Sample records for metal catalysts platinum

  1. Exhaust system having a gold-platinum group metal catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ragle, Christie Susan (Havana, IL); Silver, Ronald G. (Peoria, IL); Zemskova, Svetlana Mikhailovna (Edelstein, IL); Eckstein, Colleen J. (Metamora, IL)

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of providing an exhaust treatment device is disclosed. The method includes applying a catalyst including gold and a platinum group metal to a particulate filter. The concentration of the gold and the platinum group metal is sufficient to enable oxidation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide.

  2. Noble Metal Catalysts for Mercury Oxidation in Utility Flue Gas: Gold, Palladium and Platinum Formulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of noble metals as catalysts for mercury oxidation in flue gas remains an area of active study. To date, field studies have focused on gold and palladium catalysts installed at pilot scale. In this article, we introduce bench-scale experimental results for gold, palladium and platinum catalysts tested in realistic simulated flue gas. Our initial results reveal some intriguing characteristics of catalytic mercury oxidation and provide insight for future research into this potentially important process.

  3. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of “stoves” that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the “final” products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

  4. PLATINUM-GROUP METALS By Robert G. Reese

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    petroleum-refining industries. They are also used in the of scrap. Because of their high value, PGM, chemical catalysts, industries. Of the six metals, platinum and palladium are the automobile catalysts1 PLATINUM-GROUP METALS By Robert G. Reese Six metals--platinum, palladium, rhodium, iridium

  5. Dispersion enhanced metal/zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachtler, W.M.H.; Tzou, M.S.; Jiang, H.J.

    1987-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dispersion stabilized zeolite supported metal catalysts are provided as bimetallic catalyst combinations. The catalyst metal is in a reduced zero valent form while the dispersion stabilizer metal is in an unreduced ionic form. Representative catalysts are prepared from platinum or nickel as the catalyst metal and iron or chromium dispersion stabilizer.

  6. Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell...

  7. Platinum-ruthenium-nickel alloy for use as a fuel cell catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorer, Alexander

    2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved noble metal alloy composition for a fuel cell catalyst, the alloy containing platinum, ruthenium, and nickel. The alloy shows methanol oxidation activity.

  8. Platinum-ruthenium-nickel alloy for use as a fuel cell catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorer, Alexander (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved noble metal alloy composition for a fuel cell catalyst, the alloy containing platinum, ruthenium, and nickel. The alloy shows methanol oxidation activity.

  9. Extended Platinum Nanotubes as Fuel Cell Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alia, S.; Pivovar, B. S.; Yan, Y.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy consumption has relied principally on fossil fuels as an energy source; fuel cells, however, can provide a clean and sustainable alternative, an answer to the depletion and climate change concerns of fossil fuels. Within proton exchange membrane fuel cells, high catalyst cost and poor durability limit the commercial viability of the device. Recently, platinum nanotubes (PtNTs) were studied as durable, active catalysts, providing a platform to meet US Department of Energy vehicular activity targets.[1] Porous PtNTs were developed to increase nanotube surface area, improving mass activity for oxygen reduction without sacrificing durability.[2] Subsurface platinum was then replaced with palladium, forming platinum-coated palladium nanotubes.[3] By forming a core shell structure, platinum utilization was increased, reducing catalyst cost. Alternative substrates have also been examined, modifying platinum surface facets and increasing oxygen reduction specific activity. Through modification of the PtNT platform, catalyst limitations can be reduced, ensuring a commercially viable device.

  10. PLATINUM-GROUP METALS (Platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, osmium)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    public and private effort to develop fuel cell technology. Platinum is the catalyst used by fuel cells Events, Trends, and Issues: The desire for an alternative fuel for automobiles has led to a large global platinum loadings on catalysts, especially in light-duty diesel vehicles, as particulate matter emissions

  11. Particle size effects of methylcyclopentane hydrogenolysis and SMSI in lanthanide oxide-supported 1%-platinum metal catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terhune, Kyte Hamilton

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ation of the catalysts metal in a Pt/Si02 system (a geome- tric effect). (14a, b, d, 33) These support cations have been observed by several investigators to be produced under low- temperature hydrogen reduction conditions. (34, 35) F... to the drybox. 2. Reactor S stem. All hydrogenation and hydrogen- olysis experiments were performed in the gas phase using a stirred-batch Pyrex recirculation type system shown in Figure 1. The catalyst sample was contained in a standard U-shaped reactor...

  12. Porous platinum-based catalysts for oxygen reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erlebacher, Jonah D; Snyder, Joshua D

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A porous metal that comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m.sup.2/g and less than 75 m.sup.2/g. A fuel cell includes a first electrode, a second electrode spaced apart from the first electrode, and an electrolyte arranged between the first and the second electrodes. At least one of the first and second electrodes is coated with a porous metal catalyst for oxygen reduction, and the porous metal catalyst comprises platinum and has a specific surface area that is greater than 5 m.sup.2/g and less than 75 m.sup.2/g. A method of producing a porous metal according to an embodiment of the current invention includes producing an alloy consisting essentially of platinum and nickel according to the formula Pt.sub.xNi.sub.1-x, where x is at least 0.01 and less than 0.3; and dealloying the alloy in a substantially pH neutral solution to reduce an amount of nickel in the alloy to produce the porous metal.

  13. Monodisperse Platinum and Rhodium Nanoparticles as Model Heterogeneous Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coble, Inger M

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Model heterogeneous catalysts have been synthesized and studied to better understand how the surface structure of noble metal nanoparticles affects catalytic performance. In this project, monodisperse rhodium and platinum nanoparticles of controlled size and shape have been synthesized by solution phase polyol reduction, stabilized by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Model catalysts have been developed using these nanoparticles by two methods: synthesis of mesoporous silica (SBA-15) in the presence of nanoparticles (nanoparticle encapsulation, NE) to form a composite of metal nanoparticles supported on SBA-15 and by deposition of the particles onto a silicon wafer using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayer deposition. The particle shapes were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM) and the sizes were determined by TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and in the case of NE samples, room temperature H2 and CO adsorption isotherms. Catalytic studies were carried out in homebuilt gas-phase reactors. For the nanoparticles supported on SBA-15, the catalysts are in powder form and were studied using the homebuilt systems as plug-flow reactors. In the case of nanoparticles deposited on silicon wafers, the same systems were operated as batch reactors. This dissertation has focused on the synthesis, characterization, and reaction studies of model noble metal heterogeneous catalysts. Careful control of particle size and shape has been accomplished though solution phase synthesis of Pt and Rh nanoparticles in order to elucidate further structure-reactivity relationships in noble metal catalysis.

  14. Noble metal catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of precious metals and platinum group metals as catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas is an active area of study. To date, field studies have recently focused on gold and palladium catalysts installed at pilot-scale. In this work, we introduce bench-scale results for gold, platinum, and palladium catalysts tested in realistic simulated flue gas. Initial results reveal intriguing characteristics of catalytic mercury oxidation and provide insight for future research.

  15. PLATINUM-GROUP METALS (Platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, osmium)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and private effort to develop fuel cell technology. Platinum is the catalyst used in fuel cells to convert for air-pollution abatement in both light- and heavy-duty vehicles. PGMs are also used in the chemical. The desire for an alternative fuel, both for automobiles and to power homes, has led to a large global public

  16. PLATINUM-GROUP METALS (Platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, osmium)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and demand. With a short supply, the price of rhodium surged to a 5-year high. An increase in diesel car. Catalysts for air pollution abatement continued to be the leading demand sector for PGMs. In the United in 2004, palladium prices fell in 2005 because of weak demand and oversupply. Meanwhile, the platinum

  17. Recent Strikes in South Africa's Platinum-Group Metal Mines--Effects Upon World Platinum-Group Metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torgersen, Christian

    Recent Strikes in South Africa's Platinum-Group Metal Mines--Effects Upon World Platinum.J., 2012, Recent strikes in South Africa's platinum-group metal mines--Effects upon world platinum........................................................................................................................................................... 5 Figures 1. Maps showing the (A) distribution and (B) geology of South Africa's platinum

  18. PLATINUM--GROUP METALS--1998 58.1 PLATINUM-GROUP METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -group metals (PGM) market that resulted in higher prices. Despite the later resumption of Russian shipments, borrowing cost remained high, briefly supporting platinum and palladium prices above $400 per ounce. World palladium-rich technology for gasoline cars, further eroding platinum's share of the gasoline engine market

  19. Supported molten-metal catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datta, Ravindra (Iowa City, IA); Singh, Ajeet (Iowa City, IA); Halasz, Istvan (Iowa City, IA); Serban, Manuela (Iowa City, IA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An entirely new class of catalysts called supported molten-metal catalysts, SMMC, which can replace some of the existing precious metal catalysts used in the production of fuels, commodity chemicals, and fine chemicals, as well as in combating pollution. SMMC are based on supporting ultra-thin films or micro-droplets of the relatively low-melting (<600.degree. C.), inexpensive, and abundant metals and semimetals from groups 1, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16, of the periodic table, or their alloys and intermetallic compounds, on porous refractory supports, much like supported microcrystallites of the traditional solid metal catalysts. It thus provides orders of magnitude higher surface area than is obtainable in conventional reactors containing molten metals in pool form and also avoids corrosion. These have so far been the chief stumbling blocks in the application of molten metal catalysts.

  20. Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, V.A.; Iton, L.E.; Pasterczyk, J.W.; Winterer, M.; Krause, T.R.

    1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A zeolite-based catalyst is described for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C[sub 2]+ hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

  1. PLATINUM-GROUP METALS (Platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, osmium)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to convert hydrogen and oxygen to electricity. Palladium will also likely play a role in the fuel cell on gasoline-engine vehicles in favor of palladium. The sales of platinum jewelry are expected to drop

  2. Method for producing electricity using a platinum-ruthenium-palladium catalyst in a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorer, Alexander

    2004-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing electricity using a fuel cell that utilizes a ternary alloy composition as a fuel cell catalyst, the ternary alloy composition containing platinum, ruthenium and palladium. The alloy shows increased activity as compared to well-known catalysts.

  3. Nanosegregated Surfaces as Catalysts for Fuel Cells | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanosegregated Surfaces as Catalysts for Fuel Cells Technology available for licensing: A method for creating a new class of platinum multi-metallic catalysts that are not only...

  4. A Single-Site Platinum CO Oxidation Catalyst in Zeolite KLTL: Microscopic and Spectroscopic Determination of the Locations of the Platinum Atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kistler, Joseph D.; Chotigkrai, Nutchapon; Xu, Pinghong; Enderle, Bryan; Praserthdam, Piyasan; Chen, Cong-Yan; Browning, Nigel D.; Gates, Bruce C.

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A stable site-isolated mononuclear platinum catalyst with a well-defined structure is presented. Platinum complexes supported in zeolite KLTL were synthesized from [Pt(NH3)4](NO3)2, oxidized at 633?K, and used to catalyze CO oxidation. IR and X-ray absorption spectra and electron micrographs determine the structures and locations of the platinum complexes in the zeolite pores, demonstrate the platinum-support bonding, and show that the platinum remained site isolated after oxidation and catalysis.

  5. Hydrogenation of anthraquinone on metal-containing catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunin, V.V.; Markaryan, G.L.; Chetina, O.V.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work studied the reaction of hydrogen activated on metal-containing catalysts (platinum black, Pt/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (AP-15), and the hydride ZrNiH/sub 2.8/ with anthraquinone. The hydrogenation of anthraquinone bound into a strong donor-acceptor complex on the surface of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and AP-15 and physically absorbed on silica gel was investigated. Results indicated that under conditions of mechanical mixing of silica gel with catalysts containing platinum or hydrides of intermetallic compounds in an atmosphere of hydrogen, anthraquinone physically adsorbed on silica gel is able to undergo hydrogenation at temperature above 100/sup 0/ C with formation of anthracene.

  6. Metal phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a new composition of matter, alkali metal or ammonium or tetraalkylammonium diazidoperfluorophthalocyanatoferrate. Other embodiments of the invention comprise compositions wherein the metal of the coordination complex is cobalt, manganese and chromium.

  7. Solid-state NMR studies of the adsorption of acetylene on platinum/alumina catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambregts, Marsha Jo Lupher

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLID-STATE NMR STUDIES OF THE ADSORPTION OF ACETYLENE ON PLATINUM/ALUMINA CATALYSTS A Thesis by MARSHA JO LUPHER LAMBREGTS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Chemistry SOLID-STATE NMR STUDIES OF THE ADSORPTION OF ACETYLENE ON PLATINUM/ALUMINA CATALYSTS A Thesis by MARSHA JO LUPHER LAMBREGTS Approved as to style and content by: ames F. Haw...

  8. Carbon Supported Polyaniline as Anode Catalyst: Pathway to Platinum-Free Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabrodskii, A G; Malyshkin, V G; Sapurina, I Y

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effectiveness of carbon supported polyaniline as anode catalyst in a fuel cell (FC) with direct formic acid electrooxidation is experimentally demonstrated. A prototype FC with such a platinum-free composite anode exhibited a maximum room-temperature specific power of about 5 mW/cm2

  9. The Reactivity Limit for Methanol Oxidation on Platinum/Ruthenium Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Reactivity Limit for Methanol Oxidation on Platinum/Ruthenium Catalysts A. Wieckowski 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Pt/Ru Decorated (UIUC) PtRu Alloy (JM) E = 0.4 V Oxidation in 0.5 M Methanol

  10. PLATINUM-GROUP METALS--2000 59.1 PLATINUMGROUP METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , on the other hand, continued to grow and has become one of platinum's largest applications. Demand for platinum disks caused demand in electrical-electronics applications to increase substantially. Growth in consumer for platinum and rhodium can be attributed to increased demand, mainly from the automobile sector. Palladium

  11. Model catalytic studies of single crystal, polycrystalline metal, and supported catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Zhen

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    supported Pd/Al2 O3 catalysts, a Pd(100) single crystal, as well as polycrystalline metals of rhodium, palladium, and platinum. A hyperactive state, corresponding to an oxygen covered surface, was observed at high O 2/CO ratios at elevated pressures...

  12. Catalytic oxidation of CO by platinum group metals: from ultrahigh vacuum to elevated pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    oxidation over platinum group metals has been investigated for some eight decades by many researchersCatalytic oxidation of CO by platinum group metals: from ultrahigh vacuum to elevated pressures A Catalytic oxidation of CO over platinum group metals (Pt, Ir, Rh and Pd) has been the subject of many

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: fuel cell catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fuel cell catalyst ECIS and Compass Metals: Platinum Nanostructures for Enhanced Catalysis On March 29, 2013, in Advanced Materials Laboratory, Capabilities, Energy, Energy...

  14. Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells These slides were presented at the 2010 New Fuel Cell Projects Meeting on September 28, 2010. 7uscpopov.pdf More Documents &...

  15. Metal nanoparticles as a conductive catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coker, Eric N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal nanocluster composite material for use as a conductive catalyst. The metal nanocluster composite material has metal nanoclusters on a carbon substrate formed within a porous zeolitic material, forming stable metal nanoclusters with a size distribution between 0.6-10 nm and, more particularly, nanoclusters with a size distribution in a range as low as 0.6-0.9 nm.

  16. Reactivity and stability of platinum and platinum alloy catalysts toward the oxygen reduction reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvo, Sergio Rafael

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Density functional theory (DFT) is used to study the reactivity of Pt and Pt-M (M: Pd, Co, Ni, V, and Rh) alloy catalysts towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as a function of the alloy overall composition and surface atomic distribution...

  17. Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gangwal, S.; Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption process, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gases from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or passivating the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

  18. 2006 Minerals Yearbook PLATINUM-GROUP METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    it was shipped to the smelter. The company milled 1.29 million metric tons (Mt) of ore from the mines, slightly, the concentrates from both mines are processed first at the precious metal smelter. The concentrate, which contains treatment. The smelter has an offgas processing facility that captures more than 99.7% of the sulfur dioxide

  19. Cobalt discovery replaces precious metals as industrial catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    develop alternatives to the precious metal catalysts by using relatively inexpensive, earth-abundant metals. The chemical complexities of the more common metals have made this...

  20. Platinum Group Metal Recycling Technology Development - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence Shore

    2009-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    BASF Catalysts LLC, formerly Engelhard Corporation, has completed a project to recover Pt from PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies. The project, which began in 2003, has met the project objective of an environmentally-friendly, cost-effective method for recovery of platinum without release of hydrogen fluoride. This has been achieved using a combination of milling, dispersion and acid leaching. 99% recovery of Pt was achieved, and this high yield can be scaled up using one vessel for a single leach and rinse. Leaching was been successfully achieved using a 10% solids level, double the original target. At this solids content, the reagent and utility costs represent ~0.35% of the Pt value of a lot, using very conservative assumptions. The main cost of the process is capital depreciation, followed by labor.

  1. Single-layer transition metal sulfide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition Metal Sulfides (TMS), such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2), are the petroleum industry's "workhorse" catalysts for upgrading heavy petroleum feedstocks and removing sulfur, nitrogen and other pollutants from fuels. We have developed an improved synthesis technique to produce SLTMS catalysts, such as molybdenum disulfide, with potentially greater activity and specificity than those currently available. Applications for this technology include heavy feed upgrading, in-situ catalysis, bio-fuel conversion and coal liquefaction.

  2. Novel platinum/carbon catalysts with cluster size control for hydrogen fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and supports · Experimental ­ Novel catalyst preparation · Results ­ Metal cluster size ­ Electrochemical, more abundant metal Approach: · Cluster chemistry via Mass Spectrometry H2 vs. CO adsorption rates;Cluster Chemistry Laser Ablation FT Mass Spectrometry: adsorption of H2 and CO by clusters of known size

  3. PLATINUM-GROUP METALS--1999 58.1 PLATINUM-GROUP METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the United States was down by more than 8%. The automotive industry continued to be the major consumer of PGM, and rhodium, mainly from the automotive sector, led to deficits in supplies for these metals in 1999. Of the three metals, palladium had the largest deficit owing to increased demand from the automotive sector

  4. Subnanometer platinum clusters highly active and selective catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vajda, S; Pellin, M. J.; Greeley, J. P.; Marshall, C. L.; Curtiss, L. A.; Ballentine, G. A.; Elam, J. W.; Catillon-Mucherie, S.; Redfern, P. C.; Mehmood, F.; Zapol, P.; Yale Univ.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small clusters are known to possess reactivity not observed in their bulk analogues, which can make them attractive for catalysis. Their distinct catalytic properties are often hypothesized to result from the large fraction of under-coordinated surface atoms. Here, we show that size-preselected Pt{sub 8-10} clusters stabilized on high-surface-area supports are 40-100 times more active for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane than previously studied platinum and vanadia catalysts, while at the same time maintaining high selectivity towards formation of propylene over by-products. Quantum chemical calculations indicate that under-coordination of the Pt atoms in the clusters is responsible for the surprisingly high reactivity compared with extended surfaces. We anticipate that these results will form the basis for development of a new class of catalysts by providing a route to bond-specific chemistry, ranging from energy-efficient and environmentally friendly synthesis strategies to the replacement of petrochemical feedstocks by abundant small alkanes.

  5. Metal-Oxo Catalysts for Generating Hydrogen from Water

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed an inexpensive, highly efficient catalyst that can be used in the electrolysis of water to generate H2—a source of clean fuel, a reducing agent for metal ores, and a reactant used to produce hydrochloric acid and other chemicals. The catalyst is a metal-oxo complex in which modified pyridine rings surround an earth-abundant, low cost metal, such as molybdenum. Compared to other molecular catalysts, the Berkeley Lab compound has a longer life,...

  6. Cobalt discovery replaces precious metals as industrial catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - The new material has the highest oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in alkaline media of any non-precious metal catalyst developed to date. Los Alamos research better...

  7. U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--MINERALS INFORMATION 1 PLATINUM-GROUP METALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    or upgrading a particular type of scrap. automotive, chemical, and petroleum refining industries. PGM Because fiber bushings, electronic scrap, laboratory equipment, Although the metals of the group generallyU.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY--MINERALS INFORMATION 1 PLATINUM-GROUP METALS By Henry E. Hilliard Six

  8. Method of making metal-polymer composite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zelena, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM); Bashyam, Rajesh (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal-polymer-carbon composite catalyst for use as a cathode electrocatalyst in fuel cells. The catalyst includes a heteroatomic polymer; a transition metal linked to the heteroatomic polymer by one of nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus, and a recast ionomer dispersed throughout the heteroatomic polymer-carbon composite. The method includes forming a heteroatomic polymer-carbon composite and loading the transition metal onto the composite. The invention also provides a method of making a membrane electrode assembly for a fuel cell that includes the metal-polymer-carbon composite catalyst.

  9. Design Principles for Oxygen-Reduction Activity on Perovskite Oxide Catalysts for Fuel Cells and Metal-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J Suntivich; H Gasteiger; N Yabuuchi; H Nakanishi; J Goodenough; Y Shao-Horn

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to {sigma}*-orbital (e{sub g}) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the {sigma}* orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O{sub 2}{sup 2-}/OH{sup -} displacement and OH{sup -} regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

  10. Neutral bimetallic transition metal phenoxyiminato catalysts and related polymerization methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Rodriguez, Brandon A. (Evanston, IL); Delferro, Massimiliano (Chicago, IL)

    2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst composition comprising a neutral bimetallic diphenoxydiiminate complex of group 10 metals or Ni, Pd or Pt is disclosed. The compositions can be used for the preparation of homo- and co-polymers of olefinic monomer compounds.

  11. Carbo-metallic oil-conversion process and catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hettinger, W.P.; Beck, W.

    1989-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a continuous process for cracking of a residual hydrocarbon feedstock into lower molecular weight hydrocarbon transportation fuels. The cracking being carried out in the presence of a catalyst having catalyst parameters comprising porosity, metals content, rare earth content, and zeolite content. The residual hydrocarbon feedstock comprising metal contaminants, fractions boiling above 1025{degrees}F. comprising asphaltenes, polynuclear aromatics, naphthenes and prophyrins.

  12. Catalysts to reduce NO.sub.x in an exhaust gas stream and methods of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Castellano, Christopher R. (Ringoes, NJ); Moini, Ahmad (Princeton, NJ); Koermer, Gerald S. (Basking Ridge, NJ); Furbeck, Howard (Hamilton, NJ); Schmieg, Steven J. (Troy, MI); Blint, Richard J. (Shelby Township, MI)

    2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having a catalyst comprising silver and a platinum group metal on a particulate alumina support, the atomic fraction of the platinum group metal being less than or equal to about 0.25. Methods of manufacturing catalysts are described in which silver is impregnated on alumina particles.

  13. Transition metal-free olefin polymerization catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Wojcinski, II, Louis M. (State College, PA); Liu, Shengsheng (State College, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethylene and/or propylene are polymerized to form high molecular weight, linear polymers by contacting ethylene and/or propylene monomer, in the presence of an inert reaction medium, with a catalyst system which consists essentially of (1) an aluminum alkyl component, such as trimethylaluminum, triethylaluminum, triisobutylaluminum, tri-n-octylaluminum and diethylaluminum hydride and (2) a Lewis acid or Lewis acid derivative component, such as B (C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.3, [(CH.sub.3).sub.2 N (H) (C.sub.6 H.sub.5)].sup.+ [B (C.sub.6 F.sub.5)4].sup.-, [(C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.3 NH].sup.+ [B C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.4 ],.sup.-, [C(C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.3 ].sup.+ [B(C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.4 ].sup.-, (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(OCH.sub.3), (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methylphenoxide), (C.sub.2 H.sub.5)Al(2,6 -di-t-butylphenoxide).sub.2, (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(2,6-di-t-butylphonoxide) , 2,6 -di-t-butylphenol.multidot.methylaluminoxane or an alkylaluminoxane, and which may be completely free any transition metal component(s).

  14. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

    2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  15. Hydrous metal oxide catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.E.; Dosch, R.G.; McLaughlin, L.I. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Process Research Dept.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work performed at Sandia under a CRADA with Shell Development of Houston, Texas aimed at developing hydrous metal oxide (HMO) catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons. Autoxidation as well as selective oxidation of 1-octene was studied in the presence of HMO catalysts based on known oxidation catalysts. The desired reactions were the conversion of olefin to epoxides, alcohols, and ketones, HMOs seem to inhibit autoxidation reactions, perhaps by reacting with peroxides or radicals. Attempts to use HMOs and metal loaded HMOs as epoxidation catalysts were unsuccessful, although their utility for this reaction was not entirely ruled out. Likewise, alcohol formation from olefins in the presence of HMO catalysts was not achieved. However, this work led to the discovery that acidified HMOs can lead to carbocation reactions of hydrocarbons such as cracking. An HMO catalyst containing Rh and Cu that promotes the reaction of {alpha}-olefins with oxygen to form methyl ketones was identified. Although the activity of the catalyst is relatively low and isomerization reactions of the olefin simultaneously occur, results indicate that these problems may be addressed by eliminating mass transfer limitations. Other suggestions for improving the catalyst are also made. 57 refs.

  16. Effect of Nafion and platinum content in a catalyst layer processed in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    storage and fuel cell (FC) cost and efficiency. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) using solid fuel cells (PEMFC). Electrodes with low Pt loading are prepared, assembled in custom-made membrane in the commercial cathode. Keywords: Fuel cells; Plasma; sputtering; Nafion® ; platinum; utilization PACS

  17. Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

    2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

  18. Process studies with a promoted transition metal-zeolite catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H.W.; Gormley, R.J.; Schehl, R.R.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The conversion of synthesis gas to gasoline-range hydrocarbons was investigated with a cobalt-thoria-zeolite catalyst. The coprecipitated transition metal and promoter were intimately mixed with ZSM-5 zeolite and then extruded with an alumina binder. Tests were conducted in a gradientless reactor, where initial results of high yields of gasoline-range hydrocarbons with a low ratio synthesis gas led to an extensive study of the catalyst. The effects of support, temperature (220-320C), pressure (1.14-2.17 MPa), and feed gas composition (1H2/1CO-3H2/1CO) on catalyst activity, stability, and product selectivity are discussed. Analyses of the deactivated bifunctional catalyst are also reported.

  19. Metal complexes of substituted Gable porphyrins as oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, J.E.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Wagner, R.W.

    1996-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition metal complexes of Gable porphyrins are disclosed having two porphyrin rings connected through a linking group, and having on the porphyrin rings electron-withdrawing groups, such as halogen, nitro or cyano. These complexes are useful as catalysts for the oxidation of organic compounds, e.g. alkanes.

  20. Metal complexes of substituted Gable porphyrins as oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Wagner, Richard W. (Murrysville, PA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition metal complexes of Gable porphyrins having two porphyrin rings connected through a linking group, and having on the porphyrin rings electron-withdrawing groups, such as halogen, nitro or cyano. These complexes are useful as catalysts for the oxidation of organic compounds, e.g. alkanes.

  1. Author's personal copy Methanol oxidation in nanostructured platinum/cerium-phosphate thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Byungwoo

    rights reserved. 1. Introduction Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) have been considered to be one chosen metals in low-temperature fuel cells. However, it is hard to avoid CO adsorption on a bare Pt and optimize several types of catalysts [1]. Pure platinum as an anode catalyst is one of the most frequently

  2. Modeling Low-Platinum-Loading Effects in Fuel-Cell Catalyst Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Wonseok; Weber, Adam Z.

    2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The cathode catalyst layer within a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell is the most complex and critical, yet least understood, layer within the cell. The exact method and equations for modeling this layer are still being revised and will be discussed in this paper, including a 0.8 reaction order, existence of Pt oxides, possible non-isopotential agglomerates, and the impact of a film resistance towards oxygen transport. While the former assumptions are relatively straightforward to understand and implement, the latter film resistance is shown to be critically important in explaining increased mass-transport limitations with low Pt-loading catalyst layers. Model results demonstrate agreement with experimental data that the increased oxygen flux and/or diffusion pathway through the film can substantially decrease performance. Also, some scale-up concepts from the agglomerate scale to the more macroscopic porous-electrode scale are discussed and the resulting optimization scenarios investigated.

  3. Vapor Synthesis and Thermal Modification of Supportless Platinum-Ruthenium Nanotubes and Application as Methanol Electrooxidation Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atkinson III, Robert [University of Tennessee (UT); Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL; Unocic, Kinga A [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Papandrew, Alexander B [ORNL; Zawodzinski, Thomas A [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic, mixed-phase, and alloyed bimetallic Pt-Ru nanotubes were synthesized by a novel route based on the sublimation of metal acetylacetonate precursors and their subsequent vapor deposition within anodic alumina templates. Nanotube architectures were tuned by thermal annealing treatments. As-synthesized nanotubes are composed of nanoparticulate, metallic platinum and hydrous ruthenium oxide whose respective thicknesses depend on the sample chemical composition. The Pt-decorated, hydrous Ru oxide nanotubes may be thermally annealed to promote a series of chemical and physical changes to the nanotube structures including alloy formation, crystallite growth and morphological evolution. Annealed Pt-Ru alloy nanotubes and their as-synthesized analogs demonstrate relatively high specific activities for the oxidation of methanol. As-synthesized, mixed-phase Pt-Ru nanotubes (0.39 mA/cm2) and metallic alloyed Pt64Ru36NTs (0.33 mA/cm2) have considerably higher area-normalized activities than PtRu black (0.22 mA/cm2) at 0.65 V vs. RHE.

  4. Metal catalyst technique for texturing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruby, Douglas S. (Albuquerque, NM); Zaidi, Saleem H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Textured silicon solar cells and techniques for their manufacture utilizing metal sources to catalyze formation of randomly distributed surface features such as nanoscale pyramidal and columnar structures. These structures include dimensions smaller than the wavelength of incident light, thereby resulting in a highly effective anti-reflective surface. According to the invention, metal sources present in a reactive ion etching chamber permit impurities (e.g. metal particles) to be introduced into a reactive ion etch plasma resulting in deposition of micro-masks on the surface of a substrate to be etched. Separate embodiments are disclosed including one in which the metal source includes one or more metal-coated substrates strategically positioned relative to the surface to be textured, and another in which the walls of the reaction chamber are pre-conditioned with a thin coating of metal catalyst material.

  5. Replacing precious metals with carbide catalysts for hydrogenation reactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ruijun, Hou [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Beijing Key Lab. of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology; Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Chen, Jingguang G. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Chang, Kuan [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Beijing Key Lab. of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology; Wang, Tiefeng [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Beijing Key Lab. of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molybdenum carbide (Mo?C and Ni/Mo?C) catalysts were compared with Pd/SiO? for the hydrogenation of several diene molecules, 1,3- butadiene, 1,3- and 1,4-cyclohexadiene (CHD). Compared to Pd/SiO?, Mo?C showed similar hydrogenation rate for 1,3-butadiene and 1,3-CHD and even higher rate for 1,4-CHD, but with significant deactivation rate for 1,3-CHD hydrogenation. However, the hydrogenation activity of Mo?C could be completely regenerated by H? treatment at 723 K for the three molecules. The Ni modified Mo?C catalysts retained similar activity for 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation with significantly enhanced selectivity for 1-butene production. The 1-butene selectivity increased with increasing Ni loading below 15%. Among the Ni modified Mo?C catalysts, 8.6%Ni/Mo?C showed the highest selectivity to 1-butene, which was even higher selectivity than that over Pd/SiO?. Compared to Pd/SiO?, both Mo?C and Ni/Mo?C showed combined advantages in hydrogenation activity and catalyst cost reduction, demonstrating the potential to use less expensive carbide catalysts to replace precious metals for hydrogenation reactions.

  6. Replacing precious metals with carbide catalysts for hydrogenation reactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ruijun, Hou; Chen, Jingguang G.; Chang, Kuan; Wang, Tiefeng

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molybdenum carbide (Mo?C and Ni/Mo?C) catalysts were compared with Pd/SiO? for the hydrogenation of several diene molecules, 1,3- butadiene, 1,3- and 1,4-cyclohexadiene (CHD). Compared to Pd/SiO?, Mo?C showed similar hydrogenation rate for 1,3-butadiene and 1,3-CHD and even higher rate for 1,4-CHD, but with significant deactivation rate for 1,3-CHD hydrogenation. However, the hydrogenation activity of Mo?C could be completely regenerated by H? treatment at 723 K for the three molecules. The Ni modified Mo?C catalysts retained similar activity for 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation with significantly enhanced selectivity for 1-butene production. The 1-butene selectivity increased with increasing Ni loading below 15%. Among the Nimore »modified Mo?C catalysts, 8.6%Ni/Mo?C showed the highest selectivity to 1-butene, which was even higher selectivity than that over Pd/SiO?. Compared to Pd/SiO?, both Mo?C and Ni/Mo?C showed combined advantages in hydrogenation activity and catalyst cost reduction, demonstrating the potential to use less expensive carbide catalysts to replace precious metals for hydrogenation reactions.« less

  7. Synthesis of metal-metal oxide catalysts and electrocatalysts using a metal cation adsorption/reduction and adatom replacement by more noble ones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Vukmirovic, Miomir; Sasaki, Kotaro

    2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen. The invention also relates to methods of making the metal-metal oxide composites.

  8. of hydrogen-powered cars," he says. But a major hurdle remains: the cost of platinum metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of hydrogen-powered cars," he says. But a major hurdle remains: the cost of platinum metal needed to make fuel cells efficient. Fuel cells work by combining hydrogen gas with oxygen from the air for hydrogen-powered cars in mass production facilities," says SFU chemistry professor Steve Holdcroft, who

  9. Outlooks of HLW Partitioning Technologies Usage for Recovering of Platinum Metals from Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokhitonov, Y. A.; Estimantovskiy, V.; Romanovski, v.; Zatsev, B.; Todd, T.

    2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The existing practice of management of high level waste (HLW) generated by NPPs, call for a task of selective separation of the most dangerous long-lived radionuclides with the purpose of their subsequent immobilization and disposal. HLW partitioning allows to reduce substantially the cost of vitrified product storage owing to isolation of the most dangerous radionuclides, such as transplutonium elements (TPE) into separate fractions of small volumes, intended for ultimate storage. By now numerous investigations on partitioning of HLW of various composition have been carried out in many countries and a lot of processes permitting to recover cesium, strontium, TPE and rare earth elements (REE) have been already tested. Apart from enumerated radionuclides, a fair quantity of palladium and rhodium presents in spent fuel, but the problem of these elements recovery has not yet been decided at the operating radiochemical plants. A negative effect of platinum group metals (PGM) occurrence is determined by the formation of separate metal phase, which not only worsens the conditions of glass-melting but also shortens considerably the service life of the equipment. At the same time, the exhaustion of PGMs natural resources may finally lead to such a growth of their costs that the spent nuclear fuel would became a substituting source of these elements industrial production. Allowing above mentioned, it is of interest to develop the technique for ''reactor'' palladium and rhodium recovery process which would be compatible with HLW partitioning and could be realized using the same facilities. In the report the data on platinum metals distribution in spent fuel reprocessing products and the several flowsheets for palladium separation from HLW are presented.

  10. Method for hydrogen production and metal winning, and a catalyst/cocatalyst composition useful therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dhooge, Patrick M. (Corrales, NM)

    1987-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst/cocatalyst/organics composition of matter is useful in electrolytically producing hydrogen or electrowinning metals. Use of the catalyst/cocatalyst/organics composition causes the anode potential and the energy required for the reaction to decrease. An electrolyte, including the catalyst/cocatalyst composition, and a reaction medium composition further including organic material are also described.

  11. NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDE CATALYSTS VIA BUILDING BLOCK SYNTHESES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig E. Barnes

    2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A broadly applicable methodology has been developed to prepare new single site catalysts on silica supports. This methodology requires of three critical components: a rigid building block that will be the main structural and compositional component of the support matrix; a family of linking reagents that will be used to insert active metals into the matrix as well as cross link building blocks into a three dimensional matrix; and a clean coupling reaction that will connect building blocks and linking agents together in a controlled fashion. The final piece of conceptual strategy at the center of this methodology involves dosing the building block with known amounts of linking agents so that the targeted connectivity of a linking center to surrounding building blocks is obtained. Achieving targeted connectivities around catalytically active metals in these building block matrices is a critical element of the strategy by which single site catalysts are obtained. This methodology has been demonstrated with a model system involving only silicon and then with two metal-containing systems (titanium and vanadium). The effect that connectivity has on the reactivity of atomically dispersed titanium sites in silica building block matrices has been investigated in the selective oxidation of phenols to benezoquinones. 2-connected titanium sites are found to be five times as active (i.e. initial turnover frequencies) than 4-connected titanium sites (i.e. framework titanium sites).

  12. Platinum-Coated Non-Noble Metal-Noble Metal Core-Shell Electrocatalysts -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPOPetroleum38 (1996) A213-A225.PlatinumPlatinumand

  13. Method of inducing surface ensembles on a metal catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, S.S.

    1987-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of inducing surface ensembles on a transition metal catalyst used in the conversion of a reactant gas or gas mixture, such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen into hydrocarbons (the Fischer-Tropsch reaction) is disclosed which comprises adding a Lewis base to the syngas (CO + H/sub 2/) mixture before reaction takes place. The formation of surface ensembles in this manner restricts the number and types of reaction pathways which will be utilized, thus greatly narrowing the product distribution and maximizing the efficiency of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Similarly, amines may also be produced by the conversion of reactant gas or gases, such as nitrogen, hydrogen, or hydrocarbon constituents.

  14. Method of inducing surface ensembles on a metal catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven S. (Morgantown, WV)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of inducing surface ensembles on a transition metal catalyst used in the conversion of a reactant gas or gas mixture, such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen into hydrocarbons (the Fischer-Tropsch reaction) is disclosed which comprises adding a Lewis base to the syngas (CO+H.sub.2) mixture before reaction takes place. The formation of surface ensembles in this manner restricts the number and types of reaction pathways which will be utilized, thus greatly narrowing the product distribution and maximizing the efficiency of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Similarly, amines may also be produced by the conversion of reactant gas or gases, such as nitrogen, hydrogen, or hydrocarbon constituents.

  15. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpel, Michael (Naperville, IL); Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL)

    2009-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  16. Studies of Immobilized Homogeneous Metal Catalysts on Silica Supports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith James Stanger

    2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The tethered, chiral, chelating diphosphine rhodium complex, which catalyzes the enantioselective hydrogenation of methyl-{alpha}-acetamidocinnamate (MAC), has the illustrated structure as established by {sup 31}P NMR and IR studies. Spectral and catalytic investigations also suggest that the mechanism of action of the tethered complex is the same as that of the untethered complex in solution. The rhodium complexes, [Rh(COD)H]{sub 4}, [Rh(COD){sub 2}]{sup +}BF{sub 4}{sup -}, [Rh(COD)Cl]{sub 2}, and RhCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O, adsorbed on SiO{sub 2} are optimally activated for toluene hydrogenation by pretreatment with H{sub 2} at 200 C. The same complexes on Pd-SiO{sub 2} are equally active without pretreatments. The active species in all cases is rhodium metal. The catalysts were characterized by XPS, TEM, DRIFTS, and mercury poisoning experiments. Rhodium on silica catalyzes the hydrogenation of fluorobenzene to produce predominantly fluorocyclohexane in heptane and 1,2-dichloroethane solvents. In heptane/methanol and heptane/water solvents, hydrodefluorination to benzene and subsequent hydrogenation to cyclohexane occurs exclusively. Benzene inhibits the hydrodefluorination of fluorobenzene. In DCE or heptane solvents, fluorocyclohexane reacts with hydrogen fluoride to form cyclohexene. Reaction conditions can be chosen to selectively yield fluorocyclohexane, cyclohexene, benzene, or cyclohexane. The oxorhenium(V) dithiolate catalyst [-S(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}s-]Re(O)(Me)(PPh{sub 3}) was modified by linking it to a tether that could be attached to a silica support. Spectroscopic investigation and catalytic oxidation reactivity showed the heterogenized catalyst's structure and reactivity to be similar to its homogeneous analog. However, the immobilized catalyst offered additional advantages of recyclability, extended stability, and increased resistance to deactivation.

  17. Highly aligned vertical GaN nanowires using submonolayer metal catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, George T. (Albuquerque, NM); Li, Qiming (Albuquerque, NM); Creighton, J. Randall (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming vertically oriented, crystallographically aligned nanowires (nanocolumns) using monolayer or submonolayer quantities of metal atoms to form uniformly sized metal islands that serve as catalysts for MOCVD growth of Group III nitride nanowires.

  18. Oxidation catalysts comprising metal exchanged hexaaluminate wherein the metal is Sr, Pd, La, and/or Mn

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickham, David (Boulder, CO); Cook, Ronald (Lakewood, CO)

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides metal-exchanged hexaaluminate catalysts that exhibit good catalytic activity and/or stability at high temperatures for extended periods with retention of activity as combustion catalysts, and more generally as oxidation catalysts, that make them eminently suitable for use in methane combustion, particularly for use in natural gas fired gas turbines. The hexaaluminate catalysts of this invention are of particular interest for methane combustion processes for minimization of the generation of undesired levels (less than about 10 ppm) of NOx species. Metal exchanged hexaaluminate oxidation catalysts are also useful for oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC), particularly hydrocarbons. Metal exchanged hexaaluminate oxidation catalysts are further useful for partial oxidation, particularly at high temperatures, of reduced species, particularly hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes).

  19. Effect of Graphitic Content on Carbon Supported Catalyst Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Patel; K. Artyushkova; P. Atanassov; David Harvey; M. Dutta; V. Colbow; S. Wessel

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of graphitic content on carbon supported platinum catalysts was investigated in order to investigate its influence on catalyst performance. Four catalysts of varying surface areas and graphitic content were analyzed using XPS, HREELS, and tested using RDE experiments. The catalysts were also heat treated at 150 C and 100%RH as means to uniformly age them. The heat treated samples were analyzed using the same methods to determine what changes had occurred due to this aging process. When compared to the BOL catalysts, heat treated catalysts displayed increased graphitic carbon and platinum metallic content, however they also showed depressed catalytic activity. The primary cause is still under investigation, though it is believed to be related to loss of amorphous carbon content.

  20. Catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new classes of catalysts for the removal of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg) from effluent gases. Both of these classes of catalysts are excellent absorbers of HCl and Cl.sub.2 present in effluent gases. This adsorption of oxidizing agents aids in the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants. The catalysts remove mercury by oxidizing the Hg into mercury (II) moieties. For one class of catalysts, the active component is selected from the group consisting of iridium (Ir) and iridum-platinum (Ir/Pt) alloys. The Ir and Ir/Pt alloy catalysts are especially corrosion resistant. For the other class of catalyst, the active component is partially combusted coal or "Thief" carbon impregnated with Cl.sub.2. Untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-activating in the presence of effluent gas streams. The Thief carbon catalyst is disposable by means of capture from the effluent gas stream in a particulate collection device (PCD).

  1. Platinum-ruthenium-nickel fuel cell electrocatalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorer, Alexander

    2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst suitable for use in a fuel cell, especially as an anode catalyst, that contains platinum, ruthenium, and nickel, wherein the nickel is at a concentration that is less than about 10 atomic percent.

  2. Applications of hydrogenation and dehydrogenation on noble metal catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Bo

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogenation and dehydrogenation on Pd- and Pt- catalysts are encountered in many industrial hydrocarbon processes. The present work considers the development of catalysts and their kinetic modeling along a general and rigorous approach. The first...

  3. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  4. Platinum-Alloy Cathode Catalyst Degradation in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: Nanometer-Scale Compositional and Morphological Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shuo

    Electrochemical measurements showed an ?75% Pt surface area loss and an ?40% specific activity loss for a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) cathode with acid-treated “Pt[subscript 3]Co ” catalyst particles in a H[subscript ...

  5. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Smith, R. Davis (Golden, CO)

    2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  6. Metal/ceria water-gas shift catalysts for automotive polymer electrolyte fuel cell system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. J.; Krebs, J. F.; Carter, J. D.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    2002-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems are a leading candidate for replacing the internal combustion engine in light duty vehicles. One method of generating the hydrogen necessary for the PEFC is reforming a liquid fuel, such as methanol or gasoline, via partial oxidation, steam reforming, or autothermal reforming (a combination of partial oxidation and steam reforming). The H{sub 2}-rich reformate can contain as much as 10% carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide has been shown to poison the platinum-based anode catalyst at concentrations as low as 10 ppm,1 necessitating removal of CO to this level before passing the reformate to the fuel cell stack. The water-gas shift (WGS) reaction, CO + H{sub 2}O {rightleftharpoons} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}, is used to convert the bulk of the reformate CO to CO{sub 2}. Industrially, the WGS reaction is conducted over two catalysts, which operate in different temperature regimes. One catalyst is a FeCr mixed oxide, which operates at 350-450 C and is termed the high-temperature shift (HTS) catalyst. The second catalyst is a CuZn mixed oxide, which operates at 200-250 C and is termed the low-temperature shift (LTS) catalyst. Although these two catalysts are used industrially in the production of H{sub 2} for ammonia synthesis, they have major drawbacks that make them unsuitable for transportation applications. Both the LTS and the HTS catalysts must first be ''activated'' before being used. For example, the copper in the copper oxide/zinc oxide LTS catalyst must first be reduced to elemental copper in situ before it becomes active for the WGS reaction. This reduction reaction is exothermic and must be carried out under well- controlled conditions using a dilute hydrogen stream (1 vol% H{sub 2}) to prevent high catalyst temperatures, which can result in sintering (agglomeration) of the copper particles and loss of active surface area for the WGS reaction. Also, once the catalyst has been activated by reduction, it must be protected from exposure to ambient air to prevent re-oxidation of the copper. The activated catalyst must also be protected from the condensation of liquids, for example, during start-up or transient operation. For these reasons, a more thermally rugged catalyst is needed which has sufficient activity to operate at the low temperatures that are thermodynamically necessary to achieve low CO concentrations.

  7. Colloid Science of Metal Nanoparticle Catalysts in 2D and 3D Structures. Challenges of Nucleation, Growth, Composition, Particle Shape, Size Control and their Influence on Activity and Selectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Park, Jeong Y.

    2008-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent breakthroughs in synthesis in nanosciences have achieved control of size and shapes of nanoparticles that are relevant for catalyst design. In this article, we review the advance of synthesis of nanoparticles, fabrication of two and three dimensional model catalyst system, characterization, and studies of activity and selectivity. The ability to synthesize monodispersed platinum and rhodium nanoparticles in the 1-10 nm range permitted us to study the influence of composition, structure, and dynamic properties of monodispersed metal nanoparticle on chemical reactivity and selectivity. We review the importance of size and shape of nanoparticles to determine the reaction selectivity in multi-path reactions. The influence of metal-support interaction has been studied by probing the hot electron flows through the metal-oxide interface in catalytic nanodiodes. Novel designs of nanoparticle catalytic systems are discussed.

  8. Tungsten carbide/porous carbon composite as superior support for platinum catalyst toward methanol electro-oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Liming [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Fu, Honggang, E-mail: fuhg@vip.sina.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Wang, Lei; Mu, Guang; Jiang, Baojiang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Ruihong [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: The WC nanoparticles are well dispersed in the carbon matrix. The size of WC nanoparticles is about 30 nm. It can be concluded that tungsten carbide and carbon composite was successfully prepared by the present synthesis conditions. - Highlights: • The WC/PC composite with high specific surface area was prepared by a simple way. • The Pt/WC/PC catalyst has superior performance toward methanol electro-oxidation. • The current density for methanol electro-oxidation is as high as 595.93 A g{sup ?1} Pt. • The Pt/WC/PC catalyst shows better durability and stronger CO electro-oxidation. • The performance of Pt/WC/PC is superior to the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. - Abstract: Tungsten carbide/porous carbon (WC/PC) composites have been successfully synthesized through a surfactant assisted evaporation-induced-assembly method, followed by a thermal treatment process. In particular, WC/PC-35-1000 composite with tungsten content of 35% synthesized at the carbonized temperature of 1000 °C, exhibited a specific surface area (S{sub BET}) of 457.92 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}. After loading Pt nanoparticles (NPs), the obtained Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst exhibits the highest unit mass electroactivity (595.93 A g{sup ?1} Pt) toward methanol electro-oxidation, which is about 2.6 times as that of the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. Furthermore, the Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst displays much stronger resistance to CO poisoning and better durability toward methanol electrooxidation compared with the commercial Pt/C (JM) catalyst. The high electrocatalytic activity, strong poison-resistivity and good stability of Pt/WC/PC-35-1000 catalyst are attributed to the porous structures and high specific surface area of WC/PC support could facilitate the rapid mass transportation. Moreover, synergistic effect between WC and Pt NPs is favorable to the higher catalytic performance.

  9. Stable platinum nanoparticles on specific MgAl2O4 spinel facets at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei-Zhen; Kovarik, Libor; Mei, Donghai; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles HF

    2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of thermally stable, nanometer-sized precious metal based catalysts remains a daunting challenge. Such materials, especially those based on the use of costly platinum metal, are essential and, to date, non-replaceable for a large number of industrially important catalytic processes. Here we report a well-defined cuboctahedral MgAl2O4 spinel support material that is capable of stabilizing platinum particles in the range of 1-3 nm on its relatively abundant {111} facets during extremely severe aging at 800°C in air for 1 week (168 h). The aged catalysts retain platinum dispersions of 15.9% with catalytic activities for methanol oxidation approximately 80% of fresh ones, while a conventional Pt/?-Al2O3 catalyst is severely sintered and nearly inactive. We reveal the origin of the markedly superior ability of spinel {111} facets, resulting from strong interactions between spinel surface oxygens and epitaxial platinum {111} facets, inspiring the rational design of anti-sintering supported platinum group catalysts. This work was supported by U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Biosciences and Geosciences. The research was performed in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. PNNL is operated for DOE by Battelle.

  10. Synthesis gas conversion with a transition metal-zeolite catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H.W.; Rao, V.U.S.; Gormley, R.J.; Schehl, R.R.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study on the reactions of carbon monoxide and hydrogen on zeolite catalysts with cobalt and thorium was presented. The zeolite catalyst used was ZSM-5 with a Si/Al ratio of 30 and 12.5 wt % cobalt and 1.2 wt % thoria. Reaction parameters ranged from a temperature of 260/sup 0/C to 320/sup 0/C, space velocities of 1000 and 4000 1/h, and a pressure of 300 psig. A table of reaction products was presented. Reactions were also run with catalysts with no thorium and catalysts with differing calcination temperatures. In general, as a higher optimum temperature for the catalytic activity of the zeolite component is approached, a high fraction of aromatics is formed in the liquid products. Also, the effect of the addition of thorium is to increase olefin production and to increase the amount of liquid hydrocarbon formation.

  11. Impact of Fuel Metal Impurities on Diesel Exhaust Catalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Approach * Aged catalysts from a Ford F250 with biodiesel fuel containing Na, K and Ca. * Emissions measurement conducted after 150,000 miles...

  12. Deactivation and regeneration of a promoted transition-metal-zeolite catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennline, H.W.; Pollack, S.S.

    1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The regeneration of a promoted transition-metal-zeolite catalyst that had been used to convert synthesis gas to gasoline-range hydrocarbons was investigated in a mixed reactor system. Carbonaceous deposits were found on the catalyst-a coprecipitated cobalt-thoria admixed with ZSM-5 zeolite-after it has been subjected to low hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio synthesis gas at the processing conditions. Oxidative regenerations did not succeed in returning the catalyst to its initial synthesis activity. X-ray diffraction analysis of the used and regenerated catalyst samples suggested that sintering of the cobalt occurred. The crystallite size of the Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/ formed after regeneration was inversely related to the synthesis gas conversion after reduction of the Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/ to the metal.

  13. Finding a suitable platinum substitute for fuel cells | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to platinum. These new catalysts offer the promise of substantially reducing the fuel cell cost. The new approach developed by Liu and his team uses materials known as...

  14. Combined TPRx, in situ GISAXS and GIXAS studies of model semiconductor-supported platinum catalysts in the hydrogenation of ethane.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyrzgol, S. A.; Schafer, S.; Lee, S.; Lee, B.; Di Vece, M.; Li, X.; Seifert, S.; Winans, R. E.; Stutzmann, M.; Lercher, J. A.; Vajda, S.; Technische Univ. Munchen; Yale Univ.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The preparation, characterization and catalytic reactivity of a GaN supported Pt catalyst in the hydrogenation of ethene are presented in this feature article, highlighting the use of in situ characterization of the material properties during sample handling and catalysis by combining temperature programmed reaction with in situ grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The catalysts are found to be sintering resistant at elevated temperatures as well as during reduction and hydrogenation reactions. In contrast to Pt particles of approximately 7 nm diameter, smaller particles of 1.8 nm in size are found to dynamically adapt their shape and oxidation state to the changes in the reaction environment. These smaller Pt particles also showed an initial deactivation in ethene hydrogenation, which is paralleled by the change in the particle shape. The subtle temperature-dependent X-ray absorbance of the 1.8 nm sized Pt particles indicates that subtle variations in the electronic structure induced by the state of reduction by electron tunnelling over the Schottky barrier between the Pt particles and the GaN support can be monitored.

  15. Evaluation of coal minerals and metal residues as coal-liquefaction catalysts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, D.; Givens, E. N.; Schweighardt, F. K.; Tarrer, A. R.; Guin, J. A.; Curtis, C. W.; Huang, W. J.; Shridharani, K.; Clinton, J. H.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic activity of various minerals, metallic wastes, and transition metals was investigated in the liquefaction of various coals. The effects of coal type, process variables, coal cleaning, catalyst addition mode, solvent quality, and solvent modification on coal conversion and oil production were also studied. Coal conversion and oil production improved significantly by the addition of pyrite, reduced pyrite, speculite, red mud, flue dust, zinc sulfide, and various transition metal compounds. Impregnation and molecular dispersion of iron gave higher oil production than particulate incorporation of iron. However, the mode of molybdenum addition was inconsequential. Oil production increased considerably both by adding a stoichiometric mixture of iron oxide and pyrite and by simultaneous impregnation of coal with iron and molybdenum. Hydrogenation activity of disposable catalysts decreased sharply in the presence of nitrogen compounds. The removal of heteroatoms from process solvent improved thermal as well as catalytic coal liquefaction. The improvement in oil production was very dramatic with a catalyst.

  16. Monodisperse metal nanoparticle catalysts on silica mesoporous supports: synthesis, characterizations, and catalytic reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of high performance catalyst achieving near 100% product selectivity at maximum activity is one of the most important goals in the modern catalytic science research. To this end, the preparation of model catalysts whose catalytic performances can be predicted in a systematic and rational manner is of significant importance, which thereby allows understanding of the molecular ingredients affecting the catalytic performances. We have designed novel 3-dimensional (3D) high surface area model catalysts by the integration of colloidal metal nanoparticles and mesoporous silica supports. Monodisperse colloidal metal NPs with controllable size and shape were synthesized using dendrimers, polymers, or surfactants as the surface stabilizers. The size of Pt, and Rh nanoparticles can be varied from sub 1 nm to 15 nm, while the shape of Pt can be controlled to cube, cuboctahedron, and octahedron. The 3D model catalysts were generated by the incorporation of metal nanoparticles into the pores of mesoporous silica supports via two methods: capillary inclusion (CI) and nanoparticle encapsulation (NE). The former method relies on the sonication-induced inclusion of metal nanoparticles into the pores of mesoporous silica, whereas the latter is performed by the encapsulation of metal nanoparticles during the hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous silica. The 3D model catalysts were comprehensively characterized by a variety of physical and chemical methods. These catalysts were found to show structure sensitivity in hydrocarbon conversion reactions. The Pt NPs supported on mesoporous SBA-15 silica (Pt/SBA-15) displayed significant particle size sensitivity in ethane hydrogenolysis over the size range of 1-7 nm. The Pt/SBA-15 catalysts also exhibited particle size dependent product selectivity in cyclohexene hydrogenation, crotonaldehyde hydrogenation, and pyrrole hydrogenation. The Rh loaded SBA-15 silica catalyst showed structure sensitivity in CO oxidation reaction. In addition, Pt-mesoporous silica core-shell structured NPs (Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2}) were prepared, where the individual Pt NP is encapsulated by the mesoporous silica layer. The Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2} catalysts showed promising catalytic activity in high temperature CO oxidation. The design of catalytic structures with tunable parameters by rational synthetic methods presents a major advance in the field of catalyst synthesis, which would lead to uncover the structure-function relationships in heterogeneous catalytic reactions.

  17. Progressive flow cracking of coal/oil mixtures with high metals content catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zandona, O.J.

    1989-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for economically producing liquid fuel products at least partly from coal. It comprises: introducing a progressive flow catalytic cracking zone a charge stock comprising a pumpable mixture of solid, particulate coal and carbo-metallic oil and forming within the zone a stream having a linear velocity of at least about 25 feet per second. The stream comprising the charge stock and a hydrocarbon zeolite cracking catalyst promoting dehydrogenation of the charge stock; forming mobile hydrogen within the zone by the dehydrogenation; introducing the mobile hydrogen into the stream by dehydrogenation of the charge stock in the absence of added molecular hydrogen, thereby producing liquid products from the charge stock while laying down coke on the hydrocarbon cracking catalyst in the range of about 0.3% to about 3% and thereby producing spent catalyst; separating from the spent catalyst the liquid products.

  18. Transition-metal pi-complexes of vinyl alcohol: platinum and palladium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ori, Masaru

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -necked flask, equipped wi th a con- denser with a drying tube on the top, dry mercuric di- acetaldehyde (40 g, 0. 147 mol) was suspended under argon in dry ether (70 ml) containing the freshly distilled N, N-dimethyl aniline (1. Z g, 0. 01 mol ). Under a... )platinum(I I) was prepared by hydrolyzing the x-trimethylsilyl vinyl ether complex, which was obtained by treating the ethyl- ene complex with trimethylsilyl vinyl ether. The vinyl alcohol complex was characterized by nmr, ir, molecular weight...

  19. Low-cost, non-precious metal/polymer composite catalysts for fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low-cost, non-precious metal/polymer composite catalysts for fuel cells R. Bashyam and P. Zelenay 1 LALP-07-013 Winter 2007 F uel cells, which directly convert a fuel's chemical energy into electricity. Of several different types under development, a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is generally recognized

  20. Embedding Covalency into Metal Catalysts for Efficient Electrochemical Conversion of CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Embedding Covalency into Metal Catalysts for Efficient Electrochemical Conversion of CO2 Hyung ABSTRACT: CO2 conversion is an essential technology to develop a sustainable carbon economy for the present and the future. Many studies have focused extensively on the electrochemical conversion of CO2 into various

  1. DIRECT DECOMPOSITION OF METHANE TO HYDROGEN ON METAL LOADED ZEOLITE CATALYST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucia M. Petkovic; Daniel M. Ginosar; Kyle C. Burch; Harry W. Rollins

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The manufacture of hydrogen from natural gas is essential for the production of ultra clean transportation fuels. Not only is hydrogen necessary to upgrade low quality crude oils to high-quality, low sulfur ultra clean transportation fuels, hydrogen could eventually replace gasoline and diesel as the ultra clean transportation fuel of the future. Currently, refinery hydrogen is produced through the steam reforming of natural gas. Although efficient, the process is responsible for a significant portion of refinery CO2 emissions. This project is examining the direct catalytic decomposition of methane as an alternative to steam reforming. The energy required to produce one mole of hydrogen is slightly lower and the process does not require water-gas-shift or pressure-swing adsorption units. The decomposition process does not produce CO2 emissions and the product is not contaminated with CO -- a poison for PEM fuel cells. In this work we examined the direct catalytic decomposition of methane over a metal modified zeolite catalyst and the recovery of catalyst activity by calcination. A favorable production of hydrogen was obtained, when compared with previously reported nickel-zeolite supported catalysts. Reaction temperature had a strong influence on catalyst activity and on the type of carbon deposits. The catalyst utilized at 873 and 973 K could be regenerated without any significant loss of activity, however the catalyst utilized at 1073 K showed some loss of activity after regeneration.

  2. Operando Raman and Theoretical Vibration Spectroscopy of Non-PGM Catalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation about spectroscopy techniques for non-platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts, presented by Eugene Smotkin, Northeastern University, at the kick-off meeting of the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program's Catalysis Working Group, held May 14, 2012, in Arlington, Virginia.

  3. Catalytic hydrocracking of Athabasca bitumen with oil-soluble throw-away metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strausz, O.P.; Mojelsky, T.W.; Lown, E.M. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The mild hydrocracking of Athabasca bitumen at 400-425{degrees}C and 1000-2000 psig hydrogen in a stirred laboratory autoclave in the presence of various oil-soluble transition metal (carboxylates, naphthenates, acetylacetonate) catalysts has been investigated. Determined were the yields of liquid and solid products, the elemental and class compositions of the liquids as well as some of their physical properties as a function of catalyst type, amount and physical state, along with other experimental variables. Some of the chemical changes taking place at the molecular level were also explored and compared to those observed in the mild thermolysis of the bitumen.

  4. Process for carbonaceous material conversion and recovery of alkali metal catalyst constituents held by ion exchange sites in conversion residue

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, David W. (Seabrook, TX)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered for the particles by contacting or washing them with an aqueous solution containing calcium or magnesium ions in an alkali metal recovery zone at a low temperature, preferably below about 249.degree. F. During the washing or leaching process, the calcium or magnesium ions displace alkali metal ions held by ion exchange sites in the particles thereby liberating the ions and producing an aqueous effluent containing alkali metal constituents. The aqueous effluent from the alkali metal recovery zone is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide Nano-Array Catalysts for Low Temperature Diesel Oxidation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by U. Conn at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about metal oxide nano-array catalysts for...

  6. Nucleophilic Metal Complexes as Acylation Catalysts: Solvent-Dependent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lectka, Thomas

    @jhunix.hcf.jhu.edu Received October 14, 1999 ABSTRACT Catalytic acylation using complex transition metal salts MCo(CO)4, D.; Drury, III.; W. J.; Cox, C.; Lectka, T. J. Org. Chem. 1998, 63, 4568. (3) Complexes MCo(CO)4 (1

  7. Method for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; O'Neill, David G.

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are provided for making oxygen-reducing catalyst layers, which include simultaneous or sequential stops of physical vapor depositing an oxygen-reducing catalytic material onto a substrate, the catalytic material comprising a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum; and thermally treating the catalytic material. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  8. Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy C th d C t l t f PEM F l C ll

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy C th d C t l t f PEM F l C ll Cathode Catalyst for PEM Objectives · Ultra-low loading Pt catalyysts for oxygen reduction reaction with higgh activityyand ggoodg yg Definition ­ In Developing Low Loading Platinum Catalysts · C l PCatalyst Perfformance ¾ Platinum

  9. Metal/metal oxide doped oxide catalysts having high deNOx selectivity for lean NOx exhaust aftertreatment systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Paul W.

    2004-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A lean NOx catalyst and method of preparing the same is disclosed. The lean NOx catalyst includes a ceramic substrate, an oxide support material, preferably .gamma.-alumina, deposited on the substrate and a metal promoter or dopant introduced into the oxide support material. The metal promoters or dopants are selected from the group consisting of indium, gallium, tin, silver, germanium, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium, cerium, vanadium, oxides thereof, and combinations thereof. The .gamma.-alumina preferably has a pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 2.0 cc/g; a surface area of between about 80 to 350 m.sup.2 /g; an average pore size diameter of between about 3 to 30 nm; and an impurity level of less than or equal to 0.2 weight percent. In a preferred embodiment the .gamma.-alumina is prepared by a sol-gel method, with the metal doping of the .gamma.-alumina preferably accomplished using an incipient wetness impregnation technique.

  10. Oligomer and mixed-metal compounds potential multielectron transfer catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rillema, D.P.

    1992-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Projects related to the design and characterization of multimetallic complexes has proceeded forward with a number of achievements. First, photoprocesses in hydrogel matrices lead to the conclusion that cationic metallochromophores could be ion exchanged into a hydrogel matrix ({kappa}-carageenan) and substantial photocurrents could be generated. Second, X-ray structures of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}, Ru(bpm){sub 3}{sup 2+} and Ru(bpz){sub 3}{sup 2+}, where bpy is 2,2{prime}-bipyridine, bpm is 2,2{prime}-bipyrimidine and bpz is 2,2{prime}-bipyrizine, were obtained and revealed similar Ru-N bond distances in each complex even though their {sigma}-donor and {pi}-acceptor character differ markedly. The structure parameters are expected to provide theoreticians with the information needed to probe the electronic character of the molecular systems and provide us with direction in our synthetic strategies. Third, a copper(I) complex was synthesized with a dimeric-ethane-bridged, 1,10-phenanthroline ligand that resulted in isolation of a bimetallic species. The copper(I) complex did luminesce weakly, suggesting that the dimer possesses potential electron transfer capability. Fourth, the photophysical properties of (Re(CO){sub 4}(L-L)){sup +}, where L-L = heterocyclic diimine ligands, and Pt(bph)X{sub 2}, where bph = the dianion of biphenyl and X = CH{sub 3}CN, py or ethylendiamine, displayed luminescence at high energy and underwent excited-state electron transfer. Such high energy emitters provide high driving forces for undergoing excited-state electron transfer. Fifth, both energy and electron transfer were observed in mixed-metal complexes bridged by 1,2-bis(2,2{prime}-bipyridyl-4{prime}-yl) ethane.

  11. Cyclopentadienyl-containing low-valent early transition metal olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Luo, Lubin; Yoon, Sung Cheol

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst system useful to polymerize and co-polymerize polar and non-polar olefin monomers is formed by in situ reduction with a reducing agent of a catalyst precursor comprising {Cp*MRR'.sub.n}.sup.+{A}.sup.- wherein Cp* is a cyclopentadienyl or substituted cyclopentadienyl moiety; M is an early transition metal; R is a C.sub.1 C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl; R' are independently selected from hydride, C.sub.1 C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl, SiR''.sub.3, NR''.sub.2, OR'', SR'', GeR''.sub.3, SnR''.sub.3, and C.dbd.C-containing groups (R''=C.sub.1 C.sub.10 hydrocarbyl); n is an integer selected to balance the oxidation state of M; and A is a suitable non-coordinating anionic cocatalyst or precursor. This catalyst system may form stereoregular olefin polymers including syndiotactic polymers of styrene and methylmethacrylate and isotactic copolymers of polar and nonpolar olefin monomers such as methylmethacrylate and styrene.

  12. Cyclopentadienyl-containing low-valent early transition metal olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Luo, Lubin; Yoon, Sung Cheol

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst system useful to polymerize and co-polymerize polar and non-polar olefin monomers is formed by in situ reduction with a reducing agent of a catalyst precursor comprising {Cp*MRR'.sub.n}.sup.+{A}.sup.- wherein Cp* is a cyclopentadienyl or substituted cyclopentadienyl moiety; M is an early transition metal; R is a C.sub.1 C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl; R' are independently selected from hydride, C.sub.1 C.sub.20 hydrocarbyl, SiR''.sub.3, NR''.sub.2, OR'', SR'', GeR''.sub.3, SnR''.sub.3, and C.dbd.C-containing groups (R''=C.sub.1 C.sub.10 hydrocarbyl); n is an integer selected to balance the oxidation state of M; and A is a suitable non-coordinating anionic cocatalyst or precursor. This catalyst system may form stereoregular olefin polymers including syndiotactic polymers of styrene and methylmethacrylate and isotactic copolymers of polar and nonpolar olefin monomers such as methylmethacrylate and styrene.

  13. Method for forming gold-containing catalyst with porous structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biener, Juergen; Hamza, Alex V; Baeumer, Marcus; Schulz, Christian; Jurgens, Birte; Biener, Monika M.

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming a gold-containing catalyst with porous structure according to one embodiment of the present invention includes producing a starting alloy by melting together of gold and at least one less noble metal that is selected from the group consisting of silver, copper, rhodium, palladium, and platinum; and a dealloying step comprising at least partial removal of the less noble metal by dissolving the at least one less noble metal out of the starting alloy. Additional methods and products thereof are also presented.

  14. Hydrogenation of aromatics in synthetic crude distillates catalyzed by platinum supported in molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbara, N.; Charland, J.P. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Wilson, M.F. [CANMET, Devon, Alberta (Canada)] [CANMET, Devon, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic hydrogenation of synthetic crude distillates from Canadian oil sands was carried out over platinum metal supported in pillared interlayered clay (PILC) and Y-zeolite. The molecular sieve supports were employed to modify the properties of dispersed platinum particles and improve their resistance to poisoning by sulfur. The objective was to reduce the distillate aromatic content to meet diesel emission control standards and cetane number requirements. Catalysts were prepared in a series of steps, and metal precursor was loaded using ion-exchange procedures. Characterization was done using X-ray diffraction, hydrogen chemisorption, and proton-induced X-ray emission elemental analysis. Catalytic hydrogenation reactions were carried out by processing distillate feedstocks both high (>100 ppm) and low (<10 ppm) in sulfur using a continuous-flow automated microreactor system. Experimental runs were performed to determine the reaction kinetics and Arrhenius parameters as a means of evaluating and comparing catalyst performance. Significant differences in catalyst activity were found. The Pt/Y-zeolite-alumina catalyst showed a much superior hydrogenation performance under conditions of high sulfur content. The extent of cracking and ring opening was also evaluated and was shown to be minimal under the operating conditions employed.

  15. Durable Catalysts for Fuel Cell Protection during Transient Conditions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working Group Meeting: June 2014 DOE's Fuel Cell Catalyst R&D Activities Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports...

  16. Porous, sintered metal filter recovers 100% of catalyst in H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G.L.; Isaacs, M.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recovery of catalyst and prevention of catalyst from entering the oxidizer were plant problems for the Interox America process for production of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ by the catalyzed alternative hydrogenation and oxidation of anthraquinone. A porous metal filter element was inserted in the filter unit following the hydrogenation stage to collect the catalyst which forms a permeable cake that is recovered by backwashing on a timer cycle. The porous metal filters consisting of a rigid matrix containing small pores applicable for the collection of very small particles (> 0.5 ..mu.. in liquids and 0.05 ..mu.. in gases) have been in use in plants in UK for 25 years with 75% of the original filter elements still in use. (BLM)

  17. Fundamental investigations of supported monometallic and bimetallic catalysts by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xi.

    1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of hydrogen, has been applied to investigate silica-supported Group VIII monometallic and Group VIII-Group IB bimetallic catalysts and alumina- and silica-supported platinum-rhenium bimetallic catalysts. Two adsorbed states of hydrogen, i.e., irreversible and reversible hydrogen, on the surfaces of monometallic Ru, Pt, and Cu particles and bimetallic Ru-Group Ib, Pt-Group Ib, and Pt-Re particles were observed directly via proton NMR. The same amounts of the irreversible hydrogen adsorbed on pure Ru catalysts were measured by both proton NMR and the volumetric technique. The electronic environments on surfaces of monometallic catalysts are sensitive to changes in metal dispersion, state of adsorbed hydrogen, and residual chlorine. Surface compositions for the Ru--Cu and Pt--Cu bimetallic catalysts were determined by NMR of adsorbed hydrogen. 297 refs., 96 figs., 19 tabs.

  18. Toward Photochemical Water Splitting Using Band-Gap-Narrowed Semiconductors and Transition-Metal Based Molecular Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muckerman,J.T.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Fujita, E.

    2009-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We are carrying out coordinated theoretical and experimental studies of toward photochemical water splitting using band-gap-narrowed semiconductors (BGNSCs) with attached multi-electron molecular water oxidation and hydrogen production catalysts. We focus on the coupling between the materials properties and the H{sub 2}O redox chemistry, with an emphasis on attaining a fundamental understanding of the individual elementary steps in the following four processes: (1) Light-harvesting and charge-separation of stable oxide or oxide-derived semiconductors for solar-driven water splitting, including the discovery and characterization of the behavior of such materials at the aqueous interface; (2) The catalysis of the four-electron water oxidation by dinuclear hydroxo transition-metal complexes with quinonoid ligands, and the rational search for improved catalysts; (3) Transfer of the design principles learned from the elucidation of the DuBois-type hydrogenase model catalysts in acetonitrile to the rational design of two-electron hydrogen production catalysts for aqueous solution; (4) Combining these three elements to examine the function of oxidation catalysts on BGNSC photoanode surfaces and hydrogen production catalysts on cathode surfaces at the aqueous interface to understand the challenges to the efficient coupling of the materials functions.

  19. Synthesis gas conversion to gasoline range hydrocarbons over medium pore zeolite catalysts containing 3d-metals and bimetallics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, V.U.S. (Dep. Energy, Pittsb. Energy Technol. Cent.); Obermyer, R.; Gormley, R.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Schneider, L.C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were performed on ZSM-5 catalyst impregnated with 11.1% of iron (A) or 5.6% of iron and 4.5% of cobalt (B) and on Silicalite, a molecular sieve form of silica, impregnated with 13.6% of iron (C), 7.8% of iron and 0.9% of potassium (D), or iron and manganese in fixed-bed or continuous stirred tank laboratory reactors. Zeolite acidity played an important part in forming aromatics from synthesis gas (2:1 or 1:1 hydrogen/carbon monoxide ratio) by bifunctional catalysts, as demonstrated by comparison of the product slates from the A and C catalysts. The transition metal component impregnated into the zeolite played an important part in selectivity, as demonstrated by the liquid phase products from the A and B catalysts. D catalyst had an exceptionally high selectivity for production of C/sub 2/-C/sub 4/ olefins. The experiments were carried out at 280/sup 0/-300/sup 0/C and 21 bar, and magnetic studies were performed to characterize the transition metal component and detect the formation of bimetallic iron-cobalt clusters.

  20. REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mr. Paul Chin; Dr. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts; Professor James J. Spivey; Mr. Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Dr. James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Dr. Richard W. Rice

    2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Several different catalytic reactions must be carried out in order to convert hydrocarbons (or alcohols) into hydrogen for use as a fuel for polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Each reaction in the fuel-processing sequence has a different set of characteristics, which influences the type of catalyst support that should be used for that particular reaction. A wide range of supports are being evaluated for the various reactions in the fuel-processing scheme, including porous and non-porous particles, ceramic and metal straight-channel monoliths, and ceramic and metal monolithic foams. These different types of support have distinctly different transport characteristics. The best choice of support for a given reaction will depend on the design constraints for the system, e.g., allowable pressure drop, and on the characteristics of the reaction for which the catalyst is being designed. Three of the most important reaction characteristics are the intrinsic reaction rate, the exothermicity/endothermicity of the reaction, and the nature of the reaction network, e.g., whether more than one reaction takes place and, in the case of multiple reactions, the configuration of the network. Isotopic transient kinetic analysis was used to study the surface intermediates. The preferential oxidation of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the presence of high concentrations of hydrogen (PROX) is an important final step in most fuel processor designs. Data on the behavior of straight-channel monoliths and foam monolith supports will be presented to illustrate some of the factors involved in choosing a support for this reaction.

  1. The carburization of transition metal molybdates (MxMoO?, M= Cu, Ni or Co) and the generation of highly active metal/carbide catalysts for CO? hydrogenation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Xu, Wenqian; Ramirez, Pedro J.; Stachiola, Dario; Brito, Joaquin L.

    2015-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A new approach has been tested for the preparation of metal/Mo?C catalysts using mixed-metal oxide molybdates as precursors. Synchrotron-based in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction was used to study the reduction and carburization processes of Cu?(MoO?)?(OH)?, a-NiMoO? and CoMoO?•nH?O by thermal treatment under mixtures of hydrogen and methane. In all cases, the final product was ?-Mo?C and a metal phase (Cu, Ni, or Co), but the transition sequence varied with the different metals, and it could be related to the reduction potential of the Cu²?, Ni²? and Co²? cations inside each molybdate. The synthesized Cu/Mo?C, Ni/Mo?C and Co/Mo?C catalysts were highlymore »active for the hydrogenation of CO?. The metal/Mo?C systems exhibited large variations in the selectivity towards methanol, methane and CnH?n?? (n > 2) hydrocarbons depending on the nature of the supported metal and its ability to cleave C-O bonds. Cu/Mo?C displayed a high selectivity for CO and methanol production. Ni/Mo?C and Co/Mo?C were the most active catalysts for the activation and full decomposition of CO?, showing high selectivity for the production of methane (Ni case) and CnH?n?? (n > 2) hydrocarbons (Co case).« less

  2. The carburization of transition metal molybdates (MxMoO?, M= Cu, Ni or Co) and the generation of highly active metal/carbide catalysts for CO? hydrogenation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xu, Wenqian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ramirez, Pedro J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Univ. Central De Venezuela, Caracas (Venesuela); Stachiola, Dario [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brito, Joaquin L. [Inst. Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2015-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A new approach has been tested for the preparation of metal/Mo?C catalysts using mixed-metal oxide molybdates as precursors. Synchrotron-based in situ time-resolved X-ray diffraction was used to study the reduction and carburization processes of Cu?(MoO?)?(OH)?, a-NiMoO? and CoMoO?•nH?O by thermal treatment under mixtures of hydrogen and methane. In all cases, the final product was ?-Mo?C and a metal phase (Cu, Ni, or Co), but the transition sequence varied with the different metals, and it could be related to the reduction potential of the Cu²?, Ni²? and Co²? cations inside each molybdate. The synthesized Cu/Mo?C, Ni/Mo?C and Co/Mo?C catalysts were highly active for the hydrogenation of CO?. The metal/Mo?C systems exhibited large variations in the selectivity towards methanol, methane and CnH?n?? (n > 2) hydrocarbons depending on the nature of the supported metal and its ability to cleave C-O bonds. Cu/Mo?C displayed a high selectivity for CO and methanol production. Ni/Mo?C and Co/Mo?C were the most active catalysts for the activation and full decomposition of CO?, showing high selectivity for the production of methane (Ni case) and CnH?n?? (n > 2) hydrocarbons (Co case).

  3. Doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A supported oxidation catalyst includes a support having a metal oxide or metal salt, and mixed metal particles thereon. The mixed metal particles include first particles including a palladium compound, and second particles including a precious metal group (PMG) metal or PMG metal compound, wherein the PMG metal is not palladium. The oxidation catalyst may also be used as a gas sensor.

  4. Composite catalysts supported on modified carbon substrates and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N. (Columbia, SC); Subramanian, Nalini (Kennesaw, GA); Colon-Mercado, Hector R. (Columbia, SC)

    2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing a composite carbon catalyst is generally disclosed. The method includes oxidizing a carbon precursor (e.g., carbon black). Optionally, nitrogen functional groups can be added to the oxidized carbon precursor. Then, the oxidized carbon precursor is refluxed with a non-platinum transitional metal precursor in a solution. Finally, the solution is pyrolyzed at a temperature of at least about 500.degree. C.

  5. Catalytic reforming catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, W.C.; Kluksdahl, H.E.

    1980-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved catalyst, having a reduced fouling rate when used in a catalytic reforming process, said catalyst comprising platinum disposed on an alumina support wherein the alumina support is obtained by removing water from aluminum hydroxide produced as a by-product from a ziegler higher alcohol synthesis reaction, and wherein the alumina is calcined at a temperature of 1100-1400/sup 0/F so as to have a surface area of 165 to 215 square meters per gram.

  6. Transition metal carbides, nitrides and borides, and their oxygen containing analogs useful as water gas shift catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Levi T.; Patt, Jeremy; Moon, Dong Ju; Phillips, Cory

    2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Mono- and bimetallic transition metal carbides, nitrides and borides, and their oxygen containing analogs (e.g. oxycarbides) for use as water gas shift catalysts are described. In a preferred embodiment, the catalysts have the general formula of M1.sub.A M2.sub.B Z.sub.C O.sub.D, wherein M1 is selected from the group consisting of Mo, W, and combinations thereof; M2 is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Ni, Cu, Co, and combinations thereof; Z is selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, boron, and combinations thereof; A is an integer; B is 0 or an integer greater than 0; C is an integer; O is oxygen; and D is 0 or an integer greater than 0. The catalysts exhibit good reactivity, stability, and sulfur tolerance, as compared to conventional water shift gas catalysts. These catalysts hold promise for use in conjunction with proton exchange membrane fuel cell powered systems.

  7. Investigation of Mixed Oxide Catalysts for NO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szanyi, Janos; Karim, Ayman M.; Pederson, Larry R.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Tran, Diana N.; Herling, Darrell R.; Muntean, George G.; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken; Qi, Gongshin; Li, Wei

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxidation of engine-generated NO to NO2 is an important step in the reduction of NOx in lean engine exhaust because NO2 is required for the performance of the LNT technology [2], and it enhances the activities of ammonia selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts [1]. In particular, for SCR catalysts an NO:NO2 ratio of 1:1 is most effective for NOx reduction, whereas for LNT catalysts, NO must be oxidized to NO2 before adsorption on the storage components. However, NO2 typically constitutes less than 10% of NOx in lean exhaust, so catalytic oxidation of NO is essential. Platinum has been found to be especially active for NO oxidation, and is widely used in DOC and LNT catalysts. However, because of the high cost and poor thermal durability of Pt-based catalysts, there is substantial interest in the development of alternatives. The objective of this project, in collaboration with partner General Motors, is to develop mixed metal oxide catalysts for NO oxidation, enabling lower precious metal usage in emission control systems. [1] M. Koebel, G. Madia, and M. Elsener, Catalysis Today 73, 239 (2002). [2] C. H. Kim, G. S. Qi, K. Dahlberg, and W. Li, Science 327, 1624 (2010).

  8. Bridging the pressure gap: In situ atomic-level investigations of model platinum catalyst surfaces under reaction conditions by scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, B.J.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of this thesis show that STM measurements can provide information about the surfaces and their adsorbates. Stability of Pt(110) under high pressures of H2, O2, and CO was studied (Chap. 4). In situ UHV and high vacuum experiments were carried out for sulfur on Pt(111) (Chap.5). STM studies of CO/S/Pt(111) in high CO pressures showed that the Pt substrate undergoes a stacking-fault-domain reconstruction involving periodic transitions from fcc to hcp stacking of top-layer atoms (Chap.6). In Chap.7, the stability of propylene on Pt(111) and the decomposition products were studied in situ with the HPSTM. Finally, in Chap.8, results are presented which show how the Pt tip of the HPSTM was used to locally rehydrogenate and oxidize carbonaceous clusters deposited on the Pt(111) surface; the Pt tip acted as a catalyst after activation by short voltage pulses.

  9. Synthesis-Structure-Performance Correlation for Polyaniline-Me-C Non-Precious Metal Cathode Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction in Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Gang [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Johnston, Christina [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Mack, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Artyushkova, Kateryna [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Ferrandon, Magali [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Nelson, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lezama-pacheco, Juan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Conradson, Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Myers, Deborah [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Zelenay, Piotr [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we present the systematic preparation of active and durable non-precious metal catalysts (NPMCs) for the oxygen reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) based on the heat treatment of polyaniline/metal/carbon precursors. Variation of the synthesis steps, heat-treatment temperature, metal loading, and the metal type in the synthesis leads to markedly different catalyst activity, speciation, and morphology. Microscopy studies demonstrate notable differences in the carbon structure as a function of these variables. Balancing the need to increase the catalyst's degree of graphitization through heat treatment versus the excessive loss of surface area that occurs at higher temperatures is a key to preparing an active catalyst. XPS and XAFS spectra are consistent with the presence of Me-N{sub x} structures in both the Co and Fe versions of the catalyst, which are often proposed to be active sites. The average speciation and coordination environment of nitrogen and metal, however, depends greatly on the choice of Co or Fe. Taken together, the data indicate that better control of the metal-catalyzed transformations of the polymer into new graphitized carbon forms in the heat-treatment step will allow for even further improvement of this class of catalysts.

  10. Oxyhydrochlorination catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved catalyst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HCl and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

  11. Sulfur resistance of Group VIII transition metal promoted nickel catalysts for synthesis gas methanation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamlin, Kellee Hall

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    their resistance to deactivation by Hxg. The nickel and promoters were adsorbed on the catalyst by a simple precipitation technique. To investigate catalyst activity and deactivation experimentally, a fixed bed tubular reactor was operated at atmospheric... AND PROCEDURE To investigate catalyst activity and deactivation experimentally, a fixed bed tubular reactor wae constructed for the synthesis gss methanation studies. The reactor system and supporting equipment are shown schematically in Figure 1, while...

  12. Metal-supported De-NOx SCR Catalysts Prepared by Room Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Durability of Advanced Aftertreatment Systems Future Trends for DPFSCR On-Filter (SCRF) Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Coupled LNTSCR...

  13. The role of hydrogen in methane formation from carbon and water over metal catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Stanley Edwin

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by hydrogen chemisorption. Catalyst evaluation and rate studies were conducted in a recirculating - batch reactor, and high pressure evaluation of the nickel-zirconia catalyst was achieved through use of a batch reactor. Both reactor systems were connected.... MANOMETER VA P 0 R I ZAT I 0 N CHAMBER G. C. Figure 4. High Pressure System ~kt tly *d *. 'Ph ' k1-*t ' thy t. h' h was the most active catalyst at low pressure, was the only one examined at high pressure. The catalyst was reduced under hydrogen...

  14. The selective hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde over bimetallic catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoeb, A.M.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The selective hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde has been investigated over a monometallic Pt/SiO{sub 2} catalyst and platinum bimetallic catalysts where the second metal was either silver, copper, or tin. The effects of addition of a second metal to the Pt/SiO{sub 2} system on the selectivity to crotyl alcohol were investigated. The Pt-Sn bimetallic catalysts were characterized by hydrogen chemisorption, {sup 1}H NMR and microcalorimetry. The Pt-Ag/SiO{sub 2} and Pt-Cu/SiO{sub 2} catalysts were characterized by hydrogen chemisorption. Pt-Sn/SiO{sub 2} catalysts selectively hydrogenated crotonaldehyde to crotyl alcohol and the method of preparation of these catalysts affected the selectivity. The most selective Pt-Sn/SiO{sub 2} catalysts for the hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde to crotyl alcohol were those in which the Sn precursor was dissolved in a HCl solution. Sn increased both the rate of formation of butyraldehyde and the rate of formation of crotyl alcohol. The Pt/SiO{sub 2}, Pt-Ag/SiO{sub 2} and Pt-Cu/SiO{sub 2} catalysts produced only butyraldehyde. Initial heats of adsorption ({approximately}90 kJ/mol) measured using microcalorimetry were not affected by the presence of Sn on Pt. We can conclude that there is no through metal electronic interaction between Pt and Sn at least with respect to hydrogen surface bonds since the Pt and Pt-Sn at least with respect to hydrogen surface bonds since the Pt and Pt-Sn had similar initial heats of adsorption coupled with the invariance of the {sup 1}H NMR Knight shift.

  15. Early transition metal catalysts for the living polymerization of olefins and alkynes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adamchuk, Jennifer

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Zirconium and Hafnium Ziegler-Natta catalysts containing the [(2,6- C12C6H3NCH2CH2)2NMe]2- ([ArciN2NMe]2') ligand were prepared and employed in the polymerization of 1-hexene. Hafnium Ziegler-Natta catalysts containing the ...

  16. Process of making supported catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwarz, James A. (Fayetteville, NY); Subramanian, Somasundaram (Melvindale, MI)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxide supported metal catalysts have an additional metal present in intimate association with the metal catalyst to enhance catalytic activity. In a preferred mode, iridium or another Group VIII metal catalyst is supported on a titania, alumina, tungsten oxide, silica, or composite oxide support. Aluminum ions are readsorbed onto the support and catalyst, and reduced during calcination. The aluminum can be added as aluminum nitrate to the iridium impregnate solution, e.g. chloroiridic acid.

  17. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  18. Electrochemical catalyst recovery method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

    1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

  19. Experimental Study of In Situ Combustion with Decalin and Metallic Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateshov, Dauren

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    , where the same oil, catalyst and conditions were used. Results of experiments using decalin showed better quality of produced oil, higher recovery factor, faster combustion front movement and higher temperatures of oxidation. API gravity of oil in a run...

  20. Syntheses and applications of soluble polyisobutylene (PIB)-supported transition metal catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Jianhua

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    catalysts using liquid/liquid biphasic separations after a homogeneous reaction. Our work has shown that PIB-supported Ni(II) and Co(II) ?-diketonates prepared from commercially available vinyl terminated PIB oligomers possess catalytic activity like...

  1. Characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krebs, L.C.; Ishida, Takanobu

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The characterization of electrochemically modified polycrystalline platinum surfaces has been accomplished through the use of four major electrochemical techniques. These were chronoamperometry, chronopotentiommetry, cyclic voltammetry, and linear sweep voltammetry. A systematic study on the under-potential deposition of several transition metals has been performed. The most interesting of these were: Ag, Cu, Cd, and Pb. It was determined, by subjecting the platinum electrode surface to a single potential scan between {minus}0.24 and +1.25 V{sub SCE} while stirring the solution, that the electrocatalytic activity would be regenerated. As a consequence of this study, a much simpler method for producing ultra high purity water from acidic permanganate has been developed. This method results in water that surpasses the water produced by pyrocatalytic distillation. It has also been seen that the wettability of polycrystalline platinum surfaces is greatly dependent on the quantity of oxide present. Oxide-free platinum is hydrophobic and gives a contact angle in the range of 55 to 62 degrees. We have also modified polycrystalline platinum surface with the electrically conducting polymer poly-{rho}-phenylene. This polymer is very stable in dilute sulfuric acid solutions, even under applied oxidative potentials. It is also highly resistant to electrochemical hydrogenation. The wettability of the polymer modified platinum surface is severely dependent on the choice of supporting electrolyte chosen for the electrochemical polymerization. Tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate produces a film that is as hydrophobic as Teflon, whereas tetraethylammonium perchlorate produces a film that is more hydrophilic than oxide-free platinum.

  2. Anionic group 6B metal carbonyls as homogeneous catalysts for carbon dioxide/hydrogen activation: the production of alkyl formates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darensbourg, D.J.; Ovalles, C.

    1984-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of alkyl formates from the hydrocondensation of carbon dioxide in alcohols utilizing anionic group 6B carbonyl hydrides as catalysts is herein reported. HM(CO)/sub 5//sup -/ (M = Cr, W; derived from ..mu..-H(M/sub 2/(CO)/sub 10/)/sup -/) and their products of carbon dioxide insertion, HCO/sub 2/M(CO)/sub 5//sup -/, have been found to be effective catalysts for the hydrogenation of CO/sub 2/ in alcohols under rather mild conditions (loading pressures of CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/, 250 psi each, and 125/sup 0/C) to provide alkyl formates. The only metal carbonyl species detected in solution via spectroscopy, both at the end of a catalytic period and during catalysis, were M(CO)/sub 6/ and HCO/sub 2/M(CO)/sub 5//sup -/. The metal hexacarbonyls were independently shown to be catalytically inactive. A catalytic cycle is proposed which initially involves release of formic acid from the metal center, either by reductive elimination of the hydrido formato ligands or ligand-assisted heterolytic splitting of dihydrogen with loss of formic acid. In a rapid subsequent process HCOOH reacts with alcohols to yield HCOOR. The addition of carbon monoxide retards alkyl formate production, strongly implying CO/sub 2/ to be the primary source of the carboxylic carbon atom in HCOOR. This was verified by carrying out reactions in the presence of HCO/sub 2/W(/sup 13/CO)/sub 5//sup -/ which provided only H/sup 12/COOR after short reaction periods. However, in the absence of hydrogen and carbon dioxide ..mu..-H(M/sub 2/(CO)/sub 10/)/sup -/ species were observed to be effective catalyst precursors for converting CO and methanol into methyl formate. 36 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  3. CO Oxidation on Pt-Group Metals from Ultrahigh Vacuum to Near Atmospheric Pressures. 2. Palladium and Platinum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    CO Oxidation on Pt-Group Metals from Ultrahigh Vacuum to Near Atmospheric Pressures. 2. PalladiumVed: NoVember 3, 2008 CO oxidation on Pd(100), -(111), -(110), and Pt(110) single crystals was studied compositions. At low pressures the reaction fell into two regimes, one with a CO-dominant surface where the CO2

  4. DOE Award No. DE-FC36-03GO13108 NOVEL NON-PRECIOUS METAL CATALYSTS FOR PEMFC: CATALYST SELECTION THROUGH MOLECULAR MODELING AND DURABILITY STUDIES Final Report (September 2003 – October 2008)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branko N. Popov

    2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop novel non-precious metal electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and demonstrate the potential of the catalysts to perform at least as good as conventional Pt catalysts currently in use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with a cost at least 50 % less than a target of 0.2 g (Pt loading)/peak kW and with durability > 2,000 h operation with less than 10 % power degradation. A novel nitrogen-modified carbon-based catalyst was obtained by modifying carbon black with nitrogen-containing organic precursor in the absence of transition metal precursor. The catalyst shows the onset potential of approximately 0.76 V (NHE) for ORR and the amount of H2O2 of approximately 3% at 0.5 V (NHE). Furthermore, a carbon composite catalyst was achieved through the high-temperature pyrolysis of the precursors of transition metal (Co and Fe) and nitrogen supported on the nitrogen-modified carbon-based catalyst, followed by chemical post-treatment. This catalyst showed an onset potential for ORR as high as 0.87 V (NHE), and generated less than 1 % of H2O2. The PEM fuel cell exhibited a current density of 2.3 A cm-2 at 0.2 V for a catalyst loading of 6.0 mg cm-2. No significant performance degradation was observed for 480 h continuous operation. The characterization studies indicated that the metal-nitrogen chelate complexes decompose at the temperatures above 800 oC. During the pyrolysis, the transition metals facilitate the incorporation of pyridinic and graphitic nitrogen groups into the carbon matrix, and the carbon surface modified with nitrogen is active for ORR. In order to elucidate the role of transition metal precursor played in the formation of active sites in the non-precious metal catalysts, a novel ruthenium-based chelate (RuNx) catalyst was synthesized by using RuCl3 and propylene diammine as the Ru and N precursors, respectively, followed by high-temperature pyrolysis. This catalyst exhibited comparable catalytic activity and selectivity for ORR as the Pt catalyst. A theoretical analysis is made of the four-electron reduction reaction of oxygen to water over the mixed anion and cation (202) surface of pentlandite structure Co9Se8, one of several selenide phases. Reversible potentials for forming adsorbed reaction intermediates in acid are predicted using adsorption energies calculated with the Vienna ab initio simulation program (VASP) and the known bulk solution values together in a linear Gibbs energy relationship. The effect of hydrophobic and structural properties of a single/dual-layer cathode gas diffusion layer on mass transport in PEM fuel cells was studied using an analytical expression. The simulations indicated that liquid water transport at the cathode is controlled by the fraction of hydrophilic surface and the average pore diameter in the cathode gas diffusion layer. The optimized hydrophobicity and pore geometry in a dual-layer cathode GDL leads to an effective water management, and enhances the oxygen diffusion kinetics.

  5. DOE Award No. DE-FC36-03GO13108 NOVEL NON-PRECIOUS METAL CATALYSTS FOR PEMFC: CATALYST SELECTION THROUGH MOLECULAR MODELING AND DURABILITY STUDIES Final Report (September 2003 – October 2008)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branko N. Popov

    2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop novel non-precious metal electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and demonstrate the potential of the catalysts to perform at least as good as conventional Pt catalysts currently in use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with a cost at least 50 % less than a target of 0.2 g (Pt loading)/peak kW and with durability > 2,000 h operation with less than 10 % power degradation. A novel nitrogen-modified carbon-based catalyst was obtained by modifying carbon black with nitrogen-containing organic precursor in the absence of transition metal precursor. The catalyst shows the onset potential of approximately 0.76 V (NHE) for ORR and the amount of H2O2 of approximately 3% at 0.5 V (NHE). Furthermore, a carbon composite catalyst was achieved through the high-temperature pyrolysis of the precursors of transition metal (Co and Fe) and nitrogen supported on the nitrogen-modified carbon-based catalyst, followed by chemical post-treatment. This catalyst showed an onset potential for ORR as high as 0.87 V (NHE), and generated less than 1 % of H2O2. The PEM fuel cell exhibited a current density of 2.3 A cm-2 at 0.2 V for a catalyst loading of 6.0 mg cm-2. No significant performance degradation was observed for 480 h continuous operation. The characterization studies indicated that the metal-nitrogen chelate complexes decompose at the temperatures above 800 oC. During the pyrolysis, the transition metals facilitate the incorporation of pyridinic and graphitic nitrogen groups into the carbon matrix, and the carbon surface modified with nitrogen is active for ORR. In order to elucidate the role of transition metal precursor played in the formation of active sites in the non-precious metal catalysts, a novel ruthenium-based chelate (RuNx) catalyst was synthesized by using RuCl3 and propylene diammine as the Ru and N precursors, respectively, followed by high-temperature pyrolysis. This catalyst exhibited comparable catalytic activity and selectivity for ORR as the Pt catalyst. A theoretical analysis is made of the four-electron reduction reaction of oxygen to water over the mixed anion and cation (202) surface of pentlandite structure Co9Se8, one of several selenide phases. Reversible potentials for forming adsorbed reaction intermediates in acid are predicted using adsorption energies calculated with the Vienna ab initio simulation program (VASP) and the known bulk solution values together in a linear Gibbs energy relationship. The effect of hydrophobic and structural properties of a single/dual-layer cathode gas diffusion layer on mass transport in PEM fuel cells was studied using an analytical expression. The simulations indicated that liquid water transport at the cathode is controlled by the fraction of hydrophilic surface and the average pore diameter in the cathode gas diffusion layer. The optimized hydrophobicity and pore geometry in a dual-layer cathode GDL leads to an effective water management, and enhances the oxygen diffusion kinetics.

  6. Stable platinum nanoparticles on specific MgAl2O4 spinel facets...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The aged catalysts retain platinum dispersions of 15.9% with catalytic activities for methanol oxidation approximately 80% of fresh ones, while a conventional Pt&61543;-Al2O3...

  7. Low platinum loading electrospun electrodes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Simcha Lev

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was performed to evaluate the utility of electrospun carbon nanofiber supports for sputtered platinum catalyst in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The performance of the sputtered nanofiber supports ...

  8. Method and system for the combination of non-thermal plasma and metal/metal oxide doped .gamma.-alumina catalysts for diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aardahl, Christopher L. (Richland, WA); Balmer-Miller, Mari Lou (West Richland, WA); Chanda, Ashok (Peoria, IL); Habeger, Craig F. (West Richland, WA); Koshkarian, Kent A. (Peoria, IL); Park, Paul W. (Peoria, IL)

    2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure pertains to a system and method for treatment of oxygen rich exhaust and more specifically to a method and system that combines non-thermal plasma with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina catalyst. Current catalyst systems for the treatment of oxygen rich exhaust are capable of achieving only approximately 7 to 12% NO.sub.x reduction as a passive system and only 25 40% reduction when a supplemental hydrocarbon reductant is injected into the exhaust stream. It has been found that treatment of an oxygen rich exhaust initially with a non-thermal plasma and followed by subsequent treatment with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina prepared by the sol gel method is capable of increasing the NO.sub.x reduction to a level of approximately 90% in the absence of SO.sub.2 and 80% in the presence of 20 ppm of SO.sub.2. Especially useful metals have been found to be indium, gallium, and tin.

  9. Lattice-Strain Control of the Activity in Dealloyed Core-Shell Fuel Cell Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strasser, P. [Berlin Institute of Technology (Technische Universitat Berlin); Koh, Shirlaine [University of Houston, Houston; Anniyev, Toyli [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Greeley, Jeff [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Yu, Chengfei [University of Houston, Houston; Liu, Zengcai [University of Houston, Houston; Kaya, Sarpa [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Nordlund, Dennis [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Ogasawara, Hirohito [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Toney, Michael F. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; Anders, Nilsson [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrocatalysis will play a key role in future energy conversion and storage technologies, such as water electrolysers, fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Molecular interactions between chemical reactants and the catalytic surface control the activity and efficiency, and hence need to be optimized; however, generalized experimental strategies to do so are scarce. Here we show how lattice strain can be used experimentally to tune the catalytic activity of dealloyed bimetallic nanoparticles for the oxygen-reduction reaction, a key barrier to the application of fuel cells and metal-air batteries. We demonstrate the core-shell structure of the catalyst and clarify the mechanistic origin of its activity. The platinum-rich shell exhibits compressive strain, which results in a shift of the electronic band structure of platinum and weakening chemisorption of oxygenated species. We combine synthesis, measurements and an understanding of strain from theory to generate a reactivity-strain relationship that provides guidelines for tuning electrocatalytic activity.

  10. Lattice-Strain Control of the Activity in Dealloyed Core-Shell Fuel Cell Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strasser, Peter; Shirlaine, Koh; Anniyev, Toyli; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; More, Karren L.; Yu, Chengfei; Liu, Zengcai; Kaya, Sarp; Nordlund, Dennis; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Toney, Michael F.; Nilsson, Anders R.

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrocatalysis will play a key role in future energy conversion and storage technologies, such as water electrolysers, fuel cells and metal–air batteries. Molecular interactions between chemical reactants and the catalytic surface control the activity and efficiency, and hence need to be optimized; however, generalized experimental strategies to do so are scarce. Here we show how lattice strain can be used experimentally to tune the catalytic activity of dealloyed bimetallic nanoparticles for the oxygen-reduction reaction, a key barrier to the application of fuel cells and metal–air batteries. We demonstrate the core–shell structure of the catalyst and clarify the mechanistic origin of its activity. The platinum-rich shell exhibits compressive strain, which results in a shift of the electronic band structure of platinum and weakening chemisorption of oxygenated species. We combine synthesis, measurements and an understanding of strain from theory to generate a reactivity–strain relationship that provides guidelines for tuning electrocatalytic activity.

  11. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  12. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  13. Heterogeneous Catalysis on Atomically Dispersed Supported Metals: CO2 Reduction on Multifunctional Pd Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Kovarik, Libor; Szanyi, Janos

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature programmed reaction and scanning transmission electron microscopy experiments were applied to prove the requirement of two different catalyst functionalities for the reduction of CO2 with hydrogen on Pd/Al2O3 and Pd/MWCNT catalysts. The research described in this paper was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at PNNL. PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute.

  14. Catalyst for dehydrocyclizing alkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, W.C.; Hughes, T.R.

    1987-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst is described comprising a large-pore zeolite containing: at least one Group VIII metal; and an alkaline earth metal selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium and calcium, wherein the Selectivity Index of the catalyst is greater than 60%.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Cluster-Derived Supported Bimetallic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Richard D; Amiridis, Michael D

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    New procedures have been developed for synthesizing di- and tri-metallic cluster complexes. The chemical properties of the new complexes have been investigated, particularly toward the activation of molecular hydrogen. These complexes were then converted into bi- and tri-metallic nanoparticles on silica and alumina supports. These nanoparticles were characterized by electron microscopy and were then tested for their ability to produce catalytic hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbons and for the preferential oxidation of CO in the presence of hydrogen. The bi- and tri-metallic nanoparticles exhibited far superior activity and selectivity as hydrogenation catalysts when compared to the individual metallic components. It was found that the addition of tin greatly improved the selectivity of the catalysts for the hydrogenation of polyolefins. The addition of iron improves the catalysts for the selective oxidation of CO by platinum in the presence of hydrogen. The observations should lead to the development of lower cost routes to molecules that can be used to produce polymers and plastics for use by the general public and for procedures to purify hydrogen for use as an alternative energy in the hydrogen economy of the future.

  16. Hydrogen production in single-chamber tubular microbial electrolysis cells using non-precious-metal catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Hydrogen production in single-chamber tubular microbial electrolysis cells using non August 2009 Keywords: Hydrogen production Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) NiMo NiW Cathode catalystMo cathode accomplished a hydrogen production rate of 2.0 m3 /day/m3 at current density of 270 A/m3 (12 A/m2

  17. The Use of Soluble Polyolefins as Supports for Transition Metal Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hobbs, Christopher Eugene

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    times, with no loss in catalytic activity. To perform a thermomorphic solid/liquid separation, a polymer-bound catalyst that is completely insoluble at room temperature but soluble upon heating must be used. Our lab has pioneered the use of polyethylene...

  18. Catalysts for the production of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; Goldberg, R.I.

    1985-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting low H/sub 2//CO ratio syngas to carbonaceous products comprising reacting the syngas with water or steam at 200 to 350/sup 0/C in the presence of a metal catalyst supported on zinc oxide. Hydrocarbons are produced with a catalyst selected from cobalt, nickel or ruthenium and alcohols are produced with a catalyst selected from palladium, platinum, ruthenium or copper on the zinc oxide support. The ratio of the reactants are such that for alcohols and saturated hydrocarbons: (2n + 1) greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to O and for olefinic hydrocarbons: 2n greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to O where n is the number of carbon atoms in the product and x is the molar amount of water in the reaction mixture.

  19. Highly Dispersed Alloy Catalyst for Durability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vivek S. Murthi (Primary Contact), Elise Izzo, Wu Bi, Sandra Guerrero and Lesia Protsailo

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Achieving DOE�¢����s stated 5000-hr durability goal for light-duty vehicles by 2015 will require MEAs with characteristics that are beyond the current state of the art. Significant effort was placed on developing advanced durable cathode catalysts to arrive at the best possible electrode for high performance and durability, as well as developing manufacturing processes that yield significant cost benefit. Accordingly, the overall goal of this project was to develop and construct advanced MEAs that will improve performance and durability while reducing the cost of PEMFC stacks. The project, led by UTC Power, focused on developing new catalysts/supports and integrating them with existing materials (membranes and gas diffusion layers (GDLs)) using state-of-the-art fabrication methods capable of meeting the durability requirements essential for automotive applications. Specifically, the project work aimed to lower platinum group metals (PGM) loading while increasing performance and durability. Appropriate catalysts and MEA configuration were down-selected that protects the membrane, and the layers were tailored to optimize the movements of reactants and product water through the cell to maximize performance while maintaining durability.

  20. Metal hydrides as electrode/catalyst materials for oxygen evolution/reduction in electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA); Halpert, Gerald (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent (Pasadena, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Hightower, Adrian (Whittier, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An at least ternary metal alloy of the formula, AB.sub.(5-Y)X(.sub.y), is claimed. In this formula, A is selected from the rare earth elements, B is selected from the elements of groups 8, 9, and 10 of the periodic table of the elements, and X includes at least one of the following: antimony, arsenic, and bismuth. Ternary or higher-order substitutions, to the base AB.sub.5 alloys, that form strong kinetic interactions with the predominant metals in the base metal hydride are used to form metal alloys with high structural integrity after multiple cycles of hydrogen sorption.

  1. Breakthrough in platinum structures maintains high catalytic activity and could lead to reduced costs for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    costs for hydrogen fuel cells, which hold the promise of powering vehicles and buildings. Hydrogen fuel cells could power the vehicles of tomorrow. With platinum an essential catalyst in fuel cells-specific-activity catalysts that have shown good durability under potential cycling conditions. The NREL Fuel Cell Team starts

  2. Catalyst system comprising a first catalyst system tethered to a supported catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angelici, R.J.; Gao, H.

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides new catalyst formats which comprise a supported catalyst tethered to a second and different catalyst by a suitable tethering ligand. A preferred system comprises a heterogeneous supported metal catalyst tethered to a homogeneous catalyst. This combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts has a sufficient lifetime and unusually high catalytic activity in arene hydrogenations, and potentially many other reactions as well, including, but not limited to hydroformylation, hydrosilication, olefin oxidation, isomerization, hydrocyanidation, olefin metathesis, olefin polymerization, carbonylation, enantioselective catalysis and photoduplication. These catalysts are easily separated from the products, and can be reused repeatedly, making these systems very economical. 2 figs.

  3. Catalyst system comprising a first catalyst system tethered to a supported catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angelici, Robert J. (Ames, IA); Gao, Hanrong (Ames, IA)

    1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides new catalyst formats which comprise a supported catalyst tethered to a second and different catalyst by a suitable tethering ligand. A preferred system comprises a heterogeneous supported metal catalyst tethered to a homogeneous catalyst. This combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts has a sufficient lifetime and unusually high catalytic activity in arene hydrogenations, and potentially many other reactions as well, including, but not limited to hydroformylation, hydrosilation, olefin oxidation, isomerization, hydrocyanation, olefin metathesis, olefin polymerization, carbonylation, enantioselective catalysis and photoduplication. These catalysts are easily separated from the products, and can be reused repeatedly, making these systems very economical.

  4. Electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction with reduced platinum oxidation and dissolution rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang; Vukmirovic, Miomir

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen.

  5. Electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction with reduced platinum oxidation and dissolution rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Zhang, Junliang (Stony Brook, NY); Vukmirovic, Miomir (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen.

  6. In situ formation of coal gasification catalysts from low cost alkali metal salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Bernard J. (Santa Clara, CA); Brittain, Robert D. (Cupertino, CA); Sancier, Kenneth M. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbonaceous material, such as crushed coal, is admixed or impregnated with an inexpensive alkali metal compound, such as sodium chloride, and then pretreated with a stream containing steam at a temperature of 350.degree. to 650.degree. C. to enhance the catalytic activity of the mixture in a subsequent gasification of the mixture. The treatment may result in the transformation of the alkali metal compound into another, more catalytically active, form.

  7. Platinum-barium-type L zeolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, W.C.; Hughes, T.R.

    1987-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described of reforming hydrocarbons comprising contacting the hydrocarbons with a catalyst comprising: (a) a type L zeolite; (b) at least one Group VIII metal; and (c) an alkaline earth metal selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium and calcium. A method is described of dehydrocyclizing acyclic hydrocarbons comprising contacting the hydrocarbons with a catalyst comprising: (a) a type L zeolite (b) at least one Group VIII metal; and (c) an alkaline earth metal selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium and calcium.

  8. Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on...

  9. Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride). Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen...

  10. Chalcogen catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso-Vante, Nicolas (Buxerolles, FR); Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM); Choi, Jong-Ho (Los Alamos, NM); Wieckowski, Andrzej (Champaign, IL); Cao, Dianxue (Urbana, IL)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst and a membrane electrode assembly for fuel cells that includes such a cathode catalyst. The cathode catalyst includes a support having at least one transition metal in elemental form and a chalcogen disposed on the support. Methods of making the cathode catalyst and membrane electrode assembly are also described.

  11. Chalcogen catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM); Choi, Jong-Ho (Los Alamos, NM); Alonso-Vante, Nicolas (France, FR); Wieckowski, Andrzej (Champaign, IL); Cao, Dianxue (Urbana, IL)

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst and a membrane electrode assembly for fuel cells that includes such a cathode catalyst. The cathode catalyst includes a support having at least one transition metal in elemental form and a chalcogen disposed on the support. Methods of making the cathode catalyst and membrane electrode assembly are also described.

  12. Metal-supported De-NOx SCR Catalysts Prepared by Room Temperature Aerosol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMayEnergy Metal Organic HeatDeposition for

  13. Shape-selective catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch chemistry : atomic layer deposition of active catalytic metals. Activity report : January 1, 2005 - September 30, 2005.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cronauer, D. C. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is carrying out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (FT) chemistry - specifically, the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to needing high activity, it is desirable that the catalysts have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. The broad goal is to produce diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. Originally the goal was to prepare shape-selective catalysts that would limit the formation of long-chain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected 'cage.' Such catalysts were prepared with silica-containing fractal cages. The activity was essentially the same as that of catalysts without the cages. We are currently awaiting follow-up experiments to determine the attrition strength of these catalysts. A second experimental stage was undertaken to prepare and evaluate active FT catalysts formed by atomic-layer deposition [ALD] of active components on supported membranes and particulate supports. The concept was that of depositing active metals (i.e. ruthenium, iron or cobalt) upon membranes with well defined flow channels of small diameter and length such that the catalytic activity and product molecular weight distribution could be controlled. In order to rapidly evaluate the catalytic membranes, the ALD coating processes were performed in an 'exploratory mode' in which ALD procedures from the literature appropriate for coating flat surfaces were applied to the high surface area membranes. Consequently, the Fe and Ru loadings in the membranes were likely to be smaller than those expected for complete monolayer coverage. In addition, there was likely to be significant variation in the Fe and Ru loading among the membranes due to difficulties in nucleating these materials on the aluminum oxide surfaces. The first series of experiments using coated membranes demonstrated that the technology needed further improvement. Specifically, observed catalytic FT activity was low. This low activity appeared to be due to: (1) low available surface area, (2) atomic deposition techniques that needed improvements, and (3) insufficient preconditioning of the catalyst surface prior to FT testing. Therefore, experimentation was expanded to the use of particulate silica supports having defined channels and reasonably high surface area. This later experimentation will be discussed in the next progress report. Subsequently, we plan to evaluate membranes after the ALD techniques are improved with a careful study to control and quantify the Fe and Ru loadings. The preconditioning of these surfaces will also be further developed. (A number of improvements have been made with particulate supports; they will be discussed in the subsequent report.) In support of the above, there was an opportunity to undertake a short study of cobalt/promoter/support interaction using the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne. Five catalysts and a reference cobalt oxide were characterized during a temperature programmed EXAFS/XANES experimental study with the combined effort of Argonne and the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) of the University of Kentucky. This project was completed, and it resulted in an extensive understanding of the preconditioning step of reducing Co-containing FT catalysts. A copy of the resulting manuscript has been submitted and accepted for publication. A similar project was undertaken with iron-containing FT catalysts; the data is currently being studied.

  14. Oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceyer, Sylvia T. (Cambridge, MA); Lahr, David L. (Cambridge, MA)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to catalyst systems and methods for oxidation of carbon monoxide. The invention involves catalyst compositions which may be advantageously altered by, for example, modification of the catalyst surface to enhance catalyst performance. Catalyst systems of the present invention may be capable of performing the oxidation of carbon monoxide at relatively lower temperatures (e.g., 200 K and below) and at relatively higher reaction rates than known catalysts. Additionally, catalyst systems disclosed herein may be substantially lower in cost than current commercial catalysts. Such catalyst systems may be useful in, for example, catalytic converters, fuel cells, sensors, and the like.

  15. Platinum- and platinum alloy-coated palladium and palladium alloy particles and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang; Mo, Yibo; Vukmirovic, Miomir Branko

    2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to particle and nanoparticle composites useful as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts. The particle composites are composed of a palladium or palladium-alloy particle or nanoparticle substrate coated with an atomic submonolayer, monolayer, bilayer, or trilayer of zerovalent platinum atoms. The invention also relates to a catalyst and a fuel cell containing the particle or nanoparticle composites of the invention. The invention additionally includes methods for oxygen reduction and production of electrical energy by using the particle and nanoparticle composites of the invention.

  16. Catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Douglas W. (Burnt Hills, NY); Spiro, Clifford L. (Scotia, NY); Kosky, Philip G. (Schenectady, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalyst for the production of methane from carbon and/or coal by means of catalytic gasification. The catalyst compostion containing at least two alkali metal salts. A particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used.

  17. Crystalline titanate catalyst supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anthony, R.G.; Dosch, R.G.

    1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

  18. Process for the production of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a multi-metal oxide/sulfide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jevnikar, M. G.; Kuch, Ph. L.

    1985-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contacting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalytic composition containing an oxide and/or sulfide of at least one of molybdenum, tungsten, iron, chromium and vanadium in combination with at least one promoter metal, e.g. a catalyst of the formula Cs Cu /SUB 0.2/ Zn /SUB 0.5/ Mn /SUB 0.5/ Sn /SUB 2.4/ Mo O /SUB x/ S /SUB y/ .

  19. Method for the preparation of metal colloids in inverse micelles and product preferred by the method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcoxon, Jess P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for preparing catalytic elemental metal colloidal particles (e.g. gold, palladium, silver, rhodium, iridium, nickel, iron, platinum, molybdenum) or colloidal alloy particles (silver/iridium or platinum/gold). A homogeneous inverse micelle solution of a metal salt is first formed in a metal-salt solvent comprised of a surfactant (e.g. a nonionic or cationic surfactant) and an organic solvent. The size and number of inverse micelles is controlled by the proportions of the surfactant and the solvent. Then, the metal salt is reduced (by chemical reduction or by a pulsed or continuous wave UV laser) to colloidal particles of elemental metal. After their formation, the colloidal metal particles can be stabilized by reaction with materials that permanently add surface stabilizing groups to the surface of the colloidal metal particles. The sizes of the colloidal elemental metal particles and their size distribution is determined by the size and number of the inverse micelles. A second salt can be added with further reduction to form the colloidal alloy particles. After the colloidal elemental metal particles are formed, the homogeneous solution distributes to two phases, one phase rich in colloidal elemental metal particles and the other phase rich in surfactant. The colloidal elemental metal particles from one phase can be dried to form a powder useful as a catalyst. Surfactant can be recovered and recycled from the phase rich in surfactant.

  20. An evaluation of the single turnover (STO) procedure as a method for the determination of the active site densities on dispersed metal catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustine, R.L.; Baum, D.R.; High, K.G.; Szivos, L.S.; O'Leary, S.T. (Seton Hall Univ., South Orange, NJ (USA))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The extent of 2-butene formation during the STO reactions over Pd and Rh indicates that the alkene isomerization is nonstoichiometric. With Pt the extent of isomerization is also influenced by flow rate and reactant pulse size but to a lesser extent. Thus, the STO reaction procedure cannot be used for the determination of isomerization site densities on any of these catalysts. This procedure has been used to determine the saturation site densities on the EuroPt-I Pt/SiO{sub 2} and some northwestern Pt/SiO{sub 2} catalysts. The STO reaction sequence has also been run over Pt, Pd, and Rh catalysts using each of the isomeric butenes as the reactant alkene. Over all three catalysts the same amounts of direct and two-step saturation were observed regardless of the starting alkene showing that these saturation sites are not sensitive to the geometry of the reactant olefin. With Rh a near equilibrium mixture of all three double bond isomers is formed from each of the three starting alkenes. With Pt the extent of isomerization is characteristically low regardless of the starting olefin, so the low isomerization observed during the STO reaction of 1-butene on Pt is not the result of the formation of a primary metalalkyl on a large number of isomerization sites. The STO determined reactive site densities have been correlated with transition electron microscopy (TEM) measured metal particle sizes and turnover frequency (TOF) data for a number of reactions. From these results the sites on which specific reactions take place have been determined as has the site TOF for each of the active sites involved.

  1. Adsorption of propane, isopropyl, and hydrogen on cluster models of the M1 phase of Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govindasamy, Agalya [University of Cincinnati; Muthukumar, Kaliappan [University of Cincinnati; Yu, Junjun [University of Cincinnati; Xu, Ye [ORNL; Guliants, Vadim V. [University of Cincinnati

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst possessing the M1 phase structure is uniquely capable of directly converting propane into acrylonitrile. However, the mechanism of this complex eight-electron transformation, which includes a series of oxidative H-abstraction and N-insertion steps, remains poorly understood. We have conducted a density functional theory study of cluster models of the proposed active and selective site for propane ammoxidation, including the adsorption of propane, isopropyl (CH{sub 3}CHCH{sub 3}), and H which are involved in the first step of this transformation, that is, the methylene C-H bond scission in propane, on these active site models. Among the surface oxygen species, the telluryl oxo (Te=O) is found to be the most nucleophilic. Whereas the adsorption of propane is weak regardless of the MO{sub x} species involved, isopropyl and H adsorption exhibits strong preference in the order of Te=O > V=O > bridging oxygens > empty Mo apical site, suggesting the importance of TeO{sub x} species for H abstraction. The adsorption energies of isopropyl and H and consequently the reaction energy of the initial dehydrogenation of propane are strongly dependent on the number of ab planes included in the cluster, which points to the need to employ multilayer cluster models to correctly capture the energetics of surface chemistry on this mixed metal oxide catalyst.

  2. Aerogel derived catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, J. G., LLNL

    1996-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerogels area class of colloidal materials which have high surface areas and abundant mesoporous structure. SiO{sub 2} aerogels show unique physical, optical and structural properties. When catalytic metals are incorporated in the aerogel framework, the potential exists for new and very effective catalysts for industrial processes. Three applications of these metal-containing SiO{sub 2} aerogels as catalysts are briefly reviewed in this paper--NO{sub x} reduction, volatile organic compound destruction, and partial oxidation of methane.

  3. PLATINUM-GROUP METALS (Platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, osmium)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Africa, 59%; United Kingdom,14%; Russia, 9%; Germany, 5%; and other, 13%. Palladium: Russia, 48%; South the ore body, about 18,500 feet from the portal entrance, by the end of 1999. A second TBM also began

  4. PLATINUM-GROUP METALS (Platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, osmium)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and processors to form the Palladium Council (PdC). PdC is a nonprofit research foundation organized for the purpose of conducting research and promoting the use of palladium. PdC research and development

  5. Chemically modified carbon, nickel and platinum electrodes. Progress report, 15 January-1 October 1980. [Viologen polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant progress has been made in three areas: (1) heterobismetallic complexes have been prepared that will be investigated as electrode bound redox catalysts; (2) electrodes capable of catalyzing the reduction of certain alkyl halides have been prepared and are under further investigation; and (3) electrode surface bound viologen polymers have been prepared on carbon and platinum.

  6. Catalyst for selective conversion of synthesis gas and method of making the catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst, a method of making the catalyst and an F-T process utilizing the catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consists of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of an F-T metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

  7. Supported fischer-tropsch catalyst and method of making the catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Orefield, PA); Withers, Howard P. (Douglassville, PA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a method of making the catalyst for a Fischer-Tropsch process utilizing the catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas, is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range is disclosed. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consist of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of a Fischer-Tropsch metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

  8. Support shape effect in metal oxide catalysis: ceria nanoshapes supported vanadia catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Zili [ORNL; Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Li, Meijun [ORNL; Rondinone, Adam Justin [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The activation energy of VOx/CeO2 catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane was found dependent on the shape of ceria support: rods < octahedra, closely related to the surface oxygen vacancy formation energy and defects amount of the two ceria supports with different crystallographic surface planes.

  9. Process for producing hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a heteropolyanionic metal complex catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuch, Ph. L.

    1984-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contracting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a heteropolymolybdate or tungstate complex. Use of these catalysts reduce the amount of by-product carbon dioxide and methane formation and thus enhance the make of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide.

  10. Catalysts and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved catlayst and method for the oxyhydrochlorination of methane is disclosed. The catalyst includes a pyrogenic porous support on which is layered as active material, cobalt chloride in major proportion, and minor proportions of an alkali metal chloride and of a rare earth chloride. On contact of the catalyst with a gas flow of methane, HC1 and oxygen, more than 60% of the methane is converted and of that converted more than 40% occurs as monochloromethane. Advantageously, the monochloromethane can be used to produce gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons with the recycle of HCl for further reaction. This catalyst is also of value for the production of formic acid as are analogous catalysts with lead, silver or nickel chlorides substituted for the cobalt chloride.

  11. Silver doped catalysts for treatment of exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Paul Worn (Peoria, IL); Hester, Virgil Raymond (Edelstein, IL); Ragle, Christie Susan (Havana, IL); Boyer, Carrie L. (Shiloh, IL)

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making an exhaust treatment element includes washcoating a substrate with a slurry that includes a catalyst support material. At least some of the catalyst support material from the slurry may be transferred to the substrate, and silver metal (Ag) is dispersed within the catalyst support material.

  12. Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Presents...

  13. An exploration of automotive platinum demand and its impacts on the platinum market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitfield, Christopher George

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The platinum market is a material market of increasing interest, as platinum demand has grown faster than supply in recent years. As a result, the price of platinum has increased, causing end-user firms to experience ...

  14. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  15. Transition metal complexes of oxazolinylboranes and cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates: Catalysts for asymmetric olefin hydroamination and acceptorless alcohol decarbonylation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manna, Kuntal [Ames Laboratory

    2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented and discussed in this dissertation involves the synthesis of transition metal complexes of oxazolinylboranes and cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates, and their application in catalytic enantioselective olefin hydroamination and acceptorless alcohol decarbonylation. Neutral oxazolinylboranes are excellent synthetic intermediates for preparing new borate ligands and also developing organometallic complexes. Achiral and optically active bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes are synthesized by reaction of 2-lithio-2-oxazolide and 0.50 equiv of dichlorophenylborane. These bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes are oligomeric species in solid state resulting from the coordination of an oxazoline to the boron center of another borane monomer. The treatment of chiral bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes with sodium cyclopentadienide provide optically active cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates H[PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 5})(Ox{sup R}){sub 2}] [Ox{sup R} = Ox{sup 4S-iPr,Me2}, Ox{sup 4R-iPr,Me2}, Ox{sup 4S-tBu]}. These optically active proligands react with an equivalent of M(NMe{sub 2}){sub 4} (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) to afford corresponding cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borato group 4 complexes {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup R}){sub 2}}M(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} in high yields. These group 4 compounds catalyze cyclization of aminoalkenes at room temperature or below, providing pyrrolidine, piperidine, and azepane with enantiomeric excesses up to 99%. Our mechanistic investigations suggest a non-insertive mechanism involving concerted C?N/C?H bond formation in the turnover limiting step of the catalytic cycle. Among cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borato group 4 catalysts, the zirconium complex {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup 4S-iPr,Me2}){sub 2}}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} ({S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2}) displays highest activity and enantioselectivity. Interestingly, {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} also desymmetrizes olefin moieties of achiral non-conjugated aminodienes and aminodiynes during cyclization. The cyclization of aminodienes catalyzed by {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} affords diastereomeric mixture of cis and trans cylic amines with high diasteromeric ratios and excellent enantiomeric excesses. Similarly, the desymmetrization of alkyne moieties in {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2}-catalyzed cyclization of aminodiynes provides corresponding cyclic imines bearing quaternary stereocenters with enantiomeric excesses up to 93%. These stereoselective desymmetrization reactions are significantly affected by concentration of the substrate, temperature, and the presence of a noncyclizable primary amine. In addition, both the diastereomeric ratios and enantiomeric excesses of the products are markedly enhanced by N-deuteration of the substrates. Notably, the cationic zirconium-monoamide complex [{S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2})][B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 4}] obtained from neutral {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} cyclizes primary aminopentenes providing pyrrolidines with S-configuration; whereas {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} provides R-configured pyrrolidines. The yttrium complex {S-2}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} also affords S-configured pyrrolidines by cyclization of aminopentenes, however the enantiomeric excesses of products are low. An alternative optically active yttrium complex {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup 4S-tBu}){sub 2}}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} ({S-3}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3}) is synthesized, which displays highly enantioselective in the cyclization of aminoalkenes at room temperature affording S-configured cyclic amines with enantiomeric excesses up to 96%. A noninsertive mechanism involving a six-membered transition state by a concerted C?N bond formation and N?H bond cleavage is proposed for {S-3}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} system based on the kinetic, spectroscopic, and stereochemical features. In the end, a series of bis- and tris(oxazolinyl)borato iridium and rhodium complexes are synthesized with bis(oxazolinyl)phenylborane [PhB(Ox{sup Me2}){sub 2}]{sub n}, tris(oxazolinyl)borane [B(Ox{sup Me2}){sub 3}]n, and tris(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate [To{sup M}]{sup ?}. All these new an

  16. Catalyst and method for aqueous phase reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Hart, Todd R. (Kennewick, WA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a catalyst in the form of a plurality of porous particles wherein each particle is a support having nickel metal catalytic phase or reduced nickel deposited thereon in a first dispersed phase and an additional metal deposited onto the support in a second dispersed phase. The additional metal is effective in retarding or reducing agglomeration or sintering of the nickel metal catalytic phase without substantially affecting the catalytic activity, thereby increasing the life time of the catalyst.

  17. Catalyst and process development for hydrogen preparation from future fuel cell feedstocks. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980. [Pt/Rh, Pd, Pt, Rh, Ni/Rh, Rh/Re, Ni

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yarrington, R M; Feins, I R; Hwang, H S

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalysts are being screened to steam reform hydrocarbons in an autothermal reformer (STR). Twenty-one samples have been screened in a 1-in.-diam (ATR) reactor using No. 2 oil as the hydrocarbon feed. A series of platinum-rhodium catalysts were evaluated to study the effect of varying compositions. A sample containing 1.7% Pt/0.3% Rh was most active but the difference among the samples was within the range of test variability. Development of a more realistic test has been started. The effect of O/sub 2//C level on the gas composition leaving the catalytic partial oxidation section has been determined. The amount of unreacted oil increases as O/sub 2//C level decreases. The unreacted oil is more aromatic than the feedstock. The gas composition contains considerably more olefins as the O/sub 2//C level decreases. Post-run catalyst characterization indicates that the catalyst carrier does not deteriorate in the ATR test. A drastic decrease in CO chemisorption is noted on the Pt/Rh samples. This decline in CO chemisorption could either be due to metal sintering or to carbon deposition on the metal. Other analysis are required to determine which is causing the decline in CO chemisorption. Very low coke levels were found on Pt, Rh, and Pt/Rh samples. Addition of Rh to nickel reduces the coke level over that observed for nickel catalysts.

  18. Method of forming supported doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a supported oxidation catalyst includes providing a support comprising a metal oxide or a metal salt, and depositing first palladium compound particles and second precious metal group (PMG) metal particles on the support while in a liquid phase including at least one solvent to form mixed metal comprising particles on the support. The PMG metal is not palladium. The mixed metal particles on the support are separated from the liquid phase to provide the supported oxidation catalyst.

  19. Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Oxygen Electroreduction Activities of Carbon-Supported PtW Nanoparticle Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Liufeng [Honda Research Institute; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; He, Ting [Honda Research Institute

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon-supported PtW (PtW/C) alloy nanoparticle catalysts with well-controlled particle size, dispersion, and composition uniformity, have been synthesized by wet chemical methods of decomposition of carbonyl cluster complexes, hydrolysis of metal salts, and chemical reactions within a reverse microemulsion. The synthesized PtW/C catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The catalytic oxygen electroreduction activities were measured by the hydrodynamic rotating disk electrode technique in an acidic electrolyte. The influence of the synthesis method on PtW particle size, size distribution, composition uniformity, and catalytic oxygen electroreduction activity, have been investigated. Among the synthesis methods studied, PtW/C catalysts prepared by the decomposition of carbonyl cluster complexes displayed the best platinum mass activity for oxygen reduction reaction under the current small scale production; a 3.4-fold catalytic enhancement was achieved in comparison to a benchmark Pt/C standard.

  20. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

    1986-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160 C) and preferably in the range 80--120 C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen are disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa-M(OAc)[sub 2] where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1--6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)[sub 6] is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  1. Control of metal dispersion and structure by changes in the solid-state chemistry of supported cobalt FischerTropsch catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    cobalt Fischer­Tropsch catalysts Stuart L. Soleda,Ã, Enrique Iglesiaa,b , Rocco A. Fiatoa , Joseph E, USA Controlling preparation variables in supported cobalt Fischer­Tropsch catalysts has a dramatic. These approaches can lead to optimal Fischer­Tropsch catalysts with high activity and C5þ selectivity, good

  2. Electrocatalysts having gold monolayers on platinum nanoparticle cores, and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang

    2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to gold-coated particles useful as fuel cell electrocatalysts. The particles are composed of an electrocatalytically active core at least partially encapsulated by an outer shell of gold or gold alloy. The invention more particularly relates to such particles having a noble metal-containing core, and more particularly, a platinum or platinum alloy core. In other embodiments, the invention relates to fuel cells containing these electrocatalysts and methods for generating electrical energy therefrom.

  3. Reforming with a platinum-barium-zeolite of l family

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buss, W.C.; Hughes, T.R.

    1987-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described of reforming hydrocarbons comprising contacting the hydrocarbons with a catalyst comprising: (a) a zeolite of the L family; (b) at least one Group VIII metal; and (c) an alkaline earth metal selected from the group consisting of barium, strontium and calcium.

  4. Synthesis of Nearly Uniform Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using Identical Metal-Containing Molecular Nanoclusters as Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -known that the physical and chemical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) vary stronglySynthesis of Nearly Uniform Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using Identical Metal extremely small but uniform SWNTs on silicon dioxide surfaces using the CVD method. With a standard

  5. Graphitic carbon nitride materials: variation of structure and morphology and their use as metal-free catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    properties of carbon nitrides, they show unexpected catalytic activity for a variety of reactions, such as for the activation of benzene, trimerization reactions, and also the activation of carbon dioxide. Model calculationsGraphitic carbon nitride materials: variation of structure and morphology and their use as metal

  6. Research papers Distribution of platinum-group and chalcophile elements in the Aguablanca NiCu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -group elements Aguablanca Laser ablation Base-metal sulfides Pyrite The concentrations of platinum-group elements (PGE) and chalcophile elements Ni, Co, Au, Ag, Se, Re, Cd, Bi, Te and As have been determined by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP- MS) in base metal sulfide minerals (BMS

  7. Stable catalyst layers for hydrogen permeable composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Way, J. Douglas; Wolden, Colin A

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a hydrogen separation membrane based on nanoporous, composite metal carbide or metal sulfide coated membranes capable of high flux and permselectivity for hydrogen without platinum group metals. The present invention is capable of being operated over a broad temperature range, including at elevated temperatures, while maintaining hydrogen selectivity.

  8. Monodisperse Platinum and Rhodium Nanoparticles as Model Heterogeneous Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coble, Inger M

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    He, H 2 , and O 2 (UHP, Praxair, used as-received) and anAirGas, CP grade), hydrogen (Praxair, UHP, 99.999%)and helium (Praxair, UHP, 99.999%) were used as received.

  9. Hydrothermally Stable, Sulfur-Tolerant Platinum-Based Oxidation Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND DTechnologies |cents per kWh -via Surface

  10. Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash,EnergyNanophosphate technologyDepartment of

  11. Catalyst Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    or Ammonia Slip catalyst (ASC) 3 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy * FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies Program, Multi-Year Program Plan 2011-2015, Dec...

  12. Synthesis and characterisation of platinum (II) salphen complex and its interaction with calf thymus DNA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukri, Shahratul Ain Mohd; Heng, Lee Yook; Karim, Nurul Huda Abd [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43650 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A platinum (II) salphen complex was synthesised by condensation reaction of 2,4-dihydroxylbenzaldehyde and o-phenylenediamine with potassium tetrachloroplatinate to obtain N,N?-Bis-4-(hydroxysalicylidene)-phenylenediamine-platinum (II). The structure of the complex was confirmed by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, CHN elemental analyses and ESI-MS spectrometry. The platinum (II) salphen complex with four donor atoms N{sub 2}O{sub 2} from its salphen ligand coordinated to platinum (II) metal centre were determined. The binding mode and interaction of this complex with calf thymus DNA was determined by UV/Vis DNA titration and emission titration. The intercalation between the DNA bases by ?-? stacking due to its square planar geometry and aromatic rings structures was proposed.

  13. Method of making chalcogen catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jong-Ho (Los Alamos, NM); Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM); Wieckowski, Andrzej (Champaign, IL); Cao, Dianxue (Harabin, CN)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making an electrode catalyst material using aqueous solutions. The electrode catalyst material includes a support comprising at least one transition metal and at least one chalcogen disposed on a surface of the transition metal. The method includes reducing a metal powder, mixing the metal powder with an aqueous solution containing at least one inorganic compound of the chalcogen to form a mixture, and providing a reducing agent to the mixture to form nanoparticles of the electrode catalyst. The electrode catalyst may be used in a membrane electrode assembly for a fuel cell.

  14. Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

    1984-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Cr-free Fe-based metal oxide catalysts for high temperature water gas shift reaction of fuel processor using LPG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    lee, Joon Y.; Lee, Dae-Won; Lee, Kwan Young; Wang, Yong

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study was to identify the most suitable chromium-free iron-based catalysts for the HTS (high temperature shift) reaction of a fuel processor using LPG. Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in the commercial HTS catalyst has been regarded as hazardous material. We selected Ni and Co as the substitution for chromium in the Fe-based HTS catalyst and investigated the HTS activities of these Crfree catalysts at LPG reformate condition. Cr-free Fe-based catalysts which contain Ni, Zn, or Co instead of Cr were prepared by coprecipitation method and the performance of the catalysts in HTS was evaluated under gas mixture conditions (42% H2, 10% CO, 37% H2O, 8% CO2, and 3% CH4; R (reduction factor): about 1.2) similar to the gases from steam reforming of LPG (100% conversion at steam/carbon ratio = 3), which is higher than R (under 1) of typically studied LNG reformate condition. Among the prepared Cr-free Febased catalysts, the 5 wt%-Co/Fe/20 wt%-Ni and 5 wt%-Zn/Fe/20 wt%-Ni catalysts showed good catalytic activity under this reaction condition simulating LPG reformate gas.

  16. Processes and catalysts for conducting Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, A.H.; Oukaci, R.; Goodwin, J.G.

    1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes and catalysts are disclosed for conducting Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR). One aspect of the invention involves the use of cobalt catalysts without noble metal promotion in an SBCR. Another aspect involves using palladium promoted cobalt catalysts in an SBCR. Methods for preparing noble metal promoted catalysts via totally aqueous impregnation and procedures for producing attrition resistant catalysts are also provided. 1 fig.

  17. Processes and catalysts for conducting fischer-tropsch synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, Alan H. (Marshall Township, Allegheny County, PA); Oukaci, Rachid (Allison Park, PA); Goodwin, James G. (Cranberry Township, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes and catalysts for conducting Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR). One aspect of the invention involves the use of cobalt catalysts without noble metal promotion in an SBCR. Another aspect involves using palladium promoted cobalt catalysts in an SBCR. Methods for preparing noble metal promoted catalysts via totally aqueous impregnation and procedures for producing attrition resistant catalysts are also provided.

  18. Exploration of the active center structure of nitrogen-doped graphene-based catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a breakthrough for metal-free, N-containing catalysts and their use in applications such as metal­air batteries activity, indicating their potential as a catalyst for fuel cells and metal air batteries. However-graphene) and demonstrate its use as a metal-free catalyst to study the catalytic active center for the oxygen reduction

  19. Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivas, Girish (Thornton, CO); Bai, Chuansheng (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2000-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

  20. Carbon monoxide tolerant electrocatalyst with low platinum loading and a process for its preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Brankovic, Stanko; Wang, Jia

    2003-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrocatalyst is provided for use in a fuel cell that has low platinum loading and a high tolerance to carbon monoxide poisoning. The fuel cell anode includes an electrocatalyst that has a conductive support material, ruthenium nanoparticles reduced in H.sub.2 and a Group VIII noble metal in an amount of between about 0.1 and 25 wt % of the ruthenium nanoparticles, preferably between about 0.5 and 15 wt %. The preferred Group VIII noble metal is platinum. In one embodiment, the anode can also have a perfluorinated polymer membrane on its surface.

  1. Temperature dependent spin transport properties of platinum inferred from spin Hall magnetoresistance measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Sibylle, E-mail: sibylle.meyer@wmi.badw-muenchen.de; Althammer, Matthias; Geprägs, Stephan; Opel, Matthias; Goennenwein, Sebastian T. B. [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meißner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the temperature dependence of the spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) in yttrium iron garnet/platinum hybrid structures via magnetization orientation dependent magnetoresistance measurements. Our experiments show a decrease of the SMR magnitude with decreasing temperature. Using the sensitivity of the SMR to the spin transport properties of the normal metal, we interpret our data in terms of a decrease of the spin Hall angle in platinum from 0.11 at room temperature to 0.075 at 10?K, while the spin diffusion length and the spin mixing conductance of the ferrimagnetic insulator/normal metal interface remain almost constant.

  2. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Ag, Fe, Cr, Y - Metal oxides - ZrO 2 , MoO 3 - Zeolites - Mordenite, Ferrierite, - Y, Beta Pioneering Science and Technology Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy Catalyst...

  3. In Situ Studies of Surface Mobility on Noble Metal Model Catalysts Using STM and XPS at Ambient Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, Derek Robert

    2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    High Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (HP-STM) and Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were used to study the structural properties and catalytic behavior of noble metal surfaces at high pressure. HP-STM was used to study the structural rearrangement of the top most atomic surface layer of the metal surfaces in response to changes in gas pressure and reactive conditions. AP-XPS was applied to single crystal and nanoparticle systems to monitor changes in the chemical composition of the surface layer in response to changing gas conditions. STM studies on the Pt(100) crystal face showed the lifting of the Pt(100)-hex surface reconstruction in the presence of CO, H2, and Benzene. The gas adsorption and subsequent charge transfer relieves the surface strain caused by the low coordination number of the (100) surface atoms allowing the formation of a (1 x 1) surface structure commensurate with the bulk terminated crystal structure. The surface phase change causes a transformation of the surface layer from hexagonal packing geometry to a four-fold symmetric surface which is rich in atomic defects. Lifting the hex reconstruction at room temperature resulted in a surface structure decorated with 2-3 nm Pt adatom islands with a high density of step edge sites. Annealing the surface at a modest temperature (150 C) in the presence of a high pressure of CO or H{sub 2} increased the surface diffusion of the Pt atoms causing the adatom islands to aggregate reducing the surface concentration of low coordination defect sites. Ethylene hydrogenation was studied on the Pt(100) surface using HP-STM. At low pressure, the lifting of the hex reconstruction was observed in the STM images. Increasing the ethylene pressure to 1 Torr, was found to regenerate the hexagonally symmetric reconstructed phase. At room temperature ethylene undergoes a structural rearrangement to form ethylidyne. Ethylidyne preferentially binds at the three-fold hollow sites, which are present on the Pt(100) hex reconstructed phase, but not the (100)-(1x1) surface. The increase in ethylene pressure caused the adsorbate interactions to dominate the crystal morphology and imposed a surface layer structure that matched the ethylidyne binding geometry. The STM results also showed that the surface was reversibly deformed during imaging due to increases in Pt mobility at high pressure. The size dependence on the activity and surface chemistry of Rh nanoparticles was studied using AP-XPS. The activity was found to increase with particle size. The XPS spectra show that in reaction conditions the particle surface has an oxide layer which is chemically distinct from the surface structure formed by heating in oxygen alone. This surface oxide which is stabilized in the catalytically active CO oxidation conditions was found to be more prevalent on the smaller nanoparticles. The reaction-induced surface segregation behavior of bimetallic noble metal nanoparticles was observed with APXPS. Monodisperse 15 nm RhPd and PdPt nanoparticles were synthesized with well controlled Rh/Pd and Pd/Pt compositions. In-situ XPS studies showed that at 300 C in the presence of an oxidizing environment (100 mTorr NO or O{sub 2}) the surface concentration of the more easily oxidized element (Rh in RhPd and Pd in PdPt) was increased. Switching the gas environment to more reducing conditions (100 mTorr NO and 100 mTorr CO) caused the surface enrichment of the element with the lowest surface energy in its metallic state. Using in-situ characterization, the redox chemistry and the surface composition of bimetallic nanoparticle samples were monitored in reactive conditions. The particle surfaces were shown to reversibly restructure in response to the gas environment at high temperature. The oxidation behavior of the Pt(110) surface was studied using surface sensitive in-situ characterization by APXPS and STM. In the presence of 500 mTorr O{sub 2} and temperatures between 25 and 200 C, subsurface oxygen was detected in the surface layer. STM images show that these conditions were found to cau

  4. Metal salen catalyzed production of polytrimethylene carbonate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganguly, Poulomi

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    of Lewis acidic metal salen complexes (Al & Sn), as catalysts for this process. This was followed by the utilization of metal salen complexes of biometals as catalysts for the synthesis of these biodegradable polymers, as well as for the copolymerization...

  5. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  6. Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  7. Catalyst structure and method of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Yong; Vanderwiel, David P.; Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Gao, Yufei; Baker, Eddie G.

    2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, reactions using Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, methods of making Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, processes of hydrogenating carbon monoxide, and fuels made using these processes. The invention provides the ability to hydrogenate carbon monoxide with low contact times, good conversion rates and low methane selectivities. In a preferred method, the catalyst is made using a metal foam support.

  8. Catalyst structure and method of fischer-tropsch synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Vanderwiel, David P [Richland, WA; Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA; Baker, Eddie G [Pasco, WA

    2002-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, reactions using Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, methods of making Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, processes of hydrogenating carbon monoxide, and fuels made using these processes. The invention provides the ability to hydrogenate carbon monoxide with low contact times, good conversion rates and low methane selectivities. In a preferred method, the catalyst is made using a metal foam support.

  9. Low Cost Autothermal Diesel Reforming Catalyst Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shihadeh, J.; Liu, D.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic autothermal reforming (ATR) represents an important step of converting fossil fuel to hydrogen rich reformate for use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The state-of-the-art reforming catalyst, at present, is a Rh based material which is effective but costly. The objective of our current research is to reduce the catalyst cost by finding an efficient ATR catalyst containing no rhodium. A group of perovskite based catalysts have been synthesized and evaluated under the reforming condition of a diesel surrogate fuel. Hydrogen yield, reforming efficiency, and conversion selectivity to carbon oxides of the catalyst ATR reaction are calculated and compared with the benchmark Rh based material. Several catalyst synthesis improvements were carried out including: 1) selectively doping metals on the A-site and B-site of the perovskite structure, 2) changing the support from perovskite to alumina, 3) altering the method of metal addition, and 4) using transition metals instead of noble metals. It was found that the catalytic activity changed little with modification of the A-site metal, while it displayed considerable dependence on the B-site metal. Perovskite supports performed much better than alumina based supports.

  10. Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Kenneth D. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Perovskites of the structure A.sub.2 B.sub.2 C.sub.3 O.sub.10 are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

  11. Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, K.D.

    1991-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Perovskites of the structure A[sub 2]B[sub 2]C[sub 3]O[sub 10] are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

  12. Catalysts for coal liquefaction processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, D.

    1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved catalysts for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprise a combination of zinc or copper, or a compound thereof, and a Group VI or non-ferrous Group VIII metal, or a compound thereof.

  13. Hydrodenitrification catalyst and a method for improving the activity of the catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, R. C.

    1985-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydroconversion catalysts containing Group VIII and/or Group VIB catalytically active metals on a support, and particularly those containing nickel and molybdenum on alumina, are improved in hydrodenitrification (HDN) activity by impregnation of additional molybdenum and/or tungsten carbonyls onto the catalyst by sublimation. Preferably from about 1 to 5% w molybdenum is added. The carbonyl impregnated catalyst is then dried, calcined and, generally sulfided before use in a hydrocarbon conversion process.

  14. Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar ""BNL's Low-Platinum Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) webinarslidesbnlelectrocatalysts061912.pdf More Documents...

  15. Designing Hawaii's First LEED Platinum Net Zero Community: Kaupuni...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Designing Hawaii's First LEED Platinum Net Zero Community: Kaupuni Village Designing Hawaii's First LEED Platinum Net Zero Community: Kaupuni Village U.S. Department of Energy...

  16. Adsorption of Water Monomer and Clusters on Platinum(111) Terrace...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Platinum(111) Terrace and Related Steps and Kinks I. Configurations, Energies, and Adsorption of Water Monomer and Clusters on Platinum(111) Terrace and Related Steps and Kinks...

  17. Green approach for self-assembly of platinum nanoparticles into...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Green approach for self-assembly of platinum nanoparticles into nanowires in aqueous glucose solutions. Green approach for self-assembly of platinum nanoparticles into nanowires in...

  18. Science Magazine Highlight: Moving Towards Near Zero Platinum...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Science Magazine Highlight: Moving Towards Near Zero Platinum Fuel Cells Science Magazine Highlight: Moving Towards Near Zero Platinum Fuel Cells Presentation slides and speaker...

  19. Platinum - Coated Cobalt Nanowires as Oxygen Reduction Reaction Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alia, Shaun M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Pylypenko, Svitlana [ORNL; Neyerlin, Kenneth C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Cullen, David A [ORNL; Kocha, Shyam S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Pivovar, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cobalt nanowires (CoNWs) are coated with platinum (Pt) by partial galvanic displacement, forming core/shell wires 200 300 nm in diameter and 100 200 1m in length. PtCoNWs are characterized for activit y in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with rotating disk electrode half5cells in 0.1 M perchloric acid electrolytes. The resulting catalysts demonstrate ORR specific activi ties in the range 2053 2783 1A cm Pt 2 , comparable to the specific activity of polycrystalline Pt. The specific activi ties of PtCoNWs increase with decreasing Pt content and exhibit a corresponding increase in Pt lattice compression. P tCoNWs have exhibited a maximum mass activity of 79 3 mA mg Pt 1 , 2.6 times greater than carbon5supported Pt nanopart icles.

  20. Catalyst for coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huibers, Derk T. A. (Pennington, NJ); Kang, Chia-Chen C. (Princeton, NJ)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved catalyst for a coal liquefaction process; e.g., the H-Coal Process, for converting coal into liquid fuels, and where the conversion is carried out in an ebullated-catalyst-bed reactor wherein the coal contacts catalyst particles and is converted, in addition to liquid fuels, to gas and residual oil which includes preasphaltenes and asphaltenes. The improvement comprises a catalyst selected from the group consisting of the oxides of nickel molybdenum, cobalt molybdenum, cobalt tungsten, and nickel tungsten on a carrier of alumina, silica, or a combination of alumina and silica. The catalyst has a total pore volume of about 0.500 to about 0.900 cc/g and the pore volume comprises micropores, intermediate pores and macropores, the surface of the intermediate pores being sufficiently large to convert the preasphaltenes to asphaltenes and lighter molecules. The conversion of the asphaltenes takes place on the surface of micropores. The macropores are for metal deposition and to prevent catalyst agglomeration. The micropores have diameters between about 50 and about 200 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 50 to about 80% of the pore volume, whereas the intermediate pores have diameters between about 200 and 2000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume, and the macropores have diameters between about 2000 and about 10,000 angstroms (.ANG.) and comprise from about 10 to about 25% of the pore volume. The catalysts are further improved where they contain promoters. Such promoters include the oxides of vanadium, tungsten, copper, iron and barium, tin chloride, tin fluoride and rare earth metals.

  1. Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchangers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, R.G.; Stephens, H.P.; Stohl, F.V.

    1983-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

  2. Nickel/ruthenium catalyst and method for aqueous phase reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Sealock, John L. (West Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of hydrogenation using a catalyst in the form of a plurality of porous particles wherein each particle is a support having nickel metal catalytic phase or reduced nickel deposited thereon in a first dispersed phase and an additional ruthenium metal deposited onto the support in a second dispersed phase. The additional ruthenium metal is effective in retarding or reducing agglomeration or sintering of the nickel metal catalytic phase thereby increasing the life time of the catalyst during hydrogenation reactions.

  3. Heterogeneous Catalysis on Atomically Dispersed Supported Metals...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalysis on Atomically Dispersed Supported Metals: CO2 Reduction on Multifunctional Pd Catalysts. Heterogeneous Catalysis on Atomically Dispersed Supported Metals: CO2 Reduction...

  4. Process for alkane group dehydrogenation with organometallic catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaska, W.C.; Jensen, C.M.

    1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process is described for the catalytic dehydrogenation of organic molecules having a ##STR1## group to produce a ##STR2## group. The organic molecules are: ##STR3## wherein: A.sup.1, A.sup.2, A.sup.3, and A.sup.4 are each independently P, As or N: E.sup.2 is independently C or N; E.sup.3 is independently C, Si or Ge; E.sup.4 is independently C, Si, or Ge; and E.sup.5 is independently C, Si or Ge; M.sup.1, M.sup.2, M.sup.3, and M.sup.4 each is a metal atom independently selected from the group consisting of ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium and platinum; Q.sup.1, Q.sup.2, Q.sup.3, and Q.sup.4 are each independently a direct bond, --CH.sub.2 --, --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 --, or CH.dbd.CH--; in structure I, structure II or structure IV, R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 are each independently selected from alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkyl, and aryl, or R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 together and R.sup.3 and R.sup.4 together form a ring structure having from 4 to 10 carbon atoms, or in structure III, R.sup.5, R.sup.6, R.sup.7, and R.sup.8 are each independently selected from alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkyl, and aryl, or R.sup.5 and R.sup.6 together and R.sup.7 and R.sup.8 together form a ring structure having from 4 to 10 carbon atoms, at a temperature of between about 100.degree. and 250.degree. C. for between about 1 hr and 300 days in the absence of N.sub.2. The surprisingly stable catalyst is a complex of an organic ligand comprising H, C, Si, N, P atoms, and a platinum group metal. The dehydrogenation is performed between about 100 to 200.degree. C., and has increased turnover.

  5. Process for alkane group dehydrogenation with organometallic catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaska, William C. (Goleta, CA); Jensen, Craig M. (Kailua, HI)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process is described for the catalytic dehydrogenation of organic molecules having a ##STR1## group to produce a ##STR2## group. The organic molecules are: ##STR3## wherein: A.sup.1, A.sup.2, A.sup.3, and A.sup.4 are each independently P, As or N: E.sup.2 is independently C or N; E.sup.3 is independently C, Si or Ge; E.sup.4 is independently C, Si, or Ge; and E.sup.5 is independently C, Si or Ge; M.sup.1, M.sup.2, M.sup.3, and M.sup.4 each is a metal atom independently selected from the group consisting of ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium and platinum; Q.sup.1, Q.sup.2, Q.sup.3, and Q.sup.4 are each independently a direct bond, --CH.sub.2 --, --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 --, or CH.dbd.CH--; in structure I, structure II or structure IV, R.sup.1, R.sup.2, R.sup.3, and R.sup.4 are each independently selected from alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkyl, and aryl, or R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 together and R.sup.3 and R.sup.4 together form a ring structure having from 4 to 10 carbon atoms, or in structure III, R.sup.5, R.sup.6, R.sup.7, and R.sup.8 are each independently selected from alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkyl, and aryl, or R.sup.5 and R.sup.6 together and R.sup.7 and R.sup.8 together form a ring structure having from 4 to 10 carbon atoms, at a temperature of between about 100.degree. and 250.degree. C. for between about 1 hr and 300 days in the absence of N.sub.2. The surprisingly stable catalyst is a complex of an organic ligand comprising H, C, Si, N, P atoms, and a platinum group metal. The dehydrogenation is performed between about 100 to 200.degree. C., and has increased turnover.

  6. Sub-Lithographic Patterning Technology for Nanowire Model Catalysts and DNA Label-Free Hybridization Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bokor, Jeffrey

    Sub-Lithographic Patterning Technology for Nanowire Model Catalysts and DNA Label were used as a mold in nanoimprint lithography and lift-off patterning of sub-30nm platinum nanowires a label-free tool for DNA hybridization detection based on measuring capacitance changes in the gap

  7. Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parent, Yves O. (Golden, CO); Magrini, Kim (Golden, CO); Landin, Steven M. (Conifer, CO); Ritland, Marcus A. (Palm Beach Shores, FL)

    2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

  8. Platinum-GrouP metals--2004 57. Platinum-GrouP metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and refinery is located on property it owns in Columbus. the smelter-refinery complex was shut down for 5 weeks

  9. Weaving a catalyst | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weaving a catalyst Weaving a catalyst Released: November 20, 2014 Popular aluminum oxide created by interlacing different crystal forms Scientists obtained an atomically resolved...

  10. Method for producing iron-based catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farcasiu, Malvina (Pittsburgh, PA); Kaufman, Phillip B. (Library, PA); Diehl, J. Rodney (Pittsburgh, PA); Kathrein, Hendrik (McMurray, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing an acid catalyst having a long shelf-life is provided comprising doping crystalline iron oxides with lattice-compatible metals and heating the now-doped oxide with halogen compounds at elevated temperatures. The invention also provides for a catalyst comprising an iron oxide particle having a predetermined lattice structure, one or more metal dopants for said iron oxide, said dopants having an ionic radius compatible with said lattice structure; and a halogen bound with the iron and the metal dopants on the surface of the particle.

  11. Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions of matter comprising nitro-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has nitro groups attached thereto in meso and/or .beta.-pyrrolic positions.

  12. Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

    1994-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions of matter comprising nitro-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has nitro groups attached thereto in meso and/or [beta]-pyrrolic positions.

  13. Process for magnetic beneficiating petroleum cracking catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doctor, R.D.

    1993-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for beneficiating a particulate zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst having metal values in excess of 1000 ppm nickel equivalents. The particulate catalyst is passed through a magnetic field in the range of from about 2 Tesla to about 5 Tesla generated by a superconducting quadrupole open-gradient magnetic system for a time sufficient to effect separation of said catalyst into a plurality of zones having different nickel equivalent concentrations. A first zone has nickel equivalents of about 6,000 ppm and greater, a second zone has nickel equivalents in the range of from about 2000 ppm to about 6000 ppm, and a third zone has nickel equivalents of about 2000 ppm and less. The zones of catalyst are separated and the second zone material is recycled to a fluidized bed of zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst. The low nickel equivalent zone is treated while the high nickel equivalent zone is discarded. 1 figures.

  14. Process for magnetic beneficiating petroleum cracking catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doctor, Richard D. (Lisle, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for beneficiating a particulate zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst having metal values in excess of 1000 ppm nickel equivalents. The particulate catalyst is passed through a magnetic field in the range of from about 2 Tesla to about 5 Tesla generated by a superconducting quadrupole open-gradient magnetic system for a time sufficient to effect separation of said catalyst into a plurality of zones having different nickel equivalent concentrations. A first zone has nickel equivalents of about 6,000 ppm and greater, a second zone has nickel equivalents in the range of from about 2000 ppm to about 6000 ppm, and a third zone has nickel equivalents of about 2000 ppm and less. The zones of catalyst are separated and the second zone material is recycled to a fluidized bed of zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst. The low nickel equivalent zone is treated while the high nickel equivalent zone is discarded.

  15. Iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas and method for producing the catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.

    1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a carbon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

  16. Iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas and method for producing the catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S. (1 Miller Ave., Shoreham, NY 11786); Slegeir, William A. (7 Florence Rd., Hampton Bays, NY 11946)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a carbon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

  17. Multi-stage catalyst systems and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ozkan, Umit S. (Worthington, OH); Holmgreen, Erik M. (Columbus, OH); Yung, Matthew M. (Columbus, OH)

    2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalyst systems and methods provide benefits in reducing the content of nitrogen oxides in a gaseous stream containing nitric oxide (NO), hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), and oxygen (O.sub.2). The catalyst system comprises an oxidation catalyst comprising a first metal supported on a first inorganic oxide for catalyzing the oxidation of NO to nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2), and a reduction catalyst comprising a second metal supported on a second inorganic oxide for catalyzing the reduction of NO.sub.2 to nitrogen (N.sub.2).

  18. Synthesis and Understanding of Novel Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stair, Peter C. [Northwestern University] [Northwestern University

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The research took advantage of our capabilities to perform in-situ and operando Raman spectroscopy on complex systems along with our developing expertise in the synthesis of uniform, supported metal oxide materials to investigate relationships between the catalytically active oxide composition, atomic structure, and support and the corresponding chemical and catalytic properties. The project was organized into two efforts: 1) Synthesis of novel catalyst materials by atomic layer deposition (ALD). 2) Spectroscopic and chemical investigations of coke formation and catalyst deactivation. ALD synthesis was combined with conventional physical characterization, Raman spectroscopy, and probe molecule chemisorption to study the effect of supported metal oxide composition and atomic structure on acid-base and catalytic properties. Operando Raman spectroscopy studies of olefin polymerization leading to coke formation and catalyst deactivation clarified the mechanism of coke formation by acid catalysts.

  19. Development of FCC catalyst magnetic separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goolsby, T.L.; Moore, H.F. [Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic separation has been historically active in several different industries, yet has not been utilized in petroleum refining until recently. Development of economical permanent magnets with high magnetic strength has led to a new process known as MagnaCat{reg_sign}. The MagnaCat{reg_sign}. Process separates less active (high metals) particles catalyst from equilibrium Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) catalyst, producing a higher activity/lower metals catalyst for recycle. Pilot FCC studies showed lower hydrogen, dry gas, and coke make with higher wet gas and octane from catalyst separated by MagnaCat{reg_sign}. With the use of a MagnaCat{reg_sign} Process unit, a refiner would produce an economic advantage of $0.20 to $0.40/Barrel of FCC charge and enhance unit operability.

  20. Methanol-Tolerant Cathode Catalyst Composite For Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yimin (Los Alamos, NM); Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) having a methanol fuel supply, oxidant supply, and its membrane electrode assembly (MEA) formed of an anode electrode and a cathode electrode with a membrane therebetween, a methanol oxidation catalyst adjacent the anode electrode and the membrane, an oxidant reduction catalyst adjacent the cathode electrode and the membrane, comprises an oxidant reduction catalyst layer of a platinum-chromium alloy so that oxidation at the cathode of methanol that crosses from the anode through the membrane to the cathode is reduced with a concomitant increase of net electrical potential at the cathode electrode.

  1. Improved hydrous oxide ion-exchange compound catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, R.G.; Stephens, H.P.

    1986-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a catalytic material of improved activity which comprises a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal or quaternary ammonium titanate, zirconate, niobate, or tantalate, in which the metal or ammonium cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective quantity of a catalyst metal, and which has been subsequently treated with a solution of a Bronsted acid.

  2. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

    1985-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-RONa-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  3. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S. (1 Miller Ave., Shoreham, NY 11786); Slegeir, William A. (7 Florence Rd., Hampton Bays, NY 11946); O'Hare, Thomas E. (11 Geiger Pl., Huntington Station, NY 11746); Mahajan, Devinder (14 Locust Ct., Selden, NY 11784)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160.degree. C.) and preferably in the range 80.degree.-120.degree. C. used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa--M(OAc).sub.2 where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M=Ni and R=tertiary amyl). Mo(CO).sub.6 is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  4. Low temperature catalysts for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.; Mahajan, D.

    1986-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160 C) and preferably in the range 80--120 C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen are disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa-M(OAc)[sub 2] where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is NiC (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). Mo(CO)[sub 6] is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  5. Oxygen reduction on platinum : an EIS study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golfinopoulos, Theodore

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on platinum over yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is examined via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for oxygen partial pressures between 10-4 and 1 atm and at temperatures ...

  6. Less platinum means lower prices for autos

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    How technology developed by researchers at 3M is reducing the amount of platinum necessary for a fuel cell system, helping to make the technology more practical for consumer vehicles.

  7. In-situ and theoretical studies for the dissociation of water on an active Ni/CeO? catalyst: Importance of strong metal-support interactions for the cleavage of O-H bonds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carrasco, Javier [Inst. de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); CIC Energigune, Minana, Alava (Spain); Rodriguez, Jose A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Lopez-Duran, David [Inst. de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); CIC Energigune, Minana, Alava (Spain); Liu, Zongyuan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Duchon, Tomas [Charles Univ., Praha (Czech Republic); Evans, Jaime [Univ. Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela); Senanayake, Sanjaya D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crumlin, Ethan J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Matolin, Vladimir [Charles Univ., Praha (Czech Republic); Ganduglia-Pirovano, M. Veronica [Inst. de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Water dissociation is crucial in many catalytic reactions on oxide-supported transition-metal catalysts. Here, supported by experimental and density-functional theory results, we elucidate the effect of the support on O-H bond cleavage activity for nickel/ceria systems. Ambient-pressure O1s photoemission spectra at low Ni loadings on CeO?(111) reveal a substantially larger amount of OH groups as compared to the bare support. Our computed activation energy barriers for water dissociation show an enhanced reactivity of Ni adatoms on CeO?(111) compared with pyramidal Ni? particles with one Ni atom not in contact with the support, and extended Ni(111) surfaces. At the origin of this support effect is the ability of ceria to stabilize oxidized Ni²? species by accommodating electrons in localized f-states. The fast dissociation of water on Ni/CeO? has a dramatic effect on the activity and stability of this system as a catalyst for the water-gas shift and ethanol steam reforming reactions.

  8. In-situ and theoretical studies for the dissociation of water on an active Ni/CeO? catalyst: Importance of strong metal-support interactions for the cleavage of O-H bonds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carrasco, Javier; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Lopez-Duran, David; Liu, Zongyuan; Duchon, Tomas; Evans, Jaime; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Matolin, Vladimir; Ganduglia-Pirovano, M. Veronica

    2015-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Water dissociation is crucial in many catalytic reactions on oxide-supported transition-metal catalysts. Here, supported by experimental and density-functional theory results, we elucidate the effect of the support on O-H bond cleavage activity for nickel/ceria systems. Ambient-pressure O1s photoemission spectra at low Ni loadings on CeO?(111) reveal a substantially larger amount of OH groups as compared to the bare support. Our computed activation energy barriers for water dissociation show an enhanced reactivity of Ni adatoms on CeO?(111) compared with pyramidal Ni? particles with one Ni atom not in contact with the support, and extended Ni(111) surfaces. At the origin of thismore »support effect is the ability of ceria to stabilize oxidized Ni²? species by accommodating electrons in localized f-states. The fast dissociation of water on Ni/CeO? has a dramatic effect on the activity and stability of this system as a catalyst for the water-gas shift and ethanol steam reforming reactions.« less

  9. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  10. Use of ionic liquids as coordination ligands for organometallic catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Zaiwei (Moreno Valley, CA); Tang, Yongchun (Walnut, CA); Cheng; Jihong (Arcadia, CA)

    2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Aspects of the present invention relate to compositions and methods for the use of ionic liquids with dissolved metal compounds as catalysts for a variety of chemical reactions. Ionic liquids are salts that generally are liquids at room temperature, and are capable of dissolving a many types of compounds that are relatively insoluble in aqueous or organic solvent systems. Specifically, ionic liquids may dissolve metal compounds to produce homogeneous and heterogeneous organometallic catalysts. One industrially-important chemical reaction that may be catalyzed by metal-containing ionic liquid catalysts is the conversion of methane to methanol.

  11. Volume 1, 1st Edition, Multiscale Tailoring of Highly Active and Stable Nanocomposite Catalysts, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veser, Goetz

    2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanomaterials have gained much attention as catalysts since the discovery of exceptional CO oxidation activity of nanoscale gold by Haruta. However, many studies avoid testing nanomaterials at the high-temperatures relevant to reactions of interest for the production of clean energy (T > 700°C). The generally poor thermal stability of catalytically active noble metals has thus far prevented significant progress in this area. We have recently overcome the poor thermal stability of nanoparticles by synthesizing a platinum barium-hexaaluminate (Pt-BHA) nanocomposite which combines the high activity of noble metal nanoparticles with the thermal stability of hexaaluminates. This Pt-BHA nanocomposite demonstrates excellent activity, selectivity, and long-term stability in CPOM. Pt-BHA is anchored onto a variety of support structures in order to improve the accessibility, safety, and reactivity of the nanocatalyst. Silica felts prove to be particularly amenable to this supporting procedure, with the resulting supported nanocatalyst proving to be as active and stable for CPOM as its unsupported counterpart. Various pre-treatment conditions are evaluated to determine their effectiveness in removing residual surfactant from the active nanoscale platinum particles. The size of these particles is measured across a wide temperature range, and the resulting “plateau” of stability from 600-900°C can be linked to a particle caging effect due to the structure of the supporting ceramic framework. The nanocomposites are used to catalyze the combustion of a dilute methane stream, and the results indicate enhanced activity for both Pt-BHA as well as ceria-doped BHA, as well as an absence of internal mass transfer limitations at the conditions tested. In water-gas shift reaction, nanocomposite Pt-BHA shows stability during prolonged WGS reaction and no signs of deactivation during start-up/shut-down of the reactor. The chemical and thermal stability, low molecular weight, and wealth of literature on the formation of mesoporous silica materials motivated investigations of nanocomposite silica catalysts. High surface area silicas are synthesized via sol-gel methods, and the addition of metal-salts lead to the formation of stable nanocomposite Ni- and Fe- silicates. The results of these investigations have increased the fundamental understanding and improved the applicability of nanocatalysts for clean energy applications.

  12. Stereospecific olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bercaw, J.E.; Herzog, T.A.

    1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A metallocene catalyst system is described for the polymerization of {alpha}-olefins to yield stereospecific polymers including syndiotactic, and isotactic polymers. The catalyst system includes a metal and a ligand of the formula shown wherein: R{sup 1}, R{sup 2}, and R{sup 3} are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, 5 to 7 membered cycloalkyl, which in turn may have from 1 to 3 C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyls as a substituent, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or arylalkyl in which two adjacent radicals may together stand for cyclic groups having 4 to 15 carbon atoms which in turn may be substituted, or Si(R{sup 8}){sub 3} where R{sup 8} is selected from the group consisting of C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or C{sub 3} to C{sub 10} cycloalkyl; R{sup 4} and R{sup 6} are substituents both having van der Waals radii larger than the van der Waals radii of groups R{sup 1} and R{sup 3}; R{sup 5} is a substituent having a van der Waals radius less than about the van der Waals radius of a methyl group; E{sup 1}, E{sup 2} are independently selected from the group consisting of Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}--Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Ge(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Sn(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}--C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, where R{sup 9} is C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or C{sub 3} to C{sub 10} cycloalkyl; and the ligand may have C{sub S} or C{sub 1}-symmetry. Preferred metals are selected from the group consisting of group III, group IV, group V or lanthanide group elements. The catalysts are used to prepare stereoregular polymers including polypropylene from {alpha}-olefin monomers.

  13. Stereospecific olefin polymerization catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bercaw, John E. (Pasadena, CA); Herzog, Timothy A. (Pasadena, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A metallocene catalyst system for the polymerization of .alpha.-olefins to yield stereospecific polymers including syndiotactic, and isotactic polymers. The catalyst system includes a metal and a ligand of the formula ##STR1## wherein: R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, 5 to 7 membered cycloalkyl, which in turn may have from 1 to 3 C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyls as a substituent, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or arylalkyl in which two adjacent radicals may together stand for cyclic groups having 4 to 15 carbon atoms which in turn may be substituted, or Si(R.sup.8).sub.3 where R.sup.8 is selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.10 cycloalkyl; R.sup.4 and R.sup.6 are substituents both having van der Waals radii larger than the van der Waals radii of groups R.sup.1 and R.sup.3 ; R.sup.5 is a substituent having a van der Waals radius less than about the van der Waals radius of a methyl group; E.sup.1, E.sup.2 are independently selected from the group consisting of Si(R.sup.9).sub.2, Si(R.sup.9).sub.2 --Si(R.sup.9).sub.2, Ge(R.sup.9).sub.2, Sn(R.sup.9).sub.2, C(R.sup.9).sub.2, C(R.sup.9).sub.2 --C(R.sup.9).sub.2, where R.sup.9 is C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.10 cycloalkyl; and the ligand may have C.sub.S or C.sub.1 -symmetry. Preferred metals are selected from the group consisting of group III, group IV, group V or lanthanide group elements. The catalysts are used to prepare stereoregular polymers including polypropylene from .alpha.-olefin monomers.

  14. Engineering for Sustainability http://engineering.tufts.edu/ Nanoscale Gold Catalysts for the Upgrade of Hydrogen used in Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tufts University

    for the Upgrade of Hydrogen used in Fuel Cells What is the problem? Fuel processing by steam reforming or partial to protect the Pt- based electrocatalyst on the fuel cell anode. New catalysts must be developed by the current generation fuel cells and their operating conditions. Why is it an important problem? The platinum

  15. Investigation of the Effect of In-Situ Catalyst on the Steam Hydrogasification of Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FAN, XIN

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    metal catalysts on CO 2 gasification reactivity of biomassfeasibility of biomass gasification for power generation,et al. , Biomass gasification in a circulating fluidized

  16. Conformal Metal Thin Films for H2 Purification and Fuel-Cell Catalyst Applications Tyler Munhollon, Coe College, SURF 2009 Fellow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    that will become a hydrogen filter in syngas pipelines. The thin film metal membranes are fairly inexpensive- shaped substrate that replicates a syngas pipeline. The membranes are also permeable to only hydrogen a heightened need for pure hydrogen gas at a low cost. Research has begun on thin film metal membranes

  17. Catalyst poisoning during tar-sands bitumen upgrading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carruthers, J.D.; Brinen, J.S.; Komar, D.A.; Greenhouse, S. [CYTEC Industries, Stamford, CT (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of hydrotreating catalysts are used in commercial heavy oil upgrading facilities. One of these, a CoO/MoO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst has been evaluated in a pilot plant CSTR for Tar-Sands Bitumen upgrading. Following its use in a test of 200 hours duration, the catalyst was removed, de-oiled, regenerated by air-calcination to remove the coke, and then re-tested. Samples of the coked, fresh and regenerated catalyst were each examined using surface analytical techniques. ESCA and SIMS analysis of the coked and regenerated catalyst samples show, as expected, significant contamination of the catalyst with Ni and V. In addition, the SIMS analysis clearly reveals that the edges of the catalyst pellets are rich in Ca, Mg and Fe while the Ni, V and coke are evenly distributed. Regeneration of the catalyst by calcination removes the carbonaceous material but appears not to change the distribution of the metal contaminants. Retesting of the regenerated catalyst shows a performance similar to that of the fresh catalyst. These data serve to support the view that catalyst deactivation during early use is not due to the skin of Ca and Mg on the pellets but rather via the poisoning of active sites by carbonaceous species.

  18. Tungsten Cathode Catalyst for PEMFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joel B. Christian; Sean P. E. Smith

    2006-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Final report for project to evaluate tungsten-based catalyst as a cathode catalyst for PEM cell applications.

  19. Superior performance of Ni-W-Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); State Univ. of New York Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Liu, Zongyuan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); State Univ. of New York Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Xu, Wenqian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yao, Siyu [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Johnson-Peck, Aaron C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhao, Fuzhen [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Michorczyk, Piotr [Inst. de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, Madrid (Spain); Kubacka, Anna [Inst. de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, Madrid (Spain); Stach, Eric A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fernandez-Garica, Marcos [State Univ. of New York Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Senanayake, Sanjaya D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was studied over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO? lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (< 2 nm) outside the Ni-W-Ce oxide structure. The nano NiO was reduced to Ni under ESR conditions. The Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.

  20. Superior performance of Ni-W-Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Jose A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); State Univ. of New York Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Liu, Zongyuan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); State Univ. of New York Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Xu, Wenqian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yao, Siyu [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Johnson-Peck, Aaron C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhao, Fuzhen [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Michorczyk, Piotr [Inst. de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, Madrid (Spain); Kubacka, Anna [Inst. de Catalisis y Petroleoquimica, Madrid (Spain); Stach, Eric A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fernandez-Garica, Marcos [State Univ. of New York Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Senanayake, Sanjaya D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was studied over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO? lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (< 2 nm) outside the Ni-W-Ce oxide structure. The nano NiO was reduced to Ni under ESR conditions. The Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.

  1. Continuous wasteless ecologically safe technology of propylenecarbonate production in presence of phthalocyanine catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Afanasiev, Vladimir Vasilievich (Moscow, RU); Zefirov, Nikolai Serafimovich (Moscow, RU); Zalepugin, Dmitry Yurievich (Moscow, RU); Polyakov, Victor Stanislavovich (Moscow, RU); Tilkunova,Nataliya Alexandrovna (Moscow, RU); Tomilova, Larisa Godvigovna (Moscow, RU)

    2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous method of producing propylenecarbonate includes carboxylation of propylene oxide with carbon dioxide in presence of phthalocyanine catalyst on an inert carrier, using as the phthalocyanine catalyst at least one catalyst selected from the group consisting of not-substituted, methyl, ethyl, butyl, and tret butyl-substituted phthalocyanines of metals, including those containing counterions, and using as the carrier a hydrophobic carrier.

  2. Developments in the chemistry and nanodelivery of platinum anticancer agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnstone, Timothy Charles

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately half of all patients receiving cancer chemotherapy are treated with a platinum-containing drug. Despite this intense clinical use, only three platinum complexes, cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, are ...

  3. Synthetic strategies for the design of platinum anticancer drug candidates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Justin Jeff

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1. The Synthetic Chemistry of Platinum Anticancer Agents Since the inception of cisplatin as a clinically approved anticancer agent, a large number of platinum compounds have been synthesized with the aim of finding ...

  4. Effects of K and Pt promoters on the performance of cobalt catalyst supported on CNTs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zabidi, Noor Asmawati Mohd, E-mail: noorasmawati-mzabidi@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Ali, Sardar, E-mail: alikhan-635@yahoo.com [Centralized Analytical Laboratory, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Subbarao, Duvvuri, E-mail: duvvuri-subbarao@petronas.com.my [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a comparative study on the effects of incorporation of potassium (K) and platinum (Pt) as promoters on the physicochemical properties of cobalt catalyst. The catalyst was prepared by a wet impregnation method on a CNTs support. Samples were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H{sub 2}-temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) was carried out in a fixed-bed microreactor at 543 K and 1 atm, with H{sub 2}/CO?=?2v/v and space velocity, SV of 12 L/g.h for 5 hours. The K-promoted and Pt-promoted Co catalysts have different physicochemical properties and catalytic performances compared to that of the un-promoted Co catalyst. XPS analysis revealed that K and Pt promoters induced electronic modifications as exhibited by the shifts in the Co binding energies. Incorporation of 0.06 wt% K and 0.06 wt% Pt in Co/CNTs catalyst resulted in an increase in the CO conversion and C{sub 5+} selectivity and a decrease in methane selectivity. Potassium was found to be a better promoter for Co/CNTs catalyst compared to platinum.

  5. Hydrocarbon in Catalyst in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ladkin, Peter B.

    Hydrocarbon in Steam in Catalyst in Vent 1 Vent 2 Product out Tank Pressure #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Hydrocarbon in Steam in Catalyst in Vent 1 Vent 2 Product out Tank Pressure controller Computer operator

  6. Hydrocarbon in Catalyst in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ladkin, Peter B.

    #12;Hydrocarbon in Steam in Catalyst in Vent 1 Vent 2 Product out Tank Pressure controller Computer;#12;Vent 1 Vent 2 Product outHydrocarbon in Steam in Catalyst in light Warning Computer controller Tank

  7. Development of a Novel Catalyst for No Decomposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ates Akyurtlu; Jale Akyurtlu

    2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Air pollution arising from the emission of nitrogen oxides as a result of combustion taking place in boilers, furnaces and engines, has increasingly been recognized as a problem. New methods to remove NO{sub x} emissions significantly and economically must be developed. The current technology for post-combustion removal of NO is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ammonia or possibly by a hydrocarbon such as methane. The catalytic decomposition of NO to give N{sub 2} will be preferable to the SCR process because it will eliminate the costs and operating problems associated with the use of an external reducing species. The most promising decomposition catalysts are transition metal (especially copper)-exchanged zeolites, perovskites, and noble metals supported on metal oxides such as alumina, silica, and ceria. The main shortcoming of the noble metal reducible oxide (NMRO) catalysts is that they are prone to deactivation by oxygen. It has been reported that catalysts containing tin oxide show oxygen adsorption behavior that may involve hydroxyl groups attached to the tin oxide. This is different than that observed with other noble metal-metal oxide combinations, which have the oxygen adsorbing on the noble metal and subsequently spilling over to the metal oxide. This observation leads one to believe that the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts may have a potential as NO decomposition catalysts in the presence of oxygen. This prediction is also supported by some preliminary data obtained for NO decomposition on a Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalyst in the PI's laboratory. The main objective of the research that is being undertaken is the evaluation of the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts for the decomposition of NO in simulated power plant stack gases with particular attention to the resistance to deactivation by O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and elevated temperatures. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature programmed reaction (TPRx) studies on Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts having different noble metal concentrations and pretreated under different conditions were done. It is also planned to perform NO decomposition tests in a laboratory-size packed-bed reactor to obtain long-term deactivation data. Temperature programmed desorption and temperature controlled reaction runs were made with catalysts containing 15% Pt and 10% Pt on SnO{sub 2}. Catalysts containing 10% Pt resulted in significantly lower activities than 15% PT catalysts. Therefore, in the remainder of the tests 15% Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts were used. Isothermal reaction studies were made to elucidate the effects of temperature, oxygen, water vapor, pretreatment temperature, and space velocity on NO dissociation. It was found that the presence of oxygen and water vapor did not affect the activation energy of the NO dissociation reaction indicating the presence of the same rate controlling step for all feed compositions. Activation energy was higher for higher gas velocities suggesting the presence of mass transfer limitations at lower velocities. Presence of oxygen in the feed inhibited the NO decomposition. Having water vapor in the feed did not significantly affect the catalyst activity for catalysts pretreated at 373 K, but significantly reduced catalyst activity for catalysts pretreated at 900 K. Long-term deactivation studies indicated that the catalyst deactivated slowly both with and without the presence of added oxygen in the feed, Deactivation started later in the presence of oxygen. The activities of the catalysts investigated were too low below 1000 K for commercial applications. Their selectivity towards N{sub 2} was good at temperatures above 700 K. A different method for catalyst preparation is needed to improve the catalyst performance.

  8. Hydrocarbon conversion catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting a hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.35A, a water absorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of at least 8% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; an alumina binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  9. Low temperature catalyst system for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; O'Hare, T.E.

    1984-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent discloses a catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (150/sup 0/C) and preferably in the range 80 to 120/sup 0/C used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The catalyst components are used in slurry form and comprise (1) a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH-ROH-M(OAc)/sub 2/ where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms and (2) a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. For the first component, Nic is preferred (where M = Ni and R = tertiary amyl). For the second component, Mo(CO)/sub 6/ is preferred. The mixture is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

  10. Catalysts and process for hydrogenolysis of sugar alcohols to polyols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chopade, Shubham P. (East Lansing, MI) [East Lansing, MI; Miller, Dennis J. (Okemos, MI) [Okemos, MI; Jackson, James E. (Haslett, MI) [Haslett, MI; Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G [Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2001-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a process for preparation of low molecular weight polyols from high molecular weight polyols in a hydrogenolysis reaction under elevated temperature and hydrogen pressure. The process comprises providing in a reaction mixture the polyols, a base, and a metal catalyst prepared by depositing a transition metal salt on an inert support, reducing the metal salt to the metal with hydrogen, and passivating the metal with oxygen, and wherein the catalyst is reduced with hydrogen prior to the reaction. In particular, the process provides for the preparation of glycerol, propylene glycol, and ethylene glycol from sugar alcohols such as sorbitol or xylitol. In a preferred process, the metal catalyst comprises ruthenium which is deposited on an alumina, titania, or carbon support, and the dispersion of the ruthenium on the support increases during the hydrogenolysis reaction.

  11. The Role of Organic Capping Layers of Platinum Nanoparticles in Catalytic Activity of CO Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jeong Y.; Aliaga, Cesar; Renzas, J. Russell; Lee, Hyunjoo; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the catalytic activity of colloid platinum nanoparticles synthesized with different organic capping layers. On the molecular scale, the porous organic layers have open spaces that permit the reactant and product molecules to reach the metal surface. We carried out CO oxidation on several platinum nanoparticle systems capped with various organic molecules to investigate the role of the capping agent on catalytic activity. Platinum colloid nanoparticles with four types of capping layer have been used: TTAB (Tetradecyltrimethylammonium Bromide), HDA (hexadecylamine), HDT (hexadecylthiol), and PVP (poly(vinylpyrrolidone)). The reactivity of the Pt nanoparticles varied by 30%, with higher activity on TTAB coated nanoparticles and lower activity on HDT, while the activation energy remained between 27-28 kcal/mol. In separate experiments, the organic capping layers were partially removed using ultraviolet light-ozone generation techniques, which resulted in increased catalytic activity due to the removal of some of the organic layers. These results indicate that the nature of chemical bonding between organic capping layers and nanoparticle surfaces plays a role in determining the catalytic activity of platinum colloid nanoparticles for carbon monoxide oxidation.

  12. Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPOPetroleum38 (1996) A213-A225. PrintedPlatinumPlatinum

  13. Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPOPetroleum38 (1996) A213-A225.PlatinumPlatinum

  14. Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding accessPeptoidLabPhysics PhysicsPlatinum NanoclustersPlatinum

  15. Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding accessPeptoidLabPhysics PhysicsPlatinumPlatinum Nanoclusters

  16. Catalyst and process for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

  17. Platinum-Coated Nickel Nanowires as Oxygen-Reducing Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alia, Shaun M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Larsen, Brian A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Pylypenko, Svitlana [ORNL; Cullen, David A [ORNL; Diercks, David R [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Neyerlin, Kenneth C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Kocha, Shyam S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Pivovar, Bryan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Platinum (Pt)-coated nickel (Ni) nanowires (PtNiNWs) are synthesized by the partial spontaneous galvanic displacement of NiNWs, with a diameter of 150 250 nm and a length of 100 200 m. PtNiNWs are electrochemically characterized for oxygen reduction (ORR) in rotating disk electrode half-cells with an acidic electrolyte and compared to carbon-supported Pt (Pt/HSC) and a polycrystalline Pt electrode. Like other extended surface catalysts, the nanowire morphology yields significant gains in ORR specific activity compared to Pt/HSC. Unlike other extended surface approaches, the resultant materials have yielded exceptionally high surface areas, greater than 90 m2 gPt 1. These studies have found that reducing the level of Pt displacement increases Pt surface area and ORR mass activity. PtNiNWs produce a peak mass activity of 917 mA mgPt 1, 3.0 times greater than Pt/HSC and 2.1 times greater than the U.S. Department of Energy target for proton-exchange membrane fuel cell activity.

  18. Protocol development for evaluation of commercial catalytic cracking catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, M.M. Jr.; Moore, H.F. (Ashland Petroleum Co., KY (USA))

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A complete, new set of testing protocols has been developed for qualification of catalysts for Ashland's commercial catalytic cracking units. The objective of this test development is to identify new generations of improved cracking catalysts. Prior test protocols have classically utilized microactivity (MAT) testing of steamed virgin catalysts, while more advanced methods have utilized fixed fluid bed and/or circulating pilot units. Each of these techniques, however, have been limited by their correlation to commercial operations, weaknesses in metallation and preparation of pseudo-equilibrium catalysts, and mechanical constraints on the use of heavy, vacuum bottoms-containing feedstocks. These new protocols have been baselined, compared to commercial Ashland results on known catalytic cracking catalysts, and utilized to evaluate a range of potentially new catalyst samples.

  19. Cationic Ruthenium Catalysts for Olefin Hydrovinylation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanchez, Richard P., Jr

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................... 11 1.5 Specific Aim............................................................................. 13 II INVESTIGATION OF A RUTHENIUM-BASED CATALYST SYSTEM FOR THE HYDROVINYLATION REACTION................ 15 2.1 Initial Study... and Application.................................................... 15 2.2 Mode of Deactivation............................................................... 20 III INTRODUCING CHELATING, BIDENTATE PHOSPHINE LIGANDS TO THE RUTHENIUM METAL CENTER...

  20. System for reactivating catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Raymond P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst is provided. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

  1. Nickel/ruthenium catalyst and method for aqueous phase reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, J.L.

    1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of hydrogenation is described using a catalyst in the form of a plurality of porous particles wherein each particle is a support having nickel metal catalytic phase or reduced nickel deposited thereon in a first dispersed phase and an additional ruthenium metal deposited onto the support in a second dispersed phase. The additional ruthenium metal is effective in retarding or reducing agglomeration or sintering of the nickel metal catalytic phase thereby increasing the life time of the catalyst during hydrogenation reactions. 2 figs.

  2. Time-Resolved XAFS Spectroscopic Studies of B-H and N-H Oxidative Addition to Transition Metal Catalysts Relevant to Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitterwolf, Thomas E. [University of Idaho

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Successful catalytic dehydrogenation of aminoborane, H3NBH3, prompted questions as to the potential role of N-H oxidative addition in the mechanisms of these processes. N-H oxidative addition reactions are rare, and in all cases appear to involve initial dative bonding to the metal by the amine lone pairs followed by transfer of a proton to the basic metal. Aminoborane and its trimethylborane derivative block this mechanism and, in principle, should permit authentic N-H oxidative attrition to occur. Extensive experimental work failed to confirm this hypothesis. In all cases either B-H complexation or oxidative addition of solvent C-H bonds dominate the chemistry.

  3. New iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.

    1988-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a carbon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

  4. Effect of Fuel Cell System Contaminants on the Pt Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.; Christ, J.; Macomber, C. S.; O'Neill, K.; Neyerlin, K. C.; O'Leary, K. A.; Reid, R.; Lakshmanan, B.; Das, M.; Ohashi, M.; Van Zee, J. W.; Dinh, H. N.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cost of the balance of plant (BOP) fuel cell system has increased in importance with recent decreases in fuel cell stack cost. In order to lower the cost of the BOP system, low cost but relatively clean components must be used. Selection of these materials requires an understanding of potential materials and the contaminants that evolve from them, which have been shown to affect the performance and durability of fuel cells. The present work evaluates the influence of leachable constituents from prospective materials and model compounds on the electrochemical performance of a platinum catalyst.

  5. De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strasser, Peter (Houston, TX); Koh, Shirlaine (Houston, TX); Mani, Prasanna (Houston, TX); Ratndeep, Srivastava (Houston, TX)

    2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

  6. Process and catalyst for carbonylating olefins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoeller, J.R.

    1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an improved catalyst system and process for preparing aliphatic carbonyl compounds such as aliphatic carboxylic acids, alkyl esters of aliphatic carboxylic acids and anhydrides of aliphatic carboxylic acids by carbonylating olefins in the presence of a catalyst system comprising (1) a first component selected from at least one Group 6 metal, i.e., chromium, molybdenum, and/or tungsten and (2) a second component selected from at least one of certain halides and tertiary and quaternary compounds of a Group 15 element, i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus and/or arsenic, and (3) as a third component, a polar, aprotic solvent. The process employing the improved catalyst system is carried out under carbonylating conditions of pressure and temperature discussed herein. The process constitutes and improvement over known processes since it can be carried out at moderate carbonylation conditions without the necessity of using an expensive noble metal catalyst, volatile, toxic materials such as nickel tetracarbonyl, formic acid or a formate ester. Further, the addition of a polar, aprotic solvent to the catalyst system significantly increases, or accelerates, the rate at which the carbonylation takes place.

  7. A study of aluminophosphate supported Ni-Mo catalysts for hydrocracking bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.J. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Lewkowicz, L. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Oballa, M.C.; Krzywicki, A. [Novacor Research and Technology Corp., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    H-Oil and LC-Fining processes utilize a combination of thermal and catalytic hydroprocessing reactions to achieve high yields of distillate in upgrading bitumen or heavy oil residua. The processes are based on a well mixed (ebullated bed) reactor from which deactivated catalyst is continuously withdrawn and fresh catalyst is added to maintain yields. Catalyst activity and lifetime are two key factors controlling the economics of these processes. Catalyst deactivation occurs due to the deposition of coke and metals on the catalyst surface. The choice of catalyst is usually a compromise between two extremes: small pore catalyst with low metals capacity but higher activity that deactivates rapidly because of metals deposition and wide pore catalyst that has high metals deposition capacity but lower activity due to low surface area. Recently, aluminophosphate materials with large pores (< 10 nm--1,000 nm) and high surface areas (100--500 m{sup 2}/g) have been reported. The actual pore size distribution and surface area obtained depend on the Al/P ratio, preparation method and the calcination procedure. These materials are also thermally stable. The purpose of the present work was to determine if such materials, as a result of their pore size distribution and surface area, could decrease the rate of catalyst deactivation, increase catalyst activity and provide sufficient pore volume for high capacity of metals deposition during the upgrading of heavy oil residue.

  8. Development of a stable cobalt-ruthenium Fisher-Tropsch catalyst. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reverse micelle catalyst preparation method has been used to prepare catalysts on four supports: magnesium oxide, carbon, alumina- titania and steamed Y zeolite. These catalysts were not as active as a reference catalyst prepared during previous contracts to Union Carbide Corp. This catalyst was supported on steamed Y zerolite support and was impregnated by a pore-filling method using a nonaqueous solvent. Additional catalysts were prepared via pore- filling impregnation of steamed Y zeolites. These catalysts had levels of cobalt two to three and a half times as high as the original Union Carbide catalyst. On a catalyst volume basis they were much more active than the previous catalyst; on an atom by atom basis the cobalt was about of the same activity, i.e., the high cobalt catalysts` cobalt atoms were not extensively covered over and deactivated by other cobalt atoms. The new, high activity, Y zerolite catalysts were not as stable as the earlier Union Carbide catalyst. However, stability enhancement of these catalysts should be possible, for instance, through adjustment of the quantity and/or type of trace metals present. A primary objective of this work was determination whether small amounts of ruthenium could enhance the activity of the cobalt F-T catalyst. The reverse micelle catalysts were not activated by ruthenium, indeed scanning transmission electronic microscopy (STEM) analysis provided some evidence that ruthenium was not present in the cobalt crystallites. Ruthenium did not seem to activate the high cobalt Y zeolite catalyst either, but additional experiments with Y zeolite-supported catalysts are required. Should ruthenium prove not to be an effective promoter under the simple catalyst activation procedure used in this work, more complex activation procedures have been reported which are claimed to enhance the cobalt/ruthenium interaction and result in activity promotion by ruthenium.

  9. Catalysts For Lean Burn Engine Exhaust Abatement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Noline C. (Jemez Springs, NM); Paffett, Mark T. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  10. Catalysts for lean burn engine exhaust abatement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C. (Los Alamos, NM); Clark, Noline C. (Jemez Springs, NM); Paffett, Mark T. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  11. Hydrocarbon conversion process and catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a catalyst composition. It comprises: a modified Y zeolite having a unit cell size below about 24.45 {angstrom}, a degree of crystallinity which is at least retained at increasing SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} molar ratios, a SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} molar ratio between about 8 to about 15, a water adsorption capacity at (25{degree}C and a p/p{sub {ital o}} value of 0.2) of between about 10--15% by weight of modified zeolite and a pore volume of at lest about 0.25 ml/g. Between about 10 to about 40% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least about 8 nm; an amorphous cracking component comprising a silica-alumina containing 50--95% by weight of silica; a binder comprising alumina; from about 0.05 to about 10 percent by weight of nickel and from about 2 to about 40 percent by weight of tungsten, calculated as metals per 100 parts by weight of total catalyst. The modified Y zeolite and amorphous cracking component comprises about 60--85% by weight of the total catalyst, the binder comprises about 15--40% by weight of the total catalyst and the amount of modified Y zeolite ranges between about 10--75% of the combined amount of modified Y zeolite and amorphous cracking component.

  12. Is there a particle-size dependence for the mediation by colloidal redox catalysts of the light-induced hydrogen evolution from water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, P.; Moradpour, A.

    1980-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle-size effects for the catalysis by platinum of the light-induced hydrogen evolution from water, using the (Ru(bpy)/sub 3//sup 2 +//methyl viologen/EDTA) model system, were investigated with widely polydispersed colloidal platinum hydrosols and samples with narrower size distributions obtained from the former hydrosols by centrifugation. The optimum values for the hydrogen-formation rates and yields were found to be very similar for all catalysts studied; this was true for those containing polydispersed or selected small (<100 A) as well as large particles (>1000 A). In fact, no platinum particle-size effects on the methyl viologen mediated hydrogen evolutions were observed in the investigated size range. These results are discussed in relation to studies on catalyst-dispersion effects in the field of heterogeous catalysis.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL CATALYST FOR NO DECOMPOSITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

    2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Air pollution arising from the emission of nitrogen oxides as a result of combustion taking place in boilers, furnaces and engines, has increasingly been recognized as a problem. New methods to remove NOx emissions significantly and economically must be developed. The current technology for post-combustion removal of NO is the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ammonia or possibly by a hydrocarbon such as methane. The catalytic decomposition of NO to give N{sub 2} will be preferable to the SCR process because it will eliminate the costs and operating problems associated with the use of an external reducing species. The most promising decomposition catalysts are transition metal (especially copper)-exchanged zeolites, perovskites, and noble metals supported on metal oxides such as alumina, silica, and ceria. The main shortcoming of the noble metal reducible oxide (NMRO) catalysts is that they are prone to deactivation by oxygen. It has been reported that catalysts containing tin oxide show oxygen adsorption behavior that may involve hydroxyl groups attached to the tin oxide. This is different than that observed with other noble metal-metal oxide combinations, which have the oxygen adsorbing on the noble metal and subsequently spilling over to the metal oxide. This observation leads one to believe that the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts may have a potential as NO decomposition catalysts in the presence of oxygen. This prediction is also supported by some preliminary data obtained for NO decomposition on a Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalyst in the PI's laboratory. The main objective of the proposed research is the evaluation of the Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts for the decomposition of NO in simulated power plant stack gases with particular attention to the resistance to deactivation by O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and elevated temperatures. Therefore, it is proposed to perform temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and temperature programmed reaction (TPRx) studies on Pt/SnO{sub 2} catalysts having different noble metal concentrations and pretreated under different conditions. It is also proposed to perform NO decomposition tests in a laboratory-size packed-bed reactor to obtain long-term deactivation data. In the previous reporting period some TPRx runs with the catalysts containing 15% and 10% Pt were repeated due to the uncertainty of the oxygen content of the feed. In this reporting period runs were made with feed gas mixtures containing water vapor. Two reaction regimes, one below and the other above 750 K were observed. Presence of water vapor slightly enhanced the catalyst activity, but decreased the selectivity towards N{sub 2} at low temperatures.

  14. NO.sub.x catalyst and method of suppressing sulfate formation in an exhaust purification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer-Millar, Mari Lou (Chillicothe, IL); Park, Paul W. (Peoria, IL); Panov, Alexander G. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The activity and durability of a zeolite lean-burn NOx catalyst can be increased by loading metal cations on the outer surface of the zeolite. However, the metal loadings can also oxidize sulfur dioxide to cause sulfate formation in the exhaust. The present invention is a method of suppressing sulfate formation in an exhaust purification system including a NO.sub.x catalyst. The NO.sub.x catalyst includes a zeolite loaded with at least one metal. The metal is selected from among an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal, a lanthanide metal, a noble metal, and a transition metal. In order to suppress sulfate formation, at least a portion of the loaded metal is complexed with at least one of sulfate, phosphate, and carbonate.

  15. Catalyst for producing lower alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W. (Bolingbrook, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Woodridge, IL); Heiberger, John J. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and system for the production of the lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and propanol involves the reaction of carbon monoxide and water in the presence of a lead salt and an alkali metal formate catalyst combination. The lead salt is present as solid particles such as lead titanate, lead molybdate, lead vanadate, lead zirconate, lead tantalate and lead silicates coated or in slurry within molten alkali metal formate. The reactants, carbon monoxide and steam are provided in gas form at relatively low pressures below 100 atmospheres and at temperatures of 200-400.degree. C. The resulted lower alcohols can be separated into boiling point fractions and recovered from the excess reactants by distillation.

  16. Influence of the hydrogenation step on selectivity during the nonoxidative oligomerization of methane to alkanes on Pt/SiO{sub 2} catalysts (EUROPt-1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marceau, E.; Tatiboueet, J.M.; Che, M. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France). Lab. de Reactivite de Surface] [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France). Lab. de Reactivite de Surface; Saint-Just, J. [Gaz de France, Saint-Denis La Plaine (France). Direction de la Recherche] [Gaz de France, Saint-Denis La Plaine (France). Direction de la Recherche

    1999-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Methane oligomerization to alkanes can be accomplished on supported platinum via a two-step procedure: formation of carbonaceous species on the metallic surface by methane adsorption, followed by hydrogenation of these species. Temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) experiments performed after hydrogenation steps of various durations show that the hydrogenation of a carbonaceous deposit obtained at 300 C on the reference Pt/SiO{sub 2} catalyst EUROPt-1 is not a fast process. Two groups of surface carbonaceous species have been characterized through their different reactivities toward oxygen, but at 300 C their reactivities toward hydrogen are similar. Among alkanes up to C{sub 5}, methane is the main product of hydrogenation, corresponding to one-half of the surface carbon reactive toward hydrogen; linear and branched alkanes are produced from the other half of the reactive carbonaceous species. On EUROPt-1, mainly ethane and n-pentane are produced during the first minutes of reaction, while on a sintered catalyst the initial production in n-pentane is negligible. The release of n-pentane during an intermediate purge with inert gas on EUROPt-1 shows that C-C bonds can form already during methane adsorption, leading to C{sub 5} precursors on specific active sites of this catalyst. A model of formation of C{sub 5} precursors is proposed by analogy with the organometallic chemistry of molecular hydrocarbon platinacycles. The subsequent production of alkanes (C{sub 2} > C{sub 3} > C{sub 4} > C{sub 5}) could be described through a statistical model of dynamic coupling between carbonaceous species involving hydrogen, rather than by hydrogenolysis of heavier carbonaceous species. However, this latter mechanism is likely to predominate for the production of C{sub 6}-C{sub 8} compounds.

  17. Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vollhardt, Kurt P. C. (Kensington, CA); Perkins, Patrick (Berkeley, CA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel polymer-supported metal complexes of the formula PS -R Me(CO).sub.n H.sub.m where: PS represents a divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrene in which the divinylbenzene crosslinking is greater than 1% and less than about 18%; R represents a cycloalkadienyl radical of 4 through 6 carbon atoms; Me represents a Group VIII metal; CO represents a carbonyl radical; H represents hydrogen; n represents an integer varying from 0 through 3; m represents an integer varying from 0 through 2 inclusively with the further provision that 2n+m must total 18 when added to the electrons in R and Me, or n+m must total 0; are prepared by: brominating PS -H by treating same with bromine in the presence of a thallium salt in a partially or fully halogenated solvent to form PS -Br; treating said PS -Br so produced with a lithium alkyl of 1 through 12 carbon atoms in an aromatic solvent to produce PS -Li; substituting said PS - Li so produced by reaction with a 2-cycloalkenone of 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the presence of an ether solvent and using a water work-up to form a cycloalkenylalcohol-substituted PS ; dehydrating said alcohol so produced by heating under a vacuum to produce a cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS ; reacting the cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS with metal carbonyl in the presence of a partially or fully halogenated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon of 6 through 8 carbon atoms, ethers, or esters of 4 through 10 carbon atoms as a solvent to produce a polystyrene-supported cycloalkadienyl metal carbonyl. The novel compounds are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO+H.sub.2 to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

  18. Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vollhardt, Kurt P. C. (Kensington, CA); Perkins, Patrick (Berkeley, CA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel polymer-supported metal complexes of the formula: PS --R Me(CO).sub.n H.sub.m where: PS represents a divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrene in which the divinylbenzene crosslinking is greater than 1% and less than about 18%; R represents a cycloalkadienyl radical of 4 through 6 carbon atoms; Me represents a Group VIII metal; CO represents a carbonyl radical; H represents hydrogen; n represents an integer varying from 0 through 3; m represents an integer varying from 0 through 2 inclusively with the further provision that 2n+m must total 18 when added to the electrons in R and Me, or n+m must total 0; are prepared by: brominating PS --H by treating same with bromine in the presence of a thallium salt in a partially or fully halogenated solvent to form PS --Br; treating said PS --Br so produced with a lithium alkyl of 1 through 12 carbon atoms in an aromatic solvent to produce PS --Li; substituting said PS-- Li so produced by reaction with a 2-cycloalkenone of 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the presence of an ether solvent and using a water work-up to form a cycloalkenylalcohol-substituted PS ; dehydrating said alcohol so produced by heating under a vacuum to produce a cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS ; reacting the cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS with metal carbonyl in the presence of a partially or fully halogenated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon of 6 through 8 carbon atoms, ethers, or esters of 4 through 10 carbon atoms as a solvent to produce a polystyrene-supported cycloalkadienyl metal carbonyl. The novel compounds are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO+H.sub.2 to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

  19. Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vollhardt, Kurt P. C. (Kensington, CA); Perkins, Patrick (Berkeley, CA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel polymer-supported metal complexes of the formula: PS --R Me(CO).sub.n H.sub.m where: PS represents a divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrene in which the divinylbenzene crosslinking is greater than 1% and less than about 18%; R represents a cycloalkadienyl radical of 4 through 6 carbon atoms; Me represents a Group VIII metal; CO represents a carbonyl radical; H represents hydrogen; n represents an integer varying from 0 through 3; m represents an integer varying from 0 through 2 inclusively with the further provision that 2n+m must total 18 when added to the electrons in R and Me, or n+m must total 0; are prepared by: brominating PS --H by treating same with bromine in the presence of a thallium salt in a partially or fully halogenated solvent to form PS --Br; treating said PS --Br so produced with a lithium alkyl of 1 through 12 carbon atoms in an aromatic solvent to produce PS --Li; substituting said PS-- Li so produced by reaction with a 2-cycloalkenone of 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the presence of an ether solvent and using a water work-up to form a cycloalkenylalcohol-substituted PS ; dehydrating said alcohol so produced by heating under a vacuum to produce a cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS ; reacting the cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS with metal carbonyl in the presence of a partially or fully halogenated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon of 6 through 8 carbon atoms, ethers, or esters of 4 through 10 carbon atoms as a solvent to produce a polystyrene-supported cycloalkadienyl metal carbonyl. The novel compounds are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO+H.sub.2 to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

  20. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Utz, Bruce R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cugini, Anthony V. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  1. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O'Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

    1991-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.-), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  2. Homogeneous catalyst formulations for methanol production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder (Port Jefferson, NY); Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); O'Hare, Thomas E. (Huntington Station, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is disclosed synthesis of CH.sub.3 OH from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using an extremely active homogeneous catalyst for methanol synthesis directly from synthesis gas. The catalyst operates preferably between 100.degree.-150.degree. C. and preferably at 100-150 psia synthesis gas to produce methanol. Use can be made of syngas mixtures which contain considerable quantities of other gases, such as nitrogen, methane or excess hydrogen. The catalyst is composed of two components: (a) a transition metal carbonyl complex and (b) an alkoxide component. In the simplest formulation, component (a) is a complex of nickel tetracarbonyl and component (b) is methoxide (CH.sub.3 O.sup.13 ), both being dissolved in a methanol solvent system. The presence of a co-solvent such as p-dioxane, THF, polyalcohols, ethers, hydrocarbons, and crown ethers accelerates the methanol synthesis reaction.

  3. Metal loading and reactivity of Zeolite Y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sa?enz, Marc Gerard

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . XRD pattern for calcined MoNiY 13. IR spectra for NiY 14. IR spectra for MoNiY 15. HDN product distribution, alumina based catalyst 16. HDN product distribution, zeolite based catalyst 17. Adjusted HDN product distribution, alumina based catalyst...V) are transi- tion metal oxides or sulfides on an alumina support. These catalysts were not specifically developed for hydrodenitrogenaiion but were adopted from hydrocracking or hydrodesul- furization (HDS) processes. HDN is more difficult than HDS; thus...

  4. Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPOPetroleum38 (1996) A213-A225.Platinum Nanoclusters

  5. Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPOPetroleum38 (1996) A213-A225.Platinum

  6. Cyano- and polycyanometallo-porphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New compositions of matter comprising cyano-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has cyano groups attached thereto in meso and/or .beta.-pyrrolic positions.

  7. Cyano- and polycyanometallo-porphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New compositions of matter comprising cyano-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has cyano groups attached thereto in meso and/or .beta.-pyrrolic positions.

  8. Cyano- and polycyanometallo-porphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

    1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    New compositions of matter comprising cyano-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has cyano groups attached thereto in meso and/or [beta]-pyrrolic positions.

  9. Cyano- and polycyanometallo-porphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

    1993-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    New compositions of matter comprising cyano-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has cyano groups attached thereto in meso- and/or [beta]-pyrrolic positions.

  10. Nanostructured catalyst supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

  11. Hydrocarbon cracking catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lochow, C.F.; Kovacs, D.B.

    1988-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a catalyst composition for cracking hydrocarbons to maximize gasoline comprising: rare earth exchanged ''Y'' crystalline faujasite dispersed in a clay containing matrix material; and which has been subsequently further ion exchanged to contain 0.20 to 3.0 wt% yttrium, calculated as the oxide, whereby the yttrium is chemically combined in the catalyst composition.

  12. Platinum/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposite Synthesized in Supercritical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanocomposite Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid as Electrocatalysts for Low-Temperature Fuel Cells. PlatinumCarbon Nanotube Nanocomposite Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid as...

  13. Designing Hawaiis First LEED Platinum Net Zero Community: ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kaupuni Village Department of Hawaiian Home Lands Designing Hawaii's first LEED Platinum Net Zero Community GUIDING PRINCIPALS *Pihapono *Hoa ina *Mlama ina Enable Native...

  14. The formation of PdCx over Pd-based catalysts in vapor-phase vinyl acetate synthesis: does a PdAu alloy catalyst resist carbide formation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    a Pd­Au/SiO2 mixed-metal catalyst. XRD data show that PdCx was produced in the pure Pd catalysts after greater resistance to the formation of PdCx. The XRD and XPS data are consistent with formation of a Pd in a micro-reactor using online GC; before reaction the catalysts were pretreated (oxidized in a 20 m

  15. Method of making maximally dispersed heterogeneous catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jennison, Dwight R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a catalyst with monolayer or sub-monolayer metal by controlling the wetting characteristics on the support surface and increasing the adhesion between the catalytic metal and an oxide layer. There are two methods that have been demonstrated by experiment and supported by theory. In the first method, which is useful for noble metals as well as others, a negatively-charged species is introduced to the surface of a support in sub-ML coverage. The layer-by-layer growth of metal deposited onto the oxide surface is promoted because the adhesion strength of the metal-oxide interface is increased. This method can also be used to achieve nanoislands of metal upon sub-ML deposition. The negatively-charged species can either be deposited onto the oxide surface or a compound can be deposited that dissociates on, or reacts with, the surface to form the negatively-charged species. The deposited metal adatoms can thereby bond laterally to the negatively-charged species as well as vertically to the oxide surface. Thus the negatively-charged species serve as anchors for the metal. In the second method, a chemical reaction that occurs when most metals are deposited on a fully hydroxylated oxide surface is used to create cationic metal species that bind strongly both to the substrate and to metallic metal atoms. These are incorporated into the top layer of the substrate and bind strongly both to the substrate and to metallic metal atoms. In this case, these oxidized metal atoms serve as the anchors. Here, as in the previous method, nanoislands of catalytic metal can be achieved to increase catalytic activity, or monolayers or bilayers of reactive metal can also be made.

  16. Platinum- and Platinum Alloy-Coated Palladium and Palladium Alloy Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding accessPeptoidLabPhysics PhysicsPlatinumPlatinum Nanoclustersand

  17. Metal articles having ultrafine particles dispersed therein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, G.B.; Nadkarni, R.A.

    1992-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a metal article of manufacture. It comprises: a metal selected from the group consisting of copper, silver, gold, lead, tin, nickel, zinc, cobalt, antimony, bismuth, iron, cadmium, chromium, germanium, gallium, selenium, tellurium, mercury, tungsten arsenic, manganese, iridium, indium, ruthenium, rhenium, rhodium, molybdenum, palladium, osmium and platinum; and a plurality of ultrafine particles.

  18. Hydrocracking and hydroisomerization of long-chain alkanes and polyolefins over metal-promoted anion-modified transition metal oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatesh, Koppampatti R.; Hu, Jianli; Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for cracking a feedstock by contacting the feedstock with a metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst in the presence of hydrogen gas. The metal oxide of the catalyst is one or more of ZrO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2}, and the feedstock is principally chains of at least 20 carbon atoms. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of Pt, Ni, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, (Mn and Fe) or mixtures of them present between about 0.2% to about 15% by weight of the catalyst. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of SO{sub 4}, WO{sub 3}, or mixtures of them present between about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the catalyst.

  19. Ignition and extinction in the catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons over platinum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veser, G.; Schmidt, L.D. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science] [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ignition-extinction behavior in the oxidation of methane, ethane, propane and isobutane, as well as of ethylene and propylene over a platinum-foil catalyst was studied over the entire range of fuel/air ratios at atmospheric pressure. Ignition and extinction of the heterogeneous surface reaction, homogeneous ignition and the autothermal behavior of these fuel-air mixtures were investigated. The results show a common trend in the ignition extinction behavior of the alkanes and a different trend for the olefins. This is discussed in terms of a simple model, which correctly predicts the composition dependence of the surface ignition curve for reasonable values of parameters, indicating a mainly oxygen-covered surface during ignition of the alkanes and a mainly hydrocarbon-covered surface in the case of the olefins. Different branches of the complete bifurcation diagrams are discussed separately, allowing qualitative conclusions about the catalytic activity of Pt for the oxidation reactions of different fuels.

  20. Evaluation of the effect of impregnated platinum on PFSA degradation for PEM fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodgers, Marianne [ORNL] [ORNL; Pearman, Benjamin P [ORNL] [ORNL; Bonville, Leonard J. [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC)] [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); Cullen, David A [ORNL] [ORNL; Mohajeri, Nahid [ORNL] [ORNL; Slattery, Darlene [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC)] [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the main sources of membrane degradation in fuel cells is attack by radicals formed wherever Pt, H2, and O2 are present. The effect of Pt precipitated in the membrane is under debate. Although Pt can provide another site for radical formation, it can also scavenge hydrogen peroxide and radicals in the membrane and improve durability. In this work, the effects of Pt particles within the membrane are evaluated and related to membrane degradation. Membranes were ex situ impregnated with 0, 10, 30, and 50 mol% Pt and then tested for 100 h in a fuel cell, at 90 C/100% relative humidity. The highest degradation was observed with the membranes containing 10 mol% Pt, with fluoride emissions of the same magnitude as those of catalyst coated membranes containing Pt/C. Membranes containing 0, 30, and 50 mol% Pt resulted in very low fluoride emission. The high degradation in the 10 mol% membrane was attributed to the low density of platinum particles, which allows generated radicals to attack the membrane before being deactivated. In the 30 mol% and 50 mol% membranes, where the platinum particles were denser, the generated radicals became deactivated on neighboring particles before they attacked the membrane.

  1. Dilution effects in the dynamics of ammonia oxidation on platinum with an inert or a product species in the feed mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takoudis, C.G.; Schmidt, L.D.

    1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In most experiments, the autothermal catalyst temperature was monitored, i.e., the temperature resulting from the combined effects of heat dissipation to the environment and heat generation by reaction. The results of these experiments have revealed stable steady states, sustained periodic oscillations and nonperiodic states. An excess of nitrogen in the feed gas stream leads to simpler single-peaked catalyst temperature oscillations of increasing periods of time - up to 5 min. Small amounts of water vapor produced nonperiodic states at all times. These factors indicate that an interplay of heat and mass transfer, convection, and a heterogeneous mechanism is the cause of the phenomena observed during the oxidation of ammonia by air on platinum, at atmospheric pressure. Catalyst memory may also contribute to these phenomena. 25 references, 4 figures.

  2. Catalyst for selective NO.sub.x reduction using hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Christopher L. (Naperville, IL); Neylon, Michael K. (Naperville, IL)

    2007-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A two phase catalyst is disclosed with one or more transition metals such as Cu, Co, Fe, Ag and Mo supported on a molecular sieve having a pore size not greater than 8 .ANG. along with a stabilizing oxide of one or more of the oxides of Zr, Mo, V, Nb or the rare earths coating the molecular sieve. A method of preparing the two phase catalyst and using same to remediate NO.sub.x in combustion gases is also described.

  3. The Use of Catalysts in Near-Critical Water Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2005-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of heterogeneous catalysts in near-critical water processing provides many challenges of material stability in addition to the normal questions of chemical activity. Conventional catalyst materials developed in traditional organic chemistry or petroleum chemistry applications provide a source of information of materials with the required activities but often without the required stability when used in hot liquid water. The importance of the use of catalysts in near-critical water processing plays a particularly crucial role for the development of renewable fuels and chemicals based on biomass feedstocks. Stability issues include both those related to the catalytic metal and also to the catalyst support material. In fact, the stability of the support is the most likely concern when using conventional catalyst formulations in near-critical water processing. Processing test results are used to show important design parameters for catalyst formulations for use in wet biomass gasification in high-pressure water and in catalytic hydrogenations in water for production of value-added chemical products from biomass in the biorefinery concept. Analytical methods including powder x-ray diffraction for crystallite size and composition determination, surface area and porosity measurements, and elemental analysis have all been used to quantify differences in catalyst materials before and after use. By these methods both the chemical and physical stability of heterogeneous catalysts can be verified.

  4. Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Sopchak, David A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Satcher, Joseph H. (Patterson, CA); Gash, Alex E. (Brentwood, CA)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

  5. Sandia Energy - ECIS and Compass Metals: Platinum Nanostructures for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatingsUltra-High-Voltage Silicon CarbideAgency: SUMMIT EC,

  6. Pyrochlore-type catalysts for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV); Shekhawat, Dushyant (Morgantown, WV); Haynes, Daniel (Morgantown, WV); Smith, Mark (Morgantown, WV); Spivey, James J. (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A.sub.2-w-xA'.sub.wA''.sub.xB.sub.2-y-zB'.sub.yB''.sub.zO.sub.7-.DELTA.. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H.sub.2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  7. Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPOPetroleum38 (1996) A213-A225. PrintedPlatinum

  8. Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding accessPeptoidLabPhysics PhysicsPlatinum Nanoclusters

  9. Platinum Nanoclusters Out-Perform Single Crystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding accessPeptoidLabPhysics PhysicsPlatinum

  10. Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of EnergyPlanned AuditsPlastics and Rubber Platinum

  11. Molecularly engineering homogenous catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Reagan Rebekah

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    biphasic catalysts were appealing because water is a "green" solvent. However, there has been growing concern over the contact of organics with process water, which lead to the creation of dilute aqueous organic waste streams. Because these streams...

  12. Epoxidation catalyst and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linic, Suljo (Ann Arbor, MI); Christopher, Phillip (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

  13. Controlling proton source speeds catalyst | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    speeds catalyst Controlling proton source speeds catalyst Released: April 29, 2013 Nickel-based catalyst three times faster with adjustments to key acid Research showing that...

  14. Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Treatment Catalyst Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental Studies of Emission Treatment Catalyst Poster presented at the 16th Directions in...

  15. Plasmatron-catalyst system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA); Alexeev, Nikolai (Moscow, RU)

    2007-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasmatron-catalyst system. The system generates hydrogen-rich gas and comprises a plasmatron and at least one catalyst for receiving an output from the plasmatron to produce hydrogen-rich gas. In a preferred embodiment, the plasmatron receives as an input air, fuel and water/steam for use in the reforming process. The system increases the hydrogen yield and decreases the amount of carbon monoxide.

  16. Haloporphyrins and their preparation and use as catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

    1997-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides novel catalyst compositions, useful in the oxidation of hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to form hydroxy-group containing compounds and in the decomposition of hydroperoxides to form hydroxy-group containing compounds. The catalysts comprise transition metal complexes of a porphyrin ring having 1 to 12 halogen substituents on the porphyrin ring, at least one of said halogens being in a meso position and/or the catalyst containing no aryl group in a meso position. The compositions are prepared by halogenating a transition metal complex of a porphyrin. In one embodiment, a complex of a porphyrin with a metal whose porphyrin complexes are not active for oxidation of hydrocarbons is halogenated, thereby to obtain a haloporphyrin complex of that metal, the metal is removed from the haloporphyrin complex to obtain the free base form of the haloporphyrin, and a metal such as iron whose porphyrin complexes are active for oxidation of hydrocarbons and for the decomposition of alkyl hydroperoxides is complexed with the free base to obtain an active catalyst for oxidation of hydrocarbons and decomposition of alkyl hydroperoxides.

  17. Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal/Zeolite Urea Selective...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    peden16807.pdf More Documents & Publications Understanding the Deactivation Mechanisms of CuZeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Deactivation Mechanisms of Base Metal...

  18. Tantalum-containing catalyst useful for producing alcohols from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinkade, N.E.

    1992-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst is described which is useful for selectively converting a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen to a mixture of lower alkanols. The catalyst consists essentially of a mixture of molybdenum sulfide, an alkali metal compound and a tantalum compound.

  19. Decomposition of Perfluorocompounds on Alumina-Based Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanno, Shuichi; Tamata, Shin; Kurokawa, Hideaki

    2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The control of the atmospheric release of PFCs (perfluorocompounds) is an important environmental problem worldwide. PFCs are powerful greenhouse gases used by the semiconductor and liquid crystal industries as etching and cleaning agents. We developed a catalyst that decomposes PFCs with only water. Al2O3 was selected from the survey of some single metal-oxide catalysts. Addition of another metal-oxide improved the decomposition ratio and durability. The Al2O3-based catalyst decomposed CF4, C2F6, C3F8, C4F8, NF3 and SF6 by more than 99% at 750 degrees Celsius. Furthermore, our catalyst retained a high decomposition ratio as demonstrated by a continuous run for about 4000 hours at 700-750 degrees Celsius. The influence of chlorine as an impurity with regard to the SF6 decomposition ratio on the catalyst was examined. SF6 was decomposed at more than 99% during 8 hours in the presence of 400 ppm chlorine. Chlorine concentration in the outlet gas was less than TLV. No chlorine compounds were found by X-ray diffraction analysis of the used catalyst. That is, the hydrogenation of chlorine did not inhibit the surface catalytic reaction for PFC. Also, CF4 was decomposed at the condition of 1.4% of high concentration. The conversion remained higher than 99% throughout during a durability test. Furthermore, we investigated a large-scale decomposition system in the paper.

  20. Supported organoiridium catalysts for alkane dehydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, R. Thomas; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Li, Hongbo

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid supported organoiridium catalysts, a process for preparing such solid supported organoiridium catalysts, and the use of such solid supported organoiridium catalysts in dehydrogenation reactions of alkanes is provided. The catalysts can be easily recovered and recycled.

  1. Long-Term Testing of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis – 2013 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Thompson, Becky L.

    2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research since 2005 to develop a catalyst for the conversion of synthesis gas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen) into mixed alcohols for use in liquid transportation fuels. Initially, research involved screening possible catalysts based on a review of the literature, because at that time, there were no commercial catalysts available. The screening effort resulted in a decision to focus on catalysts containing rhodium and manganese. Subsequent research identified iridium as a key promoter for this catalyst system. Since then, research has continued to improve rhodium/manganese/iridium-based catalysts, optimizing the relative and total concentrations of the three metals, examining baseline catalysts on alternative supports, and examining effects of additional promoters. Testing was continued in FY 2013 to evaluate the performance and long-term stability of the best catalysts tested to date. Three tests were conducted. A long-term test of over 2300 hr duration at a single set of operating conditions was conducted with the best carbon-supported catalyst. A second test of about 650 hr duration at a single set of operating conditions was performed for comparison using the same catalyst formulation on an alternative carbon support. A third test of about 680 hr duration at a single set of operating conditions was performed using the best silica-supported catalyst tested to date.

  2. Comparison of Nonprecious Metal Cathode Materials for Methane Production by Electromethanogenesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    contributed to electromethanogenic gas production. KEYWORDS: Biocathode, Carbon capturing and sequestration generation, we examined several cathode materials: plain graphite blocks, graphite blocks coated with carbon black or carbon black containing metals (platinum, stainless steel or nickel) or insoluble minerals

  3. MAGNETO-CHEMICAL CHARACTER STUDIES OF NOVEL Fe CATALYSTS FOR COAL LIQUEFACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murty A. Akundi; Jian H. Zhang; A.N. Murty; S.V. Naidu

    2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the present study are: (1) To synthesize iron catalysts: Fe/MoO{sub 3}, and Fe/Co/MoO{sub 3} employing two distinct techniques: Pyrolysis with organic precursors and Co-precipitation of metal nitrates; (2) To investigate the magnetic character of the catalysts before and after exposure to CO and CO+H{sub 2} by (a) Mossbauer study of Iron (b) Zerofield Nuclear Magnetic Resonance study of Cobalt, and (c) Magnetic character of the catalyst composite; (3) To study the IR active surface species of the catalyst while stimulating (CO--Metal, (CO+H{sub 2})--Metal) interactions, by FTIR Spectroscopy; and (4) To analyze the catalytic character (conversion efficiency and product distribution) in both direct and indirect liquefaction Process and (5) To examine the correlations between the magnetic and chemical characteristics. This report presents the results of our investigation on (a) the effect of metal loading (b) the effect of intermetallic ratio and (c) the effect of catalyst preparation procedure on (i) the magnetic character of the catalyst composite (ii) the IR active surface species of the catalyst and (iii) the catalytic yields for three different metal loadings: 5%, 15%, and 25% (nominal) for three distinct intermetallic ratios (Fe/Co = 0.3, 1.5, 3.0).

  4. Secret Lives of Catalysts Revealed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Miquel Salmeron and Gabor Somorjai of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division discuss the first-ever glimpse of nanoscale catalysts in action. More information: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2008/10/21/catalysts/

  5. Highly Dispersed Metal Catalyst - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High SchoolBundles to LivingPortal HighlyHydrogen

  6. Tantalum-containing catalyst useful for producing alcohols from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinkade, Nancy E. (Charleston, WV)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst useful for selectively converting a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen to a mixture of lower alkanols consisting essentially of a mixture of molybdenum sulfide, an alkali metal compound and a tantalum compound.

  7. Tantalum-containing catalyst useful for producing alcohols from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kinkade, Nancy E. (Charleston, WV)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst useful for selectively converting a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen to a mixture of lower alkanols consisting essentially of a mixture of molybdenum sulfide, an alkali metal compound and a tantalum compound.

  8. Thermodynamic stability and activity volcano for perovskite-based oxide as OER catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rong, Xi, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design of efficient and cost-effective catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is crucial for the development of electrochemical conversion technologies. Recent experiments show that perovskite transition-metal ...

  9. Initiation of electroless nickel plating on copper, palladium-activated copper, gold, and platinum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flis, J.; Duquette, D.J.

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic activity of copper, palladium-activated copper, gold, and platinum for electro-oxidation of hypophosphite and electroless nickel plating was investigated in an ammoniacal solution of pH 8.8 at 50/sup 0/C by potential measurements and linear sweep voltammetry from -0.3 to -0.92V vs. SCE. Early stages of nickel plating on copper-palladium substrates were studied by scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with EDAX. It was found that palladium-activated copper and gold were catalytically active in the entire range of potentials examined; copper was active below -0.6 platinum was not active at all. Small amounts of electrolytically deposited nickel considerably increased the electro-oxidation rate of hypophosphite on copper, gold, and palladium. TEM examinations showed that activation of copper in a PdCl/sub 2//HCl solution resulted in the deposition of palladium in the form of separate patches. Electroless nickel deposition on copper substrates with separate palladium spots took place on copper and palladium independently of each other. The deposition on palladium was faster than that on copper. It was concluded that the activation of copper substrates around palladium spots occurred solely through a spontaneous potential shift, induced by electro-oxidation of hypophosphite on the palladium spots. It was suggested that small amounts of one metal synergistically enhanced the catalytic activity of the other metals.

  10. Platinum dendritic nanoparticles with magnetic behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wenxian, E-mail: wl240@uowmail.edu.au [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Solar Energy Technologies, School of Computing, Engineering, and Mathematics, University of Western Sydney, Penrith NSW 2751 (Australia); Sun, Ziqi; Nevirkovets, Ivan P.; Dou, Shi-Xue [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522 (Australia); Tian, Dongliang [Key Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interfacial Science and Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and the Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications in magnetic resonance imaging, high frequency magnetic field hyperthermia therapies, and magnetic-field-gradient-targeted drug delivery. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) platinum nanostructures with large surface area that features magnetic behavior have been demonstrated. The well-developed 3D nanodendrites consist of plentiful interconnected nano-arms ?4?nm in size. The magnetic behavior of the 3D dendritic Pt nanoparticles is contributed by the localization of surface electrons due to strongly bonded oxygen/Pluronic F127 and the local magnetic moment induced by oxygen vacancies on the neighboring Pt and O atoms. The magnetization of the nanoparticles exhibits a mixed paramagnetic and ferromagnetic state, originating from the core and surface, respectively. The 3D nanodendrite structure is suitable for surface modification and high amounts of drug loading if the transition temperature was enhanced to room temperature properly.

  11. Modeling of on-line catalyst addition effects in a short contact time reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. K. Zerkle; M. d. Allendorf; M. Wolf; O. Deutschmann

    2000-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently developed short-contact-time reactors (SCTR), consisting of porous alumina monoliths coated with platinum, have been shown to produce ethylene from rich ethane/oxygen(hydrogen) mixtures with yields and selectivities comparable to conventional steam cracking, using a reactor of much smaller size. Although the overall mechanism is clearly autothermal and catalytic, the details, in particular the relative contributions of heterogeneous and homogeneous chemistry, are a matter of considerable debate. Recent experiments show that reactor performance can be further enhanced by dripping a dilute platinum solution onto the SCTR front face during reaction, resulting in catalyst deposition within only a short (several millimeter) zone of the reactor. The authors have undertaken a computational study of this system, using two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations with full heat and mass transport and detailed heterogeneous and homogeneous kinetic mechanisms. The results indicate that front-face catalyst loading enhances reactor performance by limiting the opportunity for heterogeneous ethane reactions that produce methane. As a result, ethylene selectivity increases and CH{sub 4} selectivity decreases. The results strongly support a mechanism recently proposed by the authors, in which rapid, heterogeneous oxidation of adsorbed hydrogen consumes most of the oxygen. The resulting heat is then released to the gas phase, causing homogeneous pyrolysis of ethane to occur in an environment containing much less oxygen. This mechanism explains not only the effects of on-line catalyst addition, but also the increase in ethylene selectivity observed upon addition of hydrogen to the reactant mixture.

  12. Autothermal reforming catalyst and process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setzer, H. J.; Karavolis, S.; Lesieur, R. R.; Wnuck, W. G.

    1984-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    High activity steam reforming catalysts are described particularly adapted for use in autothermal reforming processes. A rhodium catalyst on a calcium oxide impregnated alumina substrate allow the autothermal reforming process to take place with substantially no carbon plugging at oxygen to carbon ratios below what had been considered critical for avoiding carbon plugging of the catalyst in the past.

  13. Methane oxidation over dual redox catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Sojka, Z.; DiCosimo, J.I.; DeTavernier, S.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic oxidation of methane to partial oxidation products, primarily formaldehyde and C[sub 2] hydrocarbons, was found to be directed by the catalyst used. In this project, it was discovered that a moderate oxidative coupling catalyst for C[sub 2] hydrocarbons, zinc oxide, is modified by addition of small amounts of Cu and Fe dopants to yield fair yields of formaldehyde. A similar effect was observed with Cu/Sn/ZnO catalysts, and the presence of a redox Lewis acid, Fe[sup III] or Sn[sup IV], was found to be essential for the selectivity switch from C[sub 2] coupling products to formaldehyde. The principle of double doping with an oxygen activator (Cu) and the redox Lewis acid (Fe, Sn) was pursued further by synthesizing and testing the CuFe-ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst. The Cu[sup II](ion exchanged) Fe[sup III](framework)-ZSM-5 also displayed activity for formaldehyde synthesis, with space time yields exceeding 100 g/h-kg catalyst. However, the selectivity was low and earlier claims in the literature of selective oxidation of methane to methanol over CuFe-ZSM-5 were not reproduced. A new active and selective catalytic system (M=Sb,Bi,Sn)/SrO/La[sub 2]O[sub 3] has been discovered for potentially commercially attractive process for the conversion of methane to C[sub 2] hydrocarbons, (ii) a new principle has been demonstrated for selectivity switching from C[sub 2] hydrocarbon products to formaldehyde in methane oxidations over Cu,Fe-doped zinc oxide and ZSM-5, and (iii) a new approach has been initiated for using ultrafine metal dispersions for low temperature activation of methane for selective conversions. Item (iii) continues being supported by AMOCO while further developments related to items (i) and (ii) are the objective of our continued effort under the METC-AMOCO proposed joint program.

  14. Hydrocarbon conversion process and catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

    1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.40 A, a water adsorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of between 10% and 15% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; am amorphous cracking component, a binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

  15. Nano Catalysts for Diesel Engine Emission Remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Yang, Xiaofan [ORNL; Debusk, Melanie Moses [ORNL; Mullins, David R [ORNL; Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Wu, Zili [ORNL

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broader operating temperature windows to treat diesel engine emissions to enable diesel engine based equipment and vehicles to meet future regulatory requirements. A second objective was to improve hydrothermal durability of zeolite catalysts to at least 675 C. The results presented in this report show that we have successfully achieved both objectives. Since it is accepted that the first step in NO{sub x} conversion under SCR (selective catalytic reduction) conditions involves NO oxidation to NO{sub 2}, we reasoned that catalyst modification that can enhance NO oxidation at low-temperatures should facilitate NO{sub x} reduction at low temperatures. Considering that Cu-ZSM-5 is a more efficient catalyst than Fe-ZSM-5 at low-temperature, we chose to modify Cu-ZSM-5. It is important to point out that the poor low-temperature efficiency of Fe-ZSM-5 has been shown to be due to selective absorption of NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures rather than poor NO oxidation activity. In view of this, we also reasoned that an increased electron density on copper in Cu-ZSM-5 would inhibit any bonding with NH{sub 3} at low-temperatures. In addition to modified Cu-ZSM-5, we synthesized a series of new heterobimetallic zeolites, by incorporating a secondary metal cation M (Sc{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 3+}, In{sup 3+}, and La{sup 3+}) in Cu exchanged ZSM-5, zeolite-beta, and SSZ-13 zeolites under carefully controlled experimental conditions. Characterization by diffuse-reflectance ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) does not permit conclusive structural determination but supports the proposal that M{sup 3+} has been incorporated in the vicinity of Cu(II). The protocols for degreening catalysts, testing under various operating conditions, and accelerated aging conditions were provided by our collaborators at John Deere Power Systems. Among various zeolites reported here, CuFe-SSZ-13 offers the best NO{sub x} conversion activity in 150-650 C range and is hydrothermally stable when tested under accelerated aging conditions. It is important to note that Cu-SSZ-13 is now a commercial catalyst for NO{sub x} treatment on diesel passenger vehicles. Thus, our catalyst performs better than the commercial catalyst under fast SCR conditions. We initially focused on fast SCR tests to enable us to screen catalysts rapidly. Only the catalysts that exhibit high NO{sub x} conversion at low temperatures are selected for screening under varying NO{sub 2}:NO{sub x} ratio. The detailed tests of CuFe-SSZ-13 show that CuFe-SSZ-13 is more effective than commercial Cu-SSZ-13 even at NO{sub 2}:NO{sub x} ratio of 0.1. The mechanistic studies, employing stop-flow diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy (DRIFTS), suggest that high concentration of NO{sup +}, generated by heterobimetallic zeolites, is probably responsible for their superior low temperature NO{sub x} activity. The results described in this report clearly show that we have successfully completed the first step in a new emission treatment catalyst which is synthesis and laboratory testing employing simulated exhaust. The next step in the catalyst development is engine testing. Efforts are in progress to obtain follow-on funding to carry out scale-up and engine testing to facilitate commercialization of this technology.

  16. Cellular responses against DNA damaged by platinum anticancer drugs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Yongwon, 1977-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The anticancer activity of platinum-based drugs such as cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin is mediated by their ability to attack DNA such that generated adducts trigger numerous cellular responses. A better understanding ...

  17. Acetate-Bridged Platinum(III) Complexes Derived from Cisplatin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Justin J.

    Oxidation of the acetate-bridged half-lantern platinum(II) complex cis-[Pt[superscript II](NH[subscript 3])[subscript 2](?-OAc)[subscript 2]Pt[superscript II](NH[subscript 3])[subscript 2

  18. Tomographic study of atomic-scale redistribution of platinum...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atomic-scale redistribution of platinum during the silicidation of Ni0.95Pt0.05Si(100) thin films Home Author: P. Adusumilli, L. J. Lauhon, D. N. Seidman, C. E. Murray, O....

  19. Synthesis, Characterization, and Cytotoxicity of Platinum(IV) Carbamate Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Justin Jeff

    The synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity of eight new platinum(IV) complexes having the general formula cis,cis,trans-[Pt(NH[subscript 3)[subscript 2]Cl[subscript 2](O[subscript 2]CNHR)[subscript 2

  20. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  1. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1996-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  2. Modeling Low-Platinum-Loading Effects in Fuel-Cell Catalyst Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoon, Wonseok

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in this study. The kinetic expression for the platinumis included in the ORR kinetic expression. This correction

  3. Nanolithographic Fabrication and Heterogeneous Reaction Studies of Two-Dimensional Platinum Model Catalyst Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contreras, A.M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2.25 Schematic of the hydraulic press built for nanoimprint52 Picture of the hydraulic press used for nanoimprintis then put into a hydraulic press which was built in our

  4. Characterization and Reaction Studies of Silica Supported Platinum and Rhodium Model Catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lundwall, Matthew James

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    onto a SiO2/Mo(112) surface and characterized using various surface analytical methods. CO chemisorption is utilized as a surface probe to estimate the concentration of various sites on the nanoparticles through thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS...

  5. Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E T A * S HBatteries with WideNOxSi-based| Department

  6. Accelerated deployment of nanostructured hydrotreating catalysts. Final CRADA Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Libera, J.A.; Snyder, S.W.; Mane, A.; Elam, J.W.; Cronauer, D.C.; Muntean, J.A.; Wu, T.; Miller, J.T. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); ( ES)

    2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanomanufacturing offers an opportunity to create domestic jobs and facilitate economic growth. In response to this need, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy issued a Research Call to develop nanomanufacturing capabilities at the National Laboratories. High performance catalysts represent a unique opportunity to deploy nanomanufacturing technologies. Re-refining of used lube oil offers an opportunity to create manufacturing jobs and decrease dependence on imported petroleum. Improved catalysts are required to produce a better quality product, decrease environmental impact, extend catalyst life, and improve overall economics of lube oil re-refining. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) in cooperation with Universal Lubricants, Inc. (ULI) and Chemical Engineering Partners (CEP) have carried out a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to prepare nanostructured hydrotreating catalysts using atomic layer deposition (ALD) to exhibit superior performance for the re-refining of used lube oil. We investigated the upgrading of recycled lube oil by hydrogenation using commercial, synthetically-modified commercial catalysts, and synthesized catalysts. A down-flow (trickle bed) catalytic unit was used for the hydrogenation experiments. In addition to carrying out elemental analyses of the various feed and product fractions, characterization was undertaken using H{sup 1} and C{sup 13} NMR. Initially commercial were evaluated. Second these commercial catalysts were promoted with precious metals using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Performance improvements were observed that declined with catalyst aging. An alternate approach was undertaken to deeply upgrade ULI product oils. Using a synthesized catalyst, much lower hydrogenation temperatures were required than commercial catalysts. Other performance improvements were also observed. The resulting lube oil fractions were of high purity even at low reaction severity. The products recovered from both the ALD and other processes were water-white (even those from the low temperature, low residence time (high space velocity), low conversion runs). These results indicate that highly upgraded recycle lube oils can be produced using ALD-deposited active metal catalysts. The use of H{sup 1} and C{sup 13} NMR for the characterization of the treated lube oils has been shown to be effective.

  7. Fischer-Tropsch activity for non-promoted cobalt-on-alumina catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, Alan H. (Baden, PA); Oukaci, Rachid (Gibsonia, PA); Goodwin, James G. (Gibsonia, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cobalt catalysts, and processes employing these inventive catalysts, for hydrocarbon synthesis. The inventive catalyst comprises cobalt on an alumina support and is not promoted with any noble or near noble metals. In one aspect of the invention, the alumina support preferably includes a dopant in an amount effective for increasing the activity of the inventive catalyst. The dopant is preferably a titanium dopant. In another aspect of the invention, the cobalt catalyst is preferably reduced in the presence of hydrogen at a water vapor partial pressure effective to increase the activity of the cobalt catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis. The water vapor partial pressure is preferably in the range of from 0 to about 0.1 atmospheres.

  8. Controllable Deposition of Alloy Clusters or Nanoparticles Catalysts on Carbon Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasaki, K.; Ando, Y.; Su, D.; Adzic, R.

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a simple method for controllably depositing Pt-Ru alloy nanoparticles on carbon surfaces that is mediated by Pb or Cu adlayers undergoing underpotential deposition and stripping during Pt and Ru codeposition at diffusion-limiting currents. The amount of surface Pt atoms deposited largely reflects the number of potential cycles causing the deposition and stripping of the metal adlayer at underpotentials, the metal species used as a mediator, and the scan rate of the potential cycles. We employed electrochemical methanol oxidation to gain information on the catalyst's activities. The catalysts with large amounts of surface Pt atoms have relatively high methanol-oxidation activity. Catalysts prepared using this method enhance methanol-oxidation activity per electrode surface area, while maintaining catalytic activity per surface Pt atom; thus, the amount of Pt is reduced in comparison with conventional methanol-oxidation catalysts. The method is suitable for efficient synthesizing various bimetallic catalysts.

  9. The morphology of electroless Ni deposition on a colloidal Pd(II) catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandow, S.L.; Dressick, W.J.; Marrian, C.R.K.; Chow, G.M.; Calvert, J.M. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface morphology of a surface-bound colloidal Pd(II) catalyst and its effect on the particle sizes with the largest particles reaching approximately 50 nm in diameter. Catalyst surface coverages as low as 20% are found to be sufficient to initiate complete and homogeneous metallization. The distribution of particle sizes for the electroless metal deposit, found to be a function of plating time, is broad with the maximum Ni particle size exceeding 120 nm. Results indicate controlling the size of the bound catalyst is the principal determining factor in controlling the particle size of the electroless deposit. Modification of the surface by depleting the concentration of surface functional groups capable of binding catalyst is used to shift the size distribution of bound catalyst to smaller values. A resulting three-to fourfold reduction in the particle size of the electroless deposit is demonstrated.

  10. Molybdenum sulfide/carbide catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso, Gabriel (Chihuahua, MX); Chianelli, Russell R. (El Paso, TX); Fuentes, Sergio (Ensenada, MX); Torres, Brenda (El Paso, TX)

    2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods of synthesizing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2) and carbon-containing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2-xC.sub.x) catalysts that exhibit improved catalytic activity for hydrotreating reactions involving hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrogenation. The present invention also concerns the resulting catalysts. Furthermore, the invention concerns the promotion of these catalysts with Co, Ni, Fe, and/or Ru sulfides to create catalysts with greater activity, for hydrotreating reactions, than conventional catalysts such as cobalt molybdate on alumina support.

  11. Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

  12. Integrated approach to the systematic synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity of novel heterogeneous catalysts. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brenner, A.

    1981-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface chemistry and catalytic activity of a new class of heterogeneous catalysts, carbonyl complexes directly deposited on high surface area inorganic supports was investigated. A new and highly efficient characterization technique, temperature programmed decomposition (TPDE) was employed coupled with automated activity measurements. TPDE spectra of all elements which have carbonyl complexes have been obtained, including a variety of cluster and mixed-metal complexes. These spectra contain quantitative information on the stoichiometry and oxidation state of the catalysts at each stage of activation. Extensive chemisorption data have also been obtained. Each of the catalysts has been tested for several model reactions: ethylene hydrogenation, ethane hydrogenolysis, and methanation. The combination of TPDE and activity data has led to a structure-activity relationship which in > 90% of the cases allows the a priori prediction of the preferred temperature regime for catalyst activation, if the use of a special dehydroxylated alumina will enhance activity, the effect of high temperature reduction and redox treatments on activity, and for all treatments if the resulting catalyst is likely to be lower, similar, or higher in activity than a conventional catalyst. There is a dichotomy in both surface chemistry and activity between catalysts derived from base and noble metals, with the most dramatic improvements being with the base metal catalysts. Specifically, catalysts of twelve different metals have been prepared with dispersions much higher than their conventional analogues, six catalysts are at least 10-fold higher in activity for ethylene hydrogenation, seven catalysts are at least 10-fold more active for ethane hydrogenolysis, and ten catalysts are at least two-fold more active for methanation. Neither cluster nor mixed-metal complexes showed activity significantly different from their individual components.

  13. Studies of Platinum Polyynyl Complexes: Elaboration of Novel "Click" Cycloadducts and Fluorous and Polygon Based Platinum Polyyndiyl Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clough, Melissa Catherine 1985-

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    of Vaska's complex ................. 118 3.3 31P{1H} data (?, ppm) for the fluorous platinum chloride complexes ...... 123 xix 3.4 Key crystallographic distances [?] and angles [?] for 8b .......................... 128 3.5 Key torsion angles...

  14. Liquid phase low temperature method for production of methanol from synthesis gas and catalyst formulations therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a homogenous catalyst for the production of methanol from purified synthesis gas at low temperature and low pressure which includes a transition metal capable of forming transition metal complexes with coordinating ligands and an alkoxide, the catalyst dissolved in a methanol solvent system, provided the transition metal complex is not transition metal carbonyl. The coordinating ligands can be selected from the group consisting of N-donor ligands, P-donor ligands, O-donor ligands, C-donor ligands, halogens and mixtures thereof.

  15. Project: Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Barriers:2. Barriers: Durability (cathode electrocatalyst) Costs (cathode electrocatalyst) Electrode metal loading: 0.2 mgPGM /cm2 (cathode) ( 0.3 mgPGM /cm2 both electrodes) Activity (PGM catalysts): 0-STEM images of the Pd(core)-Pt(shell) NPs having 1 ML and 4MLs of Pt on Pd/C #12;5 (111) facets (111) and (100

  16. Surface Oxidation and Dissolution of Metal Nanocatalysts in Acid Medium 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callejas-Tovar, Juan

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    the main features of the oxidation phenomena observed experimentally, it is concluded that the dissolution mechanism of metal atoms involves: 1) Surface segregation of alloy atoms, 2) oxygen absorption into the subsurface of the catalyst, and 3) metal...

  17. Integrated process and dual-function catalyst for olefin epoxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Bing (Cranbury, NJ); Rueter, Michael (Plymouth Meeting, PA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention discloses a dual-functional catalyst composition and an integrated process for production of olefin epoxides including propylene oxide by catalytic reaction of hydrogen peroxide from hydrogen and oxygen with olefin feeds such as propylene. The epoxides and hydrogen peroxide are preferably produced simultaneously in situ. The dual-functional catalyst comprises noble metal crystallites with dimensions on the nanometer scale (on the order of <1 nm to 10 nm), specially dispersed on titanium silicalite substrate particles. The dual functional catalyst catalyzes both the direct reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to generate hydrogen peroxide intermediate on the noble metal catalyst surface and the reaction of the hydrogen peroxide intermediate with the propylene feed to generate propylene oxide product. Combining both these functions in a single catalyst provides a very efficient integrated process operable below the flammability limits of hydrogen and highly selective for the production of hydrogen peroxide to produce olefin oxides such as propylene oxide without formation of undesired co-products.

  18. Platinum- and platinum alloy-coated palladium and palladium alloy particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPOPetroleum38 (1996) A213-A225.PlatinumPlatinumand uses

  19. Electrochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Diamondlike Carbon-Metal Composite Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MORRISON, M. L.; BUCHANAN, R. A.; LIAW, P. K.; BERRY, C. J.; BRIGMON, R.; RIESTER, L.; JIN, C.; NARAYAN, R. J.

    2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Implants containing antimicrobial metals may reduce morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs associated with medical device-related infections. We have deposited diamondlike carbon-silver (DLC-Ag), diamondlike carbon-platinum (DLC-Pt), and diamondlike carbon-silver-platinum (DLC-AgPt) thin films using a multicomponent target pulsed laser deposition process. Transmission electron microscopy of the DLC-silver and DLC-platinum composite films revealed that the silver and platinum self-assemble into nanoparticle arrays within the diamondlike carbon matrix. The diamondlike carbon-silver film possesses hardness and Young's modulus values of 37 GPa and 331 GPa, respectively. The diamondlike carbon-metal composite films exhibited passive behavior at open-circuit potentials. Low corrosion rates were observed during testing in a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) electrolyte. In addition, the diamondlike carbon-metal composite films were found to be immune to localized corrosion below 1000 mV (SCE). DLC-silver-platinum films demonstrated exceptional antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus bacteria. It is believed that a galvanic couple forms between platinum and silver, which accelerates silver ion release and provides more robust antimicrobial activity. Diamondlike carbon-silver-platinum films may provide unique biological functionalities and improved lifetimes for cardiovascular, orthopaedic, biosensor, and implantable microelectromechanical systems.

  20. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

    1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

  1. Reduction of Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Zero-Valent Iron and Palladium Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young-Hun; Shin, Won Sik; Ko, Seok-Oh; Kim, Myung-Chul

    2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is an alternative technology for soil and groundwater remediation. Zero valent iron, which is the most popular PRB material, is only applicable to halogenated aliphatic organics and some heavy metals. The objective of this study was to investigate reductive dechlorination of halogenated compounds and reduction of non-halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons using zero valent metals (ZVMs) and catalysts as reactive materials for PRBs. A group of small aromatic hydrocarbons such as monochlorophenols, phenol and benzene were readily reduced with palladium catalyst and zero valent iron. Poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also tested with the catalysts and zero valent metal combinations. The aromatic rings were reduced and partly reduced PAHs were found as the daughter compounds. The current study demonstrates reduction of aromatic compounds by ZVMs and modified catalysts and implicates that PRB is applicable not only for halogenated organic compounds but nonhalogenated aromatic compounds such as PAHs.

  2. Hydrogen generation by visible light irradiation of ruthenium complexes and colloidal platinum stabilized by viologen polymers in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishijima, T.; Nagamura, T.; Matsuo, T.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hydrogen generation from water on the irradiation of visible light has recently attracted the attention of many investigators, because it affords one of the most promising approaches to chemical conversion of solar energy and production of renewable energy resources. In an attempt to construct efficient systems for chemical conversion of light energy, the present authors have found that photoinduced redox reactions in various molecular assemblies are very well suited for the purpose. Along this line, water-soluble polymers with pendant viologen groups and colloidal platinum have been prepared to study the electron transport properties and hydrogen generation in the polymer system. An attempt has also been made to synthesize polysoap-type viologen polymers in order to concentrate photosensitizer, electron mediator, and multielectron redox catalyst so that the hydrogen-generating efficiency is increased by the cooperation of the relevant species on the same polymer. The results are described.

  3. Investigating the effects of proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions on carbon supported platinum electrocatalyst composition and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Patel; K. Artyushkova; P. Atanassov; V. Colbow; M. Dutta; D. Harvey; S. Wessel

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 C and 100% relative humidity. In order to study modifications that are introduced to chemistry, morphology, and performance of electrocatalysts, XPS, HREELS and three-electrode rotating disk electrode experiments were performed. Before heat treatment, graphitic content varied by 20% among samples with different types of carbon supports, with distinct differences between bulk and surface compositions within each sample. Following the aging protocol, the bulk and surface chemistry of the samples were similar, with graphite content increasing or remaining constant and Pt-carbide decreasing for all samples. From the correlation of changes in chemical composition and losses in performance of the electrocatalysts, we conclude that relative distribution of Pt particles on graphitic and amorphous carbon is as important for electrocatalytic activity as the absolute amount of graphitic carbon present

  4. Investigating the effects of proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions on carbon supported platinum electrocatalyst composition and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, Anant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen; Colbow, Vesna; Dutta, Monica; Harvey, Davie; Wessel, Silvia

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 #2;C and 100% relative humidity. In order to study modifications that are introduced to chemistry, morphology, and performance of electrocatalysts, XPS, HREELS and three-electrode rotating disk electrode experiments were performed. Before heat treatment, graphitic content varied by 20% among samples with different types of carbon supports, with distinct differences between bulk and surface compositions within each sample. Following the aging protocol, the bulk and surface chemistry of the samples were similar, with graphite content increasing or remaining constant and Pt-carbide decreasing for all samples. From the correlation of changes in chemical composition and losses in performance of the electrocatalysts, we conclude that relative distribution of Pt particles on graphitic and amorphous carbon is as important for electrocatalytic activity as the absolute amount of graphitic carbon present

  5. Nanoporous Au: an unsupported pure gold catalyst?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittstock, A; Neumann, B; Schaefer, A; Dumbuya, K; Kuebel, C; Biener, M; Zielasek, V; Steinrueck, H; Gottfried, M; Biener, J; Hamza, A; B?umer, M

    2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The unique properties of gold especially in low temperature CO oxidation have been ascribed to a combination of various effects. In particular, particle sizes below a few nm and specific particle-support interactions have been shown to play important roles. On the contrary, recent reports revealed that monolithic nanoporous gold (npAu) prepared by leaching a less noble metal, such as Ag, out of the corresponding alloy can also exhibit remarkably high catalytic activity for CO oxidation, even though no support is present. Therefore, it was claimed to be a pure and unsupported gold catalyst. We investigated npAu with respect to its morphology, surface composition and catalytic properties. In particular, we studied the reaction kinetics for low temperature CO oxidation in detail taking mass transport limitation due to the porous structure of the material into account. Our results reveal that Ag, even if removed almost completely from the bulk, segregates to the surface resulting in surface concentrations of up to 10 at%. Our data suggest that this Ag plays a significant role in activation of molecular oxygen. Therefore, npAu should be considered as a bimetallic catalyst rather than a pure Au catalyst.

  6. Fluorination process using catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hochel, Robert C. (Aiken, SC); Saturday, Kathy A. (Aiken, SC)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for converting an actinide compound selected from the group consisting of uranium oxides, plutonium oxides, uranium tetrafluorides, plutonium tetrafluorides and mixtures of said oxides and tetrafluorides, to the corresponding volatile actinide hexafluoride by fluorination with a stoichiometric excess of fluorine gas. The improvement involves conducting the fluorination of the plutonium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3, AgF.sub.2 and NiF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced. The improvement also involves conducting the fluorination of one of the uranium compounds in the presence of a fluoride catalyst selected from the group consisting of CoF.sub.3 and AgF.sub.2, whereby the fluorination is significantly enhanced.

  7. Catalysts for the hydrodenitrogenation of organic materials and process for the preparation of the catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laine, R.M.; Hirschon, A.S.; Wilson, R.B. Jr.

    1987-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the preparation of a multimetallic catalyst for the hydrodenitrogenation of an organic feedstock, which process comprises: (a) forming a precatalyst itself comprising: (1) a first metal compound selected from compounds of nickel, cobalt or mixtures thereof; (2) a second metal compound selected from compounds of chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, or mixtures thereof; and (3) an inorganic support; (b) heating the precatalyst of step (a) with a source of sulfide in a first non-oxidizing gas at a temperature and for a time effective to presulfide the precatalyst; (c) adding in a second non-oxidizing gas to the sulfided precatalyst of step (b) an organometallic transition metal moiety selected from compounds of iridium, rhodium, iron, ruthenium, tungsten or mixtures thereof for a time and at a temperature effective to chemically combine the metal components; and (d) optionally heating the chemically combined catalyst of step (b) in vacuum at a temperature and for a time effective to remove residual volatile organic materials. 12 figs.

  8. Experiments and Models Bearing on the Role of Chromite as a Collector of Platinum Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mcdonough, William F.

    Experiments and Models Bearing on the Role of Chromite as a Collector of Platinum Group Minerals PUBLICATION SEPTEMBER 6, 2008 Chromite is widely recognized to act as a collector for platinum group elements

  9. Hydrogen Oxidation and Evolution Reaction Kinetics on Platinum: Acid vs Alkaline Electrolytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Wenchao

    The kinetics of the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) on polycrystalline platinum [Pt(pc)] and high surface area carbon-supported platinum nanoparticles (Pt/C) were studied in 0.1 M ...

  10. Comparison of platinum deposit methods on carbon aerogels used in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparison of platinum deposit methods on carbon aerogels used in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel: carbon aerogel, platinum, Strong Electrostatic Adsorption, chemical reduction, UV With the rarefaction the diffusive phenomena limiting electrochemical performances. By contrast, carbon aerogels present

  11. Transcription Inhibition by Platinum DNA Cross-links in Live Mammalian Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ang, Wee Han

    We have investigated the processing of site-specific Pt?DNA cross-links in live mammalian cells to enhance our understanding of the mechanism of action of platinum-based anticancer drugs. The activity of platinum drugs ...

  12. Non-traditional platinum compounds for improved cellular accumulation and tumor targeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Katherine Summer, 1981-

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapter 1. Introduction to Non-Traditional Platinum Compounds for Improved Uptake, Oral Bioavailability, and Tumor Targeting The path to more potent platinum anticancer drugs with fewer side effects lies in the exploration ...

  13. Dramatically Improved Yields in Molecular Scale Electronic Devices Using Ultra-smooth Platinum Electrodes Prepared By

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islam, M. Saif

    Dramatically Improved Yields in Molecular Scale Electronic Devices Using Ultra-smooth Platinum scale electronic devices by using ultra- smooth platinum (Pt) electrodes made with chemical mechanically Terms -- Molecular electronics, CMP, SAM, Langmuir-Blodgett, Device yields. I. INTRODUCTION Molecular

  14. Synthesis of Metal-Metal Oxide Catalysts and Electrocatalysts - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposed Action(Insert Directive Number andHydrogen and

  15. Catalyst systems and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ozkan, Umit S. (Worthington, OH); Holmgreen, Erik M. (Columbus, OH); Yung, Matthew M. (Columbus, OH)

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of carbon monoxide (CO) removal comprises providing an oxidation catalyst comprising cobalt supported on an inorganic oxide. The method further comprises feeding a gaseous stream comprising CO, and oxygen (O.sub.2) to the catalyst system, and removing CO from the gaseous stream by oxidizing the CO to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) in the presence of the oxidation catalyst at a temperature between about 20 to about 200.degree. C.

  16. High Impact Technology (HIT) Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    High Impact Technology (HIT) Catalyst Images courtesy CREE, True Manufacturing, A.O. Smith, Bernstein Associates, Cambridge Engineering, Alliance Laundry Systems, NREL Commercial...

  17. Non-Platinum Bimetallic Cathode Electrocatalysts

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a relationship between the d-band center of the metal and its ORR activity - Nrskov-Hammer theory and results of LBNL group Pt 3 Co has high ORR activity and, thus, a...

  18. Non-Platinum Bimetallic Cathode Electrocatalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PGM in electrocatalyst particle core with base metal ­ C. Electrode performance: modifying surface to form surface "skins" Noble metals are the most stable in acidic environment ­ Pd Eo' for dissolution #12;Ir -4 -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 Pt PdRu -4 -3.5 -3 -2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 The d-band centers

  19. Co-Pt core-shell nanostructured catalyst prepared by selective chemical vapor pulse deposition of Pt on Co as a cathode in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Sang-Joon; Chung, Ho-Kyoon [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ji-Beom [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Center for Human Interface Nanotechnology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746, Korea and School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Heeyeop; Seo, Seung-Woo; Min Cho, Sung, E-mail: sungmcho@skku.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of PtCo/C catalyst for use as a cathode in polymer electrolyte fuel cells was prepared by selective chemical vapor pulse deposition (CVPD) of Pt on the surface of Co. The activity of the prepared catalyst for oxygen reduction was higher than that of a catalyst prepared by sequential impregnation (IMP) with the two metallic components. This catalytic activity difference occurs because the former catalyst has smaller Pt crystallites that produce stronger Pt-Co interactions and have a larger Pt surface area. Consequently, the CVPD catalyst has a great number of Co particles that are in close contact with the added Pt. The Pt surface was also electronically modified by interactions with Co, which were stronger in the CVPD catalyst than in the IMP catalyst, as indicated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry measurements of the catalysts.

  20. Method for dispersing catalyst onto particulate material and product thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Utz, Bruce R. (Pittsburgh, PA); Cugini, Anthony V. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for dispersing finely divided catalyst precursors onto the surface of coal or other particulate material includes the steps of forming a wet paste mixture of the particulate material and a liquid solution containing a dissolved transition metal salt, for instance a solution of ferric nitrate. The wet paste mixture is in a state of incipient wetness with all of this solution adsorbed onto the surfaces of the particulate material without the presence of free moisture. On adding a precipitating agent such as ammonia, a catalyst precursor such as hydrated iron oxide is deposited on the surfaces of the coal. The catalyst is activated by converting it to the sulfide form for the hydrogenation or direct liquefaction of the coal.

  1. Carbon nanotube forests growth using catalysts from atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Bingan; Zhang, Can; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Xie, Rongsi; Zhong, Guofang; Robertson, John [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Bhardwaj, Sunil [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR Laboratorio TASC, s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Sincrotone Trieste S.C.p.A., s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Cepek, Cinzia [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR Laboratorio TASC, s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34012 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have grown carbon nanotubes using Fe and Ni catalyst films deposited by atomic layer deposition. Both metals lead to catalytically active nanoparticles for growing vertically aligned nanotube forests or carbon fibres, depending on the growth conditions and whether the substrate is alumina or silica. The resulting nanotubes have narrow diameter and wall number distributions that are as narrow as those grown from sputtered catalysts. The state of the catalyst is studied by in-situ and ex-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We demonstrate multi-directional nanotube growth on a porous alumina foam coated with Fe prepared by atomic layer deposition. This deposition technique can be useful for nanotube applications in microelectronics, filter technology, and energy storage.

  2. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as Reductants Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx...

  3. Materials - Efficient catalysts... | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials - Efficient catalysts... Reduction of pollution from vehicles and power plants relies, in large part, on how effectively catalysts can oxidize nitric oxide (NO)....

  4. Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studies of Oxidation Catalyst for Diesel Engine Emission Treatment The overlap among theory, structure, and fully formed catalysts form the foundation of this study...

  5. Microemulsion impregnated catalyst composite and use thereof in a synthesis gas conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abrevaya, Hayim (Chicago, IL); Targos, William M. (Palatine, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst composition for synthesis gas conversion comprising a ruthenium metal component deposited on a support carrier wherein the average metal particle size is less than about 100 A. The method of manufacture of the composition via a reverse micelle impregnation technique and the use of the composition in a Fischer-Tropsch conversion process is also disclosed.

  6. Microemulsion impregnated catalyst composite and use thereof in a synthesis gas conversion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abrevaya, H.; Targos, W.M.

    1987-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst composition is described for synthesis gas conversion comprising a ruthenium metal component deposited on a support carrier wherein the average metal particle size is less than about 100 A. The method of manufacture of the composition via a reverse micelle impregnation technique and the use of the composition in a Fischer-Tropsch conversion process is also disclosed.

  7. Catalyst-induced growth of carbon nanotubes on tips of cantilevers and nanowires

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Eres, Gyula; Wei, Yayi; Greenbaum, Elias; Lee, Ida

    2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for catalyst-induced growth of carbon nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructures on the tips of nanowires, cantilevers, conductive micro/nanometer structures, wafers and the like. The method can be used for production of carbon nanotube-anchored cantilevers that can significantly improve the performance of scaning probe microscopy (AFM, EFM etc). The invention can also be used in many other processes of micro and/or nanofabrication with carbon nanotubes/fibers. Key elements of this invention include: (1) Proper selection of a metal catalyst and programmable pulsed electrolytic deposition of the desired specific catalyst precisely at the tip of a substrate, (2) Catalyst-induced growth of carbon nanotubes/fibers at the catalyst-deposited tips, (3) Control of carbon nanotube/fiber growth pattern by manipulation of tip shape and growth conditions, and (4) Automation for mass production.

  8. Bifunctional Nanostructured Base Catalysts: Opportunities for BioFuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Connor, William

    2010-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT This research studied and develop novel basic catalysts for production of renewable chemicals and fuels from biomass. We will focus on the development of unique porous structural-base catalysts formed by two techniques: from (mixed) metal-oxide bases and by nitrogen substitution for oxygen in zeolites. These catalysts will be compared to conventional solid base materials for aldol condensation, catalytic fast pyrolysis, and transesterification reactions. These reactions are important in processes that are currently being commercialized for production of fuels from biomass and will be pivotal in future biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. Specifically, we have studied the aldol-condensation of acetone with furfural over oxides and zeolites, the conversion of sugars by rapid pyrolysis over zeolites and the trans-esterification of vegetable oil with methanol over mixed oxide catalysts. Our previous research has indicated that the base strength of framework nitrogen in nitrogen-substituted zeolites (NH-zeolites) is nearly twice as strong as in standard zeolites. Nitrogen substituted catalysts have been synthesized from several zeolites (including FAU, MFI, BEA, and LTL) using NH3 treatment.

  9. Photobiomolecular metallic particles and films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2003-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

  10. Molybdenum-platinum-oxide electrodes for thermoelectric generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmatz, Duane J. (Dearborn Heights, MI)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a solid electrolyte carrying a thin film comprising molybdenum-platinum-oxide as an electrode deposited by physical deposition techniques. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

  11. Structural and bonding trends in platinum-carbon clusters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Thomas F

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Density functional calculations with the B3-LYP functional were used to optimize the platinum-carbon cationic clusters, PtCx+, 1=x=16, in both the doublet and quartet states of the linear, fan, open-ring, closed ring, and ...

  12. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of ethylidene diacetate from acetic anhydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

    1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of acetic anhydride, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled without loss in activity.

  13. Shape-selective catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch chemistry : iron-containing particulate catalysts. Activity report : January 1, 2001 - December 31, 2004.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cronauer, D.; Chemical Engineering

    2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is carrying out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (FT) chemistry--specifically, the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to needing high activity, it is desirable that the catalysts have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. It is desired that selectivity be directed toward producing diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. The goal is to produce shape-selective catalysts that have the potential to limit the formation of longchain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected 'cage'. This cage also restricts their loss by attrition during use in slurry-bed reactors. The first stage of this program was to prepare and evaluate iron-containing particulate catalysts. This activity report centers upon this first stage of experimentation with particulate FT catalysts. (For reference, a second experimental stage is under way to prepare and evaluate active FT catalysts formed by atomic-layer deposition [ALD] of active components on supported membranes.) To date, experimentation has centered upon the evaluation of a sample of iron-based, spray-dried catalyst prepared by B.H. Davis of the Center of Applied Energy Research (CAER) and samples of his catalyst onto which inorganic 'shells' were deposited. The reference CAER catalyst contained a high level of dispersed fine particles, a portion of which was removed by differential settling. Reaction conditions have been established using a FT laboratory unit such that reasonable levels of CO conversion can be achieved, where therefore a valid catalyst comparison can be made. A wide range of catalytic activities was observed with SiO{sub 2}-coated FT catalysts. Two techniques were used for SiO{sub 2}coating. The first involved a caustic precipitation of SiO{sub 2} from an organo-silicate onto the CAER catalyst. The second was the acidic precipitation of an organo-silicate with aging to form fractal particles that were then deposited onto the CAER catalyst. Several resulting FT catalysts were as active as the coarse catalyst on which they were prepared. The most active ones were those with the least amount of coating, namely about 2.2 wt% SiO{sub 2}. In the case of the latter acid technique, the use of HCl and HNO{sub 3} was much more effective than that of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe and analyze as-received and treated FT catalysts. It was observed that (1) spherical particles of CAER FT catalyst were made up of agglomerates of particles that were, in turn, also agglomerates; (2) the spray drying process of CAER apparently concentrated the Si precursor at the surface during drying; (3) while SEM pointed out broad differences in the appearance of the prepared catalyst particles, there was little indication that the catalysts were being uniformly coated with a cage-like protective surface, with perhaps the exception of HNO{sub 3}-precipitated catalyst; and (4) there was only a limited penetration of carbon (i.e., CO) into the FT catalyst during the conditioning and FT reaction steps.

  14. Functionalized Graphene as a Catalytic Counter Electrode in Dye-Sensitized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    %).1,2 In typical DSSC architectures, the photon-induced oxida- tion of a dye occurs at a TiO2 photoanode, while but typically requires a platinum catalyst in DSSC operation.3 5 Platinum has high catalytic activity toward I3, since platinum is a precious metal, much incentive exists to develop DSSC counter electrodes using

  15. New hydrocracking catalysts increase throughput, run length

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huizinga, T. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Mij., The Hague (Netherlands); Theunissen, J.M.H. [Rayong Refinery Co. Ltd., Rayong (Thailand); Minderhoud, H.; Veen, R. van [Koninklijke/Shell-Lab., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved, second-stage hydrocracking catalyst has been developed by combining stabilized Y zeolites with amorphous silica alumina cracking components. A commercial application of this catalyst, along with a new, first-stage zeolitic hydrocracking catalyst, resulted in increased unit throughput and cycle length. The paper discusses the hydrocracking process, first-stage catalysts, second-stage catalysts, hydrogenation process, commercial results, and product properties.

  16. Catalyst-free carbon nanotubes from coal-based material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathur, R.B.; Lal, C.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DC-Arc Discharge technique has been used to synthesize carbon nanotubes from super clean coal samples instead of graphite electrodes filled with metal catalysts. The adverse effect of the mineral matter present in coal may be, thus, avoided. The cathode deposits showed the presence of single walled carbon nanotubes as well, which are generally known to be formed only in presence of transition metal catalysts and lanthanides. The process also avoids the tedious purification treatments of carbon nanotubes by strong acids to get rid of metal catalysts produced as impurities along with nanotubes. Thus, coal may be refined and demineralized by an organorefining technique to obtain super clean coal, an ultra low ash coal which may be used for the production of carbon nanotubes. The residual coal obtained after the organorefining may be used as an energy source for raising steam for power generation. Thus, coal may afford its use as an inexpensive feedstock for the production of carbon nanotubes besides its conventional role as a fuel for power generation.

  17. Spectroscopic studies of metal growth on oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Kai

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : Chemistry SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF METAL GROWTH ON OXIDES A Thesis by KAI LUO Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style a d content by: avid W. Goodman.... , Jilin University, P. R. China Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr, David W. Goodman Metal/oxide chemistry and metal cluster growth on oxides are fundamental to our understanding of the catalytic activity and selectivity of metal catalysts, thus...

  18. Ceramic wash-coat for catalyst support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Anand A.; Subramanian, Ramesh; Sabol, Stephen M.

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A wash-coat (16) for use as a support for an active catalyst species (18) and a catalytic combustor component (10) incorporating such wash-coat. The wash-coat is a solid solution of alumina or alumina-based material (Al2O3-0-3 wt % La2O3) and a further oxide exhibiting a coefficient of thermal expansion that is lower than that exhibited by alumina. The further oxide may be silicon dioxide (2-30 wt % SiO2), zirconia silicate (2-30 wt % ZrSiO4), neodymium oxide (0-4 wt %), titania (Al2O3-3-40% TiO2) or alumina-based magnesium aluminate spinel (Al2O3-25 wt % MgO) in various embodiments. The active catalyst species may be palladium and a second metal in a concentration of 10-50% of the concentration of the palladium.

  19. EFFECT OF PRETREATMENT ON PT-CO/C CATHODE CATALYSTS FOR THE OXYGEN-REDUCTION REACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, E.

    2009-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to reduce the precious metal loading without sacrificing activity and stability, a new method for the preparation of bimetallic catalysts is proposed. Currently, Pt-alloy particles, with 2 to 3 nm in diameter, are loaded on high surface area carbon supports. Of the Pt loaded, only the surface atoms interact with the reactants. In order to increase the Pt utilization per metal particle the new process for catalyst preparation will incorporate a non-noble transition metal core coated with a skin layer of Pt deposited on high surface area carbon. The effect of reducing agent strength during synthesis was also explored. It was determined that the Co addition has a higher impact on catalyst when used with NaBH4 as reducing agent as compared to NaCOOH.

  20. Durability of Low Platinum Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polevaya, Olga [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.] [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.; Blanchet, Scott [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.] [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh [Argonne National Lab] [Argonne National Lab; Borup, Rod [Los-Alamos National Lab] [Los-Alamos National Lab; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los-Alamos National Lab] [Los-Alamos National Lab

    2014-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding and improving the durability of cost-competitive fuel cell stacks is imperative to successful deployment of the technology. Stacks will need to operate well beyond today’s state-of-the-art rated power density with very low platinum loading in order to achieve the cost targets set forth by DOE ($15/kW) and ultimately be competitive with incumbent technologies. An accelerated cost-reduction path presented by Nuvera focused on substantially increasing power density to address non-PGM material costs as well as platinum. The study developed a practical understanding of the degradation mechanisms impacting durability of fuel cells with low platinum loading (?0.2mg/cm2) operating at high power density (?1.0W/cm2) and worked out approaches for improving the durability of low-loaded, high-power stack designs. Of specific interest is the impact of combining low platinum loading with high power density operation, as this offers the best chance of achieving long-term cost targets. A design-of-experiments approach was utilized to reveal and quantify the sensitivity of durability-critical material properties to high current density at two levels of platinum loading (the more conventional 0.45 mgPt.cm–1 and the much lower 0.2 mgPt.cm–2) across several cell architectures. We studied the relevance of selected component accelerated stress tests (AST) to fuel cell operation in power producing mode. New stress tests (NST) were designed to investigate the sensitivity to the addition of electrical current on the ASTs, along with combined humidity and load cycles and, eventually, relate to the combined city/highway drive cycle. Changes in the cathode electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and average oxygen partial pressure on the catalyst layer with aging under AST and NST protocols were compared based on the number of completed cycles. Studies showed elevated sensitivity of Pt growth to the potential limits and the initial particle size distribution. The ECSA loss was correlated with the upper potential limit in the cycle tests, although the performance degradation was found to be a strong function of initial Pt loading. A large fraction of the voltage degradation was found due to increased mass transfer overpotentials, especially in the lower Pt loading cells. Increased mass transfer overpotentials were responsible for a large fraction of the voltage degradation at high current densities. Analysis of the impedance and polarization data indicated O2 diffusion in the aged electrode ionomer to be the main source of the increased mass transfer overpotentials. Results from the experimental parametric studies were used to inform and calibrate newly developed durability model, simulating lifetime performance of the fuel cell under variety of load-cycle protocols, electrode loadings and throughout wide range of operating conditions, including elevated-to-3.0A/cm2 current densities. Complete durability model included several sub-models: platinum dissolution-and-growth as well as reaction-diffusion model of cathode electrode, applied sequentially to study the lifetime predictions of ECSA and polarization performance in the ASTs and NSTs. These models establish relations between changes in overpotentials, ECSA and oxygen mass transport in fuel cell cathodes. The model was calibrated using single cells with land-channel and open flowfield architectures. The model was validated against Nuvera Orion® (open flowfield) short stack data in the load cycle durability tests. The reaction-diffusion model was used to correlate the effective mass transfer coefficients for O2 diffusion in cathode ionomer and separately in gas pores with the operating conditions (pressure, temperature, gas velocity in flow field and current density), Pt loading, and ageing related growth in Pt particles and thinning of the electrode. Achievements of both modeling and experimental objectives were demonstrated in a full format, subscale stacks operating in a simulated but fully realistic ambient environment, using system-compatible operating protocols.

  1. as Catalyst in Public Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushman, Frederic

    Crisis as Catalyst in Public Health Immigration Reform and the Threat of Rhetorical Violence look at immigration reform and the impact of public discourse focused on this topic. The panel

  2. Secret Lives of Catalysts Revealed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miquel Salmeron and Gabor Somorjai

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Miquel Salmeron and Gabor Somorjai of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division discuss the first-ever glimpse of nanoscale catalysts in action. More information: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-relea...

  3. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Catalyst...

  4. Hydrothermal alkali metal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfs, Denise Y. (Houston, TX); Clavenna, Le Roy R. (Baytown, TX); Eakman, James M. (Houston, TX); Kalina, Theodore (Morris Plains, NJ)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered from the particles by treating them with a calcium or magnesium-containing compound in the presence of water at a temperature between about 250.degree. F. and about 700.degree. F. and in the presence of an added base to establish a pH during the treatment step that is higher than would otherwise be possible without the addition of the base. During the treating process the relatively high pH facilitates the conversion of water-insoluble alkali metal compounds in the alkali metal residues into water-soluble alkali metal constituents. The resultant aqueous solution containing water-soluble alkali metal constituents is then separated from the residue solids, which consist of the treated particles and any insoluble materials formed during the treatment step, and recycled to the gasification process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst. Preferably, the base that is added during the treatment step is an alkali metal hydroxide obtained by water washing the residue solids produced during the treatment step.

  5. Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA); Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(OF.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1)n].sub.1-k M.sub.k, [(FO.sub.2).sub.1-n (RO.sub.1.5).sub.n ].sub.1-k M.sub.k, or [Ln.sub.x Zr.sub.1-x O.sub.2-0.5x ].sub.1-k M.sub.k wherein FO.sub.2 is a fluorite-type oxide; RO represents an alkaline earth oxide; RO.sub.1.5 is a Group IIIB or rare earth oxide; Ln is a rare earth element having an atomic number from 57 to 65 or mixtures thereof; M is a transition metal or a mixture of transition metals; n is a number having a value from 0.0 to 0.35; k is a number having a value from 0.0 to about 0.5; and x is a number having a value from about 0.45 to about 0.55.

  6. SISGR-Fundamental Experimental and Theoretical Studies on a Novel Family of Oxide Catalyst Supports for Water Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumta, Prashant [University of Pittsburgh

    2014-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Identification and development of non-noble metal based electro-catalysts or electro-catalysts with significant reduction of expensive noble metal contents (E.g. IrO2, Pt) with comparable electrochemical performance as the standard noble metal/metal oxide for proton exchange membrane (PEM) based water electrolysis would constitute a major breakthrough in the generation of hydrogen by water electrolysis. Accomplishing such a system would not only result reduction of the overall capital costs of PEM based water electrolyzers, but also help attain the targeted hydrogen production cost [< $ 3.0 / gallon gasoline equivalent (gge)] comparable to conventional liquid fuels. In line with these goals, it was demonstrated that fluorine doped IrO2 thin films and nanostructured high surface area powders display remarkably higher electrochemical activity, and comparable durability as pure IrO2 electro-catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in PEM based water electrolysis. Furthermore, corrosion resistant SnO2 and NbO2 support has been doped with F and coupled with IrO2 or RuO2 for use as an OER electro-catalyst. A solid solution of SnO2:F or NbO2:F with only 20 - 30 mol.% IrO2 or RuO2 yielding a rutile structure in the form of thin films and bulk nanoparticles displays similar electrochemical activity and stability as pure IrO2/RuO2. This would lead to more than 70 mol.% reduction in the noble metal oxide content. Novel nanostructured ternary (Ir,Sn,Nb)O2 thin films of different compositions FUNDAMENTAL STUDY OF NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRO-CATALYSTS WITH REDUCED NOBLE METAL CONTENT FOR PEM BASED WATER ELECTROLYSIS 4 have also been studied. It has been shown that (Ir0.40Sn0.30Nb0.30)O2 shows similar electrochemical activity and enhanced chemical robustness as compared to pure IrO2. F doping of the ternary (Ir,Sn,Nb)O2 catalyst helps in further decreasing the noble metal oxide content of the catalyst. As a result, these reduced noble metal oxide catalyst systems would potentially be preferred as OER electro-catalysts for PEM electrolysis. The excellent performance of the catalysts coupled with its robustness would make them great candidates for contributing to significant reduction in the overall capital costs of PEM based water electrolyzers. This s.thesis provides a detailed fundamental study of the synthesis, materials, characterization, theoretical studies and detailed electrochemical response and potential mechanisms of these novel electro-catalysts for OER processes.

  7. PublishedbyManeyPublishing(c)IOMCommunicationsLtd Growth and structure of supported metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Peter J F

    hydrogenation in the fine chemicals industry to the control of vehicle emissions. Yet many basic questions aboutManeyPublishing(c)IOMCommunicationsLtd 98 Harris Supported metal catalyst particles metal catalysts, which play an essential role in oil refining, in the che

  8. Methods of selectively incorporating metals onto substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst; Richard D. (Salt Lake City, UT), Eyring; Edward M. (Salt Lake City, UT), Turpin; Gregory C. (Salt Lake City, UT), Dunn; Brian C. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for forming multi-metallic sites on a substrate is disclosed and described. A substrate including active groups such as hydroxyl can be reacted with a pretarget metal complex. The target metal attached to the active group can then be reacted with a secondary metal complex such that an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction occurs to form a multi-metallic species. The substrate can be a highly porous material such as aerogels, xerogels, zeolites, and similar materials. Additional metal complexes can be reacted to increase catalyst loading or control co-catalyst content. The resulting compounds can be oxidized to form oxides or reduced to form metals in the ground state which are suitable for practical use.

  9. Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells: Platinum/Rhodium Anode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells: Platinum/Rhodium Anode Catalysis Ken Ellis-Guardiola PCCM REU 2010 #12 EtOH+3H2O 12H+ +2CO2+ 12e- Pt C 4H+ + 4e- + O2 2H2O O2 Anode Cathode The Direct Ethanol Fuel Cell #12 Fuel Cell Test ~ 1.5 mg Pt loading. 1.0 M Ethanol flowing at 1 ml/min. O2 flowing at 100 ml/min. Cells

  10. Congressionally Directed Project for Passive NOx Removal Catalysts Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, William

    2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Recipient proposes to produce new scientific and technical knowledge and tools to enable the discovery and deployment of highly effective materials for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from lean combustion exhaust. A second goal is to demonstrate a closely coupled experimental and computational approach to heterogeneous catalysis research. These goals will be met through the completion of four primary technical objectives: First, an in-depth kinetic analysis will be performed on two prominent classes of NOx SCR catalysts, Fe- and Cu-exchanged beta and ZSM-5 zeolites, over a wide range of catalyst formulation and under identical, high conversion conditions as a function of gas phase composition. Second, the nanoscale structure and adsorption chemistry of these high temperature (HT) and low temperature (LT) catalysts will be determined using in situ and operando spectroscopy under the same reaction conditions. Third, first-principles molecular simulations will be used to model the metal-zeolite active sites, their adsorption chemistry, and key steps in catalytic function. Fourth, this information will be integrated into chemically detailed mechanistic and kinetic descriptions and models of the operation of these well- defined NOx SCR catalysts under practically relevant reaction conditions. The new knowledge and models that derive from this work will be published in the scientific literature.

  11. Webinar: Science Magazine Highlight: Moving Towards Near Zero Platinum Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording of the webinar, Science Magazine Highlight: Moving Towards Near Zero Platinum Fuel Cells, originally presented on April 25, 2011.

  12. Webinar: BNL's Low-Platinum Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording for the webinar, BNL's Low-Platinum Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs), originally held on June 19, 2012.

  13. Schneider Electric Goes Platinum-and Silver-in Superior Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Superior Energy Performance(tm) (SEP) program and ISO 50001. Two Platinum level facilities-Smyrna, Tennessee, and Seneca, South...

  14. Evaluation of PEMFC System Contaminants on the Performance of Pt Catalyst via Cyclic Voltammetry: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.; Macomber, C.; Dinh, H. N.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using electrochemical cyclic voltammetry as a quick ex-situ screening tool, the impact of the extracted solution and the individual leachable constituents from prospective BOP component materials on the performance and recoverability of the platinum catalyst were evaluated. Taking an extract from Zytel{trademark} HTN51G35HSLR (PPA) as an example, the major leachable organic components are caprolactam and 1,6 hexanediol. While these organic compounds by themselves do poison the Pt catalyst to some extent, such influence is mostly recoverable by means of potential holding and potential cycling. The extracted solution, however, shows a more drastic poisoning effect and it was not recoverable. Therefore the non-recoverable poisoning effect observed for the extracted solution is not from the two organic species studied. This demonstrates the complexity of such a contaminant study. Inorganic compounds that are known poisons like sulfur even in very low concentrations, may have a more dominant effect on the Pt catalyst and the recoverability.

  15. Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization...

  16. Development of Ni-based Sulfur Resistant Catalyst for Diesel Reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunther Dieckmann

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In order for diesel fuel to be used in a solid oxide fuel cell auxiliary power unit, the diesel fuel must be reformed into hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. One of the major problems facing catalytic reforming is that the level of sulfur found in low sulfur diesel can poison most catalysts. This report shows that a proprietary low cost Ni-based reforming catalyst can be used to reform a 7 and 50 ppm sulfur containing diesel fuel for over 500 hours of operation. Coking, which appears to be route of catalyst deactivation due to metal stripping, can be controlled by catalyst modifications, introduction of turbulence, and/or by application of an electromagnetic field with a frequency from {approx}50 kHz to 13.56 MHz with field strength greater than about 100 V/cm and more preferably greater about 500 V/cm.

  17. Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Zhang, He; Kovarik, Libor; Li, Xiaohong S.; Hensley, Alyssa; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Wang, Yong

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract Carbon supported metal catalysts (Cu/C, Fe/C, Pd/C, Pt/C, PdFe/C and Ru/C) have been prepared, characterized and tested for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of guaiacol (GUA) at atmospheric pressure. Phenol was the major intermediate on all catalysts. Over the noble metal catalysts saturation of the aromatic ring was the major pathway observed at low temperature (250 °C), forming predominantly cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. Substantial ring opening reaction was observed on Pt/C and Ru/C at higher reaction temperatures (e.g., 350 °C). Base metal catalysts, especially Fe/C, were found to exhibit high HDO activity without ring-saturation or ring-opening with the main products being benzene, phenol along with small amounts of cresol, toluene and trimethylbenzene (TMB). A substantial enhancement in HDO activity was observed on the PdFe/C catalysts. Compared with Fe/C, the yield to oxygen-free aromatic products (i.e., benzene/toluene/TMB) on PdFe/C increased by a factor of four at 350 °C, and by approximately a factor of two (83.2% versus 43.3%) at 450 °C. The enhanced activity of PdFe/C is attributed to the formation of PdFe alloy as evidenced by STEM, EDS and TPR.

  18. Porphyrins and metal complexes thereof having haloalkyl side chains

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijesekera, Tilak (Glen Mills, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Bhinde, Manoj V. (Boothwyn, PA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition metal complexes of meso-haloalkylporphyrins, wherein the haloalkyl groups contain 2 to 8 carbon atoms have been found to be highly effective catalysts for oxidation of alkanes and for the decomposition of hydroperoxides.

  19. Porphyrins and metal complexes thereof having haloalkyl side chains

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijesekera, T.; Lyons, J.E.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Bhinde, M.V.

    1997-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition metal complexes of meso-haloalkylporphyrins, wherein the haloalkyl groups contain 2 to 8 carbon atoms have been found to be highly effective catalysts for oxidation of alkanes and for the decomposition of hydroperoxides. 7 figs.

  20. Combustion Catalysts in Industry- An Update

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merrell, G. A.; Knight, R. S.

    Combustion catalysts improve boiler efficiency by extracting more heat energy from the fuel and by reducing heat losses when operating at minimum excess air. In addition, an effective combustion catalyst may reduce the level of smoke and solid...

  1. Nanostructured metal foams: synthesis and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luther, Erik P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tappan, Bryce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mueller, Alex [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mihaila, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Volz, Heather [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cardenas, Andreas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Papin, Pallas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veauthier, Jackie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Marius [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication of monolithic metallic nanoporous materials is difficult using conventional methodology. Here they report a relatively simple method of synthesizing monolithic, ultralow density, nanostructured metal foams utilizing self-propagating combustion synthesis of novel metal complexes containing high nitrogen energetic ligands. Nanostructured metal foams are formed in a post flame-front dynamic assembly with densities as low as 0.011 g/cc and surface areas as high as 270 m{sup 2}/g. They have produced metal foams via this method of titanium, iron, cobalt, nickel, zirconium, copper, palladium, silver, hafnium, platinum and gold. Microstructural features vary as a function of composition and process parameters. Applications for the metal foams are discussed including hydrogen absorption in palladium foams. A model for the sorption kinetics of hydrogen in the foams is presented.

  2. CO Oxidation on Aun/TiO2 Catalysts Produced by Size-Selected Cluster Sungsik Lee, Chaoyang Fan, Tianpin Wu, and Scott L. Anderson*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Scott L.

    catalysts was unchanged when the nano- particles were removed, leaving only ionic metal species previously.7,8 In brief, Aun + samples are prepared by laser vaporization of gold into a helium flow, which

  3. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  4. Biomass Catalyst Characterization Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet provides information about Biomass Catalyst Characterization Laboratory (BCCL) capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center.

  5. Changes in sulfides and platinum-group minerals with the degree of alteration in the Roby, Twilight, and High

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    with laser ablation analysis of the sulfides was used to determine which phase controlled each of the PGE content of the rocks. Keywords Platinum-group elements . Platinum-group minerals . Laser ablation

  6. Tetraalklylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, P.E.; Lyons, J.E.; Myers, H.K. Jr.; Shaikh, S.N.

    1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H{sub e{minus}z}[(n-C{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4}N]{sub z}(XM{sub 11}M{prime}O{sub 39}){sup {minus}e}. The M{prime} (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

  7. Tetraalykylammonium polyoxoanionic oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA); Myers, Jr., Harry K. (Cochranville, PA); Shaikh, Shahid N. (Media, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alkanes are catalytically oxidized in air or oxygen using iron-substituted polyoxoanions (POAs) of the formula: H.sub.e-z ›(n-C.sub.4 H.sub.9).sub.4 N!.sub.z (XM.sub.11 M'O.sub.39).sup.-e The M' (e.g., iron(III)/iron(II)) reduction potential of the POAs is affected by selection of the central atom X and the framework metal M, and by the number of tetrabutyl-ammonium groups. Decreased Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potential has been found to correlate to increased oxidation activity.

  8. Separation of regenerated catalyst from combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benslay, R. M.

    1984-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for separating regenerated catalyst from gaseous combustion products within a regenerator. The apparatus comprises a downcomer within the regenerator vessel through which the catalyst and gaseous combustion products flow. Means are provided at the lower end of the downcomer for utilizing the momentum of the catalyst particles to separate them from the gaseous combustion products.

  9. Methane oxidation over dual redox catalysts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Sojka, Z.; DiCosimo, J.I.; DeTavernier, S.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic oxidation of methane to partial oxidation products, primarily formaldehyde and C{sub 2} hydrocarbons, was found to be directed by the catalyst used. In this project, it was discovered that a moderate oxidative coupling catalyst for C{sub 2} hydrocarbons, zinc oxide, is modified by addition of small amounts of Cu and Fe dopants to yield fair yields of formaldehyde. A similar effect was observed with Cu/Sn/ZnO catalysts, and the presence of a redox Lewis acid, Fe{sup III} or Sn{sup IV}, was found to be essential for the selectivity switch from C{sub 2} coupling products to formaldehyde. The principle of double doping with an oxygen activator (Cu) and the redox Lewis acid (Fe, Sn) was pursued further by synthesizing and testing the CuFe-ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst. The Cu{sup II}(ion exchanged) Fe{sup III}(framework)-ZSM-5 also displayed activity for formaldehyde synthesis, with space time yields exceeding 100 g/h-kg catalyst. However, the selectivity was low and earlier claims in the literature of selective oxidation of methane to methanol over CuFe-ZSM-5 were not reproduced. A new active and selective catalytic system (M=Sb,Bi,Sn)/SrO/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been discovered for potentially commercially attractive process for the conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons, (ii) a new principle has been demonstrated for selectivity switching from C{sub 2} hydrocarbon products to formaldehyde in methane oxidations over Cu,Fe-doped zinc oxide and ZSM-5, and (iii) a new approach has been initiated for using ultrafine metal dispersions for low temperature activation of methane for selective conversions. Item (iii) continues being supported by AMOCO while further developments related to items (i) and (ii) are the objective of our continued effort under the METC-AMOCO proposed joint program.

  10. ZnO nanoparticle catalysts for use in biodiesel production and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yan, Shuli; Salley, Steven O; Ng, K. Y. Simon

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a biodiesel product and a heterogeneous catalyst system used to form said product that has a high tolerance for the presence of water and free fatty acids (FFA) in the oil feedstock is disclosed. This catalyst system may simultaneously catalyze both the esterification of FAA and the transesterification of triglycerides present in the oil feedstock. The catalyst system is comprised of a mixture of zinc oxide and a second metal oxide. The zinc oxide includes a mixture of amorphous zinc oxide and zinc oxide nanocrystals, the zinc nanocrystals having a mean grain size between about 20 and 80 nanometers with at least one of the nanocrystals including a mesopore having a diameter of about 5 to 15 nanometers. Preferably, the second metal oxide is a lanthanum oxide, the lanthanum oxide being selected as one from the group of La.sub.2CO.sub.5, LaOOH, and combinations or mixtures thereof.

  11. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, M.W.; Coronado, P.R.; Hair, L.M.

    1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels. 6 figs.

  12. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The containment vessel is enclosed within an aqueous atmosphere that is above the supercritical temperature and pressure of the solvent of the metal alkoxide solution.

  13. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, Michael W. (Livermore, CA); Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Hair, Lucy M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels.

  14. Steam gasification of carbon: Catalyst properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falconer, J.L.

    1993-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal gasification by steam is of critical importance in converting coal to gaseous products (CO, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4]) that can then be further converted to synthetic natural gas and higher hydrocarbon fuels. Alkali and alkaline earth metals (present as oxides) catalyze coal gasification reactions and cause them to occur at significantly lower temperatures. A more fundamental understanding of the mechanism of the steam gasification reaction and catalyst utilization may well lead to better production techniques, increased gasification rates, greater yields, and less waste. We are studying the gasification of carbon by steam in the presence of alkali and alkaline earth oxides, using carbonates as the starting materials. Carbon dioxide gasification (CO[sub 2] + C --> 2CO) has been studied in some detail recently, but much less has been done on the actual steam gasification reaction, which is the main thrust of our work. In particular, the form of the active catalyst compound during reaction is still questioned and the dependence of the concentration of active sites on reaction parameters is not known. Until recently, no measurements of active site concentrations during reaction had been made. We have recently used transient isotope tracing to determine active site concentration during CO[sub 2] gasification. We are investigating the mechanism and the concentration of active sites for steam gasification with transient isotopic tracing. For this technique, the reactant feed is switched from H[sub 2]0 to isotopically-labeled water at the same concentration and tow rate. We can then directly measure, at reaction the concentration of active catalytic sites, their kinetic rate constants, and the presence of more than one rate constant. This procedure allows us to obtain transient kinetic data without perturbing the steady-state surface reactions.

  15. Rumpling phenomenon in platinum modified Ni-Al alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmerman, Benjamin Joseph

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface undulations known as rumpling have been shown to develop at the surface of bond coats used in advanced thermal barrier coating systems. Rumpling can result in cracking and eventual spallation of the top coat. Many mechanisms to explain rumpling have been proposed, and among them is a martensitic transformation. High-temperature x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and potentiometry were used to investigate the nature of the martensitic transformation in bulk platinum-modified nickel aluminides. It was found that the martensitic transformation has strong time dependence and can form over a range of temperatures. Cyclic oxidation experiments were performed on the bulk alloys to investigate the effect of the martensitic transformation on surface rumpling. It was found that the occurrence of rumpling was associated with the martensitic transformation. The degree of rumpling was found to increase with an increasing number of cycles and was independent of the heating and cooling rates used. The thickness of the oxide layer at the surface of the samples had a significant impact on the amplitude of the resulting undulations, with amplitude increasing with increasing oxide-layer thickness. Rumpling was also observed in an alloy based on the {gamma}-{gamma}' region of the nickel-aluminum-platinum phase diagram. Rumpling in this alloy was found to occur during isothermal oxidation and is associated with a subsurface layer containing a platinum-rich phase known as a. Rumpling in both alloy systems may be explained by creep deformation of a weakened subsurface layer in response to the compressive stresses in the thermally grown oxide layer.

  16. Method of preparing and utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Smith, Mark; Haynes, Daniel

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a method of utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream with a mitigation of carbon accumulation. The system is comprised of a catalytically active phase deposited onto an oxygen conducting phase, with or without supplemental support. The catalytically active phase has a specified crystal structure where at least one catalytically active metal is a cation within the crystal structure and coordinated with oxygen atoms within the crystal structure. The catalyst system employs an optimum coverage ratio for a given set of oxidation conditions, based on a specified hydrocarbon conversion and a carbon deposition limit. Specific embodiments of the catalyst system are disclosed.

  17. In situ generation of indium catalysts to grow crystalline silicon nanowires at low temperature on ITO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of a precursor gas (e.g., SiH4) at the surface of metallic catalyst droplets, the diffusion of constituent atoms (e.g., Si) in the droplets, and their precipitation at an interface. Fast diffusion is required. It is entirely run under vacuum in one single capacitively coupled, radio-frequency (RF) PECVD reactor. The base

  18. Growth of carbon nanotubes using nanocrystalline carbon catalyst Yong Seob Park a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Byungyou

    application areas such as field emission devices [2], scanning probes, nanoscale electronic devices [3], hydrogen storage, chemical sensors, and composite reinforcing materials [4]. CNTs are known to have better decomposition of a carbon precursor on a nanostructured transition metal catalyst such as Co, Ni, or Fe

  19. Hydrogen production with nickel powder cathode catalysts in microbial electrolysis cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen production with nickel powder cathode catalysts in microbial electrolysis cells Priscilla Available online 24 November 2009 Keywords: MEC Electrohydrogenesis Hydrogen production Cathode Metal Nickel using a nickel powder (0.5­1 mm) and their performance was compared to conventional electrodes

  20. as Catalyst in Public Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bushman, Frederic

    Crisis as Catalyst in Public Health Alex's Lemonade Stand and the Fight Against Childhood Cancer, Medical Director, Pediatric Advanced Care Team, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia For more information, survivorship, and palliative care. We will also explore the impact that individuals can make on medical

  1. Bulk synthesis of nanoporous palladium and platinum powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, David B. (Fremont, CA); Fares, Stephen J. (Pleasanton, CA); Tran, Kim L. (Livermore, CA); Langham, Mary E. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for providing nanoporous palladium and platinum powders. These materials were synthesized on milligram to gram scales by chemical reduction of tetrahalo-complexes with ascorbate in a concentrated aqueous surfactant at temperatures between -20.degree. C. and 30.degree. C. The prepared particles have diameters of approximately 50 nm, wherein each particle is perforated by pores having diameters of approximately 3 nm, as determined by electron tomography. These materials are of potential value for hydrogen and electrical charge storage applications.

  2. Bulk synthesis of nanoporous palladium and platinum powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, David B; Fares, Stephen J; Tran, Kim L; Langham, Mary E

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method for providing nanoporous palladium and platinum powders. These materials were synthesized on milligram to gram scales by chemical reduction of tetrahalo-complexes with ascorbate in a concentrated aqueous surfactant at temperatures between -20.degree. C. and 30.degree. C. The prepared particles have diameters of approximately 50 nm, wherein each particle is perforated by pores having diameters of approximately 3 nm, as determined by electron tomography. These materials are of potential value for hydrogen and electrical charge storage applications.

  3. Non-Platinum Bimetallic Cathode Electrocatalysts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many DevilsForumEnginesVacant UnderDepartmentDepartmentPlatinum

  4. NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY Technology Transfer Novel Platinum/Chromium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gif Directorate - Events - Fermilab atNovel Platinum/Chromium

  5. The Interactions and Exchanges of Metal-bound Sulfur Containing Ligands with Various Transition Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, William

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................................... 11 3. M(CO) X ADDUCTS OF ZINC (II) AND CADMIUM (II) BIOMIMETIC COMPLEXES ..................................................................................................... 15 Conclusions for Section 3... ....... 26 Figure 4-1 The zinc-platinum adduct (a) and the metal exchange product (b) ... 29 Figure 4-2 Previously studied reactions of zinc and nickel biomimetic pathways 31 Figure 4-3 The ligand cannibalism of Zn-1?-Ac to form the diacetate...

  6. Effect of surface modification by chelating agents on Fischer-Tropsch performance of Co/SiO2 catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bambal, Ashish S. [WVU; Kyugler, Edwin L. [WVU; Gardner, Todd H. [U.S. DOE; Dadyburjor, Dady B. [WVU

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The silica support of a Co-based catalyst for Fischer?Tropsch (FT) synthesis was modified by the chelating agents (CAs) nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After the modification, characterization of the fresh and spent catalysts shows reduced crystallite sizes, a better-dispersed Co3O4 phase on the calcined samples, and increased metal dispersions for the reduced samples. The CA-modified catalysts display higher CO conversions, product yields, reaction rates, and rate constants. The improved FT performance of CA-modified catalysts is attributed to the formation of stable complexes with Co. The superior performance of the EDTA-modified catalyst in comparison to the NTA-modified catalyst is due to the higher affinity of the former for complex formation with Co ions. 1. INTRODUCTION Fischer?Tropsch (FT) synthesis has been recognized as one of the most promising technologies for the conversion of coal, natural gas, and biomass-derived syngas into liquid fuels and chemicals.1 Limited oil reserves, energy supply security concerns, carbon credits,1 pollution abatement laws, and, most notably, uncertainty about fuel prices have increased the prospect of commercializing the FT process. Catalysts that are typically used for FT synthesis include supported Co or Fe. Cobased catalysts have the advantage of higher syngas conversion, more high-

  7. Photobiomolecular deposition of metallic particles and films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2005-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

  8. THE STRUCTURE SENSITIVITY OF n-HEPTANE DEHYDROCYCLIZATION AND HYDROGENOLYSIS CATALYZED BY PLATINUM SINGLE CRYSTALS AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, W. D.; Herz, R. K.; Petersen, E. E.; Somorjai, G. A.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dehydrocyclization and hydrogenolysis of n~heptane catalyzed by platinum single crystal surfaces have been investigated at temperatures from 533 to 603 K in the range of one atmosphere total pressure, The flat (111), stepped (557), and kinked (10,8,7) and (25,10,7) surfaces used tn this study were characterized in ultrahigh vacuum by low energy electron diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopy before and after reaction experiments. The rate of dehydrocyclization to toluene on the four surfaces increased in the order (111) (25,10,7) (557) (10,8,7), Hydrogenolysis, however, increased in the order (557) (10,8,7) (111) (25,10,7), As a result, the selectivity of toluene production versus hydrogenolysis increased by an order of magnitude in the order (25,10,7) (111) (10,8,7) (557). The sum of the rates of hydrogenolysis and toluene production remains relatively constant. The effect of preoxidation of the single crystal catalysts was to increase the rate of hydrogenolysis and decrease the rate of dehydrocyclization, Iri general, the reaction rates decreased with increasing reaction time. This decrease was shown to be the result of the depositon of irreversibly adsorbed carbonaceous species.

  9. Size Characterization of Colloidal Platinum Nanoparticles by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navin, Jason K.; Grass, Michael E.; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Marsh, Anderson L.

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been utilized to characterize colloidal platinum nanoparticles synthesized in the 1-4 nm size range. The nanoparticles were prepared via a solution-based method in which the size could be controlled by varying reaction conditions, such as the alcohol used as the reductant. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone), or PVP, (MW = 29,000 g/mol) was employed as a capping agent to stabilize the synthesized nanoparticles in solution. A model for determining the size of the metallic nanoparticle core from MALDI-TOF mass spectra has been developed and verified through correlation with particle sizes from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. In this model it was assumed that 1.85 nm nanoparticles are capped by one PVP chain, which was verified through experiments performed with capped and uncapped nanoparticles. Larger nanoparticles are capped by either two (2.60 and 2.94 nm) or three (3.69 nm) PVP chains. These findings clearly indicate the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS as a technique for fully characterizing nanoscale materials in order to elucidate structure-property relationships.

  10. Computational Chemistry-Based Identification of Ultra-Low Temperature Water-Gas-Shift Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manos Mavrikakis

    2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The current work seeks to identify novel, catalytically-active, stable, poison-resistant LWGS catalysts that retain the superior activity typical of conventional Cu catalysts but can be operated at similar or lower temperatures. A database for the Binding Energies (BEs) of the LWGS relevant species, namely CO, O and OH on the most-stable, close-packed facets of a set of 17 catalytically relevant transition metals was established. This BE data and a database of previously established segregation energies was utilized to predict the stability of bimetallic NSAs that could be synthesized by combinations of the 17 parent transition metals. NSAs that were potentially stable both in vacuo and under the influence of strong-binding WGS intermediates were then selected for adsorption studies. A set of 40 NSAs were identified that satisfied all three screener criteria and the binding energies of CO, O and OH were calculated on a set of 66, 43 and 79 NSA candidates respectively. Several NSAs were found that bound intermediates weaker than the monometallic catalysts and were thus potentially poison-resistant. Finally, kinetic studies were performed and resulted in the discovery of a specific NSA-based bimetallic catalyst Cu/Pt that is potentially a promising LWGS catalyst. This stable Cu/Pt subsurface alloy is expected to provide facile H{sub 2}O activation and remain relatively resistant from the poisoning by CO, S and formate intermediates.

  11. Direct Conversion of Syngas-to-Hydrocarbons over Higher Alcohols Synthesis Catalysts Mixed with HZSM-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Dagle, Robert A.; Li, Jinjing; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2014-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis of hydrocarbon fuels directly from synthesis gas (i.e. one step process) was investigated with a catalytic system comprised of HZSM-5 physically mixed with either a methanol synthesis catalyst or a higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) catalyst. The metal sites of the methanol or HAS synthesis catalyst enable the conversion of syngas to alcohols, whereas HZSM-5 provides acid sites required for methanol dehydration, and dimethyl ether-to-hydrocarbons reactions. Catalytic performance for HZSM-5 when mixed with either a 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 methanol synthesis catalyst or a HAS catalyst was evaluated at 300°C, 70 bars, GHSV=700 h-1 and H2/CO=1 using a HZSM-5: alcohols synthesis catalyst weight ratio of 3:1. The major difference observed between the methanol synthesis and HAS catalyst mixtures was found in the production of durene which is an undesirable byproduct. While durene formation is negligible with any of the HAS catalysts mixed with the HZSM-5 evaluated in this study, it represents almost 50% of the C5+ fraction for the methanol synthesis catalyst (5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 ) mixed with HZSM-5. This presents an advantage for using HAS catalysts over the methanol synthesis catalyst to minimize the durene by-product. The yield toward the desired C5+ hydrocarbons is thus twice higher with selected HAS catalysts as compared to when HZSM-5 is mixed with 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3. Among all the HAS catalysts evaluated in this study, a catalyst with 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst was found the most promising due to higher production of C5+ hydrocarbons and low durene formation. The efficiency of the one-step process was thus further evaluated using the HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst mixture under a number of process conditions to maximize liquid hydrocarbons product yield. At 300oC, 70 bars, GHSV = 700 h-1 and HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu = 3:1 (wt.), the C5+ fraction represents 48.5% of the hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, it is more difficult to achieve higher selectivity to desired C5+ hydrocarbons as the formation of CO2, CH4, and other light hydrocarbons is challenging to suppress in the presence of mixed metal and acid sites. When the 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu and HZSM-5 are operated sequentially by way of a two-step process the C5+ hydrocarbons fraction is lower and represents 30.4% of the hydrocarbons under comparable conditions. The yield toward the C5+ hydrocarbons is twice higher for the one-step process due to an improved CO conversion and higher C5+ hydrocarbons fraction. The main advantage of the one-step process is that higher syngas conversion can be achieved as the equilibrium-driven conversion limitations for methanol and dimethyl ether are removed since they are intermediates to the final hydrocarbons product.

  12. Using a dual plasma process to produce cobalt--polypyrrole catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells -- part I: characterisation of the catalytic activity and surface structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Christian; Vyalikh, Denis; Brüser, Volker; Quade, Antje; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; 10.1149/2.078208jes

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new dual plasma coating process to produce platinum-free catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in a fuel cell is introduced. The catalysts thus produced were analysed with various methods. Electrochemical characterisation was carried out by cyclic voltammetry, rotating ring- and rotating ring-disk electrode. The surface porosity of the different catalysts thus obtained was characterised with the nitrogen gas adsorption technique and scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the growth mechanisms of the films. It is shown that catalytically active compounds can be produced with this dual plasma process. Furthermore, the catalytic activity can be varied significantly by changing the plasma process parameters. The amount of H$_2$O$_2$ produced was calculated and shows that a 2 electron mechanism is predominant. The plasma coating mechanism does not significantly change the surface BET area and pore size distribution of the carbon support used. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy pictures o...

  13. Demetallization of asphaltenes: Thermal and catalytic effects with small-pore catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adarme, R. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)); Sughrue, E.L.; Johnson, M.M.; Kidd, D.R.; Phillips, M.D.; Shaw, J.E. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States))

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residual oil hydrotreating has become an important front end process in commercial oil upgrading schemes because of tighter environmental regulations and a continuing trend toward processing heavier crudes. At Phillips Petroleum, residual oil hydrotreating pretreates feed for heavy oil cracking (HOC) by removing sulfur, a pollutant in the HOC stack gas, and metals such as nickel and vanadium, which adversely affect the cracking catalyst and gasoline yield in the HOC. Metals in residual oil are found almost exclusively in the resin and asphaltene fractions. Research has showed that metals in the resin fraction react more rapidly than metals in the asphaltene fraction. The hydrodemetallization (HDM) reaction is known to be diffusion limited and the larger molecular size of the asphaltene molecules may explain the slower reaction rates. Richardson and Alley and Asaoka, et al. have shown a reduction in asphaltene molecular weights with thermal and catalytic processing. Reynolds and Biggs demonstrated shifts in vanadium size distributions from thermally and catalytically treated residual. Recently Savage and Javanmaridian showed theoretically that reduction in molecular sizes external to catalyst pellets increases the reaction rate by as much as the inverse of the effectiveness factor. This work attempts to extend information on how metals are removed from asphaltenes and the interaction with small-pore catalysts generally found at the back end of residual oil hydrotreaters, where they are protected from deactivation by metal deposition. The small-pore catalysts are generally high in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity and generally restrict the large asphaltene molecules from entering their pores and depositing metals.

  14. PILLARED CLAYS AS SUPERIOR CATALYSTS FOR SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.Q. Long; N. Tharappiwattananon; W.B. Li; R.T. Yang

    2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of NO{sub x} (NO + NO{sub 2}) from exhaust gases is a challenging subject. V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based catalysts are commercial catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with NH{sub 3} for stationary sources. However, for diesel and lean-burn gasoline engines in vehicles, hydrocarbons would be the preferred reducing agents over NH{sub 3} because of the practical problems associated with the use of NH{sub 3} (i.e., handling and slippage through the reactor). The noble-metal three-way catalysts are not effective under these conditions. The first catalyst found to be active for selective catalytic reduction of NO by hydrocarbons in the presence of excess oxygen was copper exchanged ZSM-5 and other zeolites, reported in 1990 by Iwamoto in Japan and Held et al. in Germany. Although Cu-ZSM-5 is very active and the most intensively studied catalyst, it suffers from severe deactivation in engine tests, mainly due to H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. In this project, we found that ion-exchanged pillared clays and MCM-41 catalysts showed superior SCR activities of NO with hydrocarbon. All Cu{sup 2+}-exchanged pillared clays showed higher SCR activities than Cu-ZSM-5 reported in the literature. In particular, H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} only slightly deactivated the SCR activity of Cu-TiO{sub 2}-PILC, whereas severe deactivation was observed for Cu-ZSM-5. Moreover, Pt/MCM-41 provided the highest specific NO reduction rates as compared with other Pt doped catalysts, i.e., Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/ZSM-5. The Pt/MCM-41 catalyst also showed a good stability in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}.

  15. REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE BY CARBON MONOXIDE OVER A SILICA SUPPORTED PLATINUM CATALYST: INFRARED AND KINETIC STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorimer, D.H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These parts were electroless nickel plated to remove surfaceere cleaned and electroless nickel plated to help smooth any

  16. Platinum-Modulated Cobalt Nanocatalysts for Low-Temperature Aqueous-Phase Fischer Tropsch Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hang [Peking University; Zhou, Wu [ORNL; Liu, JinXun [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics; Si, Rui [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Sun, Geng [Peking University; Zhong, Mengqi [Peking University; Su, Haiyan [Peking University; Zhao, Huabo [Peking University; Rodrigues, Jose [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C [ORNL; Li, Weixue [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics; Kou, Yuan [Peking University; Ma, Ding [Peking University

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fischer Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is an important catalytic process for liquid fuel generation, which converts coal/shale gas/biomass-derived syngas (a mixture of CO and H2) to oil. While FTS is thermodynamically favored at low temperature, it is desirable to develop a new catalytic system that could allow working at a relatively low reaction temperature. In this article, we present a one-step hydrogenation reduction route for the synthesis of Pt Co nanoparticles (NPs) which were found to be excellent catalysts for aqueous-phase FTS at 433 K. Coupling with atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and theoretical calculations, the outstanding activity is rationalized by the formation of Co overlayer structures on Pt NPs or Pt Co alloy NPs. The improved energetics and kinetics from the change of the transition states imposed by the lattice mismatch between the two metals are concluded to be the key factors responsible for the dramatically improved FTS performance.

  17. Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    INL's patented, continuous-flow Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC) produces the highest ASTM-quality B-100 biodiesel from waste fats, oils, and greases at the site of waste generation. SSC delivers low-cost transportation fuel, avoids significant landfill costs for municipalities, and reduces potent methane and other emissions produced in landfills from these wastes. You can learn more about INL's energy research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  18. Cascading of fluid cracking catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovach, S.M.; Miller, C.B.

    1986-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for conversion of hydrocarbon feedstocks by cascading a cracking catalyst containing zeolite in an acidic matrix from one hydrocarbon processing unit to another, wherein there are at least three different interconnected hydrocarbon processing units comprising a first unit having a regeneration zone and a riser zone, a second unit having having a regeneration zone and a riser zone, and a third unit having a riser zone and a regeneration zone, each unit having different processing conditions.

  19. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Price, G.L.; Kanazirev, V.

    1996-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, is formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl{sub 2}, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.

  20. Copper-containing zeolite catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Price, Geoffrey L. (Baton Rouge, LA); Kanazirev, Vladislav (Sofia, BG)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst useful in the conversion of nitrogen oxides or in the synthesis of nitriles or imines from amines, formed by preparing an intimate mechanical mixture of a copper (II)-containing species, such as CuO or CuCl.sub.2, or elemental copper, with a zeolite having a pore mouth comprising 10 oxygen atoms, such as ZSM-5, converting the elemental copper or copper (II) to copper (I), and driving the copper (I) into the zeolite.