THE HANFORD SITE DURING CALENDAR YEAR 2012 II. Project Description and Location (including Time Period over which proposed action will occur and Project Dimensions· e.g., acres displaced/disturbed, excavation length/depth, etc.): The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to perform firebreak maintenance in selected areas of the Hanford Site during calendar year 2012 with limited use of physical, chemical, and prescribed burning methods. Prescribed burning will be performed by the Hanford Fire Department under approved burn plans and permits; and only in previously disturbed

389

Metal phthalocyanine catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

As a new composition of matter, alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Metal phthalocyanine catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new composition of matter is described which is an alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

1994-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

391

Bulk Metallic Glasses X  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2012 ... Aerospace and Spacecraft Applications for Bulk Metallic Glasses and Matrix Composites Air Oxidation of a Binary Cu64.5Zr35.5 Bulk Metallic...

392

Bulk Metallic Glasses VII  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sponsorship, The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society ... Air-Oxidation of a ( Zr55Cu30Al10Ni5)98Er2 Bulk Metallic Glass at 350-500oc Anelastic...

393

Precision metal rulers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... precision metal rulers. Our customers include state bureaus of Weights and Measures and departments of Agriculture. We also ...

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

394

Fasteners & Metals Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Directory of Accredited Laboratories. Fasteners & Metals Program. The Fastener Quality Act (FQA), Public Law 101-592, was ...

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

395

TMS Light Metals Publication  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The following instructions should be used when submitting a manuscript for any TMS Light Metals proceedings volume. INTRODUCTION. Orientation to...

396

Refractory Metals 2011  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 2, 2010 ... TMS Structural Materials Division TMS: Refractory Metals Committee. Organizer( s), Omer Dogan, DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory

397

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LOCAL TITANIUM ENVIRONMENT IN DOPED SODIUM ALUMINUM HYDRIDE USING X-RAY ADSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ti K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to explore the local titanium environment and valence in 2-4 mol% Ti-doped sodium alanate. An estimate of the oxidation state of the dopant, based upon known standards, revealed a zero-valent titanium atom. An analysis of the near-edge and extended fine structures indicates that the Ti does not enter substitutional or interstitial sites in the NaAlH{sub 4} lattice. Rather, the Ti is located on/near the surface and is coordinated by 10.2 {+-} 1 aluminum atoms with an interatomic distance of 2.82 {+-} 0.01 {angstrom}, similar to that of TiAl{sub 3}. The Fourier transformed EXAFS spectra reveals a lack of long-range order around the Ti dopant indicating that the Ti forms nano-clusters of TiAl{sub 3}. The similarity of the spectra in the hydrided and dehydrided samples suggests that the local Ti environment is nearly invariant during hydrogen cycling.

GRAETZ, J.; IGNATOV, A. YU; TYSON, T.A.; REILLY, J.J.; JOHNSON, J.

2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

398

New plasma source of hydrides for epitaxial growth. Final subcontract report, 15 April 1991--3 September 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes a novel plasma-activated selenium source that was developed during the course of this subcontract and which is significantly different than any other heretofore reported in the scientific literature. It involves microwave excited, magnetically confined plasma sources that are intended to operate under electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) conditions at 2.455 GHz. This source is designed to excite and dissociate the molecular vapor evaporating or subliming from a heated solid or liquid reservoir. It can combine an effusion cell vapor flux with a stream of hydrogen or helium gas, enabling the in-situ generation of hydrides for use in low-pressure growth techniques where long mean free paths are desirable. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate a stable discharge within the source, and measures were identified to improve its operational characteristics. Application of this novel source is anticipated to enable a low-temperature, safe process for the growth of high-quality epitaxial compound semiconductor films. This reduction of epitaxial growth temperatures may enable the fabrication of novel photovoltaic devices that have heretofore been impossible due to the deleterious effects of interdiffusion at heterointerfaces resulting from the high temperatures required to grow adequate quality material using conventional processes.

Stanbery, B.J. [Boeing Defense & Space Group, Seattle, WA (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Durable metallized polymer mirror  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

PRODUCTION OF METALS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described producing metallic thorium, titanium, zirconium, or hafnium from the fluoride. In the process, the fluoride is reduced with alkali or alkaline earth metal and a booster compound (e.g. iodine or a decomposable oxysalt) in a sealed bomb at superatmospheric pressure and a temperature above the melting point of the metal to be produced.

Spedding, F.H.; Wilhelm, H.A.; Keller, W.H.

1961-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Final Report for DOE Project Number: DE-FG02-05ER46241  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen storage is the most challenging task for the hydrogen economy. We established a multidisciplinary research program for high throughput combinatorial synthesis and characterization of novel nanoporous and metastable complex hydrides, coupled to fundamental material studies including electronic, structural and kinetic transport modeling, and pump-probe experiments. Our research is based the concept of hybrid nanostructures that store hydrogen by a combination of chemi- and physorption: atomic hydrogen is stored in metastable hydrides while molecule hydrogen is stored in the nanometer pores of the hydrides. Metastable nanostructured hydride has been achieved by introducing structural and compositional disorders through high throughput elemental substitution/doping, catalyst addition, and nonequilibrium processing. Fast screening compatible with the combinatorial synthesis was achieved by combining X-ray structural characterization with the development of a laser-based microbalance. Manufacturing of nanoporous metahydrides that are identified as promising by the combinatorial synthesis has been explored along with the materials search.

Gang Chen; Mildred S. Dresselhaus; Costas P. Grigoropoulos; Samuel S. Mao; Xiaodong Xiang; Taofang Zeng

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

402

The Scalable Parallel Random Number Generators (SPRNG) ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Random Number Generators (SPRNG) Library is a widely used tool for random number generation on high-performance computing platforms. ...

2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

403

Grantee Total Number of Homes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Grantee Grantee Total Number of Homes Weatherized through November 2011 [Recovery Act] Total Number of Homes Weatherized through November 2011 (Calendar Year 2009 - November 2011) [Recovery Act + Annual Program Funding] Alabama 6,704 7,867 1 Alaska 443 2,363 American Samoa 304 410 Arizona 6,354 7,518 Arkansas 5,231 6,949 California 41,649 50,002 Colorado 12,782 19,210 Connecticut 8,940 10,009 2 Delaware** 54 54 District of Columbia 962 1,399 Florida 18,953 20,075 Georgia 13,449 14,739 Guam 574 589 Hawaii 604 1,083 Idaho** 4,470 6,614 Illinois 35,530 44,493 Indiana** 18,768 21,689 Iowa 8,794 10,202 Kansas 6,339 7,638 Kentucky 7,639 10,902 Louisiana 4,698 6,946 Maine 5,130 6,664 Maryland 8,108 9,015 Massachusetts 17,687 21,645 Michigan 29,293 37,137 Minnesota 18,224 22,711 Mississippi 5,937 6,888 Missouri 17,334 20,319 Montana 3,310 6,860 Navajo Nation

404

Gas Diffusion in Metals: Fundamental Study of Helium-Point Defect Interactions in Iron and Kinetics of Hydrogen Desorption from Zirconium Hydride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ullmaier. Helium and hydrogen effects on the embrittlementT. Troev. The effect of hydrogen and helium on microvoidp. 1-51. M. Steinbruck. Hydrogen absorption by zirconium

Hu, Xunxiang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Gas Diffusion in Metals: Fundamental Study of Helium-Point Defect Interactions in Iron and Kinetics of Hydrogen Desorption from Zirconium Hydride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems, US Departmentof Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Science andGIF- Global Nuclear Energy Partnership technology

Hu, Xunxiang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Gas Diffusion in Metals: Fundamental Study of Helium-Point Defect Interactions in Iron and Kinetics of Hydrogen Desorption from Zirconium Hydride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steel irradiated in HFIR, as reproduced from Ref. [irons placed in HFIR. .. 97 Table 6-iron in HFIR. .. 102

Hu, Xunxiang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Gas Diffusion in Metals: Fundamental Study of Helium-Point Defect Interactions in Iron and Kinetics of Hydrogen Desorption from Zirconium Hydride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

structural materials for fusion reactors. Philos. Trans. R.temperature windows for fusion reactor structural materials.facing components of fusion reactors. J. Nucl. Mater. 329

Hu, Xunxiang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

UNDERSTANDING THE LOCAL ATOMIC LEVEL EFFECTS OF DOPANTS IN COMPLEX METAL HYDRIDES USING SYNCHROTRON XRAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY AND DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY  

SciTech Connect

This work resulted in five peer-reviewed journal publications (appended), as well as one doctoral dissertation and two masters theses.

Dobbins, Tabbetha

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

409

Gas Diffusion in Metals: Fundamental Study of Helium-Point Defect Interactions in Iron and Kinetics of Hydrogen Desorption from Zirconium Hydride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M.T. Robinson. BNES nuclear fusion reactors. London: Britishmaterials for fusion reactors. Nuclear Fusion 44 (2004) 56

Hu, Xunxiang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Total Number of Operable Refineries  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Delayed Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD Thermal Cracking Fluid Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Visbreaking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Other/Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Recycle Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Low Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming High Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating/Desulfurization Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Naphtha/Reformer Feed Charge Cap (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Gasoline Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Heavy Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Kerosene/Jet Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Diesel Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual/Other Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Oils Charge Capacity (B/SD) Fuels Solvent Deasphalting Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Period:

411

Control Measure Title Reference Number *  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exhaustive search for emissions reductions to use in meeting federal Clean Air Act requirements for this 2008 PM2.5 Plan. Chapter 6 details the Districts process for developing control measures for reducing emissions of primary PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursors. This Appendix presents the product of this process: a master list of all candidate control measure ideas identified and evaluated for this plan. After assembling Appendix I, the District then screened the candidate measures into several categories: high priority measures to be implemented in the years immediately following plan adoption; measures that might be implemented in future years to allow for expected technology development; and those measures that require further study to identify when they could be implemented and what reductions they could achieve. Candidate control measure descriptions in Appendix I have the following major components:! Title and Number

unknown authors

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

Royer, Lamar T. (Knoxville, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

Royer, L.T.

1987-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

414

HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT OF METALS: A PRIMER FOR THE FAILURE ANALYST  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen reduces the service life of many metallic components. Such reductions may be manifested as blisters, as a decrease in fatigue resistance, as enhanced creep, as the precipitation of a hydride phase and, most commonly, as unexpected, macroscopically brittle failure. This unexpected, brittle fracture is commonly termed hydrogen embrittlement. Frequently, hydrogen embrittlement occurs after the component has been is service for a period of time and much of the resulting fracture surface is distinctly intergranular. Many failures, particularly of high strength steels, are attributed to hydrogen embrittlement simply because the failure analyst sees intergranular fracture in a component that served adequately for a significant period of time. Unfortunately, simply determining that a failure is due to hydrogen embrittlement or some other form of hydrogen induced damage is of no particular help to the customer unless that determination is coupled with recommendations that provide pathways to avoid such damage in future applications. This paper presents qualitative and phenomenological descriptions of the hydrogen damage processes and outlines several metallurgical recommendations that may help reduce the susceptibility of a particular component or system to the various forms of hydrogen damage.

Louthan, M

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

415

Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd Sumitomo Metals | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd Sumitomo Metals Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd Sumitomo Metals Jump to: navigation, search Name Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd (Sumitomo Metals) Place Osaka-shi, Osaka, Japan Zip 540-0041 Sector Solar Product Engaged in the steel, engineering, and electronics businesses; works on fuel cell component technology and manufactures silicon wafers for the solar sector. References Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd (Sumitomo Metals)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd (Sumitomo Metals) is a company located in Osaka-shi, Osaka, Japan . References ↑ "Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd (Sumitomo Metals)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Sumitomo_Metal_Industries_Ltd_Sumitomo_Metals&oldid=351744"

416

FORMING PROTECTIVE FILMS ON METAL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are described of inhibiting the corrosion of ferrous metal by contact with heavy liquid metals such as bismuth and gallium at temperatures above 500 icient laborato C generally by bringing nltrogen and either the metal zirconium, hafnium, or titanium into reactlve contact with the ferrous metal to form a thin adherent layer of the nitride of the metal and thereafter maintaining a fractional percentage of the metal absorbed in the heavy liquid metal in contact with the ferrous metal container. The general purpose for uslng such high boiling liquid metals in ferrous contalners would be as heat transfer agents in liquid-metal-fueled nuclear reactors.

Gurinsky, D.H.; Kammerer, O.F.; Sadofsky, J.; Weeks, J.R.

1958-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

417

Metal atomization spray nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal.

Huxford, Theodore J. (Harriman, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Supported metal alloy catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of preparing a Group IV, V, or VI metal carbonitride including reacting a Group IV, V, or VI metal amide complex with ammonia to obtain an intermediate product; and, heating the intermediate product to temperatures and for times sufficient to form a Group IV, V, or VI metal carbonitride is provided together with the product of the process and a process of reforming an n-alkane by use of the product.

Barrera, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, David C. (Santa Clara, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Metal atomization spray nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

Huxford, T.J.

1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

420

Metal atom oxidation laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides. (auth)

Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

1975-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Metal atom oxidation laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides.

Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

1975-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

422

Characterization of Light Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 15, 2012 ... Characterization of Grit Blasted Metallic Biomaterials by ... The grit blasting, a surface improvement treatment is used to enhance mechanical...

423

Metal Matrix Composites - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

METAL- MATRIX COMPOSITES UNDER MULTI- AXIAL LOADINGS: M. V. S. Ravisankar ... including the values of the stress exponent and the activation energy.

424

ELECTRON WELDING OF METALS  

SciTech Connect

The advantages and disadvantages of the electron welding of metals are briefly reviewed. Typical apparatuses used for electron welding are described. (J.S.R)

Stohr, J.-A.

1958-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Identification Numbers  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Renewable Renewable Identification Numbers to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Identification Numbers on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Identification Numbers on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Identification Numbers on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Identification Numbers on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Identification Numbers on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Identification Numbers on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Identification Numbers RIN Format EPA uses the following format to determine RINs for each physical gallon of

426

Why is hydrogen's atomic number 1?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the number of protons in an atom's nucleus. Hydrogen's atomic number is 1 because all hydrogen atoms contain exactly one proton. Author: Steve Gagnon, Science Education Specialist...

427

Reference Number PCR Kit Name Manufacturer Kit ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Reference Number PCR Kit Name Manufacturer Kit Description 1 Profiler Life Technologies AmpFlSTR Profiler (Part number 403038) ...

2013-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

428

Number: 894 Description: How far is it ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Number: 1198 Description: When was Hiroshima bombed? ... 1264 Description: What is the atomic weight of ...

2002-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

429

Clean Metal Spray Forming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

controlled transfer of liquid metal from the ESR pool to the spray forming system is performed using a ... heating to maintain superheat and avoid freezing of the liquid metal as it flows through the funnel. ... As is the case with all similar cross-.

430

Explosion metal welding  

SciTech Connect

Process parameters pertaining to welding similar and dissimilar metals using explosives are reviewed. The discussion centers on the interrelationship of physical parameters which play a part in achieving desirable metallurgical results. Present activities in explosion metal welding at LASL are presented and shown how they related to the interests of the ERDA community.

Popoff, A.A.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for producing plutonium metal by the reduction of plutonium chloride, dissolved in alkali metal chloride plus or minus aluminum chloride, with magnesium or a magnesium-aluminum alloy at between 700 and 800 deg C and separating the plutonium or plutonium-aluminum alloy formed from the salt.

Lyon, W.L.; Moore, R.H.

1961-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

432

Computational Design of Metal Ion Sequestering Agents  

SciTech Connect

Organic ligands that exhibit a high degree of metal ion recognition are essential precursors for developing separation processes and sensors for metal ions. Since the beginning of the nuclear era, much research has focused on discovering ligands that target specific radionuclides. Members of the Group 1A and 2A cations (e.g., Cs, Sr, Ra) and the f-block metals (actinides and lanthanides) are of primary concern to DOE. Although there has been some success in identifying ligand architectures that exhibit a degree of metal ion recognition, the ability to control binding affinity and selectivity remains a significant challenge. The traditional approach for discovering such ligands has involved lengthy programs of organic synthesis and testing that, in the absence of reliable methods for screening compounds before synthesis, have resulted in much wasted research effort. This project seeks to enhance and strengthen the traditional approach through computer-aided design of new and improved host molecules. Accurate electronic structure calculations are coupled with experimental data to provide fundamental information about ligand structure and the nature of metal-donor group interactions (design criteria). This fundamental information then is used in a molecular mechanics model (MM) that helps us rapidly screen proposed ligand architectures and select the best members from a set of potential candidates. By using combinatorial methods, molecule building software has been developed that generates large numbers of candidate architectures for a given set of donor groups. The specific goals of this project are: further understand the structural and energetic aspects of individual donor group- metal ion interactions and incorporate this information within the MM framework further develop and evaluate approaches for correlating ligand structure with reactivity toward metal ions, in other words, screening capability use molecule structure building software to generate large numbers of candidate ligand architectures for given sets of donor groups screen candidates and identify ligand architectures that will exhibit enhanced metal ion recognition. These new capabilities are being applied to ligand systems identified under other DOEsponsored projects where studies have suggested that modifying existing architectures will lead to dramatic enhancements in metal ion binding affinity and selectivity. With this in mind, we are collaborating with Professors R. T. Paine (University of New Mexico), K. N. Raymond (University of California, Berkeley), and J. E. Hutchison (University of Oregon), and Dr. B. A. Moyer (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) to obtain experimental validation of the predicted new ligand structures. Successful completion of this study will yield molecular-level insight into the role that ligand architecture plays in controlling metal ion complexation and will provide a computational approach to ligand design.

Hay, Benjamin P.; Rapko, Brian M.

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

A METALLICITY-SPIN TEMPERATURE RELATION IN DAMPED Lyalpha SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report evidence for an anti-correlation between spin temperature T{sub s} and metallicity [Z/H], detected at 3.6sigma significance in a sample of 26 damped Lyalpha absorbers (DLAs) at redshifts 0.09 gas temperature distribution. The trend between T{sub s} and [Z/H] can be explained by the larger number of radiation pathways for gas cooling in galaxies with high metal abundances, resulting in a high cold gas fraction, and hence, a low spin temperature. Conversely, low-metallicity galaxies have fewer cooling routes, yielding a larger warm gas fraction and a high T{sub s} . Most DLAs at z > 1.7 have low metallicities, [Z/H] tight correlation between DLA metallicity and the kinematic widths of metal lines. Most high-z DLAs are likely to arise in galaxies with low masses (M {sub vir} gas fractions.

Kanekar, Nissim [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Smette, Alain [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Briggs, Frank H. [RSAA, The Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, ACT 2611 (Australia); Chengalur, Jayaram N., E-mail: nkanekar@nrao.ed [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Production of magnesium metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN); Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN); Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN); Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA)

2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

435

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Determination Form  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Complex Metal Hydrides Complex Metal Hydrides Savannah River Site Aiken/Aiken/South Carolina This project develops new complex metal hydride materials for hydrogen storage. The alkali-metal hydrides, alanates, borohydrides, hydrocarbon solvents, metallorganic complexes, nanomaterials, metals and their salts will be acquired, stored and processed in an Argon-filled glovebox due to their sensitivity to air and moisture. The processes include but are not limited to hydride dissolution in organic solvents, impurities filtration, hydrides recrystallization, and hydrides blending with additives (metallorganic complexes, metals and salts), melt processing, and absorption/ desorption for material property testing. B3.6 - Small-scale research and development, laboratory operations, and pilot projects

436

XRD and NMR investigation of Ti-compound formation in solution-doping of sodium aluminum hydrides: Solubility of Ti in NaAlH4 crystals grown in THF  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sodium aluminum hydrides have gained attention due to their high hydrogen weight percent (5.5% ideal) compared to interstitial hydrides, and as a model for hydrides with even higher hydrogen weight fraction. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the Ti-compounds that are formed under solution-doping techniques, such as wet doping in solvents such as tetrahydrofuran (THF). Compound formation in Ti-doped sodium aluminum hydrides is investigated using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We present lattice parameter measurements of crushed single crystals, which were exposed to Ti during growth. Rietveld refinements indicate no lattice parameter change and thus no solubility for Ti in NaAlH{sub 4} by this method of exposure. In addition, x-ray diffraction data indicate that no Ti substitutes in NaH, the final decomposition product for the alanate. Reaction products of completely reacted (33.3 at. %-doped) samples that were solvent-mixed or mechanically milled are investigated. Formation of TiAl{sub 3} is observed in mechanically milled materials, but not solution mixed samples, where bonding to THF likely stabilizes Ti-based nano-clusters. The Ti in these clusters is activated by mechanical milling.

Majzoub, E H; Herberg, J L; Stumpf, R; Spangler, S; Maxwell, R S

2004-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

437

Sheffield Metals International | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Metals International Metals International Jump to: navigation, search Name Sheffield Metals International Address 5467 Evergreen Parkway Place Sheffield Village, Ohio Zip 44054 Sector Buildings, Efficiency, Solar Product Agriculture; Consulting; Manufacturing; Retail product sales and distribution;Trainining and education Phone number 800-283-5262 Website http://www.sheffieldmetals.com Coordinates 41.452914°, -82.072009° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.452914,"lon":-82.072009,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

438

Northern States Metals Company | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Metals Company Metals Company Jump to: navigation, search Name Northern States Metals Company Address 3207 Innovation Place Place Youngstown, Ohio Zip 44509 Sector Solar Product Manufacturing Phone number 330-799-1855 Website http://extrusions.com Coordinates 41.123592°, -80.704685° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":41.123592,"lon":-80.704685,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

439

Business Center for Precious Metals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Department of Energy Business Center for Precious Metals Department of Energy Business Center for Precious Metals Becky Eddy National Nuclear Security Administration Y-12 Site...

440

Nonferrous Metals Society of China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Nonferrous Metals Society of China (NFSoc) is a technological organization of scientists and technologists engaged in the nonferrous metals industry.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Metal RIE 1: Unaxis 790  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Scientific Opportunities / Applications: Physical milling of most metals; Anisotropic etching of metal films; Anisotropic etching of SiO 2 and SiN x. ...

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

442

Actinide metal processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

443

Actinide metal processing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

1991-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

444

Charged Metallic Clusters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Usually in Nuclear Physics the minimum of the liquid drop model (LDM) energy occurs at a mass asymmetry which is different from the minimum of shell correction. Charged metallic clusters are ideal emitters of singly ionized trimers because both LDM and shell correction are reaching a minimum for the same mass asymmetry corresponding to the emission of a charged particle with two delocalized electrons. Maximum dissociation energy (Q-value) is obtained for metallic clusters with high surface tension and low Wigner-Seitz radius (transition metals). The Q-values for spheroidal shapes are much larger than for hemispheroids.

Poenaru, D. N.; Gherghescu, R. A. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Solov'yov, A. V.; Greiner, W. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2009-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

445

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

446

Fast library for number theory: an introduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We discuss FLINT (Fast Library for Number Theory), a library to support computations in number theory, including highly optimised routines for polynomial arithmetic and linear algebra in exact rings.

William B. Hart

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

,"New Mexico Number of Natural Gas Consumers"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1: Residential" "Sourcekey","NA1501SNM8","NA1508SNM8","NA1509SNM8" "Date","New Mexico Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Count)","New Mexico Natural Gas Number of...

448

Number: 1 Description: What powers did ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... top> Number: 10 Description: What is one of the major problems with electronic producing turbines (windmills) in California? ...

2002-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

449

Number: 1 Description: How did the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Number: 80 Description: What part did ITT (International Telephone and Telegraph) and Anaconda Copper play in the ...

2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

450

Divalent metal nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metal nanoparticles hold promise for many scientific and technological applications, such as chemical and biological sensors, vehicles for drug delivery, and subdiffraction limit waveguides. To fabricate such devices, a ...

DeVries, Gretchen Anne

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Production of magnesium metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN); Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN); Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN); Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

452

Controlled Metal Photodeposition  

A reliable syntheses of semiconductor-metal heterostructure has been developed to enable application of materials in catalytic, magnetic, and opto-electronic devices, and Iowa State University, The Ames Laboratory's Contractor, is looking for ...

453

General Light Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 3, 2011 ... A detailed literature survey indicates that vacuum sintering is able to produce ... In recent years, there is a high demand for light-weight metals foams. ... Each powder mixture's composition is determined by response surface...

454

Metal Matrix Composites II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 29, 2013... of Al-AC8H/Al2O3p Metal Matrix Composites Produced by Stir Casting Route: Anne Zulfia1; Maman Ajiriyanto1; 1University of Indonesia

455

Molten metal reactors  

SciTech Connect

A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

456

Cooling system for continuous metal casting machines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous metal caster cooling system is provided in which water is supplied in jets from a large number of small nozzles against the inner surface of rim at a temperature and with sufficient pressure that the velocity of the jets is sufficiently high that the mode of heat transfer is substantially by forced convection, the liquid being returned from the cooling chambers through return pipes distributed interstitially among the nozzles. 9 figs.

Draper, R.; Sumpman, W.C.; Baker, R.J.; Williams, R.S.

1988-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

457

Cooling system for continuous metal casting machines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous metal caster cooling system is provided in which water is supplied in jets from a large number of small nozzles 19 against the inner surface of rim 13 at a temperature and with sufficient pressure that the velocity of the jets is sufficiently high that the mode of heat transfer is substantially by forced convection, the liquid being returned from the cooling chambers 30 through return pipes 25 distributed interstitially among the nozzles.

Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); Sumpman, Wayne C. (North Huntingdon, PA); Baker, Robert J. (Wilkins Township, Allegheny County, PA); Williams, Robert S. (Plum Borough, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Effect of current density on thermodynamic properties of nanocrystalline palladium capped samarium hydride thin film switchable mirrors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 55 nm samarium film capped with a 10 nm palladium overlayer switched from a metallic reflecting to a semiconducting, transparent in visible state during ex-situ hydrogen loading via electrochemical means in 1 M KOH electrolytic aqueous solution at ...

Pushpendra Kumar; L. K. Malhotra

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Regeneration of Aluminum Hydride  

Alane is one of the most promising solutions to storing hydrogen for use in hydrogen fuel cells. This technology provides exceptional improvement in ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "metal hydride number" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Regeneration of aluminum hydride  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

Graetz, Jason Allan (Mastic, NY); Reilly, James J. (Bellport, NY)

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

462

Regeneration of aluminum hydride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

463

Chemical Hydrides Breakout Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Process Development Approach To Deliver Economic H 2 via NaBH 4 NaBH 4 Natural Gas Solar Energy Hydro Power H 2 Catalyst + H 2 Borate Return Geo- thermal Energy Source Borates...

464

Interaction Between Toxic Metals and Complex Biofilm/Mineral/Solution  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

highlights highlights title by Alexis S. Templeton, Thomas P. Trainor, and Gordon E. Brown, Jr., Stanford University Sorption reactions on particle surfaces can dramatically affect the speciation, cycling and bioavailability of essential micronutrients (i.e. PO43-, Cu, Zn etc.) and toxic metals and metalloids (i.e. Pb, Hg, Se, As) in soils and aquatic environments. Considerable attention has been focused on understanding metal sorption reactions at a molecular/mechanistic level and the effects of metal concentration, pH, ionic strength, and complexing ligands on the ways in which metal ions bind to the surfaces of common mineral phases such as Fe-, Mn- and Al-(hydr)oxides and clays. However, a significant fraction of mineral surfaces in natural environments are extensively colonized by microbial organisms, which can also be potent sorbents for metals due to the large number of reactive functional groups that decorate the cell walls and outer membranes of bacterial surfaces.

465

Liquid metal thermal electric converter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Method for forming metal contacts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods of forming metal contacts with metal inks in the manufacture of photovoltaic devices are disclosed. The metal inks are selectively deposited on semiconductor coatings by inkjet and aerosol apparatus. The composite is heated to selective temperatures where the metal inks burn through the coating to form an electrical contact with the semiconductor. Metal layers are then deposited on the electrical contacts by light induced or light assisted plating.

Reddington, Erik; Sutter, Thomas C; Bu, Lujia; Cannon, Alexandra; Habas, Susan E; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alexander; Ginley, David S; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

467

Utah Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Utah Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

468

Arizona Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Arizona Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

469

Kansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Kansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

470

Alaska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Alaska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

471

Montana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Montana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

472

Wyoming Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Wyoming Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

473

Indiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Indiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

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