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Sample records for mercury content enter

  1. Mercury Contents of Natural Thermal and Mineral Fluids, In- U...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Paper 713 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book Section: Mercury Contents of Natural Thermal and Mineral Fluids, In- U.S. Geological...

  2. Survey of mercury, cadmium and lead content of household batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recknagel, Sebastian; Radant, Hendrik; Kohlmeyer, Regina

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • A well selected sample of 146 batteries was analysed for its heavy metals content. • A comparison was made between heavy metals contents in batteries in 2006 and 2011. • No significant change after implementation of the new EU Batteries Directive. • Severe differences in heavy metal contents were found in different battery-types. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to provide updated information on the development of the potential impact of heavy metal containing batteries on municipal waste and battery recycling processes following transposition of the new EU Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC. A representative sample of 146 different types of commercially available dry and button cells as well as lithium-ion accumulators for mobile phones were analysed for their mercury (Hg)-, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contents. The methods used for preparing the cells and analysing the heavy metals Hg, Cd, and Pb were either developed during a former study or newly developed. Several batteries contained higher mass fractions of mercury or cadmium than the EU limits. Only half of the batteries with mercury and/or lead fractions above the marking thresholds were labelled. Alkaline–manganese mono-cells and Li-ion accumulators, on average, contained the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while zinc–carbon batteries, on average, contained the highest levels.

  3. Mercury retention by fly ashes from coal combustion: Influence of the unburned carbon content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Anton, M.A.; Diaz-Somoano, M.; Martinez-Tarazona, M.R.

    2007-01-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of unburned carbon particles present in fly ashes produced by coal combustion on mercury retention. To achieve this objective, the work was divided into two parts. The aim of the first part of the study was to estimate the amount of mercury captured by the fly ashes during combustion in power stations and the relationship of this retention to the unburned carbon content. The second part was a laboratory-scale study aimed at evaluating the retention of mercury concentrations greater than those produced in power stations by fly ashes of different characteristics and by unburned carbon particles. From the results obtained it can be inferred that the unburned carbon content is not the only variable that controls mercury capture in fly ashes. The textural characteristics of these unburned particles and of other components of fly ashes also influence retention.

  4. EM Mercury Challenge

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Plan to Address the EM Mercury Challenge FEBRUARY 2016 Table of Contents SUMMARY 1 1. BACKGROUND 2 1.1 OAK RIDGE RESERVATION'S MERCURY CHALLENGE 2 1.2 SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S MERCURY CHALLENGE 3 2. APPROACH 4 3. OREM'S 2014 TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PLAN 5 4. RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AREAS FOR OAK RIDGE 6 4.1 MERCURY DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT 6 4.2 Y-12 SITE CLEANUP 7 4.3 EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK REMEDIATION 9 4.4 MODELING 10 5. RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AREAS FOR THE

  5. Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... of source inventory in terms of reducing mercury in the ... is entering, or could enter, the water column in, for ... One might search for such reaches by close-interval surface ...

  6. CONTENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8.0 - HOISTING AND RIGGING IN HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS February 18, 2010 Rev 1 Page 1 CHAPTER 18.0 TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS..................................................................................................................................1 PAGINATION TABLE.....................................................................................................................................1 18.0 HOISTING AND RIGGING IN HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS

  7. CONTENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3.0 - CRITICAL, SPECIAL, & ENGINEERED LIFTS January 4, 2016 Rev 1 Page 1 CHAPTER 3.0 TABLE OF CONTENTS 3.0 CRITICAL LIFTS ....................................................................................................................................... 3 3.1 SCOPE .......................................................................................................................................................... 3 3.2 CRITICAL LIFT DETERMINATION

  8. CONTENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volume 2, Sampling Technical Requirements Effective Date: 6/1/07 Vol. 2: i CONTENTS 1.0 SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS PROCESS .................................................................... 1-1 2.0 DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES ................................................................................... 2-1 3.0 SAMPLING SYSTEMS .................................................................................................. 3-1 3.1 Facility Management

  9. CONTENTS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volume 4, Laboratory Technical Requirements Effective Date: 6/1/07 Vol. 4: i CONTENTS 1.0 QUALITY ASSURANCE OBJECTIVES......................................................................... 1-1 1.1 DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES............................................................................ 1-1 1.2 CLIENT DATA QUALITY REQUIREMENTS ..................................................... 1-2 1.2.1 Precision

  10. Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program and Book of Abstracts Contents Organizers i-ii Detailed Program iii-viii Oral presentations 1-38 Posters P1-P27 Program Schematic back cover The LAPD Symposium brings together scientists from laser physics, low- temperature plasma chemistry and physics, and nuclear fusion. The Symposium is an important, unique, and fruitful source for cross-fertilization between these fields. Major topics include laser-aided diagnostics for fusion plasmas, industrial process plasmas, and environmental

  11. Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 August 2005 Contents Bechtel Nevada achieves 5 million hours! 1 WSI graduates fresh members of security 1 protective forces Handling radiation emergencies 2 SiteLines features a new editor 2 Rocky Flats survey 3 NTS Swift Water Rescue Team practices on the 3 Colorado River Drilling Program overcomes challenges at the NTS 3 Toastmasters: making effective communication a 4 worldwide reality Atomic Testing Museum update 4 Two more successful shots at JASPER 5 Hazardous Substance Inventory users 5

  12. Contents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 June/July 2005 Contents Fires burn Nevada Test Site in June NNSA/NSO and Department of Homeland Security break ground at the Nevada Test Site U1h ribbon cutting marks the remarkable New training grounds dedicated at NTS Changes enhance the EAP Unicorn subcritical experiment completes key milestone New communication system takes flight SiteLines goes online DNFSB visits U1a Funnel clouds at the Nevada Test Site Community Environmental Monitor receives EPA award Take Our Daughters and Sons to

  13. Fly ash properties and mercury sorbent affect mercury release from curing concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danold W. Golightly; Chin-Min Cheng; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker; William E. Wolfe

    2009-04-15

    The release of mercury from concrete containing fly ashes from various generator boilers and powdered activated carbon sorbent used to capture mercury was measured in laboratory experiments. Release of gaseous mercury from these concretes was less than 0.31% of the total quantity of mercury present. The observed gaseous emissions of mercury during the curing process demonstrated a dependency on the organic carbon content of the fly ash, with mercury release decreasing with increasing carbon content. Further, lower gaseous emissions of mercury were observed for concretes incorporating ash containing activated carbon sorbent than would be expected based on the observed association with organic carbon, suggesting that the powdered activated carbon more tightly binds the mercury as compared to unburned carbon in the ash. Following the initial 28-day curing interval, mercury release diminished with time. In separate leaching experiments, average mercury concentrations leached from fly ash concretes were less than 4.1 ng/L after 18 h and 7 days, demonstrating that less than 0.02% of the mercury was released during leaching. 25 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Apparatus for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Marcucci, Rudolph V.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for enriching the isotopic Hg content of mercury is provided. The apparatus includes a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill including mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. In a preferred embodiment, constant mercury pressure is maintained in the filter by means of a water-cooled tube that depends from it, the tube having a drop of mercury disposed in it. The reactor is arranged around the filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of a material which is transparent to ultraviolet light.

  15. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  16. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  17. Mercury exposure from interior latex paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agocs, M.M.; Etzel, R.A.; Parrish, R.G.; Paschal, D.C.; Campagna, P.R.; Cohen, D.S.; Kilbourne, E.M.; Hesse, J.L. )

    1990-10-18

    Many paint companies have used phenylmercuric acetate as a preservative to prolong the shelf life of interior latex paint. In August 1989, acrodynia, a form of mercury poisoning, occurred in a child exposed to paint fumes in a home recently painted with a brand containing 4.7 mmol of mercury per liter (at that time the Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit was 1.5 mmol or less per liter). To determine whether the recent use of that brand of paint containing phenylmercuric acetate was associated with elevated indoor-air and urinary mercury concentrations, we studied 74 exposed persons living in 19 homes recently painted with the brand and 28 unexposed persons living in 10 homes not recently painted with paint containing mercury. The paint samples from the homes of exposed persons contained a median of 3.8 mmol of mercury per liter, and air samples from the homes had a median mercury content of 10.0 nmol per cubic meter (range, less than 0.5 to 49.9). No mercury was detected in paint or air samples from the homes of unexposed persons. The median urinary mercury concentration was higher in the exposed persons (4.7 nmol of mercury per millimole of creatinine; range, 1.4 to 66.5) than in the unexposed persons (1.1 nmol per millimole; range, 0.02 to 3.9; P less than 0.001). Urinary mercury concentrations within the range that we found in exposed persons have been associated with symptomatic mercury poisoning. We found that potentially hazardous exposure to mercury had occurred among persons whose homes were painted with a brand of paint containing mercury at concentrations approximately 2 1/2 times the Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit.

  18. FY09 assessment of mercury reduction at SNL/NM.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCord, Samuel Adam

    2010-02-01

    This assessment takes the result of the FY08 performance target baseline of mercury at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico, and records the steps taken in FY09 to collect additional data, encourage the voluntary reduction of mercury, and measure success. Elemental (metallic) mercury and all of its compounds are toxic, and exposure to excessive levels can permanently damage or fatally injure the brain and kidneys. Elemental mercury can also be absorbed through the skin and cause allergic reactions. Ingestion of inorganic mercury compounds can cause severe renal and gastrointestinal damage. Organic compounds of mercury such as methyl mercury, created when elemental mercury enters the environment, are considered the most toxic forms of the element. Exposures to very small amounts of these compounds can result in devastating neurological damage and death.1 SNL/NM is required to report annually on the site wide inventory of mercury for the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Program, as the site's inventory is excess of the ten pound reportable threshold quantity. In the fiscal year 2008 (FY08) Pollution Prevention Program Plan, Section 5.3 Reduction of Environmental Releases, a performance target stated was to establish a baseline of mercury, its principle uses, and annual quantity or inventory. This was accomplished on July 29, 2008 by recording the current status of mercury in the Chemical Information System (CIS).

  19. Methods and sorbents for utilizing a hot-side electrostatic precipitator for removal of mercury from combustion gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Sidney

    2011-02-15

    Methods are provided for reducing emission of mercury from a gas stream by treating the gas with carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles to reduce the mercury content of the gas; collecting the carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles on collection plates of a hot-side ESP; periodically rapping the collection plates to release a substantial portion of the collected carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles into hoppers; and periodically emptying the hoppers, wherein such rapping and emptying are done at rates such that less than 70% of mercury adsorbed onto the mercury sorbent desorbs from the collected mercury sorbent into the gas stream.

  20. Mercury contamination extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fuhrmann, Mark; Heiser, John; Kalb, Paul

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  1. Mercury Speciation in Piscivorous Fish from Mining-impacted Reservoirs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury Speciation in Piscivorous Fish from Mining-impacted Reservoirs Mercury toxicity generates environmental concerns in diverse aquatic systems because methylmercury enters the water column in diverse ways then biomagnifies through food webs. At the apex of many freshwater food webs, piscivorous fish can then extend that trophic transfer and potential for neurotoxicity to wildlife and humans. Mining activities, particularly those associated with the San Francisco Bay region, can generate

  2. Filter for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1989-01-01

    A filter for enriching the .sup.196 Hg content of mercury, including a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill of mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. The reactor is arranged around said filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of quartz, and are transparent to ultraviolet light. The .sup.196 Hg concentration in the mercury fill is less than that which is present in naturally occurring mercury, that is less than about 0.146 atomic weight percent. Hydrogen is also included in the fill and serves as a quenching gas in the filter, the hydrogen also serving to prevent disposition of a dark coating on the interior of the filter.

  3. Filter for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-06-13

    A filter is described for enriching the [sup 196]Hg content of mercury, including a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill of mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. The reactor is arranged around said filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of quartz, and are transparent to ultraviolet light. The [sup 196]Hg concentration in the mercury fill is less than that which is present in naturally occurring mercury, that is, less than about 0.146 atomic weight percent. Hydrogen is also included in the fill and serves as a quenching gas in the filter, the hydrogen also serving to prevent disposition of a dark coating on the interior of the filter. 9 figs.

  4. Mercury Emissions Control Technologies (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 reference case assumes that states will comply with the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency's new Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) regulation. CAMR is a two-phase program, with a Phase I cap of 38 tons of mercury emitted from all U.S. power plants in 2010 and a Phase II cap of 15 tons in 2018. Mercury emissions in the electricity generation sector in 2003 are estimated at around 50 tons. Generators have a variety of options to meet the mercury limits, such as: switching to coal with a lower mercury content, relying on flue gas desulfurization or selective catalytic reduction equipment to reduce mercury emissions, or installing conventional activated carbon injection (ACI) technology.

  5. Removal of Mercury from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-29

    A paper study was completed to survey literature, patents, and companies for mercury removal technologies applicable to gasification technologies. The objective was to determine if mercury emissions from gasification of coal are more or less difficult to manage than those from a combustion system. The purpose of the study was to define the extent of the mercury problem for gasification-based coal utilization and conversion systems. It is clear that in coal combustion systems, the speciation of mercury between elemental vapor and oxidized forms depends on a number of factors. The most important speciation factors are the concentration of chlorides in the coal, the temperatures in the ducting, and residence times. The collection of all the mercury was most dependent upon the extent of carbon in the fly ash, and the presence of a wet gas desulfurization system. In combustion, high chloride content plus long residence times at intermediate temperatures leads to oxidation of the mercury. The mercury is then captured in the wet gas desulfurization system and in the fly ash as HgCl{sub 2}. Without chloride, the mercury oxidizes much slower, but still may be trapped on thick bag house deposits. Addition of limestone to remove sulfur may trap additional mercury in the slag. In gasification where the mercury is expected to be elemental, activated carbon injection has been the most effective method of mercury removal. The carbon is best injected downstream where temperatures have moderated and an independent collector can be established. Concentrations of mercury sorbent need to be 10,000 to 20,000 the concentrations of the mercury. Pretreatment of the activated carbon may include acidification or promotion by sulfur.

  6. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  7. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

    1995-04-04

    A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

  8. Phytoremediation of ionic and methyl mercury pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meagher, R.B.

    1998-06-01

    'The long-term objective of the research is to manipulate single-gene traits into plants, enabling them to process heavy metals and remediate heavy-metal pollution by resistance, sequestration, removal, and management of these contaminants. The authors are focused on mercury pollution as a case study of this plant genetic engineering approach. The working hypothesis behind this proposal was that transgenic plants expressing both the bacterial organo mercury lyase (merB) and the mercuric ion reductase gene (merA) will: (A) remove the mercury from polluted sites and (B) prevent methyl mercury from entering the food chain. The results from the research are so positive that the technology will undoubtedly be applied in the very near future to cleaning large mercury contaminates sites. Many such sites were not remediable previously due to the excessive costs and the negative environmental impact of conventional mechanical-chemical technologies. At the time this grant was awarded 20 months ago, the authors had successfully engineered a small model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, to use a highly modified bacterial mercuric ion reductase gene, merA9, to detoxify ionic mercury (Hg(II)), reducing it to much less toxic and volatile metallic Hg(0) (Rugh et al., 1996). Seeds from these plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of Hg(II) that are lethal to normal plants. In assays on transgenic seedlings suspended in a solution of Hg(II), 10 ng of Hg(0) was evolved per min per mg wet weight of plant tissue. At that time, the authors had no information on expression of merA in any other plant species, nor had the authors tested merB in any plant. However, the results were so startlingly positive and well received that they clearly presaged a paradigm shift in the field of environmental remediation.'

  9. Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2005-12-30

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at Laramie River Station Unit 3, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL are to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the benchmark established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The goals of the program were exceeded at Laramie River Station by achieving over 90% mercury removal at a sorbent cost of $3,980/lb ($660/oz) mercury removed for a coal mercury content of 7.9 lb/TBtu.

  10. Mercury in the environment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory - Mike Abbott

    2010-01-08

    Abbott works for Idaho National Laboratory as an environmental scientist. Using state-of-thescienceequipment, he continuously samples the air, looking for mercury. In turn, he'll analyzethis long-term data and try to figure out the mercury's point of or

  11. Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amrhein, Gerald T.

    2001-01-01

    A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

  12. Category:Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mercury Vapor Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Mercury Vapor page? For detailed information on Mercury Vapor as...

  13. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-01-31

    Revised maps and associated data show potential mercury, sulfur, and chlorine emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin. Existing coal mining and coal washing practices result in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hot-side ESP, cold-side ESP, or hot-side ESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cold-side ESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum net mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions.

  14. Mercury Metadata Toolset

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-09-08

    Mercury is a federated metadata harvesting, search and retrieval tool based on both open source software and software developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was originally developed for NASA, and the Mercury development consortium now includes funding from NASA, USGS, and DOE. A major new version of Mercury (version 3.0) was developed during 2007 and released in early 2008. This Mercury 3.0 version provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additionalmore » metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS delivery of search results, and ready customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects which use Mercury. For the end users, Mercury provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems. It collects metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The Mercury search interfaces then allow the users to perform simple, fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data.« less

  15. Mercury emissions from German fluidized bed sludge incinerators -- A status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saenger, M.; Werther, J.; Lungwitz, H.

    1999-07-01

    In 1996 19% of the 2.7 million tons dry matter of sewage sludge produced in Germany were disposed by incineration. Incineration of the sludge is carried out mainly in fluidized bed combustors. German emission regulations set a limit to the mercury emission of 0.05 mg/m{sup 3} (under standard condition, dry basis) the observance of which requires special flue gas cleaning installations. In the present paper, an overview is given on the state of the art of flue gas cleaning with respect to mercury emissions from sewage sludge incineration in Germany. A total of 13 plants were examined. Because of the thermochemical instability of the mercury compounds only elemental mercury will exist inside the combustion chamber. During the cooling of the flue gas the elemental mercury reacts depending on the presence of other flue gas components to several mercurous and mercuric compounds. Measurements in the plants investigated indicate that the ratio of elemental to chemically bound mercury decreases with increasing chlorine content in the sludge feed. Different types of gas cleaning systems are used to remove the mercury from the flue gas which may be grouped into two categories, namely scrubbers and adsorbers, respectively. The mercury sink in the cleaning system will therefore be either the excess water of a wet scrubber or the laden adsorbent from an adsorber. If the amount of the practically water-insoluble elemental mercury is below the emission limit wet scrubbers will be sufficient to remove the mercuric and mercurous species. Otherwise elemental mercury has to be additionally removed by adding agents to oxidize the mercury for capture in a scrubber or by an adsorbent. Only 1--6% of the mercury supplied with the sludge is found in the fly ash separated with electrostatic precipitators. The different kinds of mercury capture systems used in German fluidized bed sludge incineration plants, the mercury concentrations in the cleaned flue gas and the removal efficiencies with

  16. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  17. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  18. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1989-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  19. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-11-07

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figs.

  20. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1991-06-18

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figures.

  1. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; Sagan, F.J.; Marmaro, R.W.; Wilson, K.G.

    1997-10-21

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber. 15 figs.

  2. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  3. Mercury Strategic Plan Outfall 200 Mercury Treatment Facility

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    more than 20 million pounds of mercury were used at Y-12 in a process that separated lithium isotopes for weapons production *Approximately 2 million pounds of mercury were ...

  4. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekney, Natalie J.; Martello, Donald; Schroeder, Karl; Granite, Evan

    2009-05-01

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7- day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m(2) h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m(2) h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  5. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekney, N.J.; Martello, D.V.; Schroeder, K.T.; Granite, E.J.

    2009-05-01

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7-day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m2 h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m2 h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  6. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Marshall G.

    1985-01-01

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  7. Follow that mercury!

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linero, A.A.

    2008-07-01

    The article discusses one technology option for avoiding release of mercury captured by power plant pollution control equipment in order to render it usable in concrete. This is the use of selective catalytic reduction for NOx control and lime spray dryer absorbers (SDA) for SO{sub 2} control prior to particulate collection by fabric filters. In this scenario all mercury removed is trapped in the fabric filter baghouse. The US EPA did not establish mercury emission limits for existing cement plants in the latest regulation 40 CFR 63, Subpart LLL (December 2006) and was sued by the Portland Cement Association because of the Hg limits established for new kilns and by several states and environmental groups for the lack of limits on existing ones. A full version of this article is available on www.acaa-usa.org/AshatWork.htm. 2 figs.

  8. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  9. BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

    2012-04-09

    retention of mercury in the slurry. Both recovery of mercury in the offgas system and removal (segregation + recovery) from the slurry correlate with slurry consistency. Higher slurry consistency results in better retention of Hg in the slurry (less segregation) and better recovery in the offgas system, but the relationships of recovery and retention with consistency are sludge dependent. Some correlation with slurry yield stress and acid stoichiometry was also found. Better retention of mercury in the slurry results in better recovery in the offgas system because the mercury in the slurry is stripped more easily than the segregated mercury at the bottom of the vessel. Although better retention gives better recovery, the time to reach a particular slurry mercury content (wt%) is longer than if the retention is poorer because the segregation is faster. The segregation of mercury is generally a faster process than stripping. The stripping factor (mass of water evaporated per mass of mercury stripped) of mercury at the start of boiling were found to be less than 1000 compared to the assumed design basis value of 750 (the theoretical factor is 250). However, within two hours, this value increased to at least 2000 lb water per lb Hg. For runs with higher mercury recovery in the offgas system, the stripping factor remained around 2000, but runs with low recovery had stripping factors of 4000 to 40,000. DWPF data shows similar trends with the stripping factor value increasing during boiling. These high values correspond to high segregation and low retention of mercury in the sludge. The stripping factor for a pure Hg metal bead in water was found to be about 10,000 lb/lb. About 10-36% of the total Hg evaporated in a SRAT cycle was refluxed back to the SRAT during formic acid addition and boiling. Mercury is dissolved as a result of nitric acid formation from absorption of NO{sub x}. The actual solubility of dissolved mercury in the acidic condensate is about 100 times higher than

  10. Method and apparatus for sampling atmospheric mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trujillo, Patricio E.; Campbell, Evan E.; Eutsler, Bernard C.

    1976-01-20

    A method of simultaneously sampling particulate mercury, organic mercurial vapors, and metallic mercury vapor in the working and occupational environment and determining the amount of mercury derived from each such source in the sampled air. A known volume of air is passed through a sampling tube containing a filter for particulate mercury collection, a first adsorber for the selective adsorption of organic mercurial vapors, and a second adsorber for the adsorption of metallic mercury vapor. Carbon black molecular sieves are particularly useful as the selective adsorber for organic mercurial vapors. The amount of mercury adsorbed or collected in each section of the sampling tube is readily quantitatively determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  11. Mercury Information Clearinghouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad A. Wocken; Michael J. Holmes; Dennis L. Laudal; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; Greg F. Weber; Nicholas V. C. Ralston; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Laura J. Raymond; John H. Pavlish; Everett A. Sondreal; Steven A. Benson

    2006-03-31

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. With the support of CEA, the Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the EERC developed comprehensive quarterly information updates that provide a detailed assessment of developments in the various areas of mercury monitoring, control, policy, and research. A total of eight topical reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. The original quarterly reports can be viewed at the CEA Web site (www.ceamercuryprogram.ca). In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. Members of Canada's coal-fired electricity generation sector (ATCO Power, EPCOR, Manitoba Hydro, New Brunswick Power, Nova Scotia Power Inc., Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower, and TransAlta) and CEA, have compiled an extensive database of information from stack-, coal-, and ash-sampling activities. Data from this effort are also available at the CEA Web site and have provided critical information for establishing and reviewing a mercury standard for Canada that is protective of environment and public health and is cost-effective. Specific goals outlined for the CEA mercury program included the following: (1) Improve emission inventories and develop management options through an intensive 2-year coal-, ash-, and stack-sampling program; (2) Promote effective stack testing through the development of guidance material and the support of on-site training on the Ontario Hydro method for employees, government representatives, and contractors on an as-needed basis; (3) Strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities through

  12. Mercury control in 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjostrom, S.; Durham, M.; Bustard, J.; Martin, C.

    2009-07-15

    Although activated carbon injection (ACI) has been proven to be effective for many configurations and is a preferred option at many plants sufficient quantities of powdered activated coking (PAC) must be available to meet future needs. The authors estimate that upcoming federal and state regulations will result in tripling the annual US demand for activated carbon to nearly 1.5 billion lb from approximately 450 million lb. Rapid expansion of US production capacity is required. Many PAC manufacturers are discussing expansion of their existing production capabilities. One company, ADA Carbon Solutions, is in the process of constructing the largest activated carbon facility in North America to meet the future demand for PAC as a sorbent for mercury control. Emission control technology development and commercialization is driven by regulation and legislation. Although ACI will not achieve > 90% mercury control at every plant, the expected required MACT legislation level, it offers promise as a low-cost primary mercury control technology option for many configurations and an important trim technology for others. ACI has emerged as the clear mercury-specific control option of choice, representing over 98% of the commercial mercury control system orders to date. As state regulations are implemented and the potential for a federal rule becomes more imminent, suppliers are continuing to develop technologies to improve the cost effectiveness and limit the balance of plant impacts associated with ACI and are developing additional PAC production capabilities to ensure that the industry's needs are met. The commercialisation of ACI is a clear example of industry, through the dedication of many individuals and companies with support from the DOE and EPRI, meeting the challenge of developing cost-effectively reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-12-05

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  14. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1987-02-27

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

  15. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-01-01

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  16. Concentrations and mass balance of mercury in a fluidized bed sewage sludge incineration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saenger, M.; Werther, J.; Hanssen, H.

    1999-07-01

    The fluidized bed sewage sludge incineration plant of the city of Hamburg started its operation in May 1997. In cooperation with Hamburger Stadtentwaesserung the Technical University Hamburg-Harburg undertook an experimental program to measure the mass balance of mercury across this plant. During the first months of full operation the mercury concentrations in the flue gas and in the solid residues were measured. The measurements show that the concentration in the raw flue gas is between 500 to 950 {micro}g/m{sup 3} and part of the elemental mercury depends on the chlorine content of the fuel. The concentration of the mercury in the flue gas is reduced over the first scrubber to 35--460 {micro}m/m{sup 3}. Some 77% of the mercury input are found in the sediment separated from the liquid of the acid scrubber. It is remarkable that the concentration of the elemental mercury increases while the gas passes through the scrubber. The concentration of mercury in the cleaned stack gas is less than 40 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. Since it is generally known that it is not easy to meet the limit of 50 {micro}g mercury per m{sup 3} (standard conditions, dry basis) of flue gas which is set by the German regulations for waste incineration, the measurements provide a comprehensive picture of the fate of mercury in a fluidized bed sludge incineration plant.

  17. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest F. Stine Jr; Steven T. Downey

    2002-08-14

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used large quantities of mercury in the uranium separating process from the 1950s until the late 1980s in support of national defense. Some of this mercury, as well as other hazardous metals and radionuclides, found its way into, and under, several buildings, soil and subsurface soils and into some of the surface waters. Several of these areas may pose potential health or environmental risks and must be dealt with under current environmental regulations. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) awarded a contract ''Alternative Field Methods to Treat Mercury in Soil'' to IT Group, Knoxville TN (IT) and its subcontractor NFS, Erwin, TN to identify remedial methods to clean up mercury-contaminated high-clay content soils using proven treatment chemistries. The sites of interest were the Y-12 National Security Complex located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the David Witherspoon properties located in Knoxville, Tennessee, and at other similarly contaminated sites. The primary laboratory-scale contract objectives were (1) to safely retrieve and test samples of contaminated soil in an approved laboratory and (2) to determine an acceptable treatment method to ensure that the mercury does not leach from the soil above regulatory levels. The leaching requirements were to meet the TC (0.2 mg/l) and UTS (0.025 mg/l) TCLP criteria. In-situ treatments were preferred to control potential mercury vapors emissions and liquid mercury spills associated with ex-situ treatments. All laboratory work was conducted in IT's and NFS laboratories. Mercury contaminated nonradioactive soil from under the Alpha 2 building in the Y-12 complex was used. This soils contained insufficient levels of leachable mercury and resulted in TCLP mercury concentrations that were similar to the applicable LDR limits. The soil was spiked at multiple levels with metallic (up to 6000 mg/l) and soluble mercury compounds (up to 500 mg/kg) to simulate expected ranges of mercury

  18. Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE-funding Unknown Notes Surface soil-mercury surveys are an inexpensive and useful exploration tool for geothermal resources. ---- Surface geochemical surveys for mercury...

  19. Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Mercury Geochemistry Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry Abstract...

  20. Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    hydrothermal system. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Introduction Mercury is a natural byproduct of mantle or deep-crustal derived fluids, high concentrations can be...

  1. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2009-01-20

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  2. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, Shou-Heng; Liu, Zhao-Rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2011-08-30

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  3. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-07-16

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  4. Method for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the .sup.196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering.

  5. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the .sup.196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering.

  6. Method for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-04-09

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  7. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2010-07-13

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  8. Mercury removal sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  9. Fly Ash and Mercury Oxidation/Chlorination Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukh Sidhu; Patanjali Varanasi

    2008-12-31

    a diffusion tube as the source of Hg0(g). All experiments were conducted using 4% O2 in nitrogen mix as a reaction gas, and other reactants (HCl, H2O and SO2, NO2, Br2) were added as required. The fixed bed reactor was operated over a temperature range of 200 to 400 C. In each experiment, the reactor effluent was analyzed using the modified Ontario-Hydro method. After each experiment, fly ash particles were also analyzed for mercury. The results show that the ability of fly ash to adsorb and/or oxidize mercury is primarily dependent on its carbon, iron and calcium content. There can be either one or more than one key component at a particular temperature and flue gas condition. Surface area played a secondary role in effecting the mercury transformations when compared to the concentration of the key component in the fly ash. Amount of carbon and surface area played a key important role in the adsorption of mercury. Increased concentration of gases in the flue gas other than oxygen and nitrogen caused decreased the amount of mercury adsorbed on carbon surface. Mercury adsorption by iron oxide primarily depended on the crystalline structure of iron oxide. {alpha}-Iron oxide had no effect on mercury adsorption or oxidation under most of the flue gas conditions, but ?-iron oxide adsorbed mercury under most of the flue gas conditions. Bromine is a very good oxidizing agent for mercury. But in the presence of calcium oxide containing fly ashes, all the oxidized mercury would be reduced to elemental form. Among the catalysts, it was observed that presence of free lattice chlorine in the catalyst was very important for the oxidation of mercury. But instead of using the catalyst alone, using it along with carbon may better serve the purpose by providing the adsorption surface for mercury and also some extra surface area for the reaction to occur (especially for fly ashes with low surface area).

  10. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Enhanced response of an oligonucleotide-based biosensor to environmental mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edenborn, H.M.

    2006-10-01

    One environmental pollutant of particular relevance to the coal-generated power industry is mercury. Power plants in the U.S., led by Texas, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Indiana, and Alabama, collectively emitted over 90,000 pounds of mercury into the air in 2003. Calls for increased mercury monitoring activities have come from many groups concerned with environmental contamination and mercury bioconcentration in fish. Additionally, the benefits of improvements in the reduction of mercury emissions from existing power plants cannot be seriously evaluated without extensive monitoring of the environment. Low in situ mercury concentrations and the expense of traditional laboratory analyses currently limit such routine and effective monitoring. Microbial biosensors sensitive to mercury have been developed that quantitatively produce light in response to the amount of mercury (II) entering the cells. However, these sensors are typically difficult to prepare, can have long lag times between initial exposure and subsequent light emission, and are difficult to use in the field. Whole cell biosensors using living bacteria also require attention to the growth requirements of the cells, as well as complications brought on by the presence of other toxic compounds in addition to mercury. A molecular beacon sensor for mercury (II) reported by Ono and Togashi (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43:4300-4302.) was modified to enhance its sensitivity and fluorescence response. The basic detection method involves the selective binding of mercury ions to thymine-thymine (T-T) base pairs in DNA duplexes. An oligonucleotide sequence in the sensor changes its conformation upon binding with mercury ions, and causes a fluorophore at one end of the oligonucleotide sequence to come in proximity with a quencher molecule attached to the other end. Enhanced fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) results in a decrease in the intensity of the fluorescence spectrum. The use of fluorescein as a harvester

  12. Methods for dispensing mercury into devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1987-04-28

    A process for dispensing mercury into devices which requires mercury. Mercury is first electrolytically separated from either HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 and plated onto a cathode wire. The cathode wire is then placed into a device requiring mercury.

  13. Methods for dispensing mercury into devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1987-04-28

    A process is described for dispensing mercury into devices which requires mercury. Mercury is first electrolytically separated from either HgO or Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] and plated onto a cathode wire. The cathode wire is then placed into a device requiring mercury. 2 figs.

  14. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY REACTIONS IN COAL POWER PLANT PLUMES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard Levin

    2006-06-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-02NT41422 and specifically addresses Program Area of Interest: No.5--Environmental and Water Resources. The project team includes the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) as the contractor and the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Frontier Geosciences as subcontractors. Wisconsin Energies and its Pleasant Prairie Power Plant acted as host for the field-testing portion of the research. The project is aimed at clarifying the role, rates, and end results of chemical transformations that may occur to mercury that has been emitted from elevated stacks of coal-fired electric power plants. Mercury emitted from power plants emerges in either its elemental, divalent, or particulate-bound form. Deposition of the divalent form is more likely to occur closer to the source than that of the other two forms, due to its solubility in water. Thus, if chemical transformations occur in the stack emissions plume, measurements in the stack may mischaracterize the fate of the material. Initial field and pilot plant measurements have shown significant and rapid chemical reduction of divalent to elemental mercury may occur in these plumes. Mercury models currently assume that the chemical form of mercury occurring in stacks is the same as that which enters the free atmosphere, with no alteration occurring in the emissions plume. Recent data indicate otherwise, but need to be evaluated at full operating scale under field conditions. Prestbo and others have demonstrated the likelihood of significant mercury chemical reactions occurring in power plant plumes (Prestbo et al., 1999; MDNR-PPRP, 2000; EERC, 2001). This experiment will thus increase our understanding of mercury atmospheric chemistry, allowing informed decisions regarding source attribution. The experiment was carried out during the period August 22

  15. Fluorescent sensor for mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zidong; Lee, Jung Heon; Lu, Yi

    2011-11-22

    The present invention provides a sensor for detecting mercury, comprising: a first polynucleotide, comprising a first region, and a second region, a second polynucleotide, a third polynucleotide, a fluorophore, and a quencher, wherein the third polynucleotide is optionally linked to the second region; the fluorophore is linked to the first polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the second polynucleotide, or the fluorophore is linked to the second polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the first polynucleotide; the first region and the second region hybridize to the second polynucleotide; and the second region binds to the third polynucleotide in the presence of Hg.sup.2+ ions.

  16. Method for removal and stabilization of mercury in mercury-containing gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Broderick, Thomas E.

    2005-09-13

    The present invention is directed to a process and apparatus for removing and stabilizing mercury from mercury-containing gas streams. A gas stream containing vapor phase elemental and/or speciated mercury is contacted with reagent, such as an oxygen-containing oxidant, in a liquid environment to form a mercury-containing precipitate. The mercury-containing precipitate is kept or placed in solution and reacts with one or more additional reagents to form a solid, stable mercury-containing compound.

  17. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.A. Withum

    2006-03-07

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), evaluated the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)-wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber-fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL determined mercury speciation and removal at 10 bituminous coal-fired facilities; at four of these facilities, additional tests were performed on units without SCR, or with the existing SCR bypassed. This project final report summarizes the results and discusses the findings of the body of work as a whole. Eleven Topical Reports were issued (prior to this report) that describe in great detail the sampling results at each of the ten power plants individually. The results showed that the SCR-FGD combination removed a substantial fraction of mercury from flue gas. The coal-to-stack mercury removals ranged from 65% to 97% for the units with SCR and from 53% to 87% for the units without SCR. There was no indication that any type of FGD system was more effective at mercury removal than others. The coal-to-stack mercury removal and the removal in the wet scrubber were both negatively correlated with the elemental mercury content of the flue gas and positively correlated with the scrubber liquid chloride concentration. The coal chlorine content was not a statistically significant factor in either case. Mercury removal in the ESP was positively correlated with the fly ash carbon content and negatively correlated with the flue gas temperature. At most of the units, a substantial fraction (>35%) of the flue gas mercury was in the elemental form at the boiler economizer outlet. After passing through the SCR-air heater combination very little of the total mercury (<10%) remained in the elemental form in

  18. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernie F. Stine

    2002-08-14

    The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has mercury (Hg) contaminated materials and soils at the various sites. Figure 1-1 (from http://www.ct.ornl.gov/stcg.hg/) shows the estimated distribution of mercury contaminated waste at the various DOE sites. Oak Ridge and Idaho sites have the largest deposits of contaminated materials. The majorities of these contaminated materials are soils, sludges, debris, and waste waters. This project concerns treatment of mercury contaminated soils. The technology is applicable to many DOE sites, in-particular, the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge Tennessee and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These sites have the majority of the soils and sediments contaminated with mercury. The soils may also be contaminated with other hazardous metals and radionuclides. At the Y12 plant, the baseline treatment method for mercury contaminated soil is low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD), followed by on-site landfill disposal. LTTD is relatively expensive (estimated cost of treatment which exclude disposal cost for the collect mercury is greater than $740/per cubic yard [cy] at Y-12), does not treat any of the metal or radionuclides. DOE is seeking a less costly alternative to the baseline technology. As described in the solicitation (DE-RA-01NT41030), this project initially focused on evaluating cost-effective in-situ alternatives to stabilize or remove the mercury (Hg) contamination from high-clay content soil. It was believed that ex-situ treatment of soil contaminated with significant quantities of free-liquid mercury might pose challenges during excavation and handling. Such challenges may include controlling potential mercury vapors and containing liquid mercury beads. As described below, the focus of this project was expanded to include consideration of ex-situ treatment after award of the contract to International Technology Corporation (IT). After award of the contract, IT became part of Shaw

  19. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  20. Processing results of 1,800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    The mercury-contaminated rinse solution (INEL waste ID{number_sign} 123; File 8 waste) was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 (HTRE-3) reactor shield tank. Approximately 1,800 gal of waste was generated and was placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 1--10 in. in depth, with the average depth of about 2.5 in. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/ml, while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pci/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. Because of difficulties in processing, three trials were required to reduce the mercury levels to below the RCRA limit. In the first trial, insufficient filtration of the waste allowed solid particulate produced during pH adjustment to enter into the ion exchange columns and ultimately the waste storage tank. In the second trial, the waste was filtered down to 0.1 {mu} to remove all solid mercury compounds. However, before filtration could take place, a solid mercury complex dissolved and mercury levels exceeded the RCRA limit after filtration. In the third trial, the waste was filtered through 0.3-A filters and then passed through the S-920 resin to remove the dissolved mercury. The resulting solution had mercury levels at 0.0186 mg/l and radioactivity of 0.282 pCi/ml. This solution was disposed of at the TAN warm waste pond, TAN782, TSF-10.

  1. Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Cao; Hongcang Zhou; Junjie Fan; Houyin Zhao; Tuo Zhou; Pauline Hack; Chia-Chun Chan; Jian-Chang Liou; Wei-ping Pan

    2008-12-15

    Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150{sup o}C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650{sup o}C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be responsible for the reduction of gaseous chlorine and, consequently, limited mercury emissions reduction during cofiring. 36 refs., 3 figs. 1 tab.

  2. Mercury switch with non-wettable electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karnowsky, Maurice M.; Yost, Frederick G.

    1987-01-01

    A mercury switch device comprising a pool of mercury and a plurality of electrical contacts made of or coated with a non-wettable material such as titanium diboride.

  3. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Easterly, C.E.; Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-01-28

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  4. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Easterly, Clay E.; Vass, Arpad A.; Tyndall, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  5. Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

    2009-03-12

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma

  6. Coping with uncertainties of mercury regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reich, K.

    2006-09-15

    The thermometer is rising as coal-fired plants cope with the uncertainties of mercury regulation. The paper deals with a diagnosis and a suggested cure. It describes the state of mercury emission rules in the different US states, many of which had laws or rules in place before the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was promulgated.

  7. Enhancement of mercury capture by the simultaneous addition of hydrogen bromide (HBr) and fly ashes in a slipstream facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Cao; Quan-Hai Wang; Jun Li; Jen-Chieh Cheng; Chia-Chun Chan; Marten Cohron; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-04-15

    Low halogen content in tested Powder River Basin (PRB) coals and low loss of ignition content (LOI) in PRB-derived fly ash were likely responsible for higher elemental mercury content (averaging about 75%) in the flue gas and also lower mercury capture efficiency by electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet-FGD. To develop a cost-effective approach to mercury capture in a full-scale coal-fired utility boiler burning PRB coal, experiments were conducted adding hydrogen bromide (HBr) or simultaneously adding HBr and selected fly ashes in a slipstream reactor (0.152 x 0.152 m) under real flue gas conditions. The residence time of the flue gas inside the reactor was about 1.4 s. The average temperature of the slipstream reactor was controlled at about 155{sup o}C. Tests were organized into two phases. In Phase 1, only HBr was added to the slipstream reactor, and in Phase 2, HBr and selected fly ash were added simultaneously. HBr injection was effective (>90%) for mercury oxidation at a low temperature (155{sup o}C) with an HBr addition concentration of about 4 ppm in the flue gas. Additionally, injected HBr enhanced mercury capture by PRB fly ash in the low-temperature range. The mercury capture efficiency, at testing conditions of the slipstream reactor, reached about 50% at an HBr injection concentration of 4 ppm in the flue gas. Compared to only the addition of HBr, simultaneously adding bituminous-derived fly ash in a minimum amount (30 lb/MMacf), together with HBr injection at 4 ppm, could increase mercury capture efficiency by 30%. Injection of lignite-derived fly ash at 30 lb/MMacf could achieve even higher mercury removal efficiency (an additional 35% mercury capture efficiency compared to HBR addition alone). 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Apparatus for control of mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

  9. Entering Invoices Through the Vendor Inquiry Payment Electronic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Entering Invoices Through the Vendor Inquiry Payment Electronic Reporting System (VIPERS) Entering Invoices Through the Vendor Inquiry Payment Electronic Reporting System (VIPERS) ...

  10. JV Task 122 - Assessment of Mercury Control Options for the San Miguel Electric Cooperative Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholas Lentz; Brandon Pavlish; John Kay; Michael Jones

    2009-02-01

    In the United States, testing has been under way at electric coal-fired power plants to find viable and economical mercury control strategies to meet pending regulations. San Miguel Electric Cooperative (SMEC) engaged the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) through a request for proposal (RFP) to perform research tests to evaluate sorbent-based technologies at its coal-fired San Miguel Generating Station to identify possible technology options that could be used by SMEC to meet the mercury reduction requirements of future U.S. federal standards. The goal of the testing was to target a mercury removal of {ge}90%. The EERC has successfully field-tested several sorbent-based technologies in previous projects that offer promise and potential to achieve a target removal of {ge}90%. Based on these field test results, yet recognizing that fuel type and plant operating conditions affect mercury capture significantly, the EERC proposed research tests to evaluate potential sorbent-based technologies provided by Norit Americas and the EERC that could potentially meet SMEC's mercury control objectives. Over the period of May through mid-June 2008, the EERC tested injection of both treated and nontreated activated carbon (AC) provided by Norit Americas and sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) provided by the EERC. Tests were performed at San Miguel Unit 1 (450 MW) and included injection at the inlet of the air heater (AH) (temperature of 720 F). The test coal was a Texas lignite fuel with an average moisture content of 31.19%, an ash content of 26.6%, a heating value of 5,094 Btu/lb, a sulfur content of 2.7%, and a mercury concentration of 0.182 ppm, all reported on an as-received basis. Pilot-scale testing results identified DARCO{reg_sign} Hg-LH, SEA2 + DARCO{reg_sign} Hg, and the ChemMod sorbents as technologies with the potential to achieve the target mercury removal of {ge}90% at the full-scale test. Mercury concentrations were tracked with continuous mercury

  11. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  12. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS FOR THE RE-EVOLUTION OF MERCURY INTO ECOSYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.A. Withum; J.E. Locke; S.C. Tseng

    2005-03-01

    There is concern that mercury (Hg) in coal combustion by-products might be emitted into the environment during processing to other products or after the disposal/landfill of these by-products. This perception may limit the opportunities to use coal combustion by-products in recycle/reuse applications and may result in additional, costly disposal regulations. In this program, CONSOL conducted a comprehensive sampling and analytical program to include ash, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, and coal combustion by-products. This work is necessary to help identify potential problems and solutions important to energy production from fossil fuels. The program objective was to evaluate the potential for mercury emissions by leaching or volatilization, to determine if mercury enters the water surrounding an active FGD disposal site and an active fly ash slurry impoundment site, and to provide data that will allow a scientific assessment of the issue. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test results showed that mercury did not leach from coal, bottom ash, fly ash, spray dryer/fabric filter ash or forced oxidation gypsum (FOG) in amounts leading to concentrations greater than the detection limit of the TCLP method (1.0 ng/mL). Mercury was detected at very low concentrations in acidic leachates from all of the fixated and more than half of the unfixated FGD sludge samples, and one of the synthetic aggregate samples. Mercury was not detected in leachates from any sample when deionized water (DI water) was the leaching solution. Mercury did not leach from electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fly ash samples collected during activated carbon injection for mercury control in amounts greater than the detection limit of the TCLP method (1.0 ng/mL). Volatilization tests could not detect mercury loss from fly ash, spray dryer/fabric filter ash, unfixated FGD sludge, or forced oxidation gypsum; the mercury concentration of these samples all increased, possibly due to

  14. Improved Ex-Situ Mercury Remediation - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Improved Ex-Situ Mercury Remediation Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The present invention provides a process for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel. The process is effective in treating various types of mercury contaminated waste; such as elemental mercury or mercury compounds, mercury contaminated bulk material, or

  15. In-Situ Mercury Remediation - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In-Situ Mercury Remediation Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary In Situ Mercury Stabilization (ISMS) is a method that can remove toxic mercury from soil, sediment, sludge, and other industrial waste. Description ISMS includes a device and method for remediation of mercury contamination in which mercury is first concentrated by inserting rods of sulfur reagent into the waste. Mercury is drawn to specially designed treatment rods, which

  16. Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Makarewicz, M.A.; Meredith, P.F.

    1985-03-04

    A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

  17. Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, John M.; Napier, John M.; Makarewicz, Mark A.; Meredith, Paul F.

    1986-01-01

    A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

  18. CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE ...

  19. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury A promoted activated carbon ... the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance andor mercury capture. ...

  20. Evaluation of the Mercury Soil Mapping Geothermal Exploration...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Mercury Soil Mapping Geothermal Exploration Techniques Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Evaluation of the Mercury Soil...

  1. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Fossil Energy Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; Flue Gas; Flue Gas; Mercury; Mercury; ...

  2. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  3. Identification of elemental mercury in the subsurface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Dennis G

    2015-01-06

    An apparatus and process is provided for detecting elemental mercury in soil. A sacrificial electrode of aluminum is inserted below ground to a desired location using direct-push/cone-penetrometer based equipment. The insertion process removes any oxides or previously found mercury from the electrode surface. Any mercury present adjacent the electrode can be detected using a voltmeter which indicates the presence or absence of mercury. Upon repositioning the electrode within the soil, a fresh surface of the aluminum electrode is created allowing additional new measurements.

  4. Mercury Emission Measurement at a CFB Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-02-28

    In response to pending regulation to control mercury emissions in the United States and Canada, several projects have been conducted to perform accurate mass balances at pulverized coal (pc)-fired utilities. Part of the mercury mass balance always includes total gaseous mercury as well as a determination of the speciation of the mercury emissions and a concentration bound to the particulate matter. This information then becomes useful in applying mercury control strategies, since the elemental mercury has traditionally been difficult to control by most technologies. In this instance, oxidation technologies have proven most beneficial for increased capture. Despite many years of mercury measurement and control projects at pc-fired units, far less work has been done on circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) units, which are able to combust a variety of feedstocks, including cofiring coal with biomass. Indeed, these units have proven to be more problematic because it is very difficult to obtain a reliable mercury mass balance. These units tend to have very different temperature profiles than pc-fired utility boilers. The flexibility of CFB units also tends to be an issue when a mercury balance is determined, since the mercury inputs to the system come from the bed material and a variety of fuels, which can have quite variable chemistry, especially for mercury. In addition, as an integral part of the CFB operation, the system employs a feedback loop to circulate the bed material through the combustor and the solids collection system (the primary cyclone), thereby subjecting particulate-bound metals to higher temperatures again. Despite these issues, CFB boilers generally emit very little mercury and show good native capture. The Energy & Environmental Research Center is carrying out this project for Metso Power in order to characterize the fate of mercury across the unit at Rosebud Plant, an industrial user of CFB technology from Metso. Appropriate solids were collected, and

  5. Environmental Remediation program completes legacy mercury cleanup...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stories Legacy slope-side cleanup Environmental Remediation program completes legacy mercury cleanup near Smith's Marketplace Los Alamos National Laboratory performed a ...

  6. Mercury and tritium removal from DOE waste oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasson, E.T.

    1997-10-01

    This work covers the investigation of vacuum extraction as a means to remove tritiated contamination as well as the removal via sorption of dissolved mercury from contaminated oils. The radiation damage in oils from tritium causes production of hydrogen, methane, and low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons. When tritium gas is present in the oil, the tritium atom is incorporated into the formed hydrocarbons. The transformer industry measures gas content/composition of transformer oils as a diagnostic tool for the transformers` condition. The analytical approach (ASTM D3612-90) used for these measurements is vacuum extraction of all gases (H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, etc.) followed by analysis of the evolved gas mixture. This extraction method will be adapted to remove dissolved gases (including tritium) from the SRS vacuum pump oil. It may be necessary to heat (60{degrees}C to 70{degrees}C) the oil during vacuum extraction to remove tritiated water. A method described in the procedures is a stripper column extraction, in which a carrier gas (argon) is used to remove dissolved gases from oil that is dispersed on high surface area beads. This method appears promising for scale-up as a treatment process, and a modified process is also being used as a dewatering technique by SD Myers, Inc. (a transformer consulting company) for transformers in the field by a mobile unit. Although some mercury may be removed during the vacuum extraction, the most common technique for removing mercury from oil is by using sulfur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC). SIAC is currently being used by the petroleum industry to remove mercury from hydrocarbon mixtures, but the sorbent has not been previously tested on DOE vacuum oil waste. It is anticipated that a final process will be similar to technologies used by the petroleum industry and is comparable to ion exchange operations in large column-type reactors.

  7. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE MONTICELLO COAL FIRED POWER PLANT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; SUBRAMANIAN, S.; FEAGIN, L.; WILLIAMS, J.; BOYD, A.

    2006-10-31

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as currently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury ''hot spots'', using two types of evidence. First, the world-wide literature was searched for reports of deposition around mercury sources, including coal-fired power plants. Second, soil samples from around two mid-sized U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of ''hot spots'' and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (A) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (B) sediment increments of 18-30%, (C) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (D) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content

  8. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"10302015 12:46:21 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Rhode Island Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)"...

  9. FULL-SCALE TESTING OF ENHANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.K. McDonald; G.T. Amrhein; G.A. Kudlac; D. Madden Yurchison

    2003-05-07

    Wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems are currently installed on about 25% of the coal-fired utility generating capacity in the U.S., representing about 15% of the number of coal-fired units. Depending on the effect of operating parameters such as mercury content of the coal, form of mercury (elemental or oxidized) in the flue gas, scrubber spray tower configuration, liquid-to-gas ratio, and slurry chemistry, FGD systems can provide cost-effective, near-term mercury emissions control options with a proven history of commercial operation. For boilers already equipped with FGD systems, the incremental cost of any vapor phase mercury removal achieved is minimal. To be widely accepted and implemented, technical approaches that improve mercury removal performance for wet FGD systems should also have low incremental costs and have little or no impact on operation and SO{sub 2} removal performance. The ultimate goal of the Full-scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control for Wet FGD Systems Program was to commercialize methods for the control of mercury in coal-fired electric utility systems equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD). The program was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development, and Babcock & Wilcox. Host sites and associated support were provided by Michigan South Central Power Agency (MSCPA) and Cinergy. Field-testing was completed at two commercial coal-fired utilities with wet FGD systems: (1) MSCPA's 55 MW{sub e} Endicott Station and (2) Cinergy's 1300 MW{sub e} Zimmer Station. Testing was conducted at these two locations because of the large differences in size and wet scrubber chemistry. Endicott employs a limestone, forced oxidation (LSFO) wet FGD system, whereas Zimmer uses Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime (magnesium enhanced lime) and ex situ oxidation. Both locations burn Ohio bituminous coal.

  10. ENTERING A CREDIT CARD REQUISITION IN COSTPOINT 7

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for November 2015) for the month in which the charges were incurred. (See *note below) Enter CRDCARD for the Approval Process Enter Cardholder's Ames Lab ID Number in the...

  11. Investigation of the relationship between particulate-bound mercury and properties of fly ash in a full-scale 100 MWe pulverized coal combustion boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sen Li; Chin-Min Cheng; Bobby Chen; Yan Cao; Jacob Vervynckt; Amanda Adebambo; Wei-Ping Pan

    2007-12-15

    The properties of fly ash in coal-fired boilers influence the emission of mercury from power plants into the environment. In this study, seven different bituminous coals were burned in a full-scale 100 MWe pulverized coal combustion boiler and the derived fly ash samples were collected from a mechanical hopper (MH) and an electrostatic precipitator hopper (ESP). The mercury content, specific surface area (SSA), unburned carbon, and elemental composition of the fly ash samples were analyzed to evaluate the correlation between the concentration of particulate-bound mercury and the properties of coal and fly ash. For a given coal, it was found that the mercury content in the fly ash collected from the ESP was greater than in the fly ash samples collected from the MHP. This phenomenon may be due to a lower temperature of flue gas at the ESP (about 135{sup o}C) compared to the temperature at the air preheater (about 350{sup o}C). Also, a significantly lower SSA observed in MH ash might also contribute to the observation. A comparison of the fly ash samples generated from seven different coals using statistical methods indicates that the mercury adsorbed on ESP fly ashes has a highly positive correlation with the unburned carbon content, manganese content, and SSA of the fly ash. Sulfur content in coal showed a significant negative correlation with the Hg adsorption. Manganese in fly ash is believed to participate in oxidizing volatile elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) to ionic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}). The oxidized mercury in flue gas can form a complex with the fly ash and then get removed before the flue gas leaves the stack of the boiler.

  12. Oak Ridge Moves Forward in Mercury Cleanup | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ridge Moves Forward in Mercury Cleanup Oak Ridge Moves Forward in Mercury Cleanup March 28, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Workers recently removed five large mercury-contaminated tanks from Y-12. Workers recently removed five large mercury-contaminated tanks from Y-12. Removing these tanks is part of the steps to reduce potential risk from mercury at Y-12. Removing these tanks is part of the steps to reduce potential risk from mercury at Y-12. Workers recently removed five large mercury-contaminated

  13. Treatment of mercury containing waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D.; Melamed, Dan; Patel, Bhavesh R; Fuhrmann, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A process is provided for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel which includes a) stabilizing the waste with sulfur polymer cement under an inert atmosphere to form a resulting mixture and b) encapsulating the resulting mixture by heating the mixture to form a molten product and casting the molten product as a monolithic final waste form. Additional sulfur polymer cement can be added in the encapsulation step if needed, and a stabilizing additive can be added in the process to improve the leaching properties of the waste form.

  14. Phytoremediation of ionic and methyl mercury pollution. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meagher, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    'The long-term goal of this research is to manipulate single-gene traits into plants, enabling them to process heavy metals and remediate heavy-metal pollution by resistance, sequestration, removal, and management of these contaminants (Meagher and Rugh, 1996; Meagher et al., 1997). The working hypothesis behind this proposal was that transgenic plants expressing both the bacterial organo mercury lyase (merB) and the mercuric ion reductase gene (merA) will (A) remove the mercury from polluted sites and (B) prevent methyl mercury from entering the food chain. The authors have had a very successful first year either testing aspects of this hypothesis directly or preparing material needed for future experiments. The results are outlined below under goals A and B, which are explicit in this hypothesis. There were less than 10% of the funds remaining in any category as projected in the first 12 month budget at the end of the first year, with the exception of the equipment category which had 25% of the funds remaining ({approximately} $8,000). Much of this remaining equipment money is being spent this week on a mercury vapor analyzer. It might be useful to remember that at the time this grant was awarded, the authors had successfully engineered a small model plant, Arabidopsis thalianat to use a highly modified bacterial mercuric ion reductase gene, merA9, to detoxify ionic mercury (Hg(II)), reducing it to Hg(0) (Rugh et al., 1996). Seeds from these plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of Hg(II) that are lethal to normal plants. In assays on transgenic seedlings suspended in a solution of Hg(II), 10 ng of Hg(0) was evolved per min per mg wet weight of plant tissue. However, at that time, they had no information on expression of merA in any other plant species, nor had they expressed merB in any plant.'

  15. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Hampshire Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic ...

  16. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage ... 6:59:57 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Kansas Natural Gas in Underground Storage ...

  17. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural ... 1:08:57 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Nevada Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural ...

  18. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumed" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","District of Columbia Heat Content ...

  19. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click ... Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","32016" ,"Release ...

  20. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Minnesota Natural Gas Injections into Underground ... 7:00:26 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Minnesota Natural Gas Injections into Underground ...

  1. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constance Senior

    2004-12-31

    The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  2. ccpi_mercury | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control Project - Project Brief [PDF-131KB] NeuCo, Inc., Boston, MA (acquired original participant, Pegasus Technologies) PROJECT FACT SHEET Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control Project (Completed May 31, 2010) [PDF-815KB] (June 2011) PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS Final Report Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control [PDF-14MB] (May 2011) Quarterly Progress Reports April - June 2007 [PDF- 6.1MB] (July 2007) January - March 2007 [PDF-6.1MB] (Apr 2007) October -

  3. Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.; Bu, C.; Piccolo, N.; Campbell, C.

    2008-02-01

    : (1) There was some correlation between the prevailing wind direction and measured soil and oak leaf concentrations. This correlation was not statistically significant, but higher soil concentrations were generally found in the east and southeast from the plants and lower soil concentrations were found west/southwest from the plants. The prevailing winds are to the east. The Conemaugh plant which was the most southeast of the three plants did have the highest average oak leaf and soil mercury concentrations. Based on emissions, the Keystone plant would be expected to see the highest concentrations as it emitted about 25% more mercury than the other two plants. (2) The results of this study did not turn up strong evidence for large areas (several square miles) of elevated mercury concentrations around the three coal-fired power plants that were tested. This does not mean that there is no effect, there was some evidence of increasing mercury content to the east and south of these plants, however, the trends were not statistically significant suggesting that if the effects exist, they are small.

  4. JV Task 124 - Understanding Multi-Interactions of SO3, Mercury, Selenium, and Arsenic in Illinois Coal Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Zhuang; Christopher Martin; John Pavlish

    2009-03-31

    This project consisted of pilot-scale combustion testing with a representative Illinois basin coal to explore the multi-interactions of SO{sub 3}, mercury, selenium and arsenic. The parameters investigated for SO{sub 3} and mercury interactions included different flue gas conditions, i.e., temperature, moisture content, and particulate alkali content, both with and without activated carbon injection for mercury control. Measurements were also made to track the transformation of selenium and arsenic partitioning as a function of flue gas temperature through the system. The results from the mercury-SO{sub 3} testing support the concept that SO{sub 3} vapor is the predominant factor that impedes efficient mercury removal with activated carbon in an Illinois coal flue gas, while H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aerosol has less impact on activated carbon injection performance. Injection of a suitably mobile and reactive additives such as sodium- or calcium-based sorbents was the most effective strategy tested to mitigate the effect of SO{sub 3}. Transformation measurements indicate a significant fraction of selenium was associated with the vapor phase at the electrostatic precipitator inlet temperature. Arsenic was primarily particulate-bound and should be captured effectively with existing particulate control technology.

  5. Mercury Solar Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of PV products and systems for commercial and residential clients in the New York metrotri-state area. References: Mercury Solar Systems1 This article is a stub. You can...

  6. Removal of mercury from waste gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muster, U.; Marr, R.; Pichler, G.; Kremshofer, S.; Wilferl, R.; Draxler, J.

    1996-12-31

    Waste and process gases from thermal power, incineration and metallurgical plants or those from cement and alkali chloride industries contain metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Widespread processes to remove the major amount of mercury are absorption and adsorption. Caused by the lowering of the emission limit from 200 to 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] by national and European legislators, considerable efforts were made to enhance the efficiency of the main separation units of flue gas cleaning plants. Specially impregnated ceramic carriers can be used for the selective separation of metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Using the ceramic reactor removal rates lower than 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] of gaseous mercury and its compounds can be achieved. The ceramic reactor is active, regenerable and stable for a long term operation. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klunder; ,Edgar B.

    2009-02-24

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  8. Summary - Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for adequacy in reducing Hg levels in the fish and to indentify opportunities to achieve ... contamination in the East Fork Popular Creek and how to reduce mercury levels in the fish. ...

  9. Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The mission of the Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative is to control the flux of contaminants in soil and water environments for the purpose of...

  10. Analysis of Alternative Mercury Control Strategies

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    This analysis responds to a September 14, 2004, request from Chairmen James M. Inhofe and George V. Voinovich asking the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to analyze the impacts of different approaches for removing mercury from coal-fired power plants.

  11. The Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Statement (Mercury Storage EIS) DOE Grand Junction Disposal Site, CO The Grand Junction Disposal Site is located on DOE-owned land, 18 miles southeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. ...

  12. Innovative Mercury Treatment Benefits Stream, Fish

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AIKEN, S.C. – A team of scientists is working at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to evaluate the impact of an innovative, inexpensive treatment system that removes mercury from water.

  13. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"5302016 7:40:48 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil Production" "Sourcekey","MCRFPUS1","MCRFPP11","MCRFPFL1","MCRFPNY1","MCRFPPA1","MCRFPVA1","M...

  14. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"5302016 7:40:48 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil Production" "Sourcekey","MCRFPUS2","MCRFPP12","MCRFPFL2","MCRFPNY2","MCRFPPA2","MCRFPVA2","M...

  15. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"5302016 7:40:47 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil Production" "Sourcekey","MCRFPUS1","MCRFPP11","MCRFPFL1","MCRFPNY1","MCRFPPA1","MCRFPVA1","M...

  16. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Oil ... 7:01:28 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Kansas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Oil ...

  17. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas ... 7:01:18 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Kansas Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas ...

  18. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Brazil (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NBRDMCF"...

  19. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas ... 1:07:58 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Nevada Natural Gas Gross Withdrawals from Gas ...

  20. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Natural Gas Withdrawals from Oil Wells ... 1:08:20 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Nevada Natural Gas Withdrawals from Oil Wells ...

  1. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power ... 1:03:28 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Nevada Natural Gas Deliveries to Electric Power ...

  2. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Price of Natural Gas Sold to Commercial ... 1:00:55 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Nevada Price of Natural Gas Sold to Commercial ...

  3. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users Prices ... 8:28:36 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Motor Gasoline Sales to End Users Prices " ...

  4. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,"Energy Information Administration" ,"For Help, Contact:","infoctr@eia.gov" ,,"(202) 586-8800",,,"4292016 6:42:48 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: U.S. LNG Imports from Indonesia ...

  5. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Residual Fuel Oil Prices, Average - Sales to End Users ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Residual Fuel Oil Prices, Average - Sales to End Users " ...

  6. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Spain (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NSPDMCF"...

  7. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Back to Contents","Data 1: East Coast (PADD 1) Net Receipts of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products by Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail" "Sourcekey","MTTNRP11","MCRNRP11","MPEMNP11...

  8. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Back to Contents","Data 1: Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Japan (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0EVENUS-NJADMCF"...

  9. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Exports by Vessel to Japan (Million Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0EVENUS-NJAMMCF" "Date","Liquefied U.S....

  10. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Japan (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NJADMCF"...

  11. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Price of Liquefied U.S. Natural Gas Re-Exports to Chile (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)" "Sourcekey","NGMEPG0ERENUS-NCIDMCF"...

  12. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Crude Oil (Light-Sweet, Cushing, Oklahoma)",4,"Daily","726... to Contents","Data 1: Crude Oil (Light-Sweet, Cushing, Oklahoma)" "Sourcekey","RCLC1","...

  13. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Data for" ,"Data 1","Minnesota Price of Natural Gas Sold to Commercial ... 6:57:30 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Minnesota Price of Natural Gas Sold to Commercial ...

  14. Mercury-metadata data management system

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-03

    Mercury is a federated metadata harvesting, search and retrieval tool based on both open source software and software developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was originally developed for NASA, USGS, and DOE. A major new version of Mercury (version 3.0) was developed during 2007 and released in early 2008. This Mercury 3.0 version provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facettedmore » type search, support for RSS delivery of search results, and ready customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects which use Mercury. For the end users, Mercury provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems. It collects metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The Mercury search interfaces then allow the users to perform simple, fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data.« less

  15. Mercury cleanup efforts intensify | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury cleanup efforts ... Mercury cleanup efforts intensify Posted: February 11, 2013 - 3:31pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 9, Issue 2 | 2013 Millions of pounds of mercury were required to support Y-12's post-World War II mission of separating lithium isotopes. Cleaning up the toxic heavy metal poses many challenges, but what Y-12 is learning could help conquer mercury pollution worldwide. There's a reason you won't find mercury in many thermometers these days. Mercury is a heavy metal that occurs

  16. Statute - Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services » Waste Management » Waste Disposition » Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury is in the Planning Stages » Statute - Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 Statute - Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 Public Law 110-414, 110th Congress - Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 to prohibit the sale, distribution, transfer, and export of elemental mercury, and for other purposes. Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (166.11 KB) More Documents & Publications Section 129 of the Consolidated

  17. NREL Enters Wind Energy Research Partnership in Hawaii - News...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Enters Wind Energy Research Partnership in Hawaii April 1, 2008 The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has signed a memorandum of ...

  18. NPT Enters Into Force | National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NPT Enters Into Force New York, United States The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) goes into effect

  19. Formation of soluble mercury oxide coatings: Transformation of elemental mercury in soils

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miller, Carrie L.; Watson, David B.; Lester, Brian P.; Howe, Jane Y.; Phillips, Debra H.; He, Feng; Liang, Liyuan; Pierce, Eric M.

    2015-09-21

    In this study, the impact of mercury (Hg) on human and ecological health has been known for decades. Although a treaty signed in 2013 by 147 nations regulates future large-scale mercury emissions, legacy Hg contamination exists worldwide and small-scale releases will continue. The fate of elemental mercury, Hg(0), lost to the subsurface and its potential chemical transformation that can lead to changes in speciation and mobility are poorly understood. Here, we show that Hg(0) beads interact with soil or manganese oxide solids and X-ray spectroscopic analysis indicates that the soluble mercury coatings are HgO. Dissolution studies show that, after reactingmore » with a composite soil, >20 times more Hg is released into water from the coated beads than from a pure liquid mercury bead. An even larger, >700 times, release occurs from coated Hg(0) beads that have been reacted with manganese oxide, suggesting that manganese oxides are involved in the transformation of the Hg(0) beads and creation of the soluble mercury coatings. Although the coatings may inhibit Hg(0) evaporation, the high solubility of the coatings can enhance Hg(II) migration away from the Hg(0)-spill site and result in potential changes in mercury speciation in the soil and increased mercury mobility.« less

  20. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30

    deposition and fish content. Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around two mid-size coal fired power plants. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. These programs found the following: (1) At both sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Kincaid plant, there was excess soil Hg along heavily traveled roads. The spatial pattern of soil mercury concentrations did not match the pattern of vegetation Hg concentrations at either plant. (2) At both sites, the subsurface (5-10 cm) samples the Hg concentration correlated strongly with the surface samples (0-5 cm). Average subsurface sample concentrations were slightly less than the surface samples, however, the difference was not statistically significant. (3) An unequivocal definition of background Hg was not possible at either site. Using various assumed background soil mercury concentrations, the percentage of mercury deposited within 10 km of the plant ranged between 1.4 and 8.5% of the RGM emissions. Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. Estimates of the percentage of total Hg deposition ranged between 0.3 and 1.7%. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the empirical findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to ''hot spots'', near the plants. The major objective of this study was to determine if there was evidence for ''hot spots'' of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. Although the term has been used extensively, it has never been defined. From a public health perspective, such a ''hot spot'' must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must affect water bodies large enough to

  1. Nucleotide sequence of a chromosomal mercury resistance determinant from a Bacillus sp. with broad-spectrum mercury resistance. [Mercury reductase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.; Levinson, H.S.; Mahler, I. ); Moore, M.; Walsh, C. ); Silver, S. )

    1989-01-01

    A 13.5-kilobase HindIII fragment, bearing an intact mercury resistance (mer) operon, was isolated from chromosomal DNA of broad-spectrum mercury-resistant Bacillus sp. strain RC607 by using as a probe a clone containing the mercury reductase (merA) gene. The new clone, pYW33, expressed broad-spectrum mercury resistance both in Escherichia coli and in Bacillus subtilis, but only in B. subtilis was the mercuric reductase activity inducible. Sequencing of a 1.8-kilobase mercury hypersensitivity-producing fragment revealed four open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 may code for a regulatory protein (MerR). ORF2 and ORF4 were associated with cellular transport function and the hypersensitivity phenotype. DNA fragments encompassing the merA and the merB genes were sequenced. The predicted Bacillus sp. strain RC607 MerA (mercuric reductase) and MerB (organomercurial lyase) were similar to those predicted from Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 (67 and 73% amino acid identities, respectively); however, only 40% of the amino acid residues of RC607 MerA were identical to those of the mercuric reductase from gram-negative bacteria. A 69-kilodalton polypeptide was isolated and identified as the merA gene product by examination of its amino-terminal sequence.

  2. Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from the United States as of January 1, 2013, the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (MEBA) ... and 2 it will not sell, or otherwise place the elemental mercury into commerce. ...

  3. Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge Full Document and ...

  4. VEE-0020- In the Matter of Mercury Fuel Service, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On April 9, 1996, Mercury Fuel Service, Inc. (Mercury) of Waterbury, Connecticut, filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE)....

  5. Operating Experience Level 3, Safe Management of Mercury | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to raise awareness about mercury hazards and to reinforce the informaiton in Safety and Health Bulleting 2005-08, Safe Management of Mercury. OE-3 2012-03: Safe Management of...

  6. Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borole, Abhijeet P.; Hamilton, Choo Y.

    2011-08-16

    A process for the removal of mercury from coal prior to combustion is disclosed. The process is based on use of microorganisms to oxidize iron, sulfur and other species binding mercury within the coal, followed by volatilization of mercury by the microorganisms. The microorganisms are from a class of iron and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The process involves contacting coal with the bacteria in a batch or continuous manner. The mercury is first solubilized from the coal, followed by microbial reduction to elemental mercury, which is stripped off by sparging gas and captured by a mercury recovery unit, giving mercury-free coal. The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing.

  7. Workbook Contents

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    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  8. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  9. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arizona Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  11. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

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    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

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    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","District of Columbia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next

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    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Delaware Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Florida Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  16. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Georgia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  17. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Hawaii Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  18. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Iowa Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  19. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Idaho Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  20. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Illinois Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  1. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  2. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Massachusetts Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

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    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Maryland Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  5. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Michigan Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  6. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Minnesota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  7. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Missouri Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  8. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Mississippi Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  9. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Montana Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  10. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","North Carolina Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  11. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","North Dakota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  12. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nebraska Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  13. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Jersey Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  14. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  15. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Nevada Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  16. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  17. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  18. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  19. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oregon Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  20. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  1. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Rhode Island Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  2. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Carolina Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  3. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","South Dakota Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  4. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Tennessee Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  5. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  6. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  7. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  8. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Vermont Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  9. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Washington Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  10. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wisconsin Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  11. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  12. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wyoming Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers (BTU per Cubic Foot)",1,"Monthly","6/2016" ,"Release Date:","08/31/2016" ,"Next Release

  13. Demonstration of An Integrated Approach to Mercury Control at Lee Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitali Lissianski; Pete Maly

    2007-12-31

    General Electric (GE) has developed an approach whereby native mercury reduction on fly ash can be improved by optimizing the combustion system. This approach eliminates carbon-rich areas in the combustion zone, making the combustion process more uniform, and allows increasing carbon content in fly ash without significant increase in CO emissions. Since boiler excess O{sub 2} can be also reduced as a result of optimized combustion, this process reduces NO{sub x} emissions. Because combustion optimization improves native mercury reduction on fly ash, it can reduce requirements for activated carbon injection (ACI) when integrated with sorbent injection for more efficient mercury control. The approach can be tailored to specific unit configurations and coal types for optimal performance. This report describes results of a U.S. DOE sponsored project designed to evaluate the effect of combustion conditions on 'native' mercury capture on fly ash and integrate combustion optimization for improved mercury and NO{sub x} reduction with ACI. The technology evaluation took place in Lee Station Unit 3 located in Goldsboro, NC and operated by Progress Energy. Unit 3 burns a low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal and is a 250 MW opposed-wall fired unit equipped with an ESP with a specific collection area of 249 ft{sup 2}/kacfm. Unit 3 is equipped with SO{sub 3} injection for ESP conditioning. The technical goal of the project was to evaluate the technology's ability to achieve 70% mercury reduction below the baseline emission value of 2.9 lb/TBtu, which was equivalent to 80% mercury reduction relative to the mercury concentration in the coal. The strategy to achieve the 70% incremental improvement in mercury removal in Unit 3 was (1) to enhance 'naturally' occurring fly ash mercury capture by optimizing the combustion process and using duct humidification to reduce flue gas temperatures at the ESP inlet, and (2) to use ACI in front of the ESP to further reduce mercury emissions. The

  14. DOE Interim Guidance on Mercury Management Procedures and Standards |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Services » Waste Management » Waste Disposition » Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury is in the Planning Stages » DOE Interim Guidance on Mercury Management Procedures and Standards DOE Interim Guidance on Mercury Management Procedures and Standards DOE, in consultation with the USEPA and State agencies, prepared this guidance on packaging, transportation, receipt, management, and long-term storage of elemental mercury at a DOE facility or

  15. Workbook Contents

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Contents","Data 1: U.S., PAD Districts, and States" "Sourcekey","8NA8O0NUSC","8NA8O0R10C","8NA8O0SDEC","8NA8O0SFLC","8NA8O0SGAC","8NA8O0SMDC","8NA8O0SN...

  16. CFD Modeling for Mercury Control Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madsen, J.I.

    2006-12-01

    Compliance with the Clean Air Mercury Rule will require implementation of dedicated mercury control solutions at a significant portion of the U.S. coal-fired utility fleet. Activated Carbon Injection (ACI) upstream of a particulate control device (ESP or baghouse) remains one of the most promising near-term mercury control technologies. The DOE/NETL field testing program has advanced the understanding of mercury control by ACI, but a persistent need remains to develop predictive models that may improve the understanding and practical implementation of this technology. This presentation describes the development of an advanced model of in-flight mercury capture based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The model makes detailed predictions of the induct spatial distribution and residence time of sorbent, as well as predictions of mercury capture efficiency for particular sorbent flow rates and injection grid configurations. Hence, CFD enables cost efficient optimization of sorbent injection systems for mercury control to a degree that would otherwise be impractical both for new and existing plants. In this way, modeling tools may directly address the main cost component of operating an ACI system the sorbent expense. A typical 300 MW system is expected to require between $1 and $2 million of sorbent per year, and so even modest reductions (say 10-20%) in necessary sorbent feed injection rates will quickly make any optimization effort very worthwhile. There are few existing models of mercury capture, and these typically make gross assumptions of plug gas flow, zero velocity slip between particle and gas phase, and uniform sorbent dispersion. All of these assumptions are overcome with the current model, which is based on first principles and includes mass transfer processes occurring at multiple scales, ranging from the large-scale transport in the duct to transport within the porous structure of a sorbent particle. In principle any single one of these processes

  17. DOE Issues Final Mercury Storage Environmental Impact Statement: Texas Site Is Preferred for Long-Term Mercury Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON – The Department of Energy has prepared a Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement to analyze the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven locations

  18. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael D. Durham

    2004-10-01

    PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of mercury control at Salem Harbor Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has very high native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included plant and PG&E headquarters personnel, EPRI and several of its member companies, DOE, ADA, Norit Americas, Inc., Hamon Research-Cottrell, Apogee Scientific, TRC Environmental Corporation, Reaction Engineering, as well as other laboratories. The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall the objectives of this field test program were to determine the mercury control and balance-of-plant impacts resulting from activated carbon injection into a full-scale ESP on Salem Harbor Unit 1, a low sulfur bituminous-coal-fired 86 MW unit. It was also important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury removal (>85%). One half of the gas stream was used for these tests, or 43 MWe. Activated carbon, DARCO FGD supplied by NORIT Americas, was injected upstream of the cold side ESP, just downstream of the air preheater. This allowed for approximately 1.5 seconds residence time in the duct before entering the ESP. Conditions tested in this field evaluation included the impacts of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system on mercury capture, of unburned carbon in the fly ash, of adjusting ESP inlet flue gas temperatures, and of boiler load on mercury control. The field evaluation conducted at Salem Harbor looked at several sorbent injection concentrations at several flue gas temperatures. It was noted that at the mid temperature range of 322-327 F, the LOI (unburned carbon) lost some of its

  19. Geochemical, Genetic, and Community Controls on Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2014-11-10

    The sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are soil bacteria that share two common characteristics, strict anaerobiosis and the ability to respire sulfate. The metabolic activities of these bacteria play significant roles in the global sulfur cycle, anaerobic degradation of biomass, biological metal corrosion in the environment and, recently, degradation of toxic compounds. The accumulation of evidence suggests these bacteria are also key to the production of the neurotoxin methylmercury in environmental settings. We propose to use our experience with the development of genetics in sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio to create mutations that will eliminate the methylation of mercury, thereby identifying the genes essential for this process. This information may allow the environmental monitoring of the mercury methylation potential to learn the location and quantity of the production this toxin. From these data, more accurate predictive models of mercury cycling can be generated.

  20. Preparation, characterization, and application of modified chitosan sorbents for elemental mercury removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, A.C.; Xiang, J.; Sun, L.S.; Hu, S.; Li, P.S.; Shi, J.M.; Fu, P.; Su, S.

    2009-05-15

    A series of raw, iodine (bromide) or/and sulfuric acid-modified chitosan sorbents were synthesized and comprehensively characterized by N{sub 2} isotherm adsorption/desorption method, TGA, FTIR, XRD, and XPS et al. Adsorption experiments of vapor-phase elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) were studied using the sorbents in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor. The results revealed that porosities and specific surface areas of the sorbents decreased after modification. The sorbents operated stably at flue-gas temperature below 140{sup o}C. The chemical reactions of iodine and sulfate ion with the amide of chitosan occurred, and the I{sub 2} was found in the sorbents due to the presence of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Fixed-bed adsorber tests showed that compared to raw chitosan, the bromide or iodine-modified chitosan could promote the efficiency of Hg{sub 0} capture more or less. Mercury removal efficiency could be significantly promoted when an appropriate content of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was added, and the iodine and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} modified sorbents almost had a mercury removal efficiency of 100% for 3 h. The presence of moisture can increase the sorbent's capacity for mercury uptake due to the existence of active sites, such as sulfonate and amino group. The mercury breakthrough of modified chitosan sorbents decreased with increasing temperature. A reaction scheme that could explain the experimental results was presumed based on the characterizations and adsorption study.

  1. PILOT-SCALE EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION FOR NOx ON MERCURY SPECIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis L. Laudal; John H. Pavlish; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Gregory F. Weber; Everett Sondreal

    2000-12-01

    Full-scale tests in Europe and bench-scale tests in the United States have indicated that the catalyst, normally vanadium/titanium metal oxide, used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x}, may promote the formation of Hg{sup 2+} and/or particulate-bound mercury (Hg{sub p}). To investigate the impact of SCR on mercury speciation, pilot-scale screening tests were conducted at the Energy & Environmental Research Center. The primary research goal was to determine whether the catalyst or the injection of ammonia in a representative SCR system promotes the conversion of Hg{sup 0} to Hg{sup 2+} and/or Hg{sub p} and, if so, which coal types and parameters (e.g., rank and chemical composition) affect the degree of conversion. Four different coals, three eastern bituminous coals and a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal, were tested. Three tests were conducted for each coal: (1) baseline, (2) NH{sub 3} injection, and (3) SCR of NO{sub x}. Speciated mercury, ammonia slip, SO{sub 3}, and chloride measurements were made to determine the effect the SCR reactor had on mercury speciation. It appears that the impact of SCR of NO{sub x} on mercury speciation is coal-dependent. Although there were several confounding factors such as temperature and ammonia concentrations in the flue gas, two of the eastern bituminous coals showed substantial increases in Hg{sub p} at the inlet to the ESP after passing through an SCR reactor. The PRB coal showed little if any change due to the presence of the SCR. Apparently, the effects of the SCR reactor are related to the chloride, sulfur and, possibly, the calcium content of the coal. It is clear that additional work needs to be done at the full-scale level.

  2. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John H.

    2008-10-14

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  3. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John Henry

    2014-09-02

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  4. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John H.

    2012-05-01

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  5. Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2006-04-25

    A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

  6. ZZ Mercury Storage Book.indb

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Z:\ENROLL\H1.ENR Z:\ENROLL\H1.ENR Z:\ENROLL\H1.ENR (89.89 KB) More Documents & Publications Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 E:\BILLS\H6.PP Energy Policy Act of 2005

    2 Comment Response Document Environmental Impact Statement Final Final Environmental Impact Statement DOE/EIS-0423 January 2011 Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury For additional information on this Final

  7. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  8. Interim Results from a Study of the Impacts of Tin (II) Based Mercury Treatment in a Small Stream Ecosystem: Tims Branch, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, Brian; BryanJr., Larry; Mathews, Teresa J; Peterson, Mark J; Roy, W Kelly; Jett, Robert T; Smith, John G

    2012-03-01

    A research team is assessing the impacts of an innovative mercury treatment system in Tims Branch, a small southeastern stream. The treatment system, installed in 2007, reduces and removes inorganic mercury from water using tin(II) (stannous) chloride addition followed by air stripping. The system results in discharge of inorganic tin to the ecosystem. This screening study is based on historical information combined with measurements of contaminant concentrations in water, fish, sediment, biofilms and invertebrates. Initial mercury data indicate that first few years of mercury treatment resulted in a significant decrease in mercury concentration in an upper trophic level fish, redfin pickerel, at all sampling locations in the impacted reach. For example, the whole body mercury concentration in redfin pickerel collected from the most impacted pond decreased approximately 72% between 2006 (pre-treatment) and 2010 (post-treatment). Over this same period, mercury concentrations in the fillet of redfin pickerel in this pond were estimated to have decreased from approximately 1.45 {micro}g/g (wet weight basis) to 0.45 {micro}g/g - a decrease from 4.8x to 1.5x the current EPA guideline concentration for mercury in fillet (0.3 {micro}g/g). Thermodynamic modeling, scanning electron microscopy, and other sampling data for tin suggest that particulate tin (IV) oxides are a significant geochemical species entering the ecosystem with elevated levels of tin measured in surficial sediments and biofilms. Detectable increases in tin in sediments and biofilms extended approximately 3km from the discharge location. Tin oxides are recalcitrant solids that are relatively non-toxic and resistant to dissolution. Work continues to develop and validate methods to analyze total tin in the collected biota samples. In general, the interim results of this screening study suggest that the treatment process has performed as predicted and that the concentration of mercury in upper trophic level

  9. Utility flue gas mercury control via sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, R.; Carey, T.; Hargrove, B.

    1996-12-31

    The potential for power plant mercury control under Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments generated significant interest in assessing whether cost effective technologies are available for removing the mercury present in fossil-fired power plant flue gas. One promising approach is the direct injection of mercury sorbents such as activated carbon into flue gas. This approach has been shown to be effective for mercury control from municipal waste incinerators. However, tests conducted to date on utility fossil-fired boilers show that it is much more difficult to remove the trace species of mercury present in flue gas. EPRI is conducting research in sorbent mercury control including bench-scale evaluation of mercury sorbent activity and capacity with simulated flue gas, pilot testing under actual flue gas conditions, evaluation of sorbent regeneration and recycle options, and the development of novel sorbents. A theoretical model that predicts maximum mercury removals achievable with sorbent injection under different operating conditions is also being developed. This paper presents initial bench-scale and model results. The results to date show that very fine and large amounts of sorbents are needed for mercury control unless long residence times are available for sorbent-mercury contact. Also, sorbent activity and capacity are highly dependent on flue gas composition, temperature, mercury species, and sorbent properties. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Entering Invoices Through the Vendor Inquiry Payment Electronic Reporting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System (VIPERS) | Department of Energy Entering Invoices Through the Vendor Inquiry Payment Electronic Reporting System (VIPERS) Entering Invoices Through the Vendor Inquiry Payment Electronic Reporting System (VIPERS) The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the process to submit invoices electronically to the Oak Ridge Financial Service Center (ORFSC) and interface them into STARS using the Vendor Inquiry Payment Electronic Reporting System (VIPERS). It is recommended that

  11. Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helfritch, Dennis J.

    1998-07-28

    A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

  12. Conceptual studies for a mercury target circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigg, B.

    1996-06-01

    For the now favored target design of the European Spallation Source project, i.e. the version using mercury as target material, a basic concept of the primary system has been worked out. It does not include a detailed design of the various components of the target circuit, but tries to outline a feasible solution for the system. Besides the removal of the thermal power of about 3MW produced in the target by the proton beam, the primary system has to satisfy a number of other requirements related to processing, safety, and operation. The basic proposal uses an electromagnetic pump and a mercury-water intermediate heat excanger, but other alternatives are also being discussed. Basic safety requirements, i.e. protection against radiation and toxic mercury vapours, are satisfied by a design using an air-tight primary system containment, double-walled tubes in the intermediate heat exchanger, a fail-safe system for decay heat removal, and a remote handling facility for the active part of the system. Much engineering work has still to be done, because many details of the design of the mercury and gas processing systems remain to be clarified, the thermal-hydraulic components need further optimisation, the system for control and instrumentation is only known in outline and a through safety analysis will be required.

  13. Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2008-06-30

    ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and industry partners, studied mercury control options at six coal-fired power plants. The overall objective of the this test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at six plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, American Electric Power's Conesville Station Unit 6, and Labadie Power Plant Unit 2. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The financial goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000 per pound of mercury removed. Results from testing at Holcomb, Laramie, Meramec, Labadie, and Monroe indicate the DOE goal was successfully achieved. However, further improvements for plants with conditions similar to Conesville are recommended that would improve both mercury removal performance and economics.

  14. Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2005-07-01

    This Final Report contains the test descriptions, results, analysis, correlations, theoretical descriptions, and model derivations produced from many different investigations performed on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to investigate calcium-based sorbents and injection of oxidizing agents for the removal of mercury. Among the technologies were (a) calcium-based sorbents in general, (b) oxidant-additive sorbents developed originally at the EPA, and (c) optimized calcium/carbon synergism for mercury-removal enhancement. In addition, (d) sodium-tetrasulfide injection was found to effectively capture both forms of mercury across baghouses and ESPs, and has since been demonstrated at a slipstream treating PRB coal. It has been shown that sodium-tetrasulfide had little impact on the foam index of PRB flyash, which may indicate that sodium-tetrasulfide injection could be used at power plants without affecting flyash sales. Another technology, (e) coal blending, was shown to be an effective means of increasing mercury removal, by optimizing the concentration of calcium and carbon in the flyash. In addition to the investigation and validation of multiple mercury-control technologies (a through e above), important fundamental mechanism governing mercury kinetics in flue gas were elucidated. For example, it was shown, for the range of chlorine and unburned-carbon (UBC) concentrations in coal-fired utilities, that chlorine has much less effect on mercury oxidation and removal than UBC in the flyash. Unburned carbon enhances mercury oxidation in the flue gas by reacting with HCl to form chlorinated-carbon sites, which then react with elemental mercury to form mercuric chloride, which subsequently desorbs back into the flue gas. Calcium was found to enhance mercury removal by stabilizing the oxidized mercury formed on carbon surfaces. Finally, a model was developed to describe these mercury adsorption, desorption, oxidation, and removal mechanisms, including

  15. In situ remediation technologies for mercury-contaminated soil

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Feng; Gao, Jie; Pierce, Eric; Strong, P. J.; Wang, Hailong; Liang, Liyuan

    2015-04-09

    A pollutant that poses significant risks to humans and the environment is mercury from anthropogenic activities. In soils, mercury remediation can be technically challenging and costly, depending on the subsurface mercury distribution, the types of mercury species, and the regulatory requirements. Our paper introduces the chemistry of mercury and its implications for in situ mercury remediation, which is followed by a detailed discussion of several in situ Hg remediation technologies in terms of applicability, cost, advantages, and disadvantages. The effect of Hg speciation on remediation performance, as well as Hg transformation during different remediation processes, was detailed. Thermal desorption, electrokinetic,more » and soil flushing/washing treatments are removal technologies that mobilize and capture insoluble Hg species, while containment, solidification/stabilization, and vitrification immobilize Hg by converting it to less soluble forms. We also discussed two emerging technologies, phytoremediation and nanotechnology, in this review.« less

  16. In situ remediation technologies for mercury-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Feng; Gao, Jie; Pierce, Eric; Strong, P. J.; Wang, Hailong; Liang, Liyuan

    2015-04-09

    A pollutant that poses significant risks to humans and the environment is mercury from anthropogenic activities. In soils, mercury remediation can be technically challenging and costly, depending on the subsurface mercury distribution, the types of mercury species, and the regulatory requirements. Our paper introduces the chemistry of mercury and its implications for in situ mercury remediation, which is followed by a detailed discussion of several in situ Hg remediation technologies in terms of applicability, cost, advantages, and disadvantages. The effect of Hg speciation on remediation performance, as well as Hg transformation during different remediation processes, was detailed. Thermal desorption, electrokinetic, and soil flushing/washing treatments are removal technologies that mobilize and capture insoluble Hg species, while containment, solidification/stabilization, and vitrification immobilize Hg by converting it to less soluble forms. We also discussed two emerging technologies, phytoremediation and nanotechnology, in this review.

  17. Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

    2009-09-14

    Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot

  18. Mercury residues in south Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisemann, J.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Morton, A.; Bennetts, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    Mercury concentrations in the sediments of south Florida wetlands have increased three fold in the last century. Because south Florida is home to many endemic and endangered species, it is important to understand the potential impacts of mercury in this ecosystem`s food web. Recent research by Malley et al. has shown mollusks to be sensitive indicators of methyl mercury which can reflect small differences in background methyl mercury concentrations. In this study, we attempted to determine if the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) or its eggs are good indicators of bioavailable mercury. Then, using the apple snail as an indicator, we attempted to determine geographic differences in the concentrations of mercury in south Florida. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. TABLE OF CONTENTS*

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... in accordance with the terms and conditions set forth ... those materials that enter directly into the end ... The file must have search capabilities and be kept current ...

  20. Evaluation of mercury in the liquid waste processing facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Vijay; Shah, Hasmukh; Occhipinti, John E.; Wilmarth, William R.; Edwards, Richard E.

    2015-08-13

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint - DOELM_Mercury_Storage.ppt

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Mercury Storage Concept Pre-Environmental Impact Statement Grand Junction, Colorado, Scoping Meeting Information 2 Mercury Export Ban Act Passed into law in October 2008 Purpose is to prohibit the export of mercury Identifies the Department of Energy (DOE) as the agency to provide long-term storage with collaboration from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Requires: * Guidance on standards and procedures by October 1, 2009 * Facility will be constructed and operated to hazardous waste

  2. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2011-12-06

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  3. Argonne/EPA system captures mercury from air in gold shops |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Typical gold shop hood used to purify gold by superheating the goldmercury amalgam until the mercury vaporizes. The vaporized mercury is directed outside the shop into the open...

  4. Mercury levels in muscle of some fish species from the Dique Channel, Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olivero, J.; Navas, V.; Perez, A.

    1997-06-01

    Gold mining is an activity that has been increasing during the last ten years in Colombia. Most mining activities are carried out using mercury for gold amalgamation. In a recent publication we stated that in the Sur de Bolivar, the main gold mining zone in Colombia, the highest mercury concentration in hair was observed in fishermen. The Magdalena River, the largest and most important river in Colombia, receives all this contamination and carries it to the Atlantic Ocean through two means: The main river course and the Dique Channel. The Dique Channel is surrounded by many marshes, which are a major source of fish for nearly two hundred thousands people in northwestern Colombia. The goal of the present study was to determine, for the first time, the content of mercury in muscle tissue of the four most popular fish species purchased in some towns along the Dique Channel, to establish whether these concentrations fall within the WHO guidelines, and to identify those species which can be consumed with less risk. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Mercury Vapor At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  6. Thermally Speciated Mercury in Mineral Exploration | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Speciated Mercury in Mineral Exploration Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author S.C. Smith Conference IGES; Dublin, CA; 20030901 Published IGES, 2003 DOI Not Provided Check...

  7. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. ...

  8. Mercury Vapor At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Hualalai lower northwest rift and southern flank were sampled for soil mercury concentration and radon emanation rates (Cox and Cuff, 1981d). The data generated by these...

  9. Mercury Vapor At Olowalu-Ukumehame Canyon Area (Thomas, 1986...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Soil mercury concentration and radon emanometry surveys were conducted along the stream beds in both Olowalu...

  10. Mercury Vapor At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The soil mercury concentration and radon emanometry patterns observed for the Lahaina prospect were similar to...