Sample records for mercury cadmium telluride

  1. DISSERTATION DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAICS Submitted by Russell M Reserved #12;ABSTRACT DEVICE CHARACTERIZATION OF CADMIUM TELLURIDE PHOTOVOLTAICS Thin-film photovoltaics

  2. Process for producing cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levi, Dean H. (Lakewood, CO); Nelson, Art J. (Longmont, CO); Ahrenkiel, Richard K. (Lakewood, CO)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing a layer of cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen sulfide plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium sulfide layer on the cadmium telluride surface and accomplish passivation. In addition to passivation, a heterojunction at the interface of the cadmium sulfide and the cadmium telluride can be formed when the layer of cadmium sulfide formed on the cadmium telluride is of sufficient thickness.

  3. Process for producing cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levi, D.H.; Nelson, A.J.; Ahrenkiel, R.K.

    1996-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing a layer of cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen sulfide plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium sulfide layer on the cadmium telluride surface and accomplish passivation. In addition to passivation, a heterojunction at the interface of the cadmium sulfide and the cadmium telluride can be formed when the layer of cadmium sulfide formed on the cadmium telluride is of sufficient thickness. 12 figs.

  4. Cadmium Telluride | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy Change Request |82:91:4 Categorical9Cadmium Telluride Cadmium

  5. Process for producing large grain cadmium telluride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasoon, F.S.; Nelson, A.J.

    1996-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing a cadmium telluride polycrystalline film having grain sizes greater than about 20 {micro}m. The process comprises providing a substrate upon which cadmium telluride can be deposited and placing that substrate within a vacuum chamber containing a cadmium telluride effusion cell. A polycrystalline film is then deposited on the substrate through the steps of evacuating the vacuum chamber to a pressure of at least 10{sup {minus}6} torr.; heating the effusion cell to a temperature whereat the cell releases stoichiometric amounts of cadmium telluride usable as a molecular beam source for growth of grains on the substrate; heating the substrate to a temperature whereat a stoichiometric film of cadmium telluride can be deposited; and releasing cadmium telluride from the effusion cell for deposition as a film on the substrate. The substrate then is placed in a furnace having an inert gas atmosphere and heated for a sufficient period of time at an annealing temperature whereat cadmium telluride grains on the substrate grow to sizes greater than about 20 {micro}m.

  6. Progress in Recycling of Retired Cadmium-Telluride Photovoltaic Modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Progress in Recycling of Retired Cadmium- Telluride Photovoltaic Modules Postdoctoral: Wenming Wang-Talk Program July 21, 2005 #12;Recycling Retired Photovoltaic Modules to Valuable Products, Where Are We.M., Feasibility of Recycling of Cadmium-Telluride Photovoltaics, Presented at 134th TMS Annual Meeting &Exhibition

  7. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its polycrystalline thin-film research in the area of cadmium telluride. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed.

  8. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Eddy current sensing of cadmium zinc telluride crystal growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    permission. Eddy current sensing of cadmium zinc telluride crystal growth Choi, Byoung-Woo William Pro

  9. Towards understanding junction degradation in cadmium telluride solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nardone, Marco, E-mail: marcon@bgsu.edu [Department of Environment and Sustainability, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio 43403 (United States)

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A degradation mechanism in cadmium telluride (CdTe/CdS) solar cells is investigated using time-dependent numerical modeling to simulate various temperature, bias, and illumination stress conditions. The physical mechanism is based on defect generation rates that are proportional to nonequilibrium charge carrier concentrations. It is found that a commonly observed degradation mode for CdTe/CdS solar cells can be reproduced only if defects are allowed to form in a narrow region of the absorber layer close to the CdTe/CdS junction. A key aspect of this junction degradation is that both mid-gap donor and shallow acceptor-type defects must be generated simultaneously in response to photo-excitation or applied bias. The numerical approach employed here can be extended to study other mechanisms for any photovoltaic technology.

  10. Ambient temperature cadmium zinc telluride radiation detector and amplifier circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McQuaid, James H. (Livermore, CA); Lavietes, Anthony D. (Hayward, CA)

    1998-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature signal amplifier for a Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) radiation detector. The amplifier can be used within a larger system (e.g., including a multi-channel analyzer) to allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. In one embodiment, the circuit stages of the low power, low noise amplifier are constructed using integrated circuit (IC) amplifiers , rather than discrete components, and include a very low noise, high gain, high bandwidth dual part preamplification stage, an amplification stage, and an filter stage. The low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables the CZT detector to achieve both the efficiency required to determine the presence of radio nuclides and the resolution necessary to perform isotopic analysis to perform nuclear material identification. The present low noise, low power, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables a CZT detector to achieve resolution of less than 3% full width at half maximum at 122 keV for a Cobalt-57 isotope source. By using IC circuits and using only a single 12 volt supply and ground, the novel amplifier provides significant power savings and is well suited for prolonged portable in-field use and does not require heavy, bulky power supply components.

  11. Ambient temperature cadmium zinc telluride radiation detector and amplifier circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McQuaid, J.H.; Lavietes, A.D.

    1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature signal amplifier for a Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) radiation detector is disclosed. The amplifier can be used within a larger system (e.g., including a multi-channel analyzer) to allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. In one embodiment, the circuit stages of the low power, low noise amplifier are constructed using integrated circuit (IC) amplifiers , rather than discrete components, and include a very low noise, high gain, high bandwidth dual part preamplification stage, an amplification stage, and an filter stage. The low noise, low power consumption, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables the CZT detector to achieve both the efficiency required to determine the presence of radionuclides and the resolution necessary to perform isotopic analysis to perform nuclear material identification. The present low noise, low power, compact, ambient temperature amplifier enables a CZT detector to achieve resolution of less than 3% full width at half maximum at 122 keV for a Cobalt-57 isotope source. By using IC circuits and using only a single 12 volt supply and ground, the novel amplifier provides significant power savings and is well suited for prolonged portable in-field use and does not require heavy, bulky power supply components. 9 figs.

  12. VAPOUR PHASE CHEMICAL TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF THE CADMIUM TELLURIDE-IODINE SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , it was shown that no iodine chemical transport is possible in closed tubes in the hot-cold direction, but only was explained in terms of a reverse (cold-hot) iodine transport associated with a reduced sublimation tendency155 VAPOUR PHASE CHEMICAL TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF THE CADMIUM TELLURIDE-IODINE SYSTEM C. PAORICI

  13. Structure and dynamics of cadmium telluride studied by x-ray and inelastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niedziela, Jennifer L [ORNL; Stone, Matthew B [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a combined study of density functional theory, x-ray diffraction, and inelastic neutron scattering examining the temperature dependent structure and lattice dynamics of commercially available cadmium telluride. A subtle change in the structure is evinced near 80~K, which manifests also in the measured phonon density of states. There is no change to the long-range ordered structure. The implications of the change in relation to structural defects are discussed.

  14. Structure and dynamics of cadmium telluride studied by x-ray and inelastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niedziela, J. L., E-mail: niedzielajl@ornl.gov [Instrument and Source Division, Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Stone, M. B., E-mail: stonemb@ornl.gov [Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a combined study of density functional theory, x-ray diffraction, and inelastic neutron scattering examining the temperature dependent structure and lattice dynamics of commercially available cadmium telluride. A subtle change in the structure is evinced near 80?K, which manifests also in the measured phonon density of states. There is no change to the long-range ordered structure. The implications of the change in relation to structural defects are discussed.

  15. Specific features of the photoconductivity of semi-insulating cadmium telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golubyatnikov, V. A.; Grigor’ev, F. I.; Lysenko, A. P., E-mail: aplysenko@hse.ru; Strogankova, N. I.; Shadov, M. B. [National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics (Russian Federation); Belov, A. G. [OAO GIREDMET State Research and Design Institute of the Rare-Metal Industry (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of local illumination providing a high level of free-carrier injection on the conductivity of a sample of semi-insulating cadmium telluride and on the properties of ohmic contacts to the sample is studied. It is found that, irrespective of the illumination region, the contact resistance of ohmic contacts decreases and the concentration of majority carriers in the sample grows in proportion to the illumination intensity. It is shown that inherent heterogeneities in crystals of semi-insulating semiconductors can be studied by scanning with a light probe.

  16. Flexible cadmium telluride thin films grown on electron-beam-irradiated graphene/thin glass substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Won-Oh; Kim, Jihyun, E-mail: hyunhyun7@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Yong Hwan; Kim, Byungnam; Lee, Byung Cheol [Radiation Integrated System Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Donghwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the close-spaced sublimation growth of polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films on a flexible graphene electrode/thin glass substrate structure. Prior to the growth of CdTe films, chemical-vapor-deposited graphene was transferred onto a flexible glass substrate and subjected to electron-beam irradiation at an energy of 0.2?MeV in order to intentionally introduce the defects into it in a controlled manner. Micro-Raman spectroscopy and sheet resistance measurements were employed to monitor the damage and disorder in the electron-beam irradiated graphene layers. The morphology and optical properties of the CdTe thin films deposited on a graphene/flexible glass substrate were systematically characterized. The integration of the defective graphene layers with a flexible glass substrate can be a useful platform to grow various thin-film structures for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  17. Survey of mercury, cadmium and lead content of household batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recknagel, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.recknagel@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Reference Materials, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Radant, Hendrik [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Reference Materials, Richard-Willstätter-Straße 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Kohlmeyer, Regina [German Federal Environment Agency (UBA), Section III 1.6 Extended Producer Responsibility, Wörlitzer Platz 1, D-06844 Dessau-Roßlau (Germany)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • A well selected sample of 146 batteries was analysed for its heavy metals content. • A comparison was made between heavy metals contents in batteries in 2006 and 2011. • No significant change after implementation of the new EU Batteries Directive. • Severe differences in heavy metal contents were found in different battery-types. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to provide updated information on the development of the potential impact of heavy metal containing batteries on municipal waste and battery recycling processes following transposition of the new EU Batteries Directive 2006/66/EC. A representative sample of 146 different types of commercially available dry and button cells as well as lithium-ion accumulators for mobile phones were analysed for their mercury (Hg)-, cadmium (Cd)- and lead (Pb)-contents. The methods used for preparing the cells and analysing the heavy metals Hg, Cd, and Pb were either developed during a former study or newly developed. Several batteries contained higher mass fractions of mercury or cadmium than the EU limits. Only half of the batteries with mercury and/or lead fractions above the marking thresholds were labelled. Alkaline–manganese mono-cells and Li-ion accumulators, on average, contained the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while zinc–carbon batteries, on average, contained the highest levels.

  18. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia)] [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)] [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia)] [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ř. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsř, N-9037 Tromsř (Norway)] [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsř, N-9037 Tromsř (Norway)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity data. • Urinary cadmium concentrations were elevated in this group of pregnant women. • Blood lead and mercury concentrations were below recommended biological guideline values.

  19. High-efficiency, thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaic cells. Annual subcontract report, 20 January 1994--19 January 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compaan, A.D.; Bohn, R.G.; Rajakarunanayake, Y. [Toledo Univ., OH (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work performed to develop and optimize the process of radio frequency (RF) sputtering for the fabrication of thin-film solar cells on glass. The emphasis is on CdTe-related materials including CdTe, CdS, ZnTe, and ternary alloy semiconductors. Pulsed laser physical vapor deposition (LPVD) was used for exploratory work on these materials, especially where alloying or doping are involved, and for the deposition of cadmium chloride layers. For the sputtering work, a two-gun sputtering chamber was implemented, with optical access for monitoring temperature and growth rate. We studied the optical and electrical properties of the plasmas produced by two different kinds of planar magnetron sputter guns with different magnetic field configurations and strengths. Using LPVD, we studied alloy semiconductors such as CdZnTe and heavily doped semiconductors such as ZnTe:Cu for possible incorporation into graded band gap CdTe-based photovoltaic devices.

  20. Lead, mercury, and cadmium exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Stephani [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Arora, Monica [Department of Psychiatry, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States)] [Department of Psychiatry, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Fernandez, Cristina [Department of Pediatrics, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph [Metallomics Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)] [Metallomics Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: aimin.chen@uc.edu [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)] [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. Objectives: To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. Methods: We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA. The participants were matched on age group (5–8, 9–12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb geometric mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pb had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07–5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Conclusions: Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. -- Highlights: • Blood Pb levels are associated with ADHD diagnosis in children. • No association was found between blood Cd or Hg levels and ADHD. • Children living close to hazardous waste site need to reduce metal exposure.

  1. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yangho [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung-Kook, E-mail: bklee@sch.ac.kr [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Soonchunhyang University 646 Eupnae-ri, Shinchang-myun, Asan-si, Choongnam 336-745 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  2. Electrochemical behavior of lead telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilova, M.G.; Sveshnikova, L.L.; Repinskii, S.M.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrochemical behavior of lead telluride was studied in acidic, neutral, and alkaline solutions. It was shown that in the case of anodic polarization in 1 M NaOH the PbTe surface composition is nearly stoichiometric. During cathodic polarization in 1 M NaOH and during anodic polarization in 1 M HCl the surface layer is lead-rich. In the case of anodic polarization in 1 M HCl the surface is tellurium-rich. Cathodic polarization in 1 M NaCl leads to tellurium depletion of the surface layer. Reaction equations describing the electrochemical processes at the PbTe electrode are reported.

  3. Surface treatment and protection method for cadmium zinc telluride crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Gomez W. (Nashville, TN); James, Ralph B. (Livermore, CA); Burger, Arnold (Nashville, TN); Chinn, Douglas A. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that provides a native dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH.sub.4 F and 10 w/o H.sub.2 O.sub.2 in water.

  4. Method for surface treatment of a cadmium zinc telluride crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Ralph (5420 Lenore Ave., Livermore, CA 94550); Burger, Arnold (753 Adkisson La., Nashville, TN 37205); Chen, Kuo-Tong (7800 River Fork Dr., Nashville, TN 37221); Chang, Henry (6535 Premier Dr., Apt. A7, Nashville, TN 37209)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that reduces surface roughness (increases surface planarity) and provides an oxide coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve resolution. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of lactic acid and bromine in ethylene glycol, following the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, oxidizing the CZT crystal surface.

  5. Stabilization of Intrazeolitic Cadmium Telluride Nanoclusters by Ion Exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and the potential of unique applications in solar energy conversion and photocatalysis,3-5 electronics,6 of semiconduc- tors change markedly in the nanometer size regime, because the ratio of surface-to-bulk atoms increases with decreasing size. The high surface free energy of these nanoclusters is manifested in unusual

  6. Exfoliation and Characterization of Bismuth Telluride Atomic Quintuples and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exfoliation and Characterization of Bismuth Telluride Atomic Quintuples and Quasi describe a method for "graphene-inspired" exfoliation of crystalline bismuth telluride films properties. The exfoliated quintuples and ultrathin films have low thermal conductivity, high electrical

  7. Thermal conductivity of bulk nanostructured lead telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hori, Takuma [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Chen, Gang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Shiomi, Junichiro, E-mail: shiomi@photon.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal conductivity of lead telluride with embedded nanoinclusions was studied using Monte Carlo simulations with intrinsic phonon transport properties obtained from first-principles-based lattice dynamics. The nanoinclusion/matrix interfaces were set to completely reflect phonons to model the maximum interface-phonon-scattering scenario. The simulations with the geometrical cross section and volume fraction of the nanoinclusions matched to those of the experiment show that the experiment has already reached the theoretical limit of thermal conductivity. The frequency-dependent analysis further identifies that the thermal conductivity reduction is dominantly attributed to scattering of low frequency phonons and demonstrates mutual adaptability of nanostructuring and local disordering.

  8. Next Generation Semiconductor-Based Radiation Detectors Using Cadmium Magnesium Telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trivedi, Sudhir B [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Kutcher, Susan W [Brimrose Technology Corporation; Berding, Martha . [SRI International; Burger, Arnold . [Independent Consultant; Palosz, Witold . [Brimrose Technology Corporation

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of Phase I was to perform extensive studies on the purification, crystal growth and annealing procedures of CdMgTe to gain a clear understanding of the basic material properties to enable production of detector material with performance comparable to that of CdZnTe. Brimrose utilized prior experience in the growth and processing of II-VI crystals and produced high purity material and good quality single crystals of CdMgTe. Processing techniques for these crystals including annealing, mechanical and chemical polishing, surface passivation and electrode fabrication were developed. Techniques to characterize pertinent electronic characteristics were developed and gamma ray detectors were fabricated. Feasibility of the development of comprehensive defect modeling in this new class of material was demonstrated by our partner research institute SRI International, to compliment the experimental work. We successfully produced a CdMgTe detector that showed 662 keV gamma response with energy resolution of 3.4% (FWHM) at room temperature, without any additional signal correction. These results are comparable to existing CdZnTe (CZT) technology using the same detector size and testing conditions. We have successfully demonstrated detection of gamma-radiation from various isotopes/sources, using CdMgTe thus clearly proving the feasibility that CdMgTe is an excellent, low-cost alternative to CdZnTe.

  9. Chapter 1.19: Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaic Thin Film: CdTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, T. A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chapter reviews the history, development, and present processes used to fabricate thin-film, CdTe-based photovoltaic (PV) devices. It is intended for readers who are generally familiar with the operation and material aspects of PV devices but desire a deeper understanding of the process sequences used in CdTe PV technology. The discussion identifies why certain processes may have commercial production advantages and how the various process steps can interact with each other to affect device performance and reliability. The chapter concludes with a discussion of considerations of large-area CdTe PV deployment including issues related to material availability and energy-payback time.

  10. Environmental and health aspects of lighting: Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most discharge lamps, including fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps, and high pressure sodium lamps, contain Mercury, a toxic chemical. Lighting professionals need to be able to respond to questions about the direct hazards of Mercury from accidentally breaking lamps, and the potential environmental hazards of lamp operation and disposal. We calculated the exposures that could occur from an accidental breakage of lamps. Acute poisoning appears almost impossible. Under some circumstances a sealed environment, such as a space station, could be contaminated enough to make it unhealthy for long-term occupation. Mercury becomes a potential environmental hazard after it becomes methylated. Mercury is methylated in aquatic environments, where it may accumulate in fish, eventually rendering them toxic to people and other animals. Lighting causes Mercury to enter the environment directly from lamp disposal, and indirectly from power plant emissions. The environmental tradeoffs between incandescent and discharge lamps depend upon the amounts released by these two sources, their local concentrations, and their probabilities of being methylated. Indirect environmental effects of lighting also include the release of other heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic), and other air pollutants and carbon dioxide that are emitted by fossil fuel power plants. For a given light output, the level of power plant emissions depends upon the efficacy of the light source, and is thus much larger for incandescent lamps than for fluorescent or discharge lamps. As disposal and control technologies change the relative direct and indirect emissions from discharge and incandescent lamps will change.

  11. Mercury contamination extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fuhrmann, Mark (Silver Spring, MD); Heiser, John (Bayport, NY); Kalb, Paul (Wading River, NY)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of dialkyl ditellurides and dialkyl tellurides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sang Woo

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -chlorosuccinimide, lithium pellets (99%, in mineral oil), sodium hydride (60% dispersion, in mineral oil), and Diazald R were purchased from Aldrich Chemical Company, Inc. Potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfate, 12 silica gel (100-200 mesh), absolute... of dipentyl ditelluride was 66%. The reactions with lithium in ethylenediamine gave the highest yields of dipentyl ditelluride (734) at Te/l, i ratio of 2:3. Traces of dipentyl telluride were detected in the crude product by H-1 but not by Te-125 NNR...

  13. Origin of anomalous anharmonic lattice dynamics of lead telluride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiga, Takuma; Hori, Takuma; Delaire, Olivier; Shiomi, Junichiro

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The origin of the anomalous anharmonic lattice dynamics of lead telluride is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations with interatomic force constants (IFCs) up to quartic terms obtained from first principles. The calculations reproduce the peak asymmetry of the radial distribution functions and the double peaks of transverse optical phonon previously observed with neutron diffraction and scattering experiments. They are identified to be due to the extremely large nearest-neighbor cubic IFCs in the [100] direction. The outstanding strength of the nearest-neighbor cubic IFCs relative to the longer-range ones explains the reason why the distortion in the radial distribution function is local.

  14. Microscopic mechanism of low thermal conductivity in lead telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delaire, Olivier A [ORNL; Ma, Jie [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Themicroscopic physics behind low-lattice thermal conductivity of single-crystal rock salt lead telluride (PbTe) is investigated. Mode-dependent phonon (normal and umklapp) scattering rates and their impact on thermal conductivity were quantified by first-principles-based anharmonic lattice dynamics calculations that accurately reproduce thermal conductivity in a wide temperature range. The low thermal conductivity of PbTe is attributed to the scattering of longitudinal acoustic phonons by transverse optical phonons with large anharmonicity and small group velocity of the soft transverse acoustic phonons. This results in enhancing the relative contribution of optical phonons, which are usually minor heat carriers in bulk materials.

  15. High efficiency cadmium telluride and zinc telluride based thin-film solar cells. Annual subcontract report, 1 March 1990--28 February 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, A.; Sudharsanan, R.; Ringel, S.A.; Chou, H.C. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work to improve the basic understanding of CdTe and ZnTe alloys by growing and characterizing these films along with cell fabrication. The major objective was to develop wide-band-gap (1.6--1.8 eV) material for the top cell, along with compatible window material and transparent ohmic contacts, so that a cascade cell design can be optimized. Front-wall solar cells were fabricated with a glass/SnO{sub 2}/CdS window, where the CdS film is thin to maximize transmission and current. Wide-band-gap absorber films (E{sub g} = 1.75 eV) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) techniques, which provided excellent control for tailoring the film composition and properties. CdZnTe films were grown by both MBE and MOCVD. All the as-grown films were characterized by several techniques (surface photovoltage spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) for composition, bulk uniformity, thickness, and film and interface quality. Front-wall-type solar cells were fabricated in collaboration with Ametek Materials Research Laboratory using CdTe and CdZnTe polycrystalline absorber films. The effects of processing on ternary film were studied by AES and XPS coupled with capacitance voltage and current voltage measurements as a function of temperature. Bias-dependent spectral response and electrical measurements were used to test some models in order to identify and quantify dominant loss mechanisms.

  16. GIS modeling of the geomorphic parameters on avalanche pathways: Telluride, Colorado 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mendoza, Armando V

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GIS MODELING OF THE GEOMORPHIC PARAMETERS ON AVALANCHE PATHWAYS: TELLURIDE, COLORADO A Thesis by ARMANDO V. MENDOZA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1997 Major Subject: Geography GIS MODELING OF THE GEOMORPHIC PARAMETERS ON AVALANCHE PATHRAYS: TELLURIDE, COLORADO A Thesis by ARMANDO V. MENDOZA Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  17. Treatment of Mercury Contaminated Oil from the Mound Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasson, KT

    2000-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Over one thousand gallons of tritiated oil, at various contamination levels, are stored in the Main Hill Tritium Facility at the Miamisburg Environmental Management Project (MEMP), commonly referred to as Mound Site. This tritiated oil is to be characterized for hazardous materials and radioactive contamination. Most of the hazardous materials are expected to be in the form of heavy metals, i.e., mercury, silver, lead, chromium, etc, but transuranic materials and PCBs could also be in some oils. Waste oils, found to contain heavy metals as well as being radioactively contaminated, are considered as mixed wastes and are controlled by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The SAMMS (Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Silica) technology was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for removal and stabilization of RCRA metals (i.e., lead, mercury, cadmium, silver, etc.) and for removal of mercury from organic solvents. The SAMMS material is based on self-assembly of functionalized monolayers on mesoporous oxide surfaces. The unique mesoporous oxide supports provide a high surface area, thereby enhancing the metal-loading capacity. SAMMS material has high flexibility in that it binds with different forms of mercury, including metallic, inorganic, organic, charged, and neutral compounds. The material removes mercury from both organic wastes, such as pump oils, and from aqueous wastes. Mercury-loaded SAMMS not only passes TCLP tests, but also has good long-term durability as a waste form because: (1) the covalent binding between mercury and SAMMS has good resistance in ion-exchange, oxidation, and hydrolysis over a wide pH range and (2) the uniform and small pore size of the mesoporous silica prevents bacteria from solubilizing the bound mercury.

  18. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W. (Laramie, WY); Grimes, R. William (Laramie, WY); Tweed, Robert E. (Laramie, WY)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  19. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

    1995-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

  20. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being sorbed onto the CCB when exposed to ambient-temperature air. The environmental performance of the mercury captured on AC used as a sorbent for mercury emission control technologies indicated that current CCB management options will continue to be sufficiently protective of the environment, with the potential exception of exposure to elevated temperatures. The environmental performance of the other ATEs investigated indicated that current management options will be appropriate to the CCBs produced using AC in mercury emission controls.

  1. Inorg. Chem. 1994, 33, 2109-21 14 2109 Synthesis, Structure, and Physical Properties of a Novel Quaternary Niobium Telluride,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    Quaternary Niobium Telluride, Nb2FeCuo,35Te4 Jing Li,' Frank McCulley, and Mark J. Dioszeghy Department, 1993' Nb2FeCu035Te4,the firstsolid-statequaternary niobium telluride, was prepared via chemical vapor

  2. Mercury in the environment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory - Mike Abbott

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Abbott works for Idaho National Laboratory as an environmental scientist. Using state-of-thescienceequipment, he continuously samples the air, looking for mercury. In turn, he'll analyzethis long-term data and try to figure out the mercury's point of or

  3. Neutrino Factory Mercury Vessel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Neutrino Factory Mercury Vessel: Initial Cooling Calculations V. Graves Target Studies Nov 15, 2012 #12;2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Cooling Calculations 15 Nov 2012 Target · Separates functionality, provides double mercury containment, simplifies design and remote handling · Each

  4. Treatment of Mercury Contaminated Oil from Sandia National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasson, KT

    2002-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    First Article Tests of a stabilization method for greater than 260 mg mercury/kg oil were performed under a treatability study. This alternative treatment technology will address treatment of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) organics (mainly used pump oil) contaminated with mercury and other heavy metals. Some of the oil is also co-contaminated with tritium, other radionuclides, and hazardous materials. The technology is based on contacting the oil with a sorbent powder (Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Support, SAMMS), proven to adsorb heavy metals, followed by stabilization of the oil/powder mixture using a stabilization agent (Nochar N990). Two variations of the treatment technology were included in the treatability study. The SAMMS (Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Silica) technology was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for removal and stabilization of RCRA metals (i.e., lead, mercury, cadmium, silver, etc.) and for removal of mercury from organic solvents [1]. The SAMMS material is based on self-assembly of functionalized monolayers on mesoporous oxide surfaces. The unique mesoporous oxide supports provide a high surface area, thereby enhancing the metal-loading capacity. SAMMS material has high flexibility in that it binds with different forms of mercury, including metallic, inorganic, organic, charged, and neutral compounds [1] The material removes mercury from both organic wastes, such as pump oils, and from aqueous wastes. Mercury-loaded SAMMS not only passes TCLP tests, but also has good long-term durability as a waste form because: (1) the covalent binding between mercury and SAMMS has good resistance in ion-exchange, oxidation, and hydrolysis over a wide pH range and (2) the uniform and small pore size of the mesoporous silica prevents bacteria from solubilizing the bound mercury. Nochar's N990 Petrobond (Nochar, Inc., Indianapolis, IN) is an oil stabilization agent, specifically formulated for stabilizing vacuum pump oil, which has fewer volatile organics than many other oils. This material is a non-uniform granular powder that resembles ground Styrofoam plastics. This material has previously been used by itself and in combination with SAMMS to stabilize oil containing low levels of mercury {approx}50 mg/kg in surrogate waste studies [2].

  5. High-efficiency thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaic cells. Annual technical report, January 20, 1996--January 19, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compaan, A.D.; Bohn, R.G.; Contreras-Puente, G. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)] [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Toledo photovoltaics group has been instrumental in developing rf sputtering for CDs/CdTe thin-film solar cells. During the third phase of the present contract our work focussed on efforts to determine factors which limit the efficiency in our {open_quotes}all-sputtered{close_quotes} thin-film CdTe solar cells on soda-lime glass. We find that our all-sputtered cells, which are deposited at substantially lower temperature than those by sublimation or vapor deposition, require less aggressive CdCl{sub 2} treatments than do other deposition techniques and this is presumably related to CDs/CdTe interdiffusion. The CDs/CdTe interdiffusion process has been studied by several methods, including photoluminescence and capacitance-voltage measurements. Furthermore, we have deposited special thin bilayer films on quartz and borosilicate glass. Interdiffusion in these thin bilayers have been probed by Rutherford backscattering, with collaborators at Case Western Reserve University, and grazing incidence x-ray scattering (GIXS), with collaborators at the University at Buffalo and Brookhaven National Lab. Also, in order better to understand the properties of the ternary alloy material, we used laser physical vapor deposition to prepare a series of CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} films on borosilicate glass. The composition of the alloy films was determined by wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy at NREL. These films are currently being investigated by us and other groups at NREL and IEC.

  6. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; Sagan, F.J.; Marmaro, R.W.; Wilson, K.G.

    1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber. 15 figs.

  7. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durham, Michael D. (Castle Rock, CO); Schlager, Richard J. (Aurora, CO); Sappey, Andrew D. (Golden, CO); Sagan, Francis J. (Lakewood, CO); Marmaro, Roger W. (Littleton, CO); Wilson, Kevin G. (Littleton, CO)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  8. Mercury CEM Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  9. Method and making group IIB metal - telluride films and solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basol, Bulent M. (Redondo Beach, CA); Kapur, Vijay K. (Northridge, CA)

    1990-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique is disclosed forming thin films (13) of group IIB metal-telluride, such as Cd.sub.x Zn.sub.1-x Te (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1), on a substrate (10) which comprises depositing Te (18) and at least one of the elements (19) of Cd, Zn, and Hg onto a substrate and then heating the elements to form the telluride. A technique is also provided for doping this material by chemically forming a thin layer of a dopant on the surface of the unreacted elements and then heating the elements along with the layer of dopant. A method is disclosed of fabricating a thin film photovoltaic cell which comprises depositing Te and at least one of the elements of Cd, Zn, and Hg onto a substrate which contains on its surface a semiconductor film (12) and then heating the elements in the presence of a halide of the Group IIB metals, causing the formation of solar cell grade Group IIB metal-telluride film and also causing the formation of a rectifying junction, in situ, between the semiconductor film on the substrate and the Group IIB metal-telluride layer which has been formed.

  10. Intoxication aigu et chronique au cadmium Acute and chronic cadmium poisoning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Intoxication aiguë et chronique au cadmium Acute and chronic cadmium poisoning Pascal ANDUJAR1 poisoning Summary (176 words): Key words : cadmium - poisoning - pneumonia - nephropathy - osteomalacia or chemical pneumonitis. Cadmium chronic poisoning causes mainly renal tubulopathy and could be the cause

  11. Recycling of cadmium and selenium from photovoltaic modules and manufacturing wastes. A workshop report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K. [eds.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the development of the first silicon based photovoltaic cell in the 1950`s, large advances have been made in photovoltaic material and processing options. At present there is growing interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules. As the commercial potential of these technologies becomes more apparent, interest in the environmental, health and safety issues associated with their production, use and disposal has also increased because of the continuing regulatory focus on cadmium and selenium. In future, recycling of spent or broken CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes may be needed for environmental, economic or political reasons. To assist industry to identify recycling options early in the commercialization process, a Workshop was convened. At this Workshop, representatives from the photovoltaic, electric utility, and nonferrous metals industries met to explore technical and institutional options for the recycling of spent CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and their potential implications to the photovoltaic industry; (2) an assessment of the needs of the photovoltaic industry from the perspective of module manufacturers and consumers; (3) an overview of recycling technologies now employed by other industries for similar types of materials; and, (4) a list of recommendation.

  12. Recycling of cadmium and selenium from photovoltaic modules and manufacturing wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Zweibel, K. (eds.)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the development of the first silicon based photovoltaic cell in the 1950's, large advances have been made in photovoltaic material and processing options. At present there is growing interest in the commercial potential of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic modules. As the commercial potential of these technologies becomes more apparent, interest in the environmental, health and safety issues associated with their production, use and disposal has also increased because of the continuing regulatory focus on cadmium and selenium. In future, recycling of spent or broken CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes may be needed for environmental, economic or political reasons. To assist industry to identify recycling options early in the commercialization process, a Workshop was convened. At this Workshop, representatives from the photovoltaic, electric utility, and nonferrous metals industries met to explore technical and institutional options for the recycling of spent CdTe and CIS modules and manufacturing wastes. This report summarizes the results of the Workshop. This report includes: (1) A discussion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and their potential implications to the photovoltaic industry; (2) an assessment of the needs of the photovoltaic industry from the perspective of module manufacturers and consumers; (3) an overview of recycling technologies now employed by other industries for similar types of materials; and, (4) a list of recommendation.

  13. A multi-scale analysis of the crystallization of amorphous germanium telluride using ab initio simulations and classical crystallization theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anantram, M. P.

    simulations and classical crystallization theory Jie Liu, Xu Xu, Lucien Brush, and M. P. Anantram Citation telluride using ab initio simulations and classical crystallization theory Jie Liu,1 Xu Xu,1 Lucien Brush,2

  14. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Marshall G. (Woodside, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  15. Enhanced mercury oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gretta, W.J.; Wu, S.; Kikkawa, H. [Hitachi Power Systems America, Basting Ridge, NJ (United States)

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new catalyst offers a new way to enhance mercury control from bituminous coal-fired power plants. Hitachi has developed an SCR catalyst which satisfies high Hg{sup 0} oxidation and low SO{sub 2} oxidation requirements under high temperatures (716 to 770 F). This triple action catalysts, TRAC can significantly enhance mercury oxidation and reduce or eliminate the need for additional mercury control measures such as activated carbon injection. After laboratory testing, pilot-scale tests confirmed an activity of 1.4-1.7 times higher than that of conventional SCR catalyst. The new catalyst has been successfully applied in a commercial PRB-fired boiler without the need for halogens to be added to the fuel feed or flue gas. 2 figs.

  16. Mercury Information Clearinghouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad A. Wocken; Michael J. Holmes; Dennis L. Laudal; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; Greg F. Weber; Nicholas V. C. Ralston; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Laura J. Raymond; John H. Pavlish; Everett A. Sondreal; Steven A. Benson

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. With the support of CEA, the Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the EERC developed comprehensive quarterly information updates that provide a detailed assessment of developments in the various areas of mercury monitoring, control, policy, and research. A total of eight topical reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. The original quarterly reports can be viewed at the CEA Web site (www.ceamercuryprogram.ca). In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. Members of Canada's coal-fired electricity generation sector (ATCO Power, EPCOR, Manitoba Hydro, New Brunswick Power, Nova Scotia Power Inc., Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower, and TransAlta) and CEA, have compiled an extensive database of information from stack-, coal-, and ash-sampling activities. Data from this effort are also available at the CEA Web site and have provided critical information for establishing and reviewing a mercury standard for Canada that is protective of environment and public health and is cost-effective. Specific goals outlined for the CEA mercury program included the following: (1) Improve emission inventories and develop management options through an intensive 2-year coal-, ash-, and stack-sampling program; (2) Promote effective stack testing through the development of guidance material and the support of on-site training on the Ontario Hydro method for employees, government representatives, and contractors on an as-needed basis; (3) Strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities through analysis and quality assurance programs; and (4) Create and maintain an information clearinghouse to ensure that all parties can keep informed on global mercury research and development activities.

  17. Mercury control in 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjostrom, S.; Durham, M.; Bustard, J.; Martin, C. [ADA Environmental Solutions, Littleton, CO (United States)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Although activated carbon injection (ACI) has been proven to be effective for many configurations and is a preferred option at many plants sufficient quantities of powdered activated coking (PAC) must be available to meet future needs. The authors estimate that upcoming federal and state regulations will result in tripling the annual US demand for activated carbon to nearly 1.5 billion lb from approximately 450 million lb. Rapid expansion of US production capacity is required. Many PAC manufacturers are discussing expansion of their existing production capabilities. One company, ADA Carbon Solutions, is in the process of constructing the largest activated carbon facility in North America to meet the future demand for PAC as a sorbent for mercury control. Emission control technology development and commercialization is driven by regulation and legislation. Although ACI will not achieve > 90% mercury control at every plant, the expected required MACT legislation level, it offers promise as a low-cost primary mercury control technology option for many configurations and an important trim technology for others. ACI has emerged as the clear mercury-specific control option of choice, representing over 98% of the commercial mercury control system orders to date. As state regulations are implemented and the potential for a federal rule becomes more imminent, suppliers are continuing to develop technologies to improve the cost effectiveness and limit the balance of plant impacts associated with ACI and are developing additional PAC production capabilities to ensure that the industry's needs are met. The commercialisation of ACI is a clear example of industry, through the dedication of many individuals and companies with support from the DOE and EPRI, meeting the challenge of developing cost-effectively reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1987-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

  19. Mercury Strategic Plan Outfall 200 Mercury Treatment Facility

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Partial LMR * Alpha-5 LMR & Bldg Characterization * S&M mercury removal * Hg waterfishsediment studies * Technology Development Plan * Debris treatability study * Fate and...

  20. Innovative Mercury Treatment Benefits Stream, Fish | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mercury Treatment Benefits Stream, Fish Innovative Mercury Treatment Benefits Stream, Fish October 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Oak Ridge scientists Kelly Roy, left, and Trent Jett...

  1. Tolerance to cadmium and cadmium-binding ligands in Great Salt Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jayasekara, S.; Drown, D.B.; Sharma, R.P.

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information on the accumulation of cadmium in cytosolic proteins of Great Lake brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was obtained from animals collected directly from the lake and also from animal hatched and maintained in three sublethal concentrations of cadmium (0.5, 2.0, 5.0 ppm) in saltwater aquaria. Brine shrimp growth under these conditions was monitored by measuring body lengths during a 7-day exposure period. Heat-stable, cadmium-binding ligands were isolated and identified by Sephadex G-75 chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Cadmium was found to be equally distributed between high and low molecular weight proteins in animals collected from the lake and the 0.5 ppm cadmium group. There was also a slight growth stimulation noted in the 0.5-pm group. Higher cadmium incorporation was noted in low molecular weight fractions with increasing cadmium concentration in the exposure media. Low molecular weight fractions were also found to have high uv absorption characteristics at 250 nm and low absorption at 280 nm. Molecular weight of the cadmium-binding ligands was found to be 11,000 as estimated by the gel filtration method. De novo synthesis of this protein was increased as a function of cadmium concentration in the media. However, slow accumulation of cadmium in other protein fractions was also noticed in higher cadmium exposure groups, suggesting the existence of possible tolerance mechanisms in brine shrimp exposed to suspected acute cadmium concentrations.

  2. Process for removing cadmium from scrap metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the recovery of a metal, in particular, cadmium contained in scrap, in a stable form. The process comprises the steps of mixing the cadmium-containing scrap with an ammonium carbonate solution, preferably at least a stoichiometric amount of ammonium carbonate, and/or free ammonia, and an oxidizing agent to form a first mixture so that the cadmium will react with the ammonium carbonate to form a water-soluble ammine complex; evaporating the first mixture so that ammine complex dissociates from the first mixture leaving carbonate ions to react with the cadmium and form a second mixture that includes cadmium carbonate; optionally adding water to the second mixture to form a third mixture; adjusting the pH of the third mixture to the acid range whereby the cadmium carbonate will dissolve; and adding at least a stoichiometric amount of sulfide, preferably in the form of hydrogen sulfide or an aqueous ammonium sulfide solution, to the third mixture to precipitate cadmium sulfide. This mixture of sulfide is then preferably digested by heating to facilitate precipitation of large particles of cadmium sulfide. The scrap may be divided by shredding or breaking up to exposure additional surface area. Finally, the precipitated cadmium sulfide can be mixed with glass formers and vitrified for permanent disposal.

  3. Thermoelectric properties of electrically gated bismuth telluride nanowires I. Bejenari,1,2,* V. Kantser,2, and A. A. Balandin1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermoelectric properties of electrically gated bismuth telluride nanowires I. Bejenari,1,2,* V can modify thermoelectric properties of intrinsic, n-type and p-type bismuth telluride nanowires, and thermoelectric figure of merit on the nanowire thickness, gate voltage, and excess hole electron concentration

  4. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, Shou-heng (Kaohsiung, TW); Liu, Zhao-rong (Beijing, CN); Yan, Naiqiang (Berkeley, CA)

    2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  5. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, Shou-Heng (Kaohsiung, TW); Liu, Zhao-Rong (Beijing, CN); Yan, Naiqiang (Berkeley, CA)

    2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  6. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, Shou-heng (Kaohsiung, TW); Liu, Zhao-rong (Bejing, CN); Yan, Naiqiang (Burkeley, CA)

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  7. Method for mercury refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  8. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  9. Method for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (Reading, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the .sup.196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering.

  10. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (Reading, MA); George, William A. (Rockport, MA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the .sup.196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering.

  11. An investigation of the cadmium absorption of resonance neutrons in cadmium covered indium foils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, James Edward

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thicknesses and Cadmium Covers Page 25 II Fcd Determined by E3 and Logarithmic Fits for Various Foil Thickness 29 III Experimental Values of Fcd for Various Foil Thicknesses and Cadmium Covers 32 LIST OF FIGURES No. Title Bare Infinite Disk Showing... The Coordinates g and B Cadmium Covered Infinite Disk Indicating the Directions X and 8 . Page Theoretically Determine)Bare and Cadmium Covered Activity of a 18. 5 mg/cm Foil. Theoretically Determined Bare and Cadmium Covered Activities of a 184. 5 mg/cm2...

  12. Neutrino Factory Mercury Flow Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    ­ Could require double containment of mercury ­ Chase will certainly have a drain back into hot cell Decay 2010 #12;Hg Flow Overflow · Minimize pressure drops through piping Overflow Mercury Drain drops Gravity Drain Beam Dumptransitioning to 1 cm nozzle · Actual NF Hg inventory may reach SNS Gravity Drain

  13. Feasibility of preparing patterned molybdenum coatings on bismuth telluride thermoelectric modules.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Miller, Stephen Samuel; Knight, Marlene E.; LePage, William S.; Sobczak, Catherine Elizabeth.; Wesolowski, Daniel Edward

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molybdenum electrical interconnects for thermoelectric modules were produced by air plasma spraying a 30%CE%BCm size molybdenum powder through a laser-cut Kapton tape mask. Initial feasibility demonstrations showed that the molybdenum coating exhibited excellent feature and spacing retention (~170%CE%BCm), adhered to bismuth-telluride, and exhibited electrical conductivity appropriate for use as a thermoelectric module interconnect. A design of experiments approach was used to optimize air plasma spray process conditions to produce a molybdenum coating with low electrical resistivity. Finally, a molybdenum coating was successfully produced on a fullscale thermoelectric module. After the addition of a final titanium/gold layer deposited on top of the molybdenum coating, the full scale module exhibited an electrical resistivity of 128%CE%A9, approaching the theoretical resistivity value for the 6mm module leg of 112%CE%A9. Importantly, air plasma sprayed molybdenum did not show significant chemical reaction with bismuth-telluride substrate at the coating/substrate interface. The molybdenum coating microstructure consisted of lamellar splats containing columnar grains. Air plasma sprayed molybdenum embedded deeply (several microns) into the bismuth-telluride substrate, leading to good adhesion between the coating and the substrate. Clusters of round pores (and cracks radiating from the pores) were found immediately beneath the molybdenum coating. These pores are believed to result from tellurium vaporization during the spray process where the molten molybdenum droplets (2623%C2%B0C) transferred their heat of solidification to the substrate at the moment of impact. Substrate cooling during the molybdenum deposition process was recommended to mitigate tellurium vaporization in future studies.

  14. Atmospheric Mercury: Emissions, Transport/Fate,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , global...) Is "emissions trading" workable and ethical? Is the recently promulgated Clean Air Mercury

  15. Cadmium Biosorption Rate in Protonated Sargassum Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volesky, Bohumil

    Cadmium Biosorption Rate in Protonated Sargassum Biomass J I N B A I Y A N G A N D B O H U M I L V Sargassum fluitans biomass was accompanied by the release of hydrogen protons from the biomass. The uptake the overall biosorption rate of cadmium ions in flat seaweed biomass particles. The overall biosorption

  16. Evaluating Mercury Concentrations in Midwest Fish in Relationship to Mercury Emission Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robichaud, Jeffery

    2008-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    based on Regions. (EPRI, 2006) Once mercury enters water via deposition (or runoff containing deposited mercury), mercury will either volatize into the atmosphere, settle into sediments or enter the food chain. It enters the food chain via...

  17. Method for removal and stabilization of mercury in mercury-containing gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Broderick, Thomas E.

    2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process and apparatus for removing and stabilizing mercury from mercury-containing gas streams. A gas stream containing vapor phase elemental and/or speciated mercury is contacted with reagent, such as an oxygen-containing oxidant, in a liquid environment to form a mercury-containing precipitate. The mercury-containing precipitate is kept or placed in solution and reacts with one or more additional reagents to form a solid, stable mercury-containing compound.

  18. MERCURY STABILITY IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John H. Pavlish

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) require the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury and 188 other trace substances, referred to as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk (1). The EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in two reports: Mercury Study Report to Congress and Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units-Final Report to Congress. The first congressional report addressed both human health and the environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second report addressed the risk to public health posed by emissions of HAPs from steam electricity-generating units. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is also required by the CAAAs to investigate mercury and determine a safe threshold level of exposure. Recently the National Academy of Sciences has also been commissioned by Congress to complete a report, based the available scientific evidence, regarding safe threshold levels of mercury exposure. Although the EPA reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations should be required given the current state of the art, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. It is likely that major sources of mercury emissions, including fossil-fired combustion systems, will be controlled at some point. In fact, municipal waste combustion units are already regulated. In anticipation of additional control measures, much research has been done (and continues) regarding the development of control technologies for mercury emitted from stationary sources to the atmosphere. Most approaches taken to date involve sorbent injection technologies or improve upon removal of mercury using existing technologies such as flue gas desulfurization scrubbers, fabric filters, and electrostatic precipitators. Depending on the fly ash chemistry and the form of mercury present in the flue gas, some of these existing technologies can be effective at capturing vapor-phase mercury from the flue gas stream. Although much research has been done on enhancing the removal of mercury from flue gas streams, little research has focused on what happens to the mercury when it is captured and converted and/or transferred to a solid or aqueous solution. The stability (or mobility) of mercury in this final process is critical and leads to the questions, What impact will the increased concentration of mercury have on utilization, disposal, and reuse? and Is the mercury removed from the flue gas really removed from the environment or rereleased at a later point? To help answer these questions, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Base Cooperative Agreement did a series of experiments using thermal desorption and leaching techniques. This report presents the results from these tests.

  19. Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Mercury Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury In addition to banning the export of elemental mercury from the United States as of January 1, 2013, the Mercury...

  20. An Assessment of health risk associated with mercury in soil and sediment from East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Revis, N.; Holdsworth, G.; Bingham, G.; King, A.; Elmore, J.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents results from a study conducted to determine the toxicity of Mercury in soils sediments samples. Mice were fed via diet, soils and sediment, from various locations along the East Fork Poplar creek. Tissue distribution of pollutants was determined at various intervals. The tissue level relative to toxicity was used to determine the effect of a complex matrix on the gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution of the pollutants (other pollutants included cadmium and selenium).

  1. Mercury in the Anthropocene Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamborg, Carl

    The toxic metal mercury is present only at trace levels in the ocean, but it accumulates in fish at concentrations high enough to pose a threat to human and environmental health. Human activity has dramatically altered the ...

  2. The Scientific Basis of Tobacco Product Regulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    World Health Organization

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cyanide Mercury Lead Cadmium Nitric oxide NOx NNN NNK Ncyanide Mercury Lead Cadmium Nitrogen oxides Nirogen oxidescyanide Mercury Lead Cadmium Nitrogen oxides Nirogen oxides

  3. Transport properties of lithium- lead-vanadium-telluride glass and glass ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathish, M., E-mail: sathishphy79@gmail.com [Department of Physics, GOVT first grade College, Doddaballapur-561203 (India); Eraiah, B., E-mail: eraiah@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560056, India (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Glasses with the chemical composition 35Li{sub 2}O-(45-x)V{sub 2}O{sub 5?}20PbO-xTeO{sub 2} (where x = 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15 mol %) have prepared by conventional melt quenching method. The electrical conductivity of Li{sup +} ion conducting lead vanadium telluride glass samples has been carried out both as a function of temperature and frequency in the temperature range 503K-563K and over frequencies 40 Hz to 10 MHz. The electronic conduction has been observed in the present systems. When these samples annealed around 400°C for 2hour become the glass ceramic, which also shows increase tendency of conductivity. SEM confines glass and glass ceramic nature of the prepared samples.

  4. Chemical pressure and hidden one-dimensional behavior in rare earth tri-telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sacchetti, A.; Degiorgi, L.; /Zurich, ETH; Giamarchi, T.; /Geneva U.; Ru, N.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the first optical measurements of the rare-earth tri-telluride charge-density-wave systems. Our data, collected over an extremely broad spectral range, allow us to observe both the Drude component and the single-particle peak, ascribed to the contributions due to the free charge carriers and to the charge-density-wave gap excitation, respectively. The data analysis displays a diminishing impact of the charge-density-wave condensate on the electronic properties with decreasing lattice constant across the rare-earth series. We propose a possible mechanism describing this behavior and we suggest the presence of a one-dimensional character in these two-dimensional compounds. We also envisage that interactions and umklapp processes might play a relevant role in the formation of the charge-density-wave state in these compounds.

  5. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Easterly, C.E.; Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  6. Mercury bioaccumulation in Lavaca Bay, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Sally Jo

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (waves), and human activities (dredging and shrimping) can potentially release mercury to the overlying water (LINDBERG and HARRISS, 1977; CRANSTON, 1976). The solubility, reactivity, and toxicity of mercury is dependent on its form. Divalent mercury... MERCURY BIOACCUMULATION IN LAVACA BAY, TEXAS A Thesis by SALLY JO PALMER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ABM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major...

  7. Engineering-Scale Liquid Cadmium Cathode Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D Vaden; B. R. Westphal; S. X. Li; T. A. Johnson; K. B. Davies; D. M. Pace

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recovery of transuranic actinides (TRU) using electrorefining is a process being investigated as part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI). TRU recovery via electrorefining onto a solid cathode is very difficult as the thermodynamic properties of transuranics are not favourable for them to remain in the metal phase while significant quantities of uranium trichloride exist in the electrolyte. Theoretically, the concentration of transuranics in the electrolyte must be approximately 106 greater than the uranium concentration in the electrolyte to produce a transuranic deposit on a solid cathode. Using liquid cadmium as a cathode contained within a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt, the co-deposition of uranium and transuranics is feasible because the activity of the transuranics in liquid cadmium is very small. Depositing transuranics and uranium in a liquid cadmium cathode (LCC) theoretically requires the concentration of transuranics to be two to three times the uranium concentration in the electrolyte. Three LCC experiments were performed in an Engineering scale elecdtrorefiner, which is located in the argon hot cell of the Fuel Conditioning Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex on the Idaho National Laboratory. Figure 1 contains photographs of the LCC assembly in the hot cell prior to the experiment and a cadmium ingot produced after the first LCC test. Figure 1. Liquid Cadmium Cathode (left) and Cadmium Ingot (right) The primary goal of the engineering-scale liquid cadmium cathode experiments was to electrochemically collect kilogram quantities of uranium and plutonium via a LCC. The secondary goal was to examine fission product contaminations in the materials collected by the LCC. Each LCC experiment used chopped spent nuclear fuel from the blanket region of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II loaded into steel baskets as the anode with the LCC containing 26 kg of cadmium metal. In each experiment, between one and two kilograms of heavy metal was collected in the LCC after passing an integrated current over 500 amp hours. Analysis of samples from the liquid cadmium cathode ingots showed detectable amounts of transuranics and rare-earth elements. Acknowledgements K. B. Davies and D. M. Pace for the mechanical and electrical engineering needed to prepare the equipment for the engineering-scale liquid cadmium cathode experiments.

  8. REPLACE YOUR MERCURY THERMOMETERS BEFORE THEY BREAK!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    presents a hazard for faculty, staff, and students in laboratory areas? Mercury also presents a hazard mercury thermometers create hazardous waste that is costly to clean up and costly to dispose of. Other generating hazardous waste from spill clean-up. · Mercury is volatile at room temperature with vapors

  9. Process for thin film deposition of cadmium sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muruska, H. Paul (East Windsor, NJ); Sansregret, Joseph L. (Scotch Plains, NJ); Young, Archie R. (Montclair, NJ)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention teaches a process for depositing layers of cadmium sulfide. The process includes depositing a layer of cadmium oxide by spray pyrolysis of a cadmium salt in an aqueous or organic solvent. The oxide film is then converted into cadmium sulfide by thermal ion exchange of the O.sup.-2 for S.sup.-2 by annealing the oxide layer in gaseous sulfur at elevated temperatures.

  10. Export of Cadmium and Phytochelatin by the Marine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morel, François M. M.

    Export of Cadmium and Phytochelatin by the Marine Diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii J E N N I F E R-phytochelatin complex. We hypothesize that T. weissflogii exports the phytochelatin- cadmium complex as a detoxification the cell since the cadmium exported is available to T. weissflogii and induces phytochelatin synthesis

  11. Apparatus for control of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

  12. Marine biogeochemistry of mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, G.A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Noncontaminating sample collection and handling procedures and accurate and sensitive analysis methods were developed to measure sub-picomolar Hg concentrations in seawater. Reliable and diagnostic oceanographic Hg distributions were obtained, permitting major processes governing the marine biogeochemistry of Hg to be identified. Mercury concentrations in the northwest Atlantic, central Pacific, southeast Pacific, and Tasman Sea ranged from 0.5 to 12 pM. Vertical Hg distributions often exhibited a maximum within or near the main thermocline. At similar depths, Hg concentrations in the northwest Atlantic Ocean were elevated compared to the N. Pacific Ocean. This pattern appears to result from a combination of enhanced supply of Hg to the northwest Atlantic by rainfall and scavenging removal along deep water circulation pathways. These observations are supported by geochemical steady-state box modelling which predicts a relatively short mean residence time for Hg in the oceans; demonstrating the reactive nature of Hg in seawater and precluding significant involvement in nutrient-type recyclic. Evidence for the rapid removal of Hg from seawater was obtained at two locations. Surface seawater Hg measurements along 160/sup 0/ W (20/sup 0/N to 20/sup 0/S) showed a depression in the equatorial upwelling area which correlated well with the transect region exhibiting low /sup 234/Th//sup 238/U activity ratios. This relationship implies that Hg will be scavenged and removed from surface seawater in biologically productive oceanic zones. Further, a broad minimum in the vertical distribution of Hg was observed to coincide with the intense oxygen minimum zone in the water column in coastal waters off Peru.

  13. Module process optimization and device efficiency improvement for stable, low-cost, large-area, cadmium telluride-based photovoltaic module production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albright, S.P.; Ackerman, B.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Jordan, J.F. (Photon Energy, Inc., El Paso, TX (United States))

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work under a three-year phased subcontract to develop CdS/CdTe devices and modules and to further improve the technology base at Photon Energy, Inc. (PEI) to better address the commercialization issues and objectives of the PEI and the US Department of Energy. During this reporting period we (1) achieved efficiencies of 12.7% on small area devices, (2) achieved 1-ft{sup 2} modules with over 8% aperture-area efficiency (and active area efficiencies up to {approximately}10%), (3) tested 4-ft{sup 2} modules at NREL at 23.1 (21.3) watts, normalized (6.3% efficiency), and (4) found no inherent stability problems with CdTe technology during life testing, at both NREL and PEI. 7 refs.

  14. Cadmium uptake by Emiliania huxleyi (Prymnesiophyceae)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Chieh

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CADMIUM UPTAKE BY EMILIAlVIA HUXLEYI (PRYMNESIOPHYCEAE) A Thesis by CHIEH PENG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990... Major Subject: Oceanography CADMIUM UPTAKE BY EMILIAlVIA HUXLEYJ (PRYMNESIOPHYCEAE) A Thesis by CHIEH PENG Approved as to style and content by: Greta A. Fry ell (Co-Chair of Committee) bby J. Pre y (Co-Chair of Committee) Elenor R. Cox (Member...

  15. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  16. Source-attribution for atmospheric mercury deposition: Where does the mercury in mercury deposition come from?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;13 #12;14 #12;15 #12;16 Estimated Speciation Profile for 1999 U.S. Atmospheric Anthropogenic Mercury speciation profile Even within a given source type, there can be big differences ­ depending on process type, fuels and raw materials, pollution control equipment, etc. #12;18 Estimated 1999 U.S. Atmospheric

  17. Source-apportionment for atmospheric mercury deposition: Where does the mercury in mercury deposition come from?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (p) #12;For emissions of Hg(II) #12;Estimated Speciation Profile for 1999 U.S. Atmospheric Anthropogenic Mercury Emissions #12;Each type of source has a very different emissions speciation profile Even within a given source type, there can be big differences ­ depending on process type, fuels and raw materials

  18. Transition-metal doped sulfide, selenide, and telluride laser crystal and lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Page, Ralph H. (San Ramon, CA); DeLoach, Laura D. (Manteca, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of solid state laser crystals and lasers are formed of transition metal doped sulfide, selenide, and telluride host crystals which have four fold coordinated substitutional sites. The host crystals include II-VI compounds. The host crystal is doped with a transition metal laser ion, e.g., chromium, cobalt or iron. In particular, Cr.sup.2+ -doped ZnS and ZnSe generate laser action near 2.3 .mu.m. Oxide, chloride, fluoride, bromide and iodide crystals with similar structures can also be used. Important aspects of these laser materials are the tetrahedral site symmetry of the host crystal, low excited state absorption losses and high luminescence efficiency, and the d.sup.4 and d.sup.6 electronic configurations of the transition metal ions. The same materials are also useful as saturable absorbers for passive Q-switching applications. The laser materials can be used as gain media in amplifiers and oscillators; these gain media can be incorporated into waveguides and semiconductor lasers.

  19. Transition-metal doped sulfide, selenide, and telluride laser crystal and lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krupke, W.F.; Page, R.H.; DeLoach, L.D.; Payne, S.A.

    1996-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of solid state laser crystals and lasers are formed of transition metal doped sulfide, selenide, and telluride host crystals which have four fold coordinated substitutional sites. The host crystals include II-VI compounds. The host crystal is doped with a transition metal laser ion, e.g., chromium, cobalt or iron. In particular, Cr{sup 2+}-doped ZnS and ZnSe generate laser action near 2.3 {micro}m. Oxide, chloride, fluoride, bromide and iodide crystals with similar structures can also be used. Important aspects of these laser materials are the tetrahedral site symmetry of the host crystal, low excited state absorption losses and high luminescence efficiency, and the d{sup 4} and d{sup 6} electronic configurations of the transition metal ions. The same materials are also useful as saturable absorbers for passive Q-switching applications. The laser materials can be used as gain media in amplifiers and oscillators; these gain media can be incorporated into waveguides and semiconductor lasers. 18 figs.

  20. Influence of germanium nano-inclusions on the thermoelectric power factor of bulk bismuth telluride alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satyala, Nikhil; Zamanipour, Zahra; Norouzzadeh, Payam; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Vashaee, Daryoosh, E-mail: daryoosh.vashaee@okstate.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74106 (United States); Tahmasbi Rad, Armin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74106 (United States); Tayebi, Lobat, E-mail: daryoosh.vashaee@okstate.edu [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078 (United States)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocomposite thermoelectric compound of bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) with 5 at. % germanium nano-inclusions was prepared via mechanically alloying and sintering techniques. The influence of Ge nano-inclusions and long duration annealing on the thermoelectric properties of nanostructured Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} were investigated. It was found that annealing has significant effect on the carrier concentration, Seebeck coefficient, and the power factor of the thermoelectric compound. The systematic heat treatment also reduced the density of donor type defects thereby decreasing the electron concentration. While the as-pressed nanocomposite materials showed n-type properties, it was observed that with the increase of annealing time, the nanocomposite gradually transformed to an abundantly hole-dominated (p-type) sample. The long duration annealing (?500 h) resulted in a significantly enhanced electrical conductivity pertaining to the augmentation in the density and the structural properties of the sample. Therefore, a simultaneous enhancement in both electrical and Seebeck coefficient characteristics resulted in a remarkable increase in the thermoelectric power factor.

  1. Toward Nanostructured Thermoelectrics: Synthesis and Characterization of Lead Telluride Gels and Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganguly, Shreyashi; Brock, Stephanie

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis and characterization of lead telluride (PbTe) gels and aerogels with nanostructured features of potential benefit for enhanced thermoelectrics is reported. In this approach, discrete thiolate-capped PbTe nanoparticles were synthesized by a solution-based approach followed by oxidation-induced nanoparticle assembly with tetranitromethane or hydrogen peroxide to form wet gels. Drying of the wet gels by supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction yielded aerogels, whereas xerogels were produced by ambient pressure bench top drying. The gels consist of an interconnected network of colloidal nanoparticles and pores with surface areas up to 74 m{sup 2} g{sup ?1}. The thermal stability of the nanostructures relative to nanoparticles was probed with the help of in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The aerogels were observed to sublime at a higher temperature and over a larger range (425–500 °C) relative to the precursor nanoparticles. TGA-DSC suggests that organic capping groups can be removed in the region 250–450 °C, and melting of PbTe nanoparticles occurs near the temperature for bulk materials (ca. 920 °C). The good thermal stability combined with the presence of nanoscale interfaces suggests PbTe gels may show promise in thermoelectric devices.

  2. Quantum Spin Hall Effect and Topological Phase Transition in HgTe Quantum Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernevig, A.

    2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, a state of matter with topological properties distinct from those of conventional insulators, can be realized in mercury telluride-cadmium telluride semiconductor quantum wells. When the thickness of the quantum well is varied, the electronic state changes from a normal to an 'inverted' type at a critical thickness d{sub c}. We show that this transition is a topological quantum phase transition between a conventional insulating phase and a phase exhibiting the QSH effect with a single pair of helical edge states. We also discuss methods for experimental detection of the QSH effect.

  3. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where fly ash is sold as a by-product.

  4. Mercury Replacement Program It is the policy of California State University, Fullerton to remove mercury containing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    decomposes. As a liquid metal at room temperature, mercury has been widely used throughout industry. Man, smelting, scrap metal processing and incineration or land disposal of mercury products or waste. #12 occurring element. This silver-colored liquid metal can be found in rocks, soil and the ocean. Mercury can

  5. Sulfurization of a carbon surface for vapor phase mercury removal II: Sulfur forms and mercury uptake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric

    promote the formation of organic sulfur and the presence of H2S during the cooling process increased in the presence of H2S was very effective towards Hg uptake in nitrogen. Corre- lation of mercury uptake capacitySulfurization of a carbon surface for vapor phase mercury removal ­ II: Sulfur forms and mercury

  6. anthropogenic mercury emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anthropogenic emission of mercury is directly adopted from global mercury emission inventory Pacyna et al., 2005. The anthropogenic emissions are shown in annual averaged...

  7. THE EFFECT OF MERCURY CONTROLS ON WALLBOARD MANUFACTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandra Meischen

    2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pending EPA regulations may mandate 70 to 90% mercury removal efficiency from utility flue gas. A mercury control option is the trapping of oxidized mercury in wet flue gas desulfurization systems (FGD). The potential doubling of mercury in the FGD material and its effect on mercury volatility at temperatures common to wallboard manufacture is a concern that could limit the growing byproduct use of FGD material. Prediction of mercury fate is limited by lack of information on the mercury form in the FGD material. The parts per billion mercury concentrations prevent the identification of mercury compounds by common analytical methods. A sensitive analytical method, cold vapor atomic fluorescence, coupled with leaching and thermodecomposition methods were evaluated for their potential to identify mercury compounds in FGD material. The results of the study suggest that the mercury form is dominated by the calcium sulfate matrix and is probably associated with the sulfate form in the FGD material. Additionally, to determine the effect of high mercury concentration FGD material on wallboard manufacture, a laboratory FGD unit was built to trap the oxidized mercury generated in a simulated flue gas. Although the laboratory prepared FGD material did not contain the mercury concentrations anticipated, further thermal tests determined that mercury begins to evolve from FGD material at 380 to 390 F, consequently dropping the drying temperature should mitigate mercury evolution if necessary. Mercury evolution is also diminished as the weight of the wallboard sample increased. Consequently, mercury evolution may not be a significant problem in wallboard manufacture.

  8. EIS-0423: Storage and Management of Elemental Mercury | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    23: Storage and Management of Elemental Mercury EIS-0423: Storage and Management of Elemental Mercury Summary This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts associated with the...

  9. Mercury Emission Measurement at a CFB Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to pending regulation to control mercury emissions in the United States and Canada, several projects have been conducted to perform accurate mass balances at pulverized coal (pc)-fired utilities. Part of the mercury mass balance always includes total gaseous mercury as well as a determination of the speciation of the mercury emissions and a concentration bound to the particulate matter. This information then becomes useful in applying mercury control strategies, since the elemental mercury has traditionally been difficult to control by most technologies. In this instance, oxidation technologies have proven most beneficial for increased capture. Despite many years of mercury measurement and control projects at pc-fired units, far less work has been done on circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) units, which are able to combust a variety of feedstocks, including cofiring coal with biomass. Indeed, these units have proven to be more problematic because it is very difficult to obtain a reliable mercury mass balance. These units tend to have very different temperature profiles than pc-fired utility boilers. The flexibility of CFB units also tends to be an issue when a mercury balance is determined, since the mercury inputs to the system come from the bed material and a variety of fuels, which can have quite variable chemistry, especially for mercury. In addition, as an integral part of the CFB operation, the system employs a feedback loop to circulate the bed material through the combustor and the solids collection system (the primary cyclone), thereby subjecting particulate-bound metals to higher temperatures again. Despite these issues, CFB boilers generally emit very little mercury and show good native capture. The Energy & Environmental Research Center is carrying out this project for Metso Power in order to characterize the fate of mercury across the unit at Rosebud Plant, an industrial user of CFB technology from Metso. Appropriate solids were collected, and flue gas samples were obtained using the Ontario Hydro method, mercury continuous emission monitors, and sorbent trap methods. In addition, chlorine and fluorine were determined for solids and in the flue gas stream. Results of this project have indicated a very good mercury mass balance for Rosebud Plant, indicating 105 {+-} 19%, which is well within acceptable limits. The mercury flow through the system was shown to be primarily in with the coal and out with the flue gas, which falls outside of the norm for CFB boilers.

  10. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  11. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A. (Boardman, OH); Holmes, Michael J. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  12. Mercury concentrations in Maine sport fishes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, C.P. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)] [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Haines, T.A. [Geological Survey, Orono, ME (United States)] [Geological Survey, Orono, ME (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To assess mercury contamination of fish in Maine, fish were collected from 120 randomly selected lakes. The collection goal for each lake was five fish of the single most common sport fish species within the size range commonly harvested by anglers. Skinless, boneless fillets of fish from each lake were composited, homogenized, and analyzed for total mercury. The two most abundant species, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, were also analyzed individually. The composite fish analyses indicate high concentrations of mercury, particularly in large and long-lived nonsalmonid species. Chain pickerel Esox niger, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and white perch Morone americana had the highest average mercury concentrations, and brook trout and yellow perch Perca flavescens had the lowest. The mean species composite mercury concentration was positively correlated with a factor incorporating the average size and age of the fish. Lakes containing fish with high mercury concentrations were not clustered near known industrial or population centers but were commonest in the area within 150 km of the seacoast, reflecting the geographical distribution of species that contained higher mercury concentrations. Stocked and wild brook trout were not different in length or weight, but wild fish were older and had higher mercury concentrations. Fish populations maintained by frequent introductions of hatchery-produced fish and subject to high angler exploitation rates may consist of younger fish with lower exposure to environmental mercury and thus contain lower concentrations than wild populations.

  13. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  14. Apparatus for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Gloucester, MA); Marcucci, Rudolph V. (Danvers, MA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for enriching the isotopic Hg content of mercury is provided. The apparatus includes a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill including mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. In a preferred embodiment, constant mercury pressure is maintained in the filter by means of a water-cooled tube that depends from it, the tube having a drop of mercury disposed in it. The reactor is arranged around the filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of a material which is transparent to ultraviolet light.

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - arsenic cadmium mercury Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Florida Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology ; Environmental Management and Restoration Technologies 55 EFFECT OF WASTE STREAM MODIFICATION AND OTHER FACTORS Summary:...

  16. Bioavailability of Cadmium and Zin to Two Earthworm Species in High-metal Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of labile cadmium in some biosolids-amended soils by isotopeof labile cadmium in some biosolids-amended soils by isotopeof labile cadmium in some biosolids-amended soils by isotope

  17. The effects of low environmental cadmium exposure on bone density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trzcinka-Ochocka, M., E-mail: ochocka@imp.lodz.pl [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Jakubowski, M. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)] [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Szymczak, W. [Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland) [Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland); Insitute of Psychology, University of Lodz (Poland); Janasik, B.; Brodzka, R. [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)] [Department of Chemical Hazards, Laboratory of Biomonitoring, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent epidemiological data indicate that low environmental exposure to cadmium, as shown by cadmium body burden (Cd-U), is associated with renal dysfunction as well as an increased risk of cadmium-induced bone disorders. The present study was designed to assess the effects of low environmental cadmium exposure, at the level sufficient to induce kidney damage, on bone metabolism and mineral density (BMD). The project was conducted in the area contaminated with cadmium, nearby a zinc smelter located in the region of Poland where heavy industry prevails. The study population comprised 170 women (mean age=39.7; 18-70 years) and 100 men (mean age=31.9; 18-76 years). Urinary and blood cadmium and the markers of renal tubular dysfunction ({beta}{sub 2}M-U RBP, NAG), glomerular dysfunction (Alb-U and {beta}{sub 2}M-S) and bone metabolism markers (BAP-S, CTX-S) as well as forearm BMD, were measured. The results of this study based on simple dose-effect analysis showed the relationship between increasing cadmium concentrations and an increased excretion of renal dysfunction markers and decreasing bone density. However, the results of the multivariate analysis did not indicate the association between exposure to cadmium and decrease in bone density. They showed that the most important factors that have impact on bone density are body weight and age in the female subjects and body weight and calcium excretion in males. Our investigation revealed that the excretion of low molecular weight proteins occurred at a lower level of cadmium exposure than the possible loss of bone mass. It seems that renal tubular markers are the most sensitive and significant indicators of early health effects of cadmium intoxication in the general population. The correlation of urinary cadmium concentration with markers of kidney dysfunction was observed in the absence of significant correlations with bone effects. Our findings did not indicate any effects of environmental cadmium exposure on bone density.

  18. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish.

  19. Future trends in environmental mercury concentrations: implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's Integrated Global System Model. Through this integrated model, the Program seeks to: discover new and climate projections; critically and quantitatively analyze environmental management and policy proposals to growth in the legacy reservoirs of mercury in oceanic and terrestrial ecosystems. Seawater mercury

  20. MERCURY RELEASE FROM DISTURBED ANOXIC SOILS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaroslav Solc; Bethany A. Bolles

    2001-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objectives of experiments conducted at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) were to provide information on the secondary release of mercury from contaminated anoxic sediments to an aqueous environment after disturbance/change of in situ physical conditions and to evaluate its migration and partitioning under controlled conditions, including implications of these processes for treatment of contaminated soils. Experimental work included (1) characterization of the mercury-contaminated sediment; (2) field bench-scale dredging simulation; (3) laboratory column study to evaluate a longer-term response to sediment disturbance; (4) mercury volatilization from sediment during controlled drying; (5) resaturation experiments to evaluate the potential for secondary release of residual mercury after disturbance, transport, drying, and resaturation, which simulate a typical scenario during soil excavation and transport to waste disposal facilities; and (6) mercury speciation and potential for methylation during column incubation experiments.

  1. All mercury lamps contain small amounts of mercury. An electric current passes through the lamp and vaporizes the mercury to generate light. Recycling mercury containing lamps protects human health and our environment from heavy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Steven C.

    and vaporizes the mercury to generate light. Recycling mercury containing lamps protects human health and our the environment by recycling universal wastes, contact EH&S at (949) 824-6200 or visit: www.ehs.uci.edu Mercury lamp recycling separates a number of materials for further use in new products. · The mercury is reused

  2. Potential for Increased Mercury Accumulation in the Estuary Food Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Jay A; Yee, Donald; Collins, Joshua N.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Luoma, Samuel N

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of mercury in the Patuxent River estuary. Biogeochemistrysalinity gradient in the Patuxent River estuary. These high

  3. Mercury capture by aerosol transformation in combustion environments. Appendix 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerosol transformation of elemental mercury by oxidizing mercury in the air is investigated in this study by varying temperature and residence time. The experimental results show that mercury oxidation is not important at the temperature range and time scale studied. The rate of mercury oxidation is too slow that the capture of mercury vapor by transforming it into mercury oxide in aerosol phase is not practical in real systems. Studies are needed for alternative approaches to capture mercury vapor such as the use of sorbent materials.

  4. Treatment of mercury containing waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D. (Wading River, NY); Melamed, Dan (Gaithersburg, MD); Patel, Bhavesh R (Elmhurst, NY); Fuhrmann, Mark (Babylon, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is provided for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel which includes a) stabilizing the waste with sulfur polymer cement under an inert atmosphere to form a resulting mixture and b) encapsulating the resulting mixture by heating the mixture to form a molten product and casting the molten product as a monolithic final waste form. Additional sulfur polymer cement can be added in the encapsulation step if needed, and a stabilizing additive can be added in the process to improve the leaching properties of the waste form.

  5. Accumulation of mercury in selected plant species grown in soils contaminated with different mercury compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang; Shiyab, Safwan; Chen, Jian; Monts, David L. [Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET), Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd, Starkville, MS 39759 (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of our research is to screen and search for suitable plant species for phyto-remediation of mercury-contaminated soil. Currently our effort is specifically focused on mercury removal from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, where mercury contamination is a major concern. In order to cost effectively implement mercury remediation efforts, it is necessary now to obtain an improved understanding of biological means of removing mercury and mercury compounds.. Phyto-remediation is a technology that uses various plants to degrade, extract, contain, or immobilize contaminants from soil and water. In particular, phyto-extraction is the uptake of contaminants by plant roots and translocation within the plants to shoots or leaves. Contaminants are generally removed by harvesting the plants. We have investigated phyto-extraction of mercury from contaminated soil by using some of the known metal-accumulating plants since no natural plant species with mercury hyper-accumulating properties has yet been identified. Different natural plant species have been studied for mercury uptake, accumulation, toxicity and overall mercury removal efficiency. Various mercury compounds, such as HgS, HgCl{sub 2}, and Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, were used as contaminant sources. Different types of soil were examined and chosen for phyto-remediation experiments. We have applied microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectrometry as well as conventional analytical chemistry to monitor the phyto-remediation processes of mercury uptake, translocation and accumulation, and the physiological impact of mercury contaminants on selected plant species. Our results indicate that certain plant species, such as beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), accumulated a very limited amount of mercury in the shoots (<65 mg/kg), even though root mercury accumulation is significant (maximum 2298 mg/kg). Consequently, this plant species may not be suitable for mercury phyto-remediation. Other plant species, such as Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), a well-studied metal accumulator, exhibited severe chlorosis symptoms during some experiments. Among all the plant species studied, Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata) accumulated significant amount of mercury in both roots and shoots and hence may be considered as a potential candidate for mercury phyto-extraction. During one experiment, Chinese brake ferns accumulated 540 mg/kg and 1469 mg/kg in shoots after 18 days of growing in soils treated with 500 parts-per-million (ppm) and 1000 ppm HgCl{sub 2} powder, respectively; no visual stress symptoms were observed. We also studied mercury phyto-remediation using aged soils that contained HgS, HgCl{sub 2}, or Hg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. We have found that up to hundreds of ppm mercury can be accumulated in the roots of Indian mustard plants grown with soil contaminated by mercury sulfide; HgS is assumed to be the most stable and also the predominant mercury form in flood plain soils. We have also started to investigate different mercury uptake mechanisms, such as root uptake of soil contaminant and foliar mercury accumulation from ambient air. We have observed mercury translocation from roots to shoot for Chinese fern and two Indian mustard varieties. (authors)

  6. Commercialization of thick film solar cell. Final technical report, 9/15/79-9/14/80

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Films of cadmium sulfide and cadmium telluride have been produced by screen printing and sintering. Cadmium sulfide films ten microns thick had a resistivity in the 10 ohm-cm range. A technique was developed for forming a cadmium telluride layer on top of a cadmium sulfide layer. Process control and device preparation are areas requiring further study.

  7. An interatomic pair potential for cadmium selenide Eran Rabani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabani, Eran

    in all three crystal structures: wurtzite, zinc blende, and rocksalt. Using the new pair potential we have studied the pressure-induced phase transition from the fourfold-coordinate wurtzite structure for wurtzite cadmium selenide.6 In this paper we derive a set of interatomic pair poten- tials for cadmium

  8. Fish mercury distribution in Massachusetts, USA lakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, J.; Hutcheson, M.S.; West, C.R.; Pancorbo, O.; Hulme, K.; Cooperman, A.; DeCesare, G.; Isaac, R.; Screpetis, A.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sediment, water, and three species of fish from 24 of Massachusetts' (relatively) least-impacted water bodies were sampled to determine the patterns of variation in edible tissue mercury concentrations and the relationships of these patterns to characteristics of the water, sediment, and water bodies (lake, wetland, and watershed areas). Sampling was apportioned among three different ecological subregions and among lakes of differing trophic status. The authors sought to partition the variance to discover if these broadly defined concepts are suitable predictors of mercury levels in fish. Average muscle mercury concentrations were 0.15 mg/kg wet weight in the bottom-feeding brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus); 0.31 mg/kg in the omnivorous yellow perch (Perca flavescens); and 0.39 mg/kg in the predaceous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Statistically significant differences in fish mercury concentrations between ecological subregions in Massachusetts, USA, existed only in yellow perch. The productivity level of the lakes (as deduced from Carlson's Trophic Status Index) was not a strong predictor of tissue mercury concentrations in any species. pH was a highly (inversely) correlated environmental variable with yellow perch and brown bullhead tissue mercury. Largemouth bass tissue mercury concentrations were most highly correlated with the weight of the fish (+), lake size (+), and source area sizes (+). Properties of individual lakes appear more important for determining fish tissue mercury concentrations than do small-scale ecoregional differences. Species that show major mercury variation with size or trophic level may not be good choices for use in evaluating the importance of environmental variables.

  9. Amorphous tin-cadmium oxide films and the production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaonan; Gessert, Timothy A

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A tin-cadmium oxide film having an amorphous structure and a ratio of tin atoms to cadmium atoms of between 1:1 and 3:1. The tin-cadmium oxide film may have an optical band gap of between 2.7 eV and 3.35 eV. The film may also have a charge carrier concentration of between 1.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3 and 2.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3. The tin cadmium oxide film may also exhibit a Hall mobility of between 40 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 s.sup.-1 and 60 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 s.sup.-1. Also disclosed is a method of producing an amorphous tin-cadmium oxide film as described and devices using same.

  10. 10.1177/0270467603259787ARTICLEBULLETIN OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY & SOCIETY / October 2003Roe / FISHING FOR IDENTITY Fishing for Identity: Mercury Contamination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    of mercury in the United States. During 1999, total mercury emis- sions from power plant emissions exceeded (HG0 ), inorganic mercury (HG2+ ), and methyl mercury (MeHg), methyl mercury poses the greatest threat

  11. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klunder; ,Edgar B. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  12. Filter for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); George, William A. (Gloucestor, MA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A filter for enriching the .sup.196 Hg content of mercury, including a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill of mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. The reactor is arranged around said filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of quartz, and are transparent to ultraviolet light. The .sup.196 Hg concentration in the mercury fill is less than that which is present in naturally occurring mercury, that is less than about 0.146 atomic weight percent. Hydrogen is also included in the fill and serves as a quenching gas in the filter, the hydrogen also serving to prevent disposition of a dark coating on the interior of the filter.

  13. Inclusion free cadmium zinc tellurium and cadmium tellurium crystals and associated growth method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolotnikov, Aleskey E. (South Setauket, NY); James, Ralph B. (Ridge, NY)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure provides systems and methods for crystal growth of cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) and cadmium tellurium (CdTe) crystals with an inverted growth reactor chamber. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables growth of single, large, high purity CZT and CdTe crystals that can be used, for example, in X-ray and gamma detection, substrates for infrared detectors, or the like. The inverted growth reactor chamber enables reductions in the presence of Te inclusions, which are recognized as an important limiting factor in using CZT or CdTe as radiation detectors. The inverted growth reactor chamber can be utilized with existing crystal growth techniques such as the Bridgman crystal growth mechanism and the like. In an exemplary embodiment, the inverted growth reactor chamber is a U-shaped ampoule.

  14. VEE-0020- In the Matter of Mercury Fuel Service, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On April 9, 1996, Mercury Fuel Service, Inc. (Mercury) of Waterbury, Connecticut, filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE)....

  15. Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borole, Abhijeet P. (Knoxville, TN); Hamilton, Choo Y. (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the removal of mercury from coal prior to combustion is disclosed. The process is based on use of microorganisms to oxidize iron, sulfur and other species binding mercury within the coal, followed by volatilization of mercury by the microorganisms. The microorganisms are from a class of iron and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The process involves contacting coal with the bacteria in a batch or continuous manner. The mercury is first solubilized from the coal, followed by microbial reduction to elemental mercury, which is stripped off by sparging gas and captured by a mercury recovery unit, giving mercury-free coal. The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing.

  16. Dissolved gaseous mercury behavior in shallow water estuaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landin, Charles Melchor

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) can be an important pathway for mercury removal from an aquatic environment. DGM evasional fluxes from an aquatic system can account for up to 95% of atmospheric Hg and its deposition pathways. While...

  17. Nested-grid simulation of mercury over North America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemistry and Physics Nested-grid simulation of mercury overY. Zhang et al. : Nested-grid simulation of mercury overand Chen, S. -Y. : Plume-in-grid modeling of atmospheric

  18. Seismic effects of the Caloris basin impact, Mercury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lü, Jiangning

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Striking geological features on Mercury's surface have been linked to tectonic disruption associated with the Caloris impact and have the potential to provide information on the interior structure of Mercury. The unusual ...

  19. Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at Laramie River Station Unit 3, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL are to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the benchmark established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The goals of the program were exceeded at Laramie River Station by achieving over 90% mercury removal at a sorbent cost of $3,980/lb ($660/oz) mercury removed for a coal mercury content of 7.9 lb/TBtu.

  20. Wetting of mercury electrode by crude oil in surfactant solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuvshinov, V.A.; Altumina, L.K.; Genkina, L.F.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study has been made of electrosurface phenomena in the system consisting of crude oil, mercury, and a surfactant solution. The type of relationship between the wetting of mercury by oil in surfactant solutions and the electric potential of the mercury has been determined. Feasibility has been demonstrated for the use of the mercury/oil/surfactant solution system as a model in studying the oil-displacing capabilities of various surfactants.

  1. administered cadmium tracer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    G A N D B O H U M I L V Sargassum fluitans biomass was accompanied by the release of hydrogen protons from the biomass. The uptake the overall biosorption rate of cadmium ions in...

  2. DOE Issues Final Mercury Storage Environmental Impact Statement: Texas Site Is Preferred for Long-Term Mercury Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON – The Department of Energy has prepared a Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement to analyze the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven locations

  3. Optical frequency standards based on mercury and aluminum ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optical frequency standards based on mercury and aluminum ions W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, A-16 . Keywords: aluminum, atomic clocks, frequency standards, ion traps, mercury 1. INTRODUCTION Optical frequency standards based on the mercury ion and, more recently, the aluminum ion are under devel- opment

  4. High vacuum indirectly-heated rotary kiln for the removal and recovery of mercury from air pollution control scrubber waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawk, G.G.; Aulbaugh, R.A. [Scientific Consulting Labs., Inc., Farmers Branch, TX (United States)] [Scientific Consulting Labs., Inc., Farmers Branch, TX (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    SepraDyne corporation (Denton, TX, US) has conducted pilot-scale treatability studies of dewatered acid plant blowdown sludge generated by a copper smelter using its recently patented high temperature and high vacuum indirectly-heated rotary retort technology. This unique rotary kiln is capable of operating at internal temperatures up to 850 C with an internal pressure of 50 torr and eliminates the use of sweep gas to transport volatile substances out of the retort. By removing non-condensables such as oxygen and nitrogen at relatively low temperatures and coupling the process with a temperature ramp-up program and low temperature condensation, virtually all of the retort off-gases produced during processing can be condensed for recovery. The combination of rotation, heat and vacuum produce the ideal environment for the rapid volatilization of virtually all organic compounds, water and low-to-moderate boiling point metals such as arsenic, cadmium and mercury.

  5. Cadmium zinc sulfide by solution growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1992-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for depositing thin layers of a II-VI compound cadmium zinc sulfide (CdZnS) by an aqueous solution growth technique with quality suitable for high efficiency photovoltaic or other devices which can benefit from the band edge shift resulting from the inclusion of Zn in the sulfide. A first solution comprising CdCl.sub.2 2.5H.sub.2 O, NH.sub.4 Cl, NH.sub.4 OH and ZnCl.sub.2, and a second solution comprising thiourea ((NH.sub.2).sub.2 CS) are combined and placed in a deposition cell, along with a substrate to form a thin i.e. 10 nm film of CdZnS on the substrate. This process can be sequentially repeated with to achieve deposition of independent multiple layers having different Zn concentrations.

  6. Core-mantle interactions for Mercury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemaitre, B Noyelles J Dufey A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury is the target of two space missions: MESSENGER (NASA) which orbit insertion is planned for March 2011, and ESA/JAXA BepiColombo, that should be launched in 2014. Their instruments will observe the surface of the planet with a high accuracy (about 1 arcsec for BepiColombo), what motivates studying its rotation. Mercury is assumed to be composed of a rigid mantle and an at least partially molten core. We here study the influence of the core-mantle interactions on the rotation perturbed by the solar gravitational interaction, by modeling the core as an ellipsoidal cavity filled with inviscid fluid of constant uniform density and vorticity. We use both analytical (Lie transforms) and numerical tools to study this rotation, with different shapes of the core. We express in particular the proper frequencies of the system, because they characterize the response of Mercury to the different solicitations, due to the orbital motion of Mercury around the Sun. We show that the longitudinal motion of Mercury is not...

  7. Mercury in shallow Savannah River Plant soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlton, W.H.; Price, V.; Cook, J.R.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil concentrations of adsorbed mercury at 999 sites at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) were determined by Microseeps Limited of Indianola, PA. The sites were in and around the 643-C Burial Ground, at the Savannah River Swamp adjacent to TNX Area, and at a background area. The Burial Ground was chosen as a test site because of a history of disposal of radioactive mercury there prior to 1968. Extremely low traces of mercury have been detected in the water table beneath the Burial Ground. Although the mercury concentrations at the majority of these sites are at background levels, several areas appear to be anomalously high. In particular, an area of large magnitude anomaly was found in the northwest part of the Burial Ground. Three other single point anomalies and several other areas of more subtle but consistently high values were also found. Several sites with anomalous mercury levels were found in an area of the Savannah River flood plain adjacent to TNX Area.

  8. Process for measuring low cadmium levels in blood and other biological specimens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, David P. (Orland Park, IL); Huff, Edmund A. (Lemont, IL); Bhattacharyya, Maryka H. (Naperville, IL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for measuring low levels of cadmium in blood and other biological specimens is provided without interference from high levels of alkali metal contaminants by forming an aqueous solution and without contamination by environmental cadmium absent the proteins from the specimen, selectively removing cadmium from the aqueous solution on an anion exchange resin, thereby removing the alkali metal contaminants, resolubilizing cadmium from the resin to form a second solution and analyzing the second solution for cadmium, the process being carried out in a cadmium-free environment.

  9. Process for measuring low cadmium levels in blood and other biological specimens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, David P.; Huff, Edmund A.; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H.

    1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for measuring low levels of cadmium in blood and other biological specimens is provided without interference from high levels of alkali metal contaminants by forming an aqueous solution and without contamination by environmental cadmium absent the proteins from the specimen, selectively removing cadmium from the aqueous solution on an anion exchange resin, thereby removing the alkali metal contaminants, resolubilizing cadmium from the resin to form a second solution and analyzing the second solution for cadmium, the process being carried out in a cadmium-free environment.

  10. Mercury Lamps Recycling Fluorescent light-tubes, compact fluorescent bulbs, mercury and sodium vapor lamps, ultraviolet and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Chris I.

    Mercury Lamps Recycling Fluorescent light-tubes, compact fluorescent bulbs, mercury and sodium labeled for shipment to a recycling plant for mercury, glass and aluminum recovery. The beneficial re can be recycled infinitely without losing its purity or strength. While the primary end product

  11. Mercury Absorption in Aqueous Oxidants Catalyzed by Mercury(II) Lynn L. Zhao and Gary T. Rochelle*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rochelle, Gary T.

    Mercury Absorption in Aqueous Oxidants Catalyzed by Mercury(II) Lynn L. Zhao and Gary T. Rochelle-1062 The absorption of elemental Hg vapor into aqueous solution containing Hg(II) was measured in a stirred cell at 25 °C. For mercury absorption in Hg(II) obtained by HgCl2 injection, the presence of HNO3 greatly

  12. Geochemical, Genetic, and Community Controls on Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are soil bacteria that share two common characteristics, strict anaerobiosis and the ability to respire sulfate. The metabolic activities of these bacteria play significant roles in the global sulfur cycle, anaerobic degradation of biomass, biological metal corrosion in the environment and, recently, degradation of toxic compounds. The accumulation of evidence suggests these bacteria are also key to the production of the neurotoxin methylmercury in environmental settings. We propose to use our experience with the development of genetics in sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio to create mutations that will eliminate the methylation of mercury, thereby identifying the genes essential for this process. This information may allow the environmental monitoring of the mercury methylation potential to learn the location and quantity of the production this toxin. From these data, more accurate predictive models of mercury cycling can be generated.

  13. Correlations of urinary cadmium with hypertension and diabetes in persons living in cadmium-contaminated villages in northwestern Thailand: A population study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit; Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak (Thailand)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak (Thailand)

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Risk for hypertension and diabetes has not been conclusively found to be a result of cadmium exposure. A population-based study was conducted in 2009 to examine the correlations of urinary cadmium, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, with hypertension and diabetes in persons aged 35 years and older who lived in the 12 cadmium-contaminated rural villages in northwestern Thailand. A total of 5273 persons were interviewed and screened for urinary cadmium, hypertension, and diabetes. The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium for women (2.4{+-}2.3 {mu}g/g creatinine) was significantly greater than that for men (2.0{+-}2.2 {mu}g/g creatinine). Hypertension was presented in 29.8% of the study population and diabetes was detected in 6.6%. The prevalence of hypertension significantly increased from 25.0% among persons in the lowest tertile of urinary cadmium to 35.0% in the highest tertile. In women, the rate of hypertension significantly increased with increasing urinary cadmium levels in both ever and never smokers, after adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and diabetes. In men, such association was less significantly found in never smokers. The study revealed no significant association between urinary cadmium and diabetes in either gender. Our study supports the hypothesis that environmental exposure to cadmium may increase the risk of hypertension. Risk for diabetes in relation to cadmium exposure remains uncertain in this exposed population.

  14. Phytoremediation of ionic and methyl mercury pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meagher, R.B.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'The long-term objective of the research is to manipulate single-gene traits into plants, enabling them to process heavy metals and remediate heavy-metal pollution by resistance, sequestration, removal, and management of these contaminants. The authors are focused on mercury pollution as a case study of this plant genetic engineering approach. The working hypothesis behind this proposal was that transgenic plants expressing both the bacterial organo mercury lyase (merB) and the mercuric ion reductase gene (merA) will: (A) remove the mercury from polluted sites and (B) prevent methyl mercury from entering the food chain. The results from the research are so positive that the technology will undoubtedly be applied in the very near future to cleaning large mercury contaminates sites. Many such sites were not remediable previously due to the excessive costs and the negative environmental impact of conventional mechanical-chemical technologies. At the time this grant was awarded 20 months ago, the authors had successfully engineered a small model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, to use a highly modified bacterial mercuric ion reductase gene, merA9, to detoxify ionic mercury (Hg(II)), reducing it to much less toxic and volatile metallic Hg(0) (Rugh et al., 1996). Seeds from these plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of Hg(II) that are lethal to normal plants. In assays on transgenic seedlings suspended in a solution of Hg(II), 10 ng of Hg(0) was evolved per min per mg wet weight of plant tissue. At that time, the authors had no information on expression of merA in any other plant species, nor had the authors tested merB in any plant. However, the results were so startlingly positive and well received that they clearly presaged a paradigm shift in the field of environmental remediation.'

  15. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John Henry

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  16. Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.

    2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

  17. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S. (Grand Forks, ND); Holmes, Michael J. (Thompson, ND); Pavlish, John H. (East Grand Forks, MN)

    2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  18. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S. (Grand Forks, ND); Holmes, Michael J. (Thompson, ND); Pavlish, John H. (East Grand Forks, MN)

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  19. The development and field testing of a passive mercury dosimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zahray, Robert Karl

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for mercury vapor, and the recovery of the mercury and subsequent analysis is a very simple and reliable procedure. The equipmenc required in this procedure is the same as the equipment re- quired for the hopcalite tube analysis; therefore the two systems... flask. The mercury was reduced from Hg to Hg and the result- ing mercury vapor was recirculated through the sample flask and the atomic absorption cell until a maximum reading in absorbance units was obtained. The absorbance of the solution of mercury...

  20. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. An additional task was included in this project to evaluate mercury oxidation upstream of a dry scrubber by using mercury oxidants. This project demonstrated at the pilot-scale level a technology that provides a cost-effective technique to control mercury and, at the same time, greatly enhances fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution for improved fine particulate control combined with effective mercury control for a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries.

  1. A multi-scale analysis of the impact of pressure on melting of crystalline phase change material germanium telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jie, E-mail: liujie@uw.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, 185 Stevens Way, Paul Allen Center, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact of the moderate pressure (about 10{sup 0?}GPa) on the melting of crystalline (c-) phase change material (PCM) germanium telluride (GeTe) is analyzed, by combining the heat transfer equation in the PCM device scale (10{sup 1}–10{sup 2?}nm and beyond), and the ab initio molecular dynamics and the nudged elastic band simulations in the atomistic scale (10{sup ?1}–10{sup 0?}nm). The multi-scale analysis unravels that a pressure P?=?1.0?GPa can increase the melting temperature of c-GeTe and the PCM device “reset” operation energy consumption by 6%–7%. It is shown that the melting temperature increase originates from the pressure-induced raise of the energy barrier of the umbrella-flip transition of the Ge atom from the octahedral symmetry site to the tetrahedral symmetry site. It is revealed that when P?>?1.0?GPa, which is normal in PCM devices, the “reset” energy will be increased even by more. Based on the analysis, suggestions to alleviate pressure-induced raise of melting temperature and “reset” energy are provided.

  2. Mercury Nozzle Status V.B. Graves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    . DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Hg Jet Design Meeting ­ 15 Nov 2004 Flow Issues · High flow in small diameter thin-wall ­ 15 Nov 2004 Design Issues · Desire mechanically attached nozzle for changeout during cold testingMercury Nozzle Status V.B. Graves Hg Jet Design Meeting Princeton University Nov 15, 2004 #12;OAK

  3. MERcury Intense Target (MERIT) Van Graves, ORNL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    OF ENERGY Airline Hydraulics 28 Oct 2005 Hg System Schematic Double Window (2) Primary Containment SecondaryMERcury Intense Target (MERIT) Overview Van Graves, ORNL Syringe Procurement Kickoff Meeting Airline Hydraulics Bensalem, PA Oct 28, 2005 #12;2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT

  4. A NASA Discovery Mission Mercury Orbit Insertion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    major systems provide critical backup. Passive thermal design utilizing ceramic-cloth sunshade requires. Custom solar arrays produce power at safe operating temperatures near Mercury. MESSENGER is designedMercuryandextendedfrom before the end of heavy bombardment to the second half of solar system history

  5. Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and industry partners, studied mercury control options at six coal-fired power plants. The overall objective of the this test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at six plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, American Electric Power's Conesville Station Unit 6, and Labadie Power Plant Unit 2. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The financial goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000 per pound of mercury removed. Results from testing at Holcomb, Laramie, Meramec, Labadie, and Monroe indicate the DOE goal was successfully achieved. However, further improvements for plants with conditions similar to Conesville are recommended that would improve both mercury removal performance and economics.

  6. SUR UN SILICATE DE CADMIUM LUMINESCENT Par A. LEVIALDI et V. LUZZATI.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    SUR UN SILICATE DE CADMIUM LUMINESCENT Par A. LEVIALDI et V. LUZZATI. Sommaire. - �tude de quelques propriétés d'un silicate de cadmium (1) luminescent. Leur interpré- tation par la théorie des trappes de silicate de cadmium par des radiations ultra- violettes de longueur d'onde voisine de ), = 2537 A

  7. Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at DTE Energy's Monroe Power Plant, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The results from Monroe indicate that using DARCO{reg_sign} Hg would result in higher mercury removal (80%) at a sorbent cost of $18,000/lb mercury, or 70% lower than the benchmark. These results demonstrate that the goals established by DOE/NETL were exceeded during this test program. The increase in mercury removal over baseline conditions is defined for this program as a comparison in the outlet emissions measured using the Ontario Hydro method during the baseline and long-term test periods. The change in outlet emissions from baseline to long-term testing was 81%.

  8. Cadmium, diabetes and chronic kidney disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Joshua R. [Department of Pharmacology, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL 60515 (United States)], E-mail: jedwar@midwestern.edu; Prozialeck, Walter C. [Department of Pharmacology, Midwestern University, Downers Grove, IL 60515 (United States)

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a positive association between exposure to the environmental pollutant cadmium (Cd) and the incidence and severity of diabetes. In this review, we examine the literature suggesting a relationship between Cd exposure, elevated blood glucose levels, and the development of diabetes. In addition we review human and animal studies indicating that Cd potentiates or exacerbates diabetic nephropathy. We also review the various possible cellular mechanisms by which Cd may alter blood glucose levels. In addition, we present some novel findings from our own laboratories showing that Cd elevates fasting blood glucose levels in an animal model of subchronic Cd exposure before overt signs of renal dysfunction are evident. These studies also show that Cd reduces insulin levels and has direct cytotoxic effects on the pancreas. Together, these findings indicate that Cd may be a factor in the development of some types of diabetes and they raise the possibility that Cd and diabetes-related hyperglycemia may act synergistically to damage the kidney.

  9. Oxidation and methylation of dissolved elemental mercury by anaerobic bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Haiyan [ORNL] [ORNL; Lin, Hui [ORNL] [ORNL; Zheng, Wang [ORNL] [ORNL; Tomanicek, Stephen J [ORNL] [ORNL; Johs, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Feng, Xinbin [ORNL] [ORNL; Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methylmercury is a neurotoxin that poses significant health risks to humans. Some anaerobic sulphate- and iron-reducing bacteria can methylate oxidized forms of mercury, generating methylmercury1-4. One strain of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132) can also methylate elemental mercury5. The prevalence of this trait among different bacterial strains and species remains unclear, however. Here, we compare the ability of two strains of the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio and one strain of the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in a series of laboratory incubations. Experiments were carried out under dark, anaerobic conditions, in the presence of environmentally-relevant concentrations of elemental mercury. We report differences in the ability of these organisms to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. In line with recent findings5, we show that Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can both oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. However, the rate of methylation of elemental mercury is only about one third the rate of methylation of oxidized mercury. We also show that Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 can oxidise, but not methylate, elemental mercury. Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA is able to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in the presence of cysteine. We suggest that the activity of methylating and non-methylating bacteria may together enhance the formation of methylmercury in anaerobic environments.

  10. Influences on Mercury Bioaccumulation Factors for the Savannah River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paller, M.H.

    2003-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury TMDLs (Total Maximum Daily Loads) are a regulatory instrument designed to reduce the amount of mercury entering a water body and ultimately to control the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish. TMDLs are based on a BAF (bioaccumulation factor), which is the ratio of methyl mercury in fish to dissolved methyl mercury in water. Analysis of fish tissue and aqueous methyl mercury samples collected at a number of locations and over several seasons in a 118 km reach of the Savannah River demonstrated that species specific BAFs varied by factors of three to eight. Factors contributing to BAF variability were location, habitat and season related differences in fish muscle tissue mercury levels and seasonal differences in dissolved methyl mercury levels. Overall (all locations, habitats, and seasons) average BAFs were 3.7 x 106 for largemouth bass, 1.4 x 106 for sunfishes, and 2.5 x 106 for white catfish. Inaccurate and imprecise BAFs can result in unnecessary economic impact or insufficient protection of human health. Determination of representative and precise BAFs for mercury in fish from large rivers necessitates collecting large and approximately equal numbers of fish and aqueous methyl mercury samples over a seasonal cycle from the entire area and all habitats to be represented by the TMDL.

  11. Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Final Report contains the test descriptions, results, analysis, correlations, theoretical descriptions, and model derivations produced from many different investigations performed on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to investigate calcium-based sorbents and injection of oxidizing agents for the removal of mercury. Among the technologies were (a) calcium-based sorbents in general, (b) oxidant-additive sorbents developed originally at the EPA, and (c) optimized calcium/carbon synergism for mercury-removal enhancement. In addition, (d) sodium-tetrasulfide injection was found to effectively capture both forms of mercury across baghouses and ESPs, and has since been demonstrated at a slipstream treating PRB coal. It has been shown that sodium-tetrasulfide had little impact on the foam index of PRB flyash, which may indicate that sodium-tetrasulfide injection could be used at power plants without affecting flyash sales. Another technology, (e) coal blending, was shown to be an effective means of increasing mercury removal, by optimizing the concentration of calcium and carbon in the flyash. In addition to the investigation and validation of multiple mercury-control technologies (a through e above), important fundamental mechanism governing mercury kinetics in flue gas were elucidated. For example, it was shown, for the range of chlorine and unburned-carbon (UBC) concentrations in coal-fired utilities, that chlorine has much less effect on mercury oxidation and removal than UBC in the flyash. Unburned carbon enhances mercury oxidation in the flue gas by reacting with HCl to form chlorinated-carbon sites, which then react with elemental mercury to form mercuric chloride, which subsequently desorbs back into the flue gas. Calcium was found to enhance mercury removal by stabilizing the oxidized mercury formed on carbon surfaces. Finally, a model was developed to describe these mercury adsorption, desorption, oxidation, and removal mechanisms, including the synergistic enhancement of mercury removal by calcium.

  12. Removal of Mercury from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A paper study was completed to survey literature, patents, and companies for mercury removal technologies applicable to gasification technologies. The objective was to determine if mercury emissions from gasification of coal are more or less difficult to manage than those from a combustion system. The purpose of the study was to define the extent of the mercury problem for gasification-based coal utilization and conversion systems. It is clear that in coal combustion systems, the speciation of mercury between elemental vapor and oxidized forms depends on a number of factors. The most important speciation factors are the concentration of chlorides in the coal, the temperatures in the ducting, and residence times. The collection of all the mercury was most dependent upon the extent of carbon in the fly ash, and the presence of a wet gas desulfurization system. In combustion, high chloride content plus long residence times at intermediate temperatures leads to oxidation of the mercury. The mercury is then captured in the wet gas desulfurization system and in the fly ash as HgCl{sub 2}. Without chloride, the mercury oxidizes much slower, but still may be trapped on thick bag house deposits. Addition of limestone to remove sulfur may trap additional mercury in the slag. In gasification where the mercury is expected to be elemental, activated carbon injection has been the most effective method of mercury removal. The carbon is best injected downstream where temperatures have moderated and an independent collector can be established. Concentrations of mercury sorbent need to be 10,000 to 20,000 the concentrations of the mercury. Pretreatment of the activated carbon may include acidification or promotion by sulfur.

  13. Mercury Emissions Control Technologies (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 reference case assumes that states will comply with the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency's new Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) regulation. CAMR is a two-phase program, with a Phase I cap of 38 tons of mercury emitted from all U.S. power plants in 2010 and a Phase II cap of 15 tons in 2018. Mercury emissions in the electricity generation sector in 2003 are estimated at around 50 tons. Generators have a variety of options to meet the mercury limits, such as: switching to coal with a lower mercury content, relying on flue gas desulfurization or selective catalytic reduction equipment to reduce mercury emissions, or installing conventional activated carbon injection (ACI) technology.

  14. Characteristics of mercury desorption from sorbents at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, T.C.; Yang, P.; Kuo, T.H.; Hopper, J.R. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigated the dynamic desorption characteristics of mercury during the thermal treatment of mercury-loaded sorbents at elevated temperatures under fixed-bed operations. Experiments were carried out in a 25.4 mm ID quartz bed enclosed in an electric furnace. Elemental mercury and mercuric chloride were tested with activated carbon and bauxite. The experimental results indicated that mercury desorption from sorbents was strongly affected by the desorption temperature and the mercury-sorbent pair. Elemental mercury was observed to desorb faster than mercuric chloride and activated carbon appeared to have higher desorption limits than bauxite at low temperatures. A kinetic model considering the mechanisms of surface equilibrium, pore diffusion and external mass transfer was proposed to simulate the observed desorption profiles. The model was found to describe reasonably well the experimental results.

  15. Mercury control for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haase, P.

    2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    On 15 March 2005 the US Environmental Protection Agency issued its Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMP) to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPRI is working with the US Department of Energy and the power industry to develop mercury control technologies needed to meet the final 2018 emission limits. Some improvements can be made by modifying existing SO{sub 2} or NOx control devices. Precombustion cleaning reduces mercury content of eastern coals by about one third. Adding a little halogen is another technology being researched - this promotes oxidation improving short-term mercury capture. EPRI is developing the TOXECON{trademark} technology to address a major problem of using sorbents to control mercury emissions: contamination of fly ash. 5 figs.

  16. Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

    2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot scale, burning bituminous coals (Gale, 2006) and blends of bituminous coals with Powder River Basin coal (Gale, 2005). The removal of mercury by fly ash and unburned carbon in the flue gas from combustion of the bituminous coals and blends was reproduced with satisfactory accuracy by the model. The enhancement of mercury capture in the presence of calcium (Gale, 2005) explained a synergistic effect of blending on mercury removal across the baghouse. The extent of mercury oxidation, on the other hand, was not so well described by the simulation, because of oversensitivity of the oxidation process in the model to the concentration of unburned carbon. Combined catalysts and sorbents for oxidation and removal of mercury from flue gas at low temperature were based on surfactant-templated silicas containing a transition metal and an organic functional group. The presence of both metal ions and organic groups within the pore structure of the materials is expected to impart to them the ability to simultaneously oxidize elemental mercury and adsorb the resulting oxidized mercury. Twelve mesoporous organosilicate catalysts/sorbents were synthesized, with and without metals (manganese, titanium, vanadium) and organic functional groups (aminopropyl, chloropropyl, mercaptopropyl). Measurement of mercury oxidation and adsorption by the candidate materials remains for future work.

  17. Temperature effects on the energy bandgap and conductivity effective masses of charge carriers in lead telluride from first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatapathi, S., E-mail: saran@vt.edu; Dong, B., E-mail: bind89@vt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Hin, C., E-mail: celhin@vt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We determined the temperature effects on the electronic properties of lead telluride (PbTe) such as the energy bandgap and the effective masses of charge carriers by incorporating the structural changes of the material with temperature using ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Though the first-principles DFT calculations are done at absolute zero temperatures, by incorporating the lattice thermal expansion and the distortion of Pb{sup 2+} ions from the equilibrium positions, we could determine the stable structural configuration of the PbTe system at different temperatures.

  18. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  19. A study of the solubility of mercury in liquid hydrocarbons 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFarlane, David Larimer

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . For these measurements a high power, narrow linewidth, pulsed, multiple laser system was utilized for generating the required UV radiation. The results provide solubility curves for the hydrocarbons which demonstrate the temperature dependence of mercury solubility... Spectrometer . . . 4 Partial Energy Level Diagram of Mercury . . . . . , . . 5 Schematic of the Spectra Physics Model 380D Ring Dye Laser System 6 Four - Stage Pulsed Dye Amplifier 7 Laser System for Detection of Mercury Using Two Photon Absorption 8...

  20. Dissolved gaseous mercury behavior in shallow water estuaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landin, Charles Melchor

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) can be an important pathway for mercury removal from an aquatic environment. DGM evasional fluxes from an aquatic system can account for up to 95% of atmospheric Hg and its deposition pathways. While this makes DGM.... Based on information obtained in freshwater systems, one can hypothesize that processes affecting DGM cycling are similar in estuarine systems. The hypothesis that was tested in this research is as follows: Dissolved gaseous mercury concentrations...

  1. Redesigning Marsh Creek Dam to allow Chinook salmon passage, flood protection, and mercury sedimentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNulty, M. Eliza; Wickland, Matthew

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. E. , 1998. Marsh Creek Watershed Mercury Assessmentbe possible for all of Marsh Creek to be an accessible andD. , unpublished. Marsh Creek mercury assessment and

  2. Gold Mining Impacts on Food Chain Mercury in Northwestern Sierra Nevada Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slotton, Darell G; Ayers, Shaun M; Reuter, John E; Goldman, Charles R

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    KEYWORDS,' mercury, gold, mining, trout, invertebrates,GOLD MINING IMPACTS ON FOOD CHAIN MERCURY IN NORTHWESTERNduring the course of gold mining in the Gold Rush period of

  3. ORNL research reveals new challenges for mercury cleanup | ornl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mercury to methylmercury, a neurotoxin that can penetrate skin and at high doses affect brain and muscle tissue, causing paralysis and brain damage. The discovery of how...

  4. Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rob James; Virgil Joffrion; John McDermott; Steve Piche

    2010-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was awarded to demonstrate the ability to affect and optimize mercury speciation and multi-pollutant control using non-intrusive advanced sensor and optimization technologies. The intent was to demonstrate plant-wide optimization systems on a large coal fired steam electric power plant in order to minimize emissions, including mercury (Hg), while maximizing efficiency and maintaining saleable byproducts. Advanced solutions utilizing state-of-the-art sensors and neural network-based optimization and control technologies were proposed to maximize the removal of mercury vapor from the boiler flue gas thereby resulting in lower uncontrolled releases of mercury into the atmosphere. Budget Period 1 (Phase I) - Included the installation of sensors, software system design and establishment of the as-found baseline operating metrics for pre-project and post-project data comparison. Budget Period 2 (Phase II) - Software was installed, data communications links from the sensors were verified, and modifications required to integrate the software system to the DCS were performed. Budget Period 3 (Phase III) - Included the validation and demonstration of all control systems and software, and the comparison of the optimized test results with the targets established for the project site. This report represents the final technical report for the project, covering the entire award period and representing the final results compared to project goals. NeuCo shouldered 61% of the total project cost; while DOE shouldered the remaining 39%. The DOE requires repayment of its investment. This repayment will result from commercial sales of the products developed under the project. NRG's Limestone power plant (formerly owned by Texas Genco) contributed the host site, human resources, and engineering support to ensure the project's success.

  5. Analysis of Halogen-Mercury Reactions in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paula Buitrago; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Brydger Van Otten

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidized mercury species may be formed in combustion systems through gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and halogens, such as chorine or bromine. This study examines how bromine species affect mercury oxidation in the gas phase and examines the effects of mixtures of bromine and chlorine on extents of oxidation. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale, laminar flow, methane-fired (300 W), quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, HBr, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}) and temperature profile were varied. In the experiments, the post-combustion gases were quenched from flame temperatures to about 350 C, and then speciated mercury was measured using a wet conditioning system and continuous emissions monitor (CEM). Supporting kinetic calculations were performed and compared with measured levels of oxidation. A significant portion of this report is devoted to sample conditioning as part of the mercury analysis system. In combustion systems with significant amounts of Br{sub 2} in the flue gas, the impinger solutions used to speciate mercury may be biased and care must be taken in interpreting mercury oxidation results. The stannous chloride solution used in the CEM conditioning system to convert all mercury to total mercury did not provide complete conversion of oxidized mercury to elemental, when bromine was added to the combustion system, resulting in a low bias for the total mercury measurement. The use of a hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide solution instead of stannous chloride showed a significant improvement in the measurement of total mercury. Bromine was shown to be much more effective in the post-flame, homogeneous oxidation of mercury than chlorine, on an equivalent molar basis. Addition of NO to the flame (up to 400 ppmv) had no impact on mercury oxidation by chlorine or bromine. Addition of SO{sub 2} had no effect on mercury oxidation by chlorine at SO{sub 2} concentrations below about 400 ppmv; some increase in mercury oxidation was observed at SO{sub 2} concentrations of 400 ppmv and higher. In contrast, SO{sub 2} concentrations as low as 50 ppmv significantly reduced mercury oxidation by bromine, this reduction could be due to both gas and liquid phase interactions between SO{sub 2} and oxidized mercury species. The simultaneous presence of chlorine and bromine in the flue gas resulted in a slight increase in mercury oxidation above that obtained with bromine alone, the extent of the observed increase is proportional to the chlorine concentration. The results of this study can be used to understand the relative importance of gas-phase mercury oxidation by bromine and chlorine in combustion systems. Two temperature profiles were tested: a low quench (210 K/s) and a high quench (440 K/s). For chlorine the effects of quench rate were slight and hard to characterize with confidence. Oxidation with bromine proved sensitive to quench rate with significantly more oxidation at the lower rate. The data generated in this program are the first homogeneous laboratory-scale data on bromine-induced oxidation of mercury in a combustion system. Five Hg-Cl and three Hg-Br mechanisms, some published and others under development, were evaluated and compared to the new data. The Hg-halogen mechanisms were combined with submechanisms from Reaction Engineering International for NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and hydrocarbons. The homogeneous kinetics under-predicted the levels of mercury oxidation observed in full-scale systems. This shortcoming can be corrected by including heterogeneous kinetics in the model calculations.

  6. Pressure-induced structural transformations in cadmium selenide nanorods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    transformations are observed from wurtzite to a single domain rocksalt crystal phase. The simulation results atomic shifts within the 0001 plane of the wurtzite structure and is similar to the one observed from four- fold wurtzite WZ to six-fold RS coordinated structures in Cadmium selenide CdSe , are also

  7. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JoAnn Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involved both experimental and modeling efforts. The team was comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective was to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. The results suggested that homogeneous mercury oxidation is below 10% which is not consistent with previous data of others and work which was completed early in this research program. Previous data showed oxidation above 10% and up to 100%. However, the previous data are suspect due to apparent oxidation occurring within the sampling system where hypochlorite ion forms in the KCl impinger, which in turn oxidized mercury. Initial tests with entrained iron oxide particles injected into a flame reactor suggest that iron present on fly ash particle surfaces can promote heterogeneous oxidation of mercury in the presence of HCl under entrained flow conditions. Using the data generated above, with homogeneous reactions accounting for less than 10% of the oxidation, comparisons were made to pilot- and full-scale data. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions, as with the case of iron oxide, and adsorption on solid carbon must be taking place in the full-scale system. Modeling of mercury oxidation using parameters from the literature was conducted to further study the contribution of homogeneous pathways to Hg oxidation in coal combustion systems. Calculations from the literature used rate parameters developed in different studies, in some cases using transition state theory with a range of approaches and basis sets, and in other cases using empirical approaches. To address this, rate constants for the entire 8-step homogeneous Hg oxidation sequence were developed using an internally consistent transition state approach. These rate constants when combined with the appropriate sub-mechanisms produced lower estimates of the overall extent of homogeneous oxidation, further suggesting that heterogeneous pathways play an important role in Hg oxidation in coal-fired systems.

  8. Evaluation of Regenerated Catalyst for Mercury Speciation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Laudal

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In March of 2005, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR). Mercury from coal-fired power plants was to be reduced from the current 48 to 38 tons/yr by 2010 and then 15 tons/yr by 2018. It is expected that the first phase reduction of {approx}21% will be achieved by cobenefits that will occur as a result of installing additional selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to meet the new Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). Detroit Edison (DTE) is installing SCR at all four units at its Monroe Station and will eventually install wet-FGD systems. As such, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and DTE have contracted with the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to determine the extent of mercury oxidation that occurs at Monroe Station. The EERC originally did mercury speciation sampling at Monroe Station in 2004 and then went back in 2005 to determine if any changes occurred as a result of catalyst aging. During the second test, in addition to measuring the mercury speciation at the inlet and outlet of the SCR, the EERC also completed sampling at a location between the catalyst layers. The results are shown in Table 1. In Table 1, the results show that {approx}40% of the Hg was in oxidized form (Hg{sup 2+}) at the inlet and nearly 100% Hg{sup 2+} at the outlet. The results at the midpoint were between 40% and 100%. As part of their overall strategy to reduce SCR costs, utilities and SCR vendors are attempting to regenerate catalyst layers that have degenerated over time. If these regenerated catalysts are used, the question remains as to the effect this process will have on the ability of these catalysts to oxidize mercury as well as reduce NO{sub x}. The current project is designed to measure the Hg speciation across an SCR using a regenerated catalyst. The results were compared to previous results to determine what, if any, changes occurred. Two series of tests were completed: one early in the ozone season (July 2006) and the second near the end (September 2006). The goal of this project is to determine the effect SCR catalyst regeneration has on Hg speciation and emissions from combustion of a blend of eastern bituminous and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal at DTE's Monroe Station. Specific objectives include the following: (1) Compare the Hg speciation results at the inlet and outlet of the SCR. Determine the change in the concentration of oxidized Hg across the SCR. In addition, determine if the number of catalyst layers has any effect. (2) Compare results from previous testing to determine if there are changes in mercury speciation as a result of catalyst regeneration. (3) Determine the overall speciated Hg emissions (from a separate project funded by DTE).

  9. Gravity Field and Internal Structure of Mercury from MESSENGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuber, Maria

    ,5 Mark E. Perry,11 David D. Rowlands,5 Sander Goossens,12 James W. Head,13 Anthony H. Taylor14 RadioGravity Field and Internal Structure of Mercury from MESSENGER David E. Smith,1 Maria T. Zuber,1 tracking of the MESSENGER spacecraft has provided a model of Mercury's gravity field. In the northern

  10. Implications of mercury interactions with band-gap semiconductor oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, E.J.; King, W.P.; Stanko, D.C.; Pennline, H.W.

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Titanium dioxide is a well-known photooxidation catalyst. It will oxidize mercury in the presence of ultraviolet light from the sun and oxygen and/or moisture to form mercuric oxide. Several companies manufacture self-cleaning windows. These windows have a transparent coating of titanium dioxide. The titanium dioxide is capable of destroying organic contaminants in air in the presence of ultraviolet light from the sun, thereby keeping the windows clean. The commercially available self-cleaning windows were used to sequester mercury from oxygen–nitrogen mixtures. Samples of the self-cleaning glass were placed into specially designed photo-reactors in order to study the removal of elemental mercury from oxygen–nitrogen mixtures resembling air. The possibility of removing mercury from ambient air with a self-cleaning glass apparatus is examined. The intensity of 365-nm ultraviolet light was similar to the natural intensity from sunlight in the Pittsburgh region. Passive removal of mercury from the air may represent an option in lieu of, or in addition to, point source clean-up at combustion facilities. There are several common band-gap semiconductor oxide photocatalysts. Sunlight (both the ultraviolet and visible light components) and band-gap semiconductor particles may have a small impact on the global cycle of mercury in the environment. The potential environmental consequences of mercury interactions with band-gap semiconductor oxides are discussed. Heterogeneous photooxidation might impact the global transport of elemental mercury emanating from flue gases.

  11. Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amrhein, Gerald T. (Louisville, OH)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

  12. Method for removal of mercury from various gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.

    2003-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides for a method for removing elemental mercury from a fluid, the method comprising irradiating the mercury with light having a wavelength of approximately 254 nm. The method is implemented in situ at various fuel combustion locations such as power plants and municipal incinerators.

  13. Activated carbon injection - a mercury control success story

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Almost 100 full-scale activated carbon injection (ACI) systems have been ordered by US electric utilities. These systems have the potential to remove over 90% of the mercury in flue, at a cost below $10,000 per pound of mercury removal. Field trials of ACI systems arm outlined. 1 fig.

  14. Genome Sequence of Mercury-Methylating and Pleomorphic Desulfovibrio africanus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genome Sequence of Mercury-Methylating and Pleomorphic Desulfovibrio africanus Contact: Steven D. africanus genome sequence to allow us to gain insights into the physiological states genomics using the sequence information for D. africanus and the previously sequenced mercury methylator D

  15. Mercury emission behavior during isolated coal particle combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puchakayala, Madhu Babu

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Of all the trace elements emitted during coal combustion, mercury is most problematic. Mercury from the atmosphere enters into oceanic and terrestrial waters. Part of the inorganic Hg in water is converted into organic Hg (CH3Hg), which is toxic...

  16. PyMercury: Interactive Python for the Mercury Monte Carlo Particle Transport Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iandola, F N; O'Brien, M J; Procassini, R J

    2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Monte Carlo particle transport applications are often written in low-level languages (C/C++) for optimal performance on clusters and supercomputers. However, this development approach often sacrifices straightforward usability and testing in the interest of fast application performance. To improve usability, some high-performance computing applications employ mixed-language programming with high-level and low-level languages. In this study, we consider the benefits of incorporating an interactive Python interface into a Monte Carlo application. With PyMercury, a new Python extension to the Mercury general-purpose Monte Carlo particle transport code, we improve application usability without diminishing performance. In two case studies, we illustrate how PyMercury improves usability and simplifies testing and validation in a Monte Carlo application. In short, PyMercury demonstrates the value of interactive Python for Monte Carlo particle transport applications. In the future, we expect interactive Python to play an increasingly significant role in Monte Carlo usage and testing.

  17. Lifestyle and Mercury Contamination of Amerindian Populations along the Beni River

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Lifestyle and Mercury Contamination of Amerindian Populations along the Beni River (Lowland (Corresponding author), M.D., Ph.D. Abstract The objective of this paper was to document mercury contamination at the foothills of the Andes. Hair mercury content (H-Hg) served as a bioindicator of mercury contamination

  18. Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

  19. Low dose cadmium poisoning results in sustained ERK phosphorylation and caspase activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Patrick [Transcriptional Regulation and Differentiation, CNRS UMR 6548, Nice University, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: pmartin@unice.fr; Poggi, Marie Christine [Transcriptional Regulation and Differentiation, CNRS UMR 6548, Nice University, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: poggi@unice.fr; Chambard, Jean Claude [Institute of Signaling, Developmental Biology and Cancer Research, CNRS UMR 6543, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, 33 Ave. de Valombrose, 06189 Nice (France)]. E-mail: chambard@unice.fr; Boulukos, Kim E. [Transcriptional Regulation and Differentiation, CNRS UMR 6548, Nice University, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: boulukos@unice.fr; Pognonec, Philippe [Transcriptional Regulation and Differentiation, CNRS UMR 6548, Nice University, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: pognonec@unice.fr

    2006-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Cadmium poisoning has been known to result in a wide variety of cellular responses, including oxidative stress and kinase activation. It has been reported that ERK is activated following acute cadmium exposure, and this response is commonly seen as a classical ERK survival mechanism. Here, we analyzed different cell types for their responses to low concentrations of cadmium poisoning. We found that there is an association between cell susceptibility to cadmium toxicity and ERK activation. This activation is atypical, since it consists of a sustained ERK phosphorylation, that lasts up to 6 days post stimulation. This activation is associated with the appearance of cleaved caspases 8 and 3, processed PARP, and irreversible damage. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK phosphorylation results in the ability of cells to resist cadmium poisoning. Our data indicate that low cadmium concentrations result in an unconventional ERK sustained phosphorylation, which in turn leads to death signaling.

  20. Module process optimization and device efficiency improvement for stable, low-cost, large-area, cadmium telluride-based photovoltaic module production. Annual subcontract report, 1 July 1990--31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albright, S.P.; Ackerman, B.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Jordan, J.F. [Photon Energy, Inc., El Paso, TX (United States)

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work under a three-year phased subcontract to develop CdS/CdTe devices and modules and to further improve the technology base at Photon Energy, Inc. (PEI) to better address the commercialization issues and objectives of the PEI and the US Department of Energy. During this reporting period we (1) achieved efficiencies of 12.7% on small area devices, (2) achieved 1-ft{sup 2} modules with over 8% aperture-area efficiency (and active area efficiencies up to {approximately}10%), (3) tested 4-ft{sup 2} modules at NREL at 23.1 (21.3) watts, normalized (6.3% efficiency), and (4) found no inherent stability problems with CdTe technology during life testing, at both NREL and PEI. 7 refs.

  1. Category:Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, click here. Category:Conceptual ModelLists forMercury Vapor page? For detailed

  2. ccpi_mercury | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron4 Self-Scrubbing:,, , ., ..., ,+ . :, ,.2 Mesaba EnergyFinalMercury

  3. A CAVITY RING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher C. Carter, Ph.D.

    2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous work on the detection of mercury using the cavity ring-down (CRD) technique has concentrated on the detection and characterization of the desired mercury transition. Interferent species present in flue gas emissions have been tested as well as a simulated flue gas stream. Additionally, work has been done on different mercury species such as the elemental and oxidized forms. The next phase of the effort deals with the actual sampling system. This sampling system will be responsible for acquiring a sample stream from the flue gas stack, taking it to the CRD cavity where it will be analyzed and returning the gas stream to the stack. In the process of transporting the sample gas stream every effort must be taken to minimize any losses of mercury to the walls of the sampling system as well as maintaining the mercury in its specific state (i.e. elemental, oxidized, or other mercury compounds). SRD first evaluated a number of commercially available sampling systems. These systems ranged from a complete sampling system to a number of individual components for specific tasks. SRD engineers used some commercially available components and designed a sampling system suited to the needs of the CRD instrument. This included components such as a pyrolysis oven to convert all forms of mercury to elemental mercury, a calibration air source to ensure mirror alignment and quality of the mirror surfaces, and a pumping system to maintain the CRD cavity pressure from atmospheric pressure (760 torr) down to about 50 torr. SRD also began evaluating methods for the CRD instrument to automatically find the center of a mercury transition. This procedure is necessary as the instrument must periodically measure the baseline losses of the cavity off of the mercury resonance and then return to the center of the transition to accurately measure the mercury concentration. This procedure is somewhat complicated due to the isotopic structure of the 254 nm mercury transition. As a result of 6 isotopes and hyperfine splittings there are 5 individual peaks that can be resolved by the CRD instrument. SRD tested a derivative method with both simulated data and actual data taken with the CRD apparatus. Initial tests indicate that this method is successful in automatically finding the center of the mercury transitions.

  4. Striking association between urinary cadmium level and albuminuria among Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haswell-Elkins, Melissa [North Queensland Health Equalities Promotion Unit, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, PO Box 1103, Cairns, Qld 4870 (Australia)], E-mail: Melissa_haswell@health.qld.gov.au; Satarug, Soisungwan [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Coopers Plains, Qld (Australia); O'Rourke, Peter [Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Qld (Australia); Moore, Michael; Ng, Jack; McGrath, Victor [National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, Coopers Plains, Qld (Australia); Walmby, Maria [North Queensland Health Equalities Promotion Unit, School of Medicine, University of Queensland, PO Box 1103, Cairns, Qld 4870 (Australia)

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Objectives: Indigenous people of the Torres Strait (Australia) have greater potential for cadmium exposure and renal damage than other Australians due to high cadmium in some traditional seafood and a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity. This study explored associations between albuminuria and an index of cadmium exposure (urinary cadmium excretion) in the presence and absence of Type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: Two population-based, cross-sectional studies were undertaken in the Torres Strait to obtain data on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, chronic disease, smoking, urinary cadmium, and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). Results: Age- and BMI-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) among people with diabetes and albuminuria (n=22, geometric mean (GM) 1.91 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine) compared to those with diabetes and normal ACR (n=21, GM 0.74 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine). Urinary cadmium was also strongly associated (p<0.001) with ACR among people with diabetes in regression models and remained significant after controlling for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension (or continuous systolic and diastolic measurements). Conclusions: While the study has methodological limitations and the nature of the association is unclear, the striking dose-dependent links between markers of cadmium exposure and of Type 2 diabetic nephropathy highlight the need for further definitive research on the health effects of cadmium in the presence of diabetes.

  5. Interactions of cadmium, zinc, and phosphorus in marine Synechococcus : field uptake, physiological and proteomic studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Alysia Danielle

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination of uptake field studies on natural phytoplankton assemblages and laboratory proteomic and physiological experiments on cyanobacterial isolates were conducted investigating the interactions of cadmium (Cd), ...

  6. Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesbach, P.A.; Kachur, E.K.

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. EPA has issued a final regulation for control of mercury from coal-fired power plants. An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. These adulterated by-products, both ashes and FGD material, represent the greatest challenge to the DOE goal of increased utilization of by-products. The degree of stability of capture by-products and their potential for release of mercury can have a large economic impact on material sales or the approach to disposal. One of the considerations for mercury control technology is the potential trade-off between effective but temporary mercury capture and less effective but more permanent sequestration. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed aqueous leaching procedures on a select subset of the available sample pairs. This report describes batch leaching results for mercury, arsenic, and selenium.

  7. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 2 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments in the mercury reactor are underway and interesting results suggested that a more comprehensive look at catalyzed surface reactions was needed. Therefore, much of the work has focused on the heterogeneous reactions. In addition, various chemical kinetic models have been explored in an attempt to explain some discrepancies between this modeling effort and others.

  8. Proton induced activation in mercury: Comparison of measurements and calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remec, Igor [ORNL; Glasgow, David C [ORNL; Haines, John R [ORNL; Johnson, Jeffrey O [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements and simulations of the proton beam interaction with the mercury target were performed to support Spallation Neutron Source design. Due to the abundance of isotopes produced in mercury, the long delay between the irradiation and the measurements, and the self-shielding of the mercury sample, the measurements were difficult to perform and the activities of several isotopes have large uncertainties. Calculations predicted the activities of the most reliably measured isotopes within 20%/40%; however, some large discrepancies were observed for some isotopes for which the measurements were considered less reliable. Predicted dose rates were in very good agreement with the measurements.

  9. Distribution of blood lead, blood cadmium, urinary cadmium, and urinary arsenic levels in employees of a copper smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Weber, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Nicholson, W.J.; Campbell, C.; Malkin, J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cross-sectional medical examination of a copper smelter work force included determination of blood lead (Pb-B), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), blood cadmium (Cd-B), urinary cadmium (Cd-U), and urinary arsenic (As-U), since it was known that such metal impurities were present in the copper concentrate. A total of 776 copper smelter employees (680 active and 96 retirees and ex-employees) were examined. Another 144 men, never employed in the smelter, but who had worked in copper mines (and sometimes in gold mines) were also examined. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, Cd-B, and As-U were significantly higher in active copper smelter employees than in retirees or miners, indicating exposure and absorption in the copper smelter. Significant correlations between Pb-B and Cd-B, and Cd-U and As-U were present, confirming the common source of absorption. Although there was evidence for an increased lead absorption, this was very moderate, with practically no Pb-B levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl. A marked effect of smoking on blood cadmium levels was present; nevertheless, for all smoking categories Cd-B levels were significantly higher in active employees, indicating the independent contribution of exposure to cadmium in the smelter. Cd-U did not exceed 10 ..mu..g/g creatinine, the generally accepted critical level for the kidney, but was higher than 2 ..mu..g/g cretinine, a level very rarely exceeded in the general population, in a sizable proportion of those examined. The highest Cd-U levels were found in retired copper smelter employees; age might have been a contributing factor, besides a longer duration of exposure in the smelter.

  10. BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

    2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower retention of mercury in the slurry. Both recovery of mercury in the offgas system and removal (segregation + recovery) from the slurry correlate with slurry consistency. Higher slurry consistency results in better retention of Hg in the slurry (less segregation) and better recovery in the offgas system, but the relationships of recovery and retention with consistency are sludge dependent. Some correlation with slurry yield stress and acid stoichiometry was also found. Better retention of mercury in the slurry results in better recovery in the offgas system because the mercury in the slurry is stripped more easily than the segregated mercury at the bottom of the vessel. Although better retention gives better recovery, the time to reach a particular slurry mercury content (wt%) is longer than if the retention is poorer because the segregation is faster. The segregation of mercury is generally a faster process than stripping. The stripping factor (mass of water evaporated per mass of mercury stripped) of mercury at the start of boiling were found to be less than 1000 compared to the assumed design basis value of 750 (the theoretical factor is 250). However, within two hours, this value increased to at least 2000 lb water per lb Hg. For runs with higher mercury recovery in the offgas system, the stripping factor remained around 2000, but runs with low recovery had stripping factors of 4000 to 40,000. DWPF data shows similar trends with the stripping factor value increasing during boiling. These high values correspond to high segregation and low retention of mercury in the sludge. The stripping factor for a pure Hg metal bead in water was found to be about 10,000 lb/lb. About 10-36% of the total Hg evaporated in a SRAT cycle was refluxed back to the SRAT during formic acid addition and boiling. Mercury is dissolved as a result of nitric acid formation from absorption of NO{sub x}. The actual solubility of dissolved mercury in the acidic condensate is about 100 times higher than the actual concentrations measured. Mercury metal present in the MWWT from previous batch

  11. Patterns of mercury and methylmercury bioaccumulation in fish species downstream of a long-term mercury-contaminated site in the lower Ebro River

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    García-Berthou, Emili

    Patterns of mercury and methylmercury bioaccumulation in fish species downstream of a long that the highest biological impact attributable to mercury pollution occurred downstream of the discharge site mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) at the discharge site and downstream points. Multiple

  12. Ultralow Level Mercury Treatment Using Chemical Reduction and Air Stripping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B.B.

    2001-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this work is to develop a reasonable and cost-effective approach to meet the emerging mercury standards, especially for high volume outfalls with concentrations below the drinking water standard.

  13. Mercury Isotope Fractionation by Environmental Transport and Transformation Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koster van Groos, Paul Gijsbert

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    measuring Hg 0 that permeated PVC tubing and matching this26 Chapter 3 Elemental Mercury Diffusion in a PVC29 Figure 3.2 The setup for diffusion in PVC

  14. assessing mercury levels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 STATE FISH SURVEY FINDS MERCURY LEVELS DOWN By Alex Breitler Environmental Sciences and Ecology...

  15. Transformations of mercury in the marine water column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munson, Kathleen M. (Kathleen May)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methylation of mercury (Hg) in the marine water column has been hypothesized to serve as the primary source of the bioaccumulating chemical species monomethylmercury (MMHg) to marine food webs. Despite decades of research ...

  16. FINAL REPORT ON THE AQUATIC MERCURY ASSESSMENT STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halverson, N

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In February 2000, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4 issued a proposed Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for total mercury in the middle and lower Savannah River. The initial TMDL, which would have imposed a 1 ng/l mercury limit for discharges to the middle/lower Savannah River, was revised to 2.8 ng/l in the final TMDL released in February 2001. The TMDL was intended to protect people from the consumption of contaminated fish, which is the major route of mercury exposure to humans. The most bioaccumulative form of mercury is methylmercury, which is produced in aquatic environments by the action of microorganisms on inorganic mercury. Because of the environmental and economic significance of the mercury discharge limits that would have been imposed by the TMDL, the Savannah River Site (SRS) initiated several studies concerning: (1) mercury in SRS discharges, SRS streams and the Savannah River, (2) mercury bioaccumulation factors for Savannah River fish, (3) the use of clams to monitor the influence of mercury from tributary streams on biota in the Savannah River, and (4) mercury in rainwater falling on the SRS. The results of these studies are presented in detail in this report. The first study documented the occurrence, distribution and variation of total and methylmercury at SRS industrial outfalls, principal SRS streams and the Savannah River where it forms the border with the SRS. All of the analyses were performed using the EPA Method 1630/31 ultra low-level and contaminant-free techniques for measuring total and methylmercury. Total mercury at National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) outfalls ranged from 0.31-604 ng/l with a mean of 8.71 ng/l. Mercury-contaminated groundwater was the source for outfalls with significantly elevated mercury concentrations. Total mercury in SRS streams ranged from 0.95-15.7 ng/l. Mean total mercury levels in the streams varied from 2.39 ng/l in Pen Branch to 5.26 ng/l in Tims Branch. Methylmercury ranged from 0.002 ng/l in Upper Three Runs to 2.60 ng/l in Tims Branch. Total mercury in the Savannah River ranged from 0.62 ng/l to 43.9 ng/l, and methylmercury ranged from 0.036 ng/l to 7.54 ng/l. Both total and methylmercury concentrations were consistently high in the river near the mouth of Steel Creek. Total mercury was positively correlated with methylmercury (r = 0.88). Total mercury bound to particulates ranged from 41% to 57% in the river and from 28% to 90% in the streams. Particulate methylmercury varied from 9% to 37% in the river and from 6% to 79% in the streams. Small temporary pools in the Savannah River swamp area near and around Fourmile Branch had the highest concentrations observed in the Savannah River watershed, reaching 1,890 ng/l for total mercury and 34.0 ng/l for methylmercury. The second study developed a mercury bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for the Savannah River near SRS. A BAF is the ratio of the concentration of mercury in fish flesh to the concentration of mercury in the water. BAFs are important in the TMDL process because target concentrations for mercury in water are computed from BAFs. Mercury BAFs are known to differ substantially among fish species, water bodies, and possibly seasons. Knowledge of such variation is needed to determine a BAF that accurately represents average and extreme conditions in the water body under study. Analysis of fish tissue and aqueous methylmercury samples collected at a number of locations and over several seasons in a 110 km (68 mile) reach of the Savannah River demonstrated that BAFs for each species under study varied by factors of three to eight. Influences on BAF variability were location, habitat and season-related differences in fish mercury levels and seasonal differences in methylmercury levels in the water. Overall (all locations, habitats, and seasons) average BAFs were 3.7 x 10{sup 6} for largemouth bass, 1.4 x 10{sup 6} for sunfishes, and 2.5 x 10{sup 6} for white catfish. This study showed that determination of representative BAFs for large rivers requires the collect

  17. An investigation of sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Haddad, G.J.; Hargis, R.A. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Federal Energy Technology Center

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory-scale packed-bed reactor system is used to screen sorbents for their capability to remove elemental mercury from a carrier gas. An on-line atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer, used in a continuous mode, monitors the elemental mercury concentration in the inlet and outlet streams of the packed-bed reactor. The mercury concentration in the reactor inlet gas and the reactor temperature are held constant during a test. The capacities and breakthrough times of several commercially available activated carbons, as well as novel sorbents, were determined as a function of various parameters. The mechanisms of mercury removal by the sorbents are suggested by combining the results of the packed-bed testing with various analytical results.

  18. Controlled Coherent Excitations in a Single Cadmium Ion with an Ultrafast Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monroe, Christopher

    of ultrafast pulses in a Ramsey interferometer. This ultrafast coupling is vital in a scheme for generationControlled Coherent Excitations in a Single Cadmium Ion with an Ultrafast Laser by Rudolph Nicolas: Controlled Coherent Excitations in a Single Cadmium Ion with an Ultrafast Laser written by R. N. Kohn Jr. has

  19. Process for removing and detoxifying cadmium from scrap metal including mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cadmium-bearing scrap from nuclear applications, such as neutron shielding and reactor control and safety rods, must usually be handled as mixed waste since it is radioactive and the cadmium in it is both leachable and highly toxic. Removing the cadmium from this scrap, and converting it to a nonleachable and minimally radioactive form, would greatly simplify disposal or recycling. A process now under development will do this by shredding the scrap; leaching it with reagents which selectively dissolve out the cadmium; reprecipitating the cadmium as its highly insoluble sulfide; then fusing the sulfide into a glassy matrix to bring its leachability below EPA limits before disposal. Alternatively, the cadmium may be recovered for reuse. A particular advantage of the process is that all reagents (except the glass frit) can easily be recovered and reused in a nearly closed cycle, minimizing the risk of radioactive release. The process does not harm common metals such as aluminum, iron and stainless steel, and is also applicable to non-nuclear cadmium-bearing scrap such as nickel-cadmium batteries.

  20. Conversion of oil shale ash into zeolite for cadmium and lead removal from wastewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

    Conversion of oil shale ash into zeolite for cadmium and lead removal from wastewater Reyad; available online 29 October 2003 Abstract A by-product fly ash from oil shale processing was converted shale; Ash; Zeolite; Cadmium and lead removal 1. Introduction Oil shale exists in Jordan with large

  1. SPECIATION AND RELEASE KINETICS OF CADMIUM AND ZINC IN PADDY SOILS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    SPECIATION AND RELEASE KINETICS OF CADMIUM AND ZINC IN PADDY SOILS by Saengdao Khaokaew Rights Reserved #12;SPECIATION AND RELEASE KINETICS OF CADMIUM AND ZINC IN PADDY SOILS by Saengdao interest in soil science has been also fueled by the unfortunate Cd contamination that occurred

  2. Noble metal catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of precious metals and platinum group metals as catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas is an active area of study. To date, field studies have recently focused on gold and palladium catalysts installed at pilot-scale. In this work, we introduce bench-scale results for gold, platinum, and palladium catalysts tested in realistic simulated flue gas. Initial results reveal intriguing characteristics of catalytic mercury oxidation and provide insight for future research.

  3. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

  4. Thiacrown polymers for removal of mercury from waste streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Theodore F.; Reynolds, John G.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2004-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Thiacrown polymers immobilized to a polystyrene-divinylbenzene matrix react with Hg.sup.2+ under a variety of conditions to efficiently and selectively remove Hg.sup.2+ ions from acidic aqueous solutions, even in the presence of a variety of other metal ions. The mercury can be recovered and the polymer regenerated. This mercury removal method has utility in the treatment of industrial wastewater, where a selective and cost-effective removal process is required.

  5. Thiacrown polymers for removal of mercury from waste streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Theodore F. (Tracy, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Fox, Glenn A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thiacrown polymers immobilized to a polystyrene-divinylbenzene matrix react with Hg.sup.2+ under a variety of conditions to efficiently and selectively remove Hg.sup.2+ ions from acidic aqueous solutions, even in the presence of a variety of other metal ions. The mercury can be recovered and the polymer regenerated. This mercury removal method has utility in the treatment of industrial wastewater, where a selective and cost-effective removal process is required.

  6. Method and apparatus for controlling the flow rate of mercury in a flow system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (Reading, MA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for increasing the mercury flow rate to a photochemical mercury enrichment utilizing an entrainment system comprises the steps of passing a carrier gas over a pool of mercury maintained at a first temperature T1, wherein the carrier gas entrains mercury vapor; passing said mercury vapor entrained carrier gas to a second temperature zone T2 having temperature less than T1 to condense said entrained mercury vapor, thereby producing a saturated Hg condition in the carrier gas; and passing said saturated Hg carrier gas to said photochemical enrichment reactor.

  7. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

  8. Mercury and cause of death in great white herons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spalding, M.G.; Sundlof, S.F. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)); Djork, R.D.; Powell, G.V.N. (National Audobon Research, Tavernier, FL (United States))

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury contamination is suspected to adversely affect wading birds in southern Florida. To determine the magnitude of contamination associated with cause of death we followed 3 adult and 19 juvenile radio-tagged great white herons (Ardea herodias occidentalis), recovered them soon after death, and determined liver mercury content and cause of death. Birds that died from acute causes had less (P < 0.001) mercury in their livers (geometric [bar x] [GM] = 1.77 ppm wet mass [wm], range 0.6-4.0 ppm, n = 9) than did those that died of chronic, often multiple, diseases (GM = 9.76 ppm, range 2.9-59.4 ppm, n = 13). Juvenile herons that migrated to mainland Florida accumulated more (P = 0.009) mercury in their livers than those that did not migrate. Kidney disease and gout were present in birds that died with >25 ppm wm liver mercury. Although detrimental to the health of wading birds, mercury contamination is presumably more detrimental to their reproductive efforts; therefore, an understanding of its ill effects is important in the management of these birds. 29 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Density functional theory study of mercury adsorption on metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steckel, J.A.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Density functional theory #1;DFT#2; calculations are used to characterize the interaction of mercury with copper, nickel, palladium, platinum, silver, and gold surfaces. Mercury binds relatively strongly to all the metal surfaces studied, with binding energies up to #3;1 eV for Pt and Pd. DFT calculations underestimate the energy of adsorption with respect to available experimental data. Plane-wave DFT results using the local density approximation and the Perdew-Wang 1991 and Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof parametrizations of the generalized gradient approximation indicate that binding of mercury at hollow sites is preferred over binding at top or bridge sites. The interaction with mercury in order of increasing reactivity over the six metals studied is Ag #1;Au#1;Cu#1;Ni#1;Pt#1;Pd. Binding is stronger on the #1;001#2; faces of the metal surfaces, where mercury is situated in fourfold hollow sites as opposed to the threefold hollow sites on #1;111#2; faces. In general, mercury adsorption leads to decreases in the work function; adsorbate-induced work function changes are particularly dramatic on Pt.

  10. Methods and sorbents for utilizing a hot-side electrostatic precipitator for removal of mercury from combustion gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Sidney (Hudson, OH)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are provided for reducing emission of mercury from a gas stream by treating the gas with carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles to reduce the mercury content of the gas; collecting the carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles on collection plates of a hot-side ESP; periodically rapping the collection plates to release a substantial portion of the collected carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles into hoppers; and periodically emptying the hoppers, wherein such rapping and emptying are done at rates such that less than 70% of mercury adsorbed onto the mercury sorbent desorbs from the collected mercury sorbent into the gas stream.

  11. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this technique at Colstrip is not seen. All the additives injected resulted in some reduction in mercury emissions. However, the target reduction of 55% was not achieved. The primary reason for the lower removal rates is because of the lower levels of mercury in the flue gas stream and the lower capture level of fine particles by the scrubbers (relative to that for larger particles). The reaction and interaction of the SEA materials is with the finer fraction of the fly ash, because the SEA materials are vaporized during the combustion or reaction process and condense on the surfaces of entrained particles or form very small particles. Mercury will have a tendency to react and interact with the finer fraction of entrained ash and sorbent as a result of the higher surface areas of the finer particles. The ability to capture the finer fraction of fly ash is the key to controlling mercury. Cost estimates for mercury removal based on the performance of each sorbent during this project are projected to be extremely high. When viewed on a dollar-per-pound-of-mercury removed basis activated carbon was projected to cost nearly $1.2 million per pound of mercury removed. This value is roughly six times the cost of other sorbent-enhancing agents, which were projected to be closer to $200,000 per pound of mercury removed.

  12. An evaluation of elemental mercury vapor exposure to children due to silver-mercury dental amalgam restorations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Ronald Dale

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was shown to decrease an average of 33. 1% five minutes after cessation of stimulation. Elemental mercury vapor inhaled from dental restorations may be considered a function of such activities as chewing and eating patterns, oral-nasal breathing ratio... active ingredients for children than for adults. It is logical to conclude that the concerns for exposure to elemental mercury vapor include children because dental restorations are often performed during childhood. Many young individuals stimulate...

  13. Characterization of mercury-enriched coal combustion residues from electric utilities using enhanced sorbents for mercury control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, F.; Keeney, R.; Kosson, D.; Delapp, R. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates changes that may occur to coal-fired power plant air pollution control residues from the use of activated carbon and other enhanced sorbents for reducing air emissions of mercury and evaluates the potential for captured pollutants leaching during the disposal or use of these residues. Leaching of mercury, arsenic, and selenium during land disposal or beneficial use of coal combustion residues (CCRs) is the environmental impact pathway evaluated in this report. Coal combustion residues refer collectively to fly ash and other air pollution control solid residues generated during the combustion of coal collected through the associated air pollution control system. This research is part of an on-going effort by US Environmental protection Agency (EPA) to use a holistic approach to account for the fate of mercury and other metals in coal throughout the life-cycle stages of CCR management. This report focuses on facilities that use injected sorbents for mercury control. It includes four facilities with activated carbon injection (ACI) and two facilities using brominated ACI. Fly ash has been obtained from each facility with and without operation of the sorbent injection technology for mercury control. Each fly ash sampled was evaluated in the laboratory for leaching as a function of pH and liquid-to-solid ratio. Mercury, arsenic and selenium were the primary constituent of interest; results for these elements are presented here. 30 refs., 30 figs., 14 tabs., 10 apps.

  14. Chronic cadmium exposure in vitro induces cancer cell characteristics in human lung cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Person, Rachel J.; Tokar, Erik J.; Xu, Yuanyuan; Orihuela, Ruben; Ngalame, Ntube N. Olive; Waalkes, Michael P., E-mail: waalkes@niehs.nih.gov

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cadmium is a known human lung carcinogen. Here, we attempt to develop an in vitro model of cadmium-induced human lung carcinogenesis by chronically exposing the peripheral lung epithelia cell line, HPL-1D, to a low level of cadmium. Cells were chronically exposed to 5 ?M cadmium, a noncytotoxic level, and monitored for acquired cancer characteristics. By 20 weeks of continuous cadmium exposure, these chronic cadmium treated lung (CCT-LC) cells showed marked increases in secreted MMP-2 activity (3.5-fold), invasion (3.4-fold), and colony formation in soft agar (2-fold). CCT-LC cells were hyperproliferative, grew well in serum-free media, and overexpressed cyclin D1. The CCT-LC cells also showed decreased expression of the tumor suppressor genes p16 and SLC38A3 at the protein levels. Also consistent with an acquired cancer cell phenotype, CCT-LC cells showed increased expression of the oncoproteins K-RAS and N-RAS as well as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition marker protein Vimentin. Metallothionein (MT) expression is increased by cadmium, and is typically overexpressed in human lung cancers. The major MT isoforms, MT-1A and MT-2A were elevated in CCT-LC cells. Oxidant adaptive response genes HO-1 and HIF-1A were also activated in CCT-LC cells. Expression of the metal transport genes ZNT-1, ZNT-5, and ZIP-8 increased in CCT-LC cells culminating in reduced cadmium accumulation, suggesting adaptation to the metal. Overall, these data suggest that exposure of human lung epithelial cells to cadmium causes acquisition of cancer cell characteristics. Furthermore, transformation occurs despite the cell's ability to adapt to chronic cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Chronic cadmium exposure induces cancer cell characteristics in human lung cells. • This provides an in vitro model of cadmium-induced human lung cell transformation. • This occurred with general and lung specific changes typical for cancer cells. • These findings add insight to the relationship between cadmium and lung cancer.

  15. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J. P.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sludge drying & inceneration plants 3200 gm/day In-Situ Oiloil shale plant is over four times the allowable mercury emission for mercury ore processing plants and sludge

  16. Quantifying the health and economic impacts of mercury : an integrated assessment approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giang, Amanda (Amanda Chi Wen)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury is a toxic pollutant that endangers human and ecosystem health. Especially potent in the form of methyl mercury, exposure is known to lead to adverse neurological effects, and, a growing body of evidence suggests, ...

  17. Method and apparatus for controlling the flow rate of mercury in a flow system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a process for increasing the mercury flow rate {ital Q{sub Hg}} to a photochemical mercury enrichment process. It comprises: utilizing an entrainment system having a temperature regulated pool of mercury, a bubbler or sparger system, and a carrier gas for entraining mercury vapor; passing the carrier gas over a pool of mercury maintained at a first temperature, T{sub 1} wherein the carrier gas entrains mercury vapor; and passing the mercury vapor entrained carrier gas to a second temperature zone, maintained at a temperature T{sub 2}, such that T{sub 2} is less than T{sub 1}, in which the entrained mercury vapor is condensed, thereby producing a saturated Hg conditioning the carrier gas; and passing the saturated Hg carrier gas to the photochemical enrichment reactor, yielding a high flow rate {ital Q{sub Hg}}.

  18. Argonne/EPA system captures mercury from air in gold shops |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the mercury vaporizes. The vaporized mercury is directed outside the shop into the open air where it descends onto homes, water and food of the local populations. Image credit:...

  19. REDUCTION OF INHERENT MERCURY EMISSIONS IN PC COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger

    2000-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidized mercury has been shown to be more easily removed from power plant flue gas by existing air pollution control equipment (e.g., wet scrubbers) than elemental mercury. The factors that determine how mercury is converted to the oxidized form in practical systems are, however, unknown. The present research focuses on developing an elementary, homogeneous mechanism that describes the oxidation of mercury by chlorine species as it occurs in practical furnaces. The goal is to use this mechanism (1) as a component in an overall homogeneous/heterogeneous mechanism that describes mercury behavior, and (2) to suggest low cost/low impact means of promoting mercury oxidation in furnaces. The results suggest an important role for Hg+Cl {r_arrow} HgCl and HgCl + Cl {r_arrow} HgCl{sub 2}. Here, the Cl is derived by radical attack on HCl in the high-temperature environment. The results suggest that the oxidation occurs during the time that the gases cool to room temperature. The high Cl concentrations from the flame persist into the quench region and provide for the oxidation of Hg to HgCl{sub 2} under lower temperatures where the products are stable. Under this mechanism, no significant HgCl{sub 2} is actually present at the higher temperatures where oxidized mercury is often reported in the literature (e.g., 900 C). Instead, all oxidation occurs as these gases are quenched. The results suggest that means of promoting Cl concentrations in the furnace will increase oxidation.

  20. Mercury Methylation at Mercury Mines In The Humboldt River Basin, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, John E. (U.S. Geological Survey); Crock, James G. (U.S. Geological Survey); Lasorsa, Brenda K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total Hg and methylmercury concentrations were measured in mine-waste calcines (retorted ore), sediment, and water samples collected in and around abandoned mercury mines in western Nevada to evaluate Hg methylation at the mines and in the Humboldt River basin. Mine-waste calcines contain total Hg concentrations as high as 14 000?g/g. Stream-sediment samples collected within 1 km of the mercury mines contain total Hg concentrations as high as 170?g/g, whereas stream sediments collected>5 km from the mines, and those collected from the Humboldt River and regional baseline sites, contain total Hg concentrations<0.5?g/g. Similarly, methylmercury concentrations in mine-waste calcines are locally as high as 96 ng/g, but methylmercury contents in stream-sediments collected downstream from the mines and from the Humboldt River are lower, ranging from<0.05 to 0.95 ng/g. Stream-water samples collected below two mines studied contain total Hg concentrations ranging from 6 to 2000 ng/L, whereas total Hg in Humboldt River water was generally lower ranging from 2.1 to 9.0 ng/L. Methylmercury concentrations in the Humboldt River water were the lowest in this study (<0.02-0.27 ng/L). Although total Hg and methylmercury concentrations are locally high in mine-waste calcines, there is significant dilution of Hg and lower Hg methylation down gradient from the mines, especially in the sediments and water collected from the Humboldt River, which is> 8 km from any mercury mines. Our data indicate little transference of Hg and methylmercury from the sediment to the water column due to the lack of mine runoff in this desert climate.

  1. Urinary cadmium and blood pressure: Results from the NHANES II survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittemore, A.S.; DiCiccio, Y. (Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, CA (United States)); Provenzano, G. (Univ. of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore (United States))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Relationships between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure were examined in a sample of 951 adult men and women who participated in the Second National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES 2). Among all participants, positive relationships were seen between urinary cadmium levels and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure after adjusting for age, sex, race, relative body weight, smoking status, and hypertensive medication use. However, analyses for subgroups determined by sex and smoking status were inconsistent. Among current smokers, urinary cadmium levels were significantly positively associated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure for women, and with diastolic blood pressure for men. Yet among former smokers and lifelong nonsmokers of both sexes, urinary cadmium was not significantly associated with either systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Evidence that some hypertensive medications increase urinary cadmium excretion suggests that the positive associations seen among current smokers may reflect high urinary cadium levels among hypertensives induced by hypertensive treatment. After treated hypertensives were removed from the analysis, regression coefficients relating blood pressure to cadmium dropped by a factor of two and lost statistical significance. The authors conclude that the present data provide little support for a causal association between systemic cadmium and hypertension at nonoccupational exposure levels. Further, conflicting results of previous studies may reflect failure to control adequately for age, smoking status, and hypertensive treatment.

  2. Note: Production of a mercury beam with an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vondrasek, R.; Pardo, R.; Scott, R. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)] [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been utilized to produce mercury beams with intensities of 4.5 e?A of {sup 202}Hg{sup 29+} and 3.0 e?A of {sup 202}Hg{sup 31+} from natural abundance mercury metal. The production technique relies on the evaporation of liquid mercury into the source plasma vacuum region and utilizes elemental mercury instead of a volatile organic compound as the neutral feed material.

  3. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Nai-Qiang Yan-Zan Qu Yao Chi Shao-Hua Qiao Ray Dod Shih-Ger Chang Charles

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-fired power generating plants contribute approximatelynumber of coal-fired generating plants (1-3). The mercury is

  4. Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalysis is the key fundamental ingredient to convert elemental mercury in coal-fired power stations into its oxidized forms that are more easily captured by sorbents, ESPs, baghouses, and wet scrubbers, whether the catalyst be unburned carbon (UBC) in the ash or vanadium pentoxide in SCR catalysts. This project has investigated several different types of catalysts that enhance mercury oxidation in several different ways. The stated objective of this project in the Statement of Objectives included testing duct-injection catalysts, catalyst-sorbent hybrids, and coated low-pressure-drop screens. Several different types of catalysts were considered for duct injection, including different forms of iron and carbon. Duct-injection catalysts would have to be inexpensive catalysts, as they would not be recycled. Iron and calcium had been shown to catalyze mercury oxidation in published bench-scale tests. However, as determined from results of an on-going EPRI/EPA project at Southern Research, while iron and calcium did catalyze mercury oxidation, the activity of these catalysts was orders of magnitude below that of carbon and had little impact in the short residence times available for duct-injected catalysts or catalyst-sorbent hybrids. In fact, the only catalyst found to be effective enough for duct injection was carbon, which is also used to capture mercury and remove it from the flue gas. It was discovered that carbon itself is an effective catalyst-sorbent hybrid. Bench-scale carbon-catalyst tests were conducted, to obtain kinetic rates of mercury adsorption (a key step in the catalytic oxidation of mercury by carbon) for different forms of carbon. All carbon types investigated behaved in a similar manner with respect to mercury sorption, including the effect of temperature and chlorine concentration. Activated carbon was more effective at adsorbing mercury than carbon black and unburned carbon (UBC), because their internal surface area of activated carbon was greater. Catalyst coating of low-pressure-drop screens was of particular interest as this project was being developed. However, it was discovered that URS was already heavily involved in the pursuit of this same technology, being funded by DOE, and reporting significant success. Hence, testing of SCR catalysts became a major focus of the project. Three different commercial SCR catalysts were examined for their ability to oxidize mercury in simulated flue-gas. Similar performance was observed from each of the three commercial catalysts, both in terms of mercury oxidation and SO{sub 3} generation. Ammonia injection hindered mercury oxidation at low HCl concentrations (i.e., {approx}2 ppmv), yet had little impact on mercury oxidation at higher HCl concentrations. On the other hand, SO{sub 2} oxidation was significantly reduced by the presence of ammonia at both low and high concentrations of HCl.

  5. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernie F. Stine

    2002-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has mercury (Hg) contaminated materials and soils at the various sites. Figure 1-1 (from http://www.ct.ornl.gov/stcg.hg/) shows the estimated distribution of mercury contaminated waste at the various DOE sites. Oak Ridge and Idaho sites have the largest deposits of contaminated materials. The majorities of these contaminated materials are soils, sludges, debris, and waste waters. This project concerns treatment of mercury contaminated soils. The technology is applicable to many DOE sites, in-particular, the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge Tennessee and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These sites have the majority of the soils and sediments contaminated with mercury. The soils may also be contaminated with other hazardous metals and radionuclides. At the Y12 plant, the baseline treatment method for mercury contaminated soil is low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD), followed by on-site landfill disposal. LTTD is relatively expensive (estimated cost of treatment which exclude disposal cost for the collect mercury is greater than $740/per cubic yard [cy] at Y-12), does not treat any of the metal or radionuclides. DOE is seeking a less costly alternative to the baseline technology. As described in the solicitation (DE-RA-01NT41030), this project initially focused on evaluating cost-effective in-situ alternatives to stabilize or remove the mercury (Hg) contamination from high-clay content soil. It was believed that ex-situ treatment of soil contaminated with significant quantities of free-liquid mercury might pose challenges during excavation and handling. Such challenges may include controlling potential mercury vapors and containing liquid mercury beads. As described below, the focus of this project was expanded to include consideration of ex-situ treatment after award of the contract to International Technology Corporation (IT). After award of the contract, IT became part of Shaw E&I. The company will be denoted as ''IT'' for the rest of the document since the original contract was awarded to IT. This report details IT, Knoxville, TN and its subcontractor Nuclear Fuels Services (NFS) study to investigate alternative mercury treatment technology. The IT/NFS team demonstrated two processes for the amalgamation/stabilization/fixation of mercury and potentially Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) and radionuclide-contaminated soils. This project was to identify and demonstrate remedial methods to clean up mercury-contaminated soil using established treatment chemistries on soil from the Oak Ridge Reservation, Y-12 National Security Complex, the off-site David Witherspoon properties, and/or other similarly contaminated sites. Soil from the basement of Y-12 Plant Alpha 2 Building at the Oak Ridge Reservation was received at IT and NFS on December 20, 2001. Soils from the other locations were not investigated. The soil had background levels of radioactivity and had all eight RCRA metals well below the Toxicity Characteristic (TC) criteria. This project addresses the new DOE Environmental Management Thrust 2 ''Alternative Approaches to Current High Risk/High Cost Baselines''. Successful completion of this project will provide a step-change in DOE's treatment ability.

  6. The control of mercury vapor using biotrickling filters Ligy Philip a,b,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The control of mercury vapor using biotrickling filters Ligy Philip a,b,1 , Marc A. Deshusses b mechanisms existed. Sulfur oxidizing bacteria biotrickling filters were the most effective in controlling phase bioreactor; Mercury control; Combustion gases 1. Introduction Mercury (Hg) is a hazardous chemical

  7. Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Downers Grove, IL); Livengood, C. David (Lockport, IL)

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.

  8. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  9. Method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Downers Grove, IL); Huang, Hann-Sheng (Darien, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents.

  10. Method for the removal of elemental mercury from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.

    1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided to remove elemental mercury from a gas stream by reacting the gas stream with an oxidizing solution to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds. Other constituents are also oxidized. The gas stream is then passed through a wet scrubber to remove the mercuric compounds and oxidized constituents. 7 figs.

  11. Mercury Oxidation via Catalytic Barrier Filters Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne Seames; Michael Mann; Darrin Muggli; Jason Hrdlicka; Carol Horabik

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2004, the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory awarded the University of North Dakota a Phase II University Coal Research grant to explore the feasibility of using barrier filters coated with a catalyst to oxidize elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas streams. Oxidized mercury is substantially easier to remove than elemental mercury. If successful, this technique has the potential to substantially reduce mercury control costs for those installations that already utilize baghouse barrier filters for particulate removal. Completed in 2004, Phase I of this project successfully met its objectives of screening and assessing the possible feasibility of using catalyst coated barrier filters for the oxidation of vapor phase elemental mercury in coal combustion generated flue gas streams. Completed in September 2007, Phase II of this project successfully met its three objectives. First, an effective coating method for a catalytic barrier filter was found. Second, the effects of a simulated flue gas on the catalysts in a bench-scale reactor were determined. Finally, the performance of the best catalyst was assessed using real flue gas generated by a 19 kW research combustor firing each of three separate coal types.

  12. Progress in Creating Stabilized Gas Layers in Flowing Liquid Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendel, Mark W [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL; D'Urso, Brian R [ORNL; West, David L [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee uses a liquid mercury target that is bombarded with protons to produce a pulsed neutron beam for materials research and development. In order to mitigate expected cavitation damage erosion (CDE) of the containment vessel, a two-phase flow arrangement of the target has been proposed and was earlier proven to be effective in significantly reducing CDE in non-prototypical target bodies. This arrangement involves covering the beam "window", through which the high-energy proton beam passes, with a protective layer of gas. The difficulty lies in establishing a stable gas/liquid interface that is oriented vertically with the window and holds up to the strong buoyancy force and the turbulent mercury flow field. Three approaches to establishing the gas wall have been investigated in isothermal mercury/gas testing on a prototypical geometry and flow: (1) free gas layer approach, (2) porous wall approach, and (3) surface-modified approach. The latter two of these approaches show success in that a stabilized gas layer is produced. Both of these successful approaches capitalize on the high surface energy of liquid mercury by increasing the surface area of the solid wall, thus increasing gas hold up at the wall. In this paper, a summary of these experiments and findings is presented as well as a description of the path forward toward incorporating the stabilized gas layer approach into a feasible gas/mercury SNS target design.

  13. Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA); Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Freeman, Mark C. (South Park Township, PA); Hargis, Richard A. (Canonsburg, PA); O'Dowd, William J. (Charleroi, PA)

    2003-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

  14. REDUCTION OF INHERENT MERCURY EMISSIONS IN PC COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger; David J. Going

    1999-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury emission compliance presents one of the major potential challenges raised by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Simple ways of controlling emissions have not been identified. The variability in the field data suggest that inherent mercury emissions may be reduced if the source of this inherent capture can be identified and controlled. The key mechanisms appear to involve the oxidation of mercury to Hg{sup 2}, generally producing the more reactive HgCl{sub 2}, followed by its capture by certain components of the fly ash or char, or in the air pollution control equipment. This research focuses on identifying the rate-limiting steps associated with the oxidation step. Work in this reporting period focused on the refinement of the rate constants used in the kinetic mechanism for mercury oxidation. The possible reactions leading to mercury oxidation are reviewed. Rate constants for these reactions are discussed, using both literature sources and detailed estimates. The resulting mechanism represents the best present picture of the overall chlorine homogeneous oxidation chemistry. Application of this mechanism to the data will be explored in the subsequent reporting period. Work conducted under the present grant has been the subject of two meeting papers presented during the reporting period (Sliger et al., 1998a,b).

  15. Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    On March 15, 2005, EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule, requiring phased-in reductions of mercury emissions from electric power generators. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL and industry partners, is conducting evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. DOE/NETL targets for total mercury removal are {ge}55% (lignite), {ge}65% (subbituminous), and {ge}80% (bituminous). Based on work done to date at various scales, meeting the removal targets appears feasible. However, work needs to progress to more thoroughly document and test these promising technologies at full scale. This is the final site report for tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Station, one of three sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The other two sites in the program are MidAmerican's Council Bluff Station and Entergy's Independence Station. MidAmerican's Louisa Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal.

  16. Natural mercury isotope variation in coal deposits and organic soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abir, Biswas; Joel D. Blum; Bridget A. Bergquist; Gerald J. Keeler; Zhouqing Xie [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Department of Geological Sciences

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a need to distinguish among sources of Hg to the atmosphere in order to more fully understand global Hg pollution. In this study we investigate whether coal deposits within the United States, China, and Russia-Kazakhstan, which are three of the five greatest coal-producing regions, have diagnostic Hg isotopic fingerprints that can be used to discriminate among Hg sources. We also investigate the Hg isotopic composition of modern organic soil horizons developed in areas distant from point sources of Hg in North America. Mercury stored in coal deposits displays a wide range of both mass dependent fractionation and mass independent fractionation. {delta}{sup 202}Hg varies in coals by 3{per_thousand} and {Delta}{sup 201}Hg varies by 0.9{per_thousand}. Combining these two Hg isotope signals results in what may be a unique isotopic 'fingerprint' for many coal deposits. Mass independent fractionation of mercury has been demonstrated to occur during photochemical reactions of mercury. This suggests that Hg found in most coal deposits was subjected to photochemical reduction near the Earth's surface prior to deposition. The similarity in MDF and MIF of modern organic soils and coals from North America suggests that Hg deposition from coal may have imprinted an isotopic signature on soils. This research offers a new tool for characterizing mercury inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere and provides new insights into the geochemistry of mercury in coal and soils. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The thief process for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, E.J.; Freeman, M.C.; Hargis, R.A.; O'Dowd, W.J.; Pennline, H.W.

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Thief Process is a cost-effective variation to activated carbon injection (ACI) for removal of mercury from flue gas. In this scheme, partially combusted coal from the furnace of a pulverized coal power generation plant is extracted by a lance and then re-injected into the ductwork downstream of the air preheater. Recent results on a 500-lb/h pilot-scale combustion facility show similar removals of mercury for both the Thief Process and ACI. The tests conducted to date at laboratory, bench, and pilot-scales demonstrate that the Thief sorbents exhibit capacities for mercury from flue gas streams that are comparable to those exhibited by commercially available activated carbons. A patent for the process was issued in February 2003. The Thief sorbents are cheaper than commercially-available activated carbons; exhibit excellent capacities for mercury; and the overall process holds great potential for reducing the cost of mercury removal from flue gas. The Thief Process was licensed to Mobotec USA, Inc. in May of 2005.

  18. Novel sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Hargis, R.A.

    2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory-scale packed-bed reactor system is used to screen sorbents for their capability to remove elemental mercury from various carrier gases. When the carrier gas is argon, an on-line atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer (AFS), used in a continuous mode, monitors the elemental mercury concentration in the inlet and outlet streams of the packed-bed reactor. The mercury concentration in the inlet and outlet streams of the packed-bed reactor. The mercury concentration in the reactor inlet gas and the reactor temperature are held constant during a test. For more complex carrier gases, the capacity is determined off-line by analyzing the spent sorbent with either a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CVAAS) or an inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICP-AES). The capacities and breakthrough times of several commercially available activated carbons as well as novel sorbents were determined as a function of various parameters. The mechanisms of mercury removal by the sorbents are suggested by combining the results of the packed-bed testing with various analytical results.

  19. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 3 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments have been completed on the effects of chlorine. However, the experiments with sulfur dioxide and NO, in the presence of water, suggest that the wet-chemistry analysis system, namely the impingers, is possibly giving erroneous results. Future work will investigate this further and determine the role of reactions in the impingers on the oxidation results. The solid-phase experiments have not been completed and it is anticipated that only preliminary work will be accomplished during this study.

  20. Comparison of the cytotoxic effects of cadmium chloride and cadmium-metallothionein in LLC-PK[sub 1] cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prozialeck, W.C.; Wellington, D.R.; Lamar, P.C. (Midwestern Univ., Downers Grove, IL (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies have shown that ionic cadmium (Cd[sup 2+]) can selectively damage the tight junctions between LLC-PK[sub 1] cells. The objective of the present studies was to determine if cadmium that is bound to metallothionein (CD-MT) can also damage the junctions between these cells. Cells on Falcon Cell Culture Inserts were exposed to Cd[sup 2+] or Cd-Mt from the apical and basolateral compartments. The integrity of cell junctions was assessed by monitoring the transepithelial electrical resistance, and cell viability was evaluated by monitoring the release of lactate dehydrogenase into the medium. Exposure to Cd[sup 2+] for 1-4 hours caused a pronounced decrease in the transepithelial resistance without affecting cell viability. By contrast, exposure to Cd-Mt had little effect on the electrical resistance until the cells began to die, which did not occur until 24-48 hours of exposure. Additional results showed that the cells accumulated Cd[sup 2+] more rapidly than Cd-Mt. These results indicate that Cd-Mt does not damage the junctions between LLC-PK[sub 1] cells, but that it can kill the cells after prolonged exposure.

  1. MERCURY LEVELS IN HAWAIIAN PREDATORY PEI-AGIC FISHES AND THEIR PREY ASA FUNCTION OF DEPTH AND ECOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luther, Douglas S.

    ,and location of captute, hower.ef, details regardrngthe nature of mercury bioaccumulationareincomplcte

  2. Clean Air Mercury Rule (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On February 8, 2008, a three-judge panel on the D.C. Circuit of the U.S. Court of Appeals issued a decision to vacate the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR). In its ruling, the panel cited the history of hazardous air pollutant regulation under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act (CAA). Section 112, as written by Congress, listed emitted mercury as a hazardous air pollutant that must be subject to regulation unless it can be proved harmless to public welfare and the environment. In 2000, the Environmental Protection Agency ruled that mercury was indeed hazardous and must be regulated under Section 112 and, therefore, subjected to the best available control technology for mitigation.

  3. Mercury capture by distinct fly ash carbon forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.; Taulbee, D.N.; Sakulpitakphon, T.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon was separated from the fly ash from a Kentucky power plant using density gradient centrifugation. Using a lithium heterolpolytungstate high-density media, relative concentrations of inertinite (up to 85% vol.), isotropic carbon (up to 79% vol.), and anisotropic carbon (up to 76% vol.) were isolated from the original fly ash. Mercury concentration was lowest in the parent fly ash (which contains non-carbon components); followed by inertinite, isotropic coke, mixed isotropic-anisotropic coke fraction, and, with the highest concentration, the anisotropic coke concentrate. The latter order corresponds to the increase in BET surface area of the fly ash carbons. Previous studies have demonstrated the capture of mercury by fly ash carbon. This study confirms prior work demonstrating the varying role of carbon types in the capture, implying that variability in the carbon content influences the amount of mercury retained on the fly ash.

  4. Catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new classes of catalysts for the removal of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg) from effluent gases. Both of these classes of catalysts are excellent absorbers of HCl and Cl.sub.2 present in effluent gases. This adsorption of oxidizing agents aids in the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants. The catalysts remove mercury by oxidizing the Hg into mercury (II) moieties. For one class of catalysts, the active component is selected from the group consisting of iridium (Ir) and iridum-platinum (Ir/Pt) alloys. The Ir and Ir/Pt alloy catalysts are especially corrosion resistant. For the other class of catalyst, the active component is partially combusted coal or "Thief" carbon impregnated with Cl.sub.2. Untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-activating in the presence of effluent gas streams. The Thief carbon catalyst is disposable by means of capture from the effluent gas stream in a particulate collection device (PCD).

  5. Helium and mercury in the central Seward Peninsula

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wescott, E.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The central Seward Peninsula, Alaska, has one Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) at Pilgrim Springs, and has recent volcanic flows, fault systems, topographic and tectonic features which can be explained by a rift model. As part of a geothermal reconnaissance of the area we used helium and mercury concentrations in soil as indicators of geothermal resources. The largest helium concentrations were found in the vicinity of the Pilgrims Springs KGRA, and indicate prime drilling sites. Five profile lines were run across the suspected rift system. Significant helium anomalies were found on several of the traverses, where future exploration might be concentrated. Mercury values showed a great range of variability on the traverses, and seem unreliable as geothermal indicators except in the vicinity of the Pilgrim Springs. Permafrost at the surface resulting in variations in sampling depth may contribute to the mercury variations.

  6. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF MERCURY REACTIONS IN COAL POWER PLANT PLUMES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard Levin

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-02NT41422 and specifically addresses Program Area of Interest: No.5--Environmental and Water Resources. The project team includes the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) as the contractor and the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Frontier Geosciences as subcontractors. Wisconsin Energies and its Pleasant Prairie Power Plant acted as host for the field-testing portion of the research. The project is aimed at clarifying the role, rates, and end results of chemical transformations that may occur to mercury that has been emitted from elevated stacks of coal-fired electric power plants. Mercury emitted from power plants emerges in either its elemental, divalent, or particulate-bound form. Deposition of the divalent form is more likely to occur closer to the source than that of the other two forms, due to its solubility in water. Thus, if chemical transformations occur in the stack emissions plume, measurements in the stack may mischaracterize the fate of the material. Initial field and pilot plant measurements have shown significant and rapid chemical reduction of divalent to elemental mercury may occur in these plumes. Mercury models currently assume that the chemical form of mercury occurring in stacks is the same as that which enters the free atmosphere, with no alteration occurring in the emissions plume. Recent data indicate otherwise, but need to be evaluated at full operating scale under field conditions. Prestbo and others have demonstrated the likelihood of significant mercury chemical reactions occurring in power plant plumes (Prestbo et al., 1999; MDNR-PPRP, 2000; EERC, 2001). This experiment will thus increase our understanding of mercury atmospheric chemistry, allowing informed decisions regarding source attribution. The experiment was carried out during the period August 22-September 5, 2003. The experimental site was the Pleasant Prairie Power Plant in Pleasant Prairie, Wisconsin, just west of Kenosha. The experiment involved using an aircraft to capture emissions and document chemistry changes in the plume. While using the airplane for sampling, supplemental fast-response sensors for NOx, connected to data loggers, were used to gauge entry and exit times and transect intervals through plume emissions material. The Frontier Geosciences Static Plume Dilution Chamber (SPDC) was employed simultaneously adjacent to the stack to correlate its findings with the aircraft sampling, as well as providing evaluation of the SPDC as a rapid, less costly sampler for mercury chemistry. A complementary stack plume method, the Dynamic Plume Dilution (DPD) was used in the latter portion of the experiment to measure mercury speciation to observe any mercury reduction reaction with respect to both the reaction time (5 to 30 seconds) and dilution ratio. In addition, stack sampling using the ''Ontario Hydro'' wet chemistry method and continuous mercury monitors (CMM) were used to establish the baseline chemistry in the stack. Comparisons among stack, SPDC, DPD and aircraft measurements allow establishment of whether significant chemical changes to mercury occur in the plume, and of the verisimilitude of the SPDC and DPD methods. This progress report summarizes activities during a period of results review from the stack/aircraft subcontractor, data analysis and synthesis, and preparation and presentation of preliminary results to technical and oversight meetings.

  7. Measurements of Gas Bubble Size Distributions in Flowing Liquid Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendel, Mark W [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Pressure waves created in liquid mercury pulsed spallation targets have been shown to induce cavitation damage on the target container. One way to mitigate such damage would be to absorb the pressure pulse energy into a dispersed population of small bubbles, however, measuring such a population in mercury is difficult since it is opaque and the mercury is involved in a turbulent flow. Ultrasonic measurements have been attempted on these types of flows, but the flow noise can interfere with the measurement, and the results are unverifiable and often unrealistic. Recently, a flow loop was built and operated at Oak Ridge National Labarotory to assess the capability of various bubbler designs to deliver an adequate population of bubbles to mitigate cavitation damage. The invented diagnostic technique involves flowing the mercury with entrained gas bubbles in a steady state through a horizontal piping section with a glass-window observation port located on the top. The mercury flow is then suddenly stopped and the bubbles are allowed to settle on the glass due to buoyancy. Using a bright-field illumination and a high-speed camera, the arriving bubbles are detected and counted, and then the images can be processed to determine the bubble populations. After using this technique to collect data on each bubbler, bubble size distributions were built for the purpose of quantifying bubbler performance, allowing the selection of the best bubbler options. This paper presents the novel procedure, photographic technique, sample visual results and some example bubble size distributions. The best bubbler options were subsequently used in proton beam irradiation tests performed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The cavitation damage results from the irradiated test plates in contact with the mercury are available for correlation with the bubble populations. The most effective mitigating population can now be designed into prototypical geometries for implementation into an actual SNS target.

  8. REDUCTION OF INHERENT MERCURY EMISSIONS IN PC COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger; David J. Going

    1999-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury emission compliance presents one of the major potential challenges raised by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Simple ways of controlling emissions have not been identified. The variability in the field data suggest that inherent mercury emissions may be reduced if the source of this inherent capture can be identified and controlled. The key mechanisms appear to involve the oxidation of mercury to Hg{sup 2}, generally producing the more reactive HgCl{sub 2}, followed by its capture by certain components of the fly ash or char, or in the air pollution control equipment. This research focuses on identifying the rate-limiting steps associated with the oxidation step. Work in this reporting period focused on testing of the kinetic mechanism reported in the previous semiannual report, and the interpretation of data (both ours and literature). This model yields good qualitative agreement with the data and indicates that mercury oxidation occurs during the thermal quench of the combustion gases. The model also suggests that atomic chlorine is the key oxidizing species. The oxidation is limited to a temperature window between 700-400 C that is defined by the overlap of (1) a region of significant superequilibrium Cl concentration, and (2) a region where oxidized mercury is favored by equilibrium. Above 700 C reverse reactions effectively limit oxidized mercury concentrations. Below 400 C, atomic chlorine concentrations are too low to support further oxidation. The implication of these results are that homogeneous oxidation is governed primarily by (1) HCl concentration, (2) quench rate, and (3) background gas composition. Work conducted under the present grant has been the subject of one journal paper that was accepted for publication during the reporting period (Sliger et al., 1999).

  9. Geochemical associations and availability of cadmium (Cd) in a paddy field system, Northwestern Thailand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosolsaksakul, Peerapat

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mae Tao watershed, northwestern Thailand, has become contaminated with cadmium (Cd) from the zinc mining activities area in the nearby Thanon-Thongchai mountains. Consumption of Cd-contaminated rice has led to ...

  10. Nickel and cadmium ions inhibit quorum sensing and biofilm formation without affecting viability in Burkholderia multivorans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Nickel and cadmium ions inhibit quorum sensing and biofilm formation without affecting viability transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) assays, we show that sub-millimolar concentrations of nickel (Ni

  11. The Synthesis of Cadmium Doped Mesoporous TiO2. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TiO2. The Synthesis of Cadmium Doped Mesoporous TiO2. Abstract: Cd doped mesoporous titanium oxide was prepared using non-ionic surfactants and easily handled titanium...

  12. Proteomic responses of oceanic Synechococcus WH8102 to phosphate and zinc scarcity and cadmium additions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Alysia D.

    Synechococcus sp. WH 8102 is a motile marine cyanobacterium isolated originally from the Sargasso Sea. To test the response of this organism to cadmium (Cd), generally considered a toxin, cultures were grown in a matrix ...

  13. Cadmium induces a novel metallothionein and phytochelatin 2 in an aquatic fungus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaeckel, Petra [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle in the Helmholtz Association, Department of Environmental Microbiology, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Krauss, Gudrun [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle in the Helmholtz Association, Department of Environmental Microbiology, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Menge, Sieglinde [Martin-Luther-University, Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Biochemistry/Biotechnology, Kurt-Mothes-Str. 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Schierhorn, Angelika [Martin-Luther-University, Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Biochemistry/Biotechnology, Kurt-Mothes-Str. 3, 06120 Halle (Germany); Ruecknagel, Peter [Max-Planck-Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding, Weinbergweg 22, 06120 Halle (Germany); Krauss, Gerd-Joachim [Martin-Luther-University, Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Biochemistry/Biotechnology, Kurt-Mothes-Str. 3, 06120 Halle (Germany)]. E-mail: krauss@biochemtech.uni-halle.de

    2005-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Cadmium stress response was measured at the thiol peptide level in an aquatic hyphomycete (Heliscus lugdunensis). In liquid culture, 0.1mM cadmium increased the glutathione (GSH) content and induced the synthesis of additional thiol peptides. HPLC, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and Edman degradation confirmed that a novel small metallothionein as well as phytochelatin (PC2) were synthesized. The metallothionein has a high homology to family 8 metallothioneins (http://www.expasy.ch/cgi-bin/lists?metallo.txt). The bonding of at least two cadmium ions to the metallothionein was demonstrated by mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). This is the first time that simultaneous induction of metallothionein and phytochelatin accompanied by an increase in GSH level has been shown in a fungus under cadmium stress, indicating a potential function of these complexing agents for in vivo heavy metal detoxification. The method presented here should be applicable as biomarker tool. ol.

  14. Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations Near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir - Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. L. Abbott

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elemental and reactive gaseous mercury (EGM/RGM) were measured in ambient air concentrations over a two-week period in July/August 2005 near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir, a popular fishery located 50 km southwest of Twin Falls, Idaho. A fish consumption advisory for mercury was posted at the reservoir in 2002 by the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare. The air measurements were part of a multi-media (water, sediment, precipitation, air) study initiated by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 to identify potential sources of mercury contamination to the reservoir. The sampling site is located about 150 km northeast of large gold mining operations in Nevada, which are known to emit large amounts of mercury to the atmosphere (est. 2,200 kg/y from EPA 2003 Toxic Release Inventory). The work was co-funded by the Idaho National Laboratory’s Community Assistance Program and has a secondary objective to better understand mercury inputs to the environment near the INL, which lies approximately 230 km to the northeast. Sampling results showed that both EGM and RGM concentrations were significantly elevated (~ 30 – 70%, P<0.05) compared to known regional background concentrations. Elevated short-term RGM concentrations (the primary form that deposits) were likely due to atmospheric oxidation of high EGM concentrations, which suggests that EGM loading from upwind sources could increase Hg deposition in the area. Back-trajectory analyses indicated that elevated EGM and RGM occurred when air parcels came out of north-central and northeastern Nevada. One EGM peak occurred when the air parcels came out of northwestern Utah. Background concentrations occurred when the air was from upwind locations in Idaho (both northwest and northeast). Based on 2003 EPA Toxic Release Inventory data, it is likely that most of the observed peaks were from Nevada gold mine sources. Emissions from known large natural mercury sources in that area cannot account for the observed EGM peaks due to their diffuse source geometry and the large (170 km) transport distance involved. The EGM peak originating from northwestern Utah air may be from three known mercury sources west of Salt Lake City (Kennecott, US Magnesium, Clean Harbors Aragonite) and/or the 1600 MW coal-fired Intermountain Power plant near Delta. However, the relative importance of these short-term peaks for long-term watershed mercury loading (critical factor affecting fish concentrations) is not known, and there is a need to better quantify the annual frequency and magnitude of these different inputs over a longer period of time.

  15. A study of the solubility of mercury in liquid hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFarlane, David Larimer

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mercury by precipitating HgS out of solution and measuring the metcury activity on a Gieger counter. A second but similar method used by Moser and Voigt used metallic Hg&cs which was obtained by reduction of mercumus nitrate with hypophosphorus acid...A STUDY OF THE SOLUBILITY OF MERCURY IN LIQUID HYDROCARBONS A Thesis by DAVID LARIhKR MCFARLANE Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  16. Analytical Methods for Measuring Mercury in Water, Sediment and Biota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasorsa, Brenda K.; Gill, Gary A.; Horvat, Milena

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury (Hg) exists in a large number of physical and chemical forms with a wide range of properties. Conversion between these different forms provides the basis for mercury's complex distribution pattern in local and global cycles and for its biological enrichment and effects. Since the 1960’s, the growing awareness of environmental mercury pollution has stimulated the development of more accurate, precise and efficient methods of determining mercury and its compounds in a wide variety of matrices. During recent years new analytical techniques have become available that have contributed significantly to the understanding of mercury chemistry in natural systems. In particular, these include ultra sensitive and specific analytical equipment and contamination-free methodologies. These improvements allow for the determination of total mercury as well as major species of mercury to be made in water, sediments and soils, and biota. Analytical methods are selected depending on the nature of the sample, the concentration levels of mercury, and what species or fraction is to be quantified. The terms “speciation” and “fractionation” in analytical chemistry were addressed by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) which published guidelines (Templeton et al., 2000) or recommendations for the definition of speciation analysis. "Speciation analysis is the analytical activity of identifying and/or measuring the quantities of one or more individual chemical species in a sample. The chemical species are specific forms of an element defined as to isotopic composition, electronic or oxidation state, and/or complex or molecular structure. The speciation of an element is the distribution of an element amongst defined chemical species in a system. In case that it is not possible to determine the concentration of the different individual chemical species that sum up the total concentration of an element in a given matrix, meaning it is impossible to determine the speciation, it is a useful practice to do fractionation instead. Fractionation is the process of classification of an analyte or a group of analytes from a certain sample according to physical (e.g. size, solubility) or chemical (e.g. bonding, reactivity) properties."

  17. A survey of mercury in the Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Custodi, George Louis

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and a dual channel atomic absorp- tion spectrophotcmeter with autcmatic bacI:-gz ound cor ection The sensitivity of the analyses was les . 0 ~ 03 pg HggL with a. relative precision of + 1. 6: at 0, & p~ IIg/L. A zone of, high concentration... River were highes averaging 0 ~ "ig p:s/L, indicating that the Mississipni River, because of its high annual volume, is a major source of mercury for the Gulf with other rivers being minor contributors' mercury analyses of sediments showed...

  18. Mercury cleanup efforts intensify | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from aRod EggertMercury cleanup efforts ... Mercury

  19. The effects of perinatal cadmium exposure on behavioral sensitization to morphine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Kelly Renae

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Director) April 2000 ABSTRACT The Effects of Perinatal Cadmium Exposure on Behavioral Sensitization to Morphine. (April 2000) Kelly Ranae Smith Department of Psychology Texas A&M University Fellows Advisor: Dr. Jack Nation Department of Psychology...THE EFFECTS OF PERINATAL CADMIUM EXPOSURE ON BEHAVIORAL SENSITIZATION TO MORPHINE A Senior Honors Thesis By KELLY RANAE SMITH Submitted to the OAice of Honors Programs & Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University In partial fulfillment...

  20. Levels of dissolved zinc and cadmium in some surface waters of western Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fatoki, O.S. [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria)] [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissolved zinc and cadmium in some surface waters of Western Nigeria were separated and quantified using anion exchange of their chloro-complexes and detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Concentrations of zinc and cadmium found in tested water samples ranged from 0.99 to 2.97 mg L{sup {minus}1} and 0.13 to 0.17 mg L{sup {minus}1}, respectively. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Revised maps and associated data show potential mercury, sulfur, and chlorine emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin. Existing coal mining and coal washing practices result in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hot-side ESP, cold-side ESP, or hot-side ESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cold-side ESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum net mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions.

  2. Removal of Elemental Mercury from a Gas Stream Facilitated by a Non-Thermal Plasma Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mones

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury generated from anthropogenic sources presents a difficult environmental problem. In comparison to other toxic metals, mercury has a low vaporization temperature. Mercury and mercury compounds are highly toxic, and organic forms such as methyl mercury can be bio-accumulated. Exposure pathways include inhalation and transport to surface waters. Mercury poisoning can result in both acute and chronic effects. Most commonly, chronic exposure to mercury vapor affects the central nervous system and brain, resulting in neurological damage. The CRE technology employs a series of non-thermal, plasma-jet devices to provide a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by targeting relevant chemical reactions. The technology couples the known chemistry of converting elemental mercury to ionic compounds by mercury-chlorine-oxygen reactions with the generation of highly reactive species in a non-thermal, atmospheric, plasma device. The generation of highly reactive metastable species in a non-thermal plasma device is well known. The introduction of plasma using a jet-injection device provides a means to contact highly reactive species with elemental mercury in a manner to overcome the kinetic and mass-transfer limitations encountered by previous researchers. To demonstrate this technology, WRI has constructed a plasma test facility that includes plasma reactors capable of using up to four plasma jets, flow control instrumentation, an integrated control panel to operate the facility, a mercury generation system that employs a temperature controlled oven and permeation tube, combustible and mercury gas analyzers, and a ductless fume hood designed to capture fugitive mercury emissions. Continental Research and Engineering (CR&E) and Western Research Institute (WRI) successfully demonstrated that non-thermal plasma containing oxygen and chlorine-oxygen reagents could completely convert elemental mercury to an ionic form. These results demonstrate potential the application of this technology for removing elemental mercury from flue gas streams generated by utility boilers. On an absolute basis, the quantity of reagent required to accomplish the oxidation was small. For example, complete oxidation of mercury was accomplished using a 1% volume fraction of oxygen in a nitrogen stream. Overall, the tests with mercury validated the most useful aspect of the CR&E technology: Providing a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by employing a specific plasma reagent to either increase reaction kinetics or promote reactions that would not have occurred under normal circumstances.

  3. Impact of Surface Heterogeneity on Mercury Uptake by Carbonaceous

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borguet, Eric

    pyrolytic graphite, HOPG) under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions and fixed bed adsorption by activated to the environment from fossil fuel burning and various combustion processes (i.e., mu- nicipal, medical combustion. Once emitted to the environment, mercury can be deposited locally or globally to create a long

  4. MERCURY OXIDIZATION IN NON-THERMAL PLASMA BARRIER DISCHARGE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.K. Mathur

    2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past decade, the emission of toxic elements from human activities has become a matter of great public concern. Hg, As, Se and Cd typically volatilize during a combustion process and are not easily caught with conventional air pollution control techniques. In addition, there is no pollution prevention technique available now or likely be available in the foreseeable future that can prevent the emission of these trace elements. These trace elements pose additional scientific challenge as they are present at only ppb levels in large gas streams. Mercury, in particular, has attracted significant attention due to its high volatility, toxicity and potential threat to human health. In the present research work, a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge technique has been used to oxidize Hg{sup 0}(g) to HgO. The basic premise of this approach is that Hg{sup 0} in vapor form cannot be easily removed in an absorption tower whereas HgO as a particulate is amiable to water scrubbing. The work presented in this report consists of three steps: (1) setting-up of an experimental apparatus to generate mercury vapors at a constant rate and modifying the existing non-thermal plasma reactor system, (2) solving the analytical challenge for measuring mercury vapor concentration at ppb level, and (3) conducting experiments on mercury oxidation under plasma conditions to establish proof of concept.

  5. Gas Bubble Formation in Stagnant and Flowing Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendel, Mark W [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL] [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL] [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL] [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigations in the area of two-phase flow at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility are progressing. It is expected that the target vessel lifetime could be extended by introducing gas into the liquid mercury target. As part of an effort to validate the two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, simulations and experiments of gas injection in stagnant and flowing mercury have been completed. The volume of fluid (VOF) method as implemented in ANSYS-CFX, was used to simulate the unsteady two-phase flow of gas injection into stagnant mercury. Bubbles produced at the upwards-oriented vertical gas injector were measured with proton radiography at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The comparison of the CFD results to the radiographic images shows good agreement for bubble sizes and shapes at various stages of the bubble growth, detachment, and gravitational rise. Although several gas flows were measured, this paper focuses on the case with a gas flow rate of 8 cc/min through the 100-micron-diameter injector needle. The acoustic waves emitted due to the detachment of the bubble and during subsequent bubble oscillations were recorded with a microphone, providing a precise measurement of the bubble sizes. As the mercury flow rate increases, the drag force causes earlier bubble detachment and therefore smaller bubbles.

  6. Numerical Simulation of Bubble Formation in Co-Flowing Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL; Wendel, Mark W [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we present computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of helium bubble formation and detachment at a submerged needle in stagnant and co-flowing mercury. Since mercury is opaque, visualization of internal gas bubbles was done with proton radiography (pRad) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE2). The acoustic waves emitted at the time of detachment and during subsequent oscillations of the bubble were recorded with a microphone. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) model was used to simulate the unsteady two-phase flow of gas injection in mercury. The VOF model is validated by comparing detailed bubble sizes and shapes at various stages of the bubble growth and detachment, with the experimental measurements at different gas flow rates and mercury velocities. The experimental and computational results show a two-stage bubble formation. The first stage involves growing bubble around the needle, and the second follows as the buoyancy overcomes wall adhesion. The comparison of predicted and measured bubble sizes and shapes at various stages of the bubble growth and detachment is in good agreement.

  7. Atmospheric Mercury Deposition Impacts of Future Electric Power Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , a number of scenarios for future emissions from coal-fired electricity generation plants in the UnitedAtmospheric Mercury Deposition Impacts of Future Electric Power Generation Mark D. Cohen Physical on 2000 data submitted to Environment Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI). Finally

  8. Cage diffusion in liquid mercury Yaspal S. Badyal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montfrooij, Wouter

    University, Massachusetts 02138, USA Ignatz M. de Schepper Interfaculty Reactor Institute, TU Delft, 2629 JB(q,E). It is believed that cage diffusion plays an important part in the dynamics of real fluids, such as noble gas on the fast short-time decay mechanism of liquid mercury pertinent to cage diffu- sion. Recent neutron

  9. Contaminated identities: Mercury and marginalization in Ghana's artisanal mining sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singha, Kamini

    mining; Political ecology; Ecohealth; Environmental justice; Ghana 1. Introduction Artisanal and smallContaminated identities: Mercury and marginalization in Ghana's artisanal mining sector Petra and multifaceted policy problem that underlies the current conflictual aspects in the small-scale mining sector

  10. MERCURY IN THE ENVIRONMENT: Transport, Fate and Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selin, Noelle Eckley

    Division and Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences Massachusetts Institute of Technology increased 3-5X since industrialization Major anthropogenic source is stationary combustion (coal evidence to warrant international action U.S.: Clean Air Mercury Rule: established "cap and trade" approach

  11. Final Report - Molecular Mechanisms of Bacterial Mercury Transformation - UCSF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Susan M. [UCSF

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The bacterial mercury resistance (mer) operon functions in Hg biogeochemistry and bioremediation by converting reactive inorganic Hg(II) and organic [RHg(II)]1+ mercurials to relatively inert monoatomic mercury vapor, Hg(0). Its genes regulate operon expression (MerR, MerD, MerOP), import Hg(II) (MerT, MerP, and MerC), and demethylate (MerB) and reduce (MerA) mercurials. We focus on how these components interact with each other and with the host cell to allow cells to survive and detoxify Hg compounds. Understanding how this ubiquitous detoxification system fits into the biology and ecology of its bacterial host is essential to guide interventions that support and enhance Hg remediation. In the current overall project we focused on two aspects of this system: (1) investigations of the energetics of Hg(II)-ligand binding interactions, and (2) both experimental and computational approaches to investigating the molecular mechanisms of Hg(II) acquisition by MerA and intramolecular transfer of Hg(II) prior to reduction within the MerA enzyme active site. Computational work was led by Prof. Jeremy Smith and took place at the University of Tennessee, while experimental work on MerA was led by Prof. Susan Miller and took place at the University of California San Francisco.

  12. A Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Mercury Continuous Emission Monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher C. Carter

    2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sensor Research & Development Corporation (SRD) has undertaken the development of a Continuous Emissions Monitor (CEM) for mercury based on the technique of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRD). The project involved building an instrument for the detection of trace levels of mercury in the flue gas emissions from coal-fired power plants. The project has occurred over two phases. The first phase concentrated on the development of the ringdown cavity and the actual detection of mercury. The second phase dealt with the construction and integration of the sampling system, used to carry the sample from the flue stack to the CRD cavity, into the overall CRD instrument. The project incorporated a Pulsed Alexandrite Laser (PAL) system from Light Age Incorporated as the source to produce the desired narrow band 254 nm ultra-violet (UV) radiation. This laser system was seeded with a diode laser to bring the linewidth of the output beam from about 150 GHz to less than 60 MHz for the fundamental beam. Through a variety of non-linear optics the 761 nm fundamental beam is converted into the 254 nm beam needed for mercury detection. Detection of the mercury transition was verified by the identification of the characteristic natural isotopic structure observed at lower cavity pressures. The five characteristic peaks, due to both natural isotopic abundance and hyperfine splitting, provided a unique identifier for mercury. SRD scientists were able to detect mercury in air down below 10 parts-per-trillion by volume (pptr). This value is dependent on the pressure and temperature within the CRD cavity at the time of detection. Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) absorbs UV radiation in the same spectral region as mercury, which is a significant problem for most mercury detection equipment. However, SRD has not only been able to determine accurate mercury concentrations in the presence of SO{sub 2}, but the CRD instrument can in fact determine the SO{sub 2} concentration as well. Detection of mercury down to the low hundreds of pptr has been accomplished in the presence of SO{sub 2} at concentration levels much higher than that found in typical flue gas emissions. SRD scientists extended the interferent testing to each individual component found in flue gas. It was found that only SO{sub 2} had a significant effect on the ring-down decay curve. Upon completion of testing the components of flue gas individually a simulated flue gas stream was used to test to the CRD instrument. The result showed accurate detection of mercury down to levels below 100 pptr in a simulated flue gas stream with the concentrations of the various components above that found in a typical untreated flue gas. A sampling system was designed and integrated into the CRD instrument to carry the sample from the flue gas stack to the CRD cavity. The sampling system was constructed so that it could be placed very close to the sampling port. SRD scientists were able to couple the UV laser light into an optical fiber, which is then sent to the sampling system. This allows the laser system to be isolated from the sampling system. Initial long-term testing revealed a couple of problems related to the stability of the output frequency of the laser system. These problems have been successfully dealt with by incorporating specific software solutions into the overall data acquisition program. The project culminated in a field test conducted at the DOE/NETL pilot plant facility in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The object of the test was the evaluation of a cavity ringdown spectrometer constructed for the detection of TOTAL vapor phase mercury as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). Although there is the potential for the instrument to determine the amount of speciation between neutral elemental mercury (Hg{sup (o)}) and oxidized mercury (Hg{sup (+2)}), the initial test plan was to concentrate on the measurement of the total mercury. Another added benefit is that the measurements will report the sulfur dioxide (SO 2) concentration throughout the test. This report concludes the technical work asso

  13. Novel sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Hargis, R.A.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory-scale packed-bed reactor system is used to screen sorbents for their capability to remove elemental mercury from various carrier gases. When the carrier gas is argon, an on-line atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer (AFS), used in a continuous mode, monitors the elemental mercury concentration in the inlet and outlet streams of the packed-bed reactor. The mercury concentration in the reactor inlet gas and the reactor temperature are held constant during a test. For more complex carrier gases, capacity is determined off-line by analyzing the spent sorbent with either a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CVAAS) or an inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICP-AES). The capacities and breakthrough times of several commercially available activated carbons, as well as novel sorbents, were determined as a function of various parameters. The mechanisms of mercury removal by the sorbents are suggested by combining the results of the packed-bed testing with various analytical results.

  14. Dark Oxidation of Dissolved and Liquid Elemental Mercury in Aquatic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morel, François M. M.

    Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6, Canada Elemental mercury (Hg0) can be found in liquid that this oxidation is greatly enhanced by solar radiation, par- ticularly-sterilized, treated with chloroform, or filtered prior to exposure to light. Laboratory experiments have also shown

  15. Discovery of Scandium, Titanium, Mercury, and Einsteinium Isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Meierfrankenfeld; A. Bury; M. Thoennessen

    2010-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, twenty-three scandium, twenty-five titanium, forty mercury and seventeen einsteinium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  16. Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    ·Carnegie Institution of Washington ·NASA Goddard Space Flight Center ·University of Michigan ·Southwest's atmosphere generated? Does Mercury have ice at its poles? Combining an ultraviolet spectrometer and infrared McClintock Other organizations involved: ·The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

  17. Predictable SCR co-benefits for mercury control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pritchard, S. [Cormtech Inc. (USA)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A test program, performed in cooperation with Dominion Power and the Babcock and Wilcox Co., was executed at Dominion Power's Mount Storm power plant in Grant County, W. Va. The program was focused on both the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst capability to oxide mercury as well as the scrubber's capability to capture and retain the oxidized mercury. This article focuses on the SCR catalyst performance aspects. The Mount Storm site consists of three units totaling approximately 1,660 MW. All units are equipped with SCR systems for NOx control. A full-scale test to evaluate the effect of the SCR was performed on Unit 2, a 550 MWT-fired boiler firing a medium sulfur bituminous coal. This test program demonstrated that the presence of an SCR catalyst can significantly affect the mercury speciation profile. Observation showed that in the absence of an SCR catalyst, the extent of oxidation of element a mercury at the inlet of the flue gas desulfurization system was about 64%. The presence of a Cornertech SCR catalyst improved this oxidation to levels greater than 95% almost all of which was captured by the downstream wet FGD system. Cornertech's proprietary SCR Hg oxidation model was used to accurately predict the field results. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jessica Sanderson

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents and discusses results from the project 'Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production', performed at five different full-scale commercial wallboard plants. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study has been to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere at wallboard manufacturing plants when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project has been co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope included seven discrete tasks, each including a test conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different wet FGD systems. The project was originally composed of five tasks, which were to include (1) a base-case test, then variations representing differing power plant: (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5,could not be conducted as planned and instead was conducted at conditions similar to Task 3. Subsequently an opportunity arose to test gypsum produced from the Task 5 FGD system, but with an additive expected to impact the stability of mercury, so Task 6 was added to the project. Finally, Task 7 was added to evaluate synthetic gypsum produced at a power plant from an additional coal type. In the project, process stacks in the wallboard plant were sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. In every task, the stack locations sampled included a gypsum dryer and a gypsum calciner. In Tasks 1 and 4 through 7, the stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. These results and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. The results from the project showed a wide range of percentage mercury losses from the synthetic gypsum feedstocks as measured by the Ontario Hydro method at the process stacks, ranging from 2% to 55% of the mercury in the gypsum feedstock. For the tasks exceeding 10% mercury loss across the wallboard plant, most of the loss occurred across the gypsum calciner. When total wallboard emissions remained below 10%, the primary emission location varied with a much less pronounced difference in emission between the gypsum dryer, calciner and board dryer. For all seven tasks, the majority of the mercury emissions were measured to be in the elemental form (Hg{sup 0}). Overall, the measured mercury loss mass rates ranged from 0.01 to 0.17 grams of mercury per dry ton of synthetic gypsum processed, or 0.01 to 0.4 pounds of mercury released per million square feet of wallboard produced from synthetic gypsum. The Coal Combustion Product Production and Use Survey from the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) indicate that 7,579,187 short tons of synthetic gypsum were used for wallboard production in 2006. Extrapolating the results of this study to the ACAA industry usage rate, we estimate that mercury releases from wallboard production plants in 2006 ranged between 150 to 3000 pounds for the entire U.S. wallboard industry. With only seven sets of wallboard plant measurements, it is difficult to draw firm conclusions about what variables impact the mercury loss percentages across the wallboard plants. One significant o

  19. Chemistry of Mercury Species and Their Control in Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1997-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives for this reporting period are: 1) The study of mercury capture mechanism by using titania sorbent and ultraviolet (UV) light, and the study of structural difference between titania particle generated by both thermal Oxidation at 1000EC and by reacting with water vapor at room temperature. 2) Measurement of ultra-fine particle size distribution in flue gas after burning coal.

  20. air pollution mercury: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air pollution mercury First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Environmental Pollution Air...

  1. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musich, Mark; Swanson, Michael; Dunham, Grant; Stanislowski, Joshua

    2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine and hydrogen selenide sorbents. The noncarbon sorbent was able to reduce the concentration to 0 ppb from a starting concentration of 120 ppb. This compares to the target value of 5 ppb (~17?g/m{sup 3}). The EERC-prepared metal-based pellet and coprecipitate sorbents exhibited arsine reductions of 90% or greater, being below 10 ppb. Corning SR Liquid monoliths exhibited brief periods (<1 hour) of attaining 90% arsine reduction but were able to achieve greater than 80% reduction for several hours. With respect to hydrogen selenide, all Group IB and IIB metal-based sorbents tested exhibited 100% reduction from an inlet concentration of approximately 400 ppb. Corning SR Liquid monoliths exhibited an 82% reduction when two monoliths were tested simultaneously in series.

  2. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine and hydrogen selenide sorbents. The noncarbon sorbent was able to reduce the concentration to 0 ppb from a starting concentration of 120 ppb. This compares to the target value of 5 ppb (~17?g/m3). The EERC-prepared metal-based pellet and coprecipitate sorbents exhibited arsine reductions of 90% or greater, being below 10 ppb. Corning SR Liquid monoliths exhibited brief periods (<1 hour) of attaining 90% arsine reduction but were able to achieve greater than 80% reduction for several hours. With respect to hydrogen selenide, all Group IB and IIB metal-based sorbents tested exhibited 100% reduction from an inlet concentration of approximately 400 ppb. Corning SR Liquid monoliths exhibited an 82% reduction when two monoliths were tested simultaneously in series.

  3. Mercury Reduction and Removal from High Level Waste at the Defense Waste Processing Facility - 12511

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrouzi, Aria [Savannah River Remediation, LLC (United States); Zamecnik, Jack [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina, 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility processes legacy nuclear waste generated at the Savannah River Site during production of enriched uranium and plutonium required by the Cold War. The nuclear waste is first treated via a complex sequence of controlled chemical reactions and then vitrified into a borosilicate glass form and poured into stainless steel canisters. Converting the nuclear waste into borosilicate glass is a safe, effective way to reduce the volume of the waste and stabilize the radionuclides. One of the constituents in the nuclear waste is mercury, which is present because it served as a catalyst in the dissolution of uranium-aluminum alloy fuel rods. At high temperatures mercury is corrosive to off-gas equipment, this poses a major challenge to the overall vitrification process in separating mercury from the waste stream prior to feeding the high temperature melter. Mercury is currently removed during the chemical process via formic acid reduction followed by steam stripping, which allows elemental mercury to be evaporated with the water vapor generated during boiling. The vapors are then condensed and sent to a hold tank where mercury coalesces and is recovered in the tank's sump via gravity settling. Next, mercury is transferred from the tank sump to a purification cell where it is washed with water and nitric acid and removed from the facility. Throughout the chemical processing cell, compounds of mercury exist in the sludge, condensate, and off-gas; all of which present unique challenges. Mercury removal from sludge waste being fed to the DWPF melter is required to avoid exhausting it to the environment or any negative impacts to the Melter Off-Gas system. The mercury concentration must be reduced to a level of 0.8 wt% or less before being introduced to the melter. Even though this is being successfully accomplished, the material balances accounting for incoming and collected mercury are not equal. In addition, mercury has not been effectively purified and collected in the Mercury Purification Cell (MPC) since 2008. A significant cleaning campaign aims to bring the MPC back up to facility housekeeping standards. Two significant investigations are being undertaken to restore mercury collection. The SMECT mercury pump has been removed from the tank and will be functionally tested. Also, research is being conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory to determine the effects of antifoam addition on the behavior of mercury. These path forward items will help us better understand what is occurring in the mercury collection system and ultimately lead to an improved DWPF production rate and mercury recovery rate. (authors)

  4. Mercury stabilization in chemically bonded phosphate ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagh, A. S.; Singh, D.; Jeong, S. Y.

    2000-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury stabilization and solidification is a significant challenge for conventional stabilization technologies. This is because of the stringent regulatory limits on leaching of its stabilized products. In a conventional cement stabilization process, Hg is converted at high pH to its hydroxide, which is not a very insoluble compound; hence the preferred route for Hg sulfidation to convert it into insoluble cinnabar (HgS). Unfortunately, efficient formation of this compound is pH-dependent. At a high pH, one obtains a more soluble Hg sulfate, in a very low pH range, insufficient immobilization occurs because of the escape of hydrogen sulfide, while efficient formation of HgS occurs only in a moderately acidic region. Thus, the pH range of 4 to 8 is where stabilization with Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramics (CBPC) is carried out. This paper discusses the authors experience on bench-scale stabilization of various US Department of Energy (DOE) waste streams containing Hg in the CBPC process. This process was developed to treat DOE's mixed waste streams. It is a room-temperature-setting process based on an acid-base reaction between magnesium oxide and monopotassium phosphate solution that forms a dense ceramic within hours. For Hg stabilization, addition of a small amount (< 1 wt.%) of Na{sub 2}S or K{sub 2}S is sufficient in the binder composition. Here the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results on CBPC waste forms of surrogate waste streams representing secondary Hg containing wastes such as combustion residues and Delphi DETOX{trademark} residues are presented. The results show that although the current limit on leaching of Hg is 0.2 mg/L, the results from the CBPC waste forms are at least one order lower than this stringent limit. Encouraged by these results on surrogate wastes, they treated actual low-level Hg-containing mixed waste from their facility at Idaho. TCLP results on this waste are presented here. The efficient stabilization in all these cases is attributed to chemical immobilization as both a sulfide (cinnabar) and a phosphate, followed by its physical encapsulation in a dense matrix of the ceramic.

  5. Selenium inhibits the phytotoxicity of mercury in garlic (Allium sativum)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Jiating [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)] [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, Yuxi, E-mail: gaoyx@ihep.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)] [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yu-Feng; Hu, Yi; Peng, Xiaomin [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)] [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dong, Yuanxing [Department of Physics, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou 034000 (China)] [Department of Physics, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou 034000 (China); Li, Bai; Chen, Chunying [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)] [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chai, Zhifang, E-mail: chaizf@ihep.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)] [CAS Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterial and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) and selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2?}) or selenate (SeO{sub 4}{sup 2?}). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (?-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (?-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (>1 mg/L of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2?} or SeO{sub 4}{sup 2?}) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation of Hg when Hg{sup 2+} levels are higher than 1 mg/L in culture media. SeO{sub 3}{sup 2?} and SeO{sub 4}{sup 2?} were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using ?-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. ?-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg–S bonding as Hg(GSH){sub 2} and Hg(Met){sub 2}. Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg–S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH){sub 2}, together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic. -- Highlights: ? Hg phytotoxicity can be mitigated by Se supplement in garlic growth. ? Se can inhibit the accumulation and transportation of Hg in garlic tissues. ? Localization and speciation of Hg in garlic can be modified by Se.

  6. Synthesis, crystal and electronic structure, and physical properties of the new lanthanum copper telluride La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelinska, Mariya; Assoud, Abdeljalil [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Kleinke, Holger, E-mail: kleinke@uwaterloo.c [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The new lanthanum copper telluride La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} has been obtained by annealing the elements at 1073 K. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the title compound crystallizes in a new structure type, space group Pnma (no. 62) with lattice dimensions of a=8.2326(3) A, b=25.9466(9) A, c=7.3402(3) A, V=1567.9(1) A{sup 3}, Z=4 for La{sub 3}Cu{sub 4.86(4)}Te{sub 7}. The structure of La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} is remarkably complex. The Cu and Te atoms build up a three-dimensional covalent network. The coordination polyhedra include trigonal LaTe{sub 6} prisms, capped trigonal LaTe{sub 7} prisms, CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra, and CuTe{sub 3} pyramids. All Cu sites exhibit deficiencies of various extents. Electrical property measurements on a sintered pellet of La{sub 3}Cu{sub 4.86}Te{sub 7} indicate that it is a p-type semiconductor in accordance with the electronic structure calculations. -- Graphical abstract: Oligomeric unit comprising interconnected CuTe{sub 3} pyramids and CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} adopts a new structure type. {yields} All Cu sites exhibit deficiencies of various extents. {yields} The coordination polyhedra include trigonal LaTe{sub 6} prisms, capped trigonal LaTe{sub 7} prisms, CuTe{sub 4} tetrahedra and CuTe{sub 3} pyramids. {yields} La{sub 3}Cu{sub 5-x}Te{sub 7} is a p-type semiconductor.

  7. Selective partitioning of mercury from co-extracted actinides in a simulated acidic ICPP waste stream

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Tranter, T.J. [and others

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The TRUEX process is being evaluated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) as a means to partition the actinides from acidic sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The mercury content of this waste averages 1 g/l. Because the chemistry of mercury has not been extensively evaluated in the TRUEX process, mercury was singled out as an element of interest. Radioactive mercury, {sup 203}Hg, was spiked into a simulated solution of SBW containing 1 g/l mercury. Successive extraction batch contacts with the mercury spiked waste simulant and successive scrubbing and stripping batch contacts of the mercury loaded TRUEX solvent (0.2 M CMPO-1.4 M TBP in dodecane) show that mercury will extract into and strip from the solvent. The extraction distribution coefficient for mercury, as HgCl{sub 2} from SBW having a nitric acid concentration of 1.4 M and a chloride concentration of 0.035 M was found to be 3. The stripping distribution coefficient was found to be 0.5 with 5 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.077 with 0.25 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. An experimental flowsheet was designed from the batch contact tests and tested counter-currently using 5.5 cm centrifugal contactors. Results from the counter-current test show that mercury can be removed from the acidic mixed SBW simulant and recovered separately from the actinides.

  8. Investigation of a mercury speciation technique for flue gas desulfurization materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.Y.; Cho K.; Cheng L.; Keener, T.C.; Jegadeesan G.; Al-Abed, S.R. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Most of the synthetic gypsum generated from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers is currently being used for wallboard production. Because oxidized mercury is readily captured by the wet FGD scrubber, and coal-fired power plants equipped with wet scrubbers desire to benefit from the partial mercury control that these systems provide, some mercury is likely to be bound in with the FGD gypsum and wallboard. In this study, the feasibility of identifying mercury species in the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples was investigated using a large sample size thermal desorption method and samples from power plants in Pennsylvania. Potential candidates of pure mercury standards including mercuric chloride, mercurous chloride, mercury oxide, mercury sulfide, and mercuric sulfate were analyzed to compare their results with those obtained from FGD gypsum and dry wallboard samples. Although any of the thermal evolutionary curves obtained from these pure mercury standards did not exactly match with those of the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, it was identified that Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and HgCl{sub 2} could be candidates. An additional chlorine analysis from the gypsum and wallboard samples indicated that the chlorine concentrations were approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than the mercury concentrations, suggesting possible chlorine association with mercury. 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Figure 2: The mercury jet target geometry. The proton beam and mercury jet cross at z=-37.5 cm.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    that the meson production loss is negligible (beta functions of 0.3m or greater. ENERGY DEPOSITION by the focusing of the proton beam. The energy deposition in the capture system is determined and the shielding. These muons are first produced by focusing a proton beam on to a liquid mercury target, where low-energy pions

  10. Assessing the Risk of Mercury in Drinking Water after UV Lamp Breaks Page 1 Assessing the Risk of Mercury in Drinking Water after UV Lamp Breaks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy through temperature and pressure to drive the mercury into a vapor phase. Mercury is a heavy metal, and is regulated in drinking water by the EPA through the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). If an on-line lamp break historically the U.S. has been skeptical to implement UV into drinking water systems, many areas of Europe

  11. Low-Cost Options for Moderate Levels of Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2008-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report for a three-site project that is part of an overall program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) and industry partners to obtain the necessary information to assess the feasibility and costs of controlling mercury from coal-fired utility plants. This report summarizes results from tests conducted at MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station and Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station (ISES) and sorbent screening at MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center (CBEC) (subsequently renamed Walter Scott Energy Center (WSEC)). Detailed results for Independence and Louisa are presented in the respective Topical Reports. As no full-scale testing was conducted at CBEC, screening updates were provided in the quarterly updates to DOE. ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and other industry partners, has conducted evaluations of EPRI's TOXECON II{trademark} process and of high-temperature reagents and sorbents to determine the capabilities of sorbent/reagent injection, including activated carbon, for mercury control on different coals and air emissions control equipment configurations. An overview of each plant configuration is presented: (1) MidAmerican's Louisa Generating Station burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal in its 700-MW Unit 1 and employs hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) with flue gas conditioning for particulate control. This part of the testing program evaluated the effect of reagents used in the existing flue gas conditioning on mercury removal. (2) MidAmerican's Council Bluffs Energy Center typically burns PRB coal in its 88-MW Unit 2. It employs a hot-side ESP for particulate control. Solid sorbents were screened for hot-side injection. (3) Entergy's Independence Steam Electric Station typically burns PRB coal in its 880-MW Unit 2. Various sorbent injection tests were conducted on 1/8 to 1/32 of the flue gas stream either within or in front of one of four ESP boxes (SCA = 542 ft{sup 2}/kacfm), specifically ESP B. Initial mercury control evaluations indicated that although significant mercury control could be achieved by using the TOXECON II{trademark} design, the sorbent concentration required was higher than expected, possibly due to poor sorbent distribution. Subsequently, the original injection grid design was modeled and the results revealed that the sorbent distribution pattern was determined by the grid design, fluctuations in flue gas flow rates, and the structure of the ESP box. To improve sorbent distribution, the injection grid and delivery system were redesigned and the effectiveness of the redesigned system was evaluated. This project was funded through the DOE/NETL Innovations for Existing Plants program. It was a Phase II project with the goal of developing mercury control technologies that can achieve 50-70% mercury capture at costs 25-50% less than baseline estimates of $50,000-$70,000/lb of mercury removed. Results from testing at Independence indicate that the DOE goal was successfully achieved. Further improvements in the process are recommended, however. Results from testing at Louisa indicate that the DOE goal was not achievable using the tested high-temperature sorbent. Sorbent screening at Council Bluffs also indicated that traditional solid sorbents may not achieve significant mercury removal in hot-side applications.

  12. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T. [and others

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent.

  13. Demonstration Results on the Effects of Mercury Speciation on the Stabilization of Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conley, T.B.; Hulet, G.A.; Morris, M.I.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury-contaminated wastes are currently being stored at approximately 19 Department of Energy sites, the volume of which is estimated to be about 16m(sup)3. These wastes exist in various forms including soil, sludges, and debris, which present a particular challenge regarding possible mercury stabilization methods. This reports provides the test results of three vendors, Allied Technology Group, IT Corporation, and Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., that demonstrate the effects of mercury speciation on the stabilization of the mercury wastes. Mercury present in concentrations that exceed 260 parts per million must be removed by extraction methods and requires stabilization to ensure that the final wasteforms leach less than 0.2mg/L of mercury by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure or 0.025 mg/L using the Universal Treatment Standard.

  14. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekney, N.J.; Martello, D.V.; Schroeder, K.T.; Granite, E.J.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7-day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m2 h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m2 h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  15. Renal function in relation to low levels of cadmium exposure in a group of smelter workers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazantzis, G.; Armstrong, B.G.

    1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Blood and urine samples were obtained from 274 smelter workers and urine samples from 48 controls. Cadmium, ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin, and creatinine were estimated in blood and urine, and total protein in urine. Concentrations of cadmium in urine (mean 2.0 nmole/mmole creatinine) and blood (mean 21.8 nmole/L) observed in the smelter workers confirmed that this group had absorbed more cadmium than the general population, but less than most other occupationally exposed groups studied. Mean ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin in urine was not significantly different in the smelter workers and the controls. The mean total protein in urine was 20% higher in the smelter workers, a difference which was significant. There was no consistent picture within the smelter workers of a relationship between history of cadmium exposure and the effect measures of ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin in urine and blood, total protein in urine, creatinine clearance and relative ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin clearance. Small but significant positive correlation coefficients were observed between cadmium in urine and ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin in urine, total protein in urine and ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin clearance although these may be artifactual. 14 references, 12 tables.

  16. Atmospheric Mercury near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir in Southern Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Abbott; Jeffrey J. Einerson

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) were measured over two-week seasonal field campaigns near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir in south-central Idaho from the summer of 2005 through the fall of 2006 and over the entire summer of 2006 using automated Tekran mercury analyzers. GEM, RGM, and particulate mercury (HgP) were also measured at a secondary site 90 km to the west in southwestern Idaho during the summer of 2006. The study was performed to characterize mercury air concentrations in the southern Idaho area for the first time, estimate mercury dry deposition rates, and investigate the source of observed elevated concentrations. High seasonal variability was observed with the highest GEM (1.91 ± 0.9 ng m-3) and RGM (8.1 ± 5.6 pg m-3) concentrations occurring in the summer and lower values in the winter (1.32 ± 0.3 ng m-3, 3.2 ± 2.9 pg m-3 for GEM, RGM respectively). The summer-average HgP concentrations were generally below detection limit (0.6 ± 1 pg m-3). Seasonally-averaged deposition velocities calculated using a resistance model were 0.034 ± 0.032, 0.043 ± 0.040, 0.00084 ± 0.0017 and 0.00036 ± 0.0011 cm s-1 for GEM (spring, summer, fall, and winter, respectively) and 0.50 ± 0.39, 0.40 ± 0.31, 0.51 ± 0.43 and 0.76 ± 0.57 cm s-1 for RGM. The total annual RGM + GEM dry deposition estimate was calculated to be 11.9 ± 3.3 µg m-2, or about 2/3 of the total (wet + dry) deposition estimate for the area. Periodic elevated short-term GEM (2.2 – 12 ng m-3) and RGM (50 - 150 pg m-3) events were observed primarily during the warm seasons. Back-trajectory modeling and PSCF analysis indicated predominant source directions from the southeast (western Utah, northeastern Nevada) through the southwest (north-central Nevada) with fewer inputs from the northwest (southeastern Oregon and southwestern Idaho).

  17. MERCURY CONTROL WITH THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanley J. Miller; Ye Zhuang; Michelle R. Olderbak

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addresses Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team includes the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and is now marketed as the ADVANCED HYBRID{trademark} Filter by Gore. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas-solid contactor. The objective of the three-task project is to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the AHPC at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach includes bench-scale batch testing that ties the new work to previous results and links results with larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, pilot-scale testing on a coal-fired combustion system with both a pulse-jet baghouse and an AHPC to prove or disprove the research hypotheses, and field demonstration pilot-scale testing at a utility power plant to prove scaleup and demonstrate longer-term mercury control. This project, if successful, will demonstrate at the pilot-scale level a technology that would provide a cost-effective technique to accomplish control of mercury emissions and, at the same time, greatly enhance fine particulate collection efficiency. The technology can be used to retrofit systems currently employing inefficient ESP technology as well as for new construction, thereby providing a solution to a large segment of the U.S. utility industry as well as other industries requiring mercury control.

  18. A meta-analysis of literature data relating to the relationships between cadmium intake and toxicity indicators in humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omarova, A. [Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0ES (United Kingdom); Institute of Human and Animal Physiology, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Phillips, C.J.C. [Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0ES (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: c.phillips@uq.edu.au

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between cadmium (Cd) intake and cadmium toxicity indicators by meta-analysis of literature data, in particular {beta}2-microglobulin ({beta}2MC), and to compare the results with the current Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) set by FAO/WHO. The literature survey identified 79 feeding trials involving 27,537 people that were suitable for extraction of cadmium intake, levels in blood and urine and {beta}2-microglobulin in urine. There was an exponential increase in {beta}2-microglobulin with increases in cadmium intake above 302 {mu}g/day, which corresponds to a PTWI of 3.02 {mu}g/kg of body weight, when a safety margin of 10 is included. This compares with the current level set by FAO/WHO of 7 {mu}g/kg of body weight. Cadmium in blood and urine were also positively related to cadmium intake and participants' age. There were two principal components of variation in the data set, first: cadmium intake, concentrations of cadmium in blood, urine and {beta}2-microglobulin in urine, and second: duration and age of exposure.

  19. Fast-neutron interaction with collective cadmium nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Differential neutron elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental cadmium are measured from [approx] 1.5 to 10 MeV. From [approx] 1.5 to 3.0 MeV the measurements are made at [approx] 100 keV incident-neutron energy intervals and at 10 scattering angles distributed between [approx] 200 and 160[degree]. From 3 to 4 MeV the measurements are made at [approx] 200 MeV intervals and at 20 angles. Above 4 MeV the incident-energy interval is [approx] 0.5 MeV with [ge] 40 differential values at each incident energy, distributed between [approx] 18 and 160[degree]. Concurrently, differential cross sections for the excitation of observed levels'' at 0.589 [plus minus] 0.047, 1.291 [plus minus] 0.066 and 1.839 [plus minus] 0.57 MeV are determined, with attention to the direct excitation of the yrast 2[sup +] levels of the even isotopes ([approx] 75% abundant) and of the 3/2[sup +] and 5/2[sup +] levels of the odd isotopes ([approx] 75% abundant). Optical-statistical, dispersive-optical and coupled-channels interpretations are carried out and comparisons made with regional'' and global'' parameters. Consideration is given to the fundamental nature of the real potential in the vicinity of the Fermi Surface with implications on the equation of state and the reduced mass, in the context of the dispersive optical model.

  20. Reel danger: power plant mercury pollution and the fish we eat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figdor, E. [US Public Interest Research Group Education Fund (US PIRG) for Clear the Air, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is based on the first available data from US EPA's ongoing National Study of Chemical Residues in Lake Fish Tissue. From 1999-2001, EPA collected approximately two composite samples of one predator fish species and one bottom-dwelling fish species at 260 lakes, for a total of 520 composite samples, or 2,547 fish. It was found that every fish tested was contaminated with mercury. 55% of the fish tested contained mercury levels that exceed EPA's 'safe' limit for women of childbearing age, and 76% exceeded the safe limit for children under age three. Predator fish, including smallmouth bass, walleye, largemouth bass, lake trout, and Northern pike, had the highest average mercury concentrations. Coal-fired power plants are the single largest source of mercury emissions, contributing 41% of US mercury emissions. They released 90,370 pounds of mercury into the air in 2002, the most recent year for which EPA data are available. In January 2004, the Bush administration issued a proposal for regulating mercury from power plants. In the author's opinion, the EPA's proposal would delay even modest reductions in mercury emissions from power plants until after 2025. In contrast, the Clean Air Act calls for the maximum achievable reductions by 2008. It is recommended that the Bush administration reverse course and require coal-fired power plants to reduce mercury emissions by at least 90% by 2008. 79 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs., 3 apps.

  1. Packaging a liquid metal ESD with micro-scale Mercury droplet.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnard, Casey Anderson

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid metal ESD is being developed to provide electrical switching at different acceleration levels. The metal will act as both proof mass and electric contact. Mercury is chosen to comply with operation parameters. There are many challenges surrounding the deposition and containment of micro scale mercury droplets. Novel methods of micro liquid transfer are developed to deliver controllable amounts of mercury to the appropriate channels in volumes under 1 uL. Issues of hermetic sealing and avoidance of mercury contamination are also addressed.

  2. Continuous mercury monitor for thermal treatment and waste-to-energy operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlager, R.J.; Wilson, K.G.; Sappey, A.D.; Anderson, G.L.; Sagan, F.J. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Treating wastes by thermal means offers benefits in terms of reducing waste volumes and in recovering energy values from the wastes. Thermal treatment has been an effective technology for a number of years, and is being used more in the US. Significant sources of waste in the US are municipal solid waste, hospital wastes, hazardous wastes, and wastes generated form the DOE complex. Mercury is found in these wastes and is emitted as a pollutant from sources that treat these materials thermally. Because of mercury`s toxicity, there is a considerable amount of activity aimed at its regulation and control. One of the key elements to effectively control the release of mercury is the ability to continuously monitor its concentration from emitting sources. ADA Technologies is developing a continuous monitoring system for measuring these emissions in real time. A real-time analyzer will assure that compliance limits are met and that emissions are kept as low as possible. Because mercury is emitted from sources in several different forms, such as elemental mercury and mercuric chloride, provisions have been incorporated in the analyzer that will allow for the measurement of all mercury compounds. The system will provide a number of advantages over existing test methods: (1) it will provide a real-time measure of emissions rates; (2) it will assure facility operators, regulators, and the public that emissions control systems are working at peak efficiency; and (3) it will provide information as to the nature of the emitted mercury (elemental mercury or speciated compounds).

  3. FGD Additives to Segregate and Sequester Mercury in Solid Byproducts - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Searcy, K; Bltyhe, G M; Steen, W A

    2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Many mercury control strategies for U.S. coal-fired power generating plants involve co-benefit capture of oxidized mercury from flue gases treated by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. For these processes to be effective at overall mercury control, the captured mercury must not be re-emitted to the atmosphere or into surface or ground water. The project sought to identify scrubber additives and FGD operating conditions under which mercury re-emissions would decrease and mercury would remain in the liquor and be blown down from the system in the chloride purge stream. After exiting the FGD system, mercury would react with precipitating agents to form stable solid byproducts and would be removed in a dewatering step. The FGD gypsum solids, free of most of the mercury, could then be disposed or processed for reuse as wallboard or in other beneficial reuse. The project comprised extensive bench-scale FGD scrubber tests in Phases I and II. During Phase II, the approaches developed at the bench scale were tested at the pilot scale. Laboratory wastewater treatment tests measured the performance of precipitating agents in removing mercury from the chloride purge stream. Finally, the economic viability of the approaches tested was evaluated.

  4. General Relativity Problem of Mercury's Perihelion Advance Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vankov, Anatoli A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work is devoted to the critical analysis of theoretical prediction and astronomical observation of GR effects, first of all, the Mercury's perihelion advance. In the first part, the methodological issues of observations are discussed including a practice of observations, a method of recognizing the relativistic properties of the effect and recovering it from bulk of raw data, a parametric observational model, and finally, methods of assessment of the effect value and statistical level of confidence. In the second part, the Mercury's perihelion advance and other theoretical problems are discussed in relationship with the GR physical foundations. Controversies in literature devoted to the GR tests are analyzed. The unified GR approach to particles and photons is discussed with the emphasis on the GR classical tests. Finally, the alternative theory of relativistic effect treatment is presented.

  5. General Relativity Problem of Mercury's Perihelion Advance Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anatoli A. Vankov

    2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The work is devoted to the critical analysis of theoretical prediction and astronomical observation of GR effects, first of all, the Mercury's perihelion advance. In the first part, the methodological issues of observations are discussed including a practice of observations, a method of recognizing the relativistic properties of the effect and recovering it from bulk of raw data, a parametric observational model, and finally, methods of assessment of the effect value and statistical level of confidence. In the second part, the Mercury's perihelion advance and other theoretical problems are discussed in relationship with the GR physical foundations. Controversies in literature devoted to the GR tests are analyzed. The unified GR approach to particles and photons is discussed with the emphasis on the GR classical tests. Finally, the alternative theory of relativistic effect treatment is presented.

  6. Evaluation of Cadmium-Free Thick Film Materials on Alumina Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. H. Perdieu

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new cadmium-free material system was successfully evaluated for the fabrication of thick film hybrid microcircuits at Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T). The characterization involved screen printing, drying and firing two groups of resistor networks which were made using the current material system and the cadmium-free material system. Electrical, environmental and adhesion tests were performed on both groups to determine the more suitable material system. Additionally, untrimmed test coupons were evaluated to further characterize the new materials. The cadmiumfree material system did as well or better than the current material system. Therefore, the new cadmium-free material system was approved for use on production thick film product.

  7. Field evaluation of methodology for measurement of cadmium in stationary-source stack gases. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moseman, R.F.; Bath, D.B.; McReynolds, J.R.; Holder, D.J.; Sykes, A.L.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory and field-evaluation study was done to develop methodology for the measurement of cadmium in stationary-source stack emissions. Field evaluations were performed at a municipal solid-waste incinerator and a sewage-sludge incinerator. The methodology was tested through the laboratory and field-sampling validation phases to evaluate precision and accuracy of the proposed method. Colocated, quadruplicate flue-gas samples of nominally 30 and 60 dscf in 1 and 2 hours sampling time were collected to assure an adequate cadmium content, a representative sample, and the production of data to validate the method in terms of between-train precision. The overall accuracy and precision of the analysis procedure were 89.2% and 1.7%, respectively. The detection limit of the atomic absorption instrument was 0.03 ug/mL. The methodology proved to be a reliable sampling approach to determine cadmium emissions from the stationary sources tested.

  8. Influence of cadmium on ketamine-induced anesthesia and brain microsomal Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase in mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Y.; Sangiah, S. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States))

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cadmium is a rare metallic element, present in almost all types of food. Shellfish, wheat and rice accumulate very high amounts. Occupational and environmental pollutants are the main sources of cadmium exposure. Cadmium has a very long biologic half-life. Exposure to Cadmium causes anemia, hypertension, hepatic, renal, pulmonary and cardiovascular disorders as well as being a possible mutagen, teratogen and carcinogen. Acute cadmium treatment increased the hexobarbital sleeping time and inhibited hepatic microsomal drug metabolism due to a decrease in cytochrome P[sub 450] content. Cadmium potentiated ethanol-induced sleep in a dose-dependent manner. Cadmium has been shown to inhibit brain microsomal Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase activity in vitro and in vivo. Cadmium and ethanol additively inhibited brain Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase. This might be a direct interaction between cadmium and ethanol in the central nervous system. Ketamine is an intravenous anesthetic agent. It acts on central nervous system and produces [open quotes]dissociative anaesthesia.[close quotes] Ketamine provides adequate surgical anesthesia and is used alone in humans and/or combination with xylazine, an [alpha][sub 2]-adrenergic agonist in animals. It produces CNS depression, analgesia, amnesia, immobility and a feeling of dissociation from the environment. Ketamine is a non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA subset of the glutamate receptor. This perhaps results in an increase in neuronal activity leading to disorganization of normal neurotransmission and produces dissociative anesthetic state. Because it is different from most other anesthetics, ketamine may be expected to have a unique effect on brain biochemical parameters and enzymes. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactions between cadmium and ketamine on the central nervous system and ATPase, in an attempt to further understand the mechanism of action. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Stimulation of erythrocyte phosphatidylserine exposure by mercury ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisele, Kerstin [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Lang, Philipp A. [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Kempe, Daniela S. [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Klarl, Barbara A. [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Niemoeller, Olivier [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Wieder, Thomas [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Huber, Stephan M. [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Duranton, Christophe [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Lang, Florian [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany)]. E-mail: florian.lang@uni-tuebingen.de

    2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The sequelae of mercury intoxication include induction of apoptosis. In nucleated cells, Hg{sup 2+}-induced apoptosis involves mitochondrial damage. The present study has been performed to elucidate effects of Hg{sup 2+} in erythrocytes which lack mitochondria but are able to undergo apoptosis-like alterations of the cell membrane. Previous studies have documented that activation of a Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive erythrocyte scramblase leads to exposure of phosphatidylserine at the erythrocyte surface, a typical feature of apoptotic cells. The erythrocyte scramblase is activated by osmotic shock, oxidative stress and/or energy depletion which increase cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} activity and/or activate a sphingomyelinase leading to formation of ceramide. Ceramide sensitizes the scramblase to Ca{sup 2+}. The present experiments explored the effect of Hg{sup 2+} ions on erythrocytes. Phosphatidylserine exposure after mercury treatment was estimated from annexin binding as determined in FACS analysis. Exposure to Hg{sup 2+} (1 {mu}M) indeed significantly increased annexin binding from 2.3 {+-} 0.5% (control condition) to 23 {+-} 6% (n = 6). This effect was paralleled by activation of a clotrimazole-sensitive K{sup +}-selective conductance as measured by patch-clamp recordings and by transient cell shrinkage. Further experiments revealed also an increase of ceramide formation by {approx}66% (n = 7) after challenge with mercury (1 {mu}M). In conclusion, mercury ions activate a clotrimazole-sensitive K{sup +}-selective conductance leading to transient cell shrinkage. Moreover, Hg{sup 2+} increases ceramide formation. The observed mechanisms could similarly participate in the triggering of apoptosis in nucleated cells by Hg{sup 2+}.

  10. Mercury Contamination in Pelagic Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuklyte, Ligita

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    radiation and moisture. At higher pH and temperature Hg mobilization and emission from soil increases (Gabriel & Williamson 2004). Mercury is deposited into aquatic ecosystems by the same processes. In surface waters it occurs as dissolved free ions...), length at year one (cm) and percentage (%) of bony fish in their diet. Species name Trophic adult position Max age Max length Length at year one Fish % in diet References blackfin tuna 4.13 5 93 45 70% (Doray et al. 2004) (Robert...

  11. Semi-continuous detection of mercury in gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method for the semi-continuous detection of heavy metals and metalloids including mercury in gaseous streams. The method entails mass measurement of heavy metal oxides and metalloid oxides with a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor having an uncoated substrate. An array of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors can be used where each sensor is for the semi-continuous emission monitoring of a particular heavy metal or metalloid.

  12. Kinetics of Mercury(II) Adsorption and Desorption on Soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Kinetics of Mercury(II) Adsorption and Desorption on Soil Y U J U N Y I N , H E R B E R T E . A L L of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 D O N A L D L . S P A R K S Department of Plant and Soil Sciences kinetics of Hg(II) on four soils at pH 6 were investigated to discern the mechanisms controlling

  13. Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

    2008-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

  14. Mercury toxicokinetics-dependency on strain and gender

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekstrand, Jimmy [Molecular and Immunological Pathology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Nielsen, Jesper B. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000 Odense C (Denmark); Havarinasab, Said [Molecular and Immunological Pathology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Zalups, Rudolfs K. [Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Mercer University School of Medicine, 1550 College Street, Macon, GA 31207 (United States); Soederkvist, Peter [Cell Biology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Hultman, Per, E-mail: perhu@imk.liu.s [Molecular and Immunological Pathology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linkoeping University, SE-581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury (Hg) exposure from dental amalgam fillings and thimerosal in vaccines is not a major health hazard, but adverse health effects cannot be ruled out in a small and more susceptible part of the exposed population. Individual differences in toxicokinetics may explain susceptibility to mercury. Inbred, H-2-congenic A.SW and B10.S mice and their F1- and F2-hybrids were given HgCl{sub 2} with 2.0 mg Hg/L drinking water and traces of {sup 203}Hg. Whole-body retention (WBR) was monitored until steady state after 5 weeks, when the organ Hg content was assessed. Despite similar Hg intake, A.SW males attained a 20-30% significantly higher WBR and 2- to 5-fold higher total renal Hg retention/concentration than A.SW females and B10.S mice. A selective renal Hg accumulation but of lower magnitude was seen also in B10.S males compared with females. Differences in WBR and organ Hg accumulation are therefore regulated by non-H-2 genes and gender. Lymph nodes lacked the strain- and gender-dependent Hg accumulation profile of kidney, liver and spleen. After 15 days without Hg A.SW mice showed a 4-fold higher WBR and liver Hg concentration, but 11-fold higher renal Hg concentration, showing the key role for the kidneys in explaining the slower Hg elimination in A.SW mice. The trait causing higher mercury accumulation was not dominantly inherited in the F1 hybrids. F2 mice showed a large inter-individual variation in Hg accumulation, showing that multiple genetic factors influence the Hg toxicokinetics in the mouse. The genetically heterogeneous human population may therefore show a large variation in mercury toxicokinetics.

  15. JV Task 96 - Phase 2 - Investigating the Importance of the Mercury-Selenium Interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicholas Ralston; Laura Raymond

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to improve the understanding of the mercury issue, it is vital to study mercury's effects on selenium physiology. While mercury present in the environment or food sources may pose health risks, the protective effects of selenium have not been adequately considered in establishing regulatory policy. Numerous studies report that vulnerability to mercury toxicity is inversely proportional to selenium status or level. However, selenium status has not been considered in the development of the reference dosage levels for mercury exposure. Experimental animals fed low-selenium diets are far more vulnerable to mercury toxicity than animals fed normal selenium, and animals fed selenium-rich diets are even more resistant. Selenium-dependent enzymes in brain and endocrine tissues can be impaired by excessive mercury exposure, apparently because mercury has an extremely high binding affinity for selenium. When selenium becomes bound to mercury, it is unable to participate in the metabolic cycling of selenoprotein synthesis. Because of mercury-dependent impairments of selenoprotein synthesis, various antioxidant and regulatory functions in brain biochemistry are compromised. This report details a 2-year multiclient-funded research program designed to examine the interactions between mercury and selenium in animal models. The studies explored the effects of dietary intakes of toxic amounts of methylmercury and the protective effects of the normal dietary range of selenium in counteracting mercury toxicity. This study finds that the amounts of selenium present in ocean fish are sufficient to protect against far larger quantities of methylmercury than those present in typical seafoods. Toxic effects of methylmercury exposure were not directly proportional to mercury concentrations in blood, brain, or any other tissues. Instead, mercury toxicity was proportional to molar ratios of mercury relative to selenium. In order to accurately assess risk associated with methylmercury or mercury exposures, mercury-selenium ratios appear to be far more accurate and effective in identifying risk and protecting human and environmental health. This study also finds that methylmercury toxicity can be effectively treated by dietary selenium, preventing the death and progressive disabilities that otherwise occur in methylmercury-treated subjects. Remarkably, the positive response to selenium therapy was essentially equivalent regardless of whether or not toxic amounts of methylmercury were still administered. The findings of the Physiologically Oriented Integration of Nutrients and Toxins (POINT) models of the effects of mercury and selenium developed in this project are consistent with the hypothesis that mercury toxicity arises because of mercury-dependent inhibition of selenium availability in brain and endocrine tissues. This appears to occur through synergistic effects of mercury-dependent inhibition of selenium transport to these tissues and selective sequestration of the selenium present in the tissues. Compromised transport of selenium to the brain and endocrine tissues would be particularly hazardous to the developing fetus because the rapidly growing tissues of the child have no selenium reserves. Therefore, maternal consumption of foods with high mercury-selenium ratios is hazardous. In summation, methylmercury exposure is unlikely to cause harm in populations that eat selenium-rich diets but may cause harm among populations that consume certain foods that have methylmercury present in excess of selenium.

  16. Sources of Mercury to East Fork Poplar Creek Downstream from the Y-12 National Security Complex: Inventories and Export Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southworth, George R [ORNL; Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Lowe, Kenneth Alan [ORNL; Ketelle, Richard H [ORNL; Floyd, Stephanie B [ORNL

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been heavily contaminated with mercury (also referred to as Hg) since the 1950s as a result of historical activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and hereinafter referred to as Y-12). During the period from 1950 to 1963, spills and leaks of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) contaminated soil, building foundations, and subsurface drainage pathways at the site, while intentional discharges of mercury-laden wastewater added 100 metric tons of mercury directly to the creek (Turner and Southworth 1999). The inventory of mercury estimated to be lost to soil and rock within the facility was 194 metric tons, with another estimated 70 metric tons deposited in floodplain soils along the 25 km length of EFPC (Turner and Southworth 1999). Remedial actions within the facility reduced mercury concentrations in EFPC water at the Y-12 boundary from > 2500 ng/L to about 600 ng/L by 1999 (Southworth et al. 2000). Further actions have reduced average total mercury concentration at that site to {approx}300 ng/L (2009 RER). Additional source control measures planned for future implementation within the facility include sediment/soil removal, storm drain relining, and restriction of rainfall infiltration within mercury-contaminated areas. Recent plans to demolish contaminated buildings within the former mercury-use areas provide an opportunity to reconstruct the storm drain system to prevent the entry of mercury-contaminated water into the flow of EFPC. Such actions have the potential to reduce mercury inputs from the industrial complex by perhaps as much as another 80%. The transformation and bioaccumulation of mercury in the EFPC ecosystem has been a perplexing subject since intensive investigation of the issue began in the mid 1980s. Although EFPC was highly contaminated with mercury (waterborne mercury exceeded background levels by 1000-fold, mercury in sediments by more than 2000-fold) in the 1980s, mercury concentrations in EFPC fish exceeded those in fish from regional reference sites by only a little more than 10-fold. This apparent low bioavailability of mercury in EFPC, coupled with a downstream pattern of mercury in fish in which mercury decreased in proportion to dilution of the upstream source, lead to the assumption that mercury in fish would respond to decreased inputs of dissolved mercury to the stream's headwaters. However, during the past two decades when mercury inputs were decreasing, mercury concentrations in fish in Lower EFPC (LEFPC) downstream of Y-12 increased while those in Upper EFPC (UEFPC) decreased. The key assumption of the ongoing cleanup efforts, and concentration goal for waterborne mercury were both called into question by the long-term monitoring data. The large inventory of mercury within the watershed downstream presents a concern that the successful treatment of sources in the headwaters may not be sufficient to reduce mercury bioaccumulation within the system to desired levels. The relative importance of headwater versus floodplain mercury sources in contributing to mercury bioaccumulation in EFPC is unknown. A mercury transport study conducted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in 1984 estimated that floodplain sources contributed about 80% of the total annual mercury export from the EFPC system (ORTF 1985). Most of the floodplain inputs were associated with wet weather, high flow events, while much of the headwater flux occurred under baseflow conditions. Thus, day-to-day exposure of biota to waterborne mercury was assumed to be primarily determined by the Y-12 source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of recent studies and monitoring within the EFPC drainage with a focus on discerning the magnitude of floodplain mercury sources and how long these sources might continue to contaminate the system after headwater sources are eliminated or greatly reduced.

  17. In situ measurements of speciated atmospheric mercury and the identification of source regions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutter, A. P.

    In order to expand the currently limited understanding of atmospheric mercury source-receptor relationships in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, real time measurements of atmospheric mercury were made at a downtown urban ...

  18. The numerical solution of a nickel-cadmium battery cell model using the method of lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hailu, Teshome

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF A NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERY CELL MODEL USING THE METHOD OF LINES A Thesis by TESHOME HAILU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies Texas Adi:M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering THE NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF A NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERY CELL MODEL USING THE METHOD OF LINES A Thesis by TESHOME HAILU Approved as to style and content by: Ralph E. White (Chairman...

  19. Glutathione enzyme and selenoprotein polymorphisms associate with mercury biomarker levels in Michigan dental professionals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)] [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Gillespie, Brenda [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Werner, Robert [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States) [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan, 325 E. Eisenhower Parkway Suite 100, Ann Arbor, MI 48108 (United States); Franzblau, Alfred [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)] [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Basu, Niladri, E-mail: niladri@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)] [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury is a potent toxicant of concern to both the general public and occupationally exposed workers (e.g., dentists). Recent studies suggest that several genes mediating the toxicokinetics of mercury are polymorphic in humans and may influence inter-individual variability in mercury accumulation. This work hypothesizes that polymorphisms in key glutathione synthesizing enzyme, glutathione s-transferase, and selenoprotein genes underlie inter-individual differences in mercury body burden as assessed by analytical mercury measurement in urine and hair, biomarkers of elemental mercury and methylmercury, respectively. Urine and hair samples were collected from a population of dental professionals (n = 515), and total mercury content was measured. Average urine (1.06 {+-} 1.24 ug/L) and hair mercury levels (0.49 {+-} 0.63 ug/g) were similar to national U.S. population averages. Taqman assays were used to genotype DNA from buccal swab samples at 15 polymorphic sites in genes implicated in mercury metabolism. Linear regression modeling assessed the ability of polymorphisms to modify the relationship between mercury biomarker levels and exposure sources (e.g., amalgams, fish consumption). Five polymorphisms were significantly associated with urine mercury levels (GSTT1 deletion), hair mercury levels (GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, GSS 5 Prime ), or both (SEPP1 3 Prime UTR). Overall, this study suggests that polymorphisms in selenoproteins and glutathione-related genes may influence elimination of mercury in the urine and hair or mercury retention following exposures to elemental mercury (via dental amalgams) and methylmercury (via fish consumption). -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explore the influence of 15 polymorphisms on urine and hair Hg levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urine and hair Hg levels in dental professionals were similar to the US population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GSTT1 and SEPP1 polymorphisms associated with urine Hg levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accumulation of Hg in hair following exposure from fish was modified by genotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GSTP1, GSS, and SEPP1 polymorphisms influenced Hg accumulation in hair.

  20. Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling efforts.

  1. Cadmium modulates adipocyte functions in metallothionein-null mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawakami, Takashige; Nishiyama, Kaori; Kadota, Yoshito; Sato, Masao; Inoue, Masahisa; Suzuki, Shinya, E-mail: suzukis@ph.bunri-u.ac.jp

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our previous study has demonstrated that exposure to cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, causes a reduction of adipocyte size and the modulation of adipokine expression. To further investigate the significance of the Cd action, we studied the effect of Cd on the white adipose tissue (WAT) of metallothionein null (MT{sup ?/?}) mice, which cannot form atoxic Cd–MT complexes and are used for evaluating Cd as free ions, and wild type (MT{sup +/+}) mice. Cd administration more significantly reduced the adipocyte size of MT{sup ?/?} mice than that of MT{sup +/+} mice. Cd exposure also induced macrophage recruitment to WAT with an increase in the expression level of Ccl2 (MCP-1) in the MT{sup ?/?} mice. The in vitro exposure of Cd to adipocytes induce triglyceride release into culture medium, decrease in the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and lipid hydrolysis at 24 h, and at 48 h increase in phosphorylation of the lipid-droplet-associated protein perilipin, which facilitates the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes. Therefore, the reduction in adipocyte size by Cd may arise from an imbalance between lipid synthesis and lipolysis. In addition, the expression levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin decreased in adipocytes. Taken together, exposure to Cd may induce unusually small adipocytes and modulate the expression of adipokines differently from the case of physiologically small adipocytes, and may accelerate the risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. - Highlights: • Cd causes a marked reduction in adipocyte size in MT-null mice. • Cd enhances macrophage migration into adipose tissue and disrupt adipokine secretion. • MT gene alleviates Cd-induced adipocyte dysfunctions. • Cd enhances the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes, mediated by perilipin. • Cd induces unusually small adipocytes and the abnormal expression of adipokines.

  2. Fast-neutron interaction with collective cadmium nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Differential neutron elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental cadmium are measured from {approx} 1.5 to 10 MeV. From {approx} 1.5 to 3.0 MeV the measurements are made at {approx} 100 keV incident-neutron energy intervals and at 10 scattering angles distributed between {approx} 200 and 160{degree}. From 3 to 4 MeV the measurements are made at {approx} 200 MeV intervals and at 20 angles. Above 4 MeV the incident-energy interval is {approx} 0.5 MeV with {ge} 40 differential values at each incident energy, distributed between {approx} 18 and 160{degree}. Concurrently, differential cross sections for the excitation of observed ``levels`` at 0.589 {plus_minus} 0.047, 1.291 {plus_minus} 0.066 and 1.839 {plus_minus} 0.57 MeV are determined, with attention to the direct excitation of the yrast 2{sup +} levels of the even isotopes ({approx} 75% abundant) and of the 3/2{sup +} and 5/2{sup +} levels of the odd isotopes ({approx} 75% abundant). Optical-statistical, dispersive-optical and coupled-channels interpretations are carried out and comparisons made with ``regional`` and ``global`` parameters. Consideration is given to the fundamental nature of the real potential in the vicinity of the Fermi Surface with implications on the equation of state and the reduced mass, in the context of the dispersive optical model.

  3. Mercury Methylation in Mine Wastes Collected from Abandoned Mercury Mines in the USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, John E. (U.S. Geological Survey); Hines, Mark E. (Massachusetts, Univ Of); Biester, Harald (Heidelberg College); Lasorsa, Brenda K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury mines contain highly elevated Hg contents, but more problematic environmentally are elemental Hg and soluble Hg salts produced during ore retorting that remain in wastes at mine sites. Under certain conditions, these inorganic Hg compounds convert to bioavailable, highly toxic organic Hg forms. Speciation and transformation of Hg was studied in wastes collected from abandoned Hg mines at McDermitt, NV, and Terlingua, TX, which are moderate size on an international scale and produced about 10,000 and 5,000 t of elemental Hg, respectively. In waste samples, we measured total Hg and methyl-Hg contents, identified various Hg compounds using Hg-thermo-desorption pyrolysis, and determined rates of Hg methylation and methyl-Hg demethylation using isotopic-tracer methods. Pyrolysis analysis of mine wastes showed variable amounts of cinnabar, metacinnabar, Hg salts, elemental Hg, and elemental Hg sorbed onto particulates such as clay and Fe-oxides. Mine wastes with the highest methyl-Hg contents correspond to those with elemental Hg and particulate-sorbed elemental Hg, and also produced the highest laboratory-estimated potential Hg methylation rates, as much as 4.8%/day. Samples containing dominantly cinnabar showed little or no Hg methylation. Mine wastes with high methyl-Hg contents generally showed low methyl-Hg demethylation, suggesting that Hg methylation was dominant. Both mines are located in semiarid climates, and during this study, streambeds below the mines were dry. Total Hg contents in stream sediment collected below the mines show significant dilution, and methyl-Hg contents were typically below the limit of determination. Methylation of Hg downstream from Hg mines is probably lower in arid climates due to lack of mine-water runoff and lower microbial activity. The correspondence of mine wastes containing elemental Hg and high methyl-Hg contents suggests that Hg0 oxidizes to Hg2+, which is subsequently bioavailable for microbial Hg methylation.

  4. Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jessica Marshall Sanderson

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents and discusses results from Task 5 of the study ''Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production,'' performed at a full-scale commercial wallboard plant. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. The FGD process is used to control the sulfur dioxide emissions which would result in acid rain if not controlled. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies developed for power plants involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study is to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope includes five discrete tasks, each conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different FGD systems. The five tasks were to include (1) a baseline test, then variations representing differing power plant (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5, which was to evaluate gypsum produced from an alternate FGD reagent, could not be conducted as planned. Instead, Task 5 was conducted at conditions similar to a previous task, Task 3, although with gypsum from an alternate FGD system. In this project, process stacks in the wallboard plant have been sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. The stack locations sampled for each task include a dryer for the wet gypsum as it enters the plant and a gypsum calciner. The stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested as part of this task, and was tested as part of Tasks 1 and 4. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. The Ontario Hydro results, process sample mercury concentration data, and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. Task 5 was conducted at a wallboard plant processing synthetic gypsum from a power plant that fires Eastern bituminous coal. The power plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for NOX emissions control, but the SCR was bypassed during the time period the gypsum tested was produced. The power plant has a single-loop, open spray tower, limestone reagent FGD system, with forced oxidation conducted in a reaction tank integral with the FGD absorber. The FGD system has gypsum fines blow down as part of the dewatering step. Gypsum fines blow down is believed to be an important variable that impacts the amount of mercury in the gypsum byproduct and possibly its stability during the wallboard process. The results of the Task 5 stack testing, as measured by the Ontario Hydro method, detected that an average of 51% of the incoming mercury in the FGD gypsum was emitted during wallboard production. These losses were distributed as 2% or less each across the wet gypsum dryer and product wallboard dryer, and about 50% across the gypsum calciner. Emissions were similar to what Task 3 results showed, on both a percentage and a mass basis, for gypsum produced by a power plant firing bituminous coal and also having gypsum fines blow down as part of the FGD dewatering scheme. As was seen in the Task 1 through 4 results, most of the mercury detected in the stack testing on the wet gypsum dryer and kettle calciner was in the form of elemental mercury. In the wallboard dryer kiln, a more signific

  5. Does proximity to coal-fired power plants influence fish tissue mercury?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Does proximity to coal-fired power plants influence fish tissue mercury? Dana K. Sackett · D. Derek+Business Media, LLC 2010 Abstract Much of the mercury contamination in aquatic biota originates from coal of contaminated fish. In this study, we quantified the relative importance of proximity to coal-fired power plants

  6. Mercury Contamination from Hydraulic Placer-Gold Mining in the Dutch Flat Mining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    179 Mercury Contamination from Hydraulic Placer-Gold Mining in the Dutch Flat Mining District at historic gold mining sites represents a potential risk to human health and the environment. Elemental mercury (quicksilver) was used extensively for the recovery of gold at both placer and hardrock mines

  7. High Mercury Concentrations Reflect Trophic Ecology of Three Deep-Water Chondrichthyans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, Michael C.

    High Mercury Concentrations Reflect Trophic Ecology of Three Deep-Water Chondrichthyans Michael C concentrations were explored for three deep-water chondrichthyans (Etmopterus princeps, Cen- troscymnus position in the trophic web (as indicated by differences in d15 N). Mercury is a major contaminant

  8. LONG-TERM CHANGES IN MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FISH FROM THE MIDDLE SAVANNAH RIVER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paller, M; Bill Littrell, B

    2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Total mercury levels were measured in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), ''sunfishes'' (Lepomis spp)., and ''catfish'' (primarily Ameiurus spp.) from 1971 to 2004 in the middle reaches of the Savannah River, which drains the coastal plain of the southeastern U.S. Mercury levels were highest in 1971 but declined over the next ten years due to the mitigation of point sources of industrial pollution. Mercury levels began to increase in the 1980s as a possible consequence of mercury inputs from tributaries and associated wetlands where mercury concentrations were significantly elevated in water and fish. Mercury levels in Savannah River fish decreased sharply in 2001-2003 coincident with a severe drought in the Savannah River basin, but returned to previous levels in 2004 with the resumption of normal precipitation. Regression models showed that mercury levels in Savannah River fish changed significantly over time and were affected by river discharge. Despite temporal changes, there was little overall difference in Savannah River fish tissue mercury levels between 1971 and 2004.

  9. Mercury speciation in Galveston Bay, Texas: the importance of complexation by natural organic ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Seunghee

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2004 Major Subject: Oceanography MERCURY SPECIATION IN GALVESTON BAY, TEXAS: THE IMPORTANCE OF COMPLEXATION BY NATURAL ORGANIC LIGANDS A Dissertation by SEUNGHEE HAN.... Cifuentes (Member) Paul A. Lindahl (Member) Wilford D. Gardner (Head of Department) December 2004 Major Subject: Oceanography iii ABSTRACT Mercury Speciation in Galveston Bay, Texas: The Importance of Complexation...

  10. A Critical Review on the Heterogeneous Catalytic Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    to tremors, inability to walk, convulsions, and death.1,2 Coal-fired utility boilers, which release more than), are the largest source of mercury pollution.3 However, on average only about 40% of the mercury entering a coal-fired toxic air pollution from coal and oil-fired power plants. The final rule established that the power

  11. Mercury in the Great Lakes Region Sponsored by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. 2020 baseline inventory for mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants: · estimated emissions from inventory for mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants: · Projected emissions in 2020 from U for coal combustion at coal- fired power plants: · technology advances slowly · limited action with respect

  12. Mercury in the Atmosphere, Snow and Melt Water Ponds in the North

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    . Introduction Compared to most heavy metals, mercury behaves excepMercury in the Atmosphere, Snow and Melt Water Ponds in the North Atlantic Ocean during Arctic dominant species, with a northern hemispheric back- ground concentration of 1.7 ng/m3 (3). Under these same

  13. Magnesium-rich crustal compositions on Mercury: Implications for magmatism from petrologic modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hauck II, Steven A.

    Magnesium-rich crustal compositions on Mercury: Implications for magmatism from petrologic modeling December 2012. [1] We have conducted petrologic modeling of MESSENGER-derived compositions and analog-rich crustal compositions on Mercury: Implications for magmatism from petrologic modeling, J. Geophys. Res

  14. Mercury: A second-generation KrF laser for inertial fusion research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigio, I.J.; York, G.; McLeod, J.; Czuchlewski, J.; Rose, E.; Hanson, D.E.; Kurnit, N.A.; McCown, A.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ``Mercury`` KrF laser facility at Los Alamos is being built with the benefit of lessons learned from the Aurora KrF laser. An increased understanding of KrF laser engineering, and the designed implementation of system flexibility, will permit Mercury to serve as a testbed for a variety of advanced KrF technology concepts.

  15. Mercury: A second-generation KrF laser for inertial fusion research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigio, I.J.; York, G.; McLeod, J.; Czuchlewski, J.; Rose, E.; Hanson, D.E.; Kurnit, N.A.; McCown, A.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mercury'' KrF laser facility at Los Alamos is being built with the benefit of lessons learned from the Aurora KrF laser. An increased understanding of KrF laser engineering, and the designed implementation of system flexibility, will permit Mercury to serve as a testbed for a variety of advanced KrF technology concepts.

  16. Spatial assessment of net mercury emissions from the use of fluorescent bulbs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew J. Eckelman; Paul T. Anastas; Julie B. Zimmerman [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    While fluorescent lighting is an important technology for reducing electrical energy demand, mercury used in the bulbs is an ongoing concern. Using state and country level data, net emissions of mercury from the marginal use of fluorescent lightbulbs are examined for a base year of 2004 for each of the 50 United States and 130 countries. Combustion of coal for electric power generation is generally the largest source of atmospheric mercury pollution; reduction in electricity demand from the substitution of incandescent bulbs with fluorescents leads to reduced mercury emissions during the use of the bulb. This analysis considers the local mix of power sources, coal quality, thermal conversion efficiencies, distribution losses, and any mercury control technologies that might be in place. Emissions of mercury from production and end-of-life treatment of the bulbs are also considered, providing a life-cycle perspective. Net reductions in mercury over the entire life cycle range from -1.2 to 97 mg per bulb depending on the country. The consequences for atmospheric mercury emissions of several policy scenarios are also discussed. 46 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Mercury(II) Sorption to Two Florida Everglades Peats: Evidence for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Mercury(II) Sorption to Two Florida Everglades Peats: Evidence for Strong and Weak Binding and Competition by Dissolved Organic Matter Released from the Peat R . T O D D D R E X E L , M A R K U S H A I 80309 The binding of mercury(II) to two peats from Florida Everglades sites with different rates

  18. Long-term records of atmospheric deposition of mercury in peat cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Long-term records of atmospheric deposition of mercury in peat cores from Arctic, and comparisonD dissertation February 2004 #12;Long-term records of atmospheric deposition of mercury in peat cores from Arctic in southern Ontario recorded by peat cores from three bogs: comparison with natural "background" values (past

  19. Yale's Environment School Power Plants Big Influence in Regional Mercury Emissions Introduction Knowledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Xuhui

    Yale's Environment School · Power Plants Big Influence in Regional Mercury Emissions Introduction Power Plants Big Influence in Regional Mercury Emissions Related Topics: News Releases; Publications winters and a correspondent decrease in the need for regional power plants to burn coal could partially

  20. Mercury Releases to Air and Rivers Contaminate Ocean Fish: Dartmouth-Led Effort Publishes Major Findings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    Mercury Releases to Air and Rivers Contaminate Ocean Fish: Dartmouth-Led Effort Publishes Major and in Sources to Seafood: Mercury Pollution in the Marine Environment-- a companion report by the Dartmouth released into the air and then deposited into oceans, contaminates seafood commonly eaten by people

  1. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J. P.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mercury emissions gm/day Reference COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTScoal-fired power plants and chlor- shale alkali and within the range of emissionscoal-fired power plant boilers. Table 9 compares standards and guidelines for gaseous and aqueous mercury emissions

  2. Mercury Issues and Complexities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Redefining the Conceptual Model - 12277

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Mark; Southworth, George; Watson, David [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Looney, Brian; Eddy-Dilek, Carol [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States); Ketelle, Richard [Restoration Services Inc., Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Releases of mercury from an industrial facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee in the 1950's and early 1960's resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater within the facility, as well as downstream surface waters. Remediation efforts, which began in the 1980's, have decreased waterborne mercury concentrations near the facility, but elevated levels of mercury remain in the soil, sediment, water, and biota. Widespread distribution of mercury sources and complex mercury transport pathways are some of many challenges at the site. For effective environmental management and closure decision making relative to mercury contamination at the facilities, an up-to-date conceptual model of mercury source areas, processes, likely flow paths, and flux was deemed necessary. Recent facility and reconfiguration efforts, site characterizations, remedial actions, and research are facilitating the collection of new mercury data in Oak Ridge. To develop the current model, a multi-organizational team reviewed existing conceptual models from a variety of sources, consolidated historical data and source information, gathered input from local experts with extensive site knowledge, and used recently collected mercury data from a variety of sampling programs. The developed site conceptual model indicates that the nature and extent of mercury concentration and contaminant flux has significantly changed in the ten years since flux-based conceptual models were used for previous remedial action decisions. A new water treatment system has effectively reduced mercury inputs to the creek and is removing substantially greater quantities of mercury from groundwater than was expected. However, fish concentrations in downstream waters have not responded to decreased water concentrations in the stream. Flux from one large out-fall at the creek's headwaters appears to be a greater percentage of the overall flux leaving the site than previous years, albeit year to year variation in flux is large, and the many small sources of mercury identified in the model may also be important if the goal is to reach very low mercury levels in stream water and fish. The conceptual model is a key reference in helping to prioritize future remedial actions, defining future monitoring, conducting numerical modeling efforts, and evaluating research needs. (authors)

  3. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content. Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around two mid-size coal fired power plants. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. These programs found the following: (1) At both sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Kincaid plant, there was excess soil Hg along heavily traveled roads. The spatial pattern of soil mercury concentrations did not match the pattern of vegetation Hg concentrations at either plant. (2) At both sites, the subsurface (5-10 cm) samples the Hg concentration correlated strongly with the surface samples (0-5 cm). Average subsurface sample concentrations were slightly less than the surface samples, however, the difference was not statistically significant. (3) An unequivocal definition of background Hg was not possible at either site. Using various assumed background soil mercury concentrations, the percentage of mercury deposited within 10 km of the plant ranged between 1.4 and 8.5% of the RGM emissions. Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. Estimates of the percentage of total Hg deposition ranged between 0.3 and 1.7%. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the empirical findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to ''hot spots'', near the plants. The major objective of this study was to determine if there was evidence for ''hot spots'' of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. Although the term has been used extensively, it has never been defined. From a public health perspective, such a ''hot spot'' must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must affect water bodies large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study support the hypothesis

  4. Synthesis and optical properties of cadmium selenide quantum dots for white light-emitting diode application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xianmei; Wang, Yilin; Gule, Teri; Luo, Qiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 53000 (China); Zhou, Liya, E-mail: zhouliyatf@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 53000 (China); Gong, Fuzhong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 53000 (China)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: ? Stable CdSe QDs were synthesized by the one-step and two-level process respectively. ? The fabricated white LEDs show good white balance. ? CdSe QDs present well green to yellow band luminescence. ? CdSe QDs displayed a broad excitation band. - Abstract: Yellow light-emitting cadmium selenide quantum dots were synthesized using one-step and two-step methods in an aqueous medium. The structural luminescent properties of these quantum dots were investigated. The obtained cadmium selenide quantum dots displayed a broad excitation band suitable for blue or near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode applications. White light-emitting diodes were fabricated by coating the cadmium selenide samples onto a 460 nm-emitting indium gallium nitrite chip. Both samples exhibited good white balance. Under a 20 mA working current, the white light-emitting diode fabricated via the one-step and two-step methods showed Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage coordinates at (0.27, 0.23) and (0.27, 0.33), respectively, and a color rendering index equal to 41 and 37, respectively. The one-step approach was simpler, greener, and more effective than the two-step approach. The one-step approach can be enhanced by combining cadmium selenide quantum dots with proper phosphors.

  5. The effects of cadmium and lead on ethanol-induced hypoalgesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burkey, Robert Trent

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and Bratton (1989) demonstrated that compared to controls, adult rats continuously exposed to 100 ppm cadmium in the food for 60 days prior to and throughout operant testing increased lever pressing for an appetitive reinforcer (food pellet) on a FI 1 min...

  6. Atomistic mechanisms for wurtzite-to-rocksalt structural transformation in cadmium selenide under pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Atomistic mechanisms for wurtzite-to-rocksalt structural transformation in cadmium selenide under transformation between the fourfold-coordinated wurtzite structure and the sixfold-coordinated rock- salt of the wurtzite structure. The energy barrier for the transformation is found to be about 0.13 e

  7. Impact of degenerate n-doping on the optical absorption edge in transparent conducting cadmium oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schleife, André

    n-type or can be heavily doped. Transparent conductive cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films, for instance devices or modern solar cells, material performance is critically important. A combination of high in the conduction bands of CdO can increase the conductivity up to values desired for technological applications

  8. The use of phosphorus in sequestration of lead and cadmium in a smelter slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, M.; Pierzynski, G.; Hettiarachchi, G. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The site of an abandoned lead smelter near the village of Dearing in southeastern Kansas is a continuing environmental and health concern because of high levels of heavy metal contamination, including lead and cadmium. Phosphate amendment of lead-contaminated soils is known to precipitate highly insoluble lead pyromorphite (Pb{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl), effectively reducing its bioavailability. In this study, samples of Dearing slag were incubated with two different forms of soluble phosphate (apatite and potassium phosphate). Lead content of the amended slag decreased in the exchangeable, carbonate, iron- and manganese-oxide, and organic fractions of the slag, while increasing in the residual fraction. At the same time, cadmium content of the amended slag decreased in the exchangeable and iron and manganese fractions, while increasing in the carbonate and residual fractions. X-ray diffractometry shows that lead pyromorphite abundance increased in the phosphate-amended slag, suggesting that lead was precipitated as pyromorphite. Cadmium may have been precipitated as relatively insoluble octavite (CdCO{sub 3}). Of the two phosphate amendments, potassium phosphate was more effective in reducing soluble lead and cadmium, and increasing pyromorphite abundance. Also, rate effect was more important than the effect of time in remediating the slag.

  9. The retention time of inorganic mercury in the brain — A systematic review of the evidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rooney, James P.K., E-mail: jrooney@rcsi.ie

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reports from human case studies indicate a half-life for inorganic mercury in the brain in the order of years—contradicting older radioisotope studies that estimated half-lives in the order of weeks to months in duration. This study systematically reviews available evidence on the retention time of inorganic mercury in humans and primates to better understand this conflicting evidence. A broad search strategy was used to capture 16,539 abstracts on the Pubmed database. Abstracts were screened to include only study types containing relevant information. 131 studies of interest were identified. Only 1 primate study made a numeric estimate for the half-life of inorganic mercury (227–540 days). Eighteen human mercury poisoning cases were followed up long term including autopsy. Brain inorganic mercury concentrations at death were consistent with a half-life of several years or longer. 5 radionucleotide studies were found, one of which estimated head half-life (21 days). This estimate has sometimes been misinterpreted to be equivalent to brain half-life—which ignores several confounding factors including limited radioactive half-life and radioactive decay from surrounding tissues including circulating blood. No autopsy cohort study estimated a half-life for inorganic mercury, although some noted bioaccumulation of brain mercury with age. Modelling studies provided some extreme estimates (69 days vs 22 years). Estimates from modelling studies appear sensitive to model assumptions, however predications based on a long half-life (27.4 years) are consistent with autopsy findings. In summary, shorter estimates of half-life are not supported by evidence from animal studies, human case studies, or modelling studies based on appropriate assumptions. Evidence from such studies point to a half-life of inorganic mercury in human brains of several years to several decades. This finding carries important implications for pharmcokinetic modelling of mercury and potentially for the regulatory toxicology of mercury.

  10. Maternal exposure to cadmium during gestation perturbs the vascular system of the adult rat offspring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronco, Ana Maria, E-mail: amronco@inta.cl [Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Santiago (Chile); Montenegro, Marcela; Castillo, Paula; Urrutia, Manuel [Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Santiago (Chile); Saez, Daniel [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Santiago (Chile); Hirsch, Sandra [Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Santiago (Chile); Zepeda, Ramiro [Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Santiago (Chile); Llanos, Miguel N. [Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several cardiovascular diseases (CVD) observed in adulthood have been associated with environmental influences during fetal growth. Here, we show that maternal exposure to cadmium, a ubiquitously distributed heavy metal and main component of cigarette smoke is able to induce cardiovascular morpho-functional changes in the offspring at adult age. Heart morphology and vascular reactivity were evaluated in the adult offspring of rats exposed to 30 ppm of cadmium during pregnancy. Echocardiographic examination shows altered heart morphology characterized by a concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Also, we observed a reduced endothelium-dependent reactivity in isolated aortic rings of adult offspring, while endothelium-independent reactivity remained unaltered. These effects were associated with an increase of hem-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in the aortas of adult offspring. The expression of HO-1 was higher in females than males, a finding likely related to the sex-dependent expression of the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), which was lower in the adult female. All these long-term consequences were observed along with normal birth weights and absence of detectable levels of cadmium in fetal and adult tissues of the offspring. In placental tissues however, cadmium levels were detected and correlated with increased NF-{kappa}B expression - a transcription factor sensitive to inflammation and oxidative stress - suggesting a placentary mechanism that affect genes related to the development of the cardiovascular system. Our results provide, for the first time, direct experimental evidence supporting that exposure to cadmium during pregnancy reprograms cardiovascular development of the offspring which in turn may conduce to a long term increased risk of CVD.

  11. Molecular structure and dynamics in bacterial mercury resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johs, Alexander [ORNL] [ORNL; Shi, Liang [ORNL] [ORNL; Miller, Susan M [ORNL] [ORNL; Summers, Anne O [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL] [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bacteria participate significantly in mercury transformation in natural and industrial environments. Previous studies have shown that bacterial mercury resistance is mediated by the mer operon, typically located on transposons or plasmids. It encodes specific genes that facilitate uptake of mercury species, cleavage of organomercurials, and reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0). Expression of mer operon genes is regulated by MerR, a metal-responsive regulator protein on the level of transcription. In vitro studies have shown that MerR forms a non-transcribing pre-initiation complex with RNA polymerase and the promoter DNA. Binding of Hg(II) induces conformational changes in MerR and other components of the complex resulting in the transcription of mer operon genes. As part of ongoing investigations on allosteric conformational changes induced by Hg(II) in dimeric MerR, and the implications on the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter of the mer operon, we applied small angle scattering to study the regulatory mechanism of MerR in the presence and absence of Hg(II). Our results show that in the presence of Hg(II) the MerR dimer undergoes a significant reorientation from a compact state to a conformation revealing two distinct domains. Bacterial reduction of Hg(II) can also occur at concentrations too low to induce mer operon functions. Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella and Geobacter are able to reduce Hg(II) in the presence of mineral oxides. This process has been linked to the activity of outer membrane multiheme cytochromes. We isolated and purified a decaheme outer membrane cytochrome OmcA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and characterized its envelope shape in solution by small angle x-ray scattering. Structural features were identified and compared to homology models. These results show that OmcA is an elongated macromolecule consisting of separate modules, which may be connected by flexible linkers.

  12. Techniques for Mercury Control and Measurement in Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, E.J.; King, W.P.; Pennline, H.W.

    2002-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A major concern for power systems that use coal as an energy source is the air emissions from the plant. Although certain air emissions are currently regulated, the emergence of new regulations for other pollutants are on the horizon. Gasification is an important strategy for increasing the utilization of abundant domestic coal reserves. The Department of Energy envisions increased use of gasification in the United States during the next twenty years. As such, the DOE Gasification Technologies Program will strive to approach a near-zero emissions goal with respect to pollutants. The mercury research detailed in this proposal addresses the Gas Cleaning and Conditioning program technology area.

  13. Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jessica Sanderson; Gary M. Blythe; Mandi Richardson

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents and discusses results from Task 6 of the study 'Fate of Mercury in Synthetic Gypsum Used for Wallboard Production,' performed at a full-scale commercial wallboard plant. Synthetic gypsum produced by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired power plants is commonly used in the manufacture of wallboard. This practice has long benefited the environment by recycling the FGD gypsum byproduct, which is becoming available in increasing quantities, decreasing the need to landfill this material, and increasing the sustainable design of the wallboard product. However, new concerns have arisen as recent mercury control strategies involve the capture of mercury in FGD systems. The objective of this study is to determine whether any mercury is released into the atmosphere when the synthetic gypsum material is used as a feedstock for wallboard production. The project is being co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42080), USG Corporation, and EPRI. USG Corporation is the prime contractor, and URS Group is a subcontractor. The project scope now includes six discrete tasks, each conducted at various USG wallboard plants using synthetic gypsum from different FGD systems. The project was originally composed of five tasks, which were to include (1) a baseline test, then variations representing differing power plant: (2) emissions control configurations, (3) treatment of fine gypsum particles, (4) coal types, and (5) FGD reagent types. However, Task 5, which was to include testing with an alternate FGD reagent, could not be conducted as planned. Instead, Task 5 was conducted at conditions similar to Task 3, although with gypsum from an alternate FGD system. Subsequent to conducting Task 5 under these revised conditions, an opportunity arose to test gypsum produced at the same FGD system, but with an additive (Degussa Corporation's TMT-15) being used in the FGD system. TMT-15 was expected to impact the stability of mercury in synthetic gypsum used to produce wallboard, so Task 6 was added to the project to test this theory. In this project, process stacks in the wallboard plant have been sampled using the Ontario Hydro method. For every task, the stack locations sampled have included a dryer for the wet gypsum as it enters the plant and a gypsum calciner. For Tasks 1, 4, 5 and 6, the stack of the dryer for the wet wallboard product was also tested. Also at each site, in-stream process samples were collected and analyzed for mercury concentration before and after each significant step in wallboard production. The Ontario Hydro results, process sample mercury concentration data, and process data were used to construct mercury mass balances across the wallboard plants. Task 6 was conducted at a wallboard plant processing synthetic gypsum from a power plant that fires Eastern bituminous coal. The power plant has a single-loop, open spray tower limestone forced oxidation FGD system, with the forced oxidation conducted in the reaction tank integral with the FGD absorber. The FGD system has gypsum fines blow down as part of the dewatering step. The power plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system for NOX emissions control, and the SCR was in service during the time period the gypsum tested was produced. Also, as mentioned above, Degussa additive TMT-15 was being added to the FGD system when this gypsum was produced. The results of the Task 6 stack testing, as measured by the Ontario Hydro method, detected that an average of 55% of the incoming mercury was emitted during wallboard production. These losses were distributed as about 4% across the dryer mill, 6% across the board dryer kiln, and 45% across the kettle calciner. Emissions were similar to what Task 5 results showed on a percentage basis, but about 30% lower on a mass basis. The same power plant FGD system produced the synthetic gypsum used in Task 5 (with no use of TMT-15) and in Task 6 (with TMT-15 added to the FGD system). The lower emissions on a mass basis appeared

  14. "Seeing" Mercury Methylation in Progress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengtheningWildfiresImpurityRotation; 13-2808-1,TransmissionMercury in the

  15. The Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 requires

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2Uranium Transferon theTed Donat About Us Ted Donat - ofEnergyMercury Export

  16. Microsoft PowerPoint - DOELM_Mercury_Storage.ppt

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona, DisposalFourthNrr-osams ADMIN551 - g9.1 06/13Mercury

  17. Investigation and Demonstration of Dry Carbon-Based Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jim Butz; Terry Hunt

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Public Service Company of Colorado and ADA Technologies, Inc. have performed a study of the injection of activated carbon for the removal of vapor-phase mercury from coal-fired flue gas streams. The project was completed under contract to the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with contributions from EPRI and Public Service Company. The prime contractor for the project was Public Service Company, with ADA Technologies as the major subcontractor providing technical support to all aspects of the project. The research and development effort was conducted in two phases. In Phase I a pilot facility was fabricated and tests were performed using dry carbon-based sorbent injection for mercury control on a coal-fired flue gas slipstream extracted from an operating power plant. Phase II was designed to move carbon injection technology towards commercial application on coal-fired power plants by addressing key reliability and operability concerns. Phase II field work included further development work with the Phase I pilot and mercury measurements on several of PSCo's coal-fired generating units. In addition, tests were run on collected sorbent plus fly ash to evaluate the impact of the activated carbon sorbent on the disposal of fly ash. An economic analysis was performed where pilot plant test data was used to develop a model to predict estimated costs of mercury removal from plants burning western coals. Testing in the pilot plant was undertaken to quantify the effects of plant configuration, flue gas temperature, and activated carbon injection rate on mercury removal. All three variables were found to significantly impact the mercury removal efficiency in the pilot. The trends were clear: mercury removal rates increased with decreasing flue gas temperature and with increasing carbon injection rates. Mercury removal was much more efficient with reverse-gas and pulse-jet baghouse configurations than with an ESP as the particulate control device. The native fly ash of the host unit provided significant mercury removal capacity, so that the activated carbon sorbent served as an incremental mercury removal mechanism. Tests run to characterize the waste product, a combination of fly ash and activated carbon on which mercury was present, showed that mercury and other RCRA metals of interest were all below Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) regulatory limits in the leachate. The presence of activated carbon in the fly ash was shown to have an effect on the use of fly ash as an additive in the manufacture of concrete, which could limit the salability of fly ash from a plant where activated carbon was used for mercury control.

  18. Hair mercury concentrations and associated factors in an electronic waste recycling area, Guiyu, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ni, Wenqing [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Chen, Yaowen [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China)] [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Zhang, Gairong [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China)] [Central Laboratory of Shantou University, Shantou 515063, Guangdong (China); Luo, Jiayi [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China); Wu, Kusheng, E-mail: kswu@stu.edu.cn [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong (China)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Objective: Toxic heavy metals are released to the environment constantly from unregulated electronic waste (e-waste) recycling in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of mercury (Hg) and other heavy metals levels in human hair. We aimed to investigate concentrations of mercury in hair from Guiyu and potential risk factors and compared them with those from a control area where no e-waste processing occurs. Methods: A total of 285 human hair samples were collected from three villages (including Beilin, Xianma, and Huamei) of Guiyu (n=205) and the control area, Jinping district of Shantou city (n=80). All the volunteers were administered a questionnaire regarding socio-demographic characteristics and other possible factors contributed to hair mercury concentration. Hair mercury concentration was analyzed by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Results: Our results suggested that hair mercury concentrations in volunteers of Guiyu (median, 0.99; range, 0.18–3.98 ?g/g) were significantly higher than those of Jinping (median, 0.59; range, 0.12–1.63 ?g/g). We also observed a higher over-limit ratio (>1 ?g/g according to USEPA) in Guiyu than in Jinping (48.29% vs. 11.25%, P<0.001). Logistic regression model showed that the variables of living house also served as an e-waste workshop, work related to e-waste, family income, time of residence in Guiyu, the distance between home and waste incineration, and fish intake were associated with hair mercury concentration. After multiple stepwise regression analysis, in the Guiyu samples, hair mercury concentration was found positively associated with the time residence in Guiyu (?=0.299, P<0.001), and frequency of shellfish intake (?=0.184, P=0.016); and negatively associated with the distance between home and waste incineration (?=?0.190, P=0.015) and whether house also served as e-waste workshop (?=?0.278, P=0.001). Conclusions: This study investigated human mercury exposure and suggested elevated hair mercury concentrations in an e-waste recycling area, Guiyu, China. Living in Guiyu for a long time and work related to e-waste may primarily contribute to the high hair mercury concentrations. -- Highlights: • Mercury levels in hair samples from Guiyu and risk factors were assessed. • The recruitments from Guiyu were exposed to high levels of mercury. • Primitive e-waste recycling resulted in high mercury exposure of local people.

  19. PRELIMINARY FIELD EVALUATION OF MERCURY CONTROL USING COMBUSTION MODIFICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitali Lissianski; Antonio Marquez

    2004-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project General Electric Energy and Environmental Research Corporation conducts a preliminary field evaluation of a novel technology, referred to as Hg/NO{sub x}, that can reduce emissions of both mercury (Hg) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from coal-fired power plants. The evaluation takes place in Green Station Unit 2 operated by Western Kentucky Energy. Reduction of Hg and NO{sub x} emissions in Unit 2 is achieved using coal reburning. Activities during first project year (January 23, 2003--January 22, 2004) included measurements of baseline Hg emissions in Unit 2 and pilot-scale testing. Baseline testing of Hg emissions in Green Unit 2 has been completed. Two fuels were tested with OFA system operating at minimum air flow. Mercury emissions were measured at ESP inlet and outlet, and at the stack using Ontario Hydro revised method. Testing demonstrated that baseline Hg reductions at ESP outlet and stack were 30-45% and 70-80%, respectively. Pilot-scale testing demonstrated good agreement with baseline measurements in Unit 2. Testing showed that fuel composition had an effect on the efficiency of Hg absorption on fly ash. Maximum achieved Hg removal in reburning was close to 90%. Maximum achieved Hg reduction at air staging conditions was 60%. Testing also demonstrated that lowering ESP temperature improved efficiency of Hg removal.

  20. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Mark A. Musich

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three potential additives for controlling mercury emissions from syngas at temperatures ranging from 350 to 500 F (177 to 260 C) were developed. Current efforts are being directed at increasing the effective working temperature for these sorbents and also being able to either eliminate any potential mercury desorption or trying to engineer a trace metal removal system that can utilize the observed desorption process to repeatedly regenerate the same sorbent monolith for extended use. Project results also indicate that one of these same sorbents can also successfully be utilized for arsenic removal. Capture of the hydrogen selenide in the passivated tubing at elevated temperatures has resulted in limited results on the effective control of hydrogen selenide with these current sorbents, although lower-temperature results are promising. Preliminary economic analysis suggests that these Corning monoliths potentially could be more cost-effective than the conventional cold-gas (presulfided activated carbon beds) technology currently being utilized. Recent Hg-loading results might suggest that the annualized costs might be as high as 2.5 times the cost of the conventional technology. However, this annualized cost does not take into account the significantly improved thermal efficiency of any plant utilizing the warm-gas monolith technology currently being developed.

  1. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723).DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations:Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho;Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  2. Influence of water chemistry on mercury concentration in largemouth bass from Florida lakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lange, T.R.; Royals, H.E.; Connor, L.L. (Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission, Eustic (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Harvestable-size largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides were collected from 53 Florida lakes to determine relationships between mercury concentration in fish and physical and chemical lake characteristics. Diverse lakes with a broad range of sizes (15-181,000 hectares), pH (3.6-9.1), and alkalinities (1.2-128 mg/L as CaCO[sub 3]) were sampled. Total mercury concentrations in axial muscle of individual fish ranged from 0.04 to 2.04 [mu]g/g wet weight and were positively correlated with fish age (strongest correlation) and size. There was no difference in the rate of mercury accumulation by age between the sexes, even though females grew faster. Chemical characteristics of lakes strongly influenced the bioaccumulation of mercury in largemouth bass. Mercury concentrations, standardized to age-3 fish for comparison among lakes, ranged from 0.04 to 1.53 [mu]g/g and were negatively correlated with alkalinity, calcium, chlorophyll a, conductance, magnesium, pH, total hardness, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. No significant correlations were observed between the standardized fish mercury concentration and lake color, secchi transparency, tannic acid, or surface area. Linear regression revealed that pH accounted for 41% of the variation in the standardized fish mercury concentration. Multiple regression revealed that chlorophyll a and alkalinity accounted for 45% of the variation in the standardized fish mercury concentration. Mercury concentrations were significantly higher in lakes with either pH less than 7, alkalinity less than 20 mg/L as CaCO[sub 3], or chlorophyll a less than 10 [mu]g/L. 56 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Combined homo- and heterogeneous model for mercury speciation in pulverized fuel combustion flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishir P. Sable; Wiebren de Jong; Hartmut Spliethoff [Delft University Technology, Delft (Netherlands). Section Energy Technology, Department of Process and Energy

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new model is developed to predict Hg{sup 0}, Hg{sup +}, Hg{sup 2+}, and Hg{sub p} in the post-combustion zone upstream of a particulate control device (PCD) in pulverized coal-fired power plants. The model incorporates reactions of mercury with chlorinating agents (HCl) and other gaseous species and simultaneous adsorption of oxidized mercury (HgCl{sub 2}) on fly ash particles in the cooling of flue gases. The homogeneous kinetic model from the literature has been revised to understand the effect of the NO + OH + M {longleftrightarrow} HONO + M reaction on mercury oxidation. Because it is a pressure-dependent reaction, the choice of proper reaction rates was very critical. It was found that mercury oxidation reduces from 100 to 0% while going from high- to low-pressure limit rates with 100 ppmv NO. The heterogeneous model describes selective in-duct Langmuir-Hinshelwood adsorption of mercury chloride on ash particles. The heterogeneous model has been built using Fortran and linked to Chemkin 4.0. The final predictions of elemental, oxidized, and particulate mercury were compared to mercury speciation from power plant data. Information collection request (ICR) data were used for this comparison. The model results follow very similar trends compared to those of the plant data; however, quantitative deviation was considerable. These deviations are due to the errors in the measurement of mercury upstream of PCD, lack of adsorption kinetic data, accurate homogeneous reaction mechanisms, and certain modeling assumptions. The model definitely follows a new approach for the prediction of mercury speciation, and further refinement will improve the model significantly. 43 refs., 1 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  5. Evaluation of MerCAP for Power Plant Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl Richardson

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41993, 'Evaluation of EPRI's MerCAP{trademark} Technology for Power Plant Mercury Control'. This project has investigated the mercury removal performance of EPRI's Mercury Capture by Amalgamation Process (MerCAP{trademark}) technology. Test programs were conducted to evaluate gold-based MerCAP{trademark} at Great River Energy's Stanton Station Unit 10 (Site 1), which fired both North Dakota lignite (NDL) and Power River Basin (PRB) coal during the testing period, and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 (Site 2) [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company] which fires a low sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. Additional tests were carried out at Alabama Power's Plant Miller, which fires Powder River Basin Coal, to evaluate a carbon-based MerCAP{trademark} process for removing mercury from flue gas downstream of an electrostatic precipitator [Alabama Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company]. A full-scale gold-based sorbent array was installed in the clean-air plenum of a single baghouse compartment at GRE's Stanton Station Unit 10, thereby treating 1/10th of the unit's exhaust gas flow. The substrates that were installed were electroplated gold screens oriented parallel to the flue gas flow. The sorbent array was initially installed in late August of 2004, operating continuously until its removal in July 2006, after nearly 23 months. The initial 4 months of operation were conducted while the host unit was burning North Dakota lignite (NDL). In November 2004, the host unit switched fuel to burn Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal and continued to burn the PRB fuel for the final 19 months of this program. Tests were conducted at Site 1 to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent plate spacing, sorbent pre-cleaning and regeneration, and spray dryer operation on MerCAP{trademark} performance. At Site 2, a pilot-scale array was installed in a horizontal reactor chamber designed to treat approximately 2800 acfm of flue gas obtained from downstream of the plant's flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The initial MerCAP{trademark} array was installed at Plant Yates in January 2004, operating continuously for several weeks before a catastrophic system failure resulting from a failed flue gas fan. A second MerCAP{trademark} array was installed in July 2006 and operated for one month before being shut down for a reasons pertaining to system performance and host site scheduling. A longer-term continuous-operation test was then conducted during the summer and fall of 2007. Tests were conducted to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent space velocity, and sorbent rinsing frequency on mercury removal performance. Detailed characterization of treated sorbent plates was carried out in an attempt to understand the nature of reactions leading to excessive corrosion of the substrate surfaces.

  6. Modeling and Experimental Studies of Mercury Oxidation and Adsorption in a Fixed-Bed Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paula A. Buitrago, Mike Morrill, JoAnn S. Lighty, Geoffrey D.; Silcox,

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents experimental and modeling mercury oxidation and adsorption data. Fixed-bed and single-particle models of mercury adsorption were developed. The experimental data were obtained with two reactors: a 300- W, methane-fired, tubular, quartz-lined reactor for studying homogeneous oxidation reactions and a fixed-bed reactor, also of quartz, for studying heterogeneous reactions. The latter was attached to the exit of the former to provide realistic combustion gases. The fixed-bed reactor contained one gram of coconut-shell carbon and remained at a temperature of 150oC. All methane, air, SO2, and halogen species were introduced through the burner to produce a radical pool representative of real combustion systems. A Tekran 2537A Analyzer coupled with a wet conditioning system provided speciated mercury concentrations. At 150°C and in the absence of HCl or HBr, the mercury uptake was about 20%. The addition of 50 ppm HCl caused complete capture of all elemental and oxidized mercury species. In the absence of halogens, SO2 increased the mercury adsorption efficiency to up to 30 percent. The extent of adsorption decreased with increasing SO2 concentration when halogens were present. Increasing the HCl concentration to 100 ppm lessened the effect of SO2. The fixed-bed model incorporates Langmuir adsorption kinetics and was developed to predict adsorption of elemental mercury and the effect of multiple flue gas components. This model neglects intraparticle diffusional resistances and is only applicable to pulverized carbon sorbents. It roughly describes experimental data from the literature. The current version includes the ability to account for competitive adsorption between mercury, SO2, and NO2. The single particle model simulates in-flight sorbent capture of elemental mercury. This model was developed to include Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, rate equations, sorbent feed rate, and intraparticle diffusion. The Freundlich isotherm more accurately described in-flight mercury capture. Using these parameters, very little intraparticle diffusion was evident. Consistent with other data, smaller particles resulted in higher mercury uptake due to available surface area. Therefore, it is important to capture the particle size distribution in the model. At typical full-scale sorbent feed rates, the calculations underpredicted adsorption, suggesting that wall effects can account for as much as 50 percent of the removal, making it an important factor in entrained-mercury adsorption models.

  7. Progress and Future Plans for Mercury Remediation at the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - 13059

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkerson, Laura O. [DOE Oak Ridge, P.O. Box 2001, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)] [DOE Oak Ridge, P.O. Box 2001, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); DePaoli, Susan M. [Pro2Serve, 1100 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)] [Pro2Serve, 1100 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Turner, Ralph [P.O. Box 421, Squamish, BC V8B 0A4 (United States)] [P.O. Box 421, Squamish, BC V8B 0A4 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), along with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), has identified mercury contamination at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) as the highest priority cleanup risk on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The historic loss of mercury to the environment dwarfs any other contaminant release on the ORR. Efforts over the last 20 years to reduce mercury levels leaving the site in the surface waters of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) have not resulted in a corresponding decrease in mercury concentrations in fish. Further reductions in mercury surface water concentrations are needed. Recent stimulus funding through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) has supported several major efforts involving mercury cleanup at Y-12. Near-term implementation activities are being pursued with remaining funds and include design of a centrally located mercury treatment facility for waterborne mercury, treatability studies on mercury-contaminated soils, and free mercury removal from storm drains. Out-year source removal will entail demolition/disposal of several massive uranium processing facilities along with removal and disposal of underlying contaminated soil. As a National Priorities List (NPL) site, cleanup is implemented under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and directed by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between DOE, EPA, and TDEC. The CERCLA process is followed to plan, reach approval, implement, and monitor the cleanup. (authors)

  8. Advanced Materials for Mercury 50 Gas Turbine Combustion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Jeffrey

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-0CH11049, has conducted development activities to improve the durability of the Mercury 50 combustion system to 30,000 hours life and reduced life cycle costs. This project is part of Advanced Materials in the Advanced Industrial Gas Turbines program in DOE's Office of Distributed Energy. The targeted development engine was the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine, which was developed by Solar under the DOE Advanced Turbine Systems program (DOE contract number DE-FC21-95MC31173). As a generator set, the Mercury 50 is used for distributed power and combined heat and power generation and is designed to achieve 38.5% electrical efficiency, reduced cost of electricity, and single digit emissions. The original program goal was 20,000 hours life, however, this goal was increased to be consistent with Solar's standard 30,000 hour time before overhaul for production engines. Through changes to the combustor design to incorporate effusion cooling in the Generation 3 Mercury 50 engine, which resulted in a drop in the combustor wall temperature, the current standard thermal barrier coated liner was predicted to have 18,000 hours life. With the addition of the advanced materials technology being evaluated under this program, the combustor life is predicted to be over 30,000 hours. The ultimate goal of the program was to demonstrate a fully integrated Mercury 50 combustion system, modified with advanced materials technologies, at a host site for a minimum of 4,000 hours. Solar was the Prime Contractor on the program team, which includes participation of other gas turbine manufacturers, various advanced material and coating suppliers, nationally recognized test laboratories, and multiple industrial end-user field demonstration sites. The program focused on a dual path development route to define an optimum mix of technologies for the Mercury 50 and future gas turbine products. For liner and injector development, multiple concepts including high thermal resistance thermal barrier coatings (TBC), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys, continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC), and monolithic ceramics were evaluated before down-selection to the most promising candidate materials for field evaluation. Preliminary, component and sub-scale testing was conducted to determine material properties and demonstrate proof-of-concept. Full-scale rig and engine testing was used to validated engine performance prior to field evaluation at a Qualcomm Inc. cogeneration site located in San Diego, California. To ensure that the CFCC liners with the EBC proposed under this program would meet the target life, field evaluations of ceramic matrix composite liners in Centaur{reg_sign} 50 gas turbine engines, which had previously been conducted under the DOE sponsored Ceramic Stationary Gas Turbine program (DE-AC02-92CE40960), was continued under this program at commercial end-user sites under Program Subtask 1A - Extended CFCC Materials Durability Testing. The goal of these field demonstrations was to demonstrate significant component life, with milestones of 20,000 and 30,000 hours. Solar personnel monitor the condition of the liners at the field demonstration sites through periodic borescope inspections and emissions measurements. This program was highly successful at evaluating advanced materials and down-selecting promising solutions for use in gas turbine combustions systems. The addition of the advanced materials technology has enabled the predicted life of the Mercury 50 combustion system to reach 30,000 hours, which is Solar's typical time before overhaul for production engines. In particular, a 40 mil thick advanced Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) system was selected over various other TBC systems, ODS liners and CFCC liners for the 4,000-hour field evaluation under the program. This advanced TBC is now production bill-of-material at various thicknesses up to 40 mils for all of Solar's advanced backside-cooled combustor liners (Centaur 50, Taurus 60, Mars 100, Taurus 70,

  9. Efficient Photoionization-Loading of Trapped Cadmium Ions with Ultrafast Pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Deslauriers; M. Acton; B. B. Blinov; K. -A. Brickman; P. C. Haljan; W. K. Hensinger; D. Hucul; S. Katnik; R. N. Kohn, Jr.; P. J. Lee; M. J. Madsen; P. Maunz; S. Olmschenk; D. L. Moehring; D. Stick; J. Sterk; M. Yeo; K. C. Younge; C. Monroe

    2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic cadmium ions are loaded into radiofrequency ion traps by photoionization of atoms in a cadmium vapor with ultrafast laser pulses. The photoionization is driven through an intermediate atomic resonance with a frequency-quadrupled mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser that produces pulses of either 100 fsec or 1 psec duration at a central wavelength of 229 nm. The large bandwidth of the pulses photoionizes all velocity classes of the Cd vapor, resulting in high loading efficiencies compared to previous ion trap loading techniques. Measured loading rates are compared with a simple theoretical model, and we conclude that this technique can potentially ionize every atom traversing the laser beam within the trapping volume. This may allow the operation of ion traps with lower levels of background pressures and less trap electrode surface contamination. The technique and laser system reported here should be applicable to loading most laser-cooled ion species.

  10. Effects of chronic cadmium exposure on the conditioned reinforcing properties of morphine and fentanyl in rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Dennis K

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    &M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: ck R. Nation (C ir of Committee) Gerald D. Frye (Member) Paul J. Wellman (Member) Paul J. Wellman (Head of Department... the metal (Nation, Livermore, Bratton, & Schenk, 1996). A similar attenuation was shown with repeated cocaine exposure--the development of locomotor sensitization. Rats that received chronic cadmium exposure required more cocaine administration sessions...

  11. Arsenic and cadmium exposure in children living near a smelter complex in San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz-Barriga, F.; Santos, M.A.; Mejia, J.J.; Batres, L.; Yanez, L.; Carrizales, L.; Vera, E.; del Razo, L.M.; Cebrian, M.E. (Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico))

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of this study was to assess environmental contamination by arsenic and cadmium in a smelter community (San Luis Potosi City, Mexico) and its possible contribution to an increased body burden of these elements in children. Arsenic and cadmium were found in the environment (air, soil, and household dust, and tap water) as well as in the urine and hair from children. The study was undertaken in three zones: Morales, an urban area close to the smelter complex; Graciano, an urban area 7 km away from the complex; and Mexquitic, a small rural town 25 km away. The environmental study showed that Morales is the most contaminated of the zones studied. The range of arsenic levels in soil (117-1396 ppm), dust (515-2625 ppm), and air (0.13-1.45 micrograms/m3) in the exposed area (Morales) was higher than those in the control areas. Cadmium concentrations were also higher in Morales. Estimates of the arsenic ingestion rate in Morales (1.0-19.8 micrograms/kg/day) were equal to or higher than the reference dose of 1 microgram/kg/day calculated by the Environmental Protection Agency. The range of arsenic levels in urine (69-594 micrograms/g creatinine) and hair (1.4-57.3 micrograms/g) and that of cadmium in hair (0.25-3.5 micrograms/g) indicated that environmental exposure has resulted in an increased body burden of these elements in children, suggesting that children living in Morales are at high risk of suffering adverse health effects if exposure continues.

  12. Blockage of IL-6 secretion in glia by lead and mercury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pourrajabi, Nima Matthew

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) are toxic to the development and function of the central nervous system (CNS). Interleukin-6 (IL 6) produced by astroglia protects neurons from damage in many progressive degenerative disorders. IL-6 secretion...

  13. Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values across the APCDs are 2.1% and 39.4% with standard deviations (STDs) of 1990 and 75%, respectively for the ICR and SEC tests. This clearly demonstrates that variability is an issue irrespective of using 'similar' fuels at the plants and the same source sampling team measuring the species. The study also concluded that elemental mercury is the main Hg specie that needs to be controlled. 2004 technologies such as activated carbon injection (ACI) may capture up to 60% with double digit lb/MMacf addition of sorbent. PRB coal-fired units have an Hg input of 7-15 lb/TBtu; hence, these units must operate at over 60% mercury efficiency in order to bring the emission level below 5.8 lb/TBtu. This was non-achievable with the best technology available as of 2004. Other key findings include: (1) Conventional particulate collectors, such as Cold-side Electro-Static Precipitators (CESPs), Hot-side Electro-Static Precipitator (HESP), and Fabric Filter (FF) remove nearly all of the particulate bound mercury; (2) CESPs perform better highlighting the flue gas temperature effect on the mercury removal. Impact of speciation with flue gas cooling is apparent; (3) SDA's do not help in enhancing adsorption of mercury vapor species; and (4) Due to consistently low chlorine values in fuels, it was not possible to analyze the impact of chlorine. In summary, it is difficult to predict the speciation at two plants that burn the same fuel. Non-fuel issues, such as flue gas cooling, impact the speciation and consequently mercury capture potential.

  14. Re-Implementing a Machine Learning Program in Mercury Gregory D. Weber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Gregory D.

    Re-Implementing a Machine Learning Program in Mercury Gregory D. Weber Computer Science Department. Motivation During the course of testing the machine learning pro- gram ICN (Weber 2003), it became clear

  15. Selective extraction of copper, mercury, silver and palladium ions from water using hydrophobic ionic liquids.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Lee, Jong-Min; Salminen, Justin; Von Stosch, Moritz; Prausnitz, John M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for metal-ion extraction from water. All ionic liquids (useful for extraction of cations from water. 9-15 Previoussingle extraction of mercury in water with either [3MOPYR

  16. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J. P.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale J. P. Fox, J. J. Duvall,of elements in rich oil shales of the Green River Formation,E . • 1977; Mercury in Oil Shale from the Mahogany Zone the

  17. A Solid-State 199Hg NMR Study of Mercury Halides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Robert E; Bai, Shi; Dybowski, Cecil

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    550 (1998), 89-99. [25] R. E. Taylor, C. T. Carver, R. E.7 (1997), 333-336. [33] R. E. Taylor, Concepts Magn. Reson.Study of Mercury Halides R. E. Taylor 1 *, Shi Bai 2 , and

  18. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J. P.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from a Simulated In-Situ Oil Shale J. P. Fox, J. J. Duvall,of elements in rich oil shales of the Green River Formation,V. E . • 1977; Mercury in Oil Shale from the Mahogany Zone

  19. Geophysical insights into the histories of Venus, Mercury and the Moon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James, Peter Benjamin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravity and topography data provide a powerful tool for studying the interiors of rocky planetary bodies. In this thesis I study three such bodies - Venus, Mercury and the Moon - and I use the gravity and topography data ...

  20. VALIDATION OF MERCURY CEMS WHEN COFIRING BIOMASS AT MADISON ELECTRIC'S BLOUNT STATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis L. Laudal; Jeffrey S. Thompson

    2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The state of Wisconsin has been concerned about mercury deposition into its lakes and streams and has been evaluating strategies to reduce mercury emissions. As part of this effort, the Blount Station, owned and operated by Madison Gas and Electric Company (MGE), has undergone a project to evaluate the effects and potential mercury emissions reduction of cofiring preconsumer waste. MGE owns and operates the Blount Generating Station located in central Madison, Wisconsin. At present, Blount operates with nine boilers and six turbine generators. The two largest boilers at Blount produce 400,000 pounds of steam per hour at 950 F and 1250 psi. These larger boilers, MGE's Boiler Nos. 8 and 9, have the capability of cofiring both paper and plastic. MGE's Blount Generating Station was one of the first electric generating stations in the United States to retrofit its existing steam boilers to successfully burn refuse-derived fuel and other alternate fuels including waste paper and wood. It is the No. 9 boiler that was the focus of this project to determine the effect of cofiring PDF (plastic- and paper-derived fuel) on speciated mercury emissions. The project was laid out to compare four different fuel combinations: (1) coal feed only, (2) coal with plastic, (3) coal with paper, and (4) coal with paper and plastic. The design was to run the boiler for 2 days at each condition, thus allowing four samples to be taken at each condition. This plan was aimed at getting at least three representative samples at each condition and allowed for difficulties in sampling and boiler operation. The following objectives were accomplished as part of the project to determine the effects of cofiring PDF on mercury emissions and speciation at MGE Blount Station: Successfully completed all of the mercury sampling for each of the four boiler/PDF conditions using the Ontario Hydro (OH) mercury speciation method; Determined mercury concentrations at the stack location using mercury continuous emission monitors (CEMs) for each of the four boiler/PDF conditions; Calculated the overall mercury mass balance for each of the runs; Determined chlorine concentrations at the stack location using EPA Method 26A for each of the four boiler/PDF conditions; and Calculated speciated mercury flow to determine removal and/or transformations before its exiting the unit at the stack for each of the four boiler/PDF conditions.

  1. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed-structure mercury sorbent upstream. This final report presents and discusses detailed results from all of these efforts, and makes a number of conclusions about what was learned through these efforts.

  2. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  3. Mercury and the estuarine clam, Rangia cuneata (Mollusca - Bivalvia): uptake and release, survival and osmoregulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dillon, T. M

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MERCURY AND THE ESTUARINE CLAM, Rancaia cuneata (MOLLUSCA:BIVALVIA): UPTAKE AND RELEASE, SURVIVAL AND OSMOREGULATION. A Thesis by Thomas Mitchell Dillon Submitted to the Graduate Colleage of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment... as to style and content by: Co ai of Commi e Co-Chairman of Committee Head of Department December 1976 ABSTRACT Mercury and the Estuarine Clam, Rancaia cuneata (Mollusca:Bivalvia): Uptake and Release, Survival and Dsmoregulation. (December 1976) Thomas...

  4. Noble Metal Catalysts for Mercury Oxidation in Utility Flue Gas: Gold, Palladium and Platinum Formulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of noble metals as catalysts for mercury oxidation in flue gas remains an area of active study. To date, field studies have focused on gold and palladium catalysts installed at pilot scale. In this article, we introduce bench-scale experimental results for gold, palladium and platinum catalysts tested in realistic simulated flue gas. Our initial results reveal some intriguing characteristics of catalytic mercury oxidation and provide insight for future research into this potentially important process.

  5. Trace element distribution and mercury speciation in a pilot-scale coal combustor burning Blacksville coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hargis, R.A.; Pennline, H.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Federal Energy Technical Center

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of tests have been conducted on a nominal 500-pound-per-hour, pilot-scale combustion unit to characterize trace element emissions and mercury speciation. The coal fired during the testing was a Blacksville {number_sign}2, medium-sulfur coal, similar to that used by other researchers investigating mercury speciation. A description of the pilot unit operating conditions during the testing is provided. A summary of the gas/solid distribution of trace elements at various locations within the system, material balances, and baghouse removal efficiencies is also supplied. EPA Method 29 was used to determine trace element and speciated mercury concentrations before and after the baghouse. A comparison of these results with past trace element results from this unit and with the findings of other researchers who have used Blacksville coal is also presented. The pilot-scale combustion unit has been characterized in terms of trace element distribution during two tests while burning a medium-sulfur bituminous Blacksville coal. EPA sampling methodology at the inlet to the baghouse and at the stack was used. Results indicate that most of the elements are removed across the baghouse with the exception of mercury and selenium. Both of these elements were found predominantly in the vapor phase. The average mercury speciation revealed that the vapor-phase mercury was primarily in the oxidized form, which is consistent with the findings of other research with Blacksville coal. Material recoveries for most of the elements were very good. The average recovery for mercury further validates that this pilot unit will be a viable system for mercury sampling and control methods.

  6. Mercury-contaminated sludge treatment by dredging in Minamata Bay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshinaga, Kiyoto [Ministry of Transport, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To eradicate Minamata Disease, caused by the discharge of sewage containing methyl mercury and its accumulation in fish and shellfish through the food cycle, a large-scale sediment disposal project was conducted with special care taken to prevent new pollution resulting from the project itself. The basic approach to sediment disposal was to construct a highly watertight revetment to reclaim the inner area of the bay and then confine sediment dredged from the remaining contaminated area in the reclamation area through surface treatment. Before sediment disposal, boundary nets were installed to enclose the work area to prevent the mixing of contaminated and noncontaminated fish. Dredging work was successfully carried out by using four cutterless suction dredgers, newly developed in advance for minimizing resuspension of sediments. Dredged material was discharged into the reclamation area, filled up to sea level, and covered with a sandproof membrane, lightweight volcanic ash earth, and mountain soil.

  7. Achieving very low mercury levels in refinery wastewater by membrane filtration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urgun Demirtas, M.; Benda, P.; Gillenwater, P. S.; Negri, M. C.; Xiong, H.; Snyder, S. W. (Center for Nanoscale Materials); ( ES)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were evaluated for their ability to achieve the world's most stringent Hg discharge criterion (<1.3 ng/L) in an oil refinery's wastewater. The membrane processes were operated at three different pressures to demonstrate the potential for each membrane technology to achieve the targeted effluent mercury concentrations. The presence of mercury in the particulate form in the refinery wastewater makes the use of MF and UF membrane technologies more attractive in achieving very low mercury levels in the treated wastewater. Both NF and RO were also able to meet the target mercury concentration at lower operating pressures (20.7 bar). However, higher operating pressures ({ge}34.5 bar) had a significant effect on NF and RO flux and fouling rates, as well as on permeate quality. SEM images of the membranes showed that pore blockage and narrowing were the dominant fouling mechanisms for the MF membrane while surface coverage was the dominant fouling mechanism for the other membranes. The correlation between mercury concentration and particle size distribution was also investigated to understand mercury removal mechanisms by membrane filtration. The mean particle diameter decreased with filtration from 1.1 {+-} 0.0 {micro}m to 0.74 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m after UF.

  8. A kinetic approach to the catalytic oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert A. Presto; Evan J. Granite; Andrew Karash; Richard A. Hargis; William J. O'Dowd; Henry W. Pennline [U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Four mercury oxidation catalysts were tested in a packed bed reactor in the presence of flue gas generated by the NETL 500 lb/h coal combustor. The four catalysts tested were Ir, Ir/HCl, Darco FGD activated carbon, and Thief/HCl. The Thief/HCl and Darco converted the highest percentage of the inlet mercury; however, the high conversion in these experiments was aided by larger catalyst loadings than in the Ir and Ir/HCl experiments. We propose a method for analyzing mercury oxidation catalyst results in a kinetic framework using the bulk reaction rate for oxidized mercury formation normalized by either the catalyst mass or surface area. Results reported for fractional mercury oxidation are strongly influenced by the specific experimental conditions and are therefore difficult to translate from experiment to experiment. The catalyst-normalized results allow for more quantitative analysis of mercury oxidation catalyst data and are the first step in creating a predictive model that will allow for efficient scaling up from laboratory-scale to larger-scale studies. 34 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Behavior of mercury in the formic acid vent condenser. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamecnik, J.R.

    1996-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The concentrations of mercury at the FAVC inlet and exit were measured during the BL1 and PX6 runs of the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) with the HEME bypassed and without the ammonia scrubber. The results showed that mercury concentrations of approximately 1.02-12.7 (mean 5.74) times saturation occurred at the FAVC exit. The concentration of mercury at the FAVC inlet was found to be 0.66-6.2 times the saturation value (based on the SRAT condenser exit). In the PX7 run, the ammonia scrubber was used and the FAVC HEME was not bypassed. The results from this run showed that the FAVC inlet concentrations again were above saturation (1.45-15.5 times saturation), but that the FAVC exit concentrations were only 0.02-0.41 times saturation (except for one data point at 1.61 times saturation). Operation of the FAVC without the HEME could therefore result in FAVC exit mercury concentrations of greater than 5.74 times saturation, which would result in DWPF emitting greater than 405 lb/yr of mercury at 100 percent attainment; this quantity is well in excess of the permit limit of 175 lb/yr (for all of DWPF). However, with the HEME in place, the emissions are predicted to be only about 40 lb/yr for an FAVC exit temperature of 10 degrees C. The experimental results also indicate that the ammonia scrubbers have little effect on the removal of mercury.

  10. Development Of Chemical Reduction And Air Stripping Processes To Remove Mercury From Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Looney, Brian B.; Craig, Robert R.; Thompson, Martha C.; Kmetz, Thomas F.

    2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury.

  11. Adsorption and electrode reactions of disulfonated anthraquinones at mercury electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, P.; Crooks, R.M.; Faulkner, L.R. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

    1990-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Three sulfonated compounds were examined; 2,6-anthraquinonedisulfonate, sodium salt (2,6-AQDS); 1,5-anthraquinone- disulfonate, sodium salt (1,5-AQDS); and 2-anthraquinonemonosulfonate, sodium salt (2-AQMS). Extensive studies of 2,6-AQDS were carried out. This compound undergoes reversible charge exchange with the electrode in an adsorbed state. Electrocapillary curves show that desorption occurs near -0.8 V vs Ag/AgCl, KCl (1 M). Chronocoulometry and cyclic voltammetry were used to evaluate surface coverage vs the concentration of 2,6-AQDS in 0.1 M HNO{sub 3}. Under all conditions, the adsorbed couple shows a standard potential more positive than that for the couple involving dissolved species; hence, the reduced form is the more strongly adsorbed. Effects of pH were examined extensively. In solutions with 2,6-AQDS concentrations above 2 {times} 10{sup 5} M an extremely sharp, reversible pair of spikes develops in the cyclic voltammetry for the adsorbed couple. The spikes are not seen for 1,5-AQDS, but other aspects of behavior for 1,5-AQDS are similar to those of 2,6-AQDS. The Origin of the spikes is discussed via a model involving hydrogen-bonded aggregates. Extensive exposure of a mercury surface to high concentrations of 2,6-AQDS produces a catalytic effect on the electrode reaction involving the dissolved quinone. Further exposure causes an inhibition of the same process. These effects are attributed to the growth of extended films on the mercury.

  12. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: 2crgallagher@optonline.net [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, NY (United States) and Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States); Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood and urine cadmium in US women. {yields} Inverse associations with blood cadmium were evident in all race/ethnic subsamples. {yields} Inverse associations with urine cadmium were evident in women of other/multi-race. {yields} Black women had lower mean body iron compared to white women.

  13. Dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake modifies the effect of cadmium exposure on markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colacino, Justin A.; Arthur, Anna E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Rozek, Laura S., E-mail: rozekl@umich.edu

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chronic cadmium exposure may cause disease through induction of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Factors that mitigate cadmium toxicity and could serve as interventions in exposed populations have not been well characterized. We used data from the 2003–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify diet's role in modifying associations between cadmium exposure and oxidative stress and inflammation. We created a composite antioxidant and anti-inflammatory diet score (ADS) by ranking participants by quintile of intake across a panel of 19 nutrients. We identified associations and effect modification between ADS, urinary cadmium, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation by multiple linear regression. An interquartile range increase in urinary cadmium was associated with a 47.5%, 8.8%, and 3.7% increase in C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), respectively. An interquartile range increase in ADS was associated with an 7.4%, 3.3%, 5.2%, and 2.5% decrease in CRP, GGT, ALP, and total white blood cell count respectively, and a 3.0% increase in serum bilirubin. ADS significantly attenuated the association between cadmium exposure, CRP and ALP. Dietary interventions may provide a route to reduce the impact of cadmium toxicity on the population level. - Highlights: • Cadmium may cause chronic disease through oxidative stress or inflammation. • We developed a score to quantify dietary antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake. • Cadmium was associated with markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. • Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory intake mitigated the effects of cadmium exposure. • Dietary interventions may be effective against chronic cadmium toxicity.

  14. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE MONTICELLO COAL FIRED POWER PLANT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; SUBRAMANIAN, S.; FEAGIN, L.; WILLIAMS, J.; BOYD, A.

    2006-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as currently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury ''hot spots'', using two types of evidence. First, the world-wide literature was searched for reports of deposition around mercury sources, including coal-fired power plants. Second, soil samples from around two mid-sized U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of ''hot spots'' and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (A) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (B) sediment increments of 18-30%, (C) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (D) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content. Soil and vegetation sampling programs were performed around the Monticello coal fired power plant. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with model predictions. The study found the following: (1) There was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. At the Monticello plant, excess soil Hg was associated with soil characteristics with higher values near the lake. Vegetation concentration showed some correlation with soil concentrations having higher mercury in vegetation when the soil mercury. (2) Based on computer modeling, Hg deposition was primarily RGM with much lower deposition from elemental mercury. The total deposition within 50 Km of the plant was predicted to be 4.2% of the total emitted. In the deposition, RGM is responsible for 98.7% of the total deposition, elemental mercury accounts for 1.1% and particulate mercury accounts for 0.2%. Less than 1% of the elemental mercury emitted was predicted to deposit within 50 km.

  15. Transmissive infrared frequency selective surfaces and infrared antennas : final report for LDRD 105749.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Hadley, G. Ronald; Samora, Sally; Loui, Hung; Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro Augusto; Davids, Paul; Kemme, Shanalyn A.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Johnson, William Arthur; Peters, David William

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasmonic structures open up new opportunities in photonic devices, sometimes offering an alternate method to perform a function and sometimes offering capabilities not possible with standard optics. In this LDRD we successfully demonstrated metal coatings on optical surfaces that do not adversely affect the transmission of those surfaces at the design frequency. This technology could be applied as an RF noise blocking layer across an optical aperture or as a method to apply an electric field to an active electro-optic device without affecting optical performance. We also demonstrated thin optical absorbers using similar patterned surfaces. These infrared optical antennas show promise as a method to improve performance in mercury cadmium telluride detectors. Furthermore, these structures could be coupled with other components to lead to direct rectification of infrared radiation. This possibility leads to a new method for infrared detection and energy harvesting of infrared radiation.

  16. Mercury in the Northeastern Chukchi Sea: Distribution patterns in seawater and sediments and biomagnification in the benthic food web

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, Austin L.; Hughes, Emily A.; Trocine, R. P.; Trefry, John; Schonberg, Susan V.; McTigue, Nathan D.; Lasorsa, Brenda K.; Konar, Brenda; Cooper, L. W.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury contamination in the atmosphere, snow and marine mammals of the Artic has been a continuing environmental concern and the focus of many investigations.

  17. Comment on the “Role of SO2 for Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal Combustion Flue Gas by Activated Carbon”

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, E.J.; Presto, A.A.

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A communication in response to the excellent and timely paper entitled “Role of SO2 for Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal Combustion Flue Gas by Activated Carbon”.

  18. Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States)] [Professional Project Services, Inc., Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN, 37922 (United States); Tachiev, Georgio [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States)] [Florida International University, Applied Research Center 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 2100 Miami Florida 33174 (United States); Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)] [Bradley University, 413A Jobst Hall, Preoria, IL 61625 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The model also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of magnitude below a target industrial groundwater concentration beneath the source and would not influence concentrations in surface water at Station 17. This analysis addressed only shallow concentrations in soil and the shallow groundwater flow path in soil and unconsolidated sediments to UEFPC. Other mercury sources may occur in bedrock and transport though bedrock to UEFPC may contribute to the mercury flux at Station 17. Generally mercury in the source areas adjacent to the stream and in sediment that is eroding can contribute to the flux of mercury in surface water. Because colloidally adsorbed mercury can be transported in surface water, actions that trap colloids and or hydrologically isolate surface water runoff from source areas would reduce the flux of mercury in surface water. Mercury in soil is highly adsorbed and transport in the groundwater system is very limited under porous media conditions. (authors)

  19. Qualification of the Nippon Instrumentation for use in Measuring Mercury at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T.; Mahannah, R.

    2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system installed in 221-S M-14 has been qualified for use. The qualification was a side-by-side comparison of the Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system with the currently used Bacharach Mercury Analyzer. The side-by-side testing included standards for instrument calibration verifications, spiked samples and unspiked samples. The standards were traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The side-by-side work included the analysis of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt, SRAT Product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples. With the qualification of the Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system in M-14, the DWPF lab will be able to perform a head to head comparison of a second Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 system once the system is installed. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) analyzes receipt and product samples from the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) to determine the mercury (Hg) concentration in the sludge slurry. The SRAT receipt is typically sampled and analyzed for the first ten SRAT batches of a new sludge batch to obtain an average Hg concentration. This average Hg concentration is then used to determine the amount of steam stripping required during the concentration/reflux step of the SRAT cycle to achieve a less than 0.6 wt% Hg in the SRAT product solids. After processing is complete, the SRAT product is sampled and analyzed for mercury to ensure that the mercury concentration does not exceed the 0.45 wt% limit in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). The DWPF Laboratory utilizes Bacharach Analyzers to support these Hg analyses at this facility. These analyzers are more than 10 years old, and they are no longer supported by the manufacturer. Due to these difficulties, the Bacharach Analyzers are to be replaced by new Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 systems. DWPF issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) for the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to assist in the qualification of the new systems. SRNL prepared a task technical and quality assurance (TT&QA) plan that outlined the activities that are necessary and sufficient to meet the objectives of the TTR. In addition, TT&QA plan also included a test plan that provided guidance to the DWPF Lab in collecting the data needed to qualify the new Nippon Mercury/RA-3000 systems.

  20. Dissertation Imaging as Characterization Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    Telluride Photovoltaics The goal of increasing the efficiency of solar cell devices is a universal oneDissertation Imaging as Characterization Techniques for Thin-Film Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaics. Increased photovoltaic (PV) performance means an increase in competition with other energy tech- nologies

  1. RECYCLING OF CdTe PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES: RECOVERY OF CADMIUM AND TELLURIUM Vasilis Fthenakis1, Paul Duby2, Wenming Wang1, Christopher Graves2 & Anuta Belova2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RECYCLING OF CdTe PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES: RECOVERY OF CADMIUM AND TELLURIUM Vasilis Fthenakis1, Paul the recovery of tellurium. Keywords: Photovoltaic, Recycling, CdTe 1. INTRODUCTION Photovoltaic modules acid (sulfuric) /hydrogen peroxide solution mixture to generate a solution that is rich in cadmium

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS FOR THE RE-EVOLUTION OF MERCURY INTO ECOSYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.A. Withum; J.E. Locke; S.C. Tseng

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is concern that mercury (Hg) in coal combustion by-products might be emitted into the environment during processing to other products or after the disposal/landfill of these by-products. This perception may limit the opportunities to use coal combustion by-products in recycle/reuse applications and may result in additional, costly disposal regulations. In this program, CONSOL conducted a comprehensive sampling and analytical program to include ash, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, and coal combustion by-products. This work is necessary to help identify potential problems and solutions important to energy production from fossil fuels. The program objective was to evaluate the potential for mercury emissions by leaching or volatilization, to determine if mercury enters the water surrounding an active FGD disposal site and an active fly ash slurry impoundment site, and to provide data that will allow a scientific assessment of the issue. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test results showed that mercury did not leach from coal, bottom ash, fly ash, spray dryer/fabric filter ash or forced oxidation gypsum (FOG) in amounts leading to concentrations greater than the detection limit of the TCLP method (1.0 ng/mL). Mercury was detected at very low concentrations in acidic leachates from all of the fixated and more than half of the unfixated FGD sludge samples, and one of the synthetic aggregate samples. Mercury was not detected in leachates from any sample when deionized water (DI water) was the leaching solution. Mercury did not leach from electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fly ash samples collected during activated carbon injection for mercury control in amounts greater than the detection limit of the TCLP method (1.0 ng/mL). Volatilization tests could not detect mercury loss from fly ash, spray dryer/fabric filter ash, unfixated FGD sludge, or forced oxidation gypsum; the mercury concentration of these samples all increased, possibly due to absorption from ambient surroundings. Mercury loss of 18-26% was detected after 3 and 6 months at 100 F and 140 F from samples of the fixated FGD sludge. Water samples were collected from existing ground water monitoring wells around an active FGD disposal site (8 wells) and an active fly ash slurry impoundment (14 wells). These were wells that the plants have installed to comply with ground water monitoring requirements of their permits. Mercury was not detected in any of the water samples collected from monitoring wells at either site. A literature review concluded that coal combustion byproducts can be disposed of in properly designed landfills that minimize the potentially negative impacts of water intrusion that carries dissolved organic matter (DOM). Dissolved organic matter and sulfate-reducing bacteria can promote the transformation of elemental or oxidized mercury into methyl mercury. The landfill should be properly designed and capped with clays or similar materials to minimize the wet-dry cycles that promote the release of methylmercury.

  3. Technology demonstration for reducing mercury emissions from small-scale gold refining facilities.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habegger, L. J.; Fernandez, L. E.; Engle, M.; Bailey, J. L.; Peterson, D. P.; MacDonell, M. M.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Gold that is brought from artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas to gold shops for processing and sale typically contains 5-40% mercury. The uncontrolled removal of the residual mercury in gold shops by using high-temperature evaporation can be a significant source of mercury emissions in urban areas where the shops are located. Emissions from gold shop hoods during a burn can exceed 1,000 mg/m{sup 3}. Because the saturation concentration of mercury vapor at operating temperatures at the hood exhaust is less than 100 mg/m{sup 3}, the dominant component of the exhaust is in the form of aerosol or liquid particles. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with technical support from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), has completed a project to design and test a technology to remove the dominant aerosol component in the emissions from gold shops. The objective was to demonstrate a technology that could be manufactured at low cost and by using locally available materials and manufacturing capabilities. Six prototypes designed by Argonne were locally manufactured, installed, and tested in gold shops in Itaituba and Creporizao, Brazil. The initial prototype design incorporated a pebble bed as the media for collecting the mercury aerosols, and a mercury collection efficiency of over 90% was demonstrated. Though achieving high efficiencies, the initial prototype was determined to have practical disadvantages such as excessive weight, a somewhat complex construction, and high costs (>US$1,000). To further simplify the construction, operation, and associated costs, a second prototype design was developed in which the pebble bed was replaced with slotted steel baffle plates. The system was designed to have flexibility for installation in various hood configurations. The second prototype with the baffle plate design was installed and tested in several different hood/exhaust systems to determine the optimal installation configuration. The significance of coagulation and collection of the mercury aerosols in exhaust ducts, which is dependent on the hood and collector configuration, was also evaluated. Prototype demonstration tests verified the theoretical basis for mercury aerosol capture that can be used to optimize the baffle plate design, flow rates, and hood exhaust ducts and plenum to achieve 80% or higher removal efficiencies. Results indicated that installation configuration significantly influences a system's capture efficiency. Configurations that retained existing inlet ducts resulted in system efficiencies of more than 80%, whereas installation configurations without inlet ducts significantly reduced capture efficiency. As an alternative to increasing the volume of inlet ducts, the number of baffle plates in the system baffle assembly could be doubled to increase efficiency. Recommended installation and operation procedures were developed on the basis of these results. A water-based mercury capture system developed in Indonesia for installation in smaller shops was also tested and shown to be effective for certain applications. The cost of construction and installation of the baffle plate prototype was approximately US$400. These costs were reported as acceptable by local gold shop owners and government regulators, and were significantly lower than the cost of an alternate charcoal/copper mesh mercury filter available in the region, which costs about US$10,000. A sampling procedure that consists of a particle filter combined with a vapor analyzer was demonstrated as an effective procedure for analyzing both the aerosol and vapor components of the mercury concentrations. Two key findings for enhancing higher mercury collection were identified. First, the aerosol/vapor mercury emissions must be given sufficient time for the mercury particles to coagulate to a size that can be readily captured by the baffle plates. An interval of at least 6 seconds of transit time between the point of evaporation and contact with the slotted baffle plates is recommended. Some particles will also deposit in the exhaust ducts

  4. PV Fact Sheets Argument B1Some people state that "The external costs of PV electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PV Fact Sheets Argument B1Some people state that "The external costs of PV electricity is much and the low one to thin-film cadmium telluride PV systems. Fossil fuel power plants PV displaces. 5.8 External

  5. IOP PUBLISHING NANOTECHNOLOGY Nanotechnology 19 (2008) 325711 (7pp) doi:10.1088/0957-4484/19/32/325711

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Wilfred

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Te nanowires with controlled composition were cathodically electrodeposited using track-etched polycarbonate enhanced conductance. 1. Introduction Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a II­VI semiconductor that has been

  6. NREL preprints for the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fitzgerald, M. [ed.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Topics covered include various aspects of solar cell fabrication and performance. Aluminium-gallium arsenides, cadmium telluride, amorphous silicon, and copper-indium-gallium selenides are all characterized in their applicability in solar cells.

  7. Sandia Energy - EC Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EVALUATION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM POWER RATING METHODS FOR A CADMIUM TELLURIDE ARRAYTara Camacho-Lopez2015-04-06T22:15:34+00:00 Placeholder Download Filename PowerRatingEvaluNelso...

  8. FULL-SCALE TESTING OF ENHANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.K. McDonald; G.T. Amrhein; G.A. Kudlac; D. Madden Yurchison

    2003-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems are currently installed on about 25% of the coal-fired utility generating capacity in the U.S., representing about 15% of the number of coal-fired units. Depending on the effect of operating parameters such as mercury content of the coal, form of mercury (elemental or oxidized) in the flue gas, scrubber spray tower configuration, liquid-to-gas ratio, and slurry chemistry, FGD systems can provide cost-effective, near-term mercury emissions control options with a proven history of commercial operation. For boilers already equipped with FGD systems, the incremental cost of any vapor phase mercury removal achieved is minimal. To be widely accepted and implemented, technical approaches that improve mercury removal performance for wet FGD systems should also have low incremental costs and have little or no impact on operation and SO{sub 2} removal performance. The ultimate goal of the Full-scale Testing of Enhanced Mercury Control for Wet FGD Systems Program was to commercialize methods for the control of mercury in coal-fired electric utility systems equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD). The program was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development, and Babcock & Wilcox. Host sites and associated support were provided by Michigan South Central Power Agency (MSCPA) and Cinergy. Field-testing was completed at two commercial coal-fired utilities with wet FGD systems: (1) MSCPA's 55 MW{sub e} Endicott Station and (2) Cinergy's 1300 MW{sub e} Zimmer Station. Testing was conducted at these two locations because of the large differences in size and wet scrubber chemistry. Endicott employs a limestone, forced oxidation (LSFO) wet FGD system, whereas Zimmer uses Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime (magnesium enhanced lime) and ex situ oxidation. Both locations burn Ohio bituminous coal.

  9. Exploring the structural basis for selenium/mercury antagonism in Allium fistulosum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNear, Jr., David H.; Afton, Scott E.; Caruso, Joseph A. (UCIN); (Kentucky)

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    While continuing efforts are devoted to studying the mutually protective effect of mercury and selenium in mammals, few studies have investigated the mercury-selenium antagonism in plants. In this study, we report the metabolic fate of mercury and selenium in Allium fistulosum (green onion) after supplementation with sodium selenite and mercuric chloride. Analysis of homogenized root extracts via capillary reversed phase chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (capRPLC-ICP-MS) suggests the formation of a mercury-selenium containing compound. Micro-focused synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping of freshly excised roots show Hg sequestered on the root surface and outlining individual root cells, while Se is more evenly distributed throughout the root. There are also discrete Hg-only, Se-only regions and an overall strong correlation between Hg and Se throughout the root. Analysis of the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra show a 'background' of methylselenocysteine within the root with discrete spots of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, Se{sup 0} and solid HgSe on the root surface. Mercury outlining individual root cells is possibly binding to sulfhydryl groups or plasma membrane or cell wall proteins, and in some places reacting with reduced selenium in the rhizosphere to form a mercury(II) selenide species. Together with the formation of the root-bound mercury(II) selenide species, we also report on the formation of cinnabar (HgS) and Hg{sup 0} in the rhizosphere. The results presented herein shed light on the intricate chemical and biological processes occurring within the rhizosphere that influence Hg and Se bioavailability and will be instrumental in predicting the fate and assisting in the remediation of these metals in the environment and informing whether or not fruit and vegetable food selection from aerial plant compartments or roots from plants grown in Hg contaminated soils, are safe for consumption.

  10. The current state of the science related to the re-release of mercury from coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; David J. Hassett; Loreal V. Heebink; Tera D. Buckley [University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The stability of mercury associated with CCPs is an issue that has only recently been under investigation but has become a prominent question as the industry strives to determine if current management options for CCPs will need to be modified. Mercury and other air toxic elements can be present in fly ash, FGD material and bottom ash and boiler slag. Mercury concentrations ranging from {lt} 0.01 to 2.41 ppm in fly ash and from 0.001 to 0.342 ppm in bottom ash have been reported. Stability of mercury must be evaluated by tests that include 1) direct leachability; 2) vapor-phase release at ambient and elevated temperatures; and 3) microbiologically induced leachability and vapor-phase release. The amount of mercury leached from currently produced CCPs is extremely low and does not appear to represent an environmental or re-release hazard. Concentrations of mercury in leachates from fly ashes and FGD material using either the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) or the synthetic groundwater leaching procedure (SGLP) are generally below detection limits. The release of mercury vapor from CCPs resulting from the use of mercury control technologies has been evaluated on a limited basis. Research indicates that mercury bound to the ash or activated carbon is fairly stable. The EERC found that organomercury species were detected at very low levels both in the vapor and leachate generated from the microbiologically mediated release experiments. The current state of the science indicates that mercury associated with CCPs is stable and highly unlikely to be released under most management conditions, including utilisation and disposal. The exception to this is exposure to high temperatures such as those that may be achieved in cement and wallboard production. Therefore, existing CCPs management options are expected to be environmentally sound options for CCPs from systems with mercury control technologies installed. 2 refs., 2 photos.

  11. Environmental exposure and lifestyle predictors of lead, cadmium, PCB, and DDT levels in Great Lakes fish eaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovinga, M.E.; Sowers, M.; Humphrey, H.E. (Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States))

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A previously characterized cohort of 115 Great Lakes fish eaters and 95 non-fish-eating regional controls was reexamined in 1989. Levels of blood lead and cadmium and serum PCB and DDT were measured. Lifestyle characteristics, including recent and historic fish consumption, were evaluated as predictors of contaminant levels using multivariate regression analysis. Significantly elevated serum PCB and DDT levels were observed in fish eaters, compared with controls. Historic fish consumption, rather than recent consumption, was identified as the primary predictor of current serum levels. Mean blood lead and cadmium were also significantly higher in fish eaters than in controls. However, the primary predictors of lead and cadmium were behavioral exposures--specifically smoking and self-reported occupational and recreational exposure-rather than fish consumption. These findings illustrate the importance of evaluating a variety of possible sources when investigating human exposure to environmental contaminants.

  12. Progress in cadmium-related health effects in persons with high environmental exposure in northwestern Thailand: A five-year follow-up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Limpatanachote, Pisit [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Krintratun, Somyot [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Punta, Boonyarat; Funkhiew, Thippawan [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)] [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Food-borne cadmium was the principal source of exposure for persons living in the 12 cadmium-contaminated villages in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. This report presents progress in cadmium-related health effects among persons with high cadmium exposure. The study included 436 persons who had urinary cadmium levels {>=}5 {mu}g/g creatinine and were screened for urinary cadmium, renal function, hypertension, diabetes and urinary stones in 2005 (baseline) and 2010 (5-year follow-up). Study renal biomarkers included urinary excretion of {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin ({beta}{sub 2}-MG), total protein and calcium, serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The geometric mean level of urinary cadmium statistically significantly reduced from 9.5{+-}1.6 {mu}g/g creatinine in 2005 to 8.8{+-}1.6 {mu}g/g creatinine in 2010. Compared to baseline, the follow-up examination revealed significant increases in urinary {beta}{sub 2}-MG (tubular effect), urinary total protein and serum creatinine, and a decrease in GFR (glomerular effects). Progressive renal dysfunctions were similarly observed in persons both with and without reduction in cadmium intake. Significant increases in prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and urinary stones were also detected at follow-up. These three disorders were found to markedly impair renal functions in the study persons. Our study indicates that in persons with prolonged excessive cadmium exposure, toxic health effects may progress even after exposure reduction. Renal damage from cadmium can be due to its direct nephrotoxic effect and also through the related disorders causing nephropathy.

  13. CFD Validation of Gas Injection in Flowing Mercury over Vertical Smooth and Grooved Wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL; Wendel, Mark W [ORNL; Felde, David K [ORNL; Riemer, Bernie [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The nuclear spallation reaction occurs when a proton beam hits liquid mercury. This interaction causes thermal expansion of the liquid mercury which produces high pressure waves. When these pressure waves hit the target vessel wall, cavitation can occur and erode the wall. Research and development efforts at SNS include creation of a vertical protective gas layer between the flowing liquid mercury and target vessel wall to mitigate the cavitation damage erosion and extend the life time of the target. Since mercury is opaque, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used as a diagnostic tool to see inside the liquid mercury and guide the experimental efforts. In this study, CFD simulations of three dimensional, unsteady, turbulent, two-phase flow of helium gas injection in flowing liquid mercury over smooth, vertically grooved and horizontally grooved walls are carried out with the commercially available CFD code Fluent-12 from ANSYS. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) model is used to track the helium-mercury interface. V-shaped vertical and horizontal grooves with 0.5 mm pitch and about 0.7 mm depth were machined in the transparent wall of acrylic test sections. Flow visualization data of helium gas coverage through transparent test sections is obtained with a high-speed camera at the ORNL target test facility (TTF). The helium gas mass flow rate is 8 mg/min and introduced through a 0.5 mm diameter port. The local mercury velocity is 0.9 m/s. In this paper, the helium gas flow rate and the local mercury velocity are kept constant for the three cases. Time integration of predicted helium gas volume fraction over time is done to evaluate the gas coverage and calculate the average thickness of the helium gas layer. The predicted time-integrated gas coverage over vertically grooved and horizontally grooved test sections is better than over a smooth wall. The simulations show that the helium gas is trapped inside the grooves. The predicted time-averaged gas coverage is in good qualitative agreement with the measured gas coverage.

  14. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constance Senior

    2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  15. Mercury Removal at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's New Waste Calcining Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashworth, Samuel Clay; Wood, R. A.; Taylor, D. D.; Sieme, D. D.

    2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technologies were investigated to determine viable processes for removing mercury from the calciner (NWCF) offgas system at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Technologies for gas phase and aqueous phase treatment were evaluated. The technologies determined are intended to meet EPA Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) requirements under the Clean Air Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Currently, mercury accumulation in the calciner off-gas scrubbing system is transferred to the tank farm. These transfers lead to accumulation in the liquid heels of the tanks. The principal objective for aqueous phase mercury removal is heel mercury reduction. The system presents a challenge to traditional methods because of the presence of nitrogen oxides in the gas phase and high nitric acid in the aqueous scrubbing solution. Many old and new technologies were evaluated including sorbents and absorption in the gas phase and ion exchange, membranes/sorption, galvanic methods, and UV reduction in the aqueous phase. Process modifications and feed pre-treatment were also evaluated. Various properties of mercury and its compounds were summarized and speciation was predicted based on thermodynamics. Three systems (process modification, NOxidizer combustor, and electrochemical aqueous phase treatment) and additional technology testing were recommended.

  16. Sorbents for mercury capture from fuel gas with application to gasification systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, E.J.; Myers, C.R.; King, W.P.; Stanko, D.C.; Pennline, H.W. [US DOE, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2006-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In regard to gasification for power generation, the removal of mercury by sorbents at elevated temperatures preserves the higher thermal efficiency of the integrated gasification combined cycle system. Unfortunately, most sorbents display poor capacity for elemental mercury at elevated temperatures. Previous experience with sorbents in flue gas has allowed for judicious selection of potential high-temperature candidate sorbents. The capacities of many sorbents for elemental mercury from nitrogen, as well as from four different simulated fuel gases at temperatures of 204-371{sup o}C, have been determined. The simulated fuel gas compositions contain varying concentrations of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, moisture, and hydrogen sulfide. Promising high-temperature sorbent candidates have been identified. Palladium sorbents seem to be the most promising for high-temperature capture of mercury and other trace elements from fuel gases. A collaborative research and development agreement has been initiated between the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Johnson Matthey for optimization of the sorbents for trace element capture from high-temperature fuel gas. Future directions for mercury sorbent development for fuel gas application will be discussed.

  17. MERCURY REMOVAL FROM DOE SOLID MIXED WASTE USING THE GEMEP(sm) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the sponsorship of the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), Metcalf and Eddy (M and E), in association with General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center (GE-CRD), Colorado Minerals Research Institute (CMRI), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), conducted laboratory-scale and bench-scale tests of the General Electric Mercury Extraction Process technology on two mercury-contaminated mixed solid wastes from U. S. Department of Energy sites: sediment from the East Fork of Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge (samples supplied by Oak Ridge National Laboratory), and drummed soils from Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL). Fluorescent lamps provided by GE-CRD were also studied. The GEMEP technology, invented and patented by the General Electric Company, uses an extraction solution composed of aqueous potassium iodide plus iodine to remove mercury from soils and other wastes. The extraction solution is regenerated by chemical oxidation and reused, after the solubilized mercury is removed from solution by reducing it to the metallic state. The results of the laboratory- and bench-scale testing conducted for this project included: (1) GEMEP extraction tests to optimize extraction conditions and determine the extent of co-extraction of radionuclides; (2) pre-screening (pre-segregation) tests to determine if initial separation steps could be used effectively to reduce the volume of material needing GEMEP extraction; and (3) demonstration of the complete extraction, mercury recovery, and iodine recovery and regeneration process (known as locked-cycle testing).

  18. JV Task 125-Mercury Measurement in Combustion Flue Gases Short Course

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Laudal

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The short course, designed to train personnel who have an interest in measuring mercury in combustion flue gases, was held twice at the Drury Inn in Marion, Illinois. The short course helped to provide attendees with the knowledge necessary to avoid the many pitfalls that can and do occur when measuring mercury in combustion flue gases. The first short course, May 5-8, 2008, included both a classroom-type session and hands-on demonstration of mercury-sampling equipment. The hands-on demonstration of equipment was staged at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative. Not including the Illinois Clean Coal Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy project managers, there were 12 attendees. The second short course was conducted September 16-17, 2008, but only included the classroom portion of the course; 14 people attended. In both cases, lectures were provided on the various mercury measurement methods, and interaction between attendees and EERC research personnel to discuss specific mercury measurement problems was promoted. Overall, the response to the course was excellent.

  19. Assessment of mercury emissions from the Afton copper smelter, British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, J.D.; Price, C.J.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The afton Copper Smelter adjacent to Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada commenced operation in 1978 and employed a mercury scrubbing system. Two years of preproduction studies, which included monitoring for mercury in ambient air, water, soil, and vegetation were performed. The results from similar studies conducted during four full years (1978-81) and two partial years (1982-83) of production are presented in the data analysis. These programs illustrated that the most frequent ground impingement occurred within a 1.6-3.2-km radius of the source, and that the levels decreased with increasing distance from the source to a maximum radius of 8 km. The results of a comprehensive source monitoring program illustrated that the average mercury emission levels ranged from 3.2 to 6.8 kg/calendar day during 1979-81, and that the majority of the emissions were in a vapor form. The ambient monitoring data acquired when smelter operations were significantly reduced indicate a quick recovery to preproduction levels in virtually all monitored parameters and at most monitored sites. The integrated results from all mercury monitoring programs illustrate the environmental impact from mercury emissions which were two to four times the permit standard of 1.8 kg/day.

  20. Food chain dynamics and potential ecological risks of mercury at the Carson River site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, S.C. [Ecology and Environment, Inc., Lancaster, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The USEPA is conducting a remedial investigation of mercury contamination in the Carson River watershed, located near Carson City in central west Nevada. As a component of this investigation, water, sediment, and tissue samples were collected for mercury speciation and other analyses. Tissues analyses from the seven site-investigation areas and four background areas include: whole-body and fillet analyses of five species of fish, composite and individual analyses of three species of benthic macroinvertebrates, blood, feather and liver analyses of two bird species, composite analyses of zooplankton, and whole-body analyses of lizards. The data are used to develop site-specific estimates of mercury bioaccumulation in aquatic food chains of riverine/riparian, open-water, and mudflat habitats at the Carson River site. Because the behavior and food chain dynamics of mercury in semi-arid ecosystems of the southwestern US is poorly understood, these data can be compared and contrasted with bioaccumulation estimates derived from well-studied ecosystems such as northern temperate lakes. Potential ecological risks of mercury exposure through the food chain and through ingestion of and contact with contaminated media are evaluated for important wildlife receptors occurring at the Carson River site.

  1. Preliminary Field Evaluation of Mercury Control Using Combustion Modifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Lissianski; P. Maly; T. Marquez

    2005-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project EER conducted a preliminary field evaluation of the integrated approach for mercury (Hg) and NO{sub x} control. The approach enhanced the 'naturally occurring' Hg capture by fly ash through combustion optimization, increasing carbon in ash content, and lowering ESP temperature. The evaluation took place in Green Station Units 1 and 2 located near Henderson, Kentucky and operated by Western Kentucky Energy. Units 1 and 2 are equipped with cold-side ESPs and wet scrubbers. Green Station Units 1 and 2 typically fire two types of fuel: a bituminous coal and a blend of bituminous coals based on availability. Testing of Hg emissions in Unit 2 without reburning system in operation and at minimum OFA demonstrated that efficiencies of Hg reduction downstream of the ESP were 30-40%. Testing also demonstrated that OFA system operation at 22% air resulted in 10% incremental increase in Hg removal efficiency at the ESP outlet. About 80% of Hg in flue gas at ESP outlet was present in the oxidized form. Testing of Hg emissions under reburning conditions showed that Hg emissions decreased with LOI increase and ESP temperature decrease. Testing demonstrated that maximum Hg reduction downstream of ESP was 40-45% at ESP temperatures higher than 300 F and 60-80% at ESP temperatures lower than 300 F. The program objective to demonstrate 80% Hg removal at the ESP outlet has been met.

  2. Release of Ammonium and Mercury from NOx Controlled Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; Kim, A.G

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the goals of the Department of Energy is to increase the reuse of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) to 50% by 2010. This will require both developing new markets and maintaining traditional ones such as the use of fly ash in concrete. However, the addition of pollution control devices can introduce side-effects that affect the marketability of the CUB. Such can be the case when NOx control is achieved using selective catalytic or non-catalytic reduction (SCR or SNCR). Depending on site-specific details, the ammonia slip can cause elevated levels of NH3 in the fly ash. Disposal of ammoniated fly ash can present environmental concerns related to the amount of ammonia that might be released, the amount of water that might become contaminated, and the extent to which metals might be mobilized by the presence of the ammonia. Ammonia retained in fly ash appears to be present as either an ammonium salt or as a chemisorbed species. Mercury in the leachates correlated to neither the amount of leachable ammonium nor to the total amount of Hg in the ash. The strongest correlation was between the decreases in the amount of Hg leached with increased LOI.

  3. Constraining spacetime torsion with the Moon and Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    March, Riccardo; Bellettini, Giovanni; Tauraso, Roberto; Dell'Agnello, Simone [Istituto per le Applicazioni del Calcolo, CNR, Via dei Taurini 19, 00185 Roma, Italy, and INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF), via E. Fermi 40 Frascati, 00044 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Roma ''Tor Vergata'', via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma, Italy, and INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF), via E. Fermi 40 Frascati, 00044 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Matematica, Universita di Roma 'Tor Vergata', via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma, Italy, and INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF), via E. Fermi 40 Frascati, 00044 Roma (Italy); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF), via E. Fermi 40 Frascati, 00044 Roma (Italy)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a search for new gravitational physics phenomena based on Riemann-Cartan theory of general relativity including spacetime torsion. Starting from the parametrized torsion framework of Mao, Tegmark, Guth, and Cabi, we analyze the motion of test bodies in the presence of torsion, and, in particular, we compute the corrections to the perihelion advance and to the orbital geodetic precession of a satellite. We consider the motion of a test body in a spherically symmetric field, and the motion of a satellite in the gravitational field of the Sun and the Earth. We describe the torsion field by means of three parameters, and we make use of the autoparallel trajectories, which in general differ from geodesics when torsion is present. We derive the specific approximate expression of the corresponding system of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved with methods of celestial mechanics. We calculate the secular variations of the longitudes of the node and of the pericenter of the satellite. The computed secular variations show how the corrections to the perihelion advance and to the orbital de Sitter effect depend on the torsion parameters. All computations are performed under the assumptions of weak field and slow motion. To test our predictions, we use the measurements of the Moon's geodetic precession from lunar laser ranging data, and the measurements of Mercury's perihelion advance from planetary radar ranging data. These measurements are then used to constrain suitable linear combinations of the torsion parameters.

  4. Process for fabricating polycrystalline semiconductor thin-film solar cells, and cells produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xuanzhi (Golden, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel, simplified method for fabricating a thin-film semiconductor heterojunction photovoltaic device includes initial steps of depositing a layer of cadmium stannate and a layer of zinc stannate on a transparent substrate, both by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, followed by the depositing of dissimilar layers of semiconductors such as cadmium sulfide and cadmium telluride, and heat treatment to convert the cadmium stannate to a substantially single-phase material of a spinel crystal structure. Preferably, the cadmium sulfide layer is also deposited by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, and the cadmium telluride layer is deposited by close space sublimation at an elevated temperature effective to convert the amorphous cadmium stannate to the polycrystalline cadmium stannate with single-phase spinel structure.

  5. Demonstration of An Integrated Approach to Mercury Control at Lee Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitali Lissianski; Pete Maly

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    General Electric (GE) has developed an approach whereby native mercury reduction on fly ash can be improved by optimizing the combustion system. This approach eliminates carbon-rich areas in the combustion zone, making the combustion process more uniform, and allows increasing carbon content in fly ash without significant increase in CO emissions. Since boiler excess O{sub 2} can be also reduced as a result of optimized combustion, this process reduces NO{sub x} emissions. Because combustion optimization improves native mercury reduction on fly ash, it can reduce requirements for activated carbon injection (ACI) when integrated with sorbent injection for more efficient mercury control. The approach can be tailored to specific unit configurations and coal types for optimal performance. This report describes results of a U.S. DOE sponsored project designed to evaluate the effect of combustion conditions on 'native' mercury capture on fly ash and integrate combustion optimization for improved mercury and NO{sub x} reduction with ACI. The technology evaluation took place in Lee Station Unit 3 located in Goldsboro, NC and operated by Progress Energy. Unit 3 burns a low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal and is a 250 MW opposed-wall fired unit equipped with an ESP with a specific collection area of 249 ft{sup 2}/kacfm. Unit 3 is equipped with SO{sub 3} injection for ESP conditioning. The technical goal of the project was to evaluate the technology's ability to achieve 70% mercury reduction below the baseline emission value of 2.9 lb/TBtu, which was equivalent to 80% mercury reduction relative to the mercury concentration in the coal. The strategy to achieve the 70% incremental improvement in mercury removal in Unit 3 was (1) to enhance 'naturally' occurring fly ash mercury capture by optimizing the combustion process and using duct humidification to reduce flue gas temperatures at the ESP inlet, and (2) to use ACI in front of the ESP to further reduce mercury emissions. The program was comprised of field and pilot-scale tests, engineering studies and consisted of eight tasks. As part of the program, GE conducted pilot-scale evaluation of sorbent effect on mercury reduction, supplied and installed adjustable riffle boxes to assist in combustion optimization, performed combustion optimization, supplied mobile sorbent injection and flue gas humidification systems, conducted CFD modeling of sorbent injection and flue gas humidification, and performed mercury testing including a continuous 30-day sorbent injection trial. Combustion optimization was the first step in reduction of mercury emissions. Goals of combustion optimization activities were to improve 'native' mercury capture on fly ash and reduce NO{sub x}. Combustion optimization included balancing of coal flow through individual burners to eliminate zones of carbon-rich combustion, air flow balancing, and burner adjustments. As part of the project, the original riffle boxes were replaced with Foster-Wheeler's adjustable riffle boxes to allow for biasing the coal flow between the coal pipes. A 10-point CO/O{sub 2}/NO{sub x} grid was installed in the primary superheater region of the back pass to assist in these activities. Testing of mercury emissions before and after combustion optimization demonstrated that mercury emissions were reduced from 2.9 lb/TBtu to 1.8 lb/TBtu due to boiler operation differences in conjunction with combustion optimization, a 38% improvement in 'native' mercury capture on fly ash. Native mercury reduction from coal was {approx}42% at baseline conditions and 64% at optimized combustion conditions. As a result of combustion optimization NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by 18%. A three-dimensional CFD model was developed to study the flow distribution and sorbent injection in the post air heater duct in Lee Station Unit 3. Modeling of the flow pattern exiting the air pre-heater demonstrated that because of the duct transition from a circular opening at the exit of air-pre-heater to a rectangular ESP inlet duct, flow separation occurred at the corners afte

  6. Full-Scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary Blythe; Jennifer Paradis

    2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents and discusses results from Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42778, 'Full-scale Testing of a Mercury Oxidation Catalyst Upstream of a Wet FGD System,' which was conducted over the time-period July 24, 2006 through June 30, 2010. The objective of the project was to demonstrate at full scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in pulverized-coal-fired flue gas. Oxidized mercury is removed downstream in wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and collected with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI, the Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA), who also provided the host site, Great River Energy, Johnson Matthey, Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), NRG Energy, Ontario Power and Westar. URS Group was the prime contractor and also provided cofunding. The scope of this project included installing and testing a gold-based catalyst upstream of one full-scale wet FGD absorber module (about 200-MW scale) at LCRA's Fayette Power Project (FPP) Unit 3, which fires Powder River Basin coal. Installation of the catalyst involved modifying the ductwork upstream of one of three wet FGD absorbers on Unit 3, Absorber C. The FGD system uses limestone reagent, operates with forced sulfite oxidation, and normally runs with two FGD modules in service and one spare. The full-scale catalyst test was planned for 24 months to provide catalyst life data. Over the test period, data were collected on catalyst pressure drop, elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst module, and mercury capture by the downstream wet FGD absorber. The demonstration period began on May 6, 2008 with plans for the catalyst to remain in service until May 5, 2010. However, because of continual increases in pressure drop across the catalyst and concerns that further increases would adversely affect Unit 3 operations, LCRA decided to end the demonstration early, during a planned unit outage. On October 2, 2009, Unit 3 was taken out of service for a fall outage and the catalyst upstream of Absorber C was removed. This ended the demonstration after approximately 17 months of the planned 24 months of operation. This report discusses reasons for the pressure drop increase and potential measures to mitigate such problems in any future application of this technology. Mercury oxidation and capture measurements were made on Unit 3 four times during the 17-month demonstration. Measurements were performed across the catalyst and Absorber C and 'baseline' measurements were performed across Absorber A or B, which did not have a catalyst upstream. Results are presented in the report from all four sets of measurements during the demonstration period. These results include elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst, mercury capture across Absorber C downstream of the catalyst, baseline mercury capture across Absorber A or B, and mercury re-emissions across both absorbers in service. Also presented in the report are estimates of the average mercury control performance of the oxidation catalyst technology over the 17-month demonstration period and the resulting mercury control costs.

  7. Accumulation of mercury and PCBs in quillback rockfish (Sebastes maliger) from Puget Sound, Washington, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, J.E.; O`Neill, S.M. [Washington State Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife is conducting a long-term study designed to identify and monitor levels of contaminants in Puget Sound fish resources as one component of the ongoing Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program (PSAMP). Here the authors summarize results from three years of monitoring contaminants in quillback rockfish (Sebastes maliger) and present models for bioaccumulation of persistent pollutants. This species was selected for monitoring because they are long-lived and nonmigratory, occupy a relatively high position in the demersal food web, and are important to Washington fisheries. Muscle tissue from quillback rockfish was sampled from 1991 through 1993 at three PSAMP stations in the Puget Sound (San Juan Islands [SJI], North-Central Puget Sound [NCPS] and Central Puget Sound [CPS]). Two persistent pollutants--mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS)--were present consistently in quillback rockfish. Maximum concentrations of mercury in composite-samples were 0.51, 0.41 and 0.47 mg/kg for SJI, NCPS and CPS, respectively. One composite exceeded the World Health Organization action limit for mercury in fish tissue (0.5 mg/kg). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) screening level for mercury in fish is 0.6 mg/kg. Seven composite-samples contained a single group of PCBs (aroclor 1260) which exceeded the EPA screening level for total aroclors (10 {micro}g/kg). Stepwise linear regression was used to model the effects of fish age, size, percent lipids, and collection site on accumulation of mercury and aroclor 1260 in quillback rockfish. Of these variables, age and length (as growth rate) of rockfish were the primary determinants of mercury concentration in quillback rockfish; age of rockfish and collection site were the primary determinants of PCB concentrations.

  8. Full Scale Field Trial of the Low Temperature Mercury Capture Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Locke; Richard Winschel

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    CONSOL Energy Inc., with partial funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory, designed a full-scale installation for a field trial of the Low-Temperature Mercury Control (LTMC) process, which has the ability to reduce mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by over 90 percent, by cooling flue gas temperatures to approximately 230 °F and absorbing the mercury on the native carbon in the fly ash, as was recently demonstrated by CONSOL R&D on a slip-stream pilot plant at the Allegheny Energy Mitchell Station with partial support by DOE. LTMC has the potential to remove over 90 percent of the flue gas mercury at a cost at least an order of magnitude lower (on a $/lb mercury removed basis) than activated carbon injection. The technology is suitable for retrofitting to existing and new plants, and, although it is best suited to bituminous coal-fired plants, it may have some applicability to the full range of coal types. Installation plans were altered and moved from the original project host site, PPL Martins Creek plant, to a second host site at Allegheny Energyâ??s R. Paul Smith plant, before installation actually occurred at the Jamestown (New York) Board of Public Utilities (BPU) Samuel A. Carlson (Carlson) Municipal Generating Station Unit 12, where the LTMC system was operated on a limited basis. At Carlson, over 60% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 220-230 °F at the ESP inlet via humidification. The host unit ESP operation was unaffected by the humidification and performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions.

  9. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The coprecipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the fourth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to completing, installing and starting up the pilot unit, completing laboratory runs to size catalysts, and procuring catalysts for the pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

  10. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,'' during the time-period April 1, 2003 through June 30, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project cofunders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The current project is testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for approximately 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the seventh full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included continued operation of the first pilot unit, conducting catalyst activity measurements, installing sonic horns for on-line catalyst cleaning, and installing the fourth catalyst, all for the GRE Coal Creek site. CPS began installation of the second mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit at their Spruce Plant during the quarter. Laboratory efforts were conducted to support catalyst selection for that second pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

  11. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period April 1, 2002 through June 30, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates in a stable form with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project will test previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, so as to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the third full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, most of the project efforts were related to constructing the pilot unit and conducting laboratory runs to help size catalysts for the pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these two efforts.

  12. PILOT TESTING OF MERCURY OXIDATION CATALYSTS FOR UPSTREAM OF WET FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185, Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems, during the time period October 1, 2002 through December 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. The project is being funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), and City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. The mercury catalytic oxidation process under development uses catalyst materials applied to honeycomb substrates to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Oxidized mercury is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and co-precipitates with the byproducts from the FGD system. The co-precipitated mercury does not appear to adversely affect the disposal or reuse properties of the FGD byproduct. The current project testing previously identified, effective catalyst materials at a larger, pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future fullscale designs. The pilot-scale tests will continue for up to 14 months at each of two sites to provide longer-term catalyst life data. This is the fifth full reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, project efforts included starting up the pilot unit with three catalysts at the first site, conducting catalyst activity measurements, completing comprehensive flue gas sampling and analyses, and procuring additional catalysts for the pilot unit. This technical progress report provides an update on these efforts.

  13. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg.sup.196 enrichment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg.sup.196 isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  14. Method of controlling the mercury vapor pressure in a photo-chemical lamp or vapor filter used for Hg[sup 196] enrichment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.

    1993-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method of eliminating the cold spot zones presently used on Hg[sup 196] isotope separation lamps and filters by the use of a mercury amalgams, preferably mercury - indium amalgams. The use of an amalgam affords optimization of the mercury density in the lamp and filter of a mercury enrichment reactor, particularly multilamp enrichment reactors. Moreover, the use of an amalgam in such lamps and/or filters affords the ability to control the spectral line width of radiation emitted from lamps, a requirement for mercury enrichment.

  15. Color-control of the persistent luminescence of cadmium silicate doped with transition metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, Carolina M., E-mail: carolabreu.fisica@gmail.com [Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics Materials, Physics Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 Săo Cristóvăo, SE (Brazil); Silva, Ronaldo S.; Valerio, Mário E.G.; Macedo, Zélia S. [Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics Materials, Physics Department, Federal University of Sergipe, 49100-000 Săo Cristóvăo, SE (Brazil)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural and optical characterization of cadmium silicate (CdSiO{sub 3}) doped with transition metals is reported. This crystalline system presents intrinsic luminescence and is usually studied as host matrix for rare earth ions. In this work, CdSiO{sub 3} was doped with Mn, Ni and Cr to produce multicolored luminescent materials. Single crystalline CdSiO{sub 3} was obtained via solid state synthesis at 1000 °C/8 h. The valence of the dopants inserted in the host matrix was determined via XANES as 3+ for Cr, 2+ for Ni and both 2+ and 3+ for Mn, according to XANES studies. The optical absorption spectra of the samples presented wide bands in the visible region that were associated with the internal transitions of the dopants. All the samples presented photoluminescent bands near 420 nm, 496 nm and 591 nm, with different relative intensities that yield characteristic luminescence colors ranging from blue to red. - Graphical abstract: Phosphorescence of cadmium silicate doped with transition metals: nature of defects and possible luminescent channels. Highlights: ? CdSiO{sub 3} was doped with Mn, Ni and Cr to produce multicolored phosphors. ? Valence of the dopants was determined as 3+ for Cr, 2+ for Ni and 2+ and 3+ for Mn. ? The presence of absorption bands in the visible region led to self-absorption. ? Self-absorption in some cases can decrease the light output. ? Luminescent channels were created and related to internal transitions of the dopants.

  16. Cadmium concentrations in blood of children living near a lead smelter in Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carvalho, F.M.; Tavares, T.M.; Silvany-Neto, A.M.; Lima, M.E.; Alt, F.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A prevalence study of cadmium absorption was carried out among 396 children aged 1 to 9 years living at less than 900 m from a primary lead smelter in Santo Amaro City, northeast Brazil. Geometric mean and geometric standard deviation of cadmium concentrations in blood (CdB) were 0.087 and 2.5 mumole/liter, respectively, ranging from 0.004 to 0.511 units. Ninety-six per cent of these children presented CdB higher than 0.0089 mumole/liter (or 1.0 microgram/liter) which is usually taken as a reference level. Higher CdB levels were significantly associated with shorter distance from child's home to smelter chimney, residence time in the area greater than 7 months, racial groups Light and Medium, and heavy infection by hookworm. The variation in CdB levels was not associated with child's age, nutritional status, iron status, family per capita income, blood lead level, being a child of a lead worker, the habit of pica, and contamination of child's peridomiciliar environment by smelter dross.

  17. Time-dependent dielectric breakdown measurements of porous organosilicate glass using mercury and solid metal probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pei, Dongfei; Nichols, Michael T.; Shohet, J. Leon, E-mail: shohet@engr.wisc.edu [Plasma Processing and Technology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); King, Sean W.; Clarke, James S. [Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Nishi, Yoshio [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) is one of the major concerns for low-k dielectric materials. During plasma processing, low-k dielectrics are subjected to vacuum ultraviolet photon radiation and charged-particle bombardment. To examine the change of TDDB properties, time-to-breakdown measurements are made to porous SiCOH before and after plasma exposure. Significant discrepancies between mercury and solid-metal probes are observed and have been shown to be attributed to mercury diffusion into the dielectric porosities.

  18. Field analytical techniques for mercury in soils technology evaluation. Topical report, November 1994--March 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solc, J.; Harju, J.A.; Grisanti, A.A.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the evaluation of the four field analytical techniques for mercury detection in soils, namely (1) an anodic stripping voltametry technique (ASV) developed and tested by General Electric Corporation; (2) a static headspace analysis (SHSA) technique developed and tested by Dr. Ralph Turner of Oak Ridge National Laboratory; (3) the BiMelyze{reg_sign} Mercury Immunoassay (Bio) developed and tested by BioNebraska, Inc.; and (4) a transportable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument/technique developed and tested by Spectrace, Inc.

  19. Monday, November 5, 2007 Cadmium Speciation and Release Kinetics in a Thai Paddy Soil Subjected to Varying Redox Regimes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    , University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, (2) USDA Environmental Management and Byproduct Utilization controlling Cd speciation and bioavailability in paddy soils, and soil pH influences the transport and fateMonday, November 5, 2007 92-3 Cadmium Speciation and Release Kinetics in a Thai Paddy Soil

  20. Regenerative process for removal of mercury and other heavy metals from gases containing H.sub.2 and/or CO

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jadhav, Raja A. (Naperville, IL)

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for removal of mercury from a gaseous stream containing the mercury, hydrogen and/or CO, and hydrogen sulfide and/or carbonyl sulfide in which a dispersed Cu-containing sorbent is contacted with the gaseous stream at a temperature in the range of about 25.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. until the sorbent is spent. The spent sorbent is contacted with a desorbing gaseous stream at a temperature equal to or higher than the temperature at which the mercury adsorption is carried out, producing a regenerated sorbent and an exhaust gas comprising released mercury. The released mercury in the exhaust gas is captured using a high-capacity sorbent, such as sulfur-impregnated activated carbon, at a temperature less than about 100.degree. C. The regenerated sorbent may then be used to capture additional mercury from the mercury-containing gaseous stream.

  1. The Hydrothermal Chemistry of Gold, Arsenic, Antimony, Mercury and Silver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bessinger, Brad; Apps, John A.

    2003-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive thermodynamic database based on the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equation of state was developed for metal complexes in hydrothermal systems. Because this equation of state has been shown to accurately predict standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous species at elevated temperatures and pressures, this study provides the necessary foundation for future exploration into transport and depositional processes in polymetallic ore deposits. The HKF equation of state parameters for gold, arsenic, antimony, mercury, and silver sulfide and hydroxide complexes were derived from experimental equilibrium constants using nonlinear regression calculations. In order to ensure that the resulting parameters were internally consistent, those experiments utilizing incompatible thermodynamic data were re-speciated prior to regression. Because new experimental studies were used to revise the HKF parameters for H2S0 and HS-1, those metal complexes for which HKF parameters had been previously derived were also updated. It was found that predicted thermodynamic properties of metal complexes are consistent with linear correlations between standard partial molal thermodynamic properties. This result allowed assessment of several complexes for which experimental data necessary to perform regression calculations was limited. Oxygen fugacity-temperature diagrams were calculated to illustrate how thermodynamic data improves our understanding of depositional processes. Predicted thermodynamic properties were used to investigate metal transport in Carlin-type gold deposits. Assuming a linear relationship between temperature and pressure, metals are predicted to predominantly be transported as sulfide complexes at a total aqueous sulfur concentration of 0.05 m. Also, the presence of arsenic and antimony mineral phases in the deposits are shown to restrict mineralization within a limited range of chemical conditions. Finally, at a lesser aqueous sulfur concentration of 0.01 m, host rock sulfidation can explain the origin of arsenic and antimony minerals within the paragenetic sequence.

  2. In Situ Mercury Stabilization (ISMS) Treatment: Technology Maturation Project Phase I Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb,P.D.; Milian, L.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury (Hg) was used to separate lithium-6 isotope for weapons production at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge in the 1950s and 1960s. As much as two million pounds of elemental mercury was 'lost' or unaccounted for and a large portion of that material is believed to have entered the environment. The DOE site office in Oak Ridge has identified Hg pollution in soils, sediments, and streams as the most significant environmental challenge currently faced. In industry, large amounts of mercury have been used to manufacture products (e.g., fluorescent light bulbs, thermometers) and for chemical processing (e.g., production of chlorine and alkali via mercury electrochemical cells) and many of these industrial sites are now polluted with mercury contaminated soil as a result of previous releases and/or inadvertent leaks. Remediation techniques for Hg contaminated soils are either based on thermal desorption and recovery of the mercury or excavation and shipping of large volumes of material to remote facilities for treatment and disposal. Both of these alternatives are extremely costly. The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Environmental Research & Technology Division (ERTD) has demonstrated, in laboratory-scale experiments, the viability of treating mercury contaminated soils by means of sulfide treatment rods inserted into the soil through a process known as In Situ Mercury Stabilization (ISMS). This approach is partly based on BNL's patented and successfully licensed ex situ process for Hg treatment, Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) which converts Hg to the more stable sulfide form. The original experiments showed that Hg homogeneously distributed in soil rapidly migrates to form a high concentration zone of chemically stable mercuric sulfide near the treatment rods while concentrations of Hg in surrounding areas away from the treatment rods are depleted to acceptable levels. BSA has subsequently filed for patent protection on the ISMS technology. If further developed it has the potential for large-scale in-situ treatment of contaminated soils that could substantially reduce the prohibitive cost of thermal desorption and/or excavation and disposal. Licensing and spin-off technology development opportunities would then be viable. Depending on performance and regulatory acceptance, the treated mercury could either be excavated for disposal elsewhere or left in place as a stable alternative. Excavated spent treatment rods could be processed by the SPSS process to reduce the potential for dispersion and lower leachability even further. The Phase I objectives of the In Situ Mercury Stabilization Treatment Process Technology Maturation Project were to: (1) replicate the original bench-scale results that formed the basis for BNL's patent application, i.e., mercury contamination in soil will migrate to and react with 'rods' containing sulfur and/or sulfur compounds, (2) provide enough information to evaluate a decision to conduct further development, and (3) establish some of the critical parameters that require further technology maturation during Phase II. The information contained in this report summarizes the work conducted in Phase I to meet these objectives.

  3. The Homogeneus Forcing of Mercury Oxidation to provide Low-Cost Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Kramlich; Linda Castiglone

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Trace amounts of mercury are found in all coals. During combustion, or during thermal treatment in advanced coal processes, this mercury is vaporized and can be released to the atmosphere with the ultimate combustion products. This has been a cause for concern for a number of years, and has resulted in a determination by the EPA to regulate and control these emissions. Present technology does not, however, provide inexpensive ways to capture or remove mercury. Mercury that exits the furnace in the oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) is known to much more easily captured in existing pollution control equipment (e.g., wet scrubbers for SO{sub 2}), principally due to its high solubility in water. Work funded by DOE has helped understand the chemical kinetic processes that lead to mercury oxidation in furnaces. The scenario is as follows. In the flame the mercury is quantitatively vaporized as elemental mercury. Also, the chlorine in the fuel is released as HCl. The direct reaction Hg+HCl is, however, far too slow to be of practical consequence in oxidation. The high temperature region does supports a small concentration of atomic chlorine. As the gases cool (either in the furnace convective passes, in the quench prior to cold gas cleanup, or within a sample probe), the decay in Cl atom is constrained by the slowness of the principal recombination reaction, Cl+Cl+M{yields}Cl{sub 2}+M. This allows chlorine atom to hold a temporary, local superequilibrium concentration . Once the gases drop below about 550 C, the mercury equilibrium shifts to favor HgCl{sub 2} over Hg, and this superequilibrium chlorine atom promotes oxidation via the fast reactions Hg+Cl+M{yields}HgCl+M, HgCl+Cl+M{yields}HgCl{sub 2}+M, and HgCl+Cl{sub 2}{yields}HgCl{sub 2}+Cl. Thus, the high temperature region provides the Cl needed for the reaction, while the quench region allows the Cl to persist and oxidize the mercury in the absence of decomposition reactions that would destroy the HgCl{sub 2}. Promoting mercury oxidation is one means of getting moderate-efficiency, 'free' mercury capture when wet gas cleanup systems are already in place. The chemical kinetic model we developed to describe the oxidation process suggests that in fuel lean gases, the introduction of trace amounts of H{sub 2} within the quench region leads to higher Cl concentrations via chain branching. The amount of additive, and the temperature at the addition point are critical. We investigated this process in a high-temperature quartz flow reactor. The results do indicate a substantial amount of promotion of oxidation with the introduction of relatively small amounts of hydrogen at around 1000 K ({approx}100 ppm relative to the furnace gas). In practical systems the source of this hydrogen is likely to be a small natural gas steam reformer. This would also produce CO, so co-injection of CO was also tested. The CO did not provide any additional promotion, and in some cases led to a reduction in oxidation. We also examined the influence of NO and SO{sub 2} on the promotion process. We did not see any influence under the conditions examined. The present results were for a 0.5 s, isothermal plug flow environment. The next step should be to determine the appropriate injection point for the hydrogen and the performance under realistic temperature quench conditions. This could be accomplished first by chemical kinetic modeling, and then by tunnel flow experiment.

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR MERCURY MANAGEMENT ON U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SITES: THE MER01-MER04 AND MERCURY SPECIATION DEMONSTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, Michael I.; Hulet, Greg A.

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Transuranic and Mixed Waste Focus Area (TMFA), funded from fiscal year (FY) 1996 though FY 2002, was tasked with finding solutions for the mixed waste treatment problems of the DOE complex. During TMFA's initial technical baseline development process, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were the need for amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal technologies for the treatment of mercury-contaminated mixed waste. The Mercury Working Group (HgWG), a selected group of representatives from DOE sites with significant mercury waste inventories, assisted TMFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these areas. Solicitations and contract awards were made to the private sector to demonstrate both the amalgamation and stabilization processes using both actual mixed wastes and surrogate samples. The goal was to develop separation and removal processes that will meet DOE's needs. This paper discusses the technology selection process, development activities, and the accomplishments of TMFA through these various activities.

  5. Atmospheric mercury in Changbai Mountain area, northeastern China I. The seasonal distribution pattern of total gaseous mercury and its potential sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Q.; Feng, X.B.; Lu, J.L.; Zheng, W.; Song, X.J.; Han, S.J.; Xu, H. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang (China). Inst. of Geochemistry

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An intensive field campaign for the measurement of total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in ambient air was conducted in Changbai Mountain area from 5 August 2005 to 5 July 2006 using an automatic atmospheric mercury analyzer (Tekran 2537A), which was the first time TGM was monitored at a remote area in northeastern China. 99% of the hourly TGM concentrations fell between 1.28 and 9.49 ng m{sup -3} with an annual arithmetic mean of 3.58 {+-} 1.78 ng m{sup -3}, which was significantly elevated compared to values obtained in remote areas of Europe and North America. Seasonal mean TGM concentrations displayed a descending trend as follows: winter, spring, fall, and summer. Compared to spring/winter, TGM concentrations were lower in the summer/fall but the standard deviation (SD) of TGM levels was higher and indicated a correlation with anthropogenic emissions. TGM concentrations showed seasonal differences with respect to meteorological parameters: TGM levels in spring/winter were most correlated with wind speed, and correlated with solar radiation only in the winter, while TGM levels in summer/fall periods were most correlated with air temperature. There was a strong diurnal variation of seasonal TGM with significantly higher concentrations in daytime/nighttime compared to the early morning. The seasonal diel TGM pattern indicated regional biofuel and coal combustion were the primary mercury sources.

  6. Enhancement of mercury capture by the simultaneous addition of hydrogen bromide (HBr) and fly ashes in a slipstream facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Cao; Quan-Hai Wang; Jun Li; Jen-Chieh Cheng; Chia-Chun Chan; Marten Cohron; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Low halogen content in tested Powder River Basin (PRB) coals and low loss of ignition content (LOI) in PRB-derived fly ash were likely responsible for higher elemental mercury content (averaging about 75%) in the flue gas and also lower mercury capture efficiency by electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet-FGD. To develop a cost-effective approach to mercury capture in a full-scale coal-fired utility boiler burning PRB coal, experiments were conducted adding hydrogen bromide (HBr) or simultaneously adding HBr and selected fly ashes in a slipstream reactor (0.152 x 0.152 m) under real flue gas conditions. The residence time of the flue gas inside the reactor was about 1.4 s. The average temperature of the slipstream reactor was controlled at about 155{sup o}C. Tests were organized into two phases. In Phase 1, only HBr was added to the slipstream reactor, and in Phase 2, HBr and selected fly ash were added simultaneously. HBr injection was effective (>90%) for mercury oxidation at a low temperature (155{sup o}C) with an HBr addition concentration of about 4 ppm in the flue gas. Additionally, injected HBr enhanced mercury capture by PRB fly ash in the low-temperature range. The mercury capture efficiency, at testing conditions of the slipstream reactor, reached about 50% at an HBr injection concentration of 4 ppm in the flue gas. Compared to only the addition of HBr, simultaneously adding bituminous-derived fly ash in a minimum amount (30 lb/MMacf), together with HBr injection at 4 ppm, could increase mercury capture efficiency by 30%. Injection of lignite-derived fly ash at 30 lb/MMacf could achieve even higher mercury removal efficiency (an additional 35% mercury capture efficiency compared to HBR addition alone). 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement Summary and Guide for Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pursuant to the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-414), DOE was directed to designate a facility or facilities for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury generated within the United States. Therefore, DOE has analyzed the storage of up to 10,000 metric tons (11,000 tons) of elemental mercury in a facility(ies) constructed and operated in accordance with the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (74 FR 31723). DOE prepared this Final Mercury Storage EIS in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) implementing regulations (40 CFR 1500–1508), and DOE’s NEPA implementing procedures (10 CFR 1021) to evaluate reasonable alternatives for a facility(ies) for the long-term management and storage of elemental mercury. This Final Mercury Storage EIS analyzes the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven candidate locations: Grand Junction Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado; Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; Hawthorne Army Depot near Hawthorne, Nevada; Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; Kansas City Plant in Kansas City, Missouri; Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas. As required by CEQ NEPA regulations, the No Action Alternative was also analyzed as a basis for comparison. DOE intends to decide (1) where to locate the elemental mercury storage facility(ies) and (2) whether to use existing buildings, new buildings, or a combination of existing and new buildings. DOE’s Preferred Alternative for the long-term management and storage of mercury is the Waste Control Specialists, LLC, site near Andrews, Texas.

  8. Rapid Communication Mapping iron abundances on the surface of Mercury: Predicted spatial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nittler, Larry R.

    of the MESSENGER Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Patrick N. Peplowski a,n , David T. Blewett a , Brett W. Denevi a , Larry G form 2 June 2011 Accepted 3 June 2011 Available online 12 June 2011 Keywords: Mercury Gamma-ray's surface elemental composition by the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer on the MESSENGER spacecraft after one year

  9. Method for removal of phosgene from boron trichloride. [DOE patent application; mercury arc lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freund, S.M.

    1981-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Selective ultraviolet photolysis using an unfiltered mercury arc lamp has been used to substantially reduce the phosgene impurity in a mixture of boron trichloride and phosgene. Infrared spectrophotometric analysis of the sample before and after irradiation shows that it is possible to highly purify commercially available boron trichloride with this method.

  10. Mercury emission control for coal fired power plants using coal and biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arcot Vijayasarathy, Udayasarathy

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports for 2001 shows that total mercury emissions from all sources in USA is about 145 tons per annum, of which coal fired power plants contribute around 33% of it, about 48 tons per annum. Unlike other trace metals...

  11. Determination of Mercury in Coal by Isotope Dilution Cold-Vapor Generation Inductively

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Articles Determination of Mercury in Coal by Isotope Dilution Cold-Vapor Generation Inductively. Approximately 93% of U.S. coal consumption is used to generate electricity, and the U.S. EPA has estimated2 developed for high-accuracy determinations of mer- cury in bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. A closed

  12. Electron transport and precipitation at Mercury during the MESSENGER flybys: Implications for electron-stimulated desorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303, USA h Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-stimulated desorption MESSENGER a b s t r a c t To examine electron transport, energization, and precipitation analysis for two solar-wind parameter conditions corresponding to the first two MESSENGER Mercury flybys

  13. Wide Range of Mercury Contamination in Chicks of Southern Ocean Seabirds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Wide Range of Mercury Contamination in Chicks of Southern Ocean Seabirds Pierre Blévina,* , Alice environment, Hg contamination was investigated within the large subantarctic seabird community of Kerguelen presented a wide range of Hg concentrations, with the highest contaminated species containing ~102 times

  14. Solar energetic particle (SEP) events have been ob-served from Mercury's orbit to beyond Saturn's.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinhoff, Heinz-JĂĽrgen

    the first particle observations in interplanetary space were made, suggested that SEPs are acceler- ated, 1980, 1983). Main feature is the amplification of waves in the upstream medium by particles accelABSTRACT Solar energetic particle (SEP) events have been ob- served from Mercury's orbit to beyond

  15. Mercury Removal from Aqueous Systems Using Commercial and Laboratory Prepared Metal Oxide Nanoparticles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Ishan

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Five commercial metal oxide nanoparticles (CuO, SiO2, Fe2O3, TiO2 and Al2O3) have been individually screened for mercury removal in a batch reactor under bicarbonate buffered and non-buffered aqueous solutions (DI water). ...

  16. Long-Term Column Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; White, Fredrick; Rohar, P.C.; Kim, A.G

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. The stability of mercury and any co-captured elements in the by-products could have a large economic impact if it reduced by-product sales or increasing their disposal costs. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed continuous leaching of a select subset of the available sample pairs using four leachants: water (pH=5.7), dilute sulfuric acid (pH=1.2), dilute acetic acid (pH=2.9), and sodium carbonate (pH=11.1). This report describes results obtained for mercury, arsenic, and selenium during the 5-month leaching experiments.

  17. Intercomparison study of atmospheric mercury models: 1. Comparison of models with short-term measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the Irish west coast. The modelled concentrations of total particulate mercury (TPM) were generally 358, Roskilde, Denmark d NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, 1315 East West Highway, Silver Spring MD 20910 Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Tzarigradsko chaussee 66, 1785 Sofia, Bulgaria h Swedish

  18. A Meta-analysis of Mercury Levels in Lavaca Bay Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pillado, Maria C.

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A META-ANALYSIS OF MERCURY LEVELS IN LAVACA BAY TEXAS A Thesis by MARIA C. PILLADO Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University and the Graduate Faculty of The Texas A&M University – Corpus... Subject: Marine Biology Copyright 2014 Maria C. Pillado ...

  19. Survey of UCSC Mercury Work in and around San Francisco Bay.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 13 billion liters of gasoline per year · Crude oil and mercury deposits known to coexist · Trace of crude oil per day capacity ­ Produced 20 million liters of gasoline in 1998 · Over 4.5 million vehicles in crude oil purchased by CA refineries · Hg from gasoline is a small (

  20. Variation of mercury in fish from Massachusetts lakes based on ecoregion and lake trophic status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, J.; Hutcheson, M.; West, C.R. [Massachusetts Dept. of Environmental Protection, Boston, MA (United States). Office of Research and Standards] [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Twenty-four of the state`s least-impacted waterbodies were sampled for sediment, water, physical characteristics and 3 species of fish to determine the extent of, and patterns of variation in, mercury contamination. Sampling effort was apportioned among three different ecological subregions of the state, as defined by EPA, and among lakes of differing trophic status. The authors sought to partition the variance to discover if these broadly defined concepts are suitable predictors of mercury levels in fish. Mean fish mercury was 0.14 ppm wet weight in samples of 168 of the bottom feeding brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus) (range = 0.01--0.79 ppm); 0.3 ppm in 199 of the omnivorous yellow perch (Perca flavescens) (range = 0.01--0.75 ppm); and 0.4 ppm in samples of 152 of the predaceous largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) (range = 0.05--1.1 ppm). Multivariate statistics are employed to determine how mercury concentrations in fish correlate with sediment chemistry, water chemistry, fish trophic status, fish size and age, lake and watershed size, the presence and extent of wetlands in the watershed, and physical characteristics of the lake. The survey design complements ongoing efforts begun in 1983 to test fish in a variety of waters, from which emanated fish advisories for impacted rivers and lakes. The study defines a baseline for fish contamination in Massachusetts lakes and ponds that serves as a template for public health decisions regarding fish consumption.

  1. Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christian, J.D.; Anderson, P.A.

    1994-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A mercury-free dissolution process for aluminum involves placing the aluminum in a dissolver vessel in contact with nitric acid-fluoboric acid mixture at an elevated temperature. By maintaining a continuous flow of the acid mixture through the dissolver vessel, an effluent containing aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid and other dissolved components are removed. 5 figs.

  2. A technique to control mercury from flue gas: The Thief Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dowd, W.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Freeman, M.C.; Granite, E.J.; Hargis, R.A.; Lacher, C.J.; Karash, A.

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Thief Process is a mercury removal process that may be applicable to a broad range of pulverized coal-fired combustion systems. This is one of several sorbent injection technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy for capturing mercury from coal-fired electric utility boilers. A unique feature of the Thief Process involves the production of a thermally activated sorbent in situ at the power plant. The sorbent is obtained by inserting a lance, or thief, into the combustor, in or near the flame, and extracting a mixture of partially combusted coal and gas. The partially combusted coal or sorbent has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of vapor-phase mercury at flue gas temperatures that are typical downstream of a power plant preheater. One proposed scenario, similar to activated carbon injection (ACI), involves injecting the extracted sorbent into the downstream ductwork between the air preheater and the particulate collection device of the power plant. Initial laboratory-scale and pilot-scale testing, using an eastern bituminous coal, focused on the concept validation. Subsequent pilot-scale testing, using a Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, focused on the process development and optimization. The results of the experimental studies, as well as an independent experimental assessment, are detailed. In addition, the results of a preliminary economic analysis that documents the costs and the potential economic advantages of the Thief Process for mercury control are discussed.

  3. Mechanisms Regulating Mercury Bioavailability for Methylating Microorganisms in the Aquatic Environment: A Critical Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in aquatic food webs is the methylation of inorganic forms of the metal, a process that is primarily mediated methylation occurs and the processes that control mercury bioavailability to these organisms. Methylmercury, and natural organic matter. These interactions result in a mixture of dissolved, nanoparticulate, and larger

  4. Spatial and temporal trends of mercury in water, sediments and biota in a mainstream Canadian reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, G.P.; Munteanu, N. [G3 Consulting Ltd., Richmond, British Columbia (Canada)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations within several environmental matrices were examined, during high and low water periods of a 1,778.7 kM{sup 2} northern Canada drawdown reservoir, as part of an Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program. Mercury, and 20 other metals, were analyzed in liver tissues of two benthic foraging fish species, Largescale Sucker (Catastomus macrocheilus) and Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Previous work on the reservoir demonstrated a positive correlation between mercury in muscle tissue and Lake Whitefish weight, Results from the current investigation were compared to historical data from the reservoir and several mercuriferous lakes in the region. Research dating from 1970 indicated elevated Hg concentrations in reservoir water (0.026 to 0.09 ppb) and in Lake Whitefish, with no significant decline noted to date. Hg levels in Whitefish muscle tissue averaged 0.20 ppm and were comparable to post-impoundment concentrations observed in Alberta reservoirs. Sediment and water samples and in situ water profiles were examined at 34 stations throughout the system. Sediments and water underwent a variety of organic and inorganic analyses, including mercury. Spatial and temporal analytical concentration profiles were determined for a variety of specific environmental matrices.

  5. Mercury level in fish caught in Indian River Lagoon higher than it should be?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    Mercury level in fish caught in Indian River Lagoon higher than it should be? Harbor Branch launches new study of humans who eat fish and live around the estuary By Scott Wyland Tuesday, May 22, 2012 INDIAN RIVER COUNTY -- A 20-year-old man fishes local waters every day for his meals and scoffs

  6. Emission and Long-Range Transport of Gaseous Mercury from a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Xuhui

    Emission and Long-Range Transport of Gaseous Mercury from a Large-Scale Canadian Boreal Forest FireQuebec.Thesemeasurementsindicated significant and highly correlated increases in Hg and CO during the plume event. The Hg:CO emissions ratio emissions and biomass burned to determine a mean area-based Hg emission flux density for boreal forest fires

  7. Mercury Measurement Programs within Steve Brooks, Mark Cohen,Steve Brooks, Mark Cohen,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    :Previous Intensive Measurements: CoveCove MtnMtn, TN, TN --Summer 2002Summer 2002 Gulf of Mexico (Ship)Gulf of Mexico(II) (kg/yr) coal incinerator metals manuf/other Symbol color indicates type of mercury source other fuel 9 SEARCH USGS UWF/FSU MDN Monitoring Site coal-fired power plant waste incinerat

  8. Modification of boiler operating conditions for mercury emissions reductions in coal-fired utility boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ying

    's studies have determined that mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants pose significant hazards to public health and must be reduced. Coal-fired power plants represent a significant fraction and reduce Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA is proposing two alternatives that include

  9. Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries Graduate Seminar "Trees Adaptation to Mercury Contaminated Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    in contaminated soil with heavy metals is mainly due to phenotypic plasticity and/or microbial community microscope. Soil Sampling · Physio-chemical components of the soil will be determined. ­ pH, water content of mercury is mainly within the below ground components of the tree seedlings. Methodology ­Growth Chamber

  10. Natural sources of mercury in arid and semiarid landscapes of western North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustin, M.S.; Taylor, G.E. Jr. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Environmental and Resource Sciences

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Mercury is enriched naturally in three global belts associated with areas in which Tertiary and Quaternary volcanism occurred. one belt, which occurs along the western margin of North America, contains concentrated and disseminated mercury occurrences in semiarid and arid biomes. Mercury enters the atmosphere from these landscapes through three processes: volatilization from enriched substrate, venting of geothermal systems, and resuspension. It is expected that the component of Hg deposited to arid landscapes through wet and dry deposition is negligible. Mercury fluxes to the atmosphere from arid and semiarid landscapes will be greater than that in more mesic environments because of the aridity and the daily amplitude in air temperatures. Resuspension may contribute significantly to the atmospheric burden of Hg due to eolian dispersal and subsequent evasion. To calculate the Hg flux from naturally enriched areas, the concentration, chemical form, and distribution of the Hg must be known. An understanding of the magnitude of natural Hg enrichment in global mercuriferous belts is important because the baseline for addressing human health and ecological risk is likely to be higher in these landscapes.

  11. A Tour of the Planets: Mercury Live Chat Expert Dr. Renee Weber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the largest impact basin in the solar system, known as Caloris Basin. MScudder: What new space explorations: What features makes Mercury unique in our solar system? or it's just a plane rock planet? Renee, and magnetic properties. A planned future mission that is operated jointly by ESA/JAXA called Bepi

  12. Anthropogenic and Natural Emissions of Mercury (Hg) in the northeastern United Jeffrey MacAdam Sigler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Xuhui

    Abstract Anthropogenic and Natural Emissions of Mercury (Hg) in the northeastern United States impact may depend on the emission rate. Anthropogenic Hg emissions in the United States are poorly characterized. Natural Hg emissions are poorly understood worldwide, due to lack of data or measurement systems

  13. Frequently Asked Questions Information on Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFLs) and Mercury

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    Frequently Asked Questions Information on Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs (CFLs) and Mercury February 2008 Why should people use CFLs? Switching from traditional light bulbs to CFLs is an effective light bulbs, last up to 10 times longer, cost little up front, and provide a quick return on investment

  14. Ab initio screening of metal sorbents for elemental mercury capture in syngas streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    Ab initio screening of metal sorbents for elemental mercury capture in syngas streams Anubhav Jain to produce a combustible syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas. Power plants incorporating prior to combustion, i.e. in the pre-combustion syngas mixture rather than the flue gas; as such

  15. Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Rhudy

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report presents and discusses results from a mercury control process development project entitled ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems''. The objective of this project was to demonstrate at pilot scale a mercury control technology that uses solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. Oxidized mercury is removed in downstream wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and leaves with the FGD byproducts. The goal of the project was to achieve 90% oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas and 90% overall mercury capture with the downstream wet FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. Great River Energy (GRE) and City Public Service (now CPS Energy) of San Antonio were also project co-funders and provided host sites. URS Group, Inc. was the prime contractor. Longer-term pilot-scale tests were conducted at two sites to provide catalyst life data. GRE provided the first site, at their Coal Creek Station (CCS), which fires North Dakota lignite, and CPS Energy provided the second site, at their Spruce Plant, which fires Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Mercury oxidation catalyst testing began at CCS in October 2002 and continued through the end of June 2004, representing nearly 21 months of catalyst operation. An important finding was that, even though the mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit was installed downstream of a high-efficiency ESP, fly ash buildup began to plug flue gas flow through the horizontal catalyst cells. Sonic horns were installed in each catalyst compartment and appeared to limit fly ash buildup. A palladium-based catalyst showed initial elemental mercury oxidation percentages of 95% across the catalyst, declining to 67% after 21 months in service. A carbon-based catalyst began with almost 98% elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst, but declined to 79% oxidation after nearly 13 months in service. The other two catalysts, an SCR-type catalyst (titanium/vanadium) and an experimental fly-ash-based catalyst, were significantly less active. The palladium-based and SCR-type catalysts were effectively regenerated at the end of the long-term test by flowing heated air through the catalyst overnight. The carbon-based catalyst was not observed to regenerate, and no regeneration tests were conducted on the fourth, fly-ash-based catalyst. Preliminary process economics were developed for the palladium and carbon-based catalysts for a scrubbed, North Dakota lignite application. As described above, the pilot-scale results showed the catalysts could not sustain 90% or greater oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas for a period of two years. Consequently, the economics were based on performance criteria in a later DOE NETL solicitation, which required candidate mercury control technologies to achieve at least a 55% increase in mercury capture for plants that fire lignite. These economics show that if the catalysts must be replaced every two years, the catalytic oxidation process can be 30 to 40% less costly than conventional (not chemically treated) activated carbon injection if the plant currently sells their fly ash and would lose those sales with carbon injection. If the plant does not sell their fly ash, activated carbon injection was estimated to be slightly less costly. There was little difference in the estimated cost for palladium versus the carbon-based catalysts. If the palladium-based catalyst can be regenerated to double its life to four years, catalytic oxidation process economics are greatly improved. With regeneration, the catalytic oxidation process shows over a 50% reduction in mercury control cost compared to conventional activated carbon injection for a case where the plant sells its fly ash. At Spruce Plant, mercury oxidation catalyst testing began in September 2003 and continued through the end of April 2005, interrupted only by a

  16. Mercury in the Global Atmosphere: Chemistry, deposition, and land-atmosphere interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selin, Noelle Eckley

    climate scientists can learn from Hg pollution oror Coauthors/collaborators: D.J. Jacob, E. M. Sunderland. Conn) #12;A science and policy challengeA science and policy challenge Mercury in polar bear fur up 5, 2006; Selin and Jacob, 2008] #12;Policy challenges across temporal scales Use source

  17. Anutritional dilemma: fish consumption, mercury exposure and growth of children in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Bolivia Authors: Eric Benefice a ; Selma J. Luna Monrroy b ; Ronald W. Lopez Rodriguez c Affiliation s, La Paz, Bolivia c IRD, UR024, Epidemiology and Prevention, La Paz, Bolivia DOI: 10 Amerindian communities in the Beni River valley (Amazonian Bolivia). Hair mercury content (H-Hg) served

  18. Toxecon Retrofit for Mercury and Mulit-Pollutant Control on Three 90-MW Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Derenne; Robin Stewart

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) project was based on a cooperative agreement between We Energies and the DOE Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to design, install, evaluate, and demonstrate the EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} air pollution control process. Project partners included Cummins & Barnard, ADA-ES, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The primary goal of this project was to reduce mercury emissions from three 90-MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant in Marquette, Michigan. Additional goals were to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter emissions; allow reuse and sale of fly ash; advance commercialization of the technology; demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use at power plants; and demonstrate recovery of mercury from the sorbent. Mercury was controlled by injection of activated carbon upstream of the TOXECON{trademark} baghouse, which achieved more than 90% removal on average over a 44-month period. During a two-week test involving trona injection, SO{sub 2} emissions were reduced by 70%, although no coincident removal of NOx was achieved. The TOXECON{trademark} baghouse also provided enhanced particulate control, particularly during startup of the boilers. On this project, mercury CEMs were developed and tested in collaboration with Thermo Fisher Scientific, resulting in a reliable CEM that could be used in the power plant environment and that could measure mercury as low as 0.1 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. Sorbents were injected downstream of the primary particulate collection device, allowing for continued sale and beneficial use of captured fly ash. Two methods for recovering mercury using thermal desorption on the TOXECON{trademark} PAC/ash mixture were successfully tested during this program. Two methods for using the TOXECON{trademark} PAC/ash mixture in structural concrete were also successfully developed and tested. This project demonstrated a significant reduction in the rate of emissions from Presque Isle Units 7, 8, and 9, and substantial progress toward establishing the design criteria for one of the most promising mercury control retrofit technologies currently available. The Levelized Cost for 90% mercury removal at this site was calculated at $77,031 per pound of mercury removed with a capital cost of $63,189 per pound of mercury removed. Mercury removal at the Presque Isle Power Plant averages approximately 97 pounds per year.

  19. Modeling and Experimental Studies of Mercury Oxidation and Adsorption in a Fixed-Bed and Entrained-Flow Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buitrago, Paula A; Morrill, Mike; Lighty, JoAnn S; Silcox, Geoffrey D

    2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents experimental and modeling mercury oxidation and adsorption data. Fixed-bed and single-particle models of mercury adsorption were developed. The experimental data were obtained with two reactors: a 300-W, methane-fired, tubular, quartz-lined reactor for studying homogeneous oxidation reactions and a fixed-bed reactor, also of quartz, for studying heterogeneous reactions. The latter was attached to the exit of the former to provide realistic combustion gases. The fixed-bed reactor contained one gram of coconut-shell carbon and remained at a temperature of 150oC. All methane, air, SO2, and halogen species were introduced through the burner to produce a radical pool representative of real combustion systems. A Tekran 2537A Analyzer coupled with a wet conditioning system provided speciated mercury concentrations. At 150?C and in the absence of HCl or HBr, the mercury uptake was about 20%. The addition of 50 ppm HCl caused complete capture of all elemental and oxidized mercury species. In the absence of halogens, SO2 increased the mercury adsorption efficiency to up to 30 percent. The extent of adsorption decreased with increasing SO2 concentration when halogens were present. Increasing the HCl concentration to 100 ppm lessened the effect of SO2. The fixed-bed model incorporates Langmuir adsorption kinetics and was developed to predict adsorption of elemental mercury and the effect of multiple flue gas components. This model neglects intraparticle diffusional resistances and is only applicable to pulverized carbon sorbents. It roughly describes experimental data from the literature. The current version includes the ability to account for competitive adsorption between mercury, SO2, and NO2. The single particle model simulates in-flight sorbent capture of elemental mercury. This model was developed to include Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, rate equations, sorbent feed rate, and intraparticle diffusion. The Freundlich isotherm more accurately described in-flight mercury capture. Using these parameters, very little intraparticle diffusion was evident. Consistent with other data, smaller particles resulted in higher mercury uptake due to available surface area. Therefore, it is important to capture the particle size distribution in the model. At typical full-scale sorbent feed rates, the calculations underpredicted adsorption, suggesting that wall effects can account for as much as 50 percent of the removal, making it an important factor in entrained-mercury adsorption models.

  20. Surface characterizatin of palladium-alumina sorbents for high-temperature capture of mercury and arsenic from fuel gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Stanko, D.; Hamilton, H.; Rowsell, L.; Poulston, S.; Smith, A.; Chu, W.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal gasification with subsequent cleanup of the resulting fuel gas is a way to reduce the impact of mercury and arsenic in the environment during power generation and on downstream catalytic processes in chemical production, The interactions of mercury and arsenic with PdlAl2D3 model thin film sorbents and PdlAh03 powders have been studied to determine the relative affinities of palladium for mercury and arsenic, and how they are affected by temperature and the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the fuel gas. The implications of the results on strategies for capturing the toxic metals using a sorbent bed are discussed.