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Sample records for merchant sawmills lath

  1. An Energy Self-Sufficient Sawmill 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juchymenko, A.

    1982-01-01

    technology commonly referred to as cogeneration. Most sawmills produce large quantities of biomass. The total heat energy requirement at these sawmills could easily be satisfied by a small fraction of the energy contained in the biomass. The unused biomass...

  2. New Hampshire Directory of Sawmills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    . Soon after, New Hampshire's patriots joined in the American Revolution, not for tea but to protectSawing Species: All Products: Rough Green Lumber, Cants/Timbers, Dimension Lumber, Long Timbers >16', Other Green Lumber, Cants/Timbers, Pallets/Crates, Sawdust Barton Lumber Co., Inc. (Sawmill Not Presently

  3. Sawmill, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk,Sage ResourcesFlorida:Satcon JumpSawmill, Arizona: Energy

  4. The Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) Rules 1965 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, Michael; Mason, Roy

    1965-01-01

    STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS 1965 No. 1067 MERCHANT Shipping DANGEROUS GOODS The Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) Rules 1965

  5. Merchant transmission investment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2003-01-01

    We examine the performance attributes of a merchant transmission investment framework that relies on "market driven" transmission investment to provide the infrastructure to support competitive wholesale markets for ...

  6. The distribution of intervariant crystallographic planes in a lath martensite using five macroscopic parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohrer, Gregory S.

    backscattering diffraction, Boundary network 1. Introduction Martensitic steels are widely used in structuralThe distribution of intervariant crystallographic planes in a lath martensite using five and the distribution of intervariant boundary character in a lath martensitic microstructure. The misorientations were

  7. Cruel Seas: World War 2 Merchant Marine-Related Nautical Fiction from the 1930s to Present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krummes, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    Seas : World War 2 merchant marine related nautical fictionWorld War 2 merchant marine related nautical fiction "Seas : World War 2 merchant marine related nautical fiction

  8. Merchant and Regulated Transmission: Theory, Evidence and Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littlechild, Stephen

    in Europe and Australia would restrict merchant investment to interconnectors between adjacent markets, with remaining investment being carried out by a regulated Transco. (See also Brunekreeft 2005) Rious (2006) suggested that merchant investment would... for the market, along lines suggested by Demsetz, could be useful in radial but not meshed networks. In 1998 two merchant interconnectors were proposed in Australia (DirectLink and Murraylink), which came into operation in 2000 and 2002, respectively...

  9. Energy Merchant Marketing EMM | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePowerEdisto Electric Coop, Incsource History View New Pages RecentMerchant

  10. Eighteenth-century colonial American merchant ship construction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VanHorn, Kellie Michelle

    2005-02-17

    ); and the Charon, Yorktown, Virginia (1778). Finally, two small riverine craft were also considered: the Brown?s Ferry vessel, Black River, South Carolina (pre-1740s) and the Town Point vessel, Pensacola, Florida (1763-1781). Figure 1 shows a map of these vessel...) (Head of Department) December 2004 Major Subject: Anthropology iii ABSTRACT Eighteenth-Century Colonial American Merchant Ship Construction. (December 2004) Kellie Michelle VanHorn, B.S., Indiana University Chair of Advisory...

  11. The water street ship: preliminary analysis of an eighteenth-century merchant ship's bow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosloff, Jay Paul

    1986-01-01

    THE WATER STREET SHIP: PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF AN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY MERCHANT SHIP'S BOW A Thesis by JAY PAUL ROSLOFF Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF ARTS May 1986 Major Subject: Anthropology THE WATER STREET SHIP: PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF AN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY MERCHANT SHIP'S BOW A Thesis by JAY PAUL ROSLOFF Approved as to style and content by: J. R. Steffy (Chairman of Co mittee...

  12. Developing and financing merchant power plants in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, M.J.

    1998-07-01

    Limited recourse financing for merchant plants in some areas of the world such as Latin America has become almost commonplace in the recent past. Limited recourse project financing for merchant plants in the US, once almost unthinkable, has already been achieved with the frontier-breaking Calpine Pasadena project. While long-term power purchase agreements have historically provided comfort to lenders and developers alike, they are increasingly becoming a thing of the past as utilities are reluctant to lock themselves into a fixed price, which may turn out to exceed the prices available in the open market. So, it seems that the trends toward merchant plants in Latin America will soon take hold in the domestic market. With the market for limited recourse project financing still in the embryonic stage, and the strong likelihood that long-term power purchase agreements will not be available, it is clear that successful domestic projects will have to be well conceived, properly structured and capitalized to secure debt and equity funding commitments. This paper will focus on opportunities for developing merchant plants, the major risks present to developers and investors and the most appropriate strategies for structuring finance for a project.

  13. The merchant of Genoa : the Crusades, the Genoese and the Latin East, 1187-1220s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mack, Merav

    2003-10-07

    period. Contents: I 2 3 4 5 Abbreviations List of maps and figures Tables Acknowledgments Introduction The cartularies Methodology Genoa and the Third Crusade 1187 - The response in Genoa to the fall of Jerusalem Merchants organising... and the Sicilian ounce, 1182-1216 174 The Nepitella family and its commercial contacts with Alexandria, 1184-1213 176 Bequest for the crusade in Genoese wills from 1216 178 Bibliography 179 I 3 Abbreviations Ann. Ian. Caffaro, Annali genovesi di Caffaro e de...

  14. UNIVERSITY OF UTAH INCOME ACCOUNTING/ STUDENT LOAN SERVICES SSB 165 801-585-5686 Merchant Account Close Form Fax to 801-581-4277

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, Dale H.

    UNIVERSITY OF UTAH INCOME ACCOUNTING/ STUDENT LOAN SERVICES SSB 165 801-585-5686 Merchant Account or Incomplete forms may delay processing. Request Date: Name of Account: Contact: Department Name (if different #: American Express Merchant #: Reason for Closure: Date of Last Batch: Do you have other accounts that should

  15. UNIVERSITY OF UTAH INCOME ACCOUNTING/ STUDENT LOAN SERVICES SSB 165 801-585-5686 Merchant Application Fax to 801-581-4277

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, Dale H.

    UNIVERSITY OF UTAH INCOME ACCOUNTING/ STUDENT LOAN SERVICES SSB 165 801-585-5686 10/11 Merchant be accepting donations with your merchant account? Yes No If no, do you anticipate taking donations Party" to submit w/ this application. Wells Fargo Checking Account for Deposits: Chartfield to debit

  16. SUBJECT: Effective Date: Policy Number: Credit Card Merchant Policy 05-18-11 3-206.4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glebov, Leon

    provider contract, which includes compliance with the Payment Card Industry's Data Security Standards (PCI of the card. Payment Card Industry's Data Security Standards (PCI DSS). These standards are technical and Accounting, Merchant Services Web Site Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council Data Security

  17. Design of a tabletop lathe educational kit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Marcus, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to create and characterize an educational kit for the mechanical engineering courses, 2.75: Precision Machine Design and 2.72: Elements of Machine Design. This kit is intended to provide ...

  18. Merchant Green | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavyAgency (IRENA) JumpLiteratureMengdong Xiehe New Energy Co

  19. Optical Tool Setting and Control for Precision Lathe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haning, Charles Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    ................................................................................................................................................3 2.3 OPTICS SYSTEM.....................................................................................................................................7 2.4 LIGHTING...........................................................................................................................18 4. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP ....................................................................................................................21 4.1 SOFTWARE...

  20. Eighteenth-century merchant ship interiors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renner, Mary Anne

    1987-01-01

    ), the Reeg~t~ (1771), the /~~vs (1768), the g~~ (1768), the lla~ax (1768) and the ~ount (1787). The deck layouts for the FIGURE 1. Cross section of an 18th-century merchantman. l , )&kl@V:= , igpgj; 'k -. kl-, E$ )fp IK j 'B' " l ~ 1't P... OF FIGURES 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 18 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Cross section of an 18th-century merchantman Deck plans for HMS Dispatch National Register district and site locations Y085: Test trenches...

  1. The design and small-scale fabrication of precision desktop lathe components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demers, Brian Philip

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation was carried out on the design and fabrication techniques of the components provided to students in MIT's 2.72 class. These components are used by the students in the production of a fully-functional precision ...

  2. THE MULTILINGUAL ENTITY TASK (MET) OVERVIEW Roberta Merchant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    expressions (percentage and money) in Spanish texts from Agence France Presse, in Japanese texts from Kyodo. In the fall, Government language teams retrieved training and test texts with multilingual softwarefor. elected to participate in all languages, SRA in Spanish and Japanese, BBN in Spanish (with FinCen) and Chi

  3. Regulated and merchant interconnectors in Australia: SNI and Murraylink revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littlechild, Stephen C

    2004-06-16

    This paper examines the history of the various actual and proposed interconnectors between New South Wales and Victoria into South Australia. It covers the period from the earliest proposal for a regulated interconnector to the recent Victoria...

  4. EA-303-A Saracen Merchant Energy, LP | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPL EnergyPlus, LLC to export electric energySvcsEmeraTexMexOrderSaracen

  5. El Paso Merchant Energy LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:of the NationalDynetekofEcogeoEdipowerEkisolarJorge-

  6. Busted: Illegal Logging in Kenya Daily Nation Newswire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to sawmillers, charcoal burners and cultivators. He criticised chiefs in the area for failing to stop

  7. All contents of this article are copyright 2009 by Logging and Sawmilling Journal and may not be rerpoduced in any form without express written consent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are in place with the northern outlet via CN through the Port of Prince Rupert closer to market and having

  8. Life in Challenge Mills, Yuba County, California, 18751915 Challenge Mills--Early Days

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Challenge as a hamlet did not exist until about 1862, when a small sawmill at Strawberry Valley, located until about 1862, when a small sawmill at Strawberry Valley, located about 10 miles up the road from

  9. A review of "English Merchants in Seventeenth Century Italy." by Gigliola Pagano de Divitiis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Paterson

    2003-01-01

    and insubstantial quality that too often mars Italian academic prose. Jonathan Brown and John Elliott, eds. The Sale of the Century: Ar- tistic Relations between Spain and Great Britain, 1604?1655. Madrid: Yale University Press and Museo Nacional del Prado, 2002.... 315 pp. $65 hardback. Review by ELIZABETH R. WRIGHT, UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA. Art historian Jonathan Brown and historian John Elliott have joined forces to provide an indispensable guide to the political and artistic relationship between Spain...

  10. Can Merchant Interconnectors Deliver Lower and More Stable Prices? The Case of NorNed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parail, V.

    full list of variables and their descriptions is given in Appendix B. 4 Hourly log Amsterdam Power Exchange (APX) and log South Norway day ahead electricity prices are the dependent variables in the analysis presented here and their properties...

  11. Hasan Alkhatib, Paolo Faraboschi, Eitan Frachtenberg, Hironori Kasahara, Danny Lange, Phil Laplante, Arif Merchant,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frachtenberg, Eitan

    , cloud computing, the Internet of Things, natural user interfac- es, 3D printing, big data and analytics

  12. Should Merchant Transmission Investment be Subject to a Must-offer Provision?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunekreeft, Gert; Newbery, David

    2006-03-14

    , but this was revised to 600 MW. BritNed is a legally separate subsidiary, fully owned by the TSO in the UK, National Grid Company (NGC) and the TSO in the Netherlands, TenneT. The construction costs are estimated at about €350 million, partly funded by the EU’s program... to devising market mechanisms that might reduce some of these inefficiencies. The high pressure gas network in Britain (the National Transmission System) operates under regulated Third Party Access (rTPA, considered the best form of regulation, and now...

  13. The Biography of the Snow Jeanie: A Merchant Vessel in the Pre-Revolution Tobacco Trade 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costello, Renee

    2014-09-15

    of the shipyard. He then fastened the stern and the sternpost to the ends of the keel. Each frame of the vessel consisted of one floor timber which served as the lowermost component of the frame, at least four overlapping futtocks to lengthen the floor, and a... and bolted through them, connecting it to the keel (Goldenberg 1976). Figure 13. Ray Brown’s Portrait of a New England Shipyard (Abbot 1902) The shipwright then faced the complicated task of cutting and fastening the remaining timbers. He ran two...

  14. EA-187 Merchant Energy Group of the Americas, Inc | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-in electricLaboratoryofNotices |DynegyPowerexMorgan

  15. EA-260 EPCOR Merchant and Capital (US) Inc | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPL EnergyPlus, LLC to export electric energySvcs to exportBrookfield EPCOR

  16. EA-260-A EPCOR Merchant and Capital (US) Inc | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPL EnergyPlus, LLC to export electric energySvcs to exportBrookfield

  17. EA-359-A Castleton Commodities Merchant Trading L.P. | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPL EnergyPlus, LLC to exportEndure Energy, L.L.C. to

  18. EA-359-B Castleton Commodities Merchant Trading L.P. | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergy A plug-inPPL EnergyPlus, LLC to exportEndure Energy, L.L.C. toCastleton to export

  19. EA-260-C EPCOR Merchant and Capital (US) Inc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|Department of Energy 8:Final78:20-C NRG Power Marketing

  20. Application to export electric energy OE Docket No. EA-260-C EPCOR Merchant

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12Power, Inc | Department ofMarketing, LLC |Inc.:EnergyMarketingand

  1. The readers point vessel: hull analysis of an eighteenth century merchant sloop excavated in St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Gregory D.

    1997-01-01

    's Bay, Jamaica in 1994. Excavators removed overburden and the ballast pile, recovering over 600 artifacts associated with the vessel-After exposing well-preserved hull remains, divers recorded the ship's structure. The vessel is preserved from the base...

  2. Cruel Seas: World War 2 Merchant Marine-Related Nautical Fiction from the 1930s to Present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krummes, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    Death at the Whistling Buoy." In: The American Magazine,Incident at the Wreck Buoy" by Elliot Coldman "Left Undone"Death at the Whistling Buoy" by Hugh Pentecost Hull-Down for

  3. Cruel Seas: World War 2 Merchant Marine-Related Nautical Fiction from the 1930s to Present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krummes, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    Marill (pseudonym) Rayner, D. A. The Crippled Tanker London,Crippled Tanker by D.A. Rayner On Desperate Seas by JamesThirteen Desperate Hours Rayner, D. A. (1908- ) Denys Arthur

  4. Cruel Seas: World War 2 Merchant Marine-Related Nautical Fiction from the 1930s to Present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krummes, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    forces invading Bergen, Norway "Slow Bell" by Reese Wolfe (in France (for u-boats) and Norway (aviation), evil Gestapoknots off Hammerfest, Norway. Engine problems soon cripple

  5. Cruel Seas: World War 2 Merchant Marine-Related Nautical Fiction from the 1930s to Present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krummes, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    prototype for a German nuclear submarine. (The German U-boatconcerning the German nuclear submarine, is now a successful

  6. Merchants and family business in San Luis Potosí, México : the signs of an economic upsurge, 1820-1846

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañedo Gamboa, Sergio Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Velasco et. al. , Estado y Minería…, p. 98. “During theVelasco et. al. , Estado y Minería…, p. 99. For this case,Sotelo, María Eugenia. Minería y Guerra. La Economía de la

  7. Cruel Seas: World War 2 Merchant Marine-Related Nautical Fiction from the 1930s to Present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krummes, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    an Amazon River steamer brought over to run troops toRiver delta, O’Brien’s story focuses on two old Welshmen who, with their Kru “boys,” run

  8. Merchants and family business in San Luis Potosí, México : the signs of an economic upsurge, 1820-1846

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cañedo Gamboa, Sergio Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    mining center and then took it to the fielatura (assay office)mining district of Real de Catorce, who ran a retail store and briefly obtained a post in the revenue officemining town of Real de Catorce also had for a few days the post of administrator in the revenue office.

  9. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    and Paper: In the pulp and paper industry, companies usedthe participants, the pulp and paper industry, sawmills,have more paper, pulp, and printing industries, and New

  10. Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    In the pulp and paper industry, companies used biomass as athe pulp and paper industry, sawmills, chemicals,and carpet), other industry (paper and paperboard, rubber

  11. CX-012310: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sawmill Creek Stream Bank Erosion CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 06/06/2014 Location(s): Illinois Offices(s): Argonne Site Office

  12. 1 | P a g e Appendix F Colorado Statewide Forest Resource Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    house log and 20 log furniture producers; two wood pellet facilities; and a single excelsior sawmill closures were reported by the Western Wood Products Association (WWPA 2004). A summary of primary, including 84 sawmills, five house log facilities, four post and pole businesses, a wood shake mill and one

  13. Page 1 of 2 Jiten Patel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Abaqus, Solidworks, Pro-E, Weibull++, Crystal Ball and JMP. Manufacturing: 3D Printing, CNC, EDM, Lathe

  14. Course alpha, number, title file:///W|/me/NEW-drupal-web/Undergraduate-%20Current/Syllabi/ME372.htm[9/11/2013 2:58:12 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feeny, Brian

    . Planning and layout procedures e. Using a drill press f. Using a lathe g. Using a milling machine h. Using

  15. Title of dissertation: INERTIAL WAVES IN A LABORATORY MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lathrop, Daniel P.

    a welder, a milling machine, a lathe, etc. He unknowingly taught me the power of common sense also. He kept

  16. MRI of Heterogeneous Hydrogenation Reactions Using Parahydrogen Polarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burt, Scott R

    2008-01-01

    using a lathe and a milling machine. The ?rst problem withthis primarily uses a milling machine and a slot cutter.

  17. UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA SCHOOL OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY STUDENT SHOP HANDBOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahlberg, E. Dan

    Vertical Milling Machine Safety Rules Page 7 Lathe Safety Rules Page 8 Soldering Safety Rules Page 9

  18. Coping with the crisis : migration and settlement decisions of Yucateco migrants to the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartman, Georgia Lynne

    2010-01-01

    square, merchants sell popsicles and chicharones, and loudbanana and chocolate popsicles for sale to local children

  19. A Market Based Strategy for Rural Development In Northwest Louisiana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Employment & Sales Raw Materials Industry Structure Requirements for Growth Current & Projected #12;Industry of manufacturing processes and equipment do current companies use? Is there the presence of sawmills, dry kilns

  20. Systems-Level Analysis & Bioenergy Market Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    wood, residues, and by-products) in dedicated or cogeneration plants (such as pulp and paper mills or sawmills). Figure 40. U.S. biopower generation sources Source: EIA 2014 Other...

  1. BIODIVERSITY AND DEVELOPMENT: EUCALYPTUS & FOREST LAW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    Other: A. 4% to sawmills B. Wood pellets C. in Brazil. Specializations include: Wood construction, Industrialization and marketing of forest products system Short rotations of 6-7 years Managed for Fiber or Fuel-wood http

  2. TEXAS FOREST SERVICE FOREST RESOURCE PROTECTION DEPARTMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Fire Chief NAME HOW TO CONTACT 1st Alternate 2nd Alternate B. Manpower (list Members) NAME HOW 5. Areas of dangerous fuels 6. Dangerous sources of fire such as: a. Dumps b. Sawmills #12;c

  3. Stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs) for Selected Industrial Sectors in the Lower Fraser Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Preserved Fruit and Vegetable Industry Frozen Fruit and Vegetable Industry Fluid Milk Industry Cane and Beet Sugar Industry Other Food Products Industry (Egg Processing) Brewery Products Industry Sawmill

  4. Do Trading and Power Operations Mix? The Case of Constellation Energy Group 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Constellation Energy has been a leading performer in the merchant power business since 2001. In addition to its legacy utility, Baltimore Gas and Electric, Constellation is a merchant generator and a wholesale power marketer ...

  5. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen Production and Consumption in the U S The Last Years Brown Daryl R hydrogen production U S merchant captive hydrogen production U S merchant captive This article was...

  6. Hydrogen Production and Consumption in the U.S.: The Last 25...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen Production and Consumption in the U.S.: The Last 25 Years. Brown, Daryl R. hydrogen; production; U.S.; merchant; captive hydrogen; production; U.S.; merchant; captive This...

  7. Democracy and the Intersection of Prisons, Racism and Captial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, David

    1997-01-01

    INTERSECTION OF PRISONS, RACISM AND CAPITAL Review Essay: "1987 Rekindle Charges of Racism and Police Misconduct, L.A.the link between the prisons, racism, and capital described

  8. The Secure Hash Payment System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Timothy J

    2001-01-01

    to be developed. Today, consumers are required to provide their complete credit card information to a merchant to complete a transaction, which requires trust in the merchant and the merchant's security. While this approach is widely available and used, it does...

  9. EFTEM and EELS analysis of the oxide layer formed on HCM12A exposed to SCW Jeremy Bischoff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    and stress corrosion cracking, ferritic­martensitic steels, such as HCM12A, are candidate materials-rich oxides located at the tempered martensite lath boundaries, which sug- gested the preferential grain that the carbides present at the tempered martensite lath boundaries were oxidized preferen- tially, leading

  10. Appendix E: Air Permits Annual Site Environmental Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Wash tank 416 Exhaust from press pit area 417 Dye penetrant hood exhaust 85 7500-ton press, vertical turret lathe 86 1500-ton press 87 1000-ton press, quench tank 88 Grit blaster 89 Flowturn lathe, quench Furnace/quench tank/conveyor exhaust 12 Hydraulic shear exhaust 9 Rolling mill/salt bath Y-9401-3-A 01

  11. Safety Topic: Rota/ng Equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Robert E.

    Safety Topic: Rota/ng Equipment Jus/n Kleingartner #12;Safety protocols for opera/ng a lathe · Dos: ­ Locate emergency stop bu?on before use ­ Be sure 2 #12;Safety protocols for opera/ng a lathe · Don'ts: ­ Do not wear gloves

  12. Border flow rights and Contracts for differences of differences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldick, Ross

    of transmission risk and merchant transmission expansion through associated financial rights, called "contracts transmission rights, Energy and transmission trading. I. INTRODUCTION This paper builds on recent work

  13. , 20120462, published 19 August 20133712013Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A Johannes M. Hfener, Gautam C. Sethia and Thilo Gross

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Straße 38, Dresden 01187, Germany 2Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428, India 3Department of Engineering Mathematics, The Merchant

  14. Intel® Advisor XE

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MERCHANTABILITY, OR INFRINGEMENT OF ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHT. Software and workloads used in performance tests may have been optimized for...

  15. Enabling Manufacturing Research through Interoperability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dornfeld, David; Wright, Paul; Helu, Moneer; Vijayaraghavan, Athulan

    2009-01-01

    IMECE2004. Dornfeld, D. , Lee, D, Manufacturing, Springer.Precision future manufacturing," J. Int. Manuf, 11, pp.Merchant, M. E. , 1961, "The manufacturing system concept in

  16. Investigation of Wet-Weather Pollution Contribution from Building Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    Sawmill Facility · Sampled the following roof types: ­ rusty galvanized metal ­ weathered metal ­ built-up Not givenRusty galvanized roof Built-up roof (plywood + roofing paper Management Branch Presented to: 9th Annual Industrial Waste Conference April 16, 2003 Sponsors and Additional

  17. Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Wood Fired Heating Plant in Slovakia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    system of a small size enterprise. The project realisation started in 1999 with boiler installation Program for Co-operation in Central and Eastern Europe (PSO-programme). The boiler has a capacity of 605 kWth and is fired by clean wood residues from sawmills owned by the SFE. The biofuel-fired boiler replaced three old

  18. First university owned district heating system using biomass heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Highlights · First university owned district heating system using biomass heat · Capacity: 15 MMBtu Main Campus District Heating Performance · Avoided: 3500 tonnes of CO2 · Particulate: less than 10 mg District Heating Goals To displace 85% of natural gas used for core campus heating. Fuel Bunker Sawmill

  19. 28 April 2015 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER -FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    database houses key information on existing community-scale modern wood heating and combined heat and power power plants, sawmills, and pellet mills. Not only will the BERC database provide wood heating systems / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP BERC launches updated community-scale wood heating database By Biomass

  20. CERTIFIED FOREST PRODUCTS MARKETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    industry sectors with PEFC C-o-C certification June 2003 Construction 1% Pulp & paper 4% Wood manufacturing% Sawnwood 13% Panels 9% RW & primary 5% Windows & doors 5% Pulp & paper 5% DIY products 6% Trade & retailers 5% Other primary forest industries 6% Sawmilling 39% Timber trade 43% #12;Forest industry sectors

  1. LSU School of Renewable Natural Resources Refereed Publications: 2005 1994

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 LSU School of Renewable Natural Resources Refereed Publications: 2005 ­ 1994 2005 ­ pg 1 2004 regulation (PHATR): modeling temperature and energy balances in earthen outdoor aquaculture ponds. Journal.Relationship of species and season to sawmill by-product production: A case study.Forest Products Journal

  2. @ SOUTH ES'T FOREST SERVICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -01 EX^er LUMBER GRADE RECOVERY FROM HAWA ROBUSTA EUCALYPTUS LOGS Roger G.Skolmen USDA forest Service Research Note PW-204 1970 Lumber has been produced from plantation-grown robusta eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grade yield of Hawaii-grown timber, 30 robusta eucalyptus logs were shipped lo a Michigan sawmill

  3. Harvesting Energy-Options and Challenges from the Bark Beetle Epidemic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Residues - Hazardous Fuel Forest Treatments - Short Rotation Woody Crops - Wood Waste - Conventional - Mill Facilities Colorado Wyoming Existing larger wood processing facilities, chips/sort yards and wood heating- urban interface · New pellet mills in the area of the beetle kill, but current sawmills are a long

  4. Colorado Statewide Forest Products Industry Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    employees) ­ 2 Wyoming Sawmill Closures (> 300 employees) ­ 3 New Pellet Manufacturers ­ 2 New (?) Excelsior and Pole 27 10 4 Log Furniture 20 26 NR Excelsior 3 1 1 Pellets 3 0 0 Firewood >70 NR NR Totals >174 133 95 Hazardous Fuels Contractors >200 NR NR Insect and Disease Preventative Spraying 52 NR NR #12;Wood Product

  5. SCANDINAVIAN FOREST ECONOMICS No. 41, 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RitvaToivonen(deputy) (ritva.toivonen@ptt.fi) Sweden LarsLönnstedt (Lars.Lonnstedt@spm.slu.se)and Anders Roos (deputy) (Anders.Roos@spm Roos, Sweden (Anders.Roos@spm.slu.se) INTERNATIONALFORESTRY Ole Hofstad, Norway (Ole), Åke Eriksson (Nyby sawmill), Agneta Borgenstierna (owner of the estate), Lennart Eriksson (SPM

  6. Timber Products Equipment Services MarketPlace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy development and energy efficiency improvement technology. Grand Rapids The Grand Rapids plant energy." It plans to focus upon renewable energy- related businesses, possibly clustering like: page: DNR Stumpage Prices 2 Biomass Research 3 Market Outlook 4 Sawmill and Specialty Mill Survey 6

  7. SPINY LOBSTER GEAR AND FISHING METHODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · · · · · · · · · · Pyramid-type wooden lath trap with r emovable lid · · ··· Complete buoy and lift line: A - Line; B ··· · ·········· ·· · Hauling a spiny lobster trap: A - Gaffing the buoy line; B - Using the davit; C - Boating the trap; D

  8. LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Acoustic elliptic lenses: An historical note

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    , the following method provided an ac- ceptable product. For a particular machine tool, viz., lathe or milling machine, the coordinate settings for the two feed motions were computed, for the desired lens surface

  9. Design and fabrication of a device to characterize spindle performance as a function of bearing preload

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turk, Amanda C. (Amanda Christine)

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design and fabrication of an apparatus to characterize the performance of lathe spindles as a function of spindle bearing preload. The apparatus will be used to assist undergraduate students enrolled ...

  10. DESIGN OF DUPLEX LOW CARBON STEELS FOR IMPROVED STRENGTH: WEIGHT APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koo, J.

    2010-01-01

    of all the Cr steels is about Upon annealing of the initialCr bearing steels to attain similar initial of the annealingsteel) and martensite lath boundaries, coupled with the gradual evo- lution of austenite particles with annealing

  11. Micro windmills to recharge your mobile phone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    interest from Taiwanese Oven Fresh Latest Updates Downloads Become a member, today! Login with Facebook or installed anywhere,41yrs Small MILL-Lathe-Drill Solar Water Well Pumps Siemens Wind Energy Page 3 of 4Micro

  12. The University of Florida Credit Card Directives & Procedures 1.Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    types of credit card activity (storage, processing and transmission of card information), including merchants, including merchants transmitting via a terminal on a dedicated phone or Ethernet line, must prove compliance costs, the assessment of substantialfines and possible legal liabilities. In addition

  13. Financial Policy Manual 2006 SALES AND SERVICES CREDIT CARD SALES PCI COMPLIANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Edward I.

    Financial Policy Manual Page 1 2006 SALES AND SERVICES ­ CREDIT CARD SALES PCI COMPLIANCE Effective to ensure that all merchant accounts and any related third party payment processors adhere to the PCI/Center will be responsible for ensuring that a PCI self-assessment is completed each year for every merchant account

  14. c12) United States Patent (54) METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR PROVIDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamos, Michael I.

    c12) United States Patent Thompson (54) METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR PROVIDING A MERCHANT FUNDED REBATE between registered members and selected merchants who fund rebates on the transactions between themselves and the registered members so that the rebates are accumulated and provided for funding an account. Account purchase

  15. Agent-mediated Integrative Negotiation for Retail Electronic Commerce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Value-Added, Merchant Differentiation and Market Power Although cross-merchant product comparisonsAgent-mediated Integrative Negotiation for Retail Electronic Commerce Robert H. Guttman and Pattie convenience for consumers and yield more efficient markets, today's first-generation shopping agents

  16. Roofing in the Urban Environment: Pollution Source of Opportunity for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    demand ­ surrogate for organics · Heavy metals and major cations (copper, h i d i l d i ichromium Concentrations: Western Washington Sawmill Facility Copper ( /L) Lead ( /L) Zinc ( /L)(g/L) (g/L) (g/L) Built % Dissolved COV (%) Zinc 0.42 ­ 14.7 88 7 Copper 0.01 ­ 1.4 75 24 Lead Not detected NA NA From: Tobiason, S

  17. Roofing in the Urban Environment: Pollution Source of Opportunity for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    Washington Sawmill Facility Copper ( /L) Lead ( /L) Zinc ( /L)(g/L) (g/L) (g/L) Built-up roof (plywood COV (%) Zinc 0.42 ­ 14.7 88 7 Copper 0.01 ­ 1.4 75 24 Lead Not detected NA NA From: Tobiason, S. (2004 for Laboratory and Field Monitoring · pHpH · Conductivity · Chemical oxygen demand ­ surrogate for organics

  18. Compressed Air Audits using AIRMaster 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, G. M.; McGill, R. D.; Bessey, E. G.; Vischer, K.

    1997-01-01

    and recommended at each of the seven plants audited material costs, and typically includes only minor except for the metal fabrication plant that already capital cost. The Payback period is the total used unloading controls. Savings for unloading... Shutdown Timer Separate Compressor for Sand Transport System 1. Bakery 1. Bakery 1. Bakery, 2. Sawmill, 3. Millwork 4. Metal Fabrication 4. Metal Fabrication 4. Metal Fabrication 4. Metal Fabrication 4. Metal Fabrication 5. Foundry 1 * Measure...

  19. Woodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2010 I Hudson Consulting I October 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .1.3. Other Industry/Commercial Heat Only (using up to 1,000 odt/yr) 3.1.4. Total Wood Fuel Use 3.2. Pellet categories are used: Virgin wood fibre (chip and sawmill co-product) UK Pellet Recycled fibre Energy cropsWoodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2010 I Hudson Consulting I October 2010

  20. Sawnee Electric Membership Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk,Sage ResourcesFlorida:Satcon JumpSawmill, Arizona: EnergySawnee

  1. Sawtooth Lodge Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk,Sage ResourcesFlorida:Satcon JumpSawmill, Arizona:

  2. Sawyer County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk,Sage ResourcesFlorida:Satcon JumpSawmill, Arizona:Sawyer County,

  3. Saxis, Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk,Sage ResourcesFlorida:Satcon JumpSawmill, Arizona:Sawyer

  4. Saybrook Manor, Connecticut: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk,Sage ResourcesFlorida:Satcon JumpSawmill, Arizona:SawyerSaybrook

  5. Saylorville, Iowa: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk,Sage ResourcesFlorida:Satcon JumpSawmill,

  6. Sayreville, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk,Sage ResourcesFlorida:Satcon JumpSawmill,Sayreville, New Jersey:

  7. Sayville, New York: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk,Sage ResourcesFlorida:Satcon JumpSawmill,Sayreville, New

  8. Scaled Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk,Sage ResourcesFlorida:Satcon JumpSawmill,Sayreville, NewScaled

  9. Scaling up Renewable Energy in Developing Countries: finance and investment

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk,Sage ResourcesFlorida:Satcon JumpSawmill,Sayreville,

  10. Scarborough, Maine: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk,Sage ResourcesFlorida:Satcon JumpSawmill,Sayreville,Scarborough,

  11. Small-scale biomass fueled cogeneration systems - A guidebook for general audiences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1993-12-01

    What is cogeneration and how does it reduce costs? Cogeneration is the production of power -- and useful heat -- from the same fuel. In a typical biomass-fueled cogeneration plant, a steam turbine drives a generator, producing electricity. The plant uses steam from the turbine for heating, drying, or other uses. The benefits of cogeneration can mostly easily be seen through actual samples. For example, cogeneration fits well with the operation of sawmills. Sawmills can produce more steam from their waste wood than they need for drying lumber. Wood waste is a disposal problem unless the sawmill converts it to energy. The case studies in Section 8 illustrate some pluses and minuses of cogeneration. The electricity from the cogeneration plant can do more than meet the in-house requirements of the mill or manufacturing plant. PURPA -- the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 -- allows a cogenerator to sell power to a utility and make money on the excess power it produces. It requires the utility to buy the power at a fair price -- the utility`s {open_quotes}avoided cost.{close_quotes} This can help make operation of a cogeneration plant practical.

  12. The Jones Act : an economic and political evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard A. (Richard Allen), 1981-

    2004-01-01

    On June 5, 1920, the Merchant Marine Act of 1920, also known as the Jones Act, became law. The Jones Act, a cabotage law, restricts American waterborne domestic trade to vessels flagged in the United States, owned by ...

  13. The predictability of consumer visitation patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Llorente, Alejandro

    We consider hundreds of thousands of individual economic transactions to ask: how predictable are consumers in their merchant visitation patterns? Our results suggest that, in the long-run, much of our seemingly elective ...

  14. Illegibility, Uncertainty and the Management of Street Vending in New York City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devlin, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    Robert C. (1996) “Mexicans in New York City: Membership andThe Africanization of New York City. Chicago: University ofPeddlers, Merchants, and New York City’s Streets, 1880-

  15. 2. The Legacies of Delta History "You could not step twice into the same river; for other waters are ever flowing on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    settlement of the Delta began slowly. Despite several expeditions between 1806 and 1812, the Spanish failed merchants. From 1835 through 1846, the Spanish established several land grants. In 1841, John Sutter

  16. State and Power after Neoliberalism in Bolivarian Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kingsbury, Donald V.

    2012-01-01

    of coup attempts (in 2002), lockout strikes (2002-2003),by Chávez after the 2003 lockout, merchants in the importwho supported the 2003 bosses’ lockout of the industry, a

  17. Dynamic Long-Term Modelling of Generation Capacity Investment and Capacity Margins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eager, Dan; Hobbs, Benjamin; Bialek, Janusz

    2012-04-25

    is the mix and amount of generation investment over time in response to policies promoting high penetrations of variable output renewable power such as wind. Modelling the dynamics of merchant generation investment in market environments can inform the debate...

  18. 1406 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 22, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2007 Market-Based Coordination of Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yong

    with competitive generation capacity planning in electricity markets. The purpose of the model is a holistic, competitive electricity markets, generation capacity planning, Lagrangian relaxation, merchant transmission simulation of generation and transmission capacity expansion in the market environment. The solution

  19. Microsoft Word - Hennessy Statement.NE Dominion.docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    is dedicated to serving our 2.5 million regulated electric customers in Virginia and North Carolina, we also operate almost 4,000 megawatts of merchant generation, heavily...

  20. An early conceptual design and feasibility analysis of a nuclear-powered cargo vessel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaver, John L. (John Lewis)

    2009-01-01

    Economic globalization has resulted in the tremendous growth of worldwide trade. Much of this trade is carried out via the various waterways of the world. The bulk of these trade goods are transported by merchant ships ...

  1. Smuggling India: Deconstructing Western India’s Illicit Export Trade, 1818-1870

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boehme, Kate

    2015-02-16

    widespread, ingrained inequality and racism within the European colonial structure, Indian merchants - particularly those from Gujarat – held a central position within the mercantile framework. The Portuguese trade is indicative of the general condition...

  2. Application to export electric energy OE Docket No. EA-260-C...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Application to export electric energy OE Docket No. EA-260-C EPCOR Merchant and Capital (US) Inc: Federal Register Notice Volume 74, No. 43 - Mar. 6, 2009 Application to export...

  3. How to Select a Termite Control Service 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gold, Roger E.; Merchant, Michael E.; Howell Jr., Harry N.; Glenn, Grady J.

    2005-12-05

    Service E-369 12/05 Roger E. Gold, Michael E. Merchant, Harry N. Howell, Jr., and Grady J. Glenn* *Professor and Extension Specialist in Urban Entomology; Professor and Extension Urban Entomologist; Associate Research Scientist, Research Associate, Center...

  4. Abstract--Policy surrounding the North American transmission grid, particularly in the wake of electric-industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumsack, Seth

    1 Abstract--Policy surrounding the North American transmission grid, particularly in the wake of electric-industry restructuring and following the blackout of August, 2003, has treated network congestion, Wheatstone network, merchant transmission, available transfer capability, reliability, congestion

  5. Proceedings of the 19th Central Hardwood Forest Conference GTR-NRS-P-142 234 evALUATIoN oF ToTAL AboveGRoUND bIoMASS AND ToTAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TAL AboveGRoUND bIoMASS AND ToTAL MeRCHANTAbLe bIoMASS IN MISSoURI Michael e. Goerndt, David R. Larsen, and Charles D. keating1 Abstract.--In recent years, the state of Missouri has been converting to biomass, there is a need to identify accurate and precise methods of estimating whole tree biomass and merchantable biomass

  6. A size-dependent crystal plasticity finite-element model for creep and load shedding in polycrystalline titanium alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Somnath

    A size-dependent crystal plasticity finite-element model for creep and load shedding Abstract A rate-dependent anisotropic elastic-crystal plasticity based finite-element (FE) model with size in the crystal plasticity relations are expressed as Hall­Petch type relations, where the grain size, lath size

  7. Microstructure effect on hydrogen-induced cracking in TM210 maraging steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    August 2013 Keywords: Maraging steel Hydrogen embrittlement Reverted austenite Martensite lath boundaries formability. Solution- treated maraging steels have martensite with high dislocation density and a pronouncedMicrostructure effect on hydrogen-induced cracking in TM210 maraging steel Gang Wang a , Yu Yan

  8. Dirk Windelberg NANO-GEOMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Windelberg, Dirk

    and martensite: " is a given steel austenite or martensite?" · by the problem of detecting the origin the solidification of steel " lath martensite" can appear, and this kind of steel can be seen by the pattern) 1 structure of martensite steel 2 definition of " elliptic spot" 3 statistical solutions #12;D

  9. PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE LETTERS, 1996, VOL. 73, NO. 6, 289 297 On the energy of terminated stacking faults

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Paulo J.

    if the ideal SFE is low and the SF strain is large. A numerical example is given for austenitic stainless steel twinning and stress-induced martensite formation. The separation width of the dislocations thereby plays martensitic lath. We shall call it a stacking fault phase (SFP). It has been found experimentally

  10. machining parameters showed 5 percent scatter in dimensional instability, but all were within the required tolerance band.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endres. William J.

    instability within 11­20, 21­30 and 31­50 micron tolerance bands in turning precision aero gas turbine engine metal removal rate, W/mm3 /min Pm lathe motor power, W r tool nose radius, mm Ra surface finish, m c

  11. This SOP does not necessarily cover all possible hazards associated with the machine and should be used in conjunction with other references. It is designed to be used as an adjunct to teaching Safety Procedures and to act as a reminder to users prior to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    in workspaces and walkways. 2. Keep the machine and work area neat, clean and orderly. 3. Ensure you know how without checking for compatibility with the instructor. OPERATING HAZARDS Metal Cutting Fluids Cancer air to clean the lathe, as small particles may become embedded into parts of the machine causing

  12. THE INSTITUTE FOR SOLID STATE PHYSICS 2014 Supporting Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsumoto, Shingo

    with various facilities for designing, metal and ceramic machining, and glass blowing. They supply researchers shop consists of a metal shop, a glass shop and a researcher's machine shop, which are equipped:Five-AxisUniversalMachiningCenter, NumericallyControlledLathe, NumericallyControlledMillingMachine, ElectricDischargeMachiningTool, Glassshop:LatheforGlass

  13. Hydro, Solar, Wind The Future of Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    Hydro, Solar, Wind The Future of Renewable Energy Joseph Flocco David Lath Department of Electrical the turbine speed constant. The available hydro power is calculated using the height difference between source has become popular and has many immediate benefits to communities that opt to build a hydro

  14. A Two-Tiered Demographic System: “Insiders” and “Outsiders” in Three Swabian Communities, 1558-1914

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guinnane, Timothy W.; Ogilvie, Sheilagh C.

    2014-02-05

    to agriculture and locally oriented crafts. Even the establishment after 1850 of a few small-scale and short-lived “factories” (wool-spinning, heckle-making, saw-milling, oil-milling, fulling, brick-making) failed to re-industrialize the local economy.5... to entangle the territory repeatedly in military ventures, but too weak to finance them without granting costly monopolies and institutional privileges to rent-seeking interest-groups (Vann 1984; Ogilvie 1992, 1999; Wilson 1995). This entrenched the powers...

  15. Short-Term Farm Credit in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Virgil P.

    1927-01-01

    contains analysis of information on short-term farm credit received from 455 farmers, 52 bankers, and 279 merchants. The study indicates that about 69 per cent of the farmers in Texas received short-term credit in 1925. Banks are the most important... source. Approximately 83 per cent of those receiving credit obtained all or a part of it from banks, 52 per cent received credit from merchants, and 17 per cent received credit from individuals. Approximately 53 per cent of the bank loans were secured...

  16. Rotary fast tool servo system and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montesanti, Richard C. (Cambridge, MA); Trumper, David L. (Plaistow, NH)

    2007-10-02

    A high bandwidth rotary fast tool servo provides tool motion in a direction nominally parallel to the surface-normal of a workpiece at the point of contact between the cutting tool and workpiece. Three or more flexure blades having all ends fixed are used to form an axis of rotation for a swing arm that carries a cutting tool at a set radius from the axis of rotation. An actuator rotates a swing arm assembly such that a cutting tool is moved in and away from the lathe-mounted, rotating workpiece in a rapid and controlled manner in order to machine the workpiece. A pair of position sensors provides rotation and position information for a swing arm to a control system. A control system commands and coordinates motion of the fast tool servo with the motion of a spindle, rotating table, cross-feed slide, and in-feed slide of a precision lathe.

  17. Apparatus for downhole drilling communications and method for making and using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Normann, R.A.; Lockwood, G.J.; Gonzales, M.

    1998-03-03

    An apparatus for downhole drilling communications is presented. The apparatus includes a spool and end pieces for maintaining the spool at the bottom of a drill string near a drill bit during drilling operations. The apparatus provides a cable for communicating signals between a downhole electronics package and a surface receiver in order to perform measurements while drilling. A method of forming the apparatus is also set forth wherein the apparatus is formed about a central spindle and lathe. 6 figs.

  18. Apparatus for downhole drilling communications and method for making and using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Normann, Randy A. (Edgewood, NM); Lockwood, Grant J. (Albuquerque, NM); Gonzales, Meliton (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for downhole drilling communications is presented. The apparatus includes a spool and end pieces for maintaining the spool at the bottom of a drill string near a drill bit during drilling operations. The apparatus provides a cable for communicating signals between a downhole electronics package and a surface receiver in order to perform measurements while drilling. A method of forming the apparatus is also set forth wherein the apparatus is formed about a central spindle and lathe.

  19. Process Title: Accounting Process for Credit Card Settlements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ://www.washington.edu/admin/finmgmt/sfs/cash/cashhandling.html Updated: 5/6/2008 Contact information: Department: Student Fiscal Services Contact: http://f2.washington) Arrange with Student Fiscal Services to create an electronic CT. An electronic CT will get the funds log, monthly merchant settlement report from Student Fiscal Services and BAR report from FAS

  20. Secrets of Nature: The Bacon Debates Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merchant, Carolyn

    Secrets of Nature: The Bacon Debates Revisited Carolyn Merchant Francis Bacon rose to power during made the early seventeenth century particularly trans- formative.1 Brian Vickers's removal of Bacon for the criticism of Bacon demeans both Bacon and those who have contex- tualized his thought. By using debasing

  1. Home | Member Services | Home Delivery | Site Map | Archives | Print Edition | Advertis Hi, dziegiel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    in evaluating security risks. USC's facility will emphasize research on threats to electrical power plants a home find an apt. list an apt. newspaper ads merchant ads find a date The State Inland Empire Los Independent News-Press Rancho Cucamonga Voice The World The Nation California / Local Business Politics Sports

  2. A review of "Theaters of Intention: Drama and the Law in Early Modern England." by Luke Wilson 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas Bruster

    2003-01-01

    Italy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. xv + 202 pp. $59.95. Review by JAMES PATERSON, UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY. The title of Pagano de Divitiis?s English Merchants in Seventeenth- Century Italy is frankly a misnomer. It promises a study...

  3. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 49254942, 2006 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/6/4925/2006/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    ; Endresen et al., 2003). The average sulphur fuel content of today's world- merchant shipping fleet is 2 conventions do not regulate the sulphur content of fuel for shipping. However, there are regional and local Bunkering, 2004). During the last 50 years, the world's ocean-going fleet and the ships' total fuel

  4. Susan E. Voss Updated January 14, 2011 ----Curriculum Vitae ----

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voss, Susan E.

    Institute of Technology Thesis: Effects of tympanic-membrane perforations on middle- ear sound transmission DC007615-01 ($191,157) "Middle-ear assessment via reflectance measurements" 2001 InterMath Mini. 2008; 29:651-665. 4. Voss SE, Rosowski JJ, Merchant SN, Peake WT. "Non-ossicular signal transmission

  5. Request for Online Payment Site ETSU Bursar Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karsai, Istvan

    Request for Online Payment Site ETSU Bursar Office PO Box 70732 Date*: _____________ (*allow Ustore site with inventory a credit card merchant ID will be requested for ETSU's processor, development: The requirements and responsibilities of an Online Site Manager are: 1. The site manager must be a full-time ETSU

  6. The FIA BioSum model was used to simulate three fire-hazard-reduction policies in an area comprising northern California. southwestern Oregon. and the east slopes of the Cascade Mountains in Oregon. The policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    The FIA BioSum model was used to simulate three fire-hazard-reduction policies in an area. The policy scenarios. all subject to a stand-scale fire-hazard-reduction effectiveness constraint. included merchantable timber removal (Min Merch). Differences in the area treated under each scenario were considerable

  7. A Note On SideChannels Resulting From Dynamic Compilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    A Note On Side­Channels Resulting From Dynamic Compilation D. Page University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Bristol, BS8 1UB, UK. page@cs.bris.ac.uk Abstract. Dynamic compilation such as Java. These systems analyse the performance of an application at run­ time and aggressively re­compile

  8. A Note On Side-Channels Resulting From Dynamic Compilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    A Note On Side-Channels Resulting From Dynamic Compilation D. Page University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Bristol, BS8 1UB, UK. page@cs.bris.ac.uk Abstract. Dynamic compilation such as Java. These systems analyse the performance of an application at run- time and aggressively re-compile

  9. Byzantine naval power and trade: the collapse of the western frontier 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scafuri, Michael Phillip

    2002-01-01

    to the rest of the Mediterranean world. This took the form of an increased restriction and regulation of all trade within her borders. The closing of maritime trade routes hurt her own merchants more than anything else and contributed to the rising...

  10. P h y s i c a l O c e a n o g r a p h y D i v i s i o n The Mandatory Ship Reporting system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) to educate merchant mariners on the plight of the right whale, and to provide information about reducing provides latest right whale sighting information derived from NOAA-operated whale surveys. The information Chinn, Ricardo Domingues and Gustavo Goni The North Atlantic right whale has shown no significant signs

  11. c12) United States Patent (54) METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR PROVIDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamos, Michael I.

    c12) United States Patent Thompson (54) METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR PROVIDING A REBATE PROGRAM (75 a college education by accumulating and managing merchant rebates. The present invention also relates rebates on the transactions between themselves and the organization members so that the rebates

  12. Consequences of Fault Currents Contributed by Distributed Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the system Zbus matrix. The effects of merchant plants, such as Independent Power Producers, are not taken Power Systems Engineering Research Center A National Science Foundation Industry/University Cooperative Research Center since 1996 PSERC #12;Power Systems Engineering Research Center Consequences of Fault

  13. Option Pricing for Inventory Management and Control Bryant Angelos, McKay Heasley, and Jeffrey Humpherys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humpherys, Jeffrey

    inventories in a retail market. Specifically, merchants can buy option contracts on unsold inventories. There are some obvious differences between the cap- ital and retail markets. One notable example expect to see a similar commoditization in the retail markets over time. There are already web services

  14. Pricing of American retail options Christina Burton, McKay Heasley, Jeffrey Humpherys, Jialin Li

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humpherys, Jeffrey

    and controlling inventories in a retail market. We propose a new class of American put option contracts. However, to improve market efficiency this option contract allows the retailer to freely adjust the sale]. In the retail markets, merchants hold inventories of goods and services much like investors hold portfolios

  15. IEEE PES GM07 June 24-28, 2007 I. INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -locating merchant generation and wholesale electric power markets that are using the transmission system in waysIEEE PES GM07 June 24-28, 2007 I. INTRODUCTION The electric power industry is in the midst for which it was not designed. This had resulted in a system operation closer to its edge. The retail

  16. Market Performance of Overwrapped Egg Cartons. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branson, Robert E.; Courtney, Henry

    1966-01-01

    . Packaging and merchandising of most other foods have been changed to improve their merchandising appeal. The following report pertains to research designed to evaluate the possibility of improving the packaging and merchantli5iny of fresh table eggs... Refrigeration .......... 13 .......................................................... Length of Home Egg Storage 1%:; Frequency of Serving and Usual Egg Uses .................................... 13 Packaging and Promoiional Materials...

  17. COMPONENTVersion 2.0 Tree Comparsion Software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page, Roderic

    COMPONENTVersion 2.0 Tree Comparsion Software for Microsoft® WindowsTM User's Guide Roderic D. M NO WARRANTY, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO THIS SOFTWARE, ITS QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. AS A RESULT, THIS SOFTWARE IS SOLD "AS IS", AND YOU

  18. Extending the GHS Weil Descent Attack S.D. Galbraith, F. Hess and N.P. Smart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Extending the GHS Weil Descent Attack S.D. Galbraith, F. Hess and N.P. Smart Department of Computer Science, University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Bristol, BS8 1UB, United due to Gaudry, Hess and Smart (GHS) to a much larger class of elliptic curves. This extended attack

  19. Fully Homomorphic SIMD Operations N.P. Smart1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Fully Homomorphic SIMD Operations N.P. Smart1 and F. Vercauteren2 1 Dept. Computer Science, University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Bristol, BS8 1UB, United Kingdom. nigel Heverlee, Belgium. fvercaut@esat.kuleuven.ac.be Abstract. At PKC 2010 Smart and Vercauteren presented

  20. Fully Homomorphic SIMD Operations N.P. Smart 1 and F. Vercauteren 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Fully Homomorphic SIMD Operations N.P. Smart 1 and F. Vercauteren 2 1 Dept. Computer Science, University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Bristol, BS8 1UB, United Kingdom. nigel Heverlee, Belgium. fvercaut@esat.kuleuven.ac.be Abstract. At PKC 2010 Smart and Vercauteren presented

  1. On CCA-Secure Somewhat Homomorphic Encryption , N.P. Smart1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    On CCA-Secure Somewhat Homomorphic Encryption J. Loftus1 , A. May2 , N.P. Smart1 , and F. Vercauteren3 1 Dept. Computer Science, University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road fully homomorphic encryp- tion scheme proposed by Gentry, as refined by Gentry, Halevi, Smart and Ver

  2. Exploring the Resilience of Some Lightweight Ciphers Against Profiled Single Trace Attacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Science Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, BS8 1UB, Bristol, UK {valentina.banciu, elisabeth: with the advent of `smart devices' (e.g. smart meters, smart appliances) cryptography becomes deeply embedded considered for implementations in software on small microprocessors as found in typical smart devices. Deeply

  3. Anonymous attestation with user-controlled linkability D. Bernhard G. Fuchsbauer E. Ghadafi N.P. Smart B. Warinschi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    .P. Smart B. Warinschi Dept. Computer Science, University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland. Finally, we present a generic construction of a DAA protocol from new building blocks tailored for anony interest. We give instantiations for these building blocks that yield a DAA scheme more efficient than

  4. Representing and Reasoning About Commitments in Business Processes Nirmit Desai and Amit K. Chopra and Munindar P. Singh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Munindar P. Singh Department of Computer Science North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695-8206, USA {nvdesai, akchopra, singh}@ncsu.edu Abstract A variety of business relationships in open settings reified, and possibly conditionalized (Singh 1999). For example, a merchant may commit to a customer

  5. 17 June 2010 About GCC Contact RSS Subscribe Twitter headlines UNEP: Existing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Pledges "Unlikely" To Hold Warming To 2 C Or Less By Mid-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Oil Sands Synthetic Crude Output to 425,000 Barrels per Day by 2020 » Print this post New Institute-size engines. Vinay Patwardhan, the company's director of group planning and development and a merchant ship will be the principal investigators. From the Dashboard Prius Tops Japan Sales for Third Month in a Row in July

  6. Weihuan Xu, Ph.D., Principal Economist Burl Carraway, Assistant Department Head

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for use as a renewable energy resource or for chemical extraction. This report represents the most current during harvesting or are cut off the central stem of the tree due to a merchantability standard. Limbs available as biomass for energy production or chemical extraction. Table 1 shows the logging residue

  7. Biomass from Logging Residue and Mill Residue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as a renewable energy resource or for chemical extraction. This report represents the most current data harvesting or are cut off the central stem of the tree due to a merchantability standard. Limbs refer for energy production or chemical extraction. Table 1 shows the logging residue available in East Texas

  8. www.electricitypolicy.org.uk EPRGWORKINGPAPERNON-TECHNICALSUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    sensitive to some critical market risks such as the electricity price and volume risks. The paper analyses merchant project of constructing two General Electric-Toshiba ABWRs is based on a project finance approach at cost-price over the life of the plant; - The imperfectly reformed French market, wherein the project

  9. Introduction Maritime Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    of Marine Propulsion and Energy, Logistics Systems, Marine Engineering and Marine Environment Conservation-curricular activities offered both on and off campus, and in various marine/aquatic areas as well. Faculty of Maritime Kobe University of Mercantile Marine, which was originally founded in 1917 as the Kawasaki Merchant

  10. Cockroaches...Recognition and Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gold, Roger E.; Brown, Elizabeth; Merchant, Michael E.; Engler, Kimberly

    2005-09-26

    are among some of the oldest surviv- ing insects. They are considered to be E-359 9-05 Cockroaches: Recognition and Control Roger E. Gold 1 , Kimberly Engler 2 , Wizzie Brown 2 and Michael Merchant 3 B 1 Professor and Extension Program Leader...

  11. Glass, steel tins and paper are regularly removed from doorsteps around Britain to be melted, smelted and pulped ready to be turned into raw materials for reuse in objects as diverse as jam jars and new spapers. The problem is, recycling is not alw ays th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    w ith climate change. Energy is required to collect the car, remove the engine, crush it, extract and new spapers. The problem is, recycling is not alw ays the most environmentally acceptable process. Let's take a car engine for example. Scrap metal merchants have existed almost as long as the car. Their job

  12. THE END OF A HUNDRED-YEAR-OLD ARCHAEOLOGICAL RIDDLE: FIRST DATING OF THE COLUMNS TOMB OF KUMBI SALEH (MAURITANIA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with North Africa and the Mediterranean Basin. However, interpretation of the tomb, the largest structure and stored at the Musée de l'Homme (Paris, France). AMS radiocarbon dating of the bone and tooth apatite metal with Maghreb and the Mediterranean Basin through North African merchants, Ghana established early

  13. GEOGRAPHY 4: GLOBALIZATION: REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE WORLD ECONOMY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and merchant capitalism Knox et al., Chapter 4 4. The Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution manufacturing industries, agriculture, and services are located. In this way it provides an introduction globalization lie in the past: in the growth of worldwide trading networks, colonialism, the Industrial

  14. Advisory Board Profiles: San Orr is a partner, head of advisory services and the chief operating officer of BDT & Company, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    operating officer of BDT & Company, a Chicago-based merchant bank that provides advice and arranges long-term capital to help family-owned and entrepreneurially led businesses pursue their long-term strategic and financial objectives. Prior to helping establish BDT & Company in 2009, Orr worked at Goldman Sachs

  15. 970 East 58th Street 3rd floor Chicago, IL 60637 773-702-8000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Chuan

    with the University; and to ensure the University's compliance with the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standards merchant standards and/or industry standards for the processing of credit cards or automated clearing house of a proposed application with PCIDSS and industry best practices for conducting electronic payment transactions

  16. forest fuel reduction. Findings from an integrated commercial operation suggest that comprehensive and intensive silvicultural prescriptions may be necessary to favorably

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    #12;forest fuel reduction. Findings from an integrated commercial operation suggest and to accomplish fuel reduction objectives economically. Additional stand travel necessary to harvest non-merchantable trees did not significantly affect soil physical properties. Non-commercial fuel reduction, employing

  17. Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan Bolling

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

  18. Assessment of superheated steam drying of wood waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, B.G.; Nguyen, Y.; Bruce, S.

    1994-12-31

    A 5 MW co-generation facility using wood waste is described which will supply power to Ontario Hydro, steam to the sawmill for process heating, and hot water for district heating customers in the town. The use of superheated steam for drying the wood was investigated to determine the impact on boiler performance, the environmental impact and the economic feasibility. The main benefit with superheated steam drying is the reduction in VOC emissions. The capital cost is currently higher with superheated steam drying, but further investigation is warranted to determine if the cost reductions which could be achieved by manufacturing the major components in North America are sufficient to make the technology cost competitive.

  19. Properties of Electricity Prices and the Drivers of Interconnector Revenue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parail, Vladimir

    Properties of Electricity Prices and the Drivers of Interconnector Revenue Vladimir Parail November 2010 CWPE 1059 & EPRG 1033 www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk E P R G W O R K IN G P A P E R Abstract... Properties of Electricity Prices and the Drivers of Interconnector Revenue EPRG Working Paper 1033 Cambridge Working Paper in Economics 1059 Vladimir Parail This paper examines the drivers behind revenues of merchant electricity...

  20. Caught in the act: the stage as a backdrop for defining crime in early modern England 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orman, Lindsay Erin

    2013-02-22

    the decay of the landed gentry and feudal power structures as they were replaced by a prosperous merchant class and capitalist ideas. A national identity was newly forged out of the divided loyalties to feudal lords, and the Church retained supreme moral... transgressions that they thetnselves were able to justify and evade punishment for based on their social positions. The rise in capitalism and the impending death of the feudal aristocracy, the growing scientific enlightenment, the rise of the middle class...

  1. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 14591466, 2005 www.atmos-chem-phys.org/acp/5/1459/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    -sea interface is de- scribed by: Ft = (ks(pCO2sea - pCO2air))t . (1) where Ft is the flux integrated over a time air-sea CO2 flux caused by temporal averaging of sea-level pressure H. Kettle and C. J. Merchant, such as wind speed and air pressure, can cause large er- rors in air-sea carbon flux estimates. Other

  2. The development of a marine engineering program for training cruises of the Texas Maritime Academy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luehning, Klaus Volker

    1966-01-01

    the organization and assignments for the cruise. 8, Before departure from Galveston, assign appropriate duties and responsibilities to faculty, staff and students. 9. Conduct the cruise and implement the training program. 10. Upon completion of the cruise... and Certificating of Merchant Marine Personnel, Subchapter B, CG 191, U, S. Coast Guard, Treasury Department, July 1, 1963, whi. ch states in part: 10. 02-1 Issuance of Licenses 10-02-1 (a) Applicants for licenses are charged with the duty of establishing...

  3. Mast step and keelson: the early development of a shipbuilding technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geannette, Mark Alan

    1983-01-01

    the first millennium A. D. were central structural elements in a seafaring tradition whose primary vessel was the efficient merchant ship. As such, these ship timbers ex- hibit characteristics distinct from the Gallo-Roman tradi- tion of inland waterway..." arrangement which is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian tabernacle system. Early examples point to the mast step being an isolat- ed ship member, increasing in size in proportion to the enlargement in ship dimensions but remaining essentially...

  4. An analysis of the threshold necessary to sustain rural Texas retail outlets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adcock, Donna P

    1992-01-01

    activity into and out of them [Shaffer]. When residents go outside of the community to purchase goods, a leakage of economic activity out of that community occurs. By understanding the characteristics of local economies which support specific types... for the merchants [Shaffer]. As identified by Simon, Braschler, Kuehn and Croll, information on these thresholds will help local decisionmakers answer the following questions: ~ What type of retail outlets can this community support? ~ How many firms can...

  5. THE INDUSTRIOUS REVOLUTION, THE INDUSTRIOUSNESS DISCOURSE, AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN ECONOMIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litvine, Alexis D.

    2014-05-08

    of the East India and the Virginia companies by associating merchant adventurers with busy bees, which ‘from furthest parts abroad, … fetch and bring the hony to the Hive, laborious Bees, they clothe and feede the poore, and give the willing man imployment... and the correspondence between microcosmic (individual) and macrocosmic (social) qualities relied on a twofold comparison: first, a series of zoological metaphors and anthropomorphisms attributing industrious virtues to animals such as ants or bees, and, second...

  6. The Phoenician Trade Network: Tracing a Mediterranean Exchange System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Puckett, Neil 1983-

    2012-11-15

    evidence exists that Phoenicians used warships such as the Pentecontor for colonization, this chapter concentrates on the merchant ship as the primary vessel for exchange.44 Lastly, the chapter addresses navigation, both with regard to technologies... that the 43 For instance, a 200-ton ships has been purported as part of the Ugarit fleet (Aubet 1994, 172- 5). 44 CPG, 5-10 1 8 Phoenicians had the potential to develop in order to successfully navigate during their voyages are discussed...

  7. A review of "Powerful Connections: The Poetics of Patronage in the Age of Louis XIII" by Peter Shoemaker 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turnovsky, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    him; his displacement of her role and elimination shows the ?tyrant [who feels he] must wrest control of his family away from his chil- dren?s mother? (223) In the volume?s closing essay, Douglas Brooks looks closely at the paternity and writing... technology issues present in Shakespeare?s The Merchant of Venice. He contends the metaphors borrowed from printing to express anxieties of legitimacy, ethnicity, sexuality and Christianity are new in the period, one attempting to understand its...

  8. The Influence of Product Markets on Industrial Relations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, William

    domination by merchant retailers who fixed prices by reference to the cheapest labour market from which they could obtain substitute goods, wherever that might be. The employment standards of the local labour market become threatened by those... (Turner, 1962: 377). Even today some continue to exercise discipline over their members, such as the association that organises electrical contractors for the construction industry, where licensing and safety issues are dominant. Because labour can...

  9. click beetle (Native) 2 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    , there are 1.5 meters of natural topographic relief. Most of the soils in the project area are poorly drained and slowly permeable. They are mostly clays that range from saline to non-saline. The climate is classified as moist sub-humid. Rain occurs... standing water, or having clay at the surface were not tested (n=61). The source points were marked with lath and flagging, and the source point number was written on each stake. In addition to shovel testing, the ground surface in the immediate area...

  10. Shear band structure in ballistically tested bainitic steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fielding, L. C. D.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    and simple process to obtain nano-structured bulk low-carbon steel with superior mechan- ical property’, Scripta Materialia, 2002, 46, 305–310. 18. X. Zhao, T. Jing, Y. Gao, G. Qiao, J. Zhou, and W. Wang: ‘Annealing behavior of nano-layered steel produced... by heavy cold-rolling of lath martensite’, Materials Science & Engineering A, 2005, 397, 117–121. 19. R. Ueji, N. Tsuji, Y. Minamino, and Y. Koizumi: ‘Ultragrain refinement of plain low carbon steel by cold-rolling and annealing of martensite...

  11. The bainitic mechanism of austenite formation during rapid heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaluba, W.J.; Taillard, R.; Foct, J.

    1998-10-09

    Strips of a spheroidized 0.68% C, 0.67% Mn and 0.24% Si pearlitic steel were submitted to rapid heat cycles. The samples were heated by direct electrical conduction up to a peak temperature and immediately water quenched. The morphological features of the {alpha} {r_arrow} {gamma} transformation were studied by light and electron microscopy. It was found that austenite at an early stage of the transformation has a specific lath-like morphology and that its growth always starts directly from a grain boundary of ferrite. Moreover, the presence of retained austenite allows the prediction of relatively high carbon content in the transformation product. The particular interaction of austenite laths with carbide particles gives an indication that the growth mechanism can be displacive at its early stage. Comparing the morphological characteristics of austenite formation observed in this study with those reported for austenite decomposition, a bainitic model of the early stage of {alpha} {r_arrow} {gamma} transformation is proposed.

  12. Industrial Gases as a Vehicle for Competitiveness 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    and process cost reductions led to investment in gas process development. The use of nitrogen in industrial processes went from by-product to primary gas produced in less than ten years. The nature of the cryogenic liquefaction process is such that a... ratio of three volumes of nitrogen to one of oxygen is optimal for merchant plan loading and costs. The specific power requirement for the liquefaction of nitrogen gas has gone from 2.0 kwh/ccf to 1.4 kwh/ccf. This represents a thirty percent...

  13. TALENT user's manual.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merchant, Bion John

    2012-01-01

    The Ground-Based Monitoring R and E Component Evaluation project performs testing on the hardware components that make up Seismic and Infrasound monitoring systems. The majority of the testing is focused on the Digital Waveform Recorder (DWR), Seismic Sensor, and Infrasound Sensor. The software tool used to capture and analyze the data collected from testing is called TALENT: Test and Analysis Evaluation Tool. This document is the manual for using TALENT. Other reports document the testing procedures that are in place (Kromer, 2007) and the algorithms employed in the test analysis (Merchant, 2011).

  14. Alexander Csoma de Koros: the Hungarian Bodhisattva

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hetenyi, Ernest

    1972-02-15

    . As he ought to have served in the army he did not dare to ask for a passport. Instead he managed to pass the Rumanian frontier with a temporary certificate used by merchants travelling to Mold ,viano Travelling on to Greece, he embarked on a small... was destined to go only as far as Darjeeling, a British hill resort near the Tibetan border. For on his way, crossing the Terai swamps, he contracted malarial fever. Dr. Campbell, the British medical officer at Darjeleling who attended to him, could...

  15. Attitudes towards Privateering during the Era of the Early American Republic 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holcomb IV, James R.

    2007-07-14

    the same, merchants eagerly invested in privateering expeditions, and sailors viewed it as an attractive alternative to service in the regular Navy. iv I dedicate this work to Dr. Jim Bradford, teacher, mentor, and friend. v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I’d... especially like to thank Dr. James C. Bradford for his extensive help with researching and writing this thesis. I’d also like to thank the Texas A&M Office of Honors Programs and Academic Scholarships for the SUURF scholarship I received which allowed me...

  16. A Review of "Christopher Plantin and Engraved Book Illustrations in Sixteenth-Century Europe" by Karen Bowen and Dirk Imhof 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Larry

    2010-01-01

    projects. His influential friend, Benito Arias Montano, sent from Spain to work on the renowned Polyglot Bible project (1568-73; which also had a score of engravings), also brought in a financial backer, Luis Perez, a wealthy Spanish merchant in Antwerp..., Monuments of human health (1571). Documents reveal that Paris, scattered dealers, and the court of Philip II of Spain provided the main purchasers of the former, while the latter had a local who?s who list as well as sales in Frankfurt and Paris. From...

  17. Patrons and Go-Betweens: A Selection from the Spencer Research Library's Pre-Raphaelite Collections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1997-01-01

    : Constantine Ionides. GO-BETWEEN: Aglaia (Ionides) Coronio, Ionides 1 sister. DATE: ca. 1880. A group of 19 letters from Rossetti to Mrs Coronio. Constantine Alexander Ionides was the head of a family of exiled Greeks who became wealthy merchants...'s home-page.) Constantine admired the sketch in March 1879 and commissioned a finished oil version, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. (A reproduction is at the left.) ARTIST: HOLMAN HUNT GO-BETWEEN: Augustus Egg, 1816-1863, R.A., one of the few...

  18. Cotton Crop Mortgage Credit: The Banks, All-Cotton-Credit and Periodical Financial Distress -- A Remedy. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, R. L.

    sufficient reproach to Southern people? Should credit and community good-will be extended to continue a system of such calamitous possibilities? Not a Safe Credit Risk,—The all-cotton farmer is an un- safe credit risk, and the credit merchant dependent...-cotton system, one-crop farming, and its periodi- cal distress to all business and community welfare, that it would be a reproach to any farmer, landlord or any one who did not grow or who prevented the growing of a full supply of food and feed for the family...

  19. Rate Sheet Essential in Long and Short Time Farm Loans. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, R. L.; Paris, M. S.

    1916-01-01

    and a rate sheet designed by the writer, published by the Extension Service of the Texas A. and M. College may be had on application. Detailed incomes of safe and unsafe farming are exhibited. The Texas Bankers Association under its former president, Joe... Hirsch, began actively urging the use of the crop credit statement shown in this bulletin in making loans to farmers. Credit based on this state- ment attached to farmers' notes, showing safe farming, whether offered by merchants or by banks, should...

  20. Interview of McKim Marriott

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marriot, McKim

    2009-03-04

    boat we could find, a freighter delivering American pipe to some oil industries in the Middle East; we thought it was going to be Israel but it turned out not to be; we went through Lebanon and Egypt and headed to a place recommended by the Wisers about... and that was the reason for the pig pen; went to another likely village within a cluster of villages; I had met an office boy who had built a house for a wedding in one of these villages and now wanted to rent it; also met a merchant - a travelling salesman for a lock...

  1. F.W. Maitland and the Making of the Modern World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2002-01-01

    , which Tocqueville analysed. That this happened raises two great questions. How did such a strange thing as the break-down of hierarchy occur, and how could a civilization not based on it work? What could hold equal people together and prevent them... . Each of these institutional orders will cast a jealous eye on the wealth producers, 10 whether peasants, merchants or craftsmen, and try to siphon off as much as possible of any new surpluses they make. In such a normal course of events a...

  2. The Texas Two-Step Method: Do-It-Yourself Fire Ant Control for Homes and Neighborhoods (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drees, Bastiaan M.; Merchant, Michael E.

    2002-10-04

    arroyos y poner en peligro la vida acu?tica. Es mejor usar todo el insecticida del recipiente antes de tirarlo a la basura. Michael Merchant Entomol?go Urbano de Extensi?n y Bastiaan M. Drees Entom?logo de Extensi?n y Coordinador del Proyecto de las... org?nico y de otros lugares delicados. P?ngase guantes discapacidad, religi?n, edad u origen nacional. Emitido en promoci?n del Trabajo Cooperativo de Extensi?n Agr?cola y Econom?a del Hogar, Decreto del Congreso del 8 de mayo de 1914, seg?n la...

  3. Harvesting and Curing of Garlic to Prevent Decay. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altstatt, G. E. (George E.); Smith, H. P. (Harris Pearson); Byrom, Mills H. (Mills Herbert)

    1944-01-01

    as well as decreasing the yields. There was a tendency to harvest garlic before it had fully matured. The produce merchants, therefore, suffered a large portion of the shrinkage or drying loss together with the risk of decay before and after shipment... practiced by many growers. Data were collected to show the effects of these methods of curing on the percentage loss by shrinkage in drying, cleaning, and decay in storage. Field Curing of Garlic Certain growers in the Moulton area have made it a...

  4. Beyond Assilimation vs Cultural Resistance: Wayuu Market Appropriation in Riohacha, La Guajira, Colombia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robles, David Alexander

    2008-09-02

    weavers to mass produce textiles for export (Wood 2000). Stephen (1991) reported that starting in the 1960s production and distribution networks for textiles expanded greatly, and by 1985, Teotitl?n had a population of about 5,000, 24 which consisted... of 80% weavers, 10% merchants, and 10% farmers. The craft production of textiles was destined primarily for Santa Fe, New Mexico. This U.S. city in the 1980s became a famous vacation and tourist spot known for its Southwestern style that included...

  5. Isothermal Martensitic and Pressure-Induced ? to ?? Phase Transformations in a Pu-Ga Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, A J; Wall, M A; Farber, D L; Moore, K T; Blobaum, K M

    2007-09-10

    A Pu-2 at.% Ga alloy specimen is slowly compressed to {approx}1 GPa in a large volume moissanite anvil cell to induce the face-centered cubic {delta} to simple monoclinic {alpha}{prime} phase transformation. Optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy of the specimen recovered to ambient pressure reveal that the vast majority of the microstructure consists of the {alpha}{prime} phase with grain sizes ranging from 10 nm to several hundred nm, with the remainder being {delta} phase dispersed between the {alpha}{prime} grains. This morphology is in contrast to the transformation product of the low-temperature isothermal martensite in which the lath-shaped {alpha}{prime} particles are {approx}20 {micro}m by 2 {micro}m.

  6. Validation of cleaning method for various parts fabricated at a Beryllium facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Cynthia M.

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated and documented a cleaning process that is used to clean parts that are fabricated at a beryllium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of evaluating this cleaning process was to validate and approve it for future use to assure beryllium surface levels are below the Department of Energy’s release limits without the need to sample all parts leaving the facility. Inhaling or coming in contact with beryllium can cause an immune response that can result in an individual becoming sensitized to beryllium, which can then lead to a disease of the lungs called chronic beryllium disease, and possibly lung cancer. Thirty aluminum and thirty stainless steel parts were fabricated on a lathe in the beryllium facility, as well as thirty-two beryllium parts, for the purpose of testing a parts cleaning method that involved the use of ultrasonic cleaners. A cleaning method was created, documented, validated, and approved, to reduce beryllium contamination.

  7. An alternative to the crystallographic reconstruction of austenite in steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernier, Nicolas, E-mail: n.bernier@yahoo.fr [OCAS N.V., ArcelorMittal R and D Gent, Pres. J.F. Kennedylaan 3, 9060 Zelzate (Belgium); Bracke, Lieven, E-mail: lieven.bracke@arcelormittal.com [OCAS N.V., ArcelorMittal R and D Gent, Pres. J.F. Kennedylaan 3, 9060 Zelzate (Belgium); Malet, Loïc; Godet, Stéphane [Université Libre de Bruxelles, 4 MAT (Materials Engineering, Characterisation, Synthesis and Recycling), Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, CP 194/03, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-03-01

    An alternative crystallographic austenite reconstruction programme written in Matlab is developed by combining the best features of the existing models: the orientation relationship refinement, the local pixel-by-pixel analysis and the nuclei identification and spreading strategy. This programme can be directly applied to experimental electron backscatter diffraction mappings. Its applicability is demonstrated on both quenching and partitioning and as-quenched lath-martensite steels. - Highlights: • An alternative crystallographic austenite reconstruction program is developed. • The method combines a local analysis and a nuclei identification/spreading strategy. • The validity of the calculated orientation relationship is verified on a Q and P steel. • The accuracy of the reconstructed microtexture is investigated on a martensite steel.

  8. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, G.; Ahn, J.H.; Kim, N.J.

    1986-10-28

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar[sub 3] temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics. 3 figs.

  9. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, Gareth (Berkeley, CA); Ahn, Jae-Hwan (Albany, CA); Kim, Nack-Joon (Laramie, WY)

    1986-01-01

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar.sub.3 temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics.

  10. New routes -- Processes and uses -- For minimizing heavy fuel oil production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulman, B.L.; Biasca, F.E.; Johnson, H.E.; Dickenson, R.L. (SFA Pacific, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    The continuing tightening of environmental regulations poses large challenges to refiners, planning of future strategies. The primary focus is on the progressively higher quality requirements for gasoline and diesel fuels. The technologies for achieving these ends are well defined. However, the cost of producing the hydrogen required is substantial. This need for hydrogen has provided an impetus for improving hydrogen manufacture and also for novel business opportunities for the merchant gas suppliers. The regulations also continue to tighten on the sulfur in heavy fuel oils--particularly in Europe. The progressively lower levels specified generally means that the volume of heavy fuel oil must be decreased sharply. There is a worldwide focus on how best to minimize the amount of heavy fuel oil produced from refineries. Three approaches are evolving to aid the refiners to meet this goal: advances in technology to convert residues--particularly by hydrocracking; advances in hydrogen manufacturing technologies and in innovative marketing of merchant hydrogen to provide cheaper hydrogen; and improvement in gasification technology together with deregulation of power generation offer good opportunities for a refiner to convert the heaviest liquids to electric power--essentially a new product for refiners. SFA Pacific has recently completed a comprehensive analysis of these aspects of residue conversion. This paper highlights some of the major activities worldwide to illustrate the variety of options being considered for substantial reduction in heavy fuel oil production.

  11. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc. , Vicksburg, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from a budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains process flowsheets and maps of the proposed site.

  12. Technical and economical considerations of new DRI melting process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Shuzo; Tokuda, Koji; Sammt, F.; Gray, R.

    1997-12-31

    The new DRI melting process can effectively and economically produce high quality molten iron. This process utilizes hot charging of DRI directly from a reduction furnace into a dedicated new melting furnace. The molten iron from this DRI premelter can be charged into a steelmaking furnace, such as an electric arc furnace (EAF), where the molten iron, together with other iron sources, can be processed to produce steel. Alternatively the molten iron can be pigged or granulated for off-site merchant sales. Comprehensive research and development of the new process has been conducted including operational process simulation, melting tests using FASTMET DRI, slag technology development, and refractory corrosion testing. This paper describes the process concept, its operational characteristics and further applications of the process.

  13. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis. Task 2 summary report. Model for alkaline water electrolysis systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaffe, M.R.; Murray, J.N.

    1980-04-01

    Task 2 involved the establishment of an engineering and economic model for the evaluation of various options in water electrolysis. The mode, verification of the specific coding and four case studies are described. The model was tested by evaluation of a nearly commercial technology, i.e., an 80-kW alkaline electrolyte system, operating at 60/sup 0/C, which delivers approximately 255 SLM, hydrogen for applications such as electrical generation cooling or semiconductor manufacturing. The calculated cost of hydrogen from this installed non-optimized case system with an initial cost to the customer of $87,000 was $6.99/Kg H/sub 2/ ($1.67/100 SCF) on a 20-yr levelized basis using 2.5 cents/kWh power costs. This compares favorably to a levelized average merchant hydrogen cost value of $9.11/Kg H/sub 2/ ($2.17/100 SCF) calculated using the same program.

  14. Huntsman-Enron close supply deals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-08-14

    Huntsman Corp. and Enron Liquid Services has signed ethylene supply agreements with consumers for their joint 1.5-billion lbs/year steam cracker. Huntsman says participants will be announced next week. Initial plans call for the unit to be built at Huntsman`s Port Arthur, TX complex, with startup scheduled for 1999. Huntsman says engineering, procurement, and financing should be in place by the end of the year. The unit will supply Huntsman`s growing internal needs for ethylene and propylene and bolster its position in the Gulf merchant market and will increase Huntsman`s ethylene capacity to more than 3.3 billion lbs/year. Enron`s extensive pipeline system will provide feedstock and be used as a distribution network for ethylene customers.

  15. US pipelines report mixed results for 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    True, W.R.

    1994-11-21

    US natural gas pipelines started 1994 in generally better conditions than a year earlier. These companies' operational and financial results for 1993 indicate modest but continuing improvement. Petroleum liquids pipelines, on the other hand, suffered reduced revenues and incomes last: increased deliveries and trunkline movement of liquid petroleum products failed fully to offset fewer barrels of crude oil moving through the companies' pipeline systems. Revenues, incomes, mileage operated, and other data are tracked in Oil and Gas Journal's exclusive Economics Report. Additionally, this report contains extensive data on actual costs of pipeline construction compared with what companies expected to spend at the time of projects' approvals. The paper also discusses the continuing shift of natural gas pipelines as merchants to role of transporter; what was spent; the US interstate network; pipeline mileage; deliveries; the top 10 companies; construction activities; cost trends; and cost components.

  16. MAGIC: Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, ER; Wiscombe, WJ; Albrecht, BA; Bland, GL; Flagg, CN; Klein, SA; Kollias, P; Mace, G; Reynolds, RM; Schwartz, SE; Siebesma, AP; Teixeira, J; Wood, R; Zhang, M

    2012-10-03

    The second Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF2) will be deployed aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship merchant vessel (M/V) Spirit for MAGIC, the Marine ARM GPCI1 Investigation of Clouds. The Spirit will traverse the route between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii, from October 2012 through September 2013 (except for a few months in the middle of this time period when the ship will be in dry dock). During this field campaign, AMF2 will observe and characterize the properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; standard meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric structure. There will also be two intensive observational periods (IOPs), one in January 2013 and one in July 2013, during which more detailed measurements of the atmospheric structure will be made.

  17. Production of Fast Neutron With Plasma Focus Device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moshe Gai

    2006-05-05

    Before its demise DIANA Hi-TECH, LLC, demonstrated the use of two 50 kJoule Plasma Focus devices for the copius production of fast neutrons, x-rays and radio-isotopes. Such a device is suitable for fast neutron non invasive interogation of contra-band materials including hidden nuclear materials. It could be particularly useful for a fast and fail safe interogation of large cargo containers, or in merchant marine port of entries. The performance and fast neutron production (2.5 or 14 MeV at 10^11 or 10^13 neutrons per pulse, respectively) of the two PF50 Plasma Focus devices produced by DIANA HiTECH, LLC, are discussed.

  18. He Transport and Fate of Tempered Martensitic Steels: Summary of Recent TEM Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Danny J.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Odette, G Robert; Yamamoto, Takuya

    2010-02-26

    As an extension of prior work [1-4], we summarize recent observations made on a He-implanted tempered martensitic steel (TMS), F82H mod 3, irradiated in the HFIR, in both as-tempered (AT) and cold-worked (CW) conditions. A novel implantation technique was used to uniformly inject He into 3-mm diameter TEM discs to depths ranging from ? 5-8 µm. The He is generated by two-step transmutation reactions in Ni contained in a NiAl coating layer adjacent to paired 3 mm TEM discs. NiAl layers from 1 to 4 ?m thick produced He/dpa ratios between 5 and 40 appm/dpa. The irradiations were at temperatures of 300, 400 and 500°C from 3.9 to 9 dpa and 90 to 380 appm He. Electron transparent samples were prepared by a cross-sectional thinning technique that allowed investigating microstructural evolution over a range of implantation depths. Irradiation of the AT alloy to 9 dpa at 500°C and 380 appm He resulted in relatively large, faceted cavities, that are likely voids, along with a much higher density of smaller He bubbles. The cavities were most often aligned in pearl necklace like strings, presumably due to their formation on pre-existing dislocations. A finer distribution of cavities was also present on precipitate interfaces, lath and grain boundaries. Nine dpa irradiations that produced 190 appm He resulted in a somewhat more random distribution and lower density of smaller matrix cavities; but lower He levels had a less noticeable effect on bubbles in the lath and precipitate boundaries. Corresponding irradiations of the CW F82H produced a larger number of smaller cavities. Irradiation of the AT alloy to 3.9 dpa and 90 ppm He at 400°C produced a similar cavity population to that observed at 500°C at 190 appm He, while the corresponding cavities at 500°C are slightly larger and more numerous at 380 appm He. The cavity strings were less obvious for the 400°C irradiations, and the bubble distribution appeared to be more random. No cavities were observed in the case of the 300°C irradiations. Overall the cavity number densities compare favorably with those previously reported [4], but details, including size distributions, are still under investigation. Dislocation structures were complex and varied greatly as a function of irradiation dose and temperature, and will be more thoroughly characterized in the next phase of the work.

  19. Chip breaking system for automated machine tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arehart, Theodore A. (Clinton, TN); Carey, Donald O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1987-01-01

    The invention is a rotary selectively directional valve assembly for use in an automated turret lathe for directing a stream of high pressure liquid machining coolant to the interface of a machine tool and workpiece for breaking up ribbon-shaped chips during the formation thereof so as to inhibit scratching or other marring of the machined surfaces by these ribbon-shaped chips. The valve assembly is provided by a manifold arrangement having a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart ports each coupled to a machine tool. The manifold is rotatable with the turret when the turret is positioned for alignment of a machine tool in a machining relationship with the workpiece. The manifold is connected to a non-rotational header having a single passageway therethrough which conveys the high pressure coolant to only the port in the manifold which is in registry with the tool disposed in a working relationship with the workpiece. To position the machine tools the turret is rotated and one of the tools is placed in a material-removing relationship of the workpiece. The passageway in the header and one of the ports in the manifold arrangement are then automatically aligned to supply the machining coolant to the machine tool workpiece interface for breaking up of the chips as well as cooling the tool and workpiece during the machining operation.

  20. Polymer micromold and fabrication process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P. (1428 Whitecliff Way, Walnut Creek, CA 94596); Northrup, M. Allen (923 Creston Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); Ahre, Paul E. (1299 Gonzaga Ct., Livermore, CA 94550); Dupuy, Peter C. (1736 Waldo Ct., Modesto, CA 95358)

    1997-01-01

    A mold assembly with micro-sized features in which the hollow portion thereof is fabricated from a sacrificial mandrel which is surface treated and then coated to form an outer shell. The sacrificial mandrel is then selectively etched away leaving the outer shell as the final product. The sacrificial mandrel is fabricated by a precision lathe, for example, so that when removed by etching the inner or hollow area has diameters as small as 10's of micros (.mu.m). Varying the inside diameter contours of the mold can be accomplished with specified ramping slopes formed on the outer surface of the sacrificial mandrel, with the inside or hollow section being, for example, 275 .mu.m in length up to 150 .mu.m in diameter within a 6 mm outside diameter (o.d.) mold assembly. The mold assembly itself can serve as a micronozzle or microneedle, and plastic parts, such as microballoons for angioplasty, polymer microparts, and microactuators, etc., may be formed within the mold assembly.

  1. Polymer micromold and fabrication process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Ahre, P.E.; Dupuy, P.C.

    1997-08-19

    A mold assembly is disclosed with micro-sized features in which the hollow portion thereof is fabricated from a sacrificial mandrel which is surface treated and then coated to form an outer shell. The sacrificial mandrel is then selectively etched away leaving the outer shell as the final product. The sacrificial mandrel is fabricated by a precision lathe, for example, so that when removed by etching the inner or hollow area has diameters as small as 10`s of micros ({micro}m). Varying the inside diameter contours of the mold can be accomplished with specified ramping slopes formed on the outer surface of the sacrificial mandrel, with the inside or hollow section being, for example, 275 {micro}m in length up to 150 {micro}m in diameter within a 6 mm outside diameter (o.d.) mold assembly. The mold assembly itself can serve as a micronozzle or microneedle, and plastic parts, such as microballoons for angioplasty, polymer microparts, and microactuators, etc., may be formed within the mold assembly. 6 figs.

  2. Deformation of the UI-14at%Nb shape memory alloy: experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Robert D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tome, Carlos N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Cabe, Rodney J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clarke, Amy J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Donald W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tupper, Catherine N [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-22

    U-14at%Nb is a shape memory effect (SME) alloy that undergoes deformation by the motion of complex twins and twin related lath boundaries up to the limit of SME deformation ({approx}7%). All of the twins present in the as-transformed martensite and active during SME deformation are derived from those of the orthorhombic alpha-U phase, modified for the monoclinic distortion of the alpha martensite phase. In the SME regime a simple Bain strain model qualitatively predicts variant selection, texture development in polycrystalline samples, and stress-strain behavior as a function of parent phase orientation in single crystal micropillars. In the post-SME regime, unrecoverable deformation occurs by a combination of slip and twinning, with the first few percent of strain in tension apparently governed by a twin species specifically associated with the monoclinic distortion (i.e. not present in the orthorhombic alpha-U phase). The situation in compression is more complicated, with a combination of slip and twinning systems believed responsible for deformation. A review of the Bain strain model for SME deformation will be presented in conjunction with experimental data. In addition, results from modeling of post-SME behavior using the Visco-Plastic Self-Consistent (VPSC) model will be compared to experimental texture measurements.

  3. Electromagnetic variable degrees of freedom actuator systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montesanti, Richard C. (Pleasanton, CA); Trumper, David L. (Plaistow, NH); Kirtley, Jr., James L. (Brookline, MA)

    2009-02-17

    The present invention provides a variable reluctance actuator system and method that can be adapted for simultaneous rotation and translation of a moving element by applying a normal-direction magnetic flux on the moving element. In a beneficial example arrangement, the moving element includes a swing arm that carries a cutting tool at a set radius from an axis of rotation so as to produce a rotary fast tool servo that provides a tool motion in a direction substantially parallel to the surface-normal of a workpiece at the point of contact between the cutting tool and workpiece. An actuator rotates a swing arm such that a cutting tool moves toward and away from a mounted rotating workpiece in a controlled manner in order to machine the workpiece. Position sensors provide rotation and displacement information for a swing arm to a control system. A control system commands and coordinates motion of the fast tool servo with the motion of a spindle, rotating table, cross-feed slide, and in feed slide of a precision lathe.

  4. Ion Beam Sputter Fabrication of Micro-Grooving and Micro-Threading Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ADAMS,DAVID P.; VASILE,M.J.; KRISHNAN,A.S.M.

    1999-11-05

    This paper presents techniques for fabricating microscopic, nonplanar features in a variety of materials. Micro-grooving and micro-threading tools having cutting dimensions of 10-30{micro}m are made by focused ion beam sputtering and used in ultra-precision machining. Tool fabrication involves directing a 20 keV gallium beam at polished cylindrical punches made of cobalt M42 high-speed steel or C2 tungsten carbide. This creates cutting edges having radii of curvature less than 0.4 {micro}m, and rake features similar to conventional lathe tools. Clearance for minimizing frictional drag of a tool results from the sputter yield dependence on ion herd target incidence angle. Numerically controlled, ultra-precision machining with micro-grooving tools results in a close matching between tool width and feature size. Microtools controllably machine 13 {micro}m wide, 4 {micro}m deep, helical grooves in polymethyl methacrylate and 6061-T6 Al cylindrical substrates. Micro-grooving tools also fabricate sinusoidal waveform features in polished metal substrates.

  5. Management Applications of Maintenance Reports 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gehl, P.

    1993-01-01

    REQ _.._---.-----------------..................__.----------_._-----_._.... _...------_..._.. ---------_ ........ ---------------------_._--_.............._-----------_......._ NC3IOP LUCAS HORZ BORING MILL 48x74 249.00 1114.00 0.00 0.00 1363.00 6 NC313P lUCAS HORZ BORING MILL 48x74 168.00 1491.00 0.00 0.00 16059.00 6 NC309P lUCAS HORZ BORING Mill 48x86 116.00 749.00 0.00 0.00 865.00 4 NC3I1P lUCAS HORZ BORING MILL 48x...74 93.00 1399.00 0.00 0.00 1492.00 4 NC3I2P lUCAS HORZ BORING MILL 48x74 122.00 1491.00 0.00 0.00 1613.00 4 NC407P Gill VERT TIJRRET LATHE-72 905.00 1491.00 0.00 0.00 10586.00 4 C0370P INDUMA HORIZONTAL MILL 48.00 22.00 0.00 0.00 70.00 3 NC307...

  6. Fabrication and testing of diamond-machined gratings in ZnSe, GaP, and bismuth germanate for the near infrared and visible

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmenko, P J; Little, S L; Ikeda, Y; Kobayashi, N

    2008-06-22

    High quality immersion gratings for infrared applications have been demonstrated in silicon and germanium. To extend this technology to shorter wavelengths other materials must be investigated. We selected three materials, zinc selenide, gallium phosphide and bismuth germanate (Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}), based on high refractive index, good visible transmission and commercial availability in useful sizes. Crystal samples were diamond turned on an ultra-precision lathe to identify preferred cutting directions. Using this information we diamond-flycut test gratings over a range of feed rates to determine the optimal cutting conditions. For both ZnSe and GaP good surface quality was achieved at feed rates up to 1.0 cm/minute using a special compound angle diamond tool with negative rake angles on both cutting surfaces. The surface roughness of the groove facets was about 4 nm. A Zygo interferometer measured grating wavefront errors in reflection. For the ZnSe the RMS error was < {lambda}/20 at 633nm. More extensive testing was performed with a HeNe laser source and a cooled CCD camera. These measurements demonstrated high relative diffraction efficiency (> 80%), low random groove error (2.0 nm rms), and Rowland ghost intensities at < 0.1%. Preliminary tests on bismuth germanate show high tool wear.

  7. MEETING: Chlamydomonas Annotation Jamboree - October 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, Arthur R

    2007-04-13

    Shotgun sequencing of the nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas throughout) was performed at an approximate 10X coverage by JGI. Roughly half of the genome is now contained on 26 scaffolds, all of which are at least 1.6 Mb, and the coverage of the genome is ~95%. There are now over 200,000 cDNA sequence reads that we have generated as part of the Chlamydomonas genome project (Grossman, 2003; Shrager et al., 2003; Grossman et al. 2007; Merchant et al., 2007); other sequences have also been generated by the Kasuza sequence group (Asamizu et al., 1999; Asamizu et al., 2000) or individual laboratories that have focused on specific genes. Shrager et al. (2003) placed the reads into distinct contigs (an assemblage of reads with overlapping nucleotide sequences), and contigs that group together as part of the same genes have been designated ACEs (assembly of contigs generated from EST information). All of the reads have also been mapped to the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome and the cDNAs and their corresponding genomic sequences have been reassembled, and the resulting assemblage is called an ACEG (an Assembly of contiguous EST sequences supported by genomic sequence) (Jain et al., 2007). Most of the unique genes or ACEGs are also represented by gene models that have been generated by the Joint Genome Institute (JGI, Walnut Creek, CA). These gene models have been placed onto the DNA scaffolds and are presented as a track on the Chlamydomonas genome browser associated with the genome portal (http://genome.jgi-psf.org/Chlre3/Chlre3.home.html). Ultimately, the meeting grant awarded by DOE has helped enormously in the development of an annotation pipeline (a set of guidelines used in the annotation of genes) and resulted in high quality annotation of over 4,000 genes; the annotators were from both Europe and the USA. Some of the people who led the annotation initiative were Arthur Grossman, Olivier Vallon, and Sabeeha Merchant (with many individual annotators from Europe and the USA). Olivier Vallon has been most active in continued input of annotation information.

  8. Isothermal Martensitic and Pressure-Induced Delta to Alpha-Prime Phase Transformations in a Pu-Ga Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, A J; Wall, M A; Farber, D L; Moore, K T; Blobaum, K M

    2008-01-18

    A well-homogenized Pu-2 at.% Ga alloy can be retained in the metastable face-centered cubic {delta} phase at room temperature. Ultimately, this metastable {delta} phase will decompose via a eutectoid transformation to the thermodynamically stable monoclinic {alpha} phase and the intermetallic compound Pu{sub 3}Ga over a period of approximately 10,000 years [1]. In addition, these low solute-containing {delta}-phase Pu alloys are metastable with respect to an isothermal martensitic phase transformation to the {alpha}{prime} phase during low temperature excursions [2, 3] and are also metastable with respect to a {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} phase transformation with increases in pressure [3-5]. The low temperature {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} isothermal martensitic phase transformation in the Pu-2 at.% Ga alloy only goes to {approx}25% completion with the resultant {approx}20 {micro}m long by 2 {micro}m wide lath-shaped {alpha}{prime} particles dispersed within the {delta} matrix. In recently reported studies, Faure et al. [4] have observed a {delta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {alpha}{prime} pressure-induced phase transformation sequence during a diamond anvil cell investigation and, based on x-ray diffraction and density and compressibility experiments, Harbur [5] has concluded that both {alpha}{prime} and an amorphous phase are present in samples that were pressurized and recovered. In this work, a large volume moissanite anvil cell is constructed to permit the pressurization and recovery of specimens of a size suitable for TEM and electron diffraction studies. The cell, shown in Fig. 1, has an overall diameter of 101.6 mm, a moissanite anvil diameter of 9.00 mm, a culet size of 3 mm, and a spring steel gasket 0.5 mm thick with a hole diameter of 2.5 mm. A 2.3 mm diameter by 100 {micro}m thick sample of {delta}-phase Pu-2 at.% Ga is compressed at a rate of approximately 0.05 GPa/minute to {approx}1 GPa to induce the phase transformation to {alpha}{prime}. Optical microscopy of the recovered specimen reveals a very fine microstructure that appears to be single phase, although the resolution of this technique is insufficient to differentiate between single and multiple phases if the grain size is below approximately 1 {micro}m. X-ray diffraction, using a laboratory Cu K{sub {alpha}} source with wavelength of 1.542{angstrom}, shows the monoclinic reflections from the {alpha}{prime} phase, strong peaks from the aluminum specimen holder, and weak peaks from the face-centered cubic {delta} phase as shown in Fig. 2. The recovered specimen is prepared for TEM and electron diffraction studies as described in Moore et al. [6]. TEM reveals small regions of {delta} phase with a very high dislocation density interspersed between the 10-100's nm {alpha}{prime} grains as shown in Fig. 3. Electron diffraction, shown in the insert in Fig. 3, clearly reveals the presence of the {delta} phase. This microstructure is in contrast to the {alpha}{prime} particles that form as a result of the low-temperature isothermal martensite in which the {alpha}{prime} particles are lath-shaped and significantly larger as shown in the optical micrograph in Fig. 4 of a sample cooled to -120 C and held for 10 hours. In these preliminary results, there is no evidence of either an amorphous phase, as suggested by Harbur [5], or the presence of a {gamma} phase. We expected to observe an amorphous phase based on the similarity of this experiment to that of Harbur [5]. It is possible that the {gamma} phase, as reported by Faure et al. [4], does form as an intermediate, but it is not retained to ambient pressure.

  9. Waste systems progress report, March 1983 through February 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickle, G.L.

    1984-10-01

    Preliminary design engineering for a Beryllum Electrorefining Demonstration Process has been completed and final engineering for fabrication of the process will be completed by the fourth quarter of FY-84. A remotely operated Advanced Size Reduction Facility (ASRF) is under construction and, when completed, will be used for sectioning plutonium-contaminated gloveboxes for disposal. Modification and additions were made to the 82 kg/hr Fluidized Bed Incinerator (FBI) in preparation for turning the unit over to Production. Several types of cementation processes are being developed to treat various TRU and low-level waste streams to reduce the dispersibility of the wastes. Portland cement and Envirostone gypsum cement were investigated as immobilization media for wet precipitation sludges and organic liquid wastes. Transuranic contaminated waste is being retrieved from storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for examination at Rocky Flats Plant for compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria. The removal of unreacted calcium metal from the waste salt formed during the direct oxide reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal is necessary in order to comply with regulations regarding the transportation and storage of waste material containing flammable substances. Chemical methods of denitrification of simulated low-level nitrate wastes were investigated on a laboratory scale. Methods of inserting the carbon composite filters into presently stored and currently generated radioactive waste drums have been investigated and their sealing efficiencies determined. Analyses of carbon tetrachloride (CCl/sub 4/) recovered from spent lathe coolant revealed contamination levels above usable limits. A handbook covering techniques and processes that have been successfully demonstrated to minimize generation of new transuranic waste is being prepared.

  10. Collector main replacement at Indianapolis Coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickle, R.R. Van

    1997-12-31

    Indianapolis Coke is a merchant coke producer, supplying both foundry and blast furnace coke to the industry. The facility has three coke batteries: two 3 meter batteries, one Wilputte four divided and one Koppers Becker. Both batteries are underjet batteries and are producing 100% foundry coke at a net coking time of 30.6 hours. This paper deals with the No. 1 coke battery, which is a 72 oven, gun fired, 5 meter Still battery. No. 1 battery produces both foundry and blast furnace coke at a net coking rate of 25.4 hours. No. 1 battery was commissioned in 1979. The battery is equipped with a double collector main. Although many renovations have been completed to the battery, oven machinery and heating system, to date no major construction projects have taken place. Deterioration of the collector main was caused in part from elevated levels of chlorides in the flushing liquor, and temperature fluctuations within the collector main. The repair procedures are discussed.

  11. Solar UV radiation exposure of seamen - Measurements, calibration and model calculations of erythemal irradiance along ship routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feister, Uwe; Meyer, Gabriele; Kirst, Ulrich

    2013-05-10

    Seamen working on vessels that go along tropical and subtropical routes are at risk to receive high doses of solar erythemal radiation. Due to small solar zenith angles and low ozone values, UV index and erythemal dose are much higher than at mid-and high latitudes. UV index values at tropical and subtropical Oceans can exceed UVI = 20, which is more than double of typical mid-latitude UV index values. Daily erythemal dose can exceed the 30-fold of typical midlatitude winter values. Measurements of erythemal exposure of different body parts on seamen have been performed along 4 routes of merchant vessels. The data base has been extended by two years of continuous solar irradiance measurements taken on the mast top of RV METEOR. Radiative transfer model calculations for clear sky along the ship routes have been performed that use satellite-based input for ozone and aerosols to provide maximum erythemal irradiance and dose. The whole data base is intended to be used to derive individual erythemal exposure of seamen during work-time.

  12. Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications (Report Summary) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O'Malley, M.

    2013-06-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  13. Trends In U.S. Electric Power Transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    The report provides an overview of the changes that are occurring in the industry to implement the goals of improved reliability and reduced congestion costs. As the electric industry works to become a more efficient market, transmission stands as a key link between the competitive generation and the regulated distribution sectors. In this role as a key link, transmission is a major focus of government efforts to improve reliability and reduce congestion costs. The scope of the report is to analyze the dominant reliability, investment, siting, and competition/open access trends that are occurring in the domestic electric transmission industry. Topics covered include: the impact of the 2003 Northeast blackout on reliability rules; the move from voluntary to mandatory reliability standards; the advent of real-time transmission system monitoring; ISO/RTO efforts to improve system reliability; the drivers of government intervention in transmission investment; the move towards incentive-based rates for transmission investment; legislative and regulatory efforts to spur transmission investment to support renewable energy resources; the emergence of merchant transmission; the need for federal backstop authority on regional transmission projects; the designation of national interest electric transmission corridors; FERC Orders on siting transmission; the need for changes in open access and competition regulations; FERC efforts to increase open access and competition; legislative efforts to increase competition; and, current competitive issues in the industry.

  14. The Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Hummon, Marissa; Jenkin, Thomas; Palchak, David; Kirby, Brendan; Ma, Ookie; O'Malley, Mark

    2013-05-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  15. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits.

  16. Griffith Energy Project Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1999-04-02

    Griffith Energy Limited Liability Corporation (Griffith) proposes to construct and operate the Griffith Energy Project (Project), a natural gas-fuel, combined cycle power plant, on private lands south of Kingman, Ariz. The Project would be a ''merchant plant'' which means that it is not owned by a utility and there is currently no long-term commitment or obligation by any utility to purchase the capacity and energy generated by the power plant. Griffith applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie and Parker-Davis transmission systems. Western, as a major transmission system owner, needs to provide access to its transmission system when it is requested by an eligible organization per existing policies, regulations and laws. The proposed interconnection would integrate the power generated by the Project into the regional transmission grid and would allow Griffith to supply its power to the competitive electric wholesale market. Based on the application, Western's proposed action is to enter into an interconnection and construction agreement with Griffith for the requested interconnections. The proposed action includes the power plant, water wells and transmission line, natural gas pipelines, new electrical transmission lines and a substation, upgrade of an existing transmission line, and access road to the power plant. Construction of segments of the transmission lines and a proposed natural gas pipeline also require a grant of right-of-way across Federal lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Public comments on the Draft EIS are addressed in the Final EIS, including addenda and modifications made as a result of the comments and/or new information.

  17. Capturing the emerging market for climate-friendly technologies: opportunities for Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    This paper briefly describes the factors driving the growing demand for climate-friendly technologies, some of the key existing companies, organizations, and resources in Ohio, and the potential for Ohio to become a leading supplier of climate solutions. These solutions include a new generation of lower-emitting coal technologies, components for wind turbines, and the feedstocks and facilities to produce biofuels. Several public-private partnerships and initiatives have been established in Ohio. These efforts have encouraged the development of numerous federal- and state-funded projects and attracted major private investments in two increasingly strategic sectors of the Ohio economy: clean-coal technology and alternative energy technology, with a focus on fuel cells. Several major clean-coal projects have been recently initiated in Ohio. In April 2006, the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio approved American Electric Power's (AEP) plan to build a 600 MW clean-coal plant along the Ohio River in Meigs County. The plant will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology which makes it easier to capture carbon dioxide for sequestration. Three other potential coal gasification facilities are being considered in Ohio: a combination IGCC and synthetic natural gas plant in Allen County by Global Energy/Lima Energy; a coal-to-fuels facility in Lawrence County by Baard Energy, and a coal-to-fuels facility in Scioto County by CME North American Merchant Energy. The paper concludes with recommendations for how Ohio can capitalize on these emerging opportunities. These recommendations include focusing and coordinating state funding of climate technology programs, promoting the development of climate-related industry clusters, and exploring export opportunities to states and countries with existing carbon constraints.

  18. Risk management of undesirable substances in feed following updated risk assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verstraete, Frans

    2013-08-01

    Directive 2002/32/EC of 7 May 2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council on undesirable substances in animal feed is the framework for the EU action on undesirable substances in feed. This framework Directive provides: ?that products intended for animal feed may enter for use in the Union from third countries, be put into circulation and/or used in the Union only if they are sound, genuine and of merchantable quality and therefore when correctly used do not represent any danger to human health, animal health or to the environment or could adversely affect livestock production. ?that in order to protect animal and public health and the environment, maximum levels for specific undesirable substances shall be established where necessary. ?for mandatory consultation of a scientific body (EFSA) for all provisions which may have an effect upon public health or animal health or on the environment. ?that products intended for animal feed containing levels of an undesirable substance that exceed the established maximum level may not be mixed for dilution purposes with the same, or other, products intended for animal feed and may not be used for the production of compound feed. Based on the provisions and principles laid down in this framework Directive, maximum levels for a whole range of undesirable substances have been established at EU level. During the discussions in view of the adoption of Directive 2002/32/EC, the European Commission made the commitment to review all existing provisions on undesirable substances on the basis of updated scientific risk assessments. Following requests of the European Commission, the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has completed a series of 30 risk assessments undertaken over the last 5 years on undesirable substances in animal feed reviewing the possible risks for animal and human health due to the presence of these substances in animal feed. EU legislation on undesirable substances has undergone recently several changes to take account of these most recent scientific opinions. Furthermore EFSA has assessed the risks for public and animal health following the unavoidable carry-over of coccidiostats into non target feed. Maximum levels for the unavoidable carry-over have been established for the non-target feed and the food of animal origin from non-target animal species.

  19. FINAL REPORT FOR GRANT NUMBER DE-FG02-06ER64244 TO THE UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO (RW SMITH) - COUPLING BETWEEN FLOW AND PRECIPITATION IN HETEROGENEOUS SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTS AND EFFECTS ON CONTAMINANT FATE AND TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Robert, W.; Beig, Mikala, S.; Gebrehiwet, Tsigabu; Corriveau, Catherine, E.; Redden, George; Fujita, Yoshiko

    2010-06-18

    Engineered remediation strategies for inducing mineral precipitation in the subsurface typically involve the introduction of at least one reactant either by direct injection or by in situ generation. The localization of reactant sources means a wide range of saturation states and ion ratios will be created as reactants are mixed: These conditions together can result in a wide range of precipitation rates, as well as impact which mineral phase precipitates. This is potentially important for the capacity of the precipitates to take up of trace metal contaminants, for their long term stability. Aragonite, for example, is able to sequester a larger amount of Sr than calcite. However, aragonite is less stable under typical groundwater conditions, and so may release sequestered Sr over time as the aragonite transforms to a more stable phase. In addition, previous experimental studies have indicated that other system constituents may influence calcium carbonate precipitation and consequently the Sr uptake potential of a system. For example, dissolved organic carbon (at levels typical of groundwaters) can suppress crystal growth. As a result, the continuous nucleation of small crystals, rather than growth of existing crystals, may be the dominant mode of precipitation. This has the potential for greater uptake of Sr because the smaller crystal sizes associated with nucleated calcite may more readily accommodate the distortion resulting from substitution of the larger Sr ion for Ca ions than can larger crystals. However, these smaller crystals may also be less stable and over the long term release Sr as a result of Ostwald ripening. To better understand the formation and composition of relevant calcium carbonate mineral phases two related series of mineral precipitation experiments were conducted. The first series of experiments, conducted using a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) operated at steady state rates of precipitation was focused on understanding the influence of pH and ammonium carbonate (the hydrolysis product of urea: ureolytically driven calcium carbonate precipitation has been demonstrated to be a promising method of inducing mineral precipitation in the field) on calcium carbonate polymorph and Sr co-precipitation. The second series of experiments, conducted at constant pH and saturation state, was focused on understanding the influence of aqueous carbonate to calcium ratios on the precipitation rate of calcite. In 12 CSTR experiments (three pH levels, two ammonium carbonate levels, and two strontium levels) we found that lower pH values and ammonium carbonate concentration promoted the precipitation of calcite and the higher pH values and ammonium carbonate concentration promoted the precipitation of aragonite (as determined by X-ray diffraction). Overall, the rate of calcium carbonate precipitation increased with increasing pH and ammonium carbonate concentration, consistent with increasing values of Q/K. Intermediate conditions resulted in the precipitation of a mixture of calcite and aragonite. There was no discernible effect of strontium on the rate of precipitation or the phase precipitated. In our experiments we precipitated rhombohedral calcite, lath-shaped aragonite and inter-grown calcite-aragonite mixtures. Using Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer we characterized the composition of solids from an experiment in which both calcite and aragonite precipitates were identified by X-ray diffraction. We found a range in composition from a high Sr and low Mg phase (inferred to be aragonite) to a coexisting lower Sr and higher but variable Mg phase (inferred to be calcite). Values of the distribution coefficient for strontium of 1.1 and 0.2 for aragonite and calcite, respectively were estimated from the data. These values compare to values of 1.1 and 0.1 for aragonite and calcite, respectively, determined from bulk analysis of precipitates from experiments in which only calcite or only aragonite were detected. In our experiments to assess the influence of solution composition on p

  20. Water Security Toolkit User Manual Version 1.2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klise, Katherine A.; Siirola, John Daniel; Hart, David; Hart, William E.; Phillips, Cynthia A.; Haxton, Terranna; Murray, Regan; Janke, Robert; Taxon, Thomas; Laird, Carl; Seth, Arpan; Hackebeil, Gabriel; McGee, Shawn; Mann, Angelica

    2014-08-01

    The Water Security Toolkit (WST) is a suite of open source software tools that can be used by water utilities to create response strategies to reduce the impact of contamination in a water distribution network . WST includes hydraulic and water quality modeling software , optimizati on methodologies , and visualization tools to identify: (1) sensor locations to detect contamination, (2) locations in the network in which the contamination was introduced, (3) hydrants to remove contaminated water from the distribution system, (4) locations in the network to inject decontamination agents to inactivate, remove, or destroy contaminants, (5) locations in the network to take grab sample s to help identify the source of contamination and (6) valves to close in order to isolate contaminate d areas of the network. This user manual describes the different components of WST , along w ith examples and case studies. License Notice The Water Security Toolkit (WST) v.1.2 Copyright c 2012 Sandia Corporation. Under the terms of Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000, there is a non-exclusive license for use of this work by or on behalf of the U.S. government. This software is distributed under the Revised BSD License (see below). In addition, WST leverages a variety of third-party software packages, which have separate licensing policies: Acro Revised BSD License argparse Python Software Foundation License Boost Boost Software License Coopr Revised BSD License Coverage BSD License Distribute Python Software Foundation License / Zope Public License EPANET Public Domain EPANET-ERD Revised BSD License EPANET-MSX GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) v.3 gcovr Revised BSD License GRASP AT&T Commercial License for noncommercial use; includes randomsample and sideconstraints executable files LZMA SDK Public Domain nose GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) v.2.1 ordereddict MIT License pip MIT License PLY BSD License PyEPANET Revised BSD License Pyro MIT License PyUtilib Revised BSD License PyYAML MIT License runpy2 Python Software Foundation License setuptools Python Software Foundation License / Zope Public License six MIT License TinyXML zlib License unittest2 BSD License Utilib Revised BSD License virtualenv MIT License Vol Common Public License vpykit Revised BSD License Additionally, some precompiled WST binary distributions might bundle other third-party executables files: Coliny Revised BSD License (part of Acro project) Dakota GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) v.2.1 PICO Revised BSD License (part of Acro project) i Revised BSD License Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. * Neither the name of Sandia National Laboratories nor Sandia Corporation nor the names of its con- tributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS %22AS IS%22 AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IM- PLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL SANDIA CORPORATION BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUD- ING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. ii Acknowledgements This work was supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agen

  1. Wind Energy Forecasting: A Collaboration of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and Xcel Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, K.; Wan, Y. H.; Wiener, G.; Liu, Y.

    2011-10-01

    The focus of this report is the wind forecasting system developed during this contract period with results of performance through the end of 2010. The report is intentionally high-level, with technical details disseminated at various conferences and academic papers. At the end of 2010, Xcel Energy managed the output of 3372 megawatts of installed wind energy. The wind plants span three operating companies1, serving customers in eight states2, and three market structures3. The great majority of the wind energy is contracted through power purchase agreements (PPAs). The remainder is utility owned, Qualifying Facilities (QF), distributed resources (i.e., 'behind the meter'), or merchant entities within Xcel Energy's Balancing Authority footprints. Regardless of the contractual or ownership arrangements, the output of the wind energy is balanced by Xcel Energy's generation resources that include fossil, nuclear, and hydro based facilities that are owned or contracted via PPAs. These facilities are committed and dispatched or bid into day-ahead and real-time markets by Xcel Energy's Commercial Operations department. Wind energy complicates the short and long-term planning goals of least-cost, reliable operations. Due to the uncertainty of wind energy production, inherent suboptimal commitment and dispatch associated with imperfect wind forecasts drives up costs. For example, a gas combined cycle unit may be turned on, or committed, in anticipation of low winds. The reality is winds stayed high, forcing this unit and others to run, or be dispatched, to sub-optimal loading positions. In addition, commitment decisions are frequently irreversible due to minimum up and down time constraints. That is, a dispatcher lives with inefficient decisions made in prior periods. In general, uncertainty contributes to conservative operations - committing more units and keeping them on longer than may have been necessary for purposes of maintaining reliability. The downside is costs are higher. In organized electricity markets, units that are committed for reliability reasons are paid their offer price even when prevailing market prices are lower. Often, these uplift charges are allocated to market participants that caused the inefficient dispatch in the first place. Thus, wind energy facilities are burdened with their share of costs proportional to their forecast errors. For Xcel Energy, wind energy uncertainty costs manifest depending on specific market structures. In the Public Service of Colorado (PSCo), inefficient commitment and dispatch caused by wind uncertainty increases fuel costs. Wind resources participating in the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) footprint make substantial payments in the real-time markets to true-up their day-ahead positions and are additionally burdened with deviation charges called a Revenue Sufficiency Guarantee (RSG) to cover out of market costs associated with operations. Southwest Public Service (SPS) wind plants cause both commitment inefficiencies and are charged Southwest Power Pool (SPP) imbalance payments due to wind uncertainty and variability. Wind energy forecasting helps mitigate these costs. Wind integration studies for the PSCo and Northern States Power (NSP) operating companies have projected increasing costs as more wind is installed on the system due to forecast error. It follows that reducing forecast error would reduce these costs. This is echoed by large scale studies in neighboring regions and states that have recommended adoption of state-of-the-art wind forecasting tools in day-ahead and real-time planning and operations. Further, Xcel Energy concluded reduction of the normalized mean absolute error by one percent would have reduced costs in 2008 by over $1 million annually in PSCo alone. The value of reducing forecast error prompted Xcel Energy to make substantial investments in wind energy forecasting research and development.

  2. Validation of an Integrated Hydrogen Energy Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward C. Heydorn

    2012-10-26

    This report presents the results of a 10-year project conducted by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to determine the feasibility of coproducing hydrogen with electricity. The primary objective was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a hydrogen energy station using a high-temperature fuel cell designed to produce power and hydrogen. This four-phase project had intermediate go/no-go decisions and the following specific goals: �¢���¢ Complete a technical assessment and economic analysis of the use of high-temperature fuel cells, including solid oxide and molten carbonate, for the co-production of power and hydrogen (energy park concept). �¢���¢ Build on the experience gained at the Las Vegas H2 Energy Station and compare/contrast the two approaches for co-production. �¢���¢ Determine the applicability of co-production from a high-temperature fuel cell for the existing merchant hydrogen market and for the emerging hydrogen economy. �¢���¢ Demonstrate the concept on natural gas for six months at a suitable site with demand for both hydrogen and electricity. �¢���¢ Maintain safety as the top priority in the system design and operation. �¢���¢ Obtain adequate operational data to provide the basis for future commercial activities, including hydrogen fueling stations. Work began with the execution of the cooperative agreement with DOE on 30 September 2001. During Phase 1, Air Products identified high-temperature fuel cells as having the potential to meet the coproduction targets, and the molten carbonate fuel cell system from FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FuelCell Energy) was selected by Air Products and DOE following the feasibility assessment performed during Phase 2. Detailed design, construction and shop validation testing of a system to produce 250 kW of electricity and 100 kilograms per day of hydrogen, along with site selection to include a renewable feedstock for the fuel cell, were completed in Phase 3. The system also completed six months of demonstration operation at the wastewater treatment facility operated by Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD, Fountain Valley, CA). As part of achieving the objective of operating on a renewable feedstock, Air Products secured additional funding via an award from the California Air Resources Board. The South Coast Air Quality Management District also provided cost share which supported the objectives of this project. System operation at OCSD confirmed the results from shop validation testing performed during Phase 3. Hydrogen was produced at rates and purity that met the targets from the system design basis, and coproduction efficiency exceeded the 50% target set in conjunction with input from the DOE. Hydrogen production economics, updated from the Phase 2 analysis, showed pricing of $5 to $6 per kilogram of hydrogen using current gas purification systems. Hydrogen costs under $3 per kilogram are achievable if next-generation electrochemical separation technologies become available.

  3. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downing, Mark; Eaton, Laurence M; Graham, Robin Lambert; Langholtz, Matthew H; Perlack, Robert D; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Stokes, Bryce; Brandt, Craig C

    2011-08-01

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small-diameter trees were considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result of a burgeoning worldwide demand and concerns about long-term supplies. By the end of the summer, oil pri

  4. DOE/NNSA/DE-FG03-03NA00069 Annual Report 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigney, David A.

    2004-03-13

    OAK-B135 This project was undertaken to enhance our understanding and control of the response of ductile materials to extreme loading conditions such as those involved in impact loading. The project was designed with a focus on the role of friction in high rate deformation and shock studies. The work involves collaboration of the tribology group in Materials Science and Engineering at OSU and two groups at LANL, an impact loading group in the dynamic experimentation division and a computer simulation group in the applied physics division. The two teams are investigating the same materials pairs: Cu/Cu, Al/stainless steel (SS) and Ta/Al. The LANL team is providing impacted specimens for characterization at OS U. The LANL team has designed and built a rotating barrel gas gun apparatus that allows measurement of frictional force at an impacted interface over time scales of 0 to 50 {micro}s. Impact pressures are 0-150 MPa and sliding speeds can be up to 50 m/s. The stainless steel barrel can rotate at rates from 0-5000 rpm. An impactor rod is driven at up to 12 m/s against a target rod of the specimen material. Initial tests have been with OFHC Cu/Cu annealed to relax strains from the machining process. The grains are equiaxed and have 40 {micro}m grain size. In the velocity range 0-6 m/s, the friction force increases with velocity for time scales of order 25 {micro}s. The LANL team has also performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of sliding for Cu/Cu and Al/Ta using embedded atom potentials as well as simpler systems using Lennard-Jones potentials (also used at OSU). The results show extensive plastic deformation and, in some cases, the formation of nanocrystals at the sliding interface. The dependence of friction force on sliding velocity, v, shows two regimes: a low speed regime in which friction force rises with v and a high speed regime in which it decreases. The experimental work at OSU has focused on three tasks: (1) designing and building an improved system for sliding tests at intermediate velocities, (2) developing appropriate pre-testing surface preparation and (3) developing post-test characterization techniques. The new pin/disk wear testing system can achieve sliding speeds up to 1 m/s in a range of environments and contact times as small as 0.1 s. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was done on cross-sections of the as-machined annular OFHC copper samples. This revealed substructures consistent with extensive subsurface. These features would complicate our efforts to study the changes produced by impact with sliding. The samples should have a minimal amount of subsurface deformation prior to testing, so the deformation due to sliding will not be obscured. Therefore, a study was conducted to find a test specimen preparation method that would minimize subsurface deformation. Three machining methods were analyzed: lathe turning, fly-cutting, and electrical discharge machining (EDM). Post-machining annealing at 275 C for one hour in a vacuum furnace was also performed to remove deformation remaining from the machining processes. Microhardness was measured as a function of the distance from the machined surface. This was a simple way to determine the extent of subsurface deformation. The results show that annealed fly-cut samples are best for our purposes. Similar tests on pure aluminum samples suggest that annealing of fly-cut samples at 200 C for an hour is sufficient to remove subsurface deformation. The material tested at OSU was characterized using optical microscopy, SEM and TEM. Wear tracks and wear debris were analyzed using SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). TEM samples were prepared using different techniques including dimpling, jet-polishing and chemical polishing. Innovative techniques involving a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) have also been explored. MD modeling at OSU has focused on simple amorphous materials. The results suggest that the flow of material close to the sliding interface is characterized by the formation of eddies, intimate mixing and ''diffusion-like'' growth of the mixed

  5. Livermore Lab's giant laser system will bring star power to Earth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, E

    2010-04-08

    In the 50 years since the laser was first demonstrated in Malibu, California, on May 16, 1960, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been a world leader in laser technology and the home for many of the world's most advanced laser systems. That tradition continues today at LLNL's National Ignition Facility (NIF), the world's most energetic laser system. NIF's completion in March 2009 not only marked the dawn of a new era of scientific research - it could also prove to be the next big step in the quest for a sustainable, carbon-free energy source for the world. NIF consists of 192 laser beams that will focus up to 1.8 million joules of energy on a bb-sized target filled with isotopes of hydrogen - forcing the hydrogen nuclei to collide and fuse in a controlled thermonuclear reaction similar to what happens in the sun and the stars. More energy will be produced by this 'ignition' reaction than the amount of laser energy required to start it. This is the long-sought goal of 'energy gain' that has eluded fusion researchers for more than half a century. Success will be a scientific breakthrough - the first demonstration of fusion ignition in a laboratory setting, duplicating on Earth the processes that power the stars. This impending success could not be achieved without the valuable partnerships forged with other national and international laboratories, private industry and universities. One of the most crucial has been between LLNL and the community in which it resides. Over 155 businesses in the local Tri-Valley area have contributed to the NIF, from industrial technology and engineering firms to tool manufacturing, electrical, storage and supply companies. More than $2.3B has been spent locally between contracts with nearby merchants and employee salaries. The Tri-Valley community has enabled the Laboratory to complete a complex and far-reaching project that will have national and global impact in the future. The first experiments were conducted on NIF last summer and fall, successfully delivering a world-record level of ultraviolet laser energy - more than 1.2 million joules - to a target. The experiments also demonstrated the target drive and target capsule conditions required to achieve fusion ignition. When ignition experiments begin later this year, NIF's lasers will create temperatures and pressures in the hydrogen target that exist only in the cores of stars and giant planets and inside thermonuclear weapons. As a key component of the National Nuclear Security Administration's Stockpile Stewardship Program, NIF will offer the means for sustaining a safe, secure and reliable U.S. nuclear deterrent without nuclear testing. NIF is uniquely capable of providing the experimental data needed to develop and validate computer models that will enable scientists to assess the continuing viability of the nation's nuclear stockpile. Along with this vital national security mission, success at NIF also offers the possibility of groundbreaking scientific discoveries in a wide variety of disciplines ranging from hydrodynamics to astrophysics. As a unique facility in the world that can create the conditions that exist in supernovas and in the cores of giant planets, NIF will help unlock the secrets of the cosmos and inspire the next generation of scientists. It is NIF's third mission, energy security that has been generating the most excitement in the news media and the international scientific community. The reasons are obvious: global energy demand, driven by population growth and the aspirations of the developing world, already is straining the planet's existing energy resources. Global need for electricity is expected to double from its current level of about two trillion watts (TW) to four TW by 2030 and could reach eight to ten TW by the end of the century. As many as 10,000 new billion-watt power plants will have to be built to keep up with this demand. Meeting this pressing need will require a sustainable carbon-free energy technology that can supply base load electricity to the world. Successful ignition experim