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1

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Mercury Emissions Control Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Mercury Emissions Control Innovations for Existing Plants Mercury Emissions Control NETL managed the largest funded research program in the country to develop an in-depth understanding of fossil combustion-based mercury emissions. The program goal was to develop effective control options that would allow generators to comply with regulations. Research focus areas included measurement and characterization of mercury emissions, as well as the development of cost-effective control technologies for the U.S. coal-fired electric generating industry. Control Technologies Field Testing Phase I & II Phase III Novel Concepts APCD Co-benefits Emissions Characterization

2

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: Emissions Characterization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control Control Emissions Characterization In anticipation of the 1990 CAAAs, specifically the draft Title III regarding the characterization of potential HAPs from electric steam generating units, DOE initiated a new Air Toxics Program in 1989. The DOE Mercury Measurement and Control Program evolved as a result of the findings from the comprehensive assessment of hazardous air pollutants studies conducted by DOE from 1990 through 1997. DOE, in collaboration with EPRI, performed stack tests at a number of coal-fired power plants (identified on map below) to accurately determine the emission rates of a series of potentially toxic chemicals. These tests had not been conducted previously because of their cost, about $1 million per test, so conventional wisdom on emissions was based on emission factors derived from analyses of coal. In general, actual emissions were found to be about one-tenth previous estimates, due to a high fraction of the pollutants being captured by existing particulate control systems. These data resulted in a decision by EPA that most of these pollutants were not a threat to the environment, and needed no further regulation at power plants. This shielded the coal-fired power industry from major (tens of millions) costs that would have resulted from further controlling these emissions. However, another finding of these studies was that mercury was not effectively controlled in coal-fired utility boiler systems. Moreover, EPA concluded that a plausible link exists between these emissions and adverse health effects. Ineffective control of mercury by existing control technologies resulted from a number of factors, including variation in coal composition and variability in the form of the mercury in flue gases. The volatility of mercury was the main contributor for less removal, as compared to the less volatile trace elements/metals which were being removed at efficiencies over 99% with the fly ash. In addition, it was determined that there was no reliable mercury speciation method to accurately distinguish between the elemental and oxidized forms of mercury in the flue gas. These two forms of mercury respond differently to removal techniques in existing air pollution control devices utilized by the coal-fired utility industry.

3

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Testing of Mercury Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing of Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents Testing of Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, Alabama Subcontractor- ARCADIS Geraghty & Miller The overall goal of this project is to test the effectiveness of calcium-based sorbents and oxidizing agents for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plant boilers. ARCADIS Geraghty & Miller, with EPA support, has developed calcium-based sorbents to remove SO2 and mercury simultaneously. The sorbents consist of hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and an added oxidant and a silica-modified calcium (CaSiO3) with an added oxidant. The mercury capacity in ug Hg/g sorbent for the two sorbents is 20 and 110-150, respectively, verses a mercury capacity for the current standard sorbent, activated carbon, of 70-100. The advantages of a lime based sorbent verses carbon is lower cost, simultaneous removal of sulfur, and allowance of ash to be utilized for a cement additive.

4

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Mercury Control For Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Control For Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD Mercury Control For Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD URS Group, Inc., in collaboration with EPRI, Apogee Scientific, AEP, Texas Genco, and TXU Power, ADA-ES, will evaluate sorbent injection for mercury control in an 85/15 blend Texas lignite/PRB derived flue gas, upstream of a cold-side ESP – wet FGD combination. Full-scale sorbent injection tests conducted with various sorbents and combinations of fuel and plant air pollution control devices (APCD) have provided a good understanding of variables that affect sorbent performance. However, many uncertainties exist regarding long-term performance and data gaps remain for specific plant configurations. For example, sorbent injection has not been demonstrated at full-scale for plants firing Texas lignite, which represent approximately 10% of the annual U.S. power plant mercury emissions. The low and variable chloride content of Texas lignite may pose a challenge to achieving high levels of mercury removal with sorbent injection. Furthermore, activated carbon injection may render the fly ash unsuitable for sale, posing an economic liability to Texas lignite utilities. Alternatives to standard activated carbon, such as non-carbon sorbents and alternate injection locations (Toxecon II), have not been fully explored. Toxecon II involves sorbent injection in the middle field(s) of an ESP, thus preserving the integrity of the fly ash in the first fields.

5

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Evaluation of Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control Technology Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities w/ SCR and FGD Systems Control Technology Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities w/ SCR and FGD Systems CONSOL is evaluating the mercury removal co-benefits achieved by SCR-FGD combi nations. Specific issues that will be addressed include the effects of SCR, catalyst degradation, and load changes on mercury oxidation and capture. This objective will be achieved by measuring mercury removal achieved by SCR-FGD combinations at ten plants with such equipment configurations. These plants include five with wet limestone, three wet lime, and two with dry scrubbing. Material balance will be conducted. Related Papers and Publications: Final Report - April 2006 [PDF-377KB] Topical Report # 11 - January 2006 [PDF-19MB] Topical Report # 9 - January 2006 [PDF-6MB]

6

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: Regulatory Drivers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regulatory Drivers Regulatory Drivers The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) brought about new awareness regarding the overall health-effects of stationary source fossil combustion emissions. Title III of the CAAA identified 189 pollutants, including mercury, as hazardous or toxic and required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate their emissions by source, health effects and environmental implications, including the need to control these emissions. These pollutants are collectively referred to as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The provisions in Title III specific to electric generating units (EGU) were comprehensively addressed by DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaborative air toxic characterization programs conducted between 1990 and 1997. This work provided most of the data supporting the conclusions found in EPA's congressionally mandated reports regarding air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility boilers; the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1997)1 and the "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units -- Final Report to Congress" (1998).2 The first report identified coal-fired power plants as the largest source of human-generated mercury emissions in the U.S. and the second concluded that mercury from coal-fired utilities was the HAP of "greatest potential concern" to the environment and human health that merited additional research and monitoring.

7

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Bench Scale Kinetics of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bench Scale Kinetics of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors Bench Scale Kinetics of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors When research into the measurement and control of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants began in earnest in the early 1990s, it was observed that oxidized mercury can be scrubbed at high efficiency in wet FGD systems, while elemental mercury can not. In many cases, elemental mercury concentrations were observed to increase slightly across wet FGD systems, but this was typically regarded as within the variability of the measurement methods. However, later measurements have shown substantial re-emissions from some FGD systems. The goal of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the aqueous chemistry of mercury (Hg) absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing liquors. Specifically, the project will determine the chemical reactions that oxidized mercury undergoes once absorbed, the byproducts of those reactions, and reaction kinetics.

8

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Advanced Mercury Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Mercury Sorbents with Low Impact on Power Plant Operations Advanced Mercury Sorbents with Low Impact on Power Plant Operations Apogee Scientific, Inc. (Apogee) will lead a Team comprised of Southern Company Services, TXU, Tennessee Valley Authority, EPRI, URS Group, University of Illinois-Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS), Southern Research Institute (SRI), Calgon Carbon, and TDA Research, Inc., to evaluate a number of advanced sorbents for removing vapor-phase mercury from coal-fired flue gas that have minimal impact on by-product utilization and/or on existing particulate collection devices (PCD). The main objective of this program is to evaluate several advanced sorbents for removing mercury from coal-fired flue gas while posing minimal impact on plant operations through three advanced sorbent concepts: 1) Sorbents which minimize impact on concrete production through selective chemical passivation of activated carbon and use of non-carbon material, 2) sorbents that minimize baghouse pressure drop and ESP emissions, and 3) sorbents that can be recovered and reused.

9

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Preliminary Field Evaluation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preliminary Field Evaluation of Mercury Control Using Combustion Modifications Preliminary Field Evaluation of Mercury Control Using Combustion Modifications General Electric – Energy and Environmental Research Corporation is developing a new technology that reduces the cost of mercury removal from flue gas by combining it with carbon reduction in a burnout system and simultaneously controlling nitrogen oxides emissions. Data on mercury removal at Western Kentucky Electric’s Green Station will be obtained and used to assess options to improve the efficiency of mercury removal. These options will be further investigated in pilot-scale testing on a 300 kW combustor. Related Papers and Publications: Preliminary Field Evaluation of Hg Control Using Combustion Modifications [PDF-732KB] - Presented at the 2004 Electric Utilities Environmental Conference, Tucson, AZ - January 19-22, 2004.

10

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Amended Silicates for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Amended Silicates for Mercury Control Amended Silicates for Mercury Control The project is designed to implement a comprehensive demonstration of the use of Amended Silicates for mercury control on a commercial-scale generating unit. Miami Fort Unit 6 burns eastern bituminous coal, has a nominal output of 175 MW, and a flue gas volumetric flow of 535,000 actual cubic feet per minute (acfm) at full load. The demonstration includes a baseline phase with no injection of mercury control sorbents, injection of carbon to develop a mercury-control technology baseline for sorbent performance comparison, and the injection of Amended Silicates at several rates. All sorbent will be injected upstream of the existing electro-static precipitators (ESPs) on the host unit, providing a nominal 1-second contact time before the gas flow enters an ESP. Mercury measurements will be made upstream of the sorbent injection and downstream of the first ESP to characterize the performance of the sorbent technologies. In addition, samples of coal and fly ash will be collected and analyzed to provide data for a mercury mass balance for the unit. The mercury measurements will be made with continuous emissions monitors as well as with Ontario-Hydro wet-chemistry sampling. Samples of fly ash plus sorbent from demonstration cases which include Amended Silicate sorbent injection will be collected from ESP hoppers for use in concrete testing to confirm the suitability of the material as a portland cement replacement.

11

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Oxidation of Mercury Across  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxidation of Mercury Across SCR Catalysts in Coal-Fired Power Plants Burning Low Rank Fuels Oxidation of Mercury Across SCR Catalysts in Coal-Fired Power Plants Burning Low Rank Fuels The objective of the proposed research is to assess the potential for the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalysts in a coal fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. Results from the project will contribute to a greater understanding of mercury behavior across SCR catalysts. Additional tasks include: review existing pilot and field data on mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts and propose a mechanism for mercury oxidation and create a simple computer model for mercury oxidation based on the hypothetical mechanism. Related Papers and Publications: Final Report - December 31, 2004 [PDF-532KB]

12

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Field Demonstration of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Field Demonstration of Enhanced Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control Field Demonstration of Enhanced Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control ALSTOM will test their proprietary activated carbon-based sorbent which promotes oxidation and capture of mercury via preparation with chemical additives. ALSTOM proposes to test the sorbents at three utilities burning different coals, PacificCorp’s Dave Johnston (PRB), Basin Electric’s Leland Olds (North Dakota Lignite) and Reliant Energy’s Portland Unit (bituminous). Other project partners include Energy and Environmental Research Center, North Dakota Industrial Commission and Minnkota Power who will be a non-host utility participant. Upon completion of this two year project, ALSTOM will demonstrate the capability of controlling mercury emissions from units equipped with electrostatic precipitators, a configuration representing approximately 75% of the existing units.

13

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Long-Term Carbon Injection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for > 90% Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for > 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit with a Spray Drier and Fabric Filter The intent of DOE's Phase I and II field tests was to work with industry to evaluate the most promising mercury control technologies at full-scale in a variety of configurations. Although longer-term tests were conducted, the test period was not sufficient to answer many fundamental questions about long-term consistency of mercury removal and reliability of the system when integrated with plant processes. As the technologies move towards commercial implementation, it is critical to accurately define the mercury removal performance and costs so that power companies and policy makers can make informed decisions. Therefore, the overall objective of this Phase III project is to determine the mercury removal performance, long-term emissions variability, and associated O&M costs of activated carbon injection for >90% mercury control over a 10 to 12 month period on a unit that represents the combination of coal and emission control equipment that will be used for many new and existing power plants.

14

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Pilot Testing of Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts Project Summary Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts Project Summary URS Group, Inc., Austin, TX, will demonstrate at the pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion, and the use of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system downstream to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project's pilot tests, conducted at electric generating plants using wet flue gas desulfurization systems and particulate collection systems, will be conducted for periods up to 14 months to provide data for future, full-scale designs. Mercury-oxidation potential will be measured periodically to provide long-term catalyst life data. The project is applicable to about 90,000 megawatts of generation capacity. Project partners are the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, which will co-manage and co-fund the pilot tests, and five utilities.

15

Controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly stringent US federal and state limits on mercury emissions form coal-fired power plants demand optimal mercury control technologies. This article summarises the successful removal of mercury emissions achieved with activated carbon injection and boiler bromide addition, technologies nearing commercial readiness, as well as several novel control concepts currently under development. It also discusses some of the issues standing in the way of confident performance and cost predictions. In testing conducted on western coal-fired units with fabric filters or TOXECON to date, ACI has generally achieved mercury removal rates > 90%. At units with ESPs, similar performance requires brominated ACI. Alternatively, units firing western coals can use boiler bromide addition to increase flue gas mercury oxidation and downstream capture in a wet scrubber, or to enhance mercury removal by ACI. At eastern bituminous fired units with ESPs, ACI is not as effective, largely due to SO{sub 3} resulting from the high sulfur content of the coal or the use of SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning to improve ESP performance. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Chang, R. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

16

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Evaluation of Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70 - 90% Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70 - 90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR The overall objective of this project is to assess the potential for significant mercury control, between 50 and 90% above baseline, by sorbent injection for the challenging technical process configuration at Public Service of New Hampshire Company Merrimack Station Unit No. 2. The primary emphasis of this project is to evaluate the performance of mercury sorbent injection, but the effect of co-benefits from SO3 mitigation on mercury control will also be explored. Also in this program the performance capabilities of mercury measurement techniques in challenging flue-gas environment will be assessed and the impact of activated carbon injection on fly ash disposal options will be investigated.

17

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Advanced Utility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field Testing Program Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field Testing Program Sorbent Technologies Corporation, will test an advanced halgenated activated carbon to determine the mercury removal performance and relative costs of sorbent injection for advanced sorbent materials in large-scale field trials of a variety of combinations of coal-type and utility plant-configuration. These include one site (Detroit Edison's St. Clair Station) with a cold-side ESP using subbituminous coal, or blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal, and one site (Duke Energy's Buck Plant) with a hot-side ESP which burns a bituminous coal. Related Papers and Publications: Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report for the period April 1 - October 31, 2004 [PDF-2275KB] Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report for the period of October 2003 - March 2004 [PDF-1108KB]

18

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: Methods Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Methods Development Methods Development EPRI and NETL collaboratively funded a $3-million program under the DOE/ University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC) Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP) to evaluate, develop, and validate a mercury speciation method for coal-fired produced flue gas. There was a 60/40 percent split of the funding, as required under the JSRP for this two-year effort. The work conducted by the EERC identified the Ontario Hydro Method as the best mercury speciation method. The EERC has validated the Ontario Hydro Method at both pilot- and full-scale levels. Radian International aided in the full-scale validation, with a written protocol of the method being finalized through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).

19

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Development of Comprehensive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Testing of Mercury Control Via Sorbent Injection Full-Scale Testing of Mercury Control Via Sorbent Injection DOE has identified technologies (based on past DOE and other R&D organizations' mercury measurement and control achievements) that are expected to be important in developing possible strategies on mercury control for the coal-fired electric utility industry. To address critical questions related to cost and efficiency of these mercury control technologies, DOE has funded the first of a kind large-scale initiative aimed at testing and evaluating large-scale mercury control technologies for coal-based power systems. These tests will collect cost and performance data with parametric and long term field experiments at power plants with existing air pollution control devices (APCDs) utilized to control other pollutants as well as mercury in hopes of providing the cheapest control options for the utility industry in mid-term application (5 to 10 years).

20

Mercury Emissions Control Technologies (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 reference case assumes that states will comply with the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency's new Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) regulation. CAMR is a two-phase program, with a Phase I cap of 38 tons of mercury emitted from all U.S. power plants in 2010 and a Phase II cap of 15 tons in 2018. Mercury emissions in the electricity generation sector in 2003 are estimated at around 50 tons. Generators have a variety of options to meet the mercury limits, such as: switching to coal with a lower mercury content, relying on flue gas desulfurization or selective catalytic reduction equipment to reduce mercury emissions, or installing conventional activated carbon injection (ACI) technology.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mercury emissions control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Full- Scale Testing of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control in Wet FGD Full-Scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control in Wet FGD The goal of this project is to commercialize methods for the control of mercury in coal-fired electric utility systems equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD). The two specific objectives of this project are 1) ninety percent (90%) total mercury removal and 2) costs below 1/4 to 1/2 of today's commercially available activated carbon mercury removal technologies. Babcock and Wilcox and McDermott Technology, Inc's (B&W/MTI's) will demonstrate their wet scrubbing mercury removal technology (which uses very small amounts of a liquid reagent to achieve increased mercury removal) at two locations burning high-sulfur Ohio bituminous coal: 1) Michigan South Central Power Agency's (MSCPA) 55 MWe Endicott Station located in Litchfield, Michigan and 2) Cinergy's 1300 MWe Zimmer Station located near Cincinnati, Ohio.

22

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - University of North Dakota,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Table Of Contents for Field Testing Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems Mercury Oxidation Upstream of an ESP and Wet FGD Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems The scope of the project consists of attempting to control mercury at four different power plants using two novel concepts. The first concept is using furnace additives that will enhance the sorbent effectiveness for mercury capture. The other concept involves using novel treated carbons to significantly increase sorbent reactivity and resultant capture of Hg. The furnace additives will be tested at Leland Olds Station and Antelope Valley Station while the novel sorbents will be tested at Stanton Station Units 1 &10. Related Papers and Publications:

23

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Multi-Pollutant Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-Flow Wet Precipitation Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-Flow Wet Precipitation The primary objective of this work is to compare the performance of metallic collecting surfaces to the performance of membrane collecting surfaces in a wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP), in terms of their efficiency in removing fine particulates, acid aerosols, and mercury from an actual power plant flue gas stream. The relative durability and overall cost-effectiveness of the membrane collectors versus metallic collectors will also be evaluated. Due to the higher specific powers, superior corrosion resistance, and better wetting and cleaning qualities, the membrane-collecting surface is expected to perform better than the metallic surface. The second objective of the project will be to compare the overall fine particulate, acid aerosol, and mercury removal efficiency of the baseline flue gas treatment system on BMP Units 1 and 2 to the efficiencies obtained when the two wet ESP systems (metallic and membrane collectors) are added to the existing treatment system.

24

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Evaluation of Sorbent  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control ADA Environmental Solutions will evaluate injection of activated carbon and other sorbents to remove mercury for a variety of coal and air pollution control equipment configurations. The scope of work is for 36 months and intended to gather operating data that will document actual performance levels and accurate cost information to assess the costs of controlling mercury from coal fired utilities. Testing will be conducted at four different host sites that represent a significant percentage of unit configurations. The subsequent cost analyses will include capital costs, by-product utilization issues, sorbent usage, any necessary enhancements, such as SO3 control or flue gas conditioning, balance of plant, manpower requirements and waste issues. The host sites are Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station, Ontario Power Generation's Nanticoke Station, AmerenUE's Meramec Station and American Electric Power's (AEP) Conesville Station.

25

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - On-Site Production of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On-Site Production of Mercury Sorbent with Low Concrete Impact On-Site Production of Mercury Sorbent with Low Concrete Impact The detrimental health effects of mercury are well documented. Furthermore, it has been reported that U.S. coal-fired plants emit approximately 48 tons of mercury a year. To remedy this, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) on March 15, 2005. A promising method to achieve the mandated mercury reductions is activated carbon injection (ACI). While promising, the current cost of ACI for mercury capture is expensive, and ACI adversely impacts the use of the by-product fly-ash for concrete. Published prices for activated carbon are generally 0.5-1 $/lb and capital costs estimates are 2-55 $/KW. Because of the high costs of ACI, Praxair started feasibility studies on an alternative process to reduce the cost of mercury capture. The proposed process is composed of three steps. First, a hot oxidant mixture is created by using a proprietary Praxair burner. Next, the hot oxidant is allowed to react with pulverized coal and additives. The resulting sorbent product is separated from the resulting syngas. In a commercial installation, the resulting sorbent product would be injected between the air-preheater and the particulate control device.

26

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Low-Cost Options for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control ADA- Environmental Solutions will test two new technologies for mercury control. The TOXECON II(tm) technology injects activated carbon directly into the downstream collecting fields of an electrostatic precipitator. The benefit of this technology is that the majority of the fly ash is collected in the upstream collecting fields which results in only a small portion of carbon-contaminated ash. Additionally, the TOXECON II(tm) technology requires minimal capital investment as only minor retrofits to the electrostatic precipitator are needed. The second technology is injection of novel sorbents for mercury removal on units with hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Mercury removal from hot-side electrostatic precipitators is difficult as their high operating temperature range keeps the mercury in the vapor phase and prevents the mercury from adsorbing onto sorbents. The TOXECON II(tm) technology will be tested at Entergy's Independence Station which burns PRB coal. The novel sorbents for hot-side ESPs technology will be tested at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center and MidAmerican's Louisa Station, both of which burn PRB coal. Additional project partners include EPRI, MidAmerican, Entergy, Alliant, ATCO Power, DTE Energy, Oglethorpe Power, Norit Americas Inc., Xcel Energy, Southern Company, Arch Coal, and EPCOR.

27

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Demonstration of Mer-Cure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demonstration of Mer-Cure Technology for Enhanced Mercury Control Demonstration of Mer-Cure Technology for Enhanced Mercury Control ALSTOM Power, Inc. – U.S. Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM-PPL) proposes herein a consortium-based program to demonstrate ALSTOM-PPL's Mer-Cure™ technology – a novel, sorbent-based (Mer-Clean™ ) mercury control technology in coal-fired boilers. The program objective is (i) to demonstrate at a full scale greater than 90% mercury capture based on baseline mercury level (ii) at a cost significantly less than 50% of the $60,000/lb of mercury removed. The proposed full-scale demonstration program is to perform two- to six-month test campaigns in three independent host sites with various boiler configurations over a two-year period. The demonstration program will include a two- to four-week short-term field test followed by two- to six-month long-term demonstration for each of the three selected sites.

28

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Sorbent Injection for Small  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas URS Group and their test team will evaluate sorbent injection for mercury control on sites with low-SCA ESPs, burning low sulfur Eastern bituminous coals. Full-scale tests will be performed at Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate sorbent injection performance across a cold-side ESP/wet FGD and a cold-side ESP with a dual NH3/SO3 flue gas conditioning system, respectively. Short-term parametric tests on Units 1 and 2 will provide data on the effect of sorbent injection rate on mercury removal and ash/FGD byproduct composition. Tests on Unit 2 will also evaluate the effect of dual-flue gas conditioning on sorbent injection performance. Results from a one-month injection test on Unit 1 will provide insight to the long-term performance and variability of this process as well as any effects on plant operations. The goals of the long-term testing are to obtain sufficient operational data on removal efficiency over time, effects on the ESP and balance of plant equipment, and on injection equipment operation to prove process viability.

29

CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT  

SciTech Connect

Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (both radioactive and hazardous according tohe Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Depending on regulatory requirements, the mercury in the off-gas must be controlled with sometimes very high efficiencies. Compliance to the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards can require off-gas mercury removal efficiencies up to 99.999% for thermally treating some mixed waste streams. Several test programs have demonstrated this level of off-gas mercury control using fixed beds of granular sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. Other results of these tests include: (a) The depth of the mercury control mass transfer zone was less than 15-30 cm for the operating conditions of these tests, (b) MERSORB carbon can sorb Hg up to 19 wt% of the carbon mass, and (c) the spent carbon retained almost all (98 99.99%) of the Hg; but when even a small fraction of the total Hg dissolves, the spent carbon can fail the TCLP test when the spent carbon contains high Hg concentrations. Localized areas in a carbon bed that become heated through heat of adsorption, to temperatures where oxidation occurs, are referred to as bed hot spots. Carbon bed hot spots must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Key to carbon bed hot spot mitigation are (a) designing for sufficient gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) monitoring and control of inlet gas flowrate, temperature, and composition, (c) monitoring and control of in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (d) most important, monitoring of bed outlet CO concentrations. An increase of CO levels in the off-gas downstream of the carbon bed to levels about 50-100 ppm higher than the inlet CO concentration indicate CO formation in the bed, caused by carbon bed hot spots. Corrective actions must be implemented quickly if bed hot spots are detected, using a graded approach and sequence starting with corrective actions that are simple, quick, cause the least impact to the process, and are easiest to recover from. Multiple high and high-high alarm levels should be used, with appropriate corrective actions for each level.

Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: In-House R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In-House R&D In-House R&D The scrutiny of mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired utilities that began with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) resulted in a determination by the U.S. EPA that such emissions should be regulated. A number of techniques for control of mercury emissions from power plants have been evaluated at various scales. One technique that received a great deal of attention by the EPA, utilities, and technology developers was dry sorbent injection upstream of an existing particulate control device. The in-house, air toxics research effort at NETL consisted of two distinct efforts: the first was aimed at characterizing an existing pilot unit for distribution and fate of hazardous air pollutants, including mercury ; the second was examining sorbents and photochemical oxidation as means for mercury removal from flue gas at laboratory-scale.

31

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Enhanced High Temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enhanced High Temperature Mercury Oxidation and Enhanced High Temperature Mercury Oxidation and In-Situ Active Carbon Generation for Low Cost Mercury Capture Mercury oxidation phenomenon and the studies of this phenomenon have generally focused on lower temperatures, typically below 650°F. This has been based on the mercury vapor equilibrium speciation curve. The baseline extents of mercury oxidation as reported in the ICR dataset and observed during subsequent tests has shown a tremendous amount of scatter. The objective of this project is to examine, establish and demonstrate the effect of higher temperature kinetics on mercury oxidation rates. Further, it is the objective of this project to demonstrate how the inherent mercury oxidation kinetics can be influenced to dramatically increase the mercury oxidation.

32

Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values across the APCDs are 2.1% and 39.4% with standard deviations (STDs) of 1990 and 75%, respectively for the ICR and SEC tests. This clearly demonstrates that variability is an issue irrespective of using 'similar' fuels at the plants and the same source sampling team measuring the species. The study also concluded that elemental mercury is the main Hg specie that needs to be controlled. 2004 technologies such as activated carbon injection (ACI) may capture up to 60% with double digit lb/MMacf addition of sorbent. PRB coal-fired units have an Hg input of 7-15 lb/TBtu; hence, these units must operate at over 60% mercury efficiency in order to bring the emission level below 5.8 lb/TBtu. This was non-achievable with the best technology available as of 2004. Other key findings include: (1) Conventional particulate collectors, such as Cold-side Electro-Static Precipitators (CESPs), Hot-side Electro-Static Precipitator (HESP), and Fabric Filter (FF) remove nearly all of the particulate bound mercury; (2) CESPs perform better highlighting the flue gas temperature effect on the mercury removal. Impact of speciation with flue gas cooling is apparent; (3) SDA's do not help in enhancing adsorption of mercury vapor species; and (4) Due to consistently low chlorine values in fuels, it was not possible to analyze the impact of chlorine. In summary, it is difficult to predict the speciation at two plants that burn the same fuel. Non-fuel issues, such as flue gas cooling, impact the speciation and consequently mercury capture potential.

Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

DOE Mercury Control Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Control Research Mercury Control Research Air Quality III: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter September 9-12, 2002 Rita A. Bajura, Director National Energy Technology Laboratory www.netl.doe.gov 169330 RAB 09/09/02 2 Potential Mercury Regulations MACT Standards * Likely high levels of Hg reduction * Compliance: 2007 Clean Power Act of 2001 * 4-contaminant control * 90% Hg reduction by 2007 Clear Skies Act of 2002 * 3-contaminant control * 46% Hg reduction by 2010 * 70% Hg reduction by 2018 * Hg emission trading President Bush Announcing Clear Skies Initiative February 14, 2002 169330 RAB 09/09/02 3 Uncertainties Mercury Control Technologies * Balance-of-plant impacts * By-product use and disposal * Capture effectiveness with low-rank coals * Confidence of performance 169330 RAB 09/09/02 4

34

DOE/NETL's Mercury Emissions Control Technology R&D Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Emissions Control Mercury Emissions Control Technology R&D Program LRC and Lignite Industry Meeting August 27-28, 2002 Bismarck, ND Thomas J. Feeley, III, Product Manager Innovations for Existing Plants LigniteResearch_TJF,082702 Presentation Outline * About NETL * IEP Program * Hg Background * Hg and lignite coals * Hg Control R&D LigniteResearch_TJF,082702 About NETL LigniteResearch_TJF,082702 * One of DOE's 17 national labs * Government owned / operated * Sites in: - Pennsylvania - West Virginia - Oklahoma - Alaska * More than 1,100 federal and support contractor employees National Energy Technology Laboratory LigniteResearch_TJF,082702 Electric Power Using Coal Clean Liquid Fuels Natural Gas Coal Production Environmental Control V21 Next Generation Carbon Sequestration Exploration & Production Refining &

35

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Assessment Of Low Cost Novel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Assessment Of Low Cost Novel Mercury Sorbents Assessment Of Low Cost Novel Mercury Sorbents Project Summary: Apogee Scientific Inc. will assess up to a dozen carbon-based and other sorbents that are expected to remove more than 90 percent of mercury and cost 40 to 75 percent less than commercial sorbents because they feature inexpensive precursors and simple activation steps. Six to 12 sorbents will undergo fixed-bed adsorption tests with the most promising three to six being further evaluated by injecting them into a pilot-scale electrostatic precipitator and baghouse. Commercial flue gas desulfurization activated carbon will provide the baseline for comparisons. A portable pilot system will be constructed and would accommodate a slipstream ESP or baghouse at minimal cost. Tests will be conducted at Wisconsin Electric's Valley power plant in Milwaukee, WI, and Midwest Generation's Powerton Station in Pekin, IL. The project team consists of URS Radian, Austin, TX; the Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA; the Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL; ADA Environmental Solutions, Littleton, CO; and Physical Sciences Inc., Andover, MA.

36

Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors  

SciTech Connect

This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Full-Scale Field Trial of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Field Trial of the Low Temperature Mercury Capture Process Full-Scale Field Trial of the Low Temperature Mercury Capture Process CONSOL R&D, PPL, Lechler, and Martin Marietta propose to conduct a field trial of the Low-Temperature Mercury Control (LTMC) process at Unit 1 of the PPL Martins Creek Station. LTMC has the ability to reduce mercury emissions by over 90% as was recently demonstrated by CONSOL R&D on a slip-stream pilot plant at the Allegheny Energy Mitchell Station under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41181. The next step is to demonstrate the performance, operability, and economics on a full-scale utility boiler. In addition this project will demonstrate that magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2 ) slurry injection into the flue gas reduces SO3 concentration sufficiently to avoid corrosion at the low-temperature conditions, and will demonstrate that water spray humidification can maintain ESP performance under low-SO3 conditions.

38

MODELING POWDERED SORBENT INJECTION IN COMBINATION WITHE FABRIC FILTER FOR THE CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

POWDERED SORBENT INJECTION IN POWDERED SORBENT INJECTION IN COMBINATION WITH FABRIC FILTER FOR THE CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS Joseph R. V. Flora Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 Richard A. Hargis, William J. O'Dowd, Henry W. Pennline National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy P.O. Box, 10940, Pittsburgh, PA 15236 Radisav D. Vidic * Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 ABSTRACT A two-stage mathematical model for mercury removal using powdered activated carbon injection upstream of a baghouse filter was developed, with the first stage accounting for removal in the ductwork and the second stage accounting for additional removal due to the

39

Mercury control in 2009  

SciTech Connect

Although activated carbon injection (ACI) has been proven to be effective for many configurations and is a preferred option at many plants sufficient quantities of powdered activated coking (PAC) must be available to meet future needs. The authors estimate that upcoming federal and state regulations will result in tripling the annual US demand for activated carbon to nearly 1.5 billion lb from approximately 450 million lb. Rapid expansion of US production capacity is required. Many PAC manufacturers are discussing expansion of their existing production capabilities. One company, ADA Carbon Solutions, is in the process of constructing the largest activated carbon facility in North America to meet the future demand for PAC as a sorbent for mercury control. Emission control technology development and commercialization is driven by regulation and legislation. Although ACI will not achieve > 90% mercury control at every plant, the expected required MACT legislation level, it offers promise as a low-cost primary mercury control technology option for many configurations and an important trim technology for others. ACI has emerged as the clear mercury-specific control option of choice, representing over 98% of the commercial mercury control system orders to date. As state regulations are implemented and the potential for a federal rule becomes more imminent, suppliers are continuing to develop technologies to improve the cost effectiveness and limit the balance of plant impacts associated with ACI and are developing additional PAC production capabilities to ensure that the industry's needs are met. The commercialisation of ACI is a clear example of industry, through the dedication of many individuals and companies with support from the DOE and EPRI, meeting the challenge of developing cost-effectively reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Sjostrom, S.; Durham, M.; Bustard, J.; Martin, C. [ADA Environmental Solutions, Littleton, CO (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

NETL: Mercury Emissions Control Technologies - Evaluation of MerCAP for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Evaluation of MerCAP(tm) for Power Plant Mercury Control Evaluation of MerCAP(tm) for Power Plant Mercury Control URS Group and its test team will perform research to further develop the novel Mercury Control via Adsorption Process (MerCAP™). The general MerCAP™ concept is to place fixed structures into a flue gas stream to adsorb mercury and then periodically regenerate them and recover the captured mercury. EPRI has shown that gold-based sorbents can achieve high levels of mercury removal in scrubbed flue gases. URS is proposing tests at two power plants using gold MerCAP™, installed downstream of either a baghouse or wet scrubber, to evaluate mercury removal from flue gas over a period of 6 months. At Great River Energy’s Stanton Station, which burns North Dakota lignite, sorbent structures will be retrofitted into a single compartment in the Unit 10 baghouse enabling reaction with a 6 MWe equivalence of flue gas. At Southern Company Services’ Plant Yates, which burns Eastern bituminous coal, gold-coated plates will be configured as a mist eliminator (ME) located downstream of a 1 MWe pilot wet absorber , which receives flue gas from Unit 1.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mercury emissions control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

NETL: Mercury Emissions Inactive Mercury Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Completed Mercury Projects Completed Mercury Projects View specific project information by clicking the state of interest on the map. Clickable U.S. Map ALABAMA Characterizing Toxic Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants Southern Research Institute The objective of this contract is to perform sampling and analysis of air toxic emissions at commercial coal-fired power plants in order to collect data that the EPA will use in their Congressionally mandated report on Hazardous Air Pollutants from Electric Utilities. CALIFORNIA Assessment of Toxic Emissions from a Coal-Fired Power Plant Utilizing an ESP Energy & Environmental Research Corporation – CA The overall objective of this project is to conduct comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions of two coal-fired electric utility power plants. The power plant that was assessed for toxic emissions during Phase I was American Electric Power Service Corporation's Cardinal Station Unit 1.

42

NETL: IEP - Mercury Emissions Control: In-House R&D Photo Gallery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In-House R&D - Photo Gallery In-House R&D - Photo Gallery In-House R&D - Photo Gallery 500 LB/HR Pilot Combustor and Pulse Jet Fabric Filter Most of the research on mercury measurement and control has been conducted on a pilot combustion unit with a design rate of 500 pounds of coal per hour and a pulse-jet fabric filter for particulate control. P S Analytical Sir Gallahad CEM Installed on Pilot Combustion Unit Filter Oven and Sample Line Analyzer with Computer, Switching Box and Calibration Module Conditioning Box Recently, an on-line analyzer for mercury measurement was purchased and installed to obtain near-real-time readings of mercury concentration and speciation in flue gas. Typical Output of CEM The on-line analyzer shows trends in total mercury concentration as a function of time.

43

Mercury Effects, Sources and Control Measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mercury Effects, Sources and Control Measures Prepared by Alan B. Jones, Brooks Rand, Ltd., Seattle ................................................................................................................................1 MERCURY SOURCES....................................................................................................................................................................................8 Mercury dumping from naval vessels

44

Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

45

Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury  

SciTech Connect

Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction Technology Milestone Project Demonstrates Innovative Mercury Emissions Reduction Technology January 12, 2010 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - An innovative technology that could potentially help some coal-based power generation facilities comply with anticipated new mercury emissions standards was successfully demonstrated in a recently concluded milestone project at a Michigan power plant. Under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), WE Energies demonstrated the TOXECON(TM) process in a $52.9million project at the Presque Isle Power Plant in Marquette, Mich. TOXECON is a relatively cost-effective option for achieving significant reductions in mercury emissions and increasing the

47

Appendix: Mercury Emissions used in CAM-Chem/Hg model. 1. Anthropogenic emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Appendix: Mercury Emissions used in CAM-Chem/Hg model. 1. Anthropogenic emissions The anthropogenic emission of mercury is directly adopted from global mercury emission inventory [Pacyna et al., 2005]. The anthropogenic emissions are shown in annual averaged total mercury emissions. (Unit: µg/m2 /day) 2. Land

Meskhidze, Nicholas

48

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at Laramie River Station Unit 3, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL are to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the benchmark established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The goals of the program were exceeded at Laramie River Station by achieving over 90% mercury removal at a sorbent cost of $3,980/lb ($660/oz) mercury removed for a coal mercury content of 7.9 lb/TBtu.

Sharon Sjostrom

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

49

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at DTE Energy's Monroe Power Plant, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The results from Monroe indicate that using DARCO{reg_sign} Hg would result in higher mercury removal (80%) at a sorbent cost of $18,000/lb mercury, or 70% lower than the benchmark. These results demonstrate that the goals established by DOE/NETL were exceeded during this test program. The increase in mercury removal over baseline conditions is defined for this program as a comparison in the outlet emissions measured using the Ontario Hydro method during the baseline and long-term test periods. The change in outlet emissions from baseline to long-term testing was 81%.

Sharon Sjostrom

2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

50

Mercury Emissions Control in Coal Combustion Systems Using Potassium Iodide: Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

power plant exhaust gases using conventional air pollution control devices (APCDs) is significantly Act list of sources of hazardous air pollutants. Both the reversal and the CAMR were vacated by the UMercury Emissions Control in Coal Combustion Systems Using Potassium Iodide: Bench-Scale and Pilot

Li, Ying

51

Emission factor of mercury from coal-fired power stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mercury emission from coal-fired power stations, situated in Poland in the Silesian region ... mercury in the consumed coal and in combustion gas, used in this research, are described. ... the air from coal combu...

Wojciech Mniszek

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and industry partners, studied mercury control options at six coal-fired power plants. The overall objective of the this test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at six plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, American Electric Power's Conesville Station Unit 6, and Labadie Power Plant Unit 2. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The financial goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000 per pound of mercury removed. Results from testing at Holcomb, Laramie, Meramec, Labadie, and Monroe indicate the DOE goal was successfully achieved. However, further improvements for plants with conditions similar to Conesville are recommended that would improve both mercury removal performance and economics.

Sharon Sjostrom

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

53

anthropogenic mercury emissions: Topics by E-print Network  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

marine boundary layer Palmer, Paul 25 MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: Effluents for...

54

Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. An assessment of the current situation in the United States and forecast of future emissions  

SciTech Connect

This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

none,

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Mercury Emissions from Biomass Burning in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because the burned area products from remote sensors with medium resolution often miss the crop burning in fields due to its small size, we used the official statistics data at the provincial level to estimate the mercury emissions from crop residues burning in fields and biofuel combustion in homes. ... Although the amount of crop residues burnt in fields in China could not be reflected accurately in burned area products (MCD45A1) because of their small size, they could be located by MODIS fire counts data. ... Frequently burning grasslands in Africa and Australia, and agricultural waste burning globally, contribute relatively little to the Hg budget. ...

Xin Huang; Mengmeng Li; Hans R. Friedli; Yu Song; Di Chang; Lei Zhu

2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

56

Spatial assessment of net mercury emissions from the use of fluorescent bulbs  

SciTech Connect

While fluorescent lighting is an important technology for reducing electrical energy demand, mercury used in the bulbs is an ongoing concern. Using state and country level data, net emissions of mercury from the marginal use of fluorescent lightbulbs are examined for a base year of 2004 for each of the 50 United States and 130 countries. Combustion of coal for electric power generation is generally the largest source of atmospheric mercury pollution; reduction in electricity demand from the substitution of incandescent bulbs with fluorescents leads to reduced mercury emissions during the use of the bulb. This analysis considers the local mix of power sources, coal quality, thermal conversion efficiencies, distribution losses, and any mercury control technologies that might be in place. Emissions of mercury from production and end-of-life treatment of the bulbs are also considered, providing a life-cycle perspective. Net reductions in mercury over the entire life cycle range from -1.2 to 97 mg per bulb depending on the country. The consequences for atmospheric mercury emissions of several policy scenarios are also discussed. 46 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Matthew J. Eckelman; Paul T. Anastas; Julie B. Zimmerman [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

NETL: News Release - DOE Selects Projects to Reduce Mercury Emissions from  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Release Date: February 3, 2006 DOE Selects Projects to Reduce Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants Focus is on Cost-Effective Technology to Achieve 90 Percent Mercury Removal WASHINGTON, DC - In a continued effort to promote clean coal technologies, the U.S. Department of Energy has selected 12 projects aimed at reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. The projects' overall focus is on field-testing advanced post-combustion mercury control technologies that achieve at least 90 percent mercury removal with a cost reduction of 50 percent or more. Other objectives center on field-testing in specific areas of need, and bench-scale through pilot-scale testing of novel mercury control technologies. America's coal-fired power plants emit around 48 tons of mercury each year. In March 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule to permanently cap and reduce these emissions, requiring an overall average reduction of nearly 70 percent by 2018.

58

Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control Project (completed May 31, 2011)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control Project (Completed May 31, 2010) Description NeuCo, Inc. (which acquired original participant Pegasus Technologies), a developer of power plant control and optimization technologies, demonstrated the capability to optimize mercury speciation and control of emissions from an existing power plant. This demonstration took place at an 890 megawatt (MW) utility boiler in Jewett,

59

2006 Mercury Control Technology Conference Proceedings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury Control Technology Conference Mercury Control Technology Conference December 11-13, 2006 Table of Contents Disclaimer Papers and Presentations Introduction Sorbent Injection By-Product Characterization/Management Mercury Oxidation and Co-Removal with FGD Systems Other Mercury Control Technology Panel Discussions Posters New 2006 Phase III Mercury Field Testing Projects Sorbent Injection Pretreatment of Coal Oxidation of Mercury Environmental Studies on Mercury Mercury in CUBs Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

60

Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

On March 15, 2005, EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule, requiring phased-in reductions of mercury emissions from electric power generators. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL and industry partners, is conducting evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. DOE/NETL targets for total mercury removal are {ge}55% (lignite), {ge}65% (subbituminous), and {ge}80% (bituminous). Based on work done to date at various scales, meeting the removal targets appears feasible. However, work needs to progress to more thoroughly document and test these promising technologies at full scale. This is the final site report for tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Station, one of three sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The other two sites in the program are MidAmerican's Council Bluff Station and Entergy's Independence Station. MidAmerican's Louisa Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal.

Sharon Sjostrom

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

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61

Long-Term Demonstration of Sorbent Enhancement Additive Technology for Mercury Control  

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Long-Term DemonsTraTion of sorbenT Long-Term DemonsTraTion of sorbenT enhancemenT aDDiTive TechnoLogy for mercury conTroL Background The 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. The combustion of subbituminous coals typically results in higher fractions of elemental mercury emissions than the combustion of bituminous coals. This complicates mercury capture efforts, particularly for technologies using powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection, because elemental mercury is not readily captured by PAC injection alone. In short, unmodified PACs are better suited for bituminous coals than for subbituminous coals. Various proprietary sorbent enhancement additives (SEA) have been developed to increase the mercury reactivity of PACs, and perhaps fly

62

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dryer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the seventh in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 1,300 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing three percent sulfur. The unit was equipped with an ESP and a limestone-based wet FGD to control particulate and SO2 emissions, respectively. At the time of sampling an SCR was not installed on this unit. Four sampling tests were performed in September 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the FGD inlet flue gas oxidized:elemental mercury ratio was roughly 2:1, with 66% oxidized mercury and 34% elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal-to-stack basis, was 53%. The average Hg concentration in the stack flue gas was 4.09 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The average stack mercury emission was 3.47 Ib/TBtu. The mercury material balance closures ranged from 87% to 108%, with an average of 97%. A sampling program similar to this one was performed on a similar unit (at the same plant) that was equipped with an SCR for NOx control. Comparison of the results from the two units show that the SCR increases the percentage of mercury that is in the oxidized form, which, in turn, lends to more of the total mercury being removed in the wet scrubber. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NOx, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal.

J.A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J.E. Locke

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

NETL: Health Effects - Risk Assessment of Reduced Mercury Emissions From  

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Risk Assessment of Reduced Mercury Emissions From Coal-Fired Power Plants Risk Assessment of Reduced Mercury Emissions From Coal-Fired Power Plants Given that mercury emissions from coal power plants will almost certainly be limited by some form of national regulation or legislation, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is performing an assessment of the reduction in human health risk that may be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of mercury. The primary pathway for mercury exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to mercury exposure is the fetus. Therefore, the risk assessment focuses on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Preliminary Risk Assessment A preliminary risk assessment was conducted using a simplified approach based on three major topics: Hg emissions and deposition (emphasizing coal plants), Hg consumption through fish, and dose-response functions for Hg. Using information available from recent literature, dose response factors (DRFs) were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions.

64

Removing mercury from coal emissions: options for ash-friendly technologies  

SciTech Connect

The article gives a brief description of techniques to remove mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants and discusses environmental considerations associated with the effect of emission controls on coal fly ash. Techniques covered include use of injected mercury sorbents (activated carbon, metal oxide catalysts, MerCAP{trademark} and MercScreen{trademark}) and fuel cleaning. Technologies currently being researched are mentioned. 8 refs.

Sager, J. [United States Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Fate of mercury collected from air pollution control devices  

SciTech Connect

Mercury that enters a coal-fired power plant originates from the coal that is burned and leaves through the output streams, which include stack emissions and air pollution control (APC) residues (either in solid or liquid form). This article describes recent findings on the fate and environmental stability of mercury in coal combustion residues (CCRs) such as fly ash and solid products from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers when either disposed or reused in agricultural, commercial, or engineering applications. 19 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Constance L. Senior; Susan Thorneloe; Bernine Khan; David Goss [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

66

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M. and Chang, B. , 1974; Mercury Monitor for Ambient Air,E. Poulson INTRODUCTION Mercury emissions from fossil-fuelHarley, R. A. , 1973; Mercury Balance on a Large Pulverized

Fox, J. P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Field Demonstration of Enhanced Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

Alstom Power Inc. has conducted a DOE/NETL-sponsored program (under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-04NT42306) to demonstrate Mer-Cure{trademark}, one of Alstom's mercury control technologies for coal-fired boilers. Mer-Cure{trademark} utilizes a small amount of Mer-Clean{trademark} sorbent that is injected into the flue gas stream for oxidation and adsorption of gaseous mercury. Mer-Clean{trademark} sorbents are carbon-based and prepared with chemical additives that promote oxidation and capture of mercury. Mer-Cure{trademark} is unique in that the sorbent is injected into an environment where the mercury capture kinetics is accelerated. This full-scale demonstration program was comprised of three seven-week long test campaigns at three host sites including PacifiCorp's 240-MW{sub e} Dave Johnston Unit No.3 burning a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Basin Electric's 220-MW{sub e} Leland Olds Unit No.1 burning a North Dakota lignite, and Reliant Energy's 170-MW{sub e} Portland Unit No.1 burning an Eastern bituminous coal. All three boilers are equipped with electrostatic precipitators. The goals for this Round 2 program, established by DOE/NETL under the original solicitation, were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the previous target of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The results for all three host sites indicated that Mer-Cure{trademark} technology could achieve mercury removal of 90%. The estimated mercury removal costs were 25-92% lower than the benchmark of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The estimated costs for control, at sorbent cost of $1.25 to $2.00/lb respectively, are as follows: (1) Dave Johnston Unit No.3--$2,650 to $4,328/lb Hg removed (92.8% less than $60k/lb); (2) Leland Olds Unit No.1--$8,680 to $13,860/lb Hg removed (76.7% less than $60k/lb); and (3) Portland Unit No.1--$28,540 to $45,065/lb Hg removed (24.9% less than $60k/lb). In summary, the results from demonstration testing at all three host sites show that the goals established by DOE/NETL were exceeded during this test program. Mercury removal performance4 of greater than 90% reduction was above the 50-70% reduction goal, and mercury removal cost of 25-92% lower than the benchmark was above the 25 to 50% cost reduction goal.

Shin Kang; Robert Schrecengost

2009-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

68

Field Testing of Activated Carbon Injection Options for Mercury Control at TXU's Big Brown Station  

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Field TesTing oF AcTivATed cArbon Field TesTing oF AcTivATed cArbon injecTion opTions For Mercury conTrol AT TXu's big brown sTATion Background The 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. Lignite coal is unique because of its highly variable ash content (rich in alkali and alkaline-earth elements), high moisture levels, low chlorine content, and high calcium content. Unique to Texas lignite coals are relatively high iron and selenium concentrations. When combusting Texas lignite coals, up to 80 percent of the mercury in the flue gas is present as elemental mercury, which is not readily captured by downstream pollution control devices. To better understand the factors that influence mercury control at units firing

69

Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that these data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the ninth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on Unit 1 at Plant 7, a 566 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 3.6% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions, respectively. Four sampling tests were performed in August 2004 during ozone season with the SCR operating; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, SCR outlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Three sampling tests were also performed in November 2004 during non-ozone season with the SCR bypassed; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet). Process samples for material balances were collected during the flue gas measurements. The results show that, at the point where the flue gas enters the FGD, a greater percentage of the mercury was in the oxidized form when the SCR was operating compared to when the SCR was bypassed (97% vs 91%). This higher level of oxidation resulted in higher mercury removals in the FGD because the FGD removed 90-94% of the oxidized mercury in both cases. Total coal-to-stack mercury removal was 86% with the SCR operating, and 73% with the SCR bypassed. The average mercury mass balance closure was 81% during the ozone season tests and 87% during the non-ozone season tests.

J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

70

Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the tenth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on two 468 MW units burning bituminous coal containing 1.3-1.7% sulfur. Unit 2 is equipped with an SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions, respectively. Unit 1 is similar to Unit 2, except that Unit 1 has no SCR for NOx control. Four sampling tests were performed on both units in January 2005; flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the economizer outlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process samples for material balances were collected with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the SCR increased the oxidation of the mercury at the air heater outlet. At the exit of the air heater, a greater percentage of the mercury was in the oxidized and particulate forms on the unit equipped with an SCR compared to the unit without an SCR (97.4% vs 91%). This higher level of oxidation resulted in higher mercury removals in the scrubber. Total mercury removal averaged 97% on the unit with the SCR, and 87% on the unit without the SCR. The average mercury mass balance closure was 84% on Unit 1 and 103% on Unit 2.

J. A. Withum; J. E. Locke

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-Wet FGD  

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Mercury control for Plants firing Mercury control for Plants firing texas lignite and equiPPed with esP-wet fgd Background The 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. One promising mercury control technology involves the use of sorbents such as powdered activated carbon. Full-scale sorbent injection tests conducted for various combinations of fuel and plant air pollution control devices have provided a good understanding of variables that affect sorbent performance. However, many uncertainties exist regarding long-term performance, and data gaps remain for specific plant configurations. Sorbent injection has not been demonstrated at full-scale for plants firing Texas lignite coal, which are responsible for about 10 percent of annual U.S. power plant

72

Investigation of modified speciation for enhanced control of mercury  

SciTech Connect

Mercury was identified as a hazardous air pollutant in Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. It has been singled out for particular scrutiny because of its behavior in the environment (bioaccumulation) and its potential for deleterious effects on humans and wildlife. After studying the sources of mercury in the environment, the US Environmental Protection Agency has concluded that coal-fired boilers generate a significant fraction of the total anthropogenic emissions. Therefore, the agency is currently considering whether to impose mercury control requirements on coal-fired boilers in the electric utility industry. However, the costs for potential control measures (such as sorbent injection) can be extremely high. Mercury removal with chloric acid solutions was tested. The presence of NO increased Hg removal. It appeared that both gas-gas and gas-liquids reactions were operating, with the gas-phase reactions involving NO becoming increasingly important as the solute concentration was raised. From these studies, it was concluded that even higher Hg{sup 0} removals could be obtained if more of the reagent was made available for reaction in the gas phase. For this reason (and also to simulate a more real-world duct-injection process) a new series of tests was initiated in which an ultrasonic atomizer was used to inject small droplets of the oxidizing solutions into a flowing gas stream containing Hg{sup 0} vapors and other typical flue-gas components. The results of those tests are described in this paper.

Livengood, C.D.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

This is the final technical report for a three-site project that is part of an overall program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) and industry partners to obtain the necessary information to assess the feasibility and costs of controlling mercury from coal-fired utility plants. This report summarizes results from tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station and Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station (ISES) and sorbent screening at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center (CBEC) (subsequently renamed Walter Scott Energy Center (WSEC)). Detailed results for Independence and Louisa are presented in the respective Topical Reports. As no full-scale testing was conducted at CBEC, screening updates were provided in the quarterly updates to DOE. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and other industry partners, has conducted evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. An overview of each plant configuration is presented: (1) MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in its 700-MW Unit 1 and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal. (2) MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center typically burns PRB coal in its 88-MW Unit 2. It employs a hot-side ESP for particulate control. Solid sorbents were screened for hot-side injection. (3) Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station typically burns PRB coal in its 880-MW Unit 2. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on 1/8 to 1/32 of the flue gas stream either within or in front of one of four ESP boxes (SCA = 542 ft{sup 2}/kacfm), specifically ESP B. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that although significant mercury control could be achieved by using the TOXECON II{trademark} design, the sorbent concentration required was higher than expected, possibly due to poor sorbent distribution. Subsequently, the original injection grid design was modeled and the results revealed that the sorbent distribution pattern was determined by the grid design, fluctuations in flue gas flow rates, and the structure of the ESP box. To improve sorbent distribution, the injection grid and delivery system were redesigned and the effectiveness of the redesigned system was evaluated. This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase II project with the goal of developing mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. Results from testing at Independence indicate that the DOE goal was successfully achieved. Further improvements in the process are recommended, however. Results from testing at Louisa indicate that the DOE goal was not achievable using the tested high-temperature sorbent. Sorbent screening at Council Bluffs also indicated that traditional solid sorbents may not achieve significant mercury removal in hot-side applications.

Sharon Sjostrom

2008-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

74

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. This document, the second in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 330 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 1.0% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR system for NOx control and a spray dryer absorber for SO{sub 2} control followed by a baghouse unit for particulate emissions control. Four sampling tests were performed in March 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. Due to mechanical problems with the boiler feed water pumps, the actual gross output was between 195 and 221 MW during the tests. The results showed that the SCR/air heater combination oxidized nearly 95% of the elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal-to-stack basis, was 87%. The mercury material balance closures for the four tests conducted at the plant ranged from 89% to 114%, with an average of 100%. These results appear to show that the SCR had a positive effect on mercury removal. In earlier programs, CONSOL sampled mercury at six plants with wet FGDs for SO{sub 2} control without SCR catalysts. At those plants, an average of 61 {+-} 15% of the mercury was in the oxidized form at the air heater outlet. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential Hg removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NOx, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of Hg chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize Hg removal.

J. A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

75

DOE-NETL's Mercury Control Technology R&D Program for Coal-Fired Power Plants  

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Mercury Emissions from Coal Mercury Emissions from Coal 1 st International Experts' Workshop May 12-13, 2004 Glasgow, Scotland Thomas J. Feeley, III thomas.feeley@netl.doe.gov National Energy Technology Laboratory TJ Feeley _Scotland_ 2004 Presentation Outline * Who is NETL * Why mercury control? * NETL mercury control R&D * NETL coal utilization by-products R&D TJ Feeley _Glasgow_May 2004 * One of DOE's 17 national labs * Government owned / operated * Sites in: - Pennsylvania - West Virginia - Oklahoma - Alaska * More than 1,100 federal and support contractor employees National Energy Technology Laboratory TJ Feeley Feb. 2004 * R&D Activities - Mercury control - NO x control - Particulate matter control - Air quality research - Coal utilization by-products - Water management Innovations for Existing Plants

76

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program  

SciTech Connect

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W?s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

A. P. Evans

1998-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

77

Advanced Emission Control Development Program.  

SciTech Connect

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

Evans, A.P.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

78

In-House Research on Mercury Measurement and Control at NETL  

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identifier identifier In-House Research on Mercury Measurement and Control at NETL identifier BACKGROUND T Over 32% of man-made emissions of Hg in U.S. are from coal-fired utilities. T Future regulation of utility emissions has been proposed by EPA. T Control of Hg emissions is complicated by low concentrations (~1 ppbv) and speciation variability. T EPA report suggests sorbent injection as a low- cost technique for mercury removal. T NETL's in-house research effort is conducted at both pilot and lab scales. identifier PILOT RESEARCH OBJECTIVES T Evaluate methods for measurement of mercury concentration and speciation. T Assess the technical performance of sorbent-based control technology by developing engineering databases. identifier identifier identifier PILOT WORK TESTING GOALS T Determine mass balances around pilot

79

Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor  

SciTech Connect

Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150{sup o}C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650{sup o}C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be responsible for the reduction of gaseous chlorine and, consequently, limited mercury emissions reduction during cofiring. 36 refs., 3 figs. 1 tab.

Yan Cao; Hongcang Zhou; Junjie Fan; Houyin Zhao; Tuo Zhou; Pauline Hack; Chia-Chun Chan; Jian-Chang Liou; Wei-ping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (USA). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

80

A Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Mercury Continuous Emission Monitor  

SciTech Connect

The Sensor Research & Development Corporation (SRD) has undertaken the development of a Continuous Emissions Monitor (CEM) for mercury based on the technique of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRD). The project involved building an instrument for the detection of trace levels of mercury in the flue gas emissions from coal-fired power plants. The project has occurred over two phases. The first phase concentrated on the development of the ringdown cavity and the actual detection of mercury. The second phase dealt with the construction and integration of the sampling system, used to carry the sample from the flue stack to the CRD cavity, into the overall CRD instrument. The project incorporated a Pulsed Alexandrite Laser (PAL) system from Light Age Incorporated as the source to produce the desired narrow band 254 nm ultra-violet (UV) radiation. This laser system was seeded with a diode laser to bring the linewidth of the output beam from about 150 GHz to less than 60 MHz for the fundamental beam. Through a variety of non-linear optics the 761 nm fundamental beam is converted into the 254 nm beam needed for mercury detection. Detection of the mercury transition was verified by the identification of the characteristic natural isotopic structure observed at lower cavity pressures. The five characteristic peaks, due to both natural isotopic abundance and hyperfine splitting, provided a unique identifier for mercury. SRD scientists were able to detect mercury in air down below 10 parts-per-trillion by volume (pptr). This value is dependent on the pressure and temperature within the CRD cavity at the time of detection. Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) absorbs UV radiation in the same spectral region as mercury, which is a significant problem for most mercury detection equipment. However, SRD has not only been able to determine accurate mercury concentrations in the presence of SO{sub 2}, but the CRD instrument can in fact determine the SO{sub 2} concentration as well. Detection of mercury down to the low hundreds of pptr has been accomplished in the presence of SO{sub 2} at concentration levels much higher than that found in typical flue gas emissions. SRD scientists extended the interferent testing to each individual component found in flue gas. It was found that only SO{sub 2} had a significant effect on the ring-down decay curve. Upon completion of testing the components of flue gas individually a simulated flue gas stream was used to test to the CRD instrument. The result showed accurate detection of mercury down to levels below 100 pptr in a simulated flue gas stream with the concentrations of the various components above that found in a typical untreated flue gas. A sampling system was designed and integrated into the CRD instrument to carry the sample from the flue gas stack to the CRD cavity. The sampling system was constructed so that it could be placed very close to the sampling port. SRD scientists were able to couple the UV laser light into an optical fiber, which is then sent to the sampling system. This allows the laser system to be isolated from the sampling system. Initial long-term testing revealed a couple of problems related to the stability of the output frequency of the laser system. These problems have been successfully dealt with by incorporating specific software solutions into the overall data acquisition program. The project culminated in a field test conducted at the DOE/NETL pilot plant facility in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The object of the test was the evaluation of a cavity ringdown spectrometer constructed for the detection of TOTAL vapor phase mercury as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). Although there is the potential for the instrument to determine the amount of speciation between neutral elemental mercury (Hg{sup (o)}) and oxidized mercury (Hg{sup (+2)}), the initial test plan was to concentrate on the measurement of the total mercury. Another added benefit is that the measurements will report the sulfur dioxide (SO 2) concentration throughout the test. This report concludes the technical work asso

Christopher C. Carter

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mercury emissions control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Initial Estimates of Mercury Emissions to the Atmosphere from Global Biomass Burning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Frequently burning grasslands in Africa and Australia, and agricultural waste burning globally, contribute relatively little to the mercury budget. ... Savannas burn frequently (intentionally or by accident), typically annually or biannually, while boreal forest burns at 50?200 year time scales, and wet tropical forests rarely burn at all. ... Total C emissions tracked burning in forested areas (including deforestation fires in the tropics), whereas burned area was largely controlled by savanna fires which responded to different environmental and human factors. ...

H.R. Friedli; A.F. Arellano; S. Cinnirella; N. Pirrone

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Mercury Control Demonstration Projects Cover Photos: * Top: Limestone Power Plant  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 FEBRUARY 2008 6 FEBRUARY 2008 Mercury Control Demonstration Projects Cover Photos: * Top: Limestone Power Plant * Bottom left: AES Greenidge Power Plant * Bottom right: Presque Isle Power Plant A report on three projects conducted under separate cooperative agreements between the U.S. Department of Energy and: * Consol Energy * Pegasus Technologies * We Energies  Mercury Control Demonstration Projects Executive Summary ............................................................................ 4 Background ......................................................................................... 5 Mercury Removal Projects ................................................................ 7 TOXECON(tm) Retrofit For Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control on Three 90-MW Coal-Fired Boilers ........................................7

83

TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90 MW COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. WE Energies has over 3,700 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90 MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the WE Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, WE Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} (TOXECON) system designed to clean the combined flue gases of units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed down stream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single baghouse. Mercury will be controlled by injection of activated carbon or other novel sorbents, while NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} will be controlled by injection of sodium based or other novel sorbents. Addition of the TOXECON baghouse will provide enhanced particulate control. Sorbents will be injected downstream of the existing particle collection device to allow for continued sale and reuse of captured fly ash from the existing particulate control device, uncontaminated by activated carbon or sodium sorbents. Methods for sorbent regeneration, i.e. mercury recovery from the sorbent, will be explored and evaluated. For mercury concentration monitoring in the flue gas streams, components available for use will be evaluated and the best available will be integrated into a mercury CEM suitable for use in the power plant environment. This project will provide for the use of a novel multi-pollutant control system to reduce emissions of mercury and other air pollutants, while minimizing waste, from a coal-fired power generation system.

Richard E. Johnson

2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

84

Process for combined control of mercury and nitric oxide.  

SciTech Connect

Continuing concern about the effects of mercury in the environment may lead to requirements for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. If such controls are mandated, the use of existing flue-gas cleanup systems, such as wet scrubbers currently employed for flue-gas desulfurization, would be desirable, Such scrubbers have been shown to be effective for capturing oxidized forms of mercury, but cannot capture the very insoluble elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) that can form a significant fraction of the total emissions. At Argonne National Laboratory, we have proposed and tested a concept for enhancing removal of Hg{sup 0}, as well as nitric oxide, through introduction of an oxidizing agent into the flue gas upstream of a scrubber, which readily absorbs the soluble reaction products. Recently, we developed a new method for introducing the oxidizing agent into the flue-gas stream that dramatically improved reactant utilization. The oxidizing agent employed was NOXSORB{trademark}, which is a commercial product containing chloric acid and sodium chlorate. When a dilute solution of this agent was introduced into a gas stream containing Hg{sup 0} and other typical flue-gas species at 300 F, we found that about 100% of the mercury was removed from the gas phase and recovered in process liquids. At the same time, approximately 80% of the nitric oxide was removed. The effect of sulfur dioxide on this process was also investigated and the results showed that it slightly decreased the amount of Hg{sup 0} oxidized while appearing to increase the removal of nitric oxide from the gas phase. We are currently testing the effects of variations in NOXSORB{trademark} concentration, sulfur dioxide concentration, nitric oxide concentration, and reaction time (residence time). Preliminary economic projections based on the results to date indicate that the chemical cost for nitric oxide oxidation could be less than $5,000/ton removed, while for Hg{sup 0} oxidation it would be about $20,000/lb removed.

Livengood, C. D.; Mendelsohn, M. H.

1999-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

85

Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Lignite Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury control technologies for Mercury control technologies for electric utilities Burning lignite coal Background In partnership with a number of key stakeholders, the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE), through its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), has been carrying out a comprehensive research program since the mid-1990s focused on the development of advanced, cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Mercury is a poisonous metal found in coal, which can be harmful and even toxic when absorbed from the environment and concentrated in animal tissues. Mercury is present as an unwanted by-product of combustion in power plant flue gases, and is found in varying percentages in three basic chemical forms(known as speciation): particulate-bound mercury, oxidized

86

SORBENT DEVELOPMENT FOR MERCURY CONTROL. Final topical report including semiannual for January 1, 1998 through June 30, 1998.  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) draft Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) estimated anthropogenic mercury emissions to be 253 tons/yr in the US, with the majority (216 tons/yr) from combustion sources. The three main combustion sources listed were coal (72 tons/yr), medical waste incinerators (65 tons/yr), and municipal waste combustors (64 tons/yr). The emissions from both medical waste incinerators and municipal waste combustors were recently regulated, which, together with the reduction of mercury in consumer products such as batteries and fluorescent lights, has already reduced the emissions from these sources, as stated in the final EPA Mercury Report to Congress (2). EPA now estimates total point-source mercury emissions to be 158 tons/yr, with coal remaining at 72 tons/yr, while medical waste incinerators are down to 16 tons/yr and municipal waste combustors are at 30 tons/yr. Coal is now the primary source of anthropogenic mercury emissions in the US, accounting for 46%. In addition, the use of coal in the US has been increasing every year and passed the 1-billion-ton-per-year mark for the first time in 1997 (3). At the current rate of increase, coal consumption would reach 1.4 billion tons annually by the year 2020. On a worldwide basis, the projected increase in coal usage over the next two decades in China, India, and Indonesia will dwarf the current US coal consumption level. Therefore, in the US coal will be the dominant source of mercury emissions and worldwide coal may be the cause of significantly increased mercury emissions unless an effective control strategy is implemented. However, much uncertainty remains over the most technically sound and cost-effective approach for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, and a number of critical research needs will have to be met to develop better control (2).

David J. Hassett; Edwin S. Olson; Grant E. Dunham; Ramesh K. Sharma; Ronald C. Timpe; Stanley J. Miller

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Factors Controlling the Solubility of Mercury Adsorbed on Fly Ash  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

N:\R&D_Projects_Partial\FlyAsh&CCBs\Meetings\2005_04_WorldOfCoalAsh\AnnKim\HgSol N:\R&D_Projects_Partial\FlyAsh&CCBs\Meetings\2005_04_WorldOfCoalAsh\AnnKim\HgSol ubility_Paper.doc Factors Controlling the Solubility of Mercury Adsorbed on Fly Ash Ann G. Kim 1 and Karl Schroeder 2 1 ORISE Research Fellow, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, 626 Cochrans Mill Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 2 Research Group Leader, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, 626 Cochrans Mill Rd., Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 KEYWORDS Coal Utilization By-Products, leaching, activated carbon, pH ABSTRACT It is expected that increased controls on Hg emissions will shift the environmental burden from the flue gas to the solid coal utilization by-products (CUB), such as fly ash and flue-gas

88

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

NETL: Conference Proceedings - 2007 Mercury Control Technology Conference  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2007 Mercury Control Technology Conference 2007 Mercury Control Technology Conference December 11-13, 2007 Table of Contents Disclaimer Papers and Presentations Overview Sorbent Injection Panel Discussion #1: Sorbents for Mercury Control Mercury Oxidaton and Co-Removal with FGD Systems By-Product Characterization/Management Panel Discussion #2: Mercury Measurements / CEMS Other Mercury Control Technology Panel Discussion #3: Non-Sorbent Mercury Control Poster Presentations Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

91

Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. EPA has issued a final regulation for control of mercury from coal-fired power plants. An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. These adulterated by-products, both ashes and FGD material, represent the greatest challenge to the DOE goal of increased utilization of by-products. The degree of stability of capture by-products and their potential for release of mercury can have a large economic impact on material sales or the approach to disposal. One of the considerations for mercury control technology is the potential trade-off between effective but temporary mercury capture and less effective but more permanent sequestration. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed aqueous leaching procedures on a select subset of the available sample pairs. This report describes batch leaching results for mercury, arsenic, and selenium.

Hesbach, P.A.; Kachur, E.K.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project has investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installations. Field tests were conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit was used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months each at three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998; at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, in November 1999; and at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, in January 2001. Results of testing at each of the three sites were reported in previous technical notes. At Site 1, catalysts were tested only as powders dispersed in sand bed reactors. At Sites 2 and 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand and in commercially available forms such as extruded pellets and coated honeycomb structures. This final report summarizes and presents results from all three sites, for the various catalyst forms tested. Field testing was supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results are also summarized and discussed in this report.

Unknown

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control on Three 90 MW Coal-Fired Boilers (Completed September 30, 2009)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control on Three 90 MW Coal-Fired Boilers (Completed September 30, 2009) Project Description Wisconsin Electric Power Company (We Energies) has designed, installed, operated, and evaluated the TOXECON process as an integrated mercury, particulate matter, SO 2 , and NO X emissions control system for application on coal-fired power generation systems. TOXECON is a process in which sorbents, including powdered activated

94

A CAVITY RING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR  

SciTech Connect

The construction of the sampling system was completed during the past quarter. The sampling system has been built on a 3 feet x 4 feet x 2 inch breadboard table. The laser system, all the associated optics, and the mounts and hardware needed to couple the UV light into the fiber optic have also been condensed and placed on an identical 3 feet x 4 feet x 2 inch breadboard table. This reduces the footprint of each system for ease of operation at a field test facility. The two systems are only connected with a fiber optic, to bring the UV light to the CRD cavity, and a single coaxial cable used to apply a voltage to the diode seed laser to scan the frequency over the desired mercury transition. SRD software engineers applied a couple of software fixes to correct the problems of the diode seed laser drifting or mode hopping. Upon successful completion of the software fixes another long-term test was conducted. A nearly 3 day long, 24 hours/day, test was run to test out the new subroutines. Everything appeared to work as it should and the mercury concentrations were accurately reported for the entire test, with the exception of a small interval of time when the intensity of the UV light dropped low enough that the program was no longer triggering properly. After adjusting the power of the laser the program returned to proper operation. With the successful completion of a relatively long test SRD software engineer incorporated the new subroutine into an entirely new program. This program operates the CRD instrument automatically as a continuous emissions monitor for mercury. In addition the program also reports the concentration of SO{sub 2} determined in the sample flue gas stream. Various functions, operation of, and a description of the new program have been included with this report. This report concludes the technical work associated with Phase II of the Cavity Ring-Down project for the continuous detection of trace levels of mercury. The project is presently gearing up for additional testing in preparation for a field test to be conducted at the DOE/NETL pilot plant facility in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Christopher C. Carter

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

95

An assessment of mercury emissions and health risks from a coal-fired power plant  

SciTech Connect

Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) mandated that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluate the need to regulate mercury emissions from electric utilities. In support of this forthcoming regulatory analysis the U.S. DOE, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the US MeHg is the predominant way of exposure to mercury originated in the atmosphere. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1,000 MW coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. This study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Even at these more elevated exposure levels, the attributable incidence in mild neurological symptoms was estimated to be quite small, especially when compared with the estimated background incidence in the population. The current paper summarizes the basic conclusions of this assessment and highlights issues dealing with emissions control and environmental transport.

Fthenakis, V.M.; Lipfert, F.; Moskowitz, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Analytical Sciences Div.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Emission and Long-Range Transport of Gaseous Mercury from a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emission and Long-Range Transport of Gaseous Mercury from a Large-Scale Canadian Boreal Forest FireQuebec.Thesemeasurementsindicated significant and highly correlated increases in Hg and CO during the plume event. The Hg:CO emissions ratio emissions and biomass burned to determine a mean area-based Hg emission flux density for boreal forest fires

Lee, Xuhui

97

Anthropogenic and Natural Emissions of Mercury (Hg) in the northeastern United Jeffrey MacAdam Sigler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Anthropogenic and Natural Emissions of Mercury (Hg) in the northeastern United States impact may depend on the emission rate. Anthropogenic Hg emissions in the United States are poorly characterized. Natural Hg emissions are poorly understood worldwide, due to lack of data or measurement systems

Lee, Xuhui

98

Toxecon Retrofit for Mercury and Mulit-Pollutant Control on Three 90-MW Coal-Fired Boilers  

SciTech Connect

This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) project was based on a cooperative agreement between We Energies and the DOE Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to design, install, evaluate, and demonstrate the EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} air pollution control process. Project partners included Cummins & Barnard, ADA-ES, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The primary goal of this project was to reduce mercury emissions from three 90-MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant in Marquette, Michigan. Additional goals were to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter emissions; allow reuse and sale of fly ash; advance commercialization of the technology; demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use at power plants; and demonstrate recovery of mercury from the sorbent. Mercury was controlled by injection of activated carbon upstream of the TOXECON{trademark} baghouse, which achieved more than 90% removal on average over a 44-month period. During a two-week test involving trona injection, SO{sub 2} emissions were reduced by 70%, although no coincident removal of NOx was achieved. The TOXECON{trademark} baghouse also provided enhanced particulate control, particularly during startup of the boilers. On this project, mercury CEMs were developed and tested in collaboration with Thermo Fisher Scientific, resulting in a reliable CEM that could be used in the power plant environment and that could measure mercury as low as 0.1 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. Sorbents were injected downstream of the primary particulate collection device, allowing for continued sale and beneficial use of captured fly ash. Two methods for recovering mercury using thermal desorption on the TOXECON{trademark} PAC/ash mixture were successfully tested during this program. Two methods for using the TOXECON{trademark} PAC/ash mixture in structural concrete were also successfully developed and tested. This project demonstrated a significant reduction in the rate of emissions from Presque Isle Units 7, 8, and 9, and substantial progress toward establishing the design criteria for one of the most promising mercury control retrofit technologies currently available. The Levelized Cost for 90% mercury removal at this site was calculated at $77,031 per pound of mercury removed with a capital cost of $63,189 per pound of mercury removed. Mercury removal at the Presque Isle Power Plant averages approximately 97 pounds per year.

Steven Derenne; Robin Stewart

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

99

Mercury Emission and Removal of a 135MW CFB Utility Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To evaluate characteristic of the mercury emission and removal from a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, a representative 135 MW CFB utility boiler was selected to take the ... is of majority in flue gas of ...

Y. F. Duan; Y. Q. Zhuo; Y. J. Wang; L. Zhang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Assessing the Effect of Mercury Emissions from Contaminated Soil at Natural Gas Gate Stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of mercury emissions from contaminated soil at natural gas distribution stations is presented. The effects were estimated as part of a risk assessment that included inhalation and multimedia exposure pathways. The purpose of the paper ...

A. Roffman; K. Macoskey; R. P. Shervill

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mercury emissions control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Geochemical, Genetic, and Community Controls on Mercury  

SciTech Connect

The sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are soil bacteria that share two common characteristics, strict anaerobiosis and the ability to respire sulfate. The metabolic activities of these bacteria play significant roles in the global sulfur cycle, anaerobic degradation of biomass, biological metal corrosion in the environment and, recently, degradation of toxic compounds. The accumulation of evidence suggests these bacteria are also key to the production of the neurotoxin methylmercury in environmental settings. We propose to use our experience with the development of genetics in sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio to create mutations that will eliminate the methylation of mercury, thereby identifying the genes essential for this process. This information may allow the environmental monitoring of the mercury methylation potential to learn the location and quantity of the production this toxin. From these data, more accurate predictive models of mercury cycling can be generated.

Wall, Judy D.

2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

102

ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The injection of sorbents upstream of a particulate control device is one of the most promising methods for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers with electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters. Studies carried out at the bench-, pilot-, and full-scale have shown that a wide variety of factors may influence sorbent mercury removal effectiveness. These factors include mercury species, flue gas composition, process conditions, existing pollution control equipment design, and sorbent characteristics. The objective of the program is to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. Prior to injection testing, a number of sorbents were tested in a slipstream fixed-bed device both in the laboratory and at two field sites. Based upon the performance of the sorbents in a fixed-bed device and the estimated cost of mercury control using each sorbent, seventeen sorbents were chosen for screening in a slipstream injection system at a site burning a Western bituminous coal/petcoke blend, five were chosen for screening at a site burning a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, and nineteen sorbents were evaluated at a third site burning a PRB coal. Sorbents evaluated during the program were of various materials, including: activated carbons, treated carbons, other non-activated carbons, and non-carbon material. The economics and performance of the novel sorbents evaluated demonstrate that there are alternatives to the commercial standard. Smaller enterprises may have the opportunity to provide lower price mercury sorbents to power generation customers under the right set of circumstances.

Sharon Sjostrom

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90-MW COAL-FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particulate control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. We Energies has over 3,200 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90-MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, We Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} system designed to clean the combined flue gases of Units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON{trademark} is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed downstream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single baghouse. Mercury will be controlled by injection of activated carbon or other novel sorbents, while NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} will be controlled by injection of sodium-based or other novel sorbents. Addition of the TOXECON{trademark} baghouse will provide enhanced particulate control. Sorbents will be injected downstream of the existing particle collection device to allow for continued sale and reuse of captured fly ash from the existing particulate control device, uncontaminated by activated carbon or sodium sorbents. Methods for sorbent regeneration, i.e., mercury recovery from the sorbent, will be explored and evaluated. For mercury concentration monitoring in the flue gas streams, components available for use will be evaluated and the best available will be integrated into a mercury CEM suitable for use in the power plant environment. This project will provide for the use of a control system to reduce emissions of mercury while minimizing waste from a coal-fired power generation system.

Steven T. Derenne

2006-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

104

TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL-ON THREE 90 MW COAL FIRED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. We Energies has over 3,200 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90 MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, We Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} (TOXECON) system designed to clean the combined flue gases of units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed down stream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single baghouse. Mercury will be controlled by injection of activated carbon or other novel sorbents, while NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} will be controlled by injection of sodium based or other novel sorbents. Addition of the TOXECON baghouse will provide enhanced particulate control. Sorbents will be injected downstream of the existing particle collection device to allow for continued sale and reuse of captured fly ash from the existing particulate control device, uncontaminated by activated carbon or sodium sorbents. Methods for sorbent regeneration, i.e. mercury recovery from the sorbent, will be explored and evaluated. For mercury concentration monitoring in the flue gas streams, components available for use will be evaluated and the best available will be integrated into a mercury CEM suitable for use in the power plant environment. This project will provide for the use of a novel multi-pollutant control system to reduce emissions of mercury while minimizing waste, from a coal-fired power generation system.

Richard E. Johnson

2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

105

Modification of boiler operating conditions for mercury emissions reductions in coal-fired utility boilers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

matter and char, and cold-end air pollution control devices. There is also evidence that boiler is equipped with hot and cold precipitators and a tubular air preheater. A strategy for mercury control designated hazardous air pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), mercury (Hg) has

Li, Ying

106

NETL: Emissions Characterization - Direct Measurement of Mercury Reactions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Measurement of Mercury Reactions in Coal Power Plant Plumes: Pleasant Prairie Plant Direct Measurement of Mercury Reactions in Coal Power Plant Plumes: Pleasant Prairie Plant Under DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41724, EPRI, in collaboration with Frontier Geosciences and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), will perform precise in-stack and in-plume sampling of mercury emitted from the stack of WE Energies' Pleasant Prairie coal-fired power plant near Kenosha, Wisconsin. The overall objective of the project is to clarify the role, rates and end result of chemical transformations that may occur to mercury that has been emitted from elevated stacks of coal-fired electric power plants. This information is critical in determining the role of coal-fired plants in mercury deposition and in developing cost-effective, environmentally sound policies and strategies for reducing the adverse environmental effects of mercury.

107

Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control - Emissions & Emission Controls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control Catalysts for controlling NOx from lean engines are studied in great detail at FEERC. Lean NOx Traps (LNTs) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are two catalyst technologies of interest. Catalysts are studied from the nanoscale to full scale. On the nanoscale, catalyst powders are analyzed with chemisorptions techniques to determine the active metal surface area where catalysis occurs. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy is used to observe the chemical reactions occurring on the catalyst surface during catalyst operation. Both powder and coated catalyst samples are analyzed on bench flow reactors in controlled simulated exhaust environments to better characterize the chemical

108

Controlled spontaneous emission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The problem of spontaneous emission is studied by a direct computer simulation of the dynamics of a combined system: atom + radiation field. The parameters of the discrete finite model, including up to 20k field oscillators, have been optimized by a comparison with the exact solution for the case when the oscillators have equidistant frequencies and equal coupling constants. Simulation of the effect of multi-pulse sequence of phase kicks and emission by a pair of atoms shows that both the frequency and the linewidth of the emitted spectrum could be controlled.

Jae-Seung Lee; Mary A. Rohrdanz; A. K. Khitrin

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

109

FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of mercury control at Salem Harbor Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has very high native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included plant and PG&E headquarters personnel, EPRI and several of its member companies, DOE, ADA, Norit Americas, Inc., Hamon Research-Cottrell, Apogee Scientific, TRC Environmental Corporation, Reaction Engineering, as well as other laboratories. The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall the objectives of this field test program were to determine the mercury control and balance-of-plant impacts resulting from activated carbon injection into a full-scale ESP on Salem Harbor Unit 1, a low sulfur bituminous-coal-fired 86 MW unit. It was also important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury removal (>85%). One half of the gas stream was used for these tests, or 43 MWe. Activated carbon, DARCO FGD supplied by NORIT Americas, was injected upstream of the cold side ESP, just downstream of the air preheater. This allowed for approximately 1.5 seconds residence time in the duct before entering the ESP. Conditions tested in this field evaluation included the impacts of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system on mercury capture, of unburned carbon in the fly ash, of adjusting ESP inlet flue gas temperatures, and of boiler load on mercury control. The field evaluation conducted at Salem Harbor looked at several sorbent injection concentrations at several flue gas temperatures. It was noted that at the mid temperature range of 322-327 F, the LOI (unburned carbon) lost some of its ability to capture vapor phase Hg, however activated carbon performed relatively well. At the normal operating temperatures of 298-306 F, mercury emissions from the ESP were so low that both particulate and elemental mercury were ''not detected'' at the detection limits of the Ontario Hydro method for both baseline and injection tests. The oxidized mercury however, was 95% lower at a sorbent injection concentration of 10 lbs/MMacf compared with baseline emissions. When the flue gas temperatures were increased to a range of 343-347 F, mercury removal efficiencies were limited to <25%, even at the same sorbent injection concentration. Other tests examined the impacts of fly ash LOI, operation of the SNCR system, and flue gas temperature on the native mercury capture without sorbent injection. Listed below are the main conclusions from this program: (1) SNCR on/off test showed no beneficial effect on mercury removal caused by the SNCR system. (2) At standard operating temperatures ({approx} 300 F), reducing LOI from 30-35% to 15-20% had minimal impact on Hg removal. (3) Increasing flue gas temperatures reduced Hg removal regardless of LOI concentrations at Salem Harbor (minimum LOI was 15%). Native mercury removal started to fall off at temperatures above 320 F. ACI effectiveness for mercury removal fell off at temperatures above 340 F. (4) Test method detection limits play an important role at Salem Harbor due to the low residual emissions. Examining the proposed MA rule, both the removal efficiency and the emission concentrations will be difficult to demonstrate on an ongoing basis. (5) Under tested conditions the baseline emissions met the proposed removal efficiency for 2006, but not the proposed emission concentration. ACI can meet the more-stringent 2012 emission limits, as long as measurement detection limits are lower than the Ontario Hydro method. SCEM testing was able to verify the low emissions. For ACI to perform at this level, process conditions need to match those obtained during testing.

Michael D. Durham

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Optimizing Techology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

More than 56,000 coal quality data records from five public data sets have been selected for use in this project. These data will be used to create maps showing where coals with low mercury and acid-gas emissions might be found for power plants classified by air-pollution controls. Average coal quality values, calculated for 51,156 commercial coals by U.S. county-of-origin, are listed in the appendix. Coal moisture values are calculated for commercially shipped coal from 163 U.S. counties, where the raw assay data (including mercury and chlorine values) are reported on a dry basis. The calculated moisture values are verified by comparison with observed moisture values in commercial coal. Moisture in commercial U.S. coal shows provincial variation. For example, high volatile C bituminous rank coal from the Interior province has 3% to 4% more moisture than equivalent Rocky Mountain province coal. Mott-Spooner difference values are calculated for 4,957 data records for coals collected from coal mines and exploration drill holes. About 90% of the records have Mott-Spooner difference values within {+-}250 Btu/lb.

Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

2004-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

111

Impact of additives for enhanced sulfur dioxide removal on re-emissions of mercury in wet flue gas desulfurization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The wet flue gas desulfurization process (FGD) in fossil fired power plants offers the advantage of simultaneously removing SO2 and other water soluble pollutants, such as certain oxidized mercury compounds (Hg2+). In order to maximize SO2 removal efficiency of installed FGD units, organic additives can be utilized. In the context of multi-pollutant control by wet FGD, the effect of formic and adipic acid on redox reactions of dissolved mercury compounds is investigated with a continuously operated lab-scale test-rig. For sulfite ( SO 3 2 - ) concentrations above a certain critical value, their potential as reducing agent leads to rapidly increasing formation and re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg0). Increasing chloride concentration and decreasing pH and slurry temperature have been identified as key factors for depressing Hg0 re-emissions. Both organic additives have a negative impact on Hg-retention and cause increased Hg0 re-emissions in the wet FGD process, with formic acid being the significantly stronger reducing agent. Different pathways of Hg2+ reduction were identified by qualitative interpretation of the pH-dependence and by comparison of activation enthalpies and activation entropies. While the first mechanism proposed identifies SO 3 2 - as reducing agent and is therefore relevant for any FGD process, the second mechanism involves the formate anion, thus being exclusively relevant for \\{FGDs\\} utilizing formic acid as additive.

Barna Heidel; Melanie Hilber; Gnter Scheffknecht

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Socioeconomic Drivers of Mercury Emissions in China from 1992 to 2007  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results show that changes in per capita GDP and GDP composition led to increased emissions which offset the reduction of emissions made possible by technology-induced decrease of mercury emissions intensity and changes in final demand mix. ... net economic benefits of biodiesel from these four feedstocks are 2.3-52.0% of their life cycle energy demands and 74.1-448.4% of their economic costs, resp. ...

Sai Liang; Ming Xu; Zhu Liu; Sangwon Suh; Tianzhu Zhang

2013-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

113

Trend analysis from 1970 to 2008 and model evaluation of EDGARv4 global gridded anthropogenic mercury emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) provides a time-series of man-made emissions of greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970 to 2008. Mercury is included in EDGARv4.tox1, ...

Muntean, Marilena

114

FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and has an electrostatic precipitator for particulate control. Alabama Power Company will host a fourth test at its Plant Gaston, which is equipped with a hot-side electrostatic precipitator and a downstream fabric filter.

Michael D. Durham

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Predictable SCR co-benefits for mercury control  

SciTech Connect

A test program, performed in cooperation with Dominion Power and the Babcock and Wilcox Co., was executed at Dominion Power's Mount Storm power plant in Grant County, W. Va. The program was focused on both the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst capability to oxide mercury as well as the scrubber's capability to capture and retain the oxidized mercury. This article focuses on the SCR catalyst performance aspects. The Mount Storm site consists of three units totaling approximately 1,660 MW. All units are equipped with SCR systems for NOx control. A full-scale test to evaluate the effect of the SCR was performed on Unit 2, a 550 MWT-fired boiler firing a medium sulfur bituminous coal. This test program demonstrated that the presence of an SCR catalyst can significantly affect the mercury speciation profile. Observation showed that in the absence of an SCR catalyst, the extent of oxidation of element a mercury at the inlet of the flue gas desulfurization system was about 64%. The presence of a Cornertech SCR catalyst improved this oxidation to levels greater than 95% almost all of which was captured by the downstream wet FGD system. Cornertech's proprietary SCR Hg oxidation model was used to accurately predict the field results. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Pritchard, S. [Cormtech Inc. (USA)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

Control of mercury methylation in wetlands through iron addition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mason, R. P. ; Flegal, A. R. , Mercury speciation in the SanP. ; Flegal, A. R. , Decadal mercury trends in San FranciscoP. G. ; Nelson, D. C. , Mercury methylation from unexpected

Sedlak, David L; Ulrich, Patrick D

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Control of air pollution emissions from municipal waste combustors  

SciTech Connect

The November 1990 Clear Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) directed EPA to establish municipal waste combustor (MWC) emissions limits for particulate matter, opacity, hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, dioxins, dibenzofurans, cadmium, lead, and mercury. Revised MWC air pollution regulations were subsequently proposed by EPA on September 20, 1994, and promulgated on December 19, 1995. The MWC emission limits were based on the application of maximum achievable control technology (MACT). This paper provides a brief overview of MWC technologies, a summary of EPA`s revised air pollution rules for MWCs, a review of current knowledge concerning formation and control of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and a discussion of the behavior and control of mercury in MWC flue gases. 56 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Kolgroe, J.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Risk Management Research Lab.; Licata, A. [Licata Energy and Environmental Consultants, Inc., Yonkers, NY (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal  

SciTech Connect

The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

2009-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

119

Impact of Closing Canadas Largest Point-Source of Mercury Emissions on Local Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(29) Solar radiation measurements at the airport were initiated in August 2010. ... Steffen, A.; Schroeder, W. Standard Operating Procedures for Total Gaseous Mercury MeasurementsCanadian Atmospheric Mercury Measurement Network (CAMNet); Environment Canada: Toronto, Canada, 1999. ...

Chris S. Eckley; Matthew T. Parsons; Rachel Mintz; Monique Lapalme; Maxwell Mazur; Robert Tordon; Robert Elleman; Jennifer A. Graydon; Pierrette Blanchard; Vincent St Louis

2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

120

Mercury mass balance at a wastewater treatment plant employing sludge incineration with offgas mercury control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efforts to reduce the deliberate use of mercury (Hg) in modern industrialized societies have been largely successful, but the minimization and control of Hg in waste streams are of continuing importance. Municipal wastewater treatment plants are collection points for domestic, commercial, and industrial wastewaters, and Hg removal during wastewater treatment is essential for protecting receiving waters. Subsequent control of the Hg removed is also necessary to preclude environmental impacts. We present here a mass balance for Hg at a large metropolitan wastewater treatment plant that has recently been upgraded to provide for greater control of the Hg entering the plant. The upgrade included a new fluidized bed sludge incineration facility equipped with activated carbon addition and baghouse carbon capture for the removal of Hg from the incinerator offgas. Our results show that Hg discharges to air and water from the plant represented less than 5% of the mass of Hg entering the plant, while the remaining Hg was captured in the ash/carbon residual stream exiting the new incineration process. Sub-optimum baghouse operation resulted in some of the Hg escaping collection there and accumulating with the ash/carbon particulate matter in the secondary treatment tanks. Overall, the treatment process is effective in removing Hg from wastewater and sequestering it in a controllable stream for secure disposal.

Steven J. Balogh; Yabing H. Nollet

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mercury emissions control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Brayton Point Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of the impacts of future mercury regulations to Brayton Point Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has variable (29-75%) native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables and activated carbon on mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included: (1) Plant and PG&E National Energy Group corporate personnel; (2) Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); (3) United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL); (4) ADA-ES, Inc.; (5) NORIT Americas, Inc.; (6) Apogee Scientific, Inc.; (7) TRC Environmental Corporation; (8) URS Corporation; (9) Quinapoxet Solutions; (10) Energy and Environmental Strategies (EES); and (11) Reaction Engineering International (REI). The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall, the objectives of this field test program were to determine the impact of activated carbon injection on mercury control and balance-of-plant processes on Brayton Point Unit 1. Brayton Point Unit 1 is a 250-MW unit that fires a low-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. Particulate control is achieved by two electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) in series. The full-scale tests were conducted on one-half of the flue gas stream (nominally 125 MW). Mercury control sorbents were injected in between the two ESPs. The residence time from the injection grid to the second ESP was approximately 0.5 seconds. In preparation for the full-scale tests, 12 different sorbents were evaluated in a slipstream of flue gas via a packed-bed field test apparatus for mercury adsorption. Results from these tests were used to determine the five carbon-based sorbents that were tested at full-scale. Conditions of interest that were varied included SO{sub 3} conditioning on/off, injection concentrations, and distribution spray patterns. The original test plan called for parametric testing of NORIT FGD carbon at 1, 3, and 10 lbs/MMacf. These injection concentrations were estimated based on results from the Pleasant Prairie tests that showed no additional mercury removal when injection concentrations were increased above 10 lbs/MMacf. The Brayton Point parametric test data indicated that higher injection concentrations would achieve higher removal efficiencies and should be tested. The test plan was altered to include testing at 20 lbs/MMacf. The first test at this higher rate showed very high removal across the second ESP (>80%). Unlike the ''ceiling'' phenomenon witnessed at Pleasant Prairie, increasing sorbent injection concentration resulted in further capture of vapor-phase mercury. The final phase of field-testing was a 10-day period of continuous injection of NORIT FGD carbon. During the first five days, the injection concentration was held at 10 lbs/MMacf, followed by nominally five days of testing at an injection concentration of 20 lbs/MMacf. The mercury removal, as measured by the semi-continuous emission monitors (S-CEM), varied between 78% and 95% during the 10 lbs/MMacf period and increased to >97% when the injection concentration was increased to 20 lbs/MMacf. During the long-term testing period, mercury measurements following EPA's draft Ontario Hydro method were conducted by TRC Environmental Corporation at both 10 and 20 lbs/MMacf test conditions. The Ontario Hydro data showed that the particulate mercury removal was similar between the two conditions of 10 or 20 lbs/MMacf and removal efficiencies were greater than 99%. Elemental mercury was not detected in any samples, so no conclusions as to its removal can be drawn. Removal of oxidized mercury, on the other hand, increased from 68% to 93% with the higher injection concentration. These removal rates agreed well with the S-CEM results.

Michael D. Durham

2005-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

122

Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems or GDI Engines Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems or GDI Engines 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

123

NETL: CO2 Emissions Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > CO2 Emissions Control Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > CO2 Emissions Control Innovations for Existing Plants CO2 Emissions Control RD&D Roadmap Technology Update DOE/NETL Advanced CO2 Capture R&D Program: Technology Update DOE/NETL Advanced CO2 Capture R&D Program Accomplishments DOE/NETL Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage RD&D Roadmap 2013 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting Presentations DOE/NETL's Monthly Carbon Sequestration Newsletter Program Goals and Targets Pre-Combustion CO2 Control Post-Combustion CO2 Control Advanced Combustion CO2 Compression Other Systems Analysis Regulatory Drivers Reference Shelf Carbon capture involves the separation of CO2 from coal-based power plant flue gas or syngas. There are commercially available 1st-Generation CO2

124

Emission control technology  

SciTech Connect

Environmental protection is indispensable for preserving the earth for later generations. Indeed, industrial development has made our life rich; however, it also accelerates environmental pollution. Above all, such global problems as acid rain caused by SOx and NOx emissions and air pollution caused by particulates have become serious in recent years. Countermeasures currently in service or under development for these problems include: upgrading of fuel-burning systems; conversion of energy sources to clean fuels; pretreatment of fuels; and flue gas treatment. This chapter focuses on technologies that treat flue gases including the circumstances of the development of the technologies.

Yamaguchi, Fumihiko

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

125

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Emissions Control Emissions Control Requirement to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Emissions Control Requirement on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Emissions Control Requirement Heavy-duty diesel vehicles used to perform federally funded state public works contracts must be powered by engines with Level 3 emissions control

126

Activated carbon injection - a mercury control success story  

SciTech Connect

Almost 100 full-scale activated carbon injection (ACI) systems have been ordered by US electric utilities. These systems have the potential to remove over 90% of the mercury in flue, at a cost below $10,000 per pound of mercury removal. Field trials of ACI systems arm outlined. 1 fig.

NONE

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Field Evaluation of MERCEM Mercury Emission Analyzer System at the Oak Ridge TSCA Incinerator East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The authors reached the following conclusions: (1) The two-month evaluation of the MERCEM total mercury monitor from Perkin Elmer provided a useful venue in determining the feasibility of using a CEM to measure total mercury in a saturated flue gas. (2) The MERCEM exhibited potential at a mixed waste incinerator to meet requirements proposed in PS12 under conditions of operation with liquid feeds only at stack mercury concentrations in the range of proposed MACT standards. (3) Performance of the MERCEM under conditions of incinerating solid and liquid wastes simultaneously was less reliable than while feeding liquid feeds only for the operating conditions and configuration of the host facility. (4) The permeation tube calibration method used in this test relied on the CEM internal volumetric and time constants to relate back to a concentration, whereas a compressed gas cylinder concentration is totally independent of the analyzer mass flowmeter and flowrates. (5) Mercury concentration in the compressed gas cylinders was fairly stable over a 5-month period. (6) The reliability of available reference materials was not fully demonstrated without further evaluation of their incorporation into routine operating procedures performed by facility personnel. (7) The degree of mercury control occurring in the TSCA Incinerator off-gas cleaning system could not be quantified from the data collected in this study. (8) It was possible to conduct the demonstration at a facility incinerating radioactively contaminated wastes and to release the equipment for later unrestricted use elsewhere. (9) Experience gained by this testing answered additional site-specific and general questions regarding the operation and maintenance of CEMs and their use in compliance monitoring of total mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators.

None

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

E-Print Network 3.0 - applying mercury control Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

with source type and emissions control technology. Emission controls for other pollutants... from fossil fuel energy sources and implementation of efficient control...

129

Evaluation of Control Strategies to Effectively Meet 70-90% Mercury Reduction on an Eastern Bituminous Coal Cyclone Boiler with SCR  

SciTech Connect

This is the final site report for testing conducted at Public Service of New Hampshire's (PSNH) Merrimack Unit 2 (MK2). This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase III project with the goal to develop mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. While results from testing at Merrimack indicate that the DOE goal was partially achieved, further improvements in the process are recommended. Merrimack burned a test blend of eastern bituminous and Venezuelan coals, for a target coal sulfur content of 1.2%, in its 335-MW Unit 2. The blend ratio is approximately a 50/50 split between the two coals. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on the flue gas stream either in front of the air preheater (APH) or in between the two in-series ESPs. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that, without SO3 control, the sorbent concentration required to achieve 50% control would not be feasible, either economically or within constraints specific to the maximum reasonable particle loading to the ESP. Subsequently, with SO{sub 3} control via trona injection upstream of the APH, economically feasible mercury removal rates could be achieved with PAC injection, excepting balance-of-plant concerns. The results are summarized along with the impacts of the dual injection process on the air heater, ESP operation, and particulate emissions.

Tom Campbell

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

130

Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Oxides Emission Control Options for Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers Ravi K. Srivastava and Robert E. Hall U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Research Triangle Park, NC Sikander Khan and Kevin Culligan U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, Clean Air Markets Division, Washington, DC Bruce W. Lani U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Environmental Projects Division, Pittsburgh, PA ABSTRACT Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increas- ingly important to implement state-of-the-art NO x con- trol technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NO x control

131

Release of Ammonium and Mercury from NOx Controlled Fly Ash  

SciTech Connect

One of the goals of the Department of Energy is to increase the reuse of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) to 50% by 2010. This will require both developing new markets and maintaining traditional ones such as the use of fly ash in concrete. However, the addition of pollution control devices can introduce side-effects that affect the marketability of the CUB. Such can be the case when NOx control is achieved using selective catalytic or non-catalytic reduction (SCR or SNCR). Depending on site-specific details, the ammonia slip can cause elevated levels of NH3 in the fly ash. Disposal of ammoniated fly ash can present environmental concerns related to the amount of ammonia that might be released, the amount of water that might become contaminated, and the extent to which metals might be mobilized by the presence of the ammonia. Ammonia retained in fly ash appears to be present as either an ammonium salt or as a chemisorbed species. Mercury in the leachates correlated to neither the amount of leachable ammonium nor to the total amount of Hg in the ash. The strongest correlation was between the decreases in the amount of Hg leached with increased LOI.

Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; Kim, A.G

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Investigation and Demonstration of Dry Carbon-Based Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

Public Service Company of Colorado and ADA Technologies, Inc. have performed a study of the injection of activated carbon for the removal of vapor-phase mercury from coal-fired flue gas streams. The project was completed under contract to the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with contributions from EPRI and Public Service Company. The prime contractor for the project was Public Service Company, with ADA Technologies as the major subcontractor providing technical support to all aspects of the project. The research and development effort was conducted in two phases. In Phase I a pilot facility was fabricated and tests were performed using dry carbon-based sorbent injection for mercury control on a coal-fired flue gas slipstream extracted from an operating power plant. Phase II was designed to move carbon injection technology towards commercial application on coal-fired power plants by addressing key reliability and operability concerns. Phase II field work included further development work with the Phase I pilot and mercury measurements on several of PSCo's coal-fired generating units. In addition, tests were run on collected sorbent plus fly ash to evaluate the impact of the activated carbon sorbent on the disposal of fly ash. An economic analysis was performed where pilot plant test data was used to develop a model to predict estimated costs of mercury removal from plants burning western coals. Testing in the pilot plant was undertaken to quantify the effects of plant configuration, flue gas temperature, and activated carbon injection rate on mercury removal. All three variables were found to significantly impact the mercury removal efficiency in the pilot. The trends were clear: mercury removal rates increased with decreasing flue gas temperature and with increasing carbon injection rates. Mercury removal was much more efficient with reverse-gas and pulse-jet baghouse configurations than with an ESP as the particulate control device. The native fly ash of the host unit provided significant mercury removal capacity, so that the activated carbon sorbent served as an incremental mercury removal mechanism. Tests run to characterize the waste product, a combination of fly ash and activated carbon on which mercury was present, showed that mercury and other RCRA metals of interest were all below Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) regulatory limits in the leachate. The presence of activated carbon in the fly ash was shown to have an effect on the use of fly ash as an additive in the manufacture of concrete, which could limit the salability of fly ash from a plant where activated carbon was used for mercury control.

Jim Butz; Terry Hunt

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.  

SciTech Connect

A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content. Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around two mid-size coal fired power plants. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot-spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. These programs found the following: (1) At both sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Kincaid plant, there was excess soil Hg along heavily traveled roads. The spatial pattern of soil mercury concentrations did not match the pattern of vegetation Hg concentrations at either plant. (2) At both sites, the subsurface (5-10 cm) samples the Hg concentration correlated strongly with the surface samples (0-5 cm). Average subsurface sample concentrations were slightly less than the surface samples; however, the difference was not statistically significant. (3) An unequivocal definition of background Hg was not possible at either site. Using various assumed background soil mercury concentrations, the percentage of mercury deposited within 10 km of the plant ranged between 1.4 and 8.5% of the RGM emissions. Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. Estimates of the percentage of total Hg deposition ranged between 0.3 and 1.7%. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the empirical findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to ''hot spots'', near the plants. The major objective of this study was to determine if there was evidence for ''hot-spots'' of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. Although the term has been used extensively, it has never been defined. From a public health perspective, such a ''hot spot'' must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must affect water bodies large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study support the hypothesis that n

SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Dissolved Organic Matter Kinetically Controls Mercury Bioavailability to Bacteria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Predicting the bioavailability of inorganic mercury (Hg) to bacteria that produce the potent bioaccumulative neurotoxin monomethylmercury remains one of the greatest challenges in predicting the environmental fate and transport of Hg. Dissolved organic ...

Sophie A. Chiasson-Gould; Jules M. Blais; Alexandre J. Poulain

2014-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

135

Mercury control challenge for industrial boiler MACT affected facilities  

SciTech Connect

An industrial coal-fired boiler facility conducted a test program to evaluate the effectiveness of sorbent injection on mercury removal ahead of a fabric filter with an inlet flue gas temperature of 375{sup o}F. The results of the sorbent injection testing are essentially inconclusive relative to providing the facility with enough data upon which to base the design and implementation of permanent sorbent injection system(s). The mercury removal performance of the sorbents was significantly less than expected. The data suggests that 50 percent mercury removal across a baghouse with flue gas temperatures at or above 375{sup o}F and containing moderate levels of SO{sub 3} may be very difficult to achieve with activated carbon sorbent injection alone. The challenge many coal-fired industrial facilities may face is the implementation of additional measures beyond sorbent injection to achieve high levels of mercury removal that will likely be required by the upcoming new Industrial Boiler MACT rule. To counter the negative effects of high flue gas temperature on mercury removal with sorbents, it may be necessary to retrofit additional boiler heat transfer surface or spray cooling of the flue gas upstream of the baghouse. Furthermore, to counter the negative effect of moderate or high SO{sub 3} levels in the flue gas on mercury removal, it may be necessary to also inject sorbents, such as trona or hydrated lime, to reduce the SO{sub 3} concentrations in the flue gas. 2 refs., 1 tab.

NONE

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

136

NETL: CCPI - TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Environmental Control Devices - Multi-Pollutant Control Technologies Environmental Control Devices - Multi-Pollutant Control Technologies TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control on Three 90 MW Coal-Fired Boilers - Project Brief [PDF-63KB] Wisconsin Electric Power Company, Marquette, Michigan PROJECT FACT SHEET TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control on Three 90 MW Coal-Fired Boilers [PDF-761KB] (May 2011) PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS Final Report TOXECON Retrofit for Mercury and Multi-Pollutant Control on Three 90 MW Coal-Fired Boilers Final Report [PDF-113MB] (Apr 2004 - Sept 2009) Quarterly Progress Reports January - March 2009 [PDF-970KB] (Apr 2009) October -December 2008 [PDF-3MB] (Jan 2009) July - September 2008 [PDF-630KB] (Oct 2008) April - June 2008 [PDF-1.5MB] (July 2008) January - March 2008 [PDF-610KB] (Apr 2008)

137

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - NOx Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emissions from Multi-Burners Emissions from Multi-Burners The University of Utah working with Reaction Engineering International and Brigham Young University is investigating a project that consists of integrated experimental, theoretical and computational modeling efforts. The primary objective is to evaluate NOx formation/destruction processes as they occur in multi-burner arrays, a geometry almost always utilized in utility practice. Most controlled experimental work examining NOx has been conducted on single burners. The range of potential intra-burner interactions are likely to provide added degrees of freedom for reducing NOx. The resultant findings may allow existing utilities to arrange fuel and air distribution to minimize NOx. In new applications, orientation of individual burners within an array may also be altered to reduce NOx. Comprehensive combustion codes will be modified to incorporate the latest submodels of nitrogen release and heterogeneous chemistry. Comparison of pilot scale experiments and simulations will be utilized to validate/develop theory.

138

INVESTIGATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF DRY CARBON-BASED SORBENT INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report describes the activities that have taken place during the first full quarter of the Phase II project ''Investigation and Demonstration of Dry Carbon-Based Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control''. Modifications were completed and sampling began at the 600 acfm pilot-scale particulate control module (PCM) located at the Comanche Station in Pueblo, CO. The PCM was configured as an electrostatic precipitator for these tests. A Perkin-Elmer flue gas mercury analyzer was installed on-site and operated. Initial test results using both manual sampling methodology and the mercury analyzer are presented herein. Preparations were made during this period for full-scale mercury testing of several PSCo units. A site visit was made to Arapahoe and Cherokee Generating Stations to determine sample locations and to develop a test plan.

Terry Hunt; Mark Fox; Lillian Stan; Sheila Haythornthwaite; Justin Smith; Jason Ruhl

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION  

SciTech Connect

Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2005-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

140

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION  

SciTech Connect

Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley Region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley Region.

Kevin Crist

2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mercury emissions control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region  

SciTech Connect

As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by the USEPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2006-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

142

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION  

SciTech Connect

Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2004-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

143

Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region  

SciTech Connect

Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technologies Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2005-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

144

EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION  

SciTech Connect

Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal-fired power plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport mechanisms; (4) comparison of cross correlations between species from the model results to observations in order to evaluate characteristics of specific air masses associated with long-range transport from a specified source region; and (5) evaluation of the sensitivity of these correlations to emissions from regions along the transport path. This will be accomplished by multiple model runs with emissions simulations switched on and off from the various source regions. To the greatest extent possible, model results will also be compared to field data collected at other air monitoring sites in the Ohio Valley Region, operated independently of this project. These sites may include (1) the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory's monitoring site at its suburban Pittsburgh, PA facility; (2) sites in Pittsburgh (Lawrenceville) PA and Holbrook, PA operated by ATS; (3) sites in Steubenville, OH and Pittsburgh, PA operated by U.S. EPA and/or its contractors; and (4) sites operated by State or local air regulatory agencies. Field verification of model results and predictions will provide critical information for the development of cost effective air pollution control strategies by the coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region.

Kevin Crist

2004-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

145

Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP Sorbent InjectIon for Small eSP mercury control In low Sulfur eaStern bItumInouS coal flue GaS Background Full-scale field testing has demonstrated the effectiveness of activated carbon injection (ACI) as a mercury-specific control technology for certain coal-fired power plants, depending on the plant's coal feedstock and existing air pollution control device configuration. In a typical configuration, powdered activated carbon (PAC) is injected downstream of the plant's air heater and upstream of the existing particulate control device - either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter (FF). The PAC adsorbs the mercury from the combustion flue gas and is subsequently captured along with the fly ash in the ESP or FF. ACI can have some negative side

146

Online YPA4 Resin Microcolumn Separation/Preconcentration Coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) for the Speciation Analysis of Mercury in Seafood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Online YPA4 Resin Microcolumn Separation/Preconcentration Coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) for the Speciation Analysis of Mercury in Seafood ... The developed method was applied to the determination of mercury species in real seafoods with satisfactory results. ...

Chaomei Xiong; Bin Hu

2007-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

147

Modeling of Lean Exhaust Emissions Control Systems | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Lean Exhaust Emissions Control Systems Modeling of Lean Exhaust Emissions Control Systems 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: National Renewable Energy Laboratory...

148

MERCURY SPECIATION SAMPLING AT NEW CENTURY ENERGY'S VALMONT STATION  

SciTech Connect

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the ''Mercury Study Report to Congress'' and ''Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units''. The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam electric generating units. Although these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required given the current state of the art, they did indicate that the EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. Therefore, it was concluded that mercury controls at some point may be necessary. EPA also indicated that additional research/information was necessary before any definitive statement could be made. In an effort to determine the amount and types of mercury being emitted into the atmosphere by coal-fired power plants, EPA in late 1998 issued an information collection request (ICR) that required all coal-fired power plants to analyze their coal and submit the results to EPA on a quarterly basis. In addition, about 85 power stations were required to measure the speciated mercury concentration in the flue gas. These plants were selected on the basis of plant configuration and coal type. The Valmont Station owned and operated by New Century Energy in Boulder, Colorado, was selected for detailed mercury speciation of the flue gas as part of the ICR process. New Century Energy, in a tailored collaboration with EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy, contracted with the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to do a study evaluating the behavior of mercury at the Valmont Station. The activities conducted at the Valmont Station by the EERC not only included the sampling needed to meet the requirements of the ICR, but involved a much more extensive mercury research program. The following objectives for the sampling at New Century Energy's Valmont Station were accomplished: (1) Successfully complete all of the mercury sampling and reporting requirements of the ICR. (2) Determine the variability in mercury concentrations at the stack using mercury continuous emission monitors (CEMs). (3) Calculate mercury mass balances and emission rates. (4) Determine the mercury concentration in the fly ash as a function of particle size. (5) Determine the impact of a fabric filter on mercury emissions for a western bituminous coal.

Dennis L. Laudal

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

North Dakota lignite-fired power plants have shown a limited ability to control mercury emissions in currently installed electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), dry scrubbers, and wet scrubbers (1). This low level of control can be attributed to the high proportions of Hg{sup 0} present in the flue gas. Speciation of Hg in flue gases analyzed as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) information collection request (ICR) for Hg data showed that Hg{sup 0} ranged from 56% to 96% and oxidized mercury ranged from 4% to 44%. The Hg emitted from power plants firing North Dakota lignites ranged from 45% to 91% of the total Hg, with the emitted Hg being greater than 85% elemental. The higher levels of oxidized mercury were only found in a fluidized-bed combustion system. Typically, the form of Hg in the pulverized and cyclone-fired units was dominated by Hg{sup 0} at greater than 85%, and the average amount of Hg{sup 0} emitted from North Dakota power plants was 6.7 lb/TBtu (1, 2). The overall objective of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is to develop and evaluate advanced and innovative concepts for controlling Hg emissions from North Dakota lignite-fired power plants by 50%-90% at costs of one-half to three-fourths of current estimated costs. The specific objectives are focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in wet and dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in ESPs and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The scientific approach to solving the problems associated with controlling Hg emissions from lignite-fired power plants involves conducting testing of the following processes and technologies that have shown promise on a bench, pilot, or field scale: (1) activated carbon injection (ACI) upstream of an ESP combined with sorbent enhancement, (2) Hg oxidation and control using wet and dry scrubbers, (3) enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel (TDF) and oxidizing catalysts, and (4) testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter insert.

Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Mike J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang; Jill M. Zola

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Review of Diesel Emission Control Technology  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Diesel Emission Control Technology Tim Johnson August 2002 2 Outline * Introduction - Regulatory update and technology approaches * Ultrafines * Filters * NOx - LNC - SCR - LNT *...

151

Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems  

SciTech Connect

This project was awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41718-01. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) led a consortium-based effort to resolve mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. The EERC team-the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the URS Corporation; the Babcock & Wilcox Company; ADA-ES; Apogee; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Otter Tail Power Company; Great River Energy; Texas Utilities; Montana-Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.; BNI Coal Ltd.; Dakota Westmoreland Corporation; the North American Coal Corporation; SaskPower; and the North Dakota Industrial Commission-demonstrated technologies that substantially enhanced the effectiveness of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from western fuel combustion gases and achieve a high level ({ge} 55% Hg removal) of cost-effective control. The results of this effort are applicable to virtually all utilities burning lignite and subbituminous coals in the United States and Canada. The enhancement processes were previously proven in pilot-scale and limited full-scale tests. Additional optimization testing continues on these enhancements. These four units included three lignite-fired units: Leland Olds Station Unit 1 (LOS1) and Stanton Station Unit 10 (SS10) near Stanton and Antelope Valley Station Unit 1 (AVS1) near Beulah and a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB)-fired unit: Stanton Station Unit 1 (SS1). This project was one of three conducted by the consortium under the DOE mercury program to systematically test Hg control technologies available for utilities burning lignite. The overall objective of the three projects was to field-test and verify options that may be applied cost-effectively by the lignite industry to reduce Hg emissions. The EERC, URS, and other team members tested sorbent injection technologies for plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and spray dryer absorbers combined with fabric filters (SDAs-FFs). The work focused on technology commercialization by involving industry and emphasizing the communication of results to vendors and utilities throughout the project.

Chad Wocken; Michael Holmes; John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Katie Brandt; Brandon Pavlish; Dennis Laudal; Kevin Galbreath; Michelle Olderbak

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

152

DOE/NETL's Mercury Control Technology R&D Program Review  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE/NETL's Mercury Control Technology R&D Program Review DOE/NETL's Mercury Control Technology R&D Program Review July 14-15, 2004 Table of Contents Disclaimer Papers and Presentations Program Review Overview Sorbent Injection Research Panel Discussion: Sorbent Injection for Hg Control Mercury Control Technology R&D I Poster Session Mercury Control Technology R&D II By-Product Characterization Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government or any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

153

NETL: CO2 Emissions Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Systems Analysis Systems Analysis DOE/NETL possesses strong systems analysis and policy-support capabilities. Systems analysis in support of the Innovations for Existing Plants Program consists of conducting various energy analyses that provide input to decisions on issues such as national plans and programs, resource use, environmental and energy security policies, technology options for research and development programs, and paths to deployment of energy technology. This work includes technology, benefits, and current situation and trends analyses related to CO2 emissions control. Systems analyses and economic modeling of potential new processes are crucial to providing sound guidance to R&D efforts. Since the majority of new CO2 capture technologies are still at a bench scale level of development, a conceptual design is first generated with emphasis on mass and energy balances. Based on available data and/or engineering estimates, these systems are optimized, and "what-if" scenarios are evaluated to identify barriers to deployment and help the process developers establish system performance targets. Reports that have been generated describing systems analyses in support of carbon capture efforts are shown in the table below.

154

Long-Term Column Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products  

SciTech Connect

An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. The stability of mercury and any co-captured elements in the by-products could have a large economic impact if it reduced by-product sales or increasing their disposal costs. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed continuous leaching of a select subset of the available sample pairs using four leachants: water (pH=5.7), dilute sulfuric acid (pH=1.2), dilute acetic acid (pH=2.9), and sodium carbonate (pH=11.1). This report describes results obtained for mercury, arsenic, and selenium during the 5-month leaching experiments.

Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; White, Fredrick; Rohar, P.C.; Kim, A.G

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Fine Particle and Mercury Formation and Control during Coal Combustion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Pulverized coal combustion is widely used worldwide for the production of electricity. However, it is one of the primary emission sources of air pollutants, including (more)

Wang, Xiaofei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton  

SciTech Connect

The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being sorbed onto the CCB when exposed to ambient-temperature air. The environmental performance of the mercury captured on AC used as a sorbent for mercury emission control technologies indicated that current CCB management options will continue to be sufficiently protective of the environment, with the potential exception of exposure to elevated temperatures. The environmental performance of the other ATEs investigated indicated that current management options will be appropriate to the CCBs produced using AC in mercury emission controls.

David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

157

Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Heng Ban Heng Ban Principal Investigator University of Alabama at Birmingham 1150 10th Avenue South Birmingham, AL 35294-4461 205-934-0011 hban@uab.edu Environmental and Water Resources OxidatiOn Of Mercury in PrOducts Of cOal cOMbustiOn Background The 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. A variety of mercury reduction technologies are under commercial development, but an improved understanding of the fundamental chemical mechanisms that control the transformations and capture of mercury in boilers and pollution control devices is required to achieve necessary performance and cost reduction levels. Oxidized mercury is more easily captured by pollution control devices, such as Selective

158

Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT? Emission Control System...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Johnson Matthey Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT EGRT (tm) (tm) Emission Control System Emission Control System for for NOx NOx and PM Emission and PM Emission Reduction in...

159

Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT? Emission Control System...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT Emission Control System for NOx and PM Emission Reduction in Retrofit Applications Part 1 Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT Emission...

160

EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), evaluated the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)-wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber-fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL determined mercury speciation and removal at 10 bituminous coal-fired facilities; at four of these facilities, additional tests were performed on units without SCR, or with the existing SCR bypassed. This project final report summarizes the results and discusses the findings of the body of work as a whole. Eleven Topical Reports were issued (prior to this report) that describe in great detail the sampling results at each of the ten power plants individually. The results showed that the SCR-FGD combination removed a substantial fraction of mercury from flue gas. The coal-to-stack mercury removals ranged from 65% to 97% for the units with SCR and from 53% to 87% for the units without SCR. There was no indication that any type of FGD system was more effective at mercury removal than others. The coal-to-stack mercury removal and the removal in the wet scrubber were both negatively correlated with the elemental mercury content of the flue gas and positively correlated with the scrubber liquid chloride concentration. The coal chlorine content was not a statistically significant factor in either case. Mercury removal in the ESP was positively correlated with the fly ash carbon content and negatively correlated with the flue gas temperature. At most of the units, a substantial fraction (>35%) of the flue gas mercury was in the elemental form at the boiler economizer outlet. After passing through the SCR-air heater combination very little of the total mercury (<10%) remained in the elemental form in the flue gas; this was true for all SCR catalyst types and sources. Although chlorine has been suggested as a factor affecting the mercury speciation in flue gas, coal chlorine was not a statistically significant factor affecting mercury speciation at the economizer exit or at the air heater exit. The only statistically significant factors were the coal ash CaO content and the fly ash carbon content; the fraction of mercury in the elemental form at the economizer exit was positively correlated with both factors. In a direct comparison at four SCR-equipped units vs. similar units at the same sites without SCR (or with the SCR bypassed), the elemental mercury fractions (measured at the ESP outlet) were lower, and the coal-to-stack mercury removals were higher, when the SCR was present and operating. The average coal-to-stack mercury removal at the four units without an operating SCR was 72%, whereas the average removal at the same sites with operating SCRs was 88%. The unit mercury mass balance (a gauge of the overall quality of the tests) at all of the units ranged from 81% to 113%, which were within our QA/QC criterion of 80-120%.

J.A. Withum

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mercury emissions control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Variable emissivity laser thermal control system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall mperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser.

Milner, Joseph R. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale J. P. Fox, J. J. Duvall,of elements in rich oil shales of the Green River Formation,V. E . 1977; Mercury in Oil Shale from the Mahogany Zone

Fox, J. P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

measured mercury levels in shale gases and waters. The TLV'srecovery shale Spent shale gas (wet) CS~35 cs~s6 CS-57 CS-59on large areas of the shale bed if gas channeling and

Fox, J. P.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Advanced Petroleum-Based fuels - Diesel Emissions Control (APBF...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Petroleum-Based fuels - Diesel Emissions Control (APBF-DEC) Activity Advanced Petroleum-Based fuels - Diesel Emissions Control (APBF-DEC) Activity 2003 DEER Conference...

165

Urea/Ammonia Distribution Optimization in an SCR Emission Control...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

UreaAmmonia Distribution Optimization in an SCR Emission Control System Through the Use of CFD Analysis UreaAmmonia Distribution Optimization in an SCR Emission Control System...

166

Simplification of Diesel Emission Control System Packaging Using...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Simplification of Diesel Emission Control System Packaging Using SCR Coated on DPF Simplification of Diesel Emission Control System Packaging Using SCR Coated on DPF Study...

167

Optimization of an Advanced Passive/Active Diesel Emission Control...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

an Advanced PassiveActive Diesel Emission Control System Optimization of an Advanced PassiveActive Diesel Emission Control System Evaluation of PM exhaust aftertreatment...

168

Development and Deployment of Advanced Emission Controls for...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Deployment of Advanced Emission Controls for the Retrofit Market Development and Deployment of Advanced Emission Controls for the Retrofit Market 2003 DEER Conference Presentation:...

169

Strategies for Integrated Emission Control | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Integrated Emission Control Strategies for Integrated Emission Control A new filter system technology significantly reduces harmful pollutants, uses less precious metals, and...

170

Advanced PHEV Engine Systems and Emissions Control Modeling and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

PHEV Engine Systems and Emissions Control Modeling and Analysis Advanced PHEV Engine Systems and Emissions Control Modeling and Analysis 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program,...

171

Alloy Foam Diesel Emissions Control School Bus Implementation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Alloy Foam Diesel Emissions Control School Bus Implementation Alloy Foam Diesel Emissions Control School Bus Implementation Poster presentation from the 2007 Diesel...

172

Review of Diesel Emission Control Technology | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emission Control Technology 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Corning Inc. 2002deerjohnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel Emission Control Technology Review Update on...

173

Update on Diesel Exhaust Emission Control | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Exhaust Emission Control 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Corning, Inc. deer2003johnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Review of Diesel Emission Control Technology Update...

174

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for...

175

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced mercury control Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Francisco Estuary Institute Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 3 MERCURY POLLUTION PREVENTION IN MINNESOTA Emily Ray Moore Summary: applications Mercury in glass...

176

Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD  

SciTech Connect

Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

177

NETL: CO2 Emissions Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Post-Combustion CO2 Control Post-Combustion CO2 Control Post-combustion CO2 control systems separate CO2 from the flue gas produced by conventional coal combustion in air. The flue gas is at atmospheric pressure and has a CO2 concentration of 10-15 volume percent. Read More! Capturing CO2 under these conditions is challenging because: (1) the low pressure and dilute concentration dictate a high total volume of gas to be treated; (2) trace impurities in the flue gas tend to reduce the effectiveness of the CO2 separation processes; and (3) compressing captured CO2 from atmospheric pressure to pipeline pressure (1,200 - 2,200 pounds per square inch) represents a large parasitic energy load. Plant Picture DOE/NETL's post-combustion CO2 control technology R&D program includes

178

DOE-NETLs Mercury R&D Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE's DOE's Phase II Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program American Coal Council's 2005 Mercury & Multi- Emissions Conference March 22-24, 2005 St. Louis, MO Thomas J. Feeley, III thomas.feeley@netl.doe.gov National Energy Technology Laboratory MEC2_Ottawa_May 25 2005 Power Plant Mercury Control Baghouse or ESP FGD Boiler Stack Cleaning SCR Hg 75 ton/yr Hg in coal Current Emissions 48 ton/yr out stack Hg Hg Hg Hg 27 ton/yr Sorbent Injection Oxidizing Systems Hg Specific Control Co-Benefit Control ACS Monthly Meeting November 4 2004 DOE Mercury Control RD&D Portfolio Polishing Technology * MerCAP(tm) Sorbent Injection * Activated carbon * Amended silicates * Halogenated AC * Ca-based sorbents * Chemically treated sorbents * COHPAC/Toxecon(tm) * Thief sorbents Boiler * Combustion modification

179

DIesel Emission Control Technology Developments  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for on-road Applies to off-road and stationary engines in California Enables use of control technologies New Engine Standards 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 gbhp-hr N o C o n t r o l 1 9 8 8...

180

Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg.sup.196 enrichment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg.sup.196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mercury emissions control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg[sup 196] enrichment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg[sup 196] isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

Grossman, M.W.

1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

182

Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emission Control R&D to Emission Control R&D to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D on AddThis.com... Just the Basics Hybrid & Vehicle Systems Energy Storage Advanced Power Electronics & Electrical Machines Advanced Combustion Engines Combustion Engines Emission Control Waste Heat Recovery Fuels & Lubricants Materials Technologies Emission Control R&D

183

Mercury Emission from Co-Combustion of Sludge and Coal in a CFB Incinerator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study on co-combustion of sludge and coal were conducted in a circulating fluidized bed incinerator with the dense bed cross section area of 0.23m0.23m and the height of 7m. The mercury mass b...

Y. F. Duan; C. S. Zhao; C. J. Wu; Y. J. Wang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Emissions Control Failures in Passenger Cars  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 Emissions Control Failures in Passenger Cars Two measures of car model malfunction probability, fraction of cars over 1% CO (y-axis) and average CO concentration of all cars (x-axis), demonstrate that five 1987-89 car models (14 year-model combinations) have a malfunction probability several times that of all other models. When an automobile's emissions control system fails, it may be because that model is more prone to failure than others, according to a study conducted by the Center's Energy Analysis Program and Marc Ross of the University of Michigan. This finding goes against the conventional wisdom that improper maintenance or deliberate disabling of the emissions systems by car owners is the cause of "high-emitting" vehicles. The results may provide clean-air

185

IEP - Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Regulatory Drivers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP - Advanced NOx Emissions Control Regulatory Drivers Regulatory Drivers for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants Regulatory and legislative requirements have predominantly driven the need to develop NOx control technologies for existing coal-fired power plants. The first driver was the Title IV acid rain program, established through the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). This program included a two-phase strategy to reduce NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants – Phase I started January 1, 1996 and Phase II started January 1, 2000. The Title IV NOx program was implemented through unit-specific NOx emission rate limits ranging from 0.40 to 0.86 lb/MMBtu depending on the type of boiler/burner configuration and based on application of LNB technology.

186

Regulating mercury with the Clear Skies Act : the resulting impacts on innovation, human health, and the global community  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require the U.S. EPA to control mercury emission outputs from coal-burning power plants through implementation of MACT, Maximum Achievable Control Technology, standards. However, in 2003 ...

Sweeney, Meghan (Meghan Kathleen)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT? Emission Control System...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2 Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT Emission Control System for NOx and PM Emission Reduction in Retrofit Applications Part 2 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Johnson Matthey...

188

Analytical Framework to Evaluate Emission Control Systems for Marine Engines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Emissions from marine diesel engines are mainly uncontrolled and affect regional air quality and health of people living near ports. Many emission control strategies are (more)

Jayaram, Varalakshmi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Method and apparatus for controlling the flow rate of mercury in a flow system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for increasing the mercury flow rate to a photochemical mercury enrichment utilizing an entrainment system comprises the steps of passing a carrier gas over a pool of mercury maintained at a first temperature T1, wherein the carrier gas entrains mercury vapor; passing said mercury vapor entrained carrier gas to a second temperature zone T2 having temperature less than T1 to condense said entrained mercury vapor, thereby producing a saturated Hg condition in the carrier gas; and passing said saturated Hg carrier gas to said photochemical enrichment reactor.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (Reading, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Research on CO2 Emission Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Clean Energy Utilization of Clean Energy Utilization Zhejing University 29 th May, 2008 Status of CCS in China 2 nd U.S.-China Symposium on CO 2 Emission Control Science & Technology, Hangzhou China 28 th -30 th , May, 2008 Prof. Zhongyang Luo Global CO 2 Emissions Country CO 2 Emissions (Million Tons Carbon) 1990 1997 2001 2010 USA 1345 1480 1559 1800 China 620 822 832 1109 Former USSR 1034 646 654 825 Japan 274 297 316 334 World 5836 6175 6522 8512 Source: Energy Information Administration/International Energy Outlook 2001 Global CO 2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Use in 2006 11.72 3,330 EU-15 5.75 1,620 Russia 4.3 1,210 Japan 20.17 5,680 China 20.42 5,750 USA 100 28,160 Total Percentage (%) CO 2 Emissions (1 million metric tons CO 2 ) Country BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2007 (http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=6914&contentI

191

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Near-Zero Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Project No.: DE-NT0005341 Praxair oxy-combustion test equipment Praxair oxy-combustion test equipment. Praxair Inc. will develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing coal-fired power plants retrofit with oxy-combustion technology. Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and mercury (Hg) will be reduced by at least 99 percent, and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions will be reduced by greater than 90 percent without the need for wet flue gas desulfurization and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Two separate processes are proposed depending on the sulfur content of the coal. For high-sulfur coal, SO2 and NOx will be recovered as product sulfuric acid and nitric acid, respectively, and Hg will be recovered as

192

Advanced emissions control development program. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October 1--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emission compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emission control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

Evans, A.P.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

193

A Mercury orientation model including non-zero obliquity and librations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Long-period forcing of Mercurys libration in longitude.M. : Resonant forcing of Mercurys libration in longitude.A revised control network for Mercury. J. Geophys. Res. 104,

Margot, Jean-Luc

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Model Identification for Optimal Diesel Emissions Control  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we develop a model based con- troller for diesel emission reduction using system identification methods. Specifically, our method minimizes the downstream readings from a production NOx sensor while injecting a minimal amount of urea upstream. Based on the linear quadratic estimator we derive the closed form solution to a cost function that accounts for the case some of the system inputs are not controllable. Our cost function can also be tuned to trade-off between input usage and output optimization. Our approach performs better than a production controller in simulation. Our NOx conversion efficiency was 92.7% while the production controller achieved 92.4%. For NH3 conversion, our efficiency was 98.7% compared to 88.5% for the production controller.

Stevens, Andrew J.; Sun, Yannan; Song, Xiaobo; Parker, Gordon

2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

195

DOE Emission Control R&D | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emission Control R&D DOE Emission Control R&D 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 --...

196

Diesel Emission Control Technology in Review | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

and state-of-the-art emission control technologies and strategies to meet them. deer08johnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel Emission Control Review Review of Emerging...

197

Mercury in Municipal Solid Waste in China and Its Control: A Review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Regulation on mercury content limitation for batteries; China Light Industry Association: Beijing, China, 1997. ... The 2015 scheme 2 assumes mercury use by the battery industry is reduced to 26 Mg,(95) and mercury use by the lighting industry increases to 90 Mg (due to market growth), while the production and disposal patterns of mercury-containing medical devices are the same as the base case. ... Mercury-bearing material has been placed in municipal landfills from a wide array of sources including fluorescent lights, batteries, elec. ...

Hefa Cheng; Yuanan Hu

2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

198

Experience curves for power plant emission control technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hazardous air pollutant removal, Proceeding of SO 2 Controlto control emissions of harmful air pollutants from electric

Rubin, Edward S.; Yeh, Sonia; Hounshell, David A; Taylor, Margaret R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Emission Zone Control in Blue Organic Electrophosphorescent Devices...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrophosphorescent Devices Through Chemical Modification of Host Materials . Emission Zone Control in Blue Organic Electrophosphorescent Devices Through Chemical...

200

Update on Diesel Exhaust Emission Control Technology and Regulations  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Control Technology and Regulations Tim Johnson August 2004 2 Diesel emission control technology is making significant progress * Diesel regulations are getting tighter in all...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mercury emissions control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Environmental and health aspects of lighting: Mercury  

SciTech Connect

Most discharge lamps, including fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps, and high pressure sodium lamps, contain Mercury, a toxic chemical. Lighting professionals need to be able to respond to questions about the direct hazards of Mercury from accidentally breaking lamps, and the potential environmental hazards of lamp operation and disposal. We calculated the exposures that could occur from an accidental breakage of lamps. Acute poisoning appears almost impossible. Under some circumstances a sealed environment, such as a space station, could be contaminated enough to make it unhealthy for long-term occupation. Mercury becomes a potential environmental hazard after it becomes methylated. Mercury is methylated in aquatic environments, where it may accumulate in fish, eventually rendering them toxic to people and other animals. Lighting causes Mercury to enter the environment directly from lamp disposal, and indirectly from power plant emissions. The environmental tradeoffs between incandescent and discharge lamps depend upon the amounts released by these two sources, their local concentrations, and their probabilities of being methylated. Indirect environmental effects of lighting also include the release of other heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic), and other air pollutants and carbon dioxide that are emitted by fossil fuel power plants. For a given light output, the level of power plant emissions depends upon the efficacy of the light source, and is thus much larger for incandescent lamps than for fluorescent or discharge lamps. As disposal and control technologies change the relative direct and indirect emissions from discharge and incandescent lamps will change.

Clear, R.; Berman, S.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

A Universal Dual-Fuel Controller for OEM/Aftermarket Diesel Engineswith Comprehensive Fuel & Emission Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presents a universal dual fuel ratio controller designed to control the fueling and emissions of dual fuel systems

203

Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Second Generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In Situ Device for Real-Time Catalyst Deactivation Measurements in Full-Scale SCR Systems In Situ Device for Real-Time Catalyst Deactivation Measurements in Full-Scale SCR Systems To support trends in the electric generating industry of moving from seasonal to year-round operation of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) for control of NOx and mercury, as well as extending the time between generating unit outages, Fossil Energy Research Corporation (FERCo) is developing technology to determine SCR catalyst activity and remaining life without requiring an outage to obtain and analyze catalyst samples. FERCo intends to use SCR catalyst performance results measured with their in situ device at Alabama Power’s Plant Gorgas during the 2005 and 2006 ozone seasons, along with EPRI’s CatReactTM catalyst management software, to demonstrate the value of real-time activity measurements with respect to the optimization of catalyst replacement strategy. Southern Company and the Electric Power Research Institute are co-funding the project.

204

Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emission Control R&D Emission Control R&D The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) supports research and development of aftertreatment technologies to control advanced combustion engine exhaust emissions. All engines that enter the vehicle market must comply with the Environmental Protection Agency's emissions regulations. Harmful pollutants in these emissions include: Carbon monoxide Nitrogen oxides Unburned hydrocarbons Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Particulate matter The energy required for emission control often reduces vehicle fuel economy and increases vehicle cost. VTO's Emission Control R&D focuses on developing efficient, durable, low-cost emission control systems that complement new combustion strategies while minimizing efficiency losses. VTO often leverages the national laboratories' unique capabilities and facilities to conduct this research.

205

Continuous particulate monitoring for emission control  

SciTech Connect

An optical continuous particle monitoring system has been developed to overcome common problems associated with emissions monitoring equipment. Opacity monitors generally use a single- or double-pass system to analyze the presence of dust particles in the flue gas stream. The particles scatter and absorb light as it passes through the stack. As the particle content in the gas stream increases due to bag failure or some other problem, the amount of light that is blocked also increases. The opacity monitor compares the amount of lost light energy to the total energy of the light available and translates the signal to percentage of opacity. Opacity monitors are typically installed to meet the requirements set forth by pollution control agencies. Most opacity monitors are designed to meet all of the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 40 CFR, Part 60, Appendix B, Performance Specification. The new continuous particle monitor (CPM) increases the accuracy of emission monitoring and overcomes typical problems found in conventional emission monitoring devices. The CPM is an optically based, calibratible, continuous dust monitor that uses a microprocessor, transmitter head, and receiver head. When calibrated with an isokinetic sample, a continuous readout of particulate concentration (in mg/m[sup 3]) in the exhaust gas is provided. The system can be used as a filter bag failure system or a long-term emission trend analyzer. Formal testing was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the optically based CPM. The monitor was calibrated using particles of a range of compositions, size distributions, and concentrations. The feasibility of using the instrument to measure particle concentration as low as 10 mg/m[sup 3] was examined.

Bock, A.H. (BHA Group, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Mercury Calibration System  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 12 in the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) states that a mercury CEM must be calibrated with National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)-traceable standards. In early 2009, a NIST traceable standard for elemental mercury CEM calibration still does not exist. Despite the vacature of CAMR by a Federal appeals court in early 2008, a NIST traceable standard is still needed for whatever regulation is implemented in the future. Thermo Fisher is a major vendor providing complete integrated mercury continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) systems to the industry. WRI is participating with EPA, EPRI, NIST, and Thermo Fisher towards the development of the criteria that will be used in the traceability protocols to be issued by EPA. An initial draft of an elemental mercury calibration traceability protocol was distributed for comment to the participating research groups and vendors on a limited basis in early May 2007. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. Various working drafts of the new interim traceability protocols were distributed in late 2008 and early 2009 to participants in the Mercury Standards Working Committee project. The protocols include sections on qualification and certification. The qualification section describes in general terms tests that must be conducted by the calibrator vendors to demonstrate that their calibration equipment meets the minimum requirements to be established by EPA for use in CAMR monitoring. Variables to be examined include linearity, ambient temperature, back pressure, ambient pressure, line voltage, and effects of shipping. None of the procedures were described in detail in the draft interim documents; however they describe what EPA would like to eventually develop. WRI is providing the data and results to EPA for use in developing revised experimental procedures and realistic acceptance criteria based on actual capabilities of the current calibration technology. As part of the current effort, WRI worked with Thermo Fisher elemental mercury calibrator units to conduct qualification experiments to demonstrate their performance characteristics under a variety of conditions and to demonstrate that they qualify for use in the CEM calibration program. Monitoring of speciated mercury is another concern of this research. The mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are comprised of both elemental and oxidized mercury. Current CEM analyzers are designed to measure elemental mercury only. Oxidized mercury must first be converted to elemental mercury prior to entering the analyzer inlet in order to be measured. CEM systems must demonstrate the ability to measure both elemental and oxidized mercury. This requires the use of oxidized mercury generators with an efficient conversion of the oxidized mercury to elemental mercury. There are currently two basic types of mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) generators used for this purpose. One is an evaporative HgCl{sub 2} generator, which produces gas standards of known concentration by vaporization of aqueous HgCl{sub 2} solutions and quantitative mixing with a diluent carrier gas. The other is a device that converts the output from an elemental Hg generator to HgCl{sub 2} by means of a chemical reaction with chlorine gas. The Thermo Fisher oxidizer system involves reaction of elemental mercury vapor with chlorine gas at an elevated temperature. The draft interim protocol for oxidized mercury units involving reaction with chlorine gas requires the vendors to demonstrate high efficiency of oxidation of an elemental mercury stream from an elemental mercury vapor generator. The Thermo Fisher oxidizer unit is designed to operate at the power plant stack at the probe outlet. Following oxidation of elemental mercury from reaction with chlorine gas, a high temperature module reduces the mercuric chloride back to elemental mercury. WRI conducted work with a custom laboratory configured stand-alone oxidized mercury generator unit prov

John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster

2009-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

207

DOE-NETLs Mercury R&D Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

U.S. Department of Energy's U.S. Department of Energy's Mercury Control Technology Phase II Field Testing Program Mercury Experts' Conference 2 May 24-25, 2005 Ottawa, Canada Thomas J. Feeley, III thomas.feeley@netl.doe.gov National Energy Technology Laboratory SEC Meeting June 2005 Mercury Control Technology Field Testing Program Performance/Cost Objectives * Have technologies ready for commercial demonstration by 2007 for all coals * Reduce "uncontrolled" Hg emissions by 50-70% * Reduce cost by 25-50% compared to baseline cost estimates Baseline Costs: $50,000 - $70,000 / lb Hg Removed 2000 Year Cost SEC Meeting June 2005 Stages of Mercury Control Technology Development DOE RD&D Model Lab/Bench/Pilot-Scale Testing Field Testing (Slip Stream/Full Scale) 1993 1999-2000 2007-2010 2012-2015

208

DOE/NETL's Phase II Plans for Full-Scale Mercury Removal Technology Field-Testing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Phase II Plans for Full-Scale Phase II Plans for Full-Scale Mercury Removal Technology Field-Testing Air Quality III September 12, 2002 Arlington, Va Scott Renninger, Project Manager for Mercury Control Technology Enviromental Projects Division Presentation Outline * Hg Program goals & objectives * Focus on Future Hg control R&D * Q&As President Bush's Clear Skies Initiative Current Mid-Term 2008-2010 2018 SO 2 11 million tons 4.5 million tons 3 million tons NOx 5 million tons 2.1 million tons 1.7 million tons Mercury 48 tons 26 tons 15 tons Annual U.S. Power Plant Emissions Mercury Control * Developing technologies ready for commercial demonstration: - By 2005, reduce emissions 50-70% - By 2010, reduce emissions by 90% - Cost 25-50% less than current estimates 2000 Year 48 Tons $2 - 5 Billion @ 90% Removal w/Activated

209

E-Print Network 3.0 - automotive emission control Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

emission control Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: automotive emission...

210

Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot scale, burning bituminous coals (Gale, 2006) and blends of bituminous coals with Powder River Basin coal (Gale, 2005). The removal of mercury by fly ash and unburned carbon in the flue gas from combustion of the bituminous coals and blends was reproduced with satisfactory accuracy by the model. The enhancement of mercury capture in the presence of calcium (Gale, 2005) explained a synergistic effect of blending on mercury removal across the baghouse. The extent of mercury oxidation, on the other hand, was not so well described by the simulation, because of oversensitivity of the oxidation process in the model to the concentration of unburned carbon. Combined catalysts and sorbents for oxidation and removal of mercury from flue gas at low temperature were based on surfactant-templated silicas containing a transition metal and an organic functional group. The presence of both metal ions and organic groups within the pore structure of the materials is expected to impart to them the ability to simultaneously oxidize elemental mercury and adsorb the resulting oxidized mercury. Twelve mesoporous organosilicate catalysts/sorbents were synthesized, with and without metals (manganese, titanium, vanadium) and organic functional groups (aminopropyl, chloropropyl, mercaptopropyl). Measurement of mercury oxidation and adsorption by the candidate materials remains for future work.

Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

211

Vehicle Technologies Office: Emission Control | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Batteries Fuel Efficiency & Emissions Combustion Engines Fuel Effects on Combustion Idle Reduction Emissions Waste Heat Recovery Lightweighting Parasitic Loss Reduction Lubricants...

212

NETL: Environmental Research - Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production This project will provide information about the fate of mercury in synthetic gypsum produced by wet FGD systems on coal-fired power plants, when used as feedstock for wallboard production. Wet FGD systems play a key role in current and future efforts to limit the air emissions of mercury control from coal-fired plants. Potential emissions of mercury from FGD byproduct gypsum during wallboard production could limit overall mercury control levels achieved by the coal power industry. Furthermore, any adverse effects of elevated mercury levels in wallboard products could undermine the use of FGD gypsum as a feedstock for wallboard plants. Under a Cooperative Agreement with DOE-NETL, USG Corp., a major producer of wallboard, will provide high-quality data on the extent and location of mercury release during the wallboard production process, and provide additional information on the potential for mercury leaching at the end of the wallboard life cycle, when it is disposed in municipal landfills.

213

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project has been to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project was intended to demonstrate whether such additives can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project involved pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests were intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and project cost sharing. Southern Company provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested, and project cost sharing. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation provided the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company provided the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies also supplied technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project was conducted in six tasks. Of the six tasks, Task 1 involved project planning and Task 6 involved management and reporting. The other four tasks involved field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. These four tasks included: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests were completed in 2005 and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal was completed in 2006; only the TMT-15 additive was tested in these efforts. The Task 5 full-scale additive tests conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1 were completed in 2007, and both the TMT-15 and Nalco 8034 additives were tested.

Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

214

Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels: Effects on Emissions Control Technologies...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2010 -- Washington D.C. ft007sluder2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels: Effects on Emissions Control Technologies Fuel Effects on Emissions...

215

Diesel Emissions Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program Status  

SciTech Connect

Determine the impact of fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems that could be implemented to lower emissions of NO{sub x} and PM from on-highway trucks in the 2002-2004 time frame.

None

1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

216

Review of Emerging Diesel Emissions and Control | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

efforts are focused on Euro VI HD PN limits, and California LEV3 for LD. deer09johnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Diesel Emission Control Review Vehicle Emissions...

217

Removal of Elemental Mercury from a Gas Stream Facilitated by a Non-Thermal Plasma Device  

SciTech Connect

Mercury generated from anthropogenic sources presents a difficult environmental problem. In comparison to other toxic metals, mercury has a low vaporization temperature. Mercury and mercury compounds are highly toxic, and organic forms such as methyl mercury can be bio-accumulated. Exposure pathways include inhalation and transport to surface waters. Mercury poisoning can result in both acute and chronic effects. Most commonly, chronic exposure to mercury vapor affects the central nervous system and brain, resulting in neurological damage. The CRE technology employs a series of non-thermal, plasma-jet devices to provide a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by targeting relevant chemical reactions. The technology couples the known chemistry of converting elemental mercury to ionic compounds by mercury-chlorine-oxygen reactions with the generation of highly reactive species in a non-thermal, atmospheric, plasma device. The generation of highly reactive metastable species in a non-thermal plasma device is well known. The introduction of plasma using a jet-injection device provides a means to contact highly reactive species with elemental mercury in a manner to overcome the kinetic and mass-transfer limitations encountered by previous researchers. To demonstrate this technology, WRI has constructed a plasma test facility that includes plasma reactors capable of using up to four plasma jets, flow control instrumentation, an integrated control panel to operate the facility, a mercury generation system that employs a temperature controlled oven and permeation tube, combustible and mercury gas analyzers, and a ductless fume hood designed to capture fugitive mercury emissions. Continental Research and Engineering (CR&E) and Western Research Institute (WRI) successfully demonstrated that non-thermal plasma containing oxygen and chlorine-oxygen reagents could completely convert elemental mercury to an ionic form. These results demonstrate potential the application of this technology for removing elemental mercury from flue gas streams generated by utility boilers. On an absolute basis, the quantity of reagent required to accomplish the oxidation was small. For example, complete oxidation of mercury was accomplished using a 1% volume fraction of oxygen in a nitrogen stream. Overall, the tests with mercury validated the most useful aspect of the CR&E technology: Providing a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by employing a specific plasma reagent to either increase reaction kinetics or promote reactions that would not have occurred under normal circumstances.

Charles Mones

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products  

SciTech Connect

An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7-day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m2 h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m2 h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

Pekney, N.J.; Martello, D.V.; Schroeder, K.T.; Granite, E.J.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work conducted from September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007 on the project entitled Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program. The project covers the testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant and the Duke Power Cliffside and Buck Stations. The St. Clair Plant used a blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal and controlled the particulate emissions by means of a cold-side ESP. The Duke Power Stations used bituminous coals and controlled their particulate emissions by means of hot-side ESPs. The testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant demonstrated that mercury sorbents could be used to achieve high mercury removal rates with low injection rates at facilities that burn subbituminous coal. A mercury removal rate of 94% was achieved at an injection rate of 3 lb/MMacf over the thirty day long-term test. Prior to this test, it was believed that the mercury in flue gas of this type would be the most difficult to capture. This is not the case. The testing at the two Duke Power Stations proved that carbon- based mercury sorbents can be used to control the mercury emissions from boilers with hot-side ESPs. It was known that plain PACs did not have any mercury capacity at elevated temperatures but that brominated B-PAC did. The mercury removal rate varies with the operation but it appears that mercury removal rates equal to or greater than 50% are achievable in facilities equipped with hot-side ESPs. As part of the program, both sorbent injection equipment and sorbent production equipment was acquired and operated. This equipment performed very well during this program. In addition, mercury instruments were acquired for this program. These instruments worked well in the flue gas at the St. Clair Plant but not as well in the flue gas at the Duke Power Stations. It is believed that the difference in the amount of oxidized mercury, more at Duke Power, was the difference in instrument performance. Much of the equipment was purchased used and all of the equipment has nearly reached the end of its useful service.

Ronald Landreth

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

220

Reduction of Emission Variance by Intelligent Air Path Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This poster describes an air path control concept, which minimizes NOx and PM emission variance while having the ability to run reliably with many different sensor configurations.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mercury emissions control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Advanced Petroleum-Based fuels - Diesel Emissions Control (APBF...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

unregulated pollutants beyond 2010 APBF-DEC Structure DOE, EPA, additive companies, automobile manufacturers, engine manufacturers, energy companies, emission control mfrs.,...

222

Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT? Emission Control System...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

* Doug Emig Emigd@JMUSA.com * Sougato Chatterjee Chatterjee@JMUSA.com * WWW.JMCSD.COM Johnson Matthey Diesel Emission Control Systems 380 Lapp Road Malvern, PA 19355...

223

Diesel Emission Control in Review | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). deer07johnson.pdf More Documents & Publications Update on Diesel Exhaust Emission Control Diesel...

224

Fuel Effects on Emissions Control Technologies | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Technologies Fuel Effects on Emissions Control Technologies 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

225

Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2009 - Poster Session August 3 rd , Hyatt Regency Dearborn Hotel Virtual Oxygen Sensor Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies J. Seebode, E. Stlting,...

226

Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Arsenic, and Fine Particulate Matter From Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kevin crist Kevin crist Principal Investigator Ohio University Research and Technology Center Athens, OH 45701 740-593-4751 cristk@ohiou.edu Environmental and Water Resources Evaluation of thE Emission, transport, and dEposition of mErcury, arsEnic, and finE particulatE mattEr from coal-BasEd powEr plants in thE ohio rivEr vallEy rEgion Background The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has established an aggressive research initiative to address the technical and scientific issues surrounding the impact of coal-based power systems on ambient levels of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), nitrogen oxides (NO X ), mercury/air toxics, and acid gases. Regulatory drivers such as the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the 1997 revised National Ambient Air Quality Standards, and the 2005 Clean Air

227

Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals Peter Lodahl1 , A. Floris van Driel2 , Ivan S emission can be manipulated10,11 . Photonic crystals provide such an environment: they strongly modify study spontaneous emission from semiconductor quantum dots embedded in inverse opal photonic crystals16

Vos, Willem L.

228

Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - SCR Catalyst Blinding  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SCR Catalyst Blinding SCR Catalyst Blinding University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UND-EERC) is determining the potential of low-rank coal ash to cause blinding or masking of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. A secondary goal will be to determine the degree of elemental mercury conversion across the catalysts. Specific objectives include (1) identify candidate coals and blends for testing under bench-scale conditions, (2) conduct bench-scale testing to screen coals and identify key conditions for full-scale testing, (3) design and construct an SCR slipstream test chamber for sampling at full-scale facilities, (4) conduct testing at full-scale testing, (5) identify SCR blinding mechanisms, rates, and cleaning methods as well as mercury conversion efficiencies, and (6) interpret data, prepare a report, and attend sponsor meetings to present information and recommendations.

229

Health Impacts Research - Emissions & Emission Controls - FEERC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Health Impacts Research Health Impacts Research Another aspect of the emissions research at ORNL focuses on Health Impacts. This effort concentrates on analyzing exhaust for Mobile Source Air Toxics (MSATs) or other unregulated exhaust species that have the potential to harm human health. MSATs are a group of chemical species defined by the U.S. EPA that may pose risk to humans; formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and toluene are some example species. Engines operated with new combustion modes and alternative fuels are studied for MSAT emissions to determine insure that the advanced technologies being developed pose no additional risk to humans. A large part of the Health Impacts research effort at ORNL focuses on particulate matter (PM) which is also defined as an MSAT by the U.S. EPA.

230

Implementing agent-based emissions trading for controlling Virtual Power Plant emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A methodology was developed and tested for controlling the emissions from a group of micro-generators aggregated in a Virtual Power Plant. The methodology is based on the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. A multi-agent system was designed and simulations were performed. The operation of the system was demonstrated experimentally using micro-generation sources installed in two laboratories. Two days of experiments were performed. Results show that system emissions have been controlled with a good accuracy, since only small deviations between desired and actual emissions output were observed. It was found that Virtual Power Plant controllability increases significantly by increasing the number of participating micro-generators.

Spyros Skarvelis-Kazakos; Evangelos Rikos; Efstathia Kolentini; Liana M. Cipcigan; Nick Jenkins

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

HEALTH AND CLIMATE POLICY IMPACTS ON SULFUR EMISSION CONTROL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the climate and health effects of sulfate aerosol into an integrated-assessment model of fossil fuel emission warming and health simultaneously will support more stringent fossil fuel and sulfur controls control. Our simulations show that a policy that adjusts fossil fuel and sulfur emissions to address both

Russell, Lynn

232

Impacts of Biodiesel on Emission Control Devices  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

233

FGD Additives to Segregate and Sequester Mercury in Solid Byproducts - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Many mercury control strategies for U.S. coal-fired power generating plants involve co-benefit capture of oxidized mercury from flue gases treated by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. For these processes to be effective at overall mercury control, the captured mercury must not be re-emitted to the atmosphere or into surface or ground water. The project sought to identify scrubber additives and FGD operating conditions under which mercury re-emissions would decrease and mercury would remain in the liquor and be blown down from the system in the chloride purge stream. After exiting the FGD system, mercury would react with precipitating agents to form stable solid byproducts and would be removed in a dewatering step. The FGD gypsum solids, free of most of the mercury, could then be disposed or processed for reuse as wallboard or in other beneficial reuse. The project comprised extensive bench-scale FGD scrubber tests in Phases I and II. During Phase II, the approaches developed at the bench scale were tested at the pilot scale. Laboratory wastewater treatment tests measured the performance of precipitating agents in removing mercury from the chloride purge stream. Finally, the economic viability of the approaches tested was evaluated.

Searcy, K.; Bltyhe, G.M.; Steen, W.A.

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

234

Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling efforts.

Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

235

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - ALTA for Cyclone  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Full-Scale Demonstration of ALTA NOx Control for Cyclone-Fired Boilers Full-Scale Demonstration of ALTA NOx Control for Cyclone-Fired Boilers The primary goal of this project was to evaluate a technology called advanced layered technology application (ALTA) as a means to achieve NOx emissions below 0.15 lb/MMBtu in a cyclone boiler. Reaction Engineering International (REI) conducted field testing and combustion modeling to refine the process design, define the optimum technology parameters, and assess system performance. The ALTA NOx control technology combines deep staging from overfire air, rich reagent injection (RRI), and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). Field testing was conducted during May-June 2005 at AmerenUE's Sioux Station Unit 1, a 500 MW cyclone boiler unit that typically burns an 80/20 blend of Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. Parametric testing was also conducted with 60/40 and 0/100 blends. The testing also evaluated process impacts on balance-of-plant issues such as the amount of unburned carbon in the ash, slag tapping, waterwall corrosion, ammonia slip, and heat distribution.

236

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions (Connecticut) Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Sulfur Compound Emissions (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Connecticut Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection These regulations set limits on the sulfur content of allowable fuels (1.0%

237

Mercury Risk Assessment  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ASSESSING THE MERCURY HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED ASSESSING THE MERCURY HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS: IMPACTS OF LOCAL DEPOSITIONS *T.M. Sullivan 1 , F.D. Lipfert 2 , S.M. Morris 2 , and S. Renninger 3 1 Building 830, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 2 Private Consultants 3 Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV ABSTRACT The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has announced plans to regulate emissions of mercury to the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants. However, there is still debate over whether the limits should be placed on a nationwide or a plant-specific basis. Before a nationwide limit is selected, it must be demonstrated that local deposition of mercury from coal-fired power plants does not impose an excessive local health risk. The principal health

238

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - SCNR Field  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SNCR Field Demonstration SNCR Field Demonstration American Electric Power (AEP), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy, FuelTech, the Ohio Coal Development Office, and fourteen EPRI member utilities, performed a full-scale demonstration of a urea-based Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system at Cardinal Unit 1. Cardinal Unit 1 is a 600MWe opposed-wall dry bottom pulverized coal-fired boiler that began service in 1967. This unit burns eastern bituminous high-sulfur coal, (3.72%S). This unit was retrofitted with low NOx burners (LNB's) during its scheduled fall 1998 outage and the SNCR system was installed concurrently. SNCR is a post-combustion NOx control process developed to reduce NOx emissions from fossil-fuel combustion systems. SNCR processes involve the injection of a chemical containing nitrogen into the combustion products, where the temperature is in the range of 1600°F - 2200°F (870°C - 1205°C). In this temperature range, the chemical reacts selectively with NOx in the presence of oxygen, forming primarily nitrogen and water. Although a number of chemicals have been investigated and implemented for SNCR NOx reduction, urea and ammonia have been most widely used for full-scale applications.

239

NETL: News Release - We Energies Begins Operational Phase of Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7, 2006 7, 2006 We Energies Begins Operational Phase of Mercury Control Test in Michigan Coal-Fired Power Plant TOXECON(tm) Process Could Achieve 90 Percent Mercury Removal Washington, DC - The nation's first full-scale test of the patented TOXECON(tm) pollution control process began operations at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant located in Marquette, MI. The $52.9 million TOXECON(tm) project was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy in 2003 as part of the President's Clean Coal Power Initiative. Under their agreement with DOE, We Energies is designing, installing, operating and evaluating the TOXECON(tm) process as an integrated system to control emissions of mercury, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides during the operations of its Presque Isle plant.

240

Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels: Effects on Emissions Controls (Agreement...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels: Effects on Emissions Controls (Agreement Number 13425)NPBF Effects on PM OxidationNPBF Effects on EGR System Performance Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mercury emissions control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels: Effects on Emissions Control Technologies...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. ft07sluder.pdf More Documents & Publications Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels: Effects on Emissions Control Technologies Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels:...

242

Emission Control Systems and Components for Retrofit and First...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of Advanced Emission Controls for the Retrofit Market Development of a Stand-Alone Urea-SCR System for NOx Reduction in Marine Diesel Engines HD Truck and Engine Fuel Efficiency...

243

Urea/Ammonia Distribution Optimization in an SCR Emission Control...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

P-20 UreaAmmonia Distribution Optimization in an SCR Emission Control System Through the Use of CFD Analysis Gi-Heon Kim, Matthew Thornton National Renewable Energy Laboratory...

244

Emission Control Strategy for Downsized Light-Duty Diesels |...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

p-18neely.pdf More Documents & Publications New Diesel Emissions Control Strategy for U.S. Tier 2 Light-Duty Diesel Market Potential in North America EPA Mobile Source Rule Update...

245

A Novel New Approach to VOC and HAP Emission Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of real estate. Non-thermal VOHAP (Volatile Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant) emission control devices require additional maintenance. They also require the replacement of costly consumables such as activated carbon or they use large amounts of energy...

McGinness, M.

246

Overview of DOE Emission Control R&D  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of DOE Emission Control R&D Presented at the 2011 DOE Annual Merit Review Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Washington, DC May 9-13, 2010 Vehicle...

247

Less Costly Catalysts for Controlling Engine Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Parks II Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research...USA. Lowering the fuel consumption of transportation...dependence on fossil fuels. One way to increase...internal combustion engines is to run them lean...technology have either diesel (2) or gasoline...

James E. Parks II

2010-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

248

Toxic species emissions from controlled combustion of selected paving asphalts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TOXIC SPECIES EMISSIONS FROM CONTROLLED COMBUSTION OF SELECTED PAVING ASPHALTS A Theis CARLOS LUIS MENDEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas Adt, M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Safety Engineering TOXIC SPECIES EMISSIONS FROM CONTROLLED COMBUSTION OF SELECTED PAVING ASPHALTS A Thesis by CARLOS LUIS MENDEZ Submitted to Texas AdtM University in partial fulfillment...

Mendez, Carlos Luis

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

249

Emission control cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission estimates included both exhaust and evaporative emissions for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. Emission control cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of emission reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle emission reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in controlling vehicle emissions. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.

Wang, Q. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

1993-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

250

An assessment of methyl mercury and volatile mercury in land-applied sewage sludge  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency issued regulations covering the land-application of municipal sewage sludge. These regulations established maximum pollutant concentrations and were based upon a risk assessment of human exposure. Mercury, assumed to be inorganic and non-volatile, was one pollutant evaluated. From April, 1995 through February, 1996, the authors studied the species of mercury contaminating municipal sludge applied to land, and the potential for volatilization of mercury from land-applied sludge. Methyl mercury was found at 0.1% of total mercury concentrations and was emitted from land-applied sludge to the atmosphere. Elemental mercury (Hg) was formed in land-applied sludge via the reduction of oxidized mercury and was also emitted to the atmosphere. Hg emission from land-applied sludge was significantly elevated over background soil emission. Methyl mercury is more toxic and more highly bioaccumulated than inorganic mercury, and warrants assessment considering these special criteria. Additionally, mercury emission from sludge-amended soil may lead to the contamination of other environmental media with significant concentrations of the metal. Although these pathways were not evaluated in the regulatory risk assessment, they are an important consideration for evaluating the risks from mercury in land-applied sludge. This presentation will summarize the results of a re-assessment of US EPA regulations regarding the land-application of municipal sewage sludge using data on methyl mercury toxicity and mercury transport in the atmosphere.

Carpi, A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Lindberg, S.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

251

Author's personal copy Forcing technological change: A case of automobile emissions control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Author's personal copy Forcing technological change: A case of automobile emissions control their research and development (R&D) processes concerning automobile emissions control technologies amid

252

DOI: 10.1002/chem.200701895 A Highly Selective Colorimetric Aqueous Sensor for Mercury  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to methyl mercury, adding this potent neuro- toxin to the food chain.[4­6] Mercury poisoning causes serious Mercury poisoning remains a significant threat to human health, yet global mercury emissions continue of mercury poisoning requires new methods of detection that are sen- sitive and selective. Here we report

Tew, Gregory N.

253

Update on Diesel Exhaust Emission Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Control Tim Johnson August 26, 2003 Regulations and Approaches 3 Euro IV and Japan 2005 are coming next, with significant PM and NOx tightening; US2007 goes further; US2010 very...

254

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Model for NOx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Model for NOx Emissions in Biomass Cofiring Model for NOx Emissions in Biomass Cofiring Southern Research Institute is developing a validated tool or methodology to accurately and confidently design and optimize biomass-cofiring systems for full-scale utility boilers to produce the lowest NOX emissions and the least unburned carbon. The computer model will be validated through an extensive set of tests at the 6 MMBtu/hr pilot combustor in the Southern Company/Southern Research Institute Combustion Research Facility. Full-scale demonstration testing can be compared to the model for further validation. The project is designed to balance the development of a systematic and expansive database detailing the effects of cofiring parameters on NOx formation with the complementary modeling effort that will yield a capability to predict, and therefore optimize, NOx reductions by the selection of those parameters. The database of biomass cofiring results will be developed through an extensive set of pilot-scale tests at the Southern Company/Southern Research Institute Combustion Research Facility. The testing in this program will monitor NOx, LOI, and other emissions over a broad domain of biomass composition, coal quality, and cofiring injection configurations to quantify the dependence of NOx formation and LOI on these parameters. This database of cofiring cases will characterize an extensive suite of emissions and combustion properties for each of the fuel and injection configuration combinations tested.

255

Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Dioxide, and Mercury and a Renewable Portfolio Standard  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 ERRATA Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Dioxide, and Mercury and a Renewable Portfolio Standard July 2001 Energy Information Administration Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This Service Report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Contacts This report was prepared by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Energy Information Adminis- tration. General questions concerning the report may be directed to Mary J. Hutzler (202/586-2222, mhutzler @eia.doe.gov), Director of the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Scott B. Sitzer (202/586-2308,

256

Argonne TTRDC - Engines - Emissions Control - Advanced Diesel Particulate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration Systems Development of Advanced Diesel Particulate Filtration Systems The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations require that on-highway diesel vehicles have filtration systems to reduce tail-pipe soot emissions, known as particulate matter (PM). Diesel particulate filtration (DPF) systems are currently the most efficient at directly controlling PM. Argonne researchers, working with Corning, Inc., and Caterpillar, Inc., through a cooperative research and development agreement, are exploiting previously unavailable technology and research results on diesel PM filtration and regeneration processes, aiming to the technology transfer of advanced PM emission control to industry. Argonne's Research In operation of DPF systems, the filtration and regeneration of particulate emissions are the key processes to be controlled for high efficiency. Due to difficulties in accessing the micro-scaled structures of DPF membranes and monitoring particulate filtration and high-temperature thermal processes, however, research has been limited to macroscopic observation for the product.

257

Controlling Formaldehyde Emissions with Boiler Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Regenerative thermal (2) or catalytic (3) oxidizers are presently used to control HAPs and other VOCs. ... In another, methanol and other VOCs released from the manufacture of printed circuit boards were trapped and concentrated in activated carbon beds before being oxidized (11). ... The capital cost of a fluidized bed is much lower than that of a thermal oxidizer, and the cost of natural gas required to operate the oxidizer is removed. ...

Jennifer Cowan; Malyuba Abu-Daabes; Sujit Banerjee

2005-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

258

LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

2011-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

259

Multi-Pollutant Emissions Control: Pilot Plant Study of Technologies for Reducing Hg, SO3, NOx and CO2 Emissions  

SciTech Connect

A slipstream pilot plant was built and operated to investigate technology to adsorb mercury (Hg) onto the existing particulate (i.e., fly ash) by cooling flue gas to 200-240 F with a Ljungstrom-type air heater or with water spray. The mercury on the fly ash was then captured in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). An alkaline material, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}), is injected into flue gas upstream of the air heater to control sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), which prevents acid condensation and corrosion of the air heater and ductwork. The slipstream was taken from a bituminous coal-fired power plant. During this contract, Plant Design and Construction (Task 1), Start Up and Maintenance (Task 2), Baseline Testing (Task 3), Sorbent Testing (Task 4), Parametric Testing (Task 5), Humidification Tests (Task 6), Long-Term Testing (Task 7), and a Corrosion Study (Task 8) were completed. The Mercury Stability Study (Task 9), ESP Report (Task 11), Air Heater Report (Task 12) and Final Report (Task 14) were completed. These aspects of the project, as well as progress on Public Outreach (Task 15), are discussed in detail in this final report. Over 90% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 200-210 F at the ESP inlet; baseline conditions with 290 F flue gas gave about 26% removal. Mercury removal is sensitive to flue gas temperature and carbon content of fly ash. At 200-210 F, both elemental and oxidized mercury were effectively captured at the ESP. Mg(OH){sub 2} injection proved effective for removal of SO{sub 3} and eliminated rapid fouling of the air heater. The pilot ESP performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions. Mercury volatility and leaching tests did not show any stability problems. No significant corrosion was detected at the air heater or on corrosion coupons at the ESP. The results justify larger-scale testing/demonstration of the technology. These conclusions are presented and discussed in two presentations given in July and September of 2005 and are included in Appendices E and F.

Michael L. Fenger; Richard A. Winschel

2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

260

Control of Variable Geometry Turbocharged Diesel Engines for Reduced Emissions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a Diesel engine equipped with a variable geometry tur- bocharger (VGT) and an external exhaust gas INJECTION EXHAUST MANIFOLD EGR VALVE EGR COOLER AIR EXHAUST Figure 1: Schematic representation of the DieselControl of Variable Geometry Turbocharged Diesel Engines for Reduced Emissions A.G. Stefanopoulouz

Stefanopoulou, Anna

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mercury emissions control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results  

SciTech Connect

This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. This topical report presents the results from the Task 2 and Task 4 pilot-scale additive tests. The Task 3 and Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2006.

Gary M. Blythe

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

E-Print Network 3.0 - automobile emission control Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: automobile emission control Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Melbourne Automobile Emissions Study...

263

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Optimized Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimized Fuel Injector Design Optimized Fuel Injector Design This project includes fundamental research and engineering development of low NOx burners and reburning fuel injectors. The team of Reaction Engineering International (REI), the University of Utah, Brown University and DB Riley, Inc., will develop fundamental information on low NOx burners. The work has two phases. In the first phase, the University of Utah will examine two-phase mixing and near-field behavior of coal injectors using a 15-million Btu/hr bench-scale furnace, Brown University will examine char deactivation and effectiveness of reburning, and REI will develop a comprehensive burner model using the data produced by the University of Utah and Brown University. In the second phase, an optimized injector design will be tested at the 100-million Btu/hr Riley Coal Burner Test Facility. It is anticipated that this work will provide improved hardware designs and computer simulation models for reduced NOx emissions and minimized carbon loss.

264

Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results  

SciTech Connect

This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and cost sharing. Southern Company has provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company is providing the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies are also supplying technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal were completed in 2005 and 2006 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 5 full-scale additive tests, conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1. Both additives were tested there.

Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Nitrogen Oxides, Sulphur Trioxide and Mercury Emissions during Oxy-Fuel Fluidized Bed Combustion of Victorian Brown Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study investigates, for the first time, the NOX, N2O, SO3 and Hg emissions from combustion of a Victorian brown coal in a 10 kWth fluidized bed unit under oxy-fuel combustion conditions. Compared to air combustion, lower NOX emissions and higher N2O ...

Bithi Roy; Luguang Chen; Sankar Bhattacharya

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

266

Controlling spontaneous emission with plasmonic optical patch antennas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We experimentally demonstrate the control of the spontaneous emission rate and the radiation pattern of colloidal quantum dots deterministically positioned in a plasmonic patch antenna. The antenna consists of a thin gold microdisk 30 nm above a thick gold layer. The emitters are shown to radiate through the entire patch antenna in a highly directional and vertical radiation pattern. Strong acceleration of spontaneous emission is observed, depending of the antenna size. Considering the double dipole structure of the emitters, this corresponds to a Purcell factor up to 80 for dipoles perpendicular to the disk.

C. Belacel; B. Habert; F. Bigourdan; F. Marquier; J. -P. Hugonin; S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos; X. Lafosse; L. Coolen; C. Schwob; C. Javaux; B. Dubertret; J. -J. Greffet; P. Senellart; A. Maitre

2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

267

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - NOx Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control Options and Integration Control Options and Integration Reaction Engineering International (REI) is optimizing the performance of, and reduce the technical risks associated with the combined application of low-NOx firing systems (LNFS) and post combustion controls through modeling, bench-scale testing, and field verification. Teaming with REI are the University of Utah and Brown University. During this two-year effort, REI will assess real-time monitoring equipment to evaluate waterwall wastage, soot formation, and burner stoichiometry, demonstrate analysis techniques to improve LNFS in combination with reburning/SNCR, assess selective catalytic reduction catalyst life, and develop UBC/fly ash separation processes. The REI program will be applicable to coal-fired boilers currently in use in the United States, including corner-, wall-, turbo-, and cyclone-fired units. However, the primary target of the research will be cyclone boilers, which are high NOx producing units and represent about 20% of the U.S. generating capacity. The results will also be applicable to all U.S. coals. The research will be divided into four key components:

268

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

Don Augenstein

1999-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

269

Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Second Generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Second Generation Advanced Reburning Second Generation Advanced Reburning General Electric - Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (GE-EER) is carrying out a two Phase research program to develop novel Advanced Reburning (AR) concepts for high efficiency and low cost NOx control from coal-fired utility boilers. AR technologies are based on combination of basic reburning and N-agent/promoter injections. Phase I of the project was successfully completed and EER was selected to continue to develop AR technology during Phase II. Phase I demonstrated that AR technologies are able to provide effective NOx control for coal-fired combustors. Three technologies were originally envisioned for development: AR-Lean, AR-Rich, and Multiple Injection AR (MIAR). Along with these, three additional technologies were identified during the project: reburning plus promoted SNCR; AR-Lean plus promoted SNCR; and AR-Rich plus promoted SNCR. The promoters are sodium salts, in particular sodium carbonate. These AR technologies have different optimum reburn heat input levels and furnace temperature requirements. For full scale application, an optimum technology can be selected on a boiler-specific basis depending on furnace temperature profile and regions of injector access.

270

Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Coal-Fired Power Plant NOx: Influence of Emission Controls and Implications for Global Emission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrogen Isotopic Composition of Coal-Fired Power Plant NOx: Influence of Emission Controls and Implications for Global Emission Inventories J. David Felix,*, Emily M. Elliott, and Stephanie L. Shaw contributions, prior documentation of 15 N of various NOx emission sources is exceedingly limited

Elliott, Emily M.

271

Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

III T; Murphy J T. DOE/NETLs Phase II Mercury ControlFired Power Plants, DOE/NETL Mercury R&D Program Review,

Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Mercury Thermometer Replacement Alternatives Thermometer Description Non-Mercury Non-Mercury Non-Mercury  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mercury Thermometer Replacement Alternatives Length Thermometer Description Non-Mercury Non-Mercury Non-Mercury Range / Division VWR-Enviro-Safe® Fisherbrand® Brooklyn Thermometer Company Inc. Total/A #12;Mercury Thermometer Replacement Alternatives Length Thermometer Description Non-Mercury Non

273

Overview of DOE Emission Control R&D | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of DOE Emission Control R&D Overview of DOE Emission Control R&D 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11,...

274

Advanced Metal Fiber Wall-Flow DPF For Diesel Emission Control...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Metal Fiber Wall-Flow DPF For Diesel Emission Control Advanced Metal Fiber Wall-Flow DPF For Diesel Emission Control A new metal fiber wall-flow DPF with up to 99% efficiency and...

275

Overview of DOE Emission Control R&D | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Evaluation ace00bhowden2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Overview of DOE Emission Control R&D Overview of DOE Emission Control R&D Overview of the Advanced Combustion...

276

MERCURY OXIDIZATION IN NON-THERMAL PLASMA BARRIER DISCHARGE SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

In the past decade, the emission of toxic elements from human activities has become a matter of great public concern. Hg, As, Se and Cd typically volatilize during a combustion process and are not easily caught with conventional air pollution control techniques. In addition, there is no pollution prevention technique available now or likely be available in the foreseeable future that can prevent the emission of these trace elements. These trace elements pose additional scientific challenge as they are present at only ppb levels in large gas streams. Mercury, in particular, has attracted significant attention due to its high volatility, toxicity and potential threat to human health. In the present research work, a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge technique has been used to oxidize Hg{sup 0}(g) to HgO. The basic premise of this approach is that Hg{sup 0} in vapor form cannot be easily removed in an absorption tower whereas HgO as a particulate is amiable to water scrubbing. The work presented in this report consists of three steps: (1) setting-up of an experimental apparatus to generate mercury vapors at a constant rate and modifying the existing non-thermal plasma reactor system, (2) solving the analytical challenge for measuring mercury vapor concentration at ppb level, and (3) conducting experiments on mercury oxidation under plasma conditions to establish proof of concept.

V.K. Mathur

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Assessment of Low Cost Novel Mercury Sorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing of Mercury Control Technologies Testing of Mercury Control Technologies for Coal-Fired Power Plants by Thomas J. Feeley, III 1. , Lynn A. Brickett 1. , B. Andrew O'Palko 1. , and James T. Murphy 2. 1. U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory 2. Science Applications International Corporation The U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is conducting a comprehensive research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program directed at advancing the performance and economics of mercury control technologies for coal- fired power plants. The program also includes evaluating the fate of mercury in coal by-products and studying the transport and transformation of mercury in power plant plumes. This paper presents results from ongoing full-scale and slip-stream field testing of several mercury control

278

FY2000 Progress Report for Combustion and Emission Control for Advanced CIDI Engines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Energy Office of Transportation Technologies 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, DC 20585-0121 FY 2000 Progress Report for Combustion and Emission Control for Advanced CIDI Engines Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Transportation Technologies Approved by Steven Chalk November 2000 Combustion and Emission Control for Advanced CIDI Engines FY 2000 Progress Report CONTENTS Page iii I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 II. EMISSION CONTROL SUBSYSTEM DEVELOPMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 A. Emission Control Subsystem Evaluation for Light-Duty CIDI Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

279

Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Sub-50 HP Engines with Low Exhaust Temperature Profiles  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A new type of emission control technology was presented for the small engines used in APU's and TRU's.

280

Mercury-control technology-assessment study: D. F. Goldsmith Chemical and Metal Corporation, Evanston, Illinois. In-depth survey report for the site visit of May 4-6, 1982. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An in-depth survey was conducted at the D. F. Goldsmith Chemical and Metal Corporation in Evanston, Illinois; emphasis was placed on the recirculating air unit for control of mercury vapor. Major products were prime virgin mercury, precious metals, and rare inorganic chemicals. Mercury was poured into an open vessel which was subsequently covered, and the mercury treated by agitation with an acidic or caustic solution. Mercury was then transferred to the still where it was batch-distilled. After distillation, mercury was bottled in 1 or 5 pound quantities and packed and shipped. The ventilation system included local exhaust, dilution, and recirculation steps. Local exhaust ventilation was particularly important at the bottle-filling station. Personal protective equipment included respirators, disposable lab coats, vinyl coated cloth gloves, plastic shoe coverings, and barrier creams. Work practices were controlled, and biological and air monitoring were in place. The recirculating unit removed 76% of the mercury vapor in the air stream. The authors recommend that a study be made of the advisability of using a charcoal filter in addition to the manganese oxide precoat bag filter with post filtration.

Telesca, D.R.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mercury emissions control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

MERCURY REMOVAL IN A NON-THERMAL, PLASMA-BASED MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

Powerspan has conducted pilot scale testing of a multi-pollutant control technology at FirstEnergy's Burger Power Plant under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. The technology, Electro-Catalytic Oxidation (ECO), simultaneously removes sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and mercury (Hg) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. Powerspan's ECO{reg_sign} pilot test program focused on optimization of Hg removal in a 1-MWe slipstream pilot while maintaining greater than 90% removal of NO{sub x} and 98% removal of SO{sub 2}. This Final Technical Report discusses pilot operations, installation and maintenance of the Hg SCEMS instrumentation, and performance results including component and overall removal efficiencies of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, PM and Hg from the flue gas and removal of captured Hg from the co-product fertilizer stream.

Christopher R. McLaron

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Future trends in environmental mercury concentrations: implications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Future trends in environmental mercury concentrations: implications for prevention strategies interactions among natural and human climate system components; objectively assess uncertainty in economic, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts. This reprint is one of a series intended

283

Mercury capture in bench-scale absorbers  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives,a brief overview of research being conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on the capture of mercury by both dry sorbents and wet scrubbers. The emphasis in the research is on development of a better understanding of the key factors that control the capture of mercury. Future work is expected to utilize that information for the development of new or modified process concepts featuring enhanced mercury capture capabilities. The results and conclusions to date from the Argonne -research on dry sorbents can be summarized as follows: lime hydrates, either regular or high-surface-area, are `not effective in removing mercury; mercury removals are enhanced by the addition of activated carbon; mercury removals with activated carbon decrease with increasing temperature, larger particle size, and decreasing mercury concentration in the gas; and chemical pretreatment (e.g., with sulfur or (CaCl{sub 2}) can greatly increase the removal capacity of activated carbon. Preliminary results from the wet scrubbing research include: no removal of elemental mercury is obtained under normal scrubber operating conditions; mercury removal is improved by the addition of packing or production of smaller gas bubbles to increase the gas-liquid contact area; polysulfide solutions do not appear promising for enhancing mercury removal in typical FGC systems; stainless steel packing appears to have beneficial properties for mercury removal and should be investigated further; and other chemical additives may offer greatly enhanced removals.

Livengood, C.D.; Huang, H.S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, J.M.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

DOE-NETLs Mercury R&D Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

POWER-GEN POWER-GEN International 2004 -- Hg Control - Coping with Regulatory Uncertainty Orlando, FL December 1, 2004 Thomas J. Feeley, III thomas.feeley@netl.doe.gov National Energy Technology Laboratory Power-Gen, Dec. 1, 2004 History of DOE/NETL Mercury RD&D 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 * Field testing * Plume chemistry Final Hg Regulations * Emission character- ization/ * Lab/bench- scale R&D * Monitors * Pilot-scale R&D * Byproduct characterization * Commercial demonstrations 1990 CAA Amendments Development of Regulations Development of Regulations ACS Monthly Meeting November 4 2004 DOE Mercury Control RD&D Portfolio Polishing Technology * MerCAP(tm) Sorbent Injection * Activated carbon * Amended silicates * Halogenated AC * Ca-based sorbents * Chemically treated sorbents

285

CONTROL OF JOVIAN RADIO EMISSIONS BY THE GALILEAN MOONS AS OBSERVED BY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONTROL OF JOVIAN RADIO EMISSIONS BY THE GALILEAN MOONS AS OBSERVED BY CASSINI AND GALILEO G. B can control a portion of the Jovian radio emission. More recent studies using the Galileo and Voyager­frequency Jovian decametric radio (DAM) emission. The Cassini gravity­assist flyby of Jupiter on December 30, 2000

Gurnett, Donald A.

286

MERCURY EXCESS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Congress and EPA probe possibility of long-term STORAGE of liquid metal CHERYL HOGUE, C&EN WASHINGTON ... Hazardous waste handlers keep mercury from polluting the environment by reclaiming the liquid metal from scrap electrical switches, thermometers, and fluorescent light bulbs. ...

2007-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

287

MERCURY REMOVAL IN A NON-THERMAL, PLASMA-BASED MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR UTILITY BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

This technical report describes the results from Task 1 of the Cooperative Agreement. Powerspan has installed, tested, and validated Hg SCEMS systems for measuring oxidized and elemental mercury at the pilot facility at R.E. Burger Generating Station in Shadyside, Ohio. When operating properly, these systems are capable of providing near real-time monitoring of inlet and outlet gas flow streams and are capable of extracting samples from different locations to characterize mercury removal at these different ECO process stages. This report discusses the final configuration of the Hg CEM systems and the operating protocols that increase the reliability of the HG SCEM measurements. Documentation on the testing done to verify the operating protocols is also provided. In addition the report provides details on the protocols developed and used for measurement of mercury in process liquid streams and in captured ash.

Matthew B. Loomis

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Global change and mercury cycling: Challenges for implementing a global mercury treaty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Minamata Convention aims to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury. In the present study, the provisions of the Minamata Convention are examined to assess their ...

Selin, Noelle Eckley

289

Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production  

SciTech Connect

This report presents and discusses results from the project 'Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production', performed at five different full-scale commercial wallboard plants. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study has been to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere at wallboard manufacturing plants when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project has been co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope included seven discrete tasks, each including a test conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different wet FGD systems. The project was originally composed of five tasks, which were to include (1) a base-case test, then variations representing differing power plant: (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5,could not be conducted as planned and instead was conducted at conditions similar to Task 3. Subsequently an opportunity arose to test gypsum produced from the Task 5 FGD system, but with an additive expected to impact the stability of mercury, so Task 6 was added to the project. Finally, Task 7 was added to evaluate synthetic gypsum produced at a power plant from an additional coal type. In the project, process stacks in the wallboard plant were sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. In every task, the stack locations sampled included a gypsum dryer and a gypsum calciner. In Tasks 1 and 4 through 7, the stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. These results and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. The results from the project showed a wide range of percentage mercury losses from the synthetic gypsum feedstocks as measured by the Ontario Hydro method at the process stacks, ranging from 2% to 55% of the mercury in the gypsum feedstock. For the tasks exceeding 10% mercury loss across the wallboard plant, most of the loss occurred across the gypsum calciner. When total wallboard emissions remained below 10%, the primary emission location varied with a much less pronounced difference in emission between the gypsum dryer, calciner and board dryer. For all seven tasks, the majority of the mercury emissions were measured to be in the elemental form (Hg{sup 0}). Overall, the measured mercury loss mass rates ranged from 0.01 to 0.17 grams of mercury per dry ton of synthetic gypsum processed, or 0.01 to 0.4 pounds of mercury released per million square feet of wallboard produced from synthetic gypsum. The Coal Combustion Product Production and Use Survey from the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) indicate that 7,579,187 short tons of synthetic gypsum were used for wallboard production in 2006. Extrapolating the results of this study to the ACAA industry usage rate, we estimate that mercury releases from wallboard production plants in 2006 ranged between 150 to 3000 pounds for the entire U.S. wallboard industry. With only seven sets of wallboard plant measurements, it is difficult to draw firm conclusions about what variables impact the mercury loss percentages across the wallboard plants. One significant o

Jessica Sanderson

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

290

Methods and sorbents for utilizing a hot-side electrostatic precipitator for removal of mercury from combustion gases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods are provided for reducing emission of mercury from a gas stream by treating the gas with carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles to reduce the mercury content of the gas; collecting the carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles on collection plates of a hot-side ESP; periodically rapping the collection plates to release a substantial portion of the collected carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles into hoppers; and periodically emptying the hoppers, wherein such rapping and emptying are done at rates such that less than 70% of mercury adsorbed onto the mercury sorbent desorbs from the collected mercury sorbent into the gas stream.

Nelson, Sidney (Hudson, OH)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

291

Probing Mercury's Partnering Preferences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Preferences Probing Mercury's Partnering Preferences Merc.gif Why it Matters: Mercury (Hg) is a major global pollutant arising from both natural and anthropogenic sources....

292

Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration  

SciTech Connect

Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID/ICP/MS) performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The outputs of mercury calibrators are compared to one another using a nesting procedure which allows direct comparison of one calibrator with another at specific concentrations and eliminates analyzer variability effects. The qualification portion of the EPA interim traceability protocol requires the vendors to define calibrator performance as affected by variables such as pressure, temperature, line voltage, and shipping. In 2007 WRI developed and conducted a series of simplified qualification experiments to determine actual calibrator performance related to the variables defined in the qualification portion of the interim protocol.

John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

2009-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

293

Field Emission from Carbon Films Deposited by Controlled-Low-Energy Beams and CVD Sources  

SciTech Connect

The principal interests in this work are energetic-beam control of carbon-film properties and the roles of doping and surface morphology in field emission.

Lowndes, D.H.; Merkulov, V.I.; Baylor, L.R.; Jellison, Jr., G.E.; Poker, D.B.; Kim, S.; Sohn, M.H.; Paik, N.W.

1999-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

294

Status of Heavy Vehicle Diesel Emission Control Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Test Program  

SciTech Connect

DECSE test program is well under way to providing data on effects of sulfur levels in diesel fuel on performance of emission control technologies.

George Sverdrup

1999-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

295

An equitable, efficient and implementable scheme to control global carbon dioxide emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We design an international scheme to control global externalities in which autonomous regions choose their own emissions levels in anticipation of interregional resource transfers implemented by an internation...

Arthur J. Caplan; Emilson C. D. Silva

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Analytical Framework to Evaluate Emission Control Systems for Marine Engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

T. H. , Hybrid Diesel-Electric Heavy Duty Bus Emissions:use emission benefits of a diesel-electric hybrid tug wereof a multi- powered diesel-electric hybrid system. viii

Jayaram, Varalakshmi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Analytical Framework to Evaluate Emission Control Systems for Marine Engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

P. ; Pandis, S. N. , Effects of ship emissions on sulphurD. , Modeling the effects of ship emissions on coastal airan overall negative radiative effect from ship PM 2.5 . The

Jayaram, Varalakshmi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Analytical Framework to Evaluate Emission Control Systems for Marine Engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from a low-speed marine diesel engine. Aerosol Sci. Technol.Emissions from a Marine Diesel Engine at Various LoadNOx emissions by marine diesel engines. Transportation

Jayaram, Varalakshmi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

NETL: News Release - Meeting Mercury Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

June 18, 2001 June 18, 2001 Meeting Mercury Standards DOE Selects 6 Projects to Develop Cost-Saving Technologies for Curbing Mercury Emissions from Coal Power Plants Power Plant with Fish - MORGANTOWN, WV - With President Bush's National Energy Plan calling for mandatory reductions in the release of mercury from electric power plants - part of the Plan's multi-pollutant reduction strategy - the U.S. Department of Energy today named six new projects to develop innovative technologies that can curb mercury emissions from coal plants more effectively and at a fraction of today's costs. The winning projects were submitted by the University of North Dakota's Energy & Environmental Research Center in Grand Forks; URS Group. Inc., of Austin, TX; CONSOL, Inc., of Library, PA; Southern Research Institute in

300

The influence of floodplains on mercury availability  

SciTech Connect

The floodplains of the German river Elbe affect the mercury distribution in the river system in two different ways: they act both as a medium-term sink and as a long-term source. The large amounts of mercury deposited onto the floodplains during annual floodings are first effectively fixed in the soils, rendering them basically unavailable. Sequential extraction experiments reveal that only a small fraction of the mercury (< 3%) is present in available forms, whereas the vast majority is associated with humic substances or present in sulfidic binding forms. After deposition, a small fraction of the total mercury is gradually remobilized into the aqueous phase bound passively to water-soluble humic acids. The availability of mercury in these complexes is still low, since environmental influences such as changes in pH or redox potential and competition with other cations do not cause any mercury liberation. In the next step, reactions in the aqueous phase lead to the formation of the highly available volatile species Hg{sup 0} and dimethylmercury (DMM). Their evaporation gives rise to a strong mercury flux from the floodplains into the atmosphere. Preliminary mass balances indicate that the majority of the deposited mercury stays bound in the floodplain soils, while small amounts are emitted back into the river`s ecosystem. Atmospheric emission is more important as a remobilization pathway than aquatic export.

Wallschlaeger, D.; Wilken, R.D. [GKSS Research Center, Geesthacht (Germany). Inst. of Physical and Chemical Analytics

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mercury emissions control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Mercury contamination extraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

Fuhrmann, Mark (Silver Spring, MD); Heiser, John (Bayport, NY); Kalb, Paul (Wading River, NY)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Synergy between Pollution and Carbon Emissions Control: Comparing China and the U.S.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We estimate the potential synergy between pollution and climate control in the U.S. and China, summarizing the results as emissions cross-elasticities of control. We set a range of NOx and SO2 targets, and record the ...

Nam, Kyung-Min

303

Media for control of thermal emission and methods of applications thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of media for control of emission of thermal radiation from an object or part thereof is disclosed. These materials can be used for a wide variety of thermal control applications.

Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

DOE Issues Final Mercury Storage Environmental Impact Statement: Texas Site  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Issues Final Mercury Storage Environmental Impact Statement: DOE Issues Final Mercury Storage Environmental Impact Statement: Texas Site Is Preferred for Long-Term Mercury Storage DOE Issues Final Mercury Storage Environmental Impact Statement: Texas Site Is Preferred for Long-Term Mercury Storage January 19, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - The Department of Energy has prepared a Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement to analyze the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven locations. Based on these factors, DOE identified the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas, as the preferred alternative for long-term management and storage of mercury. DOE will consider the environmental impact information presented in this

305

Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control  

SciTech Connect

Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

Blasing, T J [ORNL; Schroeder, Dana [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Preface: Special Issue on Catalytic Control of Lean-Burn Engine Exhaust Emissions  

SciTech Connect

This issue of Catalysis Today includes original research articles based on select presentations from the Mobile Emissions Control Symposium at the 22nd North American Catalysis Society (NACS) Meeting held in Detroit in June 2011, with a particular focus on catalyzed diesel emissions control. The Symposium was dedicated to the memory of Dr. Haren Gandhi, a visionary technology leader and a passionate environmental advocate.

Yezerets, Aleksey; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos; Nova, Isabella; Epling, Bill

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

307

FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

308

Cold-Start Emissions Control in Hybrid Vehicles Equipped with...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

with a Passive Adsorber for Hydrocarbons and NOx Reports results from study of potential for using chemisorbing materials to temporally trap HC and NOx emissions during...

309

Overview of China's Vehicle Emission Control Program: Past Successes...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in the short and long term (between 2010 and 2030), covering urban and regional air pollutants as well as emissions of climate forcers. The scenarios include the potential...

310

Impact of new pollution control technologies on all emissions...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Diesel Particulate Filters: Market Introducution in Europe Comparative Study on Exhaust Emissions from Diesel- and CNG-Powered Urban Buses Performance and durability of...

311

Efficient Emissions Control for Multi-Mode Lean DI Engines  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for the U.S. Department of Energy Objectives * Enable efficient lean engine market penetration by meeting emission regulations with efficient, cost effective aftertreatment...

312

Analytical Framework to Evaluate Emission Control Systems for Marine Engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ports. Emissions from marine engines and fuel sulfur contentuse of high sulfur fuels in marine engines. This researchto lower sulfur fuels such as marine distillate oil (MDO)

Jayaram, Varalakshmi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Overview of China's Vehicle Emission Control Program: Past Successes and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Overview of China's Vehicle Emission Control Program: Past Successes and Overview of China's Vehicle Emission Control Program: Past Successes and Future Prospects Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Overview of China's Vehicle Emission Control Program: Past Successes and Future Prospects Focus Area: Propane Topics: Socio-Economic Website: theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/Retrosp_final_bilingual.p Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/overview-china's-vehicle-emission-con Language: "English,Chinese" is not in the list of possible values (Abkhazian, Achinese, Acoli, Adangme, Adyghe; Adygei, Afar, Afrihili, Afrikaans, Afro-Asiatic languages, Ainu, Akan, Akkadian, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian languages, Altaic languages, Amharic, Angika, Apache languages, Arabic, Aragonese, Arapaho, Arawak, Armenian, Aromanian; Arumanian; Macedo-Romanian, Artificial languages, Assamese, Asturian; Bable; Leonese; Asturleonese, Athapascan languages, Australian languages, Austronesian languages, Avaric, Avestan, Awadhi, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Balinese, Baltic languages, Baluchi, Bambara, Bamileke languages, Banda languages, Bantu (Other), Basa, Bashkir, Basque, Batak languages, Beja; 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Kyrgyz, Klingon; tlhIngan-Hol, Komi, Kongo, Konkani, Korean, Kosraean, Kpelle, Kru languages, Kuanyama; Kwanyama, Kumyk, Kurdish, Kurukh, Kutenai, Ladino, Lahnda, Lamba, Land Dayak languages, Lao, Latin, Latvian, Lezghian, Limburgan; Limburger; Limburgish, Lingala, Lithuanian, Lojban, Lower Sorbian, Lozi, Luba-Katanga, Luba-Lulua, Luiseno, Lule Sami, Lunda, Luo (Kenya and Tanzania), Lushai, Luxembourgish; Letzeburgesch, Macedonian, Madurese, Magahi, Maithili, Makasar, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Manchu, Mandar, Mandingo, Manipuri, Manobo languages, Manx, Maori, Mapudungun; Mapuche, Marathi, Mari, Marshallese, Marwari, Masai, Mayan languages, Mende, Mi'kmaq; Micmac, Minangkabau, Mirandese, Mohawk, Moksha, Mon-Khmer languages, Mongo, Mongolian, Mossi, Multiple languages, Munda languages, N'Ko, Nahuatl languages, Nauru, Navajo; Navaho, Ndebele, North; North Ndebele, Ndebele, South; South Ndebele, Ndonga, Neapolitan, Nepal Bhasa; Newari, Nepali, Nias, Niger-Kordofanian languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Niuean, North American Indian languages, Northern Frisian, Northern Sami, Norwegian, Nubian languages, Nyamwezi, Nyankole, Nyoro, Nzima, Occitan (post 1500); Provençal, Ojibwa, Oriya, Oromo, Osage, Ossetian; Ossetic, Otomian languages, Pahlavi, Palauan, Pali, Pampanga; Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Panjabi; Punjabi, Papiamento, Papuan languages, Pedi; Sepedi; Northern Sotho, Persian, Philippine languages, Phoenician, Pohnpeian, Polish, Portuguese, Prakrit languages, Pushto; Pashto, Quechua, Rajasthani, Rapanui, Rarotongan; Cook Islands Maori, Romance languages, Romanian; Moldavian; Moldovan, Romansh, Romany, Rundi, Russian, Salishan languages, Samaritan Aramaic, Sami languages, Samoan, Sandawe, Sango, Sanskrit, Santali, Sardinian, Sasak, Scots, Selkup, Semitic languages, Serbian, Serer, Shan, Shona, Sichuan Yi; Nuosu, Sicilian, Sidamo, Sign Languages, Siksika, Sindhi, Sinhala; Sinhalese, Sino-Tibetan languages, Siouan languages, Skolt Sami, Slave (Athapascan), Slavic languages, Slovak, Slovenian, Sogdian, Somali, Songhai languages, Soninke, Sorbian languages, Sotho, Southern, South American Indian (Other), Southern Altai, Southern Sami, Spanish; Castilian, Sranan Tongo, Sukuma, Sumerian, Sundanese, Susu, Swahili, Swati, Swedish, Swiss German; Alemannic; Alsatian, Syriac, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tai languages, Tajik, Tamashek, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Tereno, Tetum, Thai, Tibetan, Tigre, Tigrinya, Timne, Tiv, Tlingit, Tok Pisin, Tokelau, Tonga (Nyasa), Tonga (Tonga Islands), Tsimshian, Tsonga, Tswana, Tumbuka, Tupi languages, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvalu, Tuvinian, Twi, Udmurt, Ugaritic, Uighur; Uyghur, Ukrainian, Umbundu, Uncoded languages, Undetermined, Upper Sorbian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vai, Venda, Vietnamese, Volapük, Votic, Wakashan languages, Walamo, Walloon, Waray, Washo, Welsh, Western Frisian, Wolof, Xhosa, Yakut, Yao, Yapese, Yiddish, Yoruba, Yupik languages, Zande languages, Zapotec, Zaza; Dimili; Dimli; Kirdki; Kirmanjki; Zazaki, Zenaga, Zhuang; Chuang, Zulu, Zuni) for this property.

314

Achieving Acceptable Air Quality: Some Reflections on Controlling Vehicle Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of CO and HCs. Diesel particulate emissions...v) in-use fuel is not as clean...reduce gasoline engine ex-haust emissions...in (i) basic engine improvements...improved air and fuel distribution...reduced oil consumption; tighter tol-erances on engine design and manufacture...

J. G. Calvert; J. B. Heywood; R. F. Sawyer; J. H. Seinfeld

1993-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

315

Frequently Asked Questions Information on Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFLs) and Mercury  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Frequently Asked Questions Information on Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFLs) and Mercury emissions equivalent to those of more than 800,000 cars. Do CFLs contain mercury? CFLs contain a very small amount of mercury sealed within the glass tubing ­ an average of 5 milligrams ­ about the amount

Jia, Songtao

316

Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

Olson, Edwin S. (Grand Forks, ND); Holmes, Michael J. (Thompson, ND); Pavlish, John H. (East Grand Forks, MN)

2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

317

Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John Henry

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

318

Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The mission of the Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative is to control the flux of contaminants in soil and water environments for the purpose of...

319

Leading Edge Technology in Diesel Emissions Control | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. p-02roberts.pdf More Documents & Publications NO2 Management in...

320

DFJ Mercury | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DFJ Mercury DFJ Mercury Jump to: navigation, search Name DFJ Mercury Place Houston, Texas Zip 77046 Product Houston-based seed and early-stage venture capital firm that targets the information technology, advanced materials, and bioscience sectors. Coordinates 29.76045°, -95.369784° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":29.76045,"lon":-95.369784,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mercury emissions control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Mercury and Fish  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury and Fish Mercury and Fish Name: donna Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: how does mercury get into fish in rivers. what is the ecological process involved which could produce toxic levels of mercury in fish and eventually get into humans? Replies: Hi Donna! Nowadays mercury or its compounds are used at a high scale in many industries as the manufacture of chemicals, paints, household itens, pesticides and fungicides. These products can contaminate humans (and mamals) by direct contact, ingestion or inhalation. Besides the air can become contaminated also, and since mercury compounds produce harmful effects in body tissues and functions, that pollution is very dangerous. Now for your question: Efluent wastes containing mercury in various forms sometimes are dropped in sea water or in rivers or lakes. There the mercury may be converted by bacteria, that are in the muddy sediments, into organic mercurial compounds particularly the highly toxic alkyl mercurials ( methyl and di-methyl mercury), which may in turn be concentrated by the fishes and other aquatic forms of life that are used as food by men. The fishes dont seem to be affected but they are able to concentrate mercury in high poisoning levels, and if human beings, mamals or birds eat these containing mercury fishes, algae, crabs or oysters they will be contaminated and poisoned.

322

Emissions  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

the extra emissions that are generated from manufacturing the material used to make CNG tanks); they can amount tc more than 2% of the emissions from 32 the fuel production and...

323

Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 1  

SciTech Connect

The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim data report summarizes results as of August, 1999, on the status of the test programs being conducted on three technologies: lean-NO{sub x} catalysts, diesel particulate filters and diesel oxidation catalysts.

DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

1999-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

FIELD TEST PROGRAM FOR LONG-TERM OPERATION OF A COHPAC SYSTEM FOR REMOVING MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, AL). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{trademark}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{trademark} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{trademark} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{trademark} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury--elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{trademark}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{trademark} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{trademark} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

325

Field Test Program for Long-Term Operation of a COHPAC System for Removing Mercury from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by the existing particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. During 2001, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) conducted a full-scale demonstration of sorbent-based mercury control technology at the Alabama Power E.C. Gaston Station (Wilsonville, Alabama). This unit burns a low-sulfur bituminous coal and uses a hot-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in combination with a Compact Hybrid Particulate Collector (COHPAC{reg_sign}) baghouse to collect fly ash. The majority of the fly ash is collected in the ESP with the residual being collected in the COHPAC{reg_sign} baghouse. Activated carbon was injected between the ESP and COHPAC{reg_sign} units to collect the mercury. Short-term mercury removal levels in excess of 90% were achieved using the COHPAC{reg_sign} unit. The test also showed that activated carbon was effective in removing both forms of mercury-elemental and oxidized. However, a great deal of additional testing is required to further characterize the capabilities and limitations of this technology relative to use with baghouse systems such as COHPAC{reg_sign}. It is important to determine performance over an extended period of time to fully assess all operational parameters. The project described in this report focuses on fully demonstrating sorbent injection technology at a coal-fired power generating plant that is equipped with a COHPAC{reg_sign} system. The overall objective is to evaluate the long-term effects of sorbent injection on mercury capture and COHPAC{reg_sign} performance. The work is being done on one-half of the gas stream at Alabama Power Company's Plant Gaston Unit 3 (nominally 135 MW). Data from the testing will be used to determine: (1) If sorbent injection into a high air-to-cloth ratio baghouse is a viable, long-term approach for mercury control; and (2) Design criteria and costs for new baghouse/sorbent injection systems that will use a similar, polishing baghouse (TOXECON{trademark}) approach.

Jean Bustard; Charles Lindsey; Paul Brignac; Travis Starns; Sharon Sjostrom; Trent Taylor; Cindy Larson

2004-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

326

REAL-WORLD EFFICACY OF HEAVY DUTY DIESEL TRUCK NOX AND PM EMISSIONS CONTROLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are International. b DOC = Diesel Oxidation Catalyst; DPF = Diesel Particulate Filter; EGR = Exhaust GasREAL-WORLD EFFICACY OF HEAVY DUTY DIESEL TRUCK NOX AND PM EMISSIONS CONTROLS Gurdas Sandhu H 26-28, 2012 #12;2 Objectives 1. Quantify inter-run variability in exhaust emission rates 2. Assess

Frey, H. Christopher

327

Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes of Controlled Diameter and Bundle Size and Their Field Emission Properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes of Controlled Diameter and Bundle Size and Their Field Emission: June 8, 2005 Field emission studies were conducted on as-produced CoMoCAT single-walled carbon nanotube electron emitter. By adjusting the catalytic synthesis conditions, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT

Resasco, Daniel

328

Utilization of Partially Gasified Coal for Mercury Removal  

SciTech Connect

In this project, General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) developed a novel mercury (Hg) control technology in which the sorbent for gas-phase Hg removal is produced from coal in a gasification process in-situ at a coal burning plant. The main objective of this project was to obtain technical information necessary for moving the technology from pilot-scale testing to a full-scale demonstration. A pilot-scale gasifier was used to generate sorbents from both bituminous and subbituminous coals. Once the conditions for optimizing sorbent surface area were identified, sorbents with the highest surface area were tested in a pilot-scale combustion tunnel for their effectiveness in removing Hg from coal-based flue gas. It was determined that the highest surface area sorbents generated from the gasifier process ({approx}600 m{sup 2}/g) had about 70%-85% of the reactivity of activated carbon at the same injection rate (lb/ACF), but were effective in removing 70% mercury at injection rates about 50% higher than that of commercially available activated carbon. In addition, mercury removal rates of up to 95% were demonstrated at higher sorbent injection rates. Overall, the results of the pilot-scale tests achieved the program goals, which were to achieve at least 70% Hg removal from baseline emissions levels at 25% or less of the cost of activated carbon injection.

Chris Samuelson; Peter Maly; David Moyeda

2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

329

High vacuum indirectly-heated rotary kiln for the removal and recovery of mercury from air pollution control scrubber waste  

SciTech Connect

SepraDyne corporation (Denton, TX, US) has conducted pilot-scale treatability studies of dewatered acid plant blowdown sludge generated by a copper smelter using its recently patented high temperature and high vacuum indirectly-heated rotary retort technology. This unique rotary kiln is capable of operating at internal temperatures up to 850 C with an internal pressure of 50 torr and eliminates the use of sweep gas to transport volatile substances out of the retort. By removing non-condensables such as oxygen and nitrogen at relatively low temperatures and coupling the process with a temperature ramp-up program and low temperature condensation, virtually all of the retort off-gases produced during processing can be condensed for recovery. The combination of rotation, heat and vacuum produce the ideal environment for the rapid volatilization of virtually all organic compounds, water and low-to-moderate boiling point metals such as arsenic, cadmium and mercury.

Hawk, G.G.; Aulbaugh, R.A. [Scientific Consulting Labs., Inc., Farmers Branch, TX (United States)] [Scientific Consulting Labs., Inc., Farmers Branch, TX (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

330

Dual-UEGO Active Catalyst Control for Emissions Reduction: Design and Experimental Validation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dual-UEGO Active Catalyst Control for Emissions Reduction: Design and Experimental Validation three-way catalysts and two oxygen sensors. The control objective is to maximize the simultaneous are used to measure air-fuel ratio upstream and downstream of each catalyst. A series controller

Grizzle, Jessy W.

331

Air Emission Regulations for the Prevention, Abatement, and Control of Air  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Emission Regulations for the Prevention, Abatement, and Control Air Emission Regulations for the Prevention, Abatement, and Control of Air Contaminants (Mississippi) Air Emission Regulations for the Prevention, Abatement, and Control of Air Contaminants (Mississippi) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State Mississippi Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Quality The Air Emission Regulation for the Prevention, Abatement and Control of

332

Water Loss Control Using Pressure Management: Life-cycle Energy and Air Emission Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pressure management is one cost-effective and efficient strategy for controlling water distribution losses. This paper evaluates the life-cycle energy use and emissions for pressure management zones in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Halifax, Nova Scotia. ...

Jennifer R. Stokes; Arpad Horvath; Reinhard Sturm

2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

333

Mercury contamination in a 54-m core from lake Huleh  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... for Hg by optical emission spectroscopy4'5. These results were confirmed by another laboratory using flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mercury concentrations in the Huleh mud ranged from 2.36 to ...

U. M. COWGILL

1975-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

334

VOC Emission Control with the Brayton Cycle Pilot Plant Operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A mobile pilot plant capable of removing VOC emissions from exhaust air streams was cooperatively funded by SCE, EPRI, 3M, and NUCON. Valuable information about the process and the recovery operation has been gained by performing tests at a number...

Enneking, J. C.

335

Diesel emission control: Catalytic filters for particulate removal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The European diesel engine industry represents a vital sector across the Continent, with more than 2 million direct work positions and a turnover of over 400 billion Euro. Diesel engines provide large paybacks to society since they are extensively used to transport goods, services and people. In recent years increasing attention has been paid to the emissions from diesel engines which, like gasoline engine emissions, include carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Diesel engines also produce significant levels of particulate matter (PM), which consists mostly of carbonaceous soot and a soluble organic fraction (SOF) of hydrocarbons that have condensed on the soot.Meeting the emission levels imposed for NOx and PM by legislation (Euro IV in 2005 and, in the 2008 perspective, Euro V) requires the development of a number of critical technologies to fulfill these very stringent emission limits (e.g. 0.005g/km for PM). This review is focused on these innovative technologies with special reference to catalytic traps for diesel particulate removal.

Debora Fino

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Achieving Acceptable Air Quality: Some Reflections on Controlling Vehicle Emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ignore service or check-engine warning lights. The variability...emitting vehicles. Off-cycle operation. The remaining...adequately included in the FTP cycle. Emissions from one high...been neglected entirely. Diesel engines, which are used in the...

J. G. Calvert; J. B. Heywood; R. F. Sawyer; J. H. Seinfeld

1993-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

337

Southern California Edison's (SCE) Research Program for Industrial Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Applied Utility Systems Rosemead, California Tarrytown, New York Santa Ana, California ABSTRACT SCE has developed and implemented a research program for customer retention through VOC emission control. Following characterization of problematic..., California RON CASCONE Senior Consultant Chem Systems, Inc. Tarrytown, New York JIM REESE Applied Utility Santa Ana, California ABSTRACT SCE has developed and implemented a research program for customer retention through VOC emission control. Following...

Sung, R. D.; Cascone, R.; Reese, J.

338

Emission Controls Versus Meteorological Conditions in Determining Aerosol Concentrations in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games  

SciTech Connect

A series of emission control measures were undertaken in Beijing and the adjacent provinces in China during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games on August 8th-24th, 2008. This provides a unique opportunity for investigating the effectiveness of emission controls on air pollution in Beijing. We conducted a series of numerical experiments over East Asia for the period of July to September 2008 using a coupled meteorology-chemistry model (WRF-Chem). Model can generally reproduce the observed variation of aerosol concentrations. Consistent with observations, modeled concentrations of aerosol species (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, total particulate matter) in Beijing were decreased by 30-50% during the Olympic period compared to the other periods in July and August in 2008 and the same period in 2007. Model results indicate that emission controls were effective in reducing the aerosol concentrations by comparing simulations with and without emission controls. However, our analysis suggests that meteorological conditions (e.g., wind direction and precipitation) are at least as important as emission controls in producing the low aerosol concentrations appearing during the Olympic period. Transport from the regions surrounding Beijing determines the temporal variation of aerosol concentrations in Beijing. Based on the budget analysis, we suggest that emission control strategy should focus on the regional scale instead of the local scale to improve the air quality over Beijing.

Gao, Yi; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun; Zhang, Meigen

2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

339

Integrated dry NO sub x /SO sub 2 emissions control system  

SciTech Connect

This project's goal is to demonstrate the removal up to 70% of the NO{sub x} and 70% of the SO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired utility boilers. It will establish an alternative emissions control technology integrating a combination of several processes, while minimizing capital expenditures and limiting waste production to dry solids that are handled with convention ash removal equipment. These processes include low-NO{sub x} burners and urea injection for NO{sub x} control, sodium- or calcium-based sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} control, and flue gas humidification to enhance the reactivity of the SO{sub 2} control compound.

Not Available

1991-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

340

Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production  

SciTech Connect

This report presents and discusses results from Task 5 of the study ''Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production,'' performed at a full-scale commercial wallboard plant. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. The FGD process is used to control the sulfur dioxide emissions which would result in acid rain if not controlled. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies developed for power plants involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study is to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope includes five discrete tasks, each conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different FGD systems. The five tasks were to include (1) a baseline test, then variations representing differing power plant (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5, which was to evaluate gypsum produced from an alternate FGD reagent, could not be conducted as planned. Instead, Task 5 was conducted at conditions similar to a previous task, Task 3, although with gypsum from an alternate FGD system. In this project, process stacks in the wallboard plant have been sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. The stack locations sampled for each task include a dryer for the wet gypsum as it enters the plant and a gypsum calciner. The stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested as part of this task, and was tested as part of Tasks 1 and 4. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. The Ontario Hydro results, process sample mercury concentration data, and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. Task 5 was conducted at a wallboard plant processing synthetic gypsum from a power plant that fires Eastern bituminous coal. The power plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for NOX emissions control, but the SCR was bypassed during the time period the gypsum tested was produced. The power plant has a single-loop, open spray tower, limestone reagent FGD system, with forced oxidation conducted in a reaction tank integral with the FGD absorber. The FGD system has gypsum fines blow down as part of the dewatering step. Gypsum fines blow down is believed to be an important variable that impacts the amount of mercury in the gypsum byproduct and possibly its stability during the wallboard process. The results of the Task 5 stack testing, as measured by the Ontario Hydro method, detected that an average of 51% of the incoming mercury in the FGD gypsum was emitted during wallboard production. These losses were distributed as 2% or less each across the wet gypsum dryer and product wallboard dryer, and about 50% across the gypsum calciner. Emissions were similar to what Task 3 results showed, on both a percentage and a mass basis, for gypsum produced by a power plant firing bituminous coal and also having gypsum fines blow down as part of the FGD dewatering scheme. As was seen in the Task 1 through 4 results, most of the mercury detected in the stack testing on the wet gypsum dryer and kettle calciner was in the form of elemental mercury. In the wallboard dryer kiln, a more signific

Jessica Marshall Sanderson

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mercury emissions control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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341

Single-molecule controlled emission in planar plasmonic cavities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the fluorescence emission from single dye molecules in coplanar plasmonic cavities composed of a thin gold film surrounded by two in-plane surface plasmon Bragg mirrors. We first discuss the effect of the presence of Bragg mirrors on the radiation diagram of surface plasmon coupled emission. Then, we investigate the role of the planar cavity size by single-molecule fluorescence lifetime imaging. Experimental data are compared to numerical simulations of the decay rates calculated as a function of the molecule orientation and position within the cavity. The creation of new decay channels by coupling to the cavity modes is also discussed. We measure a plasmonic Purcell factor up to five, attributed to the enhancement of the radiative rate.

S. Derom; A. Bouhelier; A. Kumar; A. Leray; J-C. Weeber; S. Buil; X. Qulin; J. P. Hermier; G. Colas des Francs

2014-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

342

A study of the effect of chloride on mercury removal in a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system  

SciTech Connect

Mercury exists in three forms, which are elemental mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury. Each form of mercury has a very different exposure potential. Oxidized mercury is soluble and has a tendency to associate with particles. Nearly all the post-combustion flue gas cleaning systems proposed to remove mercury may be categorized as either scrubbers or adsorbers. Therefore, the mercury sink in the cleaning system will be either the excess water of a wet scrubber or the mercury laden sorbent from an absorber. The major problem for post-combustion mercury capture systems is capturing the practically water-insoluble elemental mercury. Co-firing with high chlorine coal or RDF in utility boiler systems can provide an HCI atmosphere for the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas at relatively low temperatures (500--600 C). The objective of this study is to increase the efficiency of mercury emission cleaning methods by using HCl to convert elemental mercury to oxidized mercury species at low monetary costs and lower other toxic air emissions. When high chlorine (0.3--0.5%) coals were burned and a high intensity vortex flow (from secondary air) was used, around 70% of the total mercury in the fuel was condensed and absorbed by the fly ash (including calcium compounds). The remaining 30% of total fuel mercury was emitted in the gas phase in the flue gas. As for the gas phase mercury, about 98% of it exists in an oxidized form with a higher boiling temperature than elemental mercury and can be easily captured by an ESP or FGP apparatus. Only about 0.5% of the total fuel mercury was released to the atmosphere in elemental form.

Liu, K.; Gao, Y.; Li, F.; Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Mehta, A.K.; Ho, K.K.; Smith, S.R.

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

345

Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1990. "lhe Economicsof Alternative Fuel Use: Subsfitt~/ingMcOartland. 1990. "Alternative Fuels for Pollution Control:Policy Levers for Alternative Fuels: Costs, Energy Security,

Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Development of an electromagnetically actuated mercury microvalve  

SciTech Connect

The development of microscale fluid handling components has been recognized as a crucial element in the design of microscale chemical detection systems. Recently, work has been undertaken at Sandia National Laboratories to construct a valve that uses a small mercury droplet to control the flow of gas through capillary passages. Electromagnetic forces that are provided by small permanent magnets and a current supply are used to drive the mercury into position. Driving the mercury droplet into a tapered passage halts gas flow through a capillary, while surface tension forces prevent the mercury from passing through the passage. Models have been developed to describe the movement of the mercury droplet and the sealing of the gas passage, and millimeter-scale units have been tested to explore design options. Predictions from the model show that a valve with 10 micron sized features can seal against pressures up to 1.5 atmospheres. Experiments have highlighted the promise of mercury valves and demonstrated problems that can arise from contamination of the mercury.

Adkins, D.R.; Wong, C.C.

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Full Scale Field Trial of the Low Temperature Mercury Capture Process  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL Energy Inc., with partial funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory, designed a full-scale installation for a field trial of the Low-Temperature Mercury Control (LTMC) process, which has the ability to reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by over 90 percent, by cooling flue gas temperatures to approximately 230 °F and absorbing the mercury on the native carbon in the fly ash, as was recently demonstrated by CONSOL R&D on a slip-stream pilot plant at the Allegheny Energy Mitchell Station with partial support by DOE. LTMC has the potential to remove over 90 percent of the flue gas mercury at a cost at least an order of magnitude lower (on a $/lb mercury removed basis) than activated carbon injection. The technology is suitable for retrofitting to existing and new plants, and, although it is best suited to bituminous coal-fired plants, it may have some applicability to the full range of coal types. Installation plans were altered and moved from the original project host site, PPL Martins Creek plant, to a second host site at Allegheny Energy??s R. Paul Smith plant, before installation actually occurred at the Jamestown (New York) Board of Public Utilities (BPU) Samuel A. Carlson (Carlson) Municipal Generating Station Unit 12, where the LTMC system was operated on a limited basis. At Carlson, over 60% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 220-230 °F at the ESP inlet via humidification. The host unit ESP operation was unaffected by the humidification and performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions.

James Locke; Richard Winschel

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

348

Effectiveness of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in Reducing HC and CO Emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition  

SciTech Connect

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) has been shown to allow for diesel-like or better brake thermal efficiency with significant reductions in nitrogen oxide (NOX) particulate matter (PM) emissions. Hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, on the other hand, are similar to those of port fuel injected gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures with RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatments. The reduction of HC and CO emissions in a lean environment is typically achieved with an oxidation catalyst. In this work, several diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC) with different precious metal loadings were evaluated for effectiveness to control HC and CO emissions from RCCI combustion in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine operating on gasoline and diesel fuels. Each catalyst was evaluated in a steady-state engine operation with temperatures ranging from 160 to 260 C. A shift to a higher light-off temperature was observed during the RCCI operation. In addition to the steady-state experiments, the performances of the DOCs were evaluated during multi-mode engine operation by switching from diesel-like combustion at higher exhaust temperature and low HC/CO emissions to RCCI combustion at lower temperature and higher HC/CO emissions. High CO and HC emissions from RCCI generated an exotherm keeping the catalyst above the light-off temperature.

Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Curran, Scott [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Wagner, Robert M [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Source-attribution for atmospheric mercury deposition: Where does the mercury in mercury deposition come from?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Source-attribution for atmospheric mercury deposition: Where does the mercury in mercury of the Mercury Working Group, Office of Air Quality, Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) April 21, 2005 #12;2 For mercury, how important is atmospheric deposition relative to other loading

350

Z .Spectrochimica Acta Part B 56 2001 419 430 The effects of oxygen on the detection of mercury using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Z .Spectrochimica Acta Part B 56 2001 419 430 The effects of oxygen on the detection of mercury; accepted 27 February 2001 Abstract A systematic study of the processes associated with mercury atomic emission in a laser-induced plasma and the interactions of mercury with oxygen species is presented

Hahn, David W.

351

Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury P  

SciTech Connect

Our long-term goal is to enable highly productive plant species to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic heavy metal pollutants as an environmentally friendly alternative to physical remediation methods. We have focused this phytoremediation research on soil and water-borne ionic and methylmercury. Mercury pollution is a serious world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wild-life populations. Methylmercury, produced by native bacteria at mercury-contaminated wetland sites, is a particularly serious problem due to its extreme toxicity and efficient biomagnification in the food chain. We engineered several plant species (e.g., Arabidopsis, tobacco, canola, yellow poplar, rice) to express the bacterial genes, merB and/or merA, under the control of plant regulatory sequences. These transgenic plants acquired remarkable properties for mercury remediation. (1) Transgenic plants expressing merB (organomercury lyase) extract methylmercury from their growth substrate and degrade it to less toxic ionic mercury. They grow on concentrations of methylmercury that kill normal plants and accumulate low levels of ionic mercury. (2) Transgenic plants expressing merA (mercuric ion reductase) extract and electrochemically reduce toxic, reactive ionic mercury to much less toxic and volatile metallic mercury. This metal transformation is driven by the powerful photosynthetic reducing capacity of higher plants that generates excess NADPH using solar energy. MerA plants grow vigorously on levels of ionic mercury that kill control plants. Plants expressing both merB and merA degrade high levels of methylmercury and volatilize metallic mercury. These properties were shown to be genetically stable for several generations in the two plant species examined. Our work demonstrates that native trees, shrubs, and grasses can be engineered to remediate the most abundant toxic mercury pollutants. Building on these data our working hypothesis for the next grant period is that transgenic plants expressing the bacterial merB and merA genes will (a) remove mercury from polluted soil and water and (b) prevent methylmercury from entering the food chain. Our specific aims center on understanding the mechanisms by which plants process the various forms of mercury and volatilize or transpire mercury vapor. This information will allow us to improve the design of our current phytoremediation strategies. As an alternative to volatilizing mercury, we are using several new genes to construct plants that will hyperaccumulate mercury in above-ground tissues for later harvest. The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory have sites with significant levels of mercury contamination that could be cleaned by applying the scientific discoveries and new phytoremediation technologies described in this proposal. The knowledge and expertise gained by engineering plants to hyperaccumulate mercury can be applied to the remediation of other heavy metals pollutants (e.g., arsenic, cesium, cadmium, chromium, lead, strontium, technetium, uranium) found at several DOE facilities.

Meagher, Richard B.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Mercury Detection with Gold Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R. J. Warmack, Detection of mercury vapor using resonatingA surface acoustic wave mercury vapor sensor, Ieee Trans.N. E. Selin, Integrating mercury science and policy in the

Crosby, Jeffrey

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Process for low mercury coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Grimes, R. William (Laramie, WY); Tweed, Robert E. (Laramie, WY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Process for low mercury coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

1995-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

355

Forecast and Control Methods of Landfill Emission Gas to Atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main component of landfill gas is CH4, its release is a potential hazard to the environment. To understand the gas law and landfill gas production are the prerequisite for effective control of landfill gas. This paper selects three kinds of typical ... Keywords: Landfill gas, German model, IPCC model, Marticorena dynamic model

Wang Qi; Yang Meihua; Wang Jie

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System  

SciTech Connect

This document presents and discusses results from Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, 'Full-scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System,' which was conducted over the time-period July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. The objective of the project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in pulverized-coal-fired flue gas. Oxidized mercury is removed downstream in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and collected with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), who also provided the host site, Great River Energy, Johnson Matthey, Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), NRG Energy, Ontario Power and Westar. URS Group was the prime contractor and also provided cofunding. The scope of this project included installing and testing a gold-based catalyst upstream of one full-scale wet FGD absorber module (about 200-MW scale) at LCRA's Fayette Power Project (FPP) Unit 3, which fires Powder River Basin coal. Installation of the catalyst involved modifying the ductwork upstream of one of three wet FGD absorbers on Unit 3, Absorber C. The FGD system uses limestone reagent, operates with forced sulfite oxidation, and normally runs with two FGD modules in service and one spare. The full-scale catalyst test was planned for 24 months to provide catalyst life data. Over the test period, data were collected on catalyst pressure drop, elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst module, and mercury capture by the downstream wet FGD absorber. The demonstration period began on May 6, 2008 with plans for the catalyst to remain in service until May 5, 2010. However, because of continual increases in pressure drop across the catalyst and concerns that further increases would adversely affect Unit 3 operations, LCRA decided to end the demonstration early, during a planned unit outage. On October 2, 2009, Unit 3 was taken out of service for a fall outage and the catalyst upstream of Absorber C was removed. This ended the demonstration after approximately 17 months of the planned 24 months of operation. This report discusses reasons for the pressure drop increase and potential measures to mitigate such problems in any future application of this technology. Mercury oxidation and capture measurements were made on Unit 3 four times during the 17-month demonstration. Measurements were performed across the catalyst and Absorber C and 'baseline' measurements were performed across Absorber A or B, which did not have a catalyst upstream. Results are presented in the report from all four sets of measurements during the demonstration period. These results include elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst, mercury capture across Absorber C downstream of the catalyst, baseline mercury capture across Absorber A or B, and mercury re-emissions across both absorbers in service. Also presented in the report are estimates of the average mercury control performance of the oxidation catalyst technology over the 17-month demonstration period and the resulting mercury control costs.

Gary Blythe; Jennifer Paradis

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

357

Mercury Chamber Considerations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mercury Chamber Considerations V. Graves IDS-NF Target Studies July 2011 #12;2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Mercury Chamber Considerations, July 2011 Flow Loop Review · 1 cm dia nozzle, 20 m/s jet requires 1.57 liter/sec mercury flow (94.2 liter/min, 24.9 gpm). · MERIT experiment

McDonald, Kirk

358

Methylation of Mercury by Bacteria Exposed to Dissolved, Nanoparticulate, and Microparticulate Mercuric Sulfides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methylation of Mercury by Bacteria Exposed to Dissolved, Nanoparticulate, and Microparticulate in the environment is partly controlled by the bioavailability of inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(II)) to anaerobic matter to form chemical species that include organic-coated mercury sulfide nanoparticles as reaction

359

Atmospheric Mercury in the Great Lakes Region An Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric Mercury in the Great Lakes Region An Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Tracey Holloway #12;i Abstract Atmospheric mercury is a significant source for methylmercury (Me. In order to control MeHg exposures, policy-makers need a clear understanding of the atmospheric mercury

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

360

Emission reduction of NOx and CO by optimization of the automatic control system in a coal-fired stoker boiler  

SciTech Connect

To date research on NO, and CO emission reduction in stoker-fired boilers has been devoted to combustion modification to the overfire air, diverting air to a selected set of burners, using modified low-NOx, burners, using flue gas recirculation or flue gas treatment with specially controlled catalyst and additives. This study introduces a concept that focuses on the dynamics of the boiler and the automatic control system. The objective of this study was to reduce the NO and CO emissions by restructuring the automatic control system and then tuning the control system with parameters that have been optimized with emission reduction as the objective. Dynamic data were obtained from a step-input test of either the underfire air or the overfire air. These data were used to model the boiler with a transfer function describing the emissions. The analyzer dynamic response was included in the overall model. The control parameters were determined from this overall emissions transfer function by mathematical optimization. These control parameters constituted the initial values in the automatic control system used for the final tests in the boiler. Additional adjustments to reduce the emissions were carried out during boiler operation. A low controller gain and a fast reset time were found to be the most suitable setting for the control system. The NO emissions controlled by the overfire air and CO emissions controlled by the underfire air produced the best results.

Schnelle, K.B.; Laungphairojana, A.; Debelak, K.A. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mercury emissions control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Detection of concealed mercury with thermal neutrons  

SciTech Connect

In the United States today, governments at all levels and the citizenry are paying increasing attention to the effects, both real and hypothetical, of industrial activity on the environment. Responsible modem industries, reflecting this heightened public and regulatory awareness, are either substituting benign materials for hazardous ones, or using hazardous materials only under carefully controlled conditions. In addition, present-day environmental consciousness dictates that we deal responsibly with legacy wastes. The decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of facilities at which mercury was used or processed presents a variety of challenges. Elemental mercury is a liquid at room temperature and readily evaporates in air. In large mercury-laden buildings, droplets may evaporate from one area only to recondense in other cooler areas. The rate of evaporation is a function of humidity and temperature; consequently, different parts of a building may be sources or sinks of mercury at different times of the day or even the year. Additionally, although mercury oxidizes in air, the oxides decompose upon heating. Hence, oxides contained within pipes or equipment, may be decomposed when those pipes and equipment are cut with saws or torches. Furthermore, mercury seeps through the pores and cracks in concrete blocks and pads, and collects as puddles and blobs in void spaces within and under them.

Bell, Z.W.

1994-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

362

Mercury contaminated sediment sitesAn evaluation of remedial options  

SciTech Connect

Mercury (Hg) is a naturally-occurring element that is ubiquitous in the aquatic environment. Though efforts have been made in recent years to decrease Hg emissions, historically-emitted Hg can be retained in the sediments of aquatic bodies where they may be slowly converted to methylmercury (MeHg). Consequently, Hg in historically-contaminated sediments can result in high levels of significant exposure for aquatic species, wildlife and human populations consuming fish. Even if source control of contaminated wastewater is achievable, it may take a very long time, perhaps decades, for Hg-contaminated aquatic systems to reach relatively safe Hg levels in both water and surface sediment naturally. It may take even longer if Hg is present at higher concentration levels in deep sediment. Hg contaminated sediment results from previous releases or ongoing contributions from sources that are difficult to identify. Due to human activities or physical, chemical, or biological processes (e.g. hydrodynamic flows, bioturbation, molecular diffusion, and chemical transformation), the buried Hg can be remobilized into the overlying water. Hg speciation in the water column and sediments critically affect the reactivity (i.e. conversion of inorganic Hg(II) to MeHg), transport, and its exposure to living organisms. Also, geochemical conditions affect the activity of methylating bacteria and its availability for methylation. This review paper discusses remedial considerations (e.g. key chemical factors in fate and transport of Hg, source characterization and control, environmental management procedures, remediation options, modeling tools) and includes practical case studies for cleaning up Hg-contaminated sediment sites. -- Highlights: ? Managing mercury-contaminated sediment sites are challenging to remediate. ? Remediation technologies are making a difference in managing these sites. ? Partitioning plays a dominant role in the distribution of mercury species. ? Mathematical models can be used to help us understand the chemistry and processes.

Randall, Paul M., E-mail: randall.paul@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Chattopadhyay, Sandip, E-mail: Sandip.Chattopadhyay@tetratech.com [Tetra Tech, Inc., 250 West Court Street, Suite 200W, Cincinnati, OH 45202 (United States)] [Tetra Tech, Inc., 250 West Court Street, Suite 200W, Cincinnati, OH 45202 (United States)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

NETL: IEP-In-House Post Combustion CO2 Emissions Control  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP - In-House Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control IEP - In-House Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control CO2 Capture Chemical Sorbents Chemical Solvents Membranes Miscellaneous The objective of this National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Research and Development (ORD) multi-faceted project is to develop carbon dioxide (CO2) capture systems for coal-based power plants that lower the costs and energy penalty associated with those systems. Research and development in the capture area is aimed at developing systems that are low in capital cost, have low parasitic load, can significantly reduce CO2 emissions, and can be integrated within the power generation system. A majority of the research will occur on laboratory- and bench-scale reactors. Further information on ORD's CO2 capture projects can be found by using the links found in the adjacent blue box.

364

Technology Reinvestment Program/Advanced ``Zero Emission'' Control Valve (Phase II)  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this effort are to determine, develop and demonstrate the feasibility of significantly reducing the cost and expanding the applications for a family of Advanced Zero Emissions Control Valves that meets the fugitive emissions requirements of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act. This program is a direct technology spin-off from the valve technology that is critical to the US Navy's Nuclear Powered Fleet. These zero emissions valves will allow the Hydrocarbon and Chemical Processing Industries, etc., to maintain their competitiveness and still meet environmental and safety requirements. Phase 2 is directed at refining the basic technologies developed during Phase 1 so that they can be more readily selected and utilized by the target market. In addition to various necessary certifications, the project will develop a full featured digital controller with ``smart valve'' growth capability, expanding valve sizes/applications and identifying valve materials to permit applications in severe operational environments.

J. Napoleon

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

NETL: IEP – Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

– Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control – Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxygen-Based PC Boiler Project No.: FC26-04NT42207 & FC26-03NT41736 Spatial Comparison of an Air-Fired Furnace versus an Oxygen-Fired Furnace. Spatial Comparison of an Air-Fired Furnace versus an Oxygen-Fired Furnace. Foster Wheeler North America Corporation will conduct to two projects to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technology by developing a conceptual pulverized coal-fired boiler system design using oxygen as the combustion medium. Using oxygen instead of air produces a flue gas with a high CO2 concentration, which will facilitate CO2 capture for subsequent sequestration. The first project will develop modeling simulations that will lead to a conceptual design that addresses costs, performance, and emissions, and

366

NETL: IEP - Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Hybrid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0004787 Gas Technology Institute is partnering with PoroGen Corporation and Aker Process Systems in a three-year effort to develop a hybrid technology for CO2 capture from flue gases based on a combination of solvent absorption and hollow fiber membrane technologies. The technology could also apply to removal of numerous other gas pollutants such as NOx and SOx, separation of CO2 from hydrogen in refinery streams, and separation of CO2 from natural gas (natural gas sweetening). The technology increases interfacial gas/liquid area by a factor of ten over conventional packed or tray columns, thus increasing mass transfer. The selectivity is controlled by the chemical affinity of CO2 with a hindered amine. The process results in lower steam regeneration energy, and the CO2 is generated at pressure, reducing compression costs. The project includes bench-scale testing on a 25 kWe-equivalent slipstream at Midwest Generation's Joliet Power Station.

367

LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional landfills. This is the highest methane recovery rate per unit waste, and thus progress toward stabilization, documented anywhere for such a large waste mass. This high recovery rate is attributed to moisture, and elevated temperature attained inexpensively during startup. Economic analyses performed under Phase I of this NETL contract indicate ''greenhouse cost effectiveness'' to be excellent. Other benefits include substantial waste volume loss (over 30%) which translates to extended landfill life. Other environmental benefits include rapidly improved quality and stabilization (lowered pollutant levels) in liquid leachate which drains from the waste.

Don Augenstein

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, one of the worldORIGINAL Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field constructed from 3D seismic and well data allowed investigation of the relationship between the subsurface

Luyendyk, Bruce

369

Dynamic duo captures mercury  

SciTech Connect

There is strong evidence that the combination of wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) scrubbers and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can prove a viable and formidable combination for knocking out mercury. This article analyzes the capabilities and limitations of the SCR-FGD combination for mercury compliance, including applicability to different types of coal and issues with scrubber by-products. 3 figs.

Senior, C.; Adams, B. [Reaction Engineering International (United States)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Mercury in the environment  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Abbott works for Idaho National Laboratory as an environmental scientist. Using state-of-thescienceequipment, he continuously samples the air, looking for mercury. In turn, he'll analyzethis long-term data and try to figure out the mercury's point of or

Idaho National Laboratory - Mike Abbott

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

371

NOXSO: A no-waste emission control technology  

SciTech Connect

The NOXSO Process is a dry, regenerable flue gas treatment system that simultaneously removes 90% of the SO{sub 2} and 70-90 % of the NO{sub x} from flue gas generated from the combustion of coal. The process has been successfully tested at small scale (0.017 MW) on high sulfur coal (2.5%) at the TVA Shawnee Steam Plant. The test results are contained in two U.S. Department of Energy reports. Tests of a NOXSO Process Development Unit (PDU, 0.75MW) were conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) under a cooperative research agreement between NOXSO and the Department of Energy (DOE). Testing in the adsorber was done by continuously feeding a batch of sorbent into a fluidized bed adsorber and collecting the spent sorbent from the adsorber overflow. Regeneration took place in a separate batch reactor. The test results were reported by Yeh et al. in 1987, and by Haslbeck et al. in 1988. A Life-Cycle Test Unit (LCTU, 0.06MW) was built at the PETC in 1988 to test the NOXSO Process in an integrated, continuous-operation mode. The LCTU test program was designed to determine long-term effects of the process on the sorbent reactivity and attrition properties. The sorbent was successfully tested for over 2000 hours on flue gas. The test results were published by Ma et al. in 1991, and by Yeh et al. in 1992. The POC test is the last test prior to the full-scale demonstration. The POC test will collect all of the information to design the full-scale NOXSO plant: e.g., data pertaining to materials of construction, process performance and cost, process safety, process control, sorbent activity, sorbent attrition, heat recovery, etc. The POC plant (5 MW) is located at Ohio Edison`s Toronto Station in Toronto, Ohio. Flue gas was first introduced to the plant on November 23, 1991. The current test results and process performance along with a summary of process economics are presented in this paper.

Bolli, R.E.; Woods, M.C. [NOXSO Corp., Library, PA (United States); Madden, D.R. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

372

Mercury Jet Studies Tristan Davenne  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mercury Jet Studies Tristan Davenne Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Joint UKNF, INO, UKIERI meeting mercury target and reported a radial velocity at surface of mercury jet due to proton beam is 36m/s #12;Numerical simulation of Sievers & Pugnat Result Click on image above to watch video of 2cm mercury target

McDonald, Kirk

373

Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production  

SciTech Connect

This report presents and discusses results from Task 6 of the study 'Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production,' performed at a full-scale commercial wallboard plant. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study is to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope now includes six discrete tasks, each conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different FGD systems. The project was originally composed of five tasks, which were to include (1) a baseline test, then variations representing differing power plant: (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5, which was to include testing with an alternate FGD reagent, could not be conducted as planned. Instead, Task 5 was conducted at conditions similar to Task 3, although with gypsum from an alternate FGD system. Subsequent to conducting Task 5 under these revised conditions, an opportunity arose to test gypsum produced at the same FGD system, but with an additive (Degussa Corporation's TMT-15) being used in the FGD system. TMT-15 was expected to impact the stability of mercury in synthetic gypsum used to produce wallboard, so Task 6 was added to the project to test this theory. In this project, process stacks in the wallboard plant have been sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. For every task, the stack locations sampled have included a dryer for the wet gypsum as it enters the plant and a gypsum calciner. For Tasks 1, 4, 5 and 6, the stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. The Ontario Hydro results, process sample mercury concentration data, and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. Task 6 was conducted at a wallboard plant processing synthetic gypsum from a power plant that fires Eastern bituminous coal. The power plant has a single-loop, open spray tower limestone forced oxidation FGD system, with the forced oxidation conducted in the reaction tank integral with the FGD absorber. The FGD system has gypsum fines blow down as part of the dewatering step. The power plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for NOX emissions control, and the SCR was in service during the time period the gypsum tested was produced. Also, as mentioned above, Degussa additive TMT-15 was being added to the FGD system when this gypsum was produced. The results of the Task 6 stack testing, as measured by the Ontario Hydro method, detected that an average of 55% of the incoming mercury was emitted during wallboard production. These losses were distributed as about 4% across the dryer mill, 6% across the board dryer kiln, and 45% across the kettle calciner. Emissions were similar to what Task 5 results showed on a percentage basis, but about 30% lower on a mass basis. The same power plant FGD system produced the synthetic gypsum used in Task 5 (with no use of TMT-15) and in Task 6 (with TMT-15 added to the FGD system). The lower emissions on a mass basis appeared

Jessica Sanderson; Gary M. Blythe; Mandi Richardson

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Mercury Sensing with Optically Responsive Gold Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We assume that the mass of mercury adsorbed at saturation istactics, nanoparticle based mercury sensing should advancemost sensitive method for mercury sensing. References "1!

James, Jay Zachary

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Analysis of Halogen-Mercury Reactions in Flue Gas  

SciTech Connect

Oxidized mercury species may be formed in combustion systems through gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and halogens, such as chorine or bromine. This study examines how bromine species affect mercury oxidation in the gas phase and examines the effects of mixtures of bromine and chlorine on extents of oxidation. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale, laminar flow, methane-fired (300 W), quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, HBr, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}) and temperature profile were varied. In the experiments, the post-combustion gases were quenched from flame temperatures to about 350 C, and then speciated mercury was measured using a wet conditioning system and continuous emissions monitor (CEM). Supporting kinetic calculations were performed and compared with measured levels of oxidation. A significant portion of this report is devoted to sample conditioning as part of the mercury analysis system. In combustion systems with significant amounts of Br{sub 2} in the flue gas, the impinger solutions used to speciate mercury may be biased and care must be taken in interpreting mercury oxidation results. The stannous chloride solution used in the CEM conditioning system to convert all mercury to total mercury did not provide complete conversion of oxidized mercury to elemental, when bromine was added to the combustion system, resulting in a low bias for the total mercury measurement. The use of a hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide solution instead of stannous chloride showed a significant improvement in the measurement of total mercury. Bromine was shown to be much more effective in the post-flame, homogeneous oxidation of mercury than chlorine, on an equivalent molar basis. Addition of NO to the flame (up to 400 ppmv) had no impact on mercury oxidation by chlorine or bromine. Addition of SO{sub 2} had no effect on mercury oxidation by chlorine at SO{sub 2} concentrations below about 400 ppmv; some increase in mercury oxidation was observed at SO{sub 2} concentrations of 400 ppmv and higher. In contrast, SO{sub 2} concentrations as low as 50 ppmv significantly reduced mercury oxidation by bromine, this reduction could be due to both gas and liquid phase interactions between SO{sub 2} and oxidized mercury species. The simultaneous presence of chlorine and bromine in the flue gas resulted in a slight increase in mercury oxidation above that obtained with bromine alone, the extent of the observed increase is proportional to the chlorine concentration. The results of this study can be used to understand the relative importance of gas-phase mercury oxidation by bromine and chlorine in combustion systems. Two temperature profiles were tested: a low quench (210 K/s) and a high quench (440 K/s). For chlorine the effects of quench rate were slight and hard to characterize with confidence. Oxidation with bromine proved sensitive to quench rate with significantly more oxidation at the lower rate. The data generated in this program are the first homogeneous laboratory-scale data on bromine-induced oxidation of mercury in a combustion system. Five Hg-Cl and three Hg-Br mechanisms, some published and others under development, were evaluated and compared to the new data. The Hg-halogen mechanisms were combined with submechanisms from Reaction Engineering International for NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and hydrocarbons. The homogeneous kinetics under-predicted the levels of mercury oxidation observed in full-scale systems. This shortcoming can be corrected by including heterogeneous kinetics in the model calculations.

Paula Buitrago; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Brydger Van Otten

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Development of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Development of Oxygen-Fired Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers for Greenhouse Gas Control Project No.: FC26-04NT42205 & FC26-01NT41146 CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE Alstom's Multi-Use Test Facility (MTF). Alstom Power Inc. will conduct two projects using a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor for economic evaluations of the recovery of carbon dioxide (CO2). The projects will involve preparation of the facility and test equipment, conducting the comprehensive pilot-scale testing and analysis, and application of test results in re-evaluation and refinement of commercial oxygen-fired CFB designs. The project goal is to determine if CO2 can be recovered at an avoided cost of no more than $10 per ton of carbon avoided, using a CFB combustor that burns coal with a mixture of

377

Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) Abatement of Air Pollution: Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions/Carbon Dioxide Budget Trading Program (Connecticut) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Connecticut

378

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figures.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1991-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

380

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mercury emissions control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figs.

Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

1989-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

383

A Preliminary Investigation into the Mitigation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Tailpipe Emissions Through Supervisory Control Methods Part 2: Experimental Evaluation of Emissions Reduction Methodologies  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technologies have the potential for considerable petroleum consumption reductions, possibly at the expense of increased tailpipe emissions due to multiple 'cold' start events and improper use of the engine for PHEV specific operation. PHEVs operate predominantly as electric vehicles (EVs) with intermittent assist from the engine during high power demands. As a consequence, the engine can be subjected to multiple cold start events. These cold start events may have a significant impact on the tailpipe emissions due to degraded catalyst performance and starting the engine under less than ideal conditions. On current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), the first cold start of the engine dictates whether or not the vehicle will pass federal emissions tests. PHEV operation compounds this problem due to infrequent, multiple engine cold starts. A continuation of previous analytical work, this research, experimentally verifies a vehicle supervisory control system for a pre-transmission parallel PHEV powertrain architecture. Energy management strategies are evaluated and implemented in a virtual environment for preliminary assessment of petroleum displacement benefits and rudimentary drivability issues. This baseline vehicle supervisory control strategy, developed as a result of this assessment, is implemented and tested on actual hardware in a controlled laboratory environment over a baseline test cycle. Engine cold start events are aggressively addressed in the development of this control system, which leads to enhanced pre-warming and energy-based engine warming algorithms that provide substantial reductions in tailpipe emissions over the baseline supervisory control strategy. The flexibility of the PHEV powertrain allows for decreased emissions during any engine starting event through powertrain 'torque shaping' algorithms. The results of the research show that PHEVs do have the potential for substantial reductions in fuel consumption. Tailpipe emissions from a PHEV test platform have been reduced to acceptable levels through the development and refinement of vehicle supervisory control methods only. Impacts on fuel consumption were minimal for the emissions reduction techniques implemented.

Smith, David E [ORNL] [ORNL; Lohse-Busch, Henning [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Irick, David Kim [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Microporous Metal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks Project No.: FC26-07NT43092 Examples of several MOFs under investigation Examples of several MOFs under investigation UOP LLC is conducting research for separating carbon dioxide (CO2) using novel microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs). In the first project, NT42121, UOP partnered with the University of Michigan and Northwestern University to evaluate MOFs in both pre-combustion and post-combustion applications. In the second project, NT43092, UOP is collaborating with Vanderbilt University and the University of Edinburgh, as well as the University of Michigan and Northwestern University, in a more focused effort on MOFs in post-combustion applications. MOFs are an extraordinary

385

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Coal Direct Chemical  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit for Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants with In-Situ CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-NT0005289 Ohio State chemical looping metal carrier. Ohio State chemical looping metal carrier. The Ohio State University Research Foundation will further develop coal direct chemical looping (CDCL) technology. CDCL uses a patented iron oxide-based composite oxygen carrier and can be retrofit to existing coal-fired power plants. The development of the CDCL system will be conducted through experimental testing under bench- and sub-pilot scales. Related Papers and Publications: Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture [PDF-2.43MB] (July 2013) Presented by Samuel Bayham of the Ohio State University Research Foundation at the 2013 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting.

386

FY2001 Progress Report for Combusion and Emission Control for Advanced CIDI Engines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

COMBUSTION AND COMBUSTION AND EMISSION CONTROL FOR ADVANCED CIDI ENGINES 2 0 0 1 A N N U A L P R O G R E S S R E P O R T U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Transportation Technologies A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T We would like to express our sincere appreciation to Argonne National Laboratory and QSS Group, Inc., for their artistic, editorial and technical contributions in preparing and publishing this report. In addition, we would like to thank all our program participants for their contributions to the programs and all the authors who prepared the project abstracts that comprise this report. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Transportation Technologies 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, DC 20585-0121 FY 2001 Progress Report for Combustion and Emission Control for Advanced CIDI Engines

387

Controlling Power Plant CO2 Emissions: A Long-Range View  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CONTROLLING POWER PLANT CO CONTROLLING POWER PLANT CO 2 EMISSIONS: A LONG RANGE VIEW John Marion (john.l.marion@power.alstom.com; 860-285-4539) Nsakala ya Nsakala (nsakala.y.nsakala@power.alstom.com; 860-285-2018) ALSTOM Power Plant Laboratories 2000 Day Hill Road Windsor, CT 06095, USA Timothy Griffin (timothy.griffin@power.alstom.com; +41 56/486 82 43) Alain Bill (alain.bill@power.alstom.com; +41 56/486 81 07) ALSTOM Power Technology Center 5405 Baden-Daettwil, Switzerland ABSTRACT ALSTOM Power (ALSTOM) is an international supplier of power generation with concern for the environment. We are aware of the present scientific concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and the role of fossil fuel use for power generation. Although the scientific and policy dialogue on global climate change is far from conclusive, ALSTOM continues to

388

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Oxy-Combustion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP - Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control IEP - Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications Project No.: DE-NT0005290 Alstom oxy-combustion test facility Alstom oxy-combustion test facility. Alstom will develop an oxyfuel firing system design specifically for retrofit to tangential-fired (T-fired) boilers and provide information to address the technical gaps for commercial boiler design. Several oxyfuel system design concepts, such as internal flue gas recirculation and various oxygen injection schemes, will be evaluated for cost-effectiveness in satisfying furnace design conditions in a T-fired boiler. The evaluation will use an array of tools, including Alstom's proprietary models and design codes, along with 3-D computational fluid dynamics modeling. A

389

NETL: IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Metal Monolithic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control IEP – Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Metal Monolithic Amine-Grafted Zeolites for CO2 Capture Project No.: FC26-07NT43086 CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE CO2 capture unit with metal monolithic amine-grafted zeolites. The University of Akron is investigating a new sorbent for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture that involves the novel integration of metallic monolith structures coated with amine-grafted zeolites. This sorbent would eliminate the use of corrosive liquid amine and decrease the energy required for sorbent regeneration. The metal monoliths consist of straight channels: one row of channels coated with amine-grated zeolite and one used for heat transfer media for either cooling for adsorption or heating for regeneration. In combination with the innovative applications of metal monoliths as an

390

Energy technology and emissions control for acid rain abatement in Asia  

SciTech Connect

After more than ten years of research, acid rain is a sufficiently serious problem in North America to warrant control action. The acid rain problem has become a threat to the Asian continent as well. Emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are already high and announces plans for increases in coal use by countries in the region imply a major increase in emissions in the future. This will inevitably lead to greater incidence of acid rain and probably significant environmental damage in some locations. The purpose of this paper is to examine some of the issues relating to acid-rain-control technology in Asia and to suggest ways to include technology options in integrated simulation models of acid rain in Asia. 14 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs. (FL)

Streets, D.G.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

NETL: IEP – Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - CANMET CO2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

– Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control – Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control CANMET CO2 Consortium-O2/CO2 Recycle Combustion Project No.: IEA-CANMET-CO2 (International Agreement) Photograph of CANMET's Vertical Combustor Research Facility. Photograph of CANMET’s Vertical Combustor Research Facility. The CANMET carbon dioxide (CO2) consortium will conduct research to further the development of oxy-combustion for retrofit to coal-fired power plants. Research activities include: (1) modeling of an advanced, supercritical pressure oxy-coal plant, including an analysis of the impact of oxygen (O2) purity and O2 partial enrichment, overall process performance, and cost; (2) testing of pilot-scale CO2 capture and compression; (3) investigating CO2 phase change at liquid and supercritical states in gas mixtures

392

The Origin of the Mercury Bands at 2480A  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The group of eight mercury bands near 2480A was photographed under varied excitation conditions with the purpose of determining their origin. The source was a discharge through mercury vapor produced in a quartz tube through external electrodes by a low-voltage Tesla coil. Five tubes containing distilled mercury and commercial mercury arc lamp showed this group of bands. These bands were weakened by heat along with known mercury bands. The origin is undoubtedly some form of mercury molecule. The most probable forms are Hg2+ and Hg2. Five observations favor Hg2+ over Hg2. (1) These bands have never been observed in fluorescence. (2) The 2476 band is more intense than the 2345 Hg2 band under strong field excitation but weaker than 2345 under low field excitation. (3) No other bands with properties like those of the 2480 group have been observed in the mercury spectrum and Rayleigh has shown that these bands do not occur in absorption. (4) The bands in this group may be classified as sequences v?-v??=0123, and a lower limit for D of 0.3 volts estimated. (5) In the v?-v??=0 sequence, emission is observed from state v?=41 indicating molecules with very high vibrational energy. This energy may be supplied by the electric field if the emitter is an ion but not if it is a neutral molecule.

J. Gibson Winans

1932-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Long-Term Carbon Injection Field Test for 90% Mercury Removal for a PRB Unit a Spray Dryer and Fabric Filter  

SciTech Connect

The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon (PAC) into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. The purpose of this test program was to evaluate the long-term mercury removal capability, long-term mercury emissions variability, and operating and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with sorbent injection on a configuration being considered for many new plants. Testing was conducted by ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) at Rocky Mountain Powers (RMP) Hardin Station through funding provided by DOE/NETL, RMP, and other industry partners. The Hardin Station is a new plant rated at 121 MW gross that was first brought online in April of 2006. Hardin fires a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and is configured with selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOx control, a spray dryer absorber (SDA) for SO2 control, and a fabric filter (FF) for particulate control. Based upon previous testing at PRB sites with SCRs, very little additional mercury oxidation from the SCR was expected at Hardin. In addition, based upon results from DOE/NETL Phase II Round I testing at Holcomb Station and results from similarly configured sites, low native mercury removal was expected across the SDA and FF. The main goal of this project was metsorbent injection was used to economically and effectively achieve 90% mercury control as measured from the air heater (AH) outlet to the stack for a period of ten months. This goal was achieved with DARCO Hg-LH, Calgon FLUEPAC-MC PLUS and ADA Power PAC PREMIUM brominated activated carbons at nominal loadings of 1.52.5 lb/MMacf. An economic analysis determined the twenty-year levelized cost to be 0.87 mills/kW-hr, or $15,000/lb Hg removed. No detrimental effects on other equipment or plant operations were observed. The results of this project also filled a data gap for plants firing PRB coal and configured with an SCR, SDA, and FF, as many new plants are being designed today. Another goal of the project was to evaluate, on a short-term basis, the mercury removal associated with coal additives and coal blending with western bituminous coal. The additive test showed that, at this site, the coal additive known as KNX was affective at increasing mercury removal while decreasing sorbent usage. Coal blending was conducted with two different western bituminous coals, and West Elk coal increased native capture from nominally 10% to 50%. Two additional co-benefits were discovered at this site. First, it was found that native capture increased from nominally 10% at full load to 50% at low load. The effect is believed to be due to an increase in mercury oxidation across the SCR caused by a corresponding decrease in ammonia injection when the plant reduces load. Less ammonia means more active oxidation sites in the SCR for the mercury. The second co-benefit was the finding that high ammonia concentrations can have a negative impact on mercury removal by powdered activated carbon. For a period of time, the plant operated with a high excess of ammonia injection necessitated by the plugging of one-third of the SCR. Under these conditions and at high load, the mercury control system could not maintain 90% removal even at the maximum feed rate of 3.5 lb/MMacf (pounds of mercury per million actual cubic feet). The plant was able to demonstrate that mercury removal was directly related to the ammonia injection rate in a series of tests where the ammonia rate was decreased, causing a corresponding increase in mercury removal. Also, after the SCR was refurbished and ammonia injection levels returned to normal, the mercury removal performance also returned to normal. Another goal of the project was to install a commercial-grade activated carbon injection (ACI) system and integrate it with new-generation continuous emissions monitors for mercury (Hg-CEMs) to allow automatic feedback control on outlet me

Sjostrom, Sharon; Amrhein, Jerry

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

394

Intelligent emissions controller for substance injection in the post-primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The control of emissions from fossil-fired boilers wherein an injection of substances above the primary combustion zone employs multi-layer feedforward artificial neural networks for modeling static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected substances into the upper region of the furnace and the emissions exiting the furnace. Multivariable nonlinear constrained optimization algorithms use the mathematical expressions from the artificial neural networks to provide the optimal substance distribution that minimizes emission levels for a given total substance injection rate. Based upon the optimal operating conditions from the optimization algorithms, the incremental substance cost per unit of emissions reduction, and the open-market price per unit of emissions reduction, the intelligent emissions controller allows for the determination of whether it is more cost-effective to achieve additional increments in emission reduction through the injection of additional substance or through the purchase of emission credits on the open market. This is of particular interest to fossil-fired electrical power plant operators. The intelligent emission controller is particularly adapted for determining the economical control of such pollutants as oxides of nitrogen (NO.sub.x) and carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by fossil-fired boilers by the selective introduction of multiple inputs of substances (such as natural gas, ammonia, oil, water-oil emulsion, coal-water slurry and/or urea, and combinations of these substances) above the primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers.

Reifman, Jaques (Western Springs, IL); Feldman, Earl E. (Willowbrook, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL); Glickert, Roger W. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Determination of mercury and organic mercury contents in Malaysian seafood  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The contents of mercury and organic mercury in various types of seafood from various location in Malaysia were determined...Rastrelliger kanagurta), Spanish mackerel (Scomberomurus commersoni), shrimp (Peneaus sp...

S. A. Rahman; A. K. Wood; S. Sarmani

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Gravity Probe B Gyroscope charge control using field?emission cathodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose and test a method for controlling the charging of the Gravity Probe B(GP?B) electrostatically suspended gyroscopes using electrons generated by field emissioncathodes. The GP?B GyroscopeExperiment is designed to measure for the first time the geodetic and the frame?dragging effects predicted by Einsteins general theory of relativity. The expected accuracy of ?0.3 marcsec/yr (10?11 deg/h) will allow for a 0.01% measurement of the geodetic effect and a 1% measurement of the frame?dragging effect. Gyroscope charging is caused by cosmic radiation by field emission and by the separation of dissimilar metals. The expected charging rate for the gyroscopes is ?1 nC/yr and consequently above the 50 pC limit dictated by disturbing torque considerations. The present charge control technique is based on ultraviolet photoemission of electrons from both the gyroscope and an auxiliary electrode. Experiments have shown this method to be effective at room temperature in ground testing and calculations indicate that it is suitable for charge control in orbit. As an alternative we demonstrate the use of Spindt?type field emissioncathodes for the control of the positive charges on the gyroscopes by using a 10?000 tip emitter array produced by SRI International. The device requirements are (a) stable and reliable operation over two years at 2 K and 1.510?9 Pa (b) average power dissipation in the device of less than 50 ?W (c) peak emission current of 1100 pA (d) dimensions less than 2 mm (e) magnetization less than 10?8 G (f) electric field at the gyroscope less than 104 V/m. The control of negative charges on the gyroscope is achievable by operating in a regime in which the secondary electron emission coefficient is greater than unity.

Saps Buchman; Theodore Quinn; G. M. Keiser; Dale Gill

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Data Report No. 2: NO{sub x} Adsorber Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report discusses the results of the DECSE test program that demonstrates the potential of NOx adsorber catalyst technology across the range of diesel engine operation with a fuel economy penalty less than 4%.

DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

1999-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

398

Dynamic Acoustic Control of Individual Optically Active Quantum Dot-like Emission Centers in Heterostructure Nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We probe and control the optical properties of emission centers forming in radial het- erostructure GaAs-Al0.3Ga0.7As nanowires and show that these emitters, located in Al0.3Ga0.7As layers, can exhibit quantum-dot like characteristics. We employ a radio frequency surface acoustic wave to dynamically control their emission energy and occupancy state on a nanosec- ond timescale. In the spectral oscillations we identify unambiguous signatures arising from both the mechanical and electrical component of the surface acoustic wave. In addition, differ- ent emission lines of a single quantum dot exhibit pronounced anti-correlated intensity oscilla- tions during the acoustic cycle. These arise from a dynamically triggered carrier extraction out of the quantum dot to a continuum in the radial heterostructure. Using finite element modeling and Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin theory we identify quantum tunneling as the underlying mech- anism. These simulation results quantitatively reproduce the observed switching and show th...

Wei, Matthias; Schlein, Florian J R; Heigl, Michael; Rudolph, Daniel; Morktter, Stefanie; Dblinger, Markus; Bichler, Max; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Finley, Jonathan J; Koblmller, Gregor; Wixforth, Achim; Krenner, Hubert J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

NETL: Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - Ultra Low-NOx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ultra Low NOx Integrated System Ultra Low NOx Integrated System TFS 2000(tm) Low NOx Firing System Project Summary: ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important,

400

Mercury-Related Materials Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mercury-Related Materials Studies Van Graves IDS NF Ph M tiIDS-NF Phone Meeting Jan 26, 2010 #12 Evaluation of Cavitation Resistance of Type 316LN Stainless Steel in Mercury Using a Vibratory Horn," J. Nucl Pump Impeller Materials for Mercury Service at the Spallation Neutron Source," Oak Ridge National

McDonald, Kirk

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "mercury emissions control" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Bioaccumulation of Mercury in Sharks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bioaccumulation of Mercury in Sharks Part 2 a Using a subset of data collected on RJD shark research trips, you will analyze the mercury levels found in the Florida Sharks we catch. Based on your analysis, you will be able to conclude which species have the highest levels of mercury contamination

Miami, University of

402

Bioaccumulation of Mercury in Sharks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Resources: EPA General Info on Mercury - http://www.epa.gov/mercury/about.htm FDA Mercury Levels in Seafood - http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/ Seafood/ucm092041/en/index.html Monterey Bay Aquarium Sustainable Seafood Guide - http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/Seafood

Miami, University of

403

Gas Mileage of 1994 Vehicles by Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 Mercury Vehicles 4 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1994 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 1.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Mercury Capri 20 City 21 Combined 24 Highway 1994 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 1.6 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Mercury Capri 21 City 23 Combined 26 Highway 1994 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 1.6 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Mercury Capri 22 City 24 Combined 28 Highway 1994 Mercury Cougar 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Mercury Cougar 17 City 19 Combined 24 Highway 1994 Mercury Cougar 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Mercury Cougar 16 City 18 Combined 23 Highway 1994 Mercury Grand Marquis 8 cyl, 4.6 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1994 Mercury Grand Marquis 16

404

Gas Mileage of 1985 Vehicles by Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 Mercury Vehicles 5 Mercury Vehicles EPA MPG MODEL City Comb Hwy 1985 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Mercury Capri 19 City 20 Combined 23 Highway 1985 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Manual 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Mercury Capri 21 City 23 Combined 27 Highway 1985 Mercury Capri 6 cyl, 3.8 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Mercury Capri 17 City 18 Combined 20 Highway 1985 Mercury Capri 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Manual 5-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Mercury Capri 15 City 17 Combined 22 Highway 1985 Mercury Capri 8 cyl, 5.0 L, Automatic 4-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Mercury Capri 15 City 17 Combined 22 Highway 1985 Mercury Capri 4 cyl, 2.3 L, Automatic 3-spd, Regular Gasoline Compare 1985 Mercury Capri 18 City

405

NETL: News Release - President's Initiative to Seek 90 Percent Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

April 21, 2004 April 21, 2004 President's Initiative to Seek 90 Percent Mercury Removal We Energies to Test TOXECON(tm) Process in Michigan Coal-fired Power Plant WASHINGTON, DC - The Department of Energy (DOE) and We Energies today initiated a joint venture to demonstrate technology that will remove an unprecedented 90 percent of mercury emissions from coal-based power plants. Presque Isle Power Plant - We Energies' Presque Isle Power Plant located on the shores of Lake Superior in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. As part of the President's Clean Coal Power Initiative of technology development and demonstration, the new project supports current proposals to reduce mercury emissions in the range of 70 percent through a proposed regulation pending before the Environmental Protection Agency or, in the

406

Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control  

SciTech Connect

The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

407

Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel-based Na on Emissions Control Components  

SciTech Connect

A single-cylinder diesel engine was used to investigate the impact of biodiesel-based Na on emissions control components using specially blended 20% biodiesel fuel (B20). The emissions control components investigated were a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a Cu-zeolite-based NH{sub 3}-SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalyst, and a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Both light-duty vehicle, DOC-SCR-DPF, and heavy-duty vehicle, DOC-DPF-SCR, emissions control configurations were employed. The accelerated Na aging is achieved by introducing elevated Na levels in the fuel, to represent full useful life exposure, and periodically increasing the exhaust temperature to replicate DPF regeneration. To assess the validity of the implemented accelerated Na aging protocol, engine-aged lean NO{sub x} traps (LNTs), DOCs and DPFs are also evaluated. To fully characterize the impact on the catalytic activity the LNT, DOC and SCR catalysts were evaluated using a bench flow reactor. The evaluation of the aged DOC samples and LNT show little to no deactivation as a result of Na contamination. However, the SCR in the light-duty configuration (DOC-SCR-DPF) was severely affected by Na contamination, especially when NO was the only fed NO{sub x} source. In the heavy-duty configuration (DOC-DPF-SCR), no impact is observed in the SCR NO{sub x} reduction activity. Electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) reveals that Na contamination on the LNT, DOC, and SCR sam