Sample records for merchant sawmills lath

  1. An Energy Self-Sufficient Sawmill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juchymenko, A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the feasibility of converting sawmill wood by-products (biomass) into useful and marketable energy forms such as low pressure steam and electricity. It is based on the principle of energy cascading, utilizing a proven...

  2. An Energy Self-Sufficient Sawmill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juchymenko, A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the feasibility of converting sawmill wood by-products (biomass) into useful and marketable energy forms such as low pressure steam and electricity. It is based on the principle of energy cascading, utilizing a proven...

  3. The Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) Rules 1965

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noble, Michael; Mason, Roy

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS 1965 No. 1067 MERCHANT Shipping DANGEROUS GOODS The Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) Rules 1965

  4. Merchant transmission investment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joskow, Paul L.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the performance attributes of a merchant transmission investment framework that relies on "market driven" transmission investment to provide the infrastructure to support competitive wholesale markets for ...

  5. Optical Tool Setting and Control for Precision Lathe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haning, Charles Geoffrey

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this research was on the development of a machine vision system to provide automatic tool offset and tool nose radius compensation on a lathe used on the shop floor. To accomplish this work, a T-bed lathe which utilized a PC...

  6. Merchant Green | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarmsPower CoLongxing WindMaomingMerchant Green Jump to:

  7. Eighteenth-century merchant ship interiors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renner, Mary Anne

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY MERCHANT SHIP INTERIORS A Thesis by MARY ANNE RENNER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS December 1987 Major Subject...: Anthropology EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY MERCHANT SHIP INTERIORS A Thesis by MARY ANNE RENNER Approved as to style and content by: Don L. Hamilton (Chairman of Committee) David L. Carlson (Member) Clark E. Adams (Member) Vaughn M. B ant, Jr. (Head...

  8. Eighteenth-century merchant ship interiors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renner, Mary Anne

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY MERCHANT SHIP INTERIORS A Thesis by MARY ANNE RENNER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS December 1987 Major Subject...: Anthropology EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY MERCHANT SHIP INTERIORS A Thesis by MARY ANNE RENNER Approved as to style and content by: Don L. Hamilton (Chairman of Committee) David L. Carlson (Member) Clark E. Adams (Member) Vaughn M. B ant, Jr. (Head...

  9. american merchant marine: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: THE SCALING OF FLUVIAL LANDSCAPES Bjrn Birnir Terence R. Smith + Lambda George E. Merchant roughness coefficient of 0:75 and is analogous to an...

  10. Computational Analysis of Merchant Marine GPS Data* CASOS Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    . Keywords: Geospatial analysis, network analysis, clustering * This work was supported in partComputational Analysis of Merchant Marine GPS Data* CASOS Technical Report George B. Davis ISRI - Institute for Software Research International CASOS - Center for Computational Analysis

  11. Eighteenth-century colonial American merchant ship construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VanHorn, Kellie Michelle

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Past research on eighteenth-century ships has primarily taken one of two avenues, either focusing on naval warship construction or examining the merchant shipping industry as a whole in terms of trends and economics. While these areas are important...

  12. Eighteenth-century colonial American merchant ship construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VanHorn, Kellie Michelle

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Past research on eighteenth-century ships has primarily taken one of two avenues, either focusing on naval warship construction or examining the merchant shipping industry as a whole in terms of trends and economics. While these areas are important...

  13. A simulation-based assessment of processing smaller timber in southern pine sawmills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, David Stanley

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    data collected at the CNS and headrig. (1) Diameter (inches) and grade class (2) (3) (4) Log Sample Processing Green weight time lumber (tons) (secs) (pcs) (5) Chip weight (tons) (6) (7) Rate Rate (tons/sec) (pcs/sec) (8) Chip Yield.... This data included processing times at all relevant machine centers and conveyors, and lumber and by-product yields from logs categorized by size and grade. 2) Develop a microcomputer-based simulation model of the sawmill. This model would simulate...

  14. Merchant and Regulated Transmission: Theory, Evidence and Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littlechild, Stephen

    an unregulated (i.e. merchant) interconnector between the two states, called DirectLink. This was an underground high voltage direct current (HVDC) line, over a much shorter distance of 65 km, and with a much smaller capacity of 180 MW. DirectLink began... Grid submitted a unilateral application for a revised regulatory interconnector called SNI. On 28 April 1999 TransEnergie Australia announced its intention to build an HVDC merchant interconnector called Murraylink between Victoria and SA. It was shorter...

  15. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) All stock must be properly secured in the lathe chuck or mounted prior to the machining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    or mounted prior to the machining process taking place. Use the correct sized clamp or vise for the stockStandard Operating Procedure (SOP) ­ Lathe · All stock must be properly secured in the lathe chuck the spindle work has the cup center imbedded; tail, stock and tool rests are securely clamped

  16. U-235 Holdup Measurements in the 321-M Lathe HEPA Banks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salaymeh, S.R.

    2002-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Analytical Development Section of Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was requested by the Facilities Decommissioning Division (FDD) to determine the holdup of enriched uranium in the 321-M facility as part of an overall deactivation project of the facility. The results of the holdup assays are essential for determining compliance with the Waste Acceptance Criteria, Material Control and Accountability, and to meet criticality safety controls. This report covers holdup measurements of uranium residue in six high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter banks of the A-lathe and B-lathe exhaust systems of the 321-M facility. This report discusses the non-destructive assay measurements, assumptions, calculations, and results of the uranium holdup in these six items.

  17. EA-303-A Saracen Merchant Energy, LP | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015 Business42.1Energy |Final Site-WideBPAPowerEE US No. 1 totoSaracen Merchant

  18. THE SCALING OF FLUVIAL LANDSCAPES Bjrn Birnir # Terence R. Smith + \\Lambda George E. Merchant +

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    THE SCALING OF FLUVIAL LANDSCAPES Björn Birnir # Terence R. Smith + \\Lambda George E. Merchant roughness coefficient of 0:75 and is analogous to an interface driven through random media with quenched

  19. Contracting Out of National Law: An Empirical Look at the New Law Merchant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drahozal, Christopher R.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    law, the lex mercatoria, the new law merchant, transnational commercial law, or the like. An extensive scholarly literature explores the theory of transnational commercial law and seeks to derive its governing principles from international...

  20. The water street ship: preliminary analysis of an eighteenth-century merchant ship's bow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosloff, Jay Paul

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE WATER STREET SHIP: PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF AN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY MERCHANT SHIP'S BOW A Thesis by JAY PAUL ROSLOFF Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF ARTS May 1986 Major Subject: Anthropology THE WATER STREET SHIP: PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF AN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY MERCHANT SHIP'S BOW A Thesis by JAY PAUL ROSLOFF Approved as to style and content by: J. R. Steffy (Chairman of Co mittee...

  1. Committees 2009-2010 as of August 11, 2009 Building Hughes,Blumberg,N.Andrei,Lath,Koller,Cheong

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glashausser, Charles

    Sheet1 Committees 2009-2010 as of August 11, 2009 Building Hughes,Leath,Gustafsson, Strassler, Baker(S), Feldman Graduate Admissions Kloet, Haule, Chandra, Jha, Lath,Sengupta,Wu, Kiryukhin, Friedan, Zamolodchikov Graduate Recruiting Thomas, Baker(S),Moore,Yuzbashyan, Oh, Gershtein + 2 grad

  2. Executive Summary The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) requires Level 1 merchants and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    system components in order to support business growth. Change control is a complex process merchants and service providers to undergo an onsite assessment of their security systems and procedures processes fail, when changes are made without adequately considering the effect on security, and when

  3. Merchant Commodity Storage and Term Structure Model Error Nicola Secomandi,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    the futures term structure affect the valuation and hedging of natural gas storage. We find that even small impact on storage valuation and hedging. In particular, theoretically equivalent hedging strategies haveMerchant Commodity Storage and Term Structure Model Error Nicola Secomandi,1 Guoming Lai,2 Fran

  4. A review of "The Politics of Trade: The Overseas Merchant in State and Society, 1660-1720." by Perry Gauci

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph P. Ward

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REVIEWS 305 Perry Gauci. The Politics of Trade: The Overseas Merchant in State and Society, 1660-1720. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. xvi + 302 pp. $65.00. Review by JOSEPH P. WARD, UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI. This book explores...

  5. Managing lodgepole pine to yield merchantable thinning products and attain sawtimber rotations. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, D.M.; Koch, P.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper suggests solution for a longstanding problem in managing lodgepole pine forests- that of managing individual stands to reach their planned rotation age, despite serious hazard from bark beetles and wildfire. The management regimes presented yield merchantable thinning products. The 80-year sawtimber rotation can be achieved using these management recommendation. Thinning at 30 years of age is central to achieving the recommended alternative management regimes. The authors suggest that agencies give roundwood operators a portion of the thinning stemwood as payment. Management regimes that provide attainable rotations are presented in summary tables, by three site index classes and a number of initial stand density classes.

  6. EA-359-A Castleton Commodities Merchant Trading L.P. | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015 Business42.1Energy |Final Site-WideBPAPowerEE USPowerPower,Commodities Merchant

  7. Sawmill, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries Pvt Ltd Jump to:RoscommonSBYSaltonSprings,Sardinia,Sawasdee Sabaidee Jump

  8. Energy Merchant Marketing EMM | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision|LLC Place: Ketchum,SPARQL SPARQLMatters LLC Place:EMM

  9. HEU Holdup Measurements in 321-M A-Lathe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewberry, R.A.

    2001-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Analytical Development Section of SRTC was requested by the Facilities Disposition Division to determine the holdup of enriched uranium in the 321-M Facility as part of an overall deactivation project of the facility.

  10. SRP4760R List of Lots By Purchaser As at :-21-jun-2013:08:48 WHAM (Cg-Upper Broniarth)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plc Bsw Timber Plc Bsw Timber Plc Pontrilas Sawmills Limited Pontrilas Sawmills Limited Bsw Timber Plc Sawmills Limited Pontrilas Sawmills Limited Bsw Timber Plc Pontrilas Sawmills Limited Steve Lloyd Timber E Ltd Bsw Timber Plc Steve Lloyd Timber Kronospan Sawmilling Ltd Kronospan Sawmilling Ltd Kronospan

  11. Many sawmills use sprinkler systems to maintain the moisture content of logs above the fiber satura-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    secondary breakdown. A headrig is a machine center consisting of one or more cutting tools that influences Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources FAPC-165, includ- ing what occurs in the log yard, primary breakdown, secondary breakdown, sorting and planing

  12. The SawMill Framework for Virtual Memory Diversity Department of Computer Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    into the existing framework. Initial performance re­ sults with a prototype implementation are promising. The rest. A de­ tailed discussion of the L4 microkernel's API can be found elsewher

  13. P-Card Blocked Merchant Categories Merchants are assigned a Merchant Category Code (MCC) by their bank defining the type of services or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    Opticians Optical Goods And Eyeglasses 6051 Non-Financial Institutions 8044 Optical Goods And Eyeglasses 6513 Real Estate Agents And Ma

  14. Lifeline of the Nation: The U.S. Merchant Marine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acton, Scott

    of higher education. Contact: 703.268.0634 Design by: BlueWater Agency, Ltd. Jean Tullier, founder of BlueWater targeted to federal and government audiences. She established the BlueWater agency in 1989 and has since, Maryland 20770 240.387.1000 / www.gryphonlc.com BLUEWATER AGENCY, LTD. The best ideas come out of the BLUE

  15. El Paso Merchant Energy LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJump to: navigation, search ToolEcowareEkisolar JumpElEl Paso

  16. EA-303-A Saracen Merchant Energy, LP | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197EFindingEA-257-CEA-296-B Rainbow EnergyEA-301-B

  17. A simulation model for determining the productivity and costs associated with a mobile small-log sawmill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, Kenneth E

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    accepts small logs and reduces them to a rectangular cant by m ans of a series of cutterheads. The cant is immediately reduced to one-inch or two ? inch lumber with a gangsaw. If the log is of sufficient size to produce a crosstie, the option exists... D ) ? !O. DQ MIB. SHOR1EST 2:M TO MOVE(TLVLQN) - 8. 00 MZU. LOG CHARACTERIS IC INPUT DIAMETER MEAN(DIMELN) ? 7. 00 I!ICHES DIAMETER STD. DEV. (D STDE) - 1. 00 INCHES SMALLEST POSSIBLE DIA. LTER(DILOV) - 6. 00 INCHES LARGEST POSSZBL DIMKTER( I...

  18. Hasan Alkhatib, Paolo Faraboschi, Eitan Frachtenberg, Hironori Kasahara, Danny Lange, Phil Laplante, Arif Merchant,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frachtenberg, Eitan

    , cloud computing, the Internet of Things, natural user interfac- es, 3D printing, big data and analytics

  19. Can Merchant Interconnectors Deliver Lower and More Stable Prices? The Case of NorNed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parail, V

    January 2006 and 12 March 2009. This is chosen delib- erately so as to include sufficient observations before and after 6 May 2008 when NorNed was activated and enable a fair before and after comparison. The analysis presented in this paper re- lies... of trades occur in the day ahead market. The auction for transmission rights over NorNed is likewise conducted one day ahead of those rights being exercised. Log coal and gas prices represent the determinants of the cost of generating electricity from those...

  20. Sparing and Salvaging Metals in Chloroplasts Crysten E. Blaby-Haas and Sabeeha S. Merchant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koehler, Carla

    INTRODUCTION Of the essential inorganic minerals, the micronutri- ents (manganese, iron, copper, and zinc) have observations of metal nutrition. It was not until the early to mid-1800s with the popularization of the mineral on the donor side of each photosystem II (PSII) monomer unit in the dimer catalyzes the extraction of electrons

  1. A review of "English Merchants in Seventeenth Century Italy." by Gigliola Pagano de Divitiis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Paterson

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and insubstantial quality that too often mars Italian academic prose. Jonathan Brown and John Elliott, eds. The Sale of the Century: Ar- tistic Relations between Spain and Great Britain, 1604?1655. Madrid: Yale University Press and Museo Nacional del Prado, 2002.... 315 pp. $65 hardback. Review by ELIZABETH R. WRIGHT, UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA. Art historian Jonathan Brown and historian John Elliott have joined forces to provide an indispensable guide to the political and artistic relationship between Spain...

  2. The Biography of the Snow Jeanie: A Merchant Vessel in the Pre-Revolution Tobacco Trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costello, Renee

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    factor of Glassford. The book includes letters detailing ship use, the exchange of goods, and business practices. In addition, ship records from Port Glasgow and Port Greenock provide information on the movements and descriptions of the tobacco ships...

  3. EA-260-C EPCOR Merchant and Capital (US) Inc | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China U.S.ContaminationJulySavannah River Site for Use by the State ofDOE OakEES to

  4. EA-260 EPCOR Merchant and Capital (US) Inc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197EFindingEA-257-C Emera Energy ServicesEA-260 EPCOR

  5. EA-260-A EPCOR Merchant and Capital (US) Inc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197EFindingEA-257-C Emera Energy ServicesEA-260

  6. EA-359-A Castleton Commodities Merchant Trading L.P. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197EFindingEA-257-CEA-296-B2244 TwinEA-355357-A359-A

  7. EA-359-B Castleton Commodities Merchant Trading L.P. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197EFindingEA-257-CEA-296-B2244 TwinEA-355357-A359-A359-B

  8. Application to export electric energy OE Docket No. EA-260-C EPCOR Merchant

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy:Whether you'reInc.: Federal Register NoticeLLC:LP:Independent Systemand

  9. Application to export electric energy OE Docket No. EA-260-C EPCOR Merchant

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s ReplyApplication of SyntheticPowerManagement Inc. |LPLLC |Marketingand

  10. EA-187 Merchant Energy Group of the Americas, Inc | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E TDrewFinding ofFinalFindingFinalDraftFinding ofEA-187

  11. EA-260 EPCOR Merchant and Capital (US) Inc | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015 Business42.1Energy |Final Site-WideBPAPower Marketing, IncAEStoSvcsMarketingto

  12. EA-260-A EPCOR Merchant and Capital (US) Inc | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015 Business42.1Energy |Final Site-WideBPAPower Marketing,

  13. EA-359-B Castleton Commodities Merchant Trading L.P. | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015 Business42.1Energy |Final Site-WideBPAPowerEE USPowerPower,Commodities

  14. EA-187 Merchant Energy Group of the Americas, Inc | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015 Business42.1Energy |Final Site-Wide Constellation

  15. Colorado Statewide Forest Products Industry Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado Statewide Forest Products Industry Profile Economic Sustainability and Ecological and Comparisons Production and Processing Sales and Markets Economic and Ecological Contributions Sawmills 1/4 for Roundwood (post and pole, vigas, house logs), furniture, excelsior etc. Sawmill

  16. Merchants and family business in San Luis Potos, Mxico : the signs of an economic upsurge, 1820-1846

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caedo Gamboa, Sergio Alejandro

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a brigantine (brig) from Campeche [] the latter unloadingMrida, Quertaro, and Campeche, and four each in the cities

  17. Merchants and family business in San Luis Potos, Mxico : the signs of an economic upsurge, 1820-1846

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caedo Gamboa, Sergio Alejandro

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    United States Second-class wholesale store Taylor y Ca.Great Britain Great Britain Second-class wholesale storeFirst-class wholesale store Harmony Marriner y Ca. Dall

  18. The readers point vessel: hull analysis of an eighteenth century merchant sloop excavated in St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Gregory D.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    's Bay, Jamaica in 1994. Excavators removed overburden and the ballast pile, recovering over 600 artifacts associated with the vessel-After exposing well-preserved hull remains, divers recorded the ship's structure. The vessel is preserved from the base...

  19. Review: Merchants of Culture: The Publishing Business in the Twenty-First Century by John B. Thompson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litwin, Rory

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Books. New York, NY: Verso. Thompson, J.B. (2005). Books inFirst Century by John B. Thompson. Malden, MA: Polity Press,by sociologist John B. Thompson is the product of four years

  20. Merchants and family business in San Luis Potos, Mxico : the signs of an economic upsurge, 1820-1846

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caedo Gamboa, Sergio Alejandro

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and work organization, mineral extraction, and product salesThis indicates that mineral extraction from Antonio Marason the system of mineral extraction, beginning with the

  1. Social Science, Media Effects & The Supreme Court: Is Communication Research Relevant After Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calvert, Clay; Bunker, Matthew D.; Bissell, Kimberly

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    years earlier in Federal Communications Commission v. Foxyears earlier in Federal Communications Commission v. FoxAccording to the Federal Communications Commission: Material

  2. Simulation and evaluation of GM and non-GM segregation1 management strategies among European grain merchants.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    of mixing GM9 and non-GM crops were identified by a descriptive work based on cases studies in various10 and non-GM crops delivery at silos; or using local management rules at each stage of12 the supply of elevators' supply-chain management. The allocation of14 specific silos to GM and non-GM crops allows all

  3. THE INSTITUTE FOR SOLID STATE PHYSICS 2013 Supporting Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsumoto, Shingo

    Numerically controlled lathe MainFacilities Heliumliquefiersystem(Linde) 200L/hr Heliumliquefiersystem(Linde

  4. Copyright MArCh, 2008 By grizzly industriAl, inC. Warning: no portion of this manual may be reproduced in any shape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    the lubrication procedures outlined in the maintenance section on page 34. if you run this lathe without oil, even in ChinA the Model g0602 lathe is shipped without oil. you must fill the gearbox with oil, and complete motor oil in your lathe. Make sure to change the oil immediately after lathe break-in. If you have any

  5. CX-012310: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sawmill Creek Stream Bank Erosion CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 06/06/2014 Location(s): Illinois Offices(s): Argonne Site Office

  6. Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1 Flexures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Awtar, Shorya

    , the collet of a lathe; for elastic averaging as in a windshield wiper; and for energy storage, such as

  7. Page 1 of 2 Jiten Patel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Abaqus, Solidworks, Pro-E, Weibull++, Crystal Ball and JMP. Manufacturing: 3D Printing, CNC, EDM, Lathe

  8. Do Trading and Power Operations Mix? The Case of Constellation Energy Group 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parsons, John E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Constellation Energy has been a leading performer in the merchant power business since 2001. In addition to its legacy utility, Baltimore Gas and Electric, Constellation is a merchant generator and a wholesale power marketer ...

  9. ALUMNI-TAG 2012 Rckkehr an die Alma Mater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinrichs, Klaus

    > Karriereportal KAP.WWU > Nibelungenmord Krimi der WWU-Alumna Judith Merchant FREUNDE UND FRDERER > Wilde Linde MERCHANT | 08 WILDE LINDE IHR BAUM IM SCHLOSSGARTEN MNSTER | 09 YES WE CAN AGAIN! | 10 DAS ALUMNI

  10. Feasibility of Tablet Computer Screening for Opioid Abuse in the Emergency Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiner, Scott G.; Horton, Laura C.; Green, Traci C.; Butler, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DA, Merchant RC, et al. Energy drink and other substance useand young adults about their energy drink and caffeinated

  11. Concrete international /JULY 2002 49 BY TARUN R. NAIK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -consumer glass; wood ash from pulp mills, sawmills, and wood-product manufacturing industries; sludge from for the green sand. Organic binders include oil, synthetics, and cereal proteins, while inorganic binders

  12. GUIDELINES FOR GIVING A GOOD PRESENTATION AT THE WINTER SIMULATION CONFERENCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trajkovic, Ljiljana

    the scheduling of painting batches of similarly colored automobiles, or refining batches of petroleum. For example, suppose you were giving a talk entitled "Optimizing Batch Sizes in a Mixed-Product Sawmill

  13. BIODIVERSITY AND DEVELOPMENT: EUCALYPTUS & FOREST LAW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    in Brazil. Specializations include: Wood construction, Industrialization and marketing of forest products Other: A. 4% to sawmills B. Wood pellets C. system Short rotations of 6-7 years Managed for Fiber or Fuel-wood http

  14. General Orientation to the Building 433 LOM Machine Shop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    press, and lathe) in a LOM Shop must be arranged through the APS Floor Coordinator. LOCKOUTTAGOUT Lockouttagout procedures must be coordinated through an APS Floor...

  15. Appendix E: Air Permits Annual Site Environmental Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Wash tank 416 Exhaust from press pit area 417 Dye penetrant hood exhaust 85 7500-ton press, vertical turret lathe 86 1500-ton press 87 1000-ton press, quench tank 88 Grit blaster 89 Flowturn lathe, quench Furnace/quench tank/conveyor exhaust 12 Hydraulic shear exhaust 9 Rolling mill/salt bath Y-9401-3-A 01

  16. Tick Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merchant, Michael E.

    2002-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    than is recom- mended. Tick insecticides can be dangerous to pets and children if misapplied. Mike Merchant Extension Entomologist The Texas A&M University Syste ...

  17. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    building, merchant stores, light industrial, supermarkets, restaurants, hospitality, health care and high-tech industries. In high-tech industries such as telecommunications,...

  18. TABLES1.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Reserve. f Net Imports equal Imports minus Exports. g In January 1993, bulk terminal, pipeline, and merchant-producer stocks of oxygenates were added to surveys affecting...

  19. TABLES10.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    change calculations. Stock changes are calculated using new basis stock levels. Bulk terminal, pipeline, and merchant-producer stocks of oxygenates were added beginning in January...

  20. , 20120462, published 19 August 20133712013Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A Johannes M. Hfener, Gautam C. Sethia and Thilo Gross

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fr Physik komplexer Systeme, Nthnitzer Strae 38, Dresden 01187, Germany 2Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428, India 3Department of Engineering Mathematics, The Merchant

  1. Busted: Illegal Logging in Kenya Daily Nation Newswire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Busted: Illegal Logging in Kenya Daily Nation Newswire Police and Kenya Wildlife Service personnel many merchants were using expired permits. Eighteen people have been arrested for illegal logging

  2. The University of Florida Credit Card Directives & Procedures 1.Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    types of credit card activity (storage, processing and transmission of card information), including merchants, including merchants transmitting via a terminal on a dedicated phone or Ethernet line, must prove compliance costs, the assessment of substantialfines and possible legal liabilities. In addition

  3. PASSION FOR WOOD THE DLH GROUP 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    countries on 5 continents · 19 timber merchant companies in Denmark, 10 of which have do-it-yourself stores Division consists of 19 timber merchant companies in Denmark, just over half of which have an adjacent doPASSION FOR WOOD THE DLH GROUP 2006 #12;54% 21% 25% ONE OF THE WORLD'S MAJOR TIMBER WHOLESALERS

  4. Foundations and Trends R Vol. xx, No xx (xxxx) 1169

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    for energy and other commodities entails physical con- versions through refineries, power plants, storage and Operations Management DOI: xxxxxx Real Options and Merchant Operations of Energy and Other Commodities Nicola, this monograph introduces the concept of merchant operations; presents the basic principles of option valuation

  5. SCHOOL OF BUSINESS DISSERTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    operations involves managing these assets as real options on commodity and energy prices with the objective DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING FOR COMMODITY AND ENERGY MERCHANT OPERATIONS" Presented by Selvaprabu Nadarajah;Approximate Dynamic Programming for Commodity and Energy Merchant Operations by Selvaprabu Nadarajah A thesis

  6. To obtain a challenging and rewarding entry-level position at an organization offering diverse job responsibilities that will fully my ability to integrate people and technology to maximize productivity.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    Works, SolidEdge, Catia, Matlab, C Programming, Labview, MS Office Professional Tools 3D Metrology Scanners, 3D Printers, Mills, Lathes LEADERSHIP Involvement President, American Society for Quality, USC

  7. 16. DofI, R. 1978. Atmospheric pollution and lung cancer. Environ Health Perspec 22: 23-31.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    in dusty fields. SEPIOLITE is a clay mineral which occurs in a fibrous or lath-like crystal structure to sell to the tourists. There are over 100 sepiolite processing shops in Eskisehir and the nearby vil

  8. 16.810 (16.682)16.810 (16.682) Engineering Design and Rapid PrototypingEngineering Design and Rapid Prototyping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    on a lathe Milling Planing Drilling Countersinking Slotting Grinding Reaming New Techniques: Laser Cutting.54mm decks Fundamental Parts Fabrication Techniques Machining e.g. milling, laser and waterjet

  9. Appendix E: Air Permits Annual Site Environmental Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    -0020-68 730312P 101 Lathes Y-9204-4-A 01-1020-56 032416P 415 Wash tank 416 Exhaust from press pit area 417 Dye penetrant hood exhaust 85 7500-ton press, vertical turret lathe 86 1500-ton press 87 1000-ton press, quench Hydraulic shear exhaust 9 Rolling mill/salt bath Y-9401-3-A 01-1020-31 034809F 170 Coal- or natural

  10. Appendix E: Air Permits Annual Site Environmental Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    -0020-68 730312P 101 Lathes Y-9204-4-A 01-1020-56 032416P 415 Wash tank 416 Exhaust from press pit area 417 Dye penetrant hood exhaust 85 7500-ton press, vertical turret lathe 86 1500-ton press 87 1000-ton press, quench/conveyor exhaust 12 Hydraulic shear exhaust 9 Rolling mill/salt bath Y-9401-3-A 01-1020-31 034809F 170 Coal

  11. A computer model to compare greenhouse structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiou, Jiun-Shian

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lath fences. (c). welded wire fabric bench with steel, galvanized steel tubing, or wooden framework and supports. (d). Wooden step-bench. (e). Others. The price of each bench is listed in square foot units. 2. Ground cover: (a). Concrete. (b... (semi-iron), iron alone (steel), steel and aluminum (aluminum alloy), and aluminum. There are five different designs for connected houses: conventional even span houses, barrel vault houses, saran-covered structure houses, and lath houses (1). Most...

  12. Session IV Socio Economics of Natural Resources Proceedings of the International Forestry and Environment Symposium 2013 of the Department of Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Session IV ­ Socio Economics of Natural Resources Proceedings of the International Forestry and Environment Symposium 2013 of the Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri at Selected Sawmills in Moratuwa Caldera H.T.S.* and Amarasekera H.S. Department of Forestry and Environmental

  13. 6 July 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER -FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -generational and family-ran. No one under the age of 18 can legally operate power-driven equipment in sawmills. Low its future. Many young people are not interested in pursuing a career in the field. Long hours's hypocritical because people use wood every day," he said. "We need fresh, young people to carry the business

  14. Press release For Immediate Release Seattle, USA. May 21, 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quarterly. One country that bucked the upward price trend was Russia, where higher log supply reduced wood costs by over 15% in the 1Q. Prices also fell in France where competition for smaller logs from sawmills costs, it is often the predominant factor determining a company's or a region's competitiveness

  15. TimberLine Magazine Article -Full Slate of Trade Shows Scheduled in 2009: Expo Returns to New Orleans, Northeast Expo Offers 2 Venues, Sawlex Features 2 S... http://www.timberlinemag.com/articledatabase/view.asp?articleID=2831[10/1/2009 8:01:20 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TimberLine Magazine Article - Full Slate of Trade Shows Scheduled in 2009: Expo Returns to New, sawmills, remanufacturers and secondary wood processors. Full Slate of Trade Shows Scheduled in 2009: Expo Online service. #12;TimberLine Magazine Article - Full Slate of Trade Shows Scheduled in 2009: Expo

  16. European Market Study for BioOil (Pyrolysis Oil)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilns 6.2. Sawmill Dry Kilns 6.3. District Heating 6.4. Power Plants- Co-firing and Alternative Fuels 6-distance transportation advantages over raw biomass and wood pellets is BioOil from fast pyrolysis, or Pyrolysis Oil and district heating applications, and in the long-term as a clean burning fuel to replace diesel in industrial

  17. 1 | P a g e Appendix F Colorado Statewide Forest Resource Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sawmill closures were reported by the Western Wood Products Association (WWPA 2004). A summary of primary house log and 20 log furniture producers; two wood pellet facilities; and a single excelsior Introduction This document provides an overview of current trends influencing primary forest product

  18. Slumping Economy Reduces Sawlog Prices In Europe And North America to Lowest Levels in Five Years, Reports The Wood Resource Quarterly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slumping Economy Reduces Sawlog Prices In Europe And North America to Lowest Levels in Five Years Europe. Finnish sawmills currently have some of the highest wood raw-material costs of all countries regular updates of the latest developments in international timber, pulp, lumber and biomass markets

  19. 457USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-160. 1997. California Black Oak--From Firewood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    to Lumber, the Lumber Recovery Story1 Eini C. Lowell2 Marlin E. Plank2 Abstract: Interest in use of local western hardwoods is increasing, especially among secondary manufacturers. In the case of black oak, trees volume recovery and value recovery by tree and log grade. Two types of mills, a portable sawmill

  20. First university owned district heating system using biomass heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Highlights First university owned district heating system using biomass heat Capacity: 15 MMBtu Main Campus District Heating Performance Avoided: 3500 tonnes of CO2 Particulate: less than 10 mg District Heating Goals To displace 85% of natural gas used for core campus heating. Fuel Bunker Sawmill

  1. Estimating Industrial Electricity Conservation Potential in the Pacific Northwest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limaye, D. R.; Hinkle, B. K.; Lang, K.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Vegetables Frozen truits and Veqetablas and Juices Malt Beverages Lumber and Wood PSawmills and Planing Mills Soft?",ood Veneer and Plywood Particleboard Wood Produces, ~ot Elsewhere Classified Pape< and Allied Produc1...

  2. Press Release For Immediate Distribution Seattle, USA. May 8, 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    prices were down 20% and hardwood pulpwood costs fell just over 15%. The major reasons for the price to reach 80% in January 2009. Sawmills in Finland, China and Japan are most directly impacted by the higher costs of Russian softwood logs as they have relied on imports from their neighbor for many years

  3. Paper Wasps, Yellowjackets and Solitary Wasps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Glen C.; Merchant, Michael E.

    2003-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Paper Wasps, Yellowjackets and Solita ry Wasps L-1828 7-03 Glen C. Moore and Mike E. Merchant* S everal kinds of stinging wasps can pose seri- ous health and safety threats to humans. Most problems occur when people are stung after getting too close... to remove the nest to prevent other insects from being attracted to it. 5 Cicada killer wasp (Sphecius speciosus). (Photo ? Mike E. Merchant) Mud dauber (Chalybion californicum) on next. (Photo ? Garland McIlveen) Liris wasp. (Photo ? Mike E. Merchant) Tips...

  4. THE SCALING OF FLUVIAL LANDSCAPES Bjrn Birnir Terence R. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    THE SCALING OF FLUVIAL LANDSCAPES Björn Birnir Terence R. Smith George E. Merchant Department¢ 75 and is analogous to an interface driven through random media with quenched noise. The values

  5. A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Cinema: Shakespeare's Comedies in Film and Television

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lamb, Wendy Nicole

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    would have projected onto the city of Ephesus based on St.Paul's visit to Ephesus as detailed in chapter nineteen ofthe entrance of the Duke of Ephesus and Egeon, a merchant of

  6. English and American shipboard carpenters, ca. 1725-1825

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDermott, Brendan Joseph

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    specific tools in constructing wooden vessels. The evidence indicates that in the various maritime services examined, the Royal Navy, the Continental Navy, the American state navies, the United States Navy, privateers, and merchant ships, all carpenters...

  7. The importance of reptilian genomics The study of reptilian genomes is essential if we are to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jarvis, Erich D.

    M McCarthy22 , John E McCormack23 , Mark E Merchant24 , Daniel G Peterson8,25 , David D Pollock9 D Jarvis29 , Louis J Guillette

  8. Flea Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merchant, Michael E.

    2002-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    that this area doesn't become infested. a71 Get rid of rats, mice and other animals that can carry fleas. Mike Merchant Extension Entomologist The Texas A&M University System ...

  9. action plan sale: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    against each Lot in the catalogue. 10. Where one merchant 297 Forestry Commission Sale of Timber Renewable Energy Websites Summary: and the Lots sold will be the subject of a...

  10. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Employment Agency (0)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, Robert

    & Young, LLP FSO Tax Staff Accountant New York NY General Electric Finance Leadership Dvlpt Program Merchant Trainee New York NY Charles Schwab Senior Administrator Denver CO Cognizant Technology Solutions

  11. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% Internet (7)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, Robert

    & Young, LLP FSO Tax Staff Accountant New York NY General Electric Finance Leadership Dvlpt Program Merchant Trainee New York NY Charles Schwab Senior Administrator Denver CO Cognizant Technology Solutions

  12. State and Power after Neoliberalism in Bolivarian Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kingsbury, Donald V.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of coup attempts (in 2002), lockout strikes (2002-2003),by Chvez after the 2003 lockout, merchants in the importwho supported the 2003 bosses lockout of the industry, a

  13. Transmission Investment Timing and Sizing under Uncertainty Afzal Siddiqui

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillas, Serge

    expansion, the lumpiness of investment projects, and the lack of economic incentives for private investors the monetary incentives available to merchant investors as analysing these incentives will help shed light

  14. An early conceptual design and feasibility analysis of a nuclear-powered cargo vessel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaver, John L. (John Lewis)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic globalization has resulted in the tremendous growth of worldwide trade. Much of this trade is carried out via the various waterways of the world. The bulk of these trade goods are transported by merchant ships ...

  15. 2. The Legacies of Delta History "You could not step twice into the same river; for other waters are ever flowing on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    settlement of the Delta began slowly. Despite several expeditions between 1806 and 1812, the Spanish failed merchants. From 1835 through 1846, the Spanish established several land grants. In 1841, John Sutter

  16. Rocky Mountain Contact Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3700 Loveland, CO 80539-3003 970-461-7200 Toll Free: 1-800-472-2306 Rocky Mountain Organizational Chart and phone numbers Merchant Manager: 970-240-6209 Scheduling Manager:...

  17. The Jones Act : an economic and political evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard A. (Richard Allen), 1981-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On June 5, 1920, the Merchant Marine Act of 1920, also known as the Jones Act, became law. The Jones Act, a cabotage law, restricts American waterborne domestic trade to vessels flagged in the United States, owned by ...

  18. Application to export electric energy OE Docket No. EA-260-C...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    export electric energy OE Docket No. EA-260-C EPCOR Merchant and Capital (US) Inc: Federal Register Notice Volume 74, No. 43 - Mar. 6, 2009 Application to export electric energy OE...

  19. Assessing the impact of automated path planning aids in the maritime community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buchin, Mariela E

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the area of merchant maritime navigation, electronic charts are a relatively new tool. As a result, navigational path planning environments that allow users to manually enter a path onto an electronic chart are becoming ...

  20. 16 FEBRUARY 2005 hree in the morning, too much coffee, and hours of por-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Ezra

    . Rough, at times, and filthy-dirty by your standards, but a great place. Pisa never was very big, even before that I learned to read. Hanging around merchants, peddlers, money-lenders, etc. I learned

  1. Dr. Stirling A. Colgate has been a staff physicist at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (1952-1965) and was a staff member at Los Alamos National Laboratory, [LANL] from 1976 to 1991 and from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dr. Stirling A. Colgate has been a staff physicist at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (1952 in WW II in the US Merchant Marine. Dr. Stirling A. Colgate is an associate staff member at Los Alamos

  2. Hydrology of the Texas Blackland Prairie: Riesel Watershed Data and Published Hydrologic Relationships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service

    , OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS OF THE MATERIAL FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR THAT THE USE OF THE MATERIAL WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT, TRADEMARK, OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, OR ANY OTHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES. Hydrology of the Texas..., OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS OF THE MATERIAL FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR THAT THE USE OF THE MATERIAL WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY PATENT, COPYRIGHT, TRADEMARK, OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, OR ANY OTHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES. Hydrology of the Texas...

  3. Three-dimensional characterization of bainitic microstructures in low-carbon high-strength low-alloy steel studied by electron backscatter diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, J.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Pohang 790-300 (Korea, Republic of); Seol, Jae-Bok, E-mail: j.seol@mpie.de [Max-Planck-Institut fr Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Dsseldorf (Germany); Park, C.G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the microstructural evolution of high strength low alloy steel, Fe2.0Mn0.15Si0.05C (wt.%), by varying the continuous cooling rates from 1 K/s to 50 K/s using three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Granular bainitic microstructure was prevalent under a slow cooling rate of 110 K/s, while lath-type bainite was dominant at a high cooling rate of 50 K/s. The acicular ferrite that was the major microstructure under the intermediate ranges of cooling rates between 10 K/s and 30 K/s was tangled with each other, leading to a three-dimensional interwoven structure with highly misoriented grains. Because of the formation of three-dimensional structures, we propose that the terms acicular ferrite and bainitic ferrite, which are currently used in steel, be replaced by the terms interwoven acicular bainite and lath bainite, respectively. Moreover, we also confirmed that the cooling rate is an important factor in determining whether bainitic microstructures occur in the form of granular bainite, interwoven bainite, or lath bainite. - Highlights: The morphology of bainitic grains was characterized by 3D-EBSD. The interwoven bainite and lath bainite were suggested. Interwoven bainite consisted of lenticular plates that were interlinked in 3D regime. The packets of lath bainite were aligned in a specific direction.

  4. Small-scale biomass fueled cogeneration systems - A guidebook for general audiences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is cogeneration and how does it reduce costs? Cogeneration is the production of power -- and useful heat -- from the same fuel. In a typical biomass-fueled cogeneration plant, a steam turbine drives a generator, producing electricity. The plant uses steam from the turbine for heating, drying, or other uses. The benefits of cogeneration can mostly easily be seen through actual samples. For example, cogeneration fits well with the operation of sawmills. Sawmills can produce more steam from their waste wood than they need for drying lumber. Wood waste is a disposal problem unless the sawmill converts it to energy. The case studies in Section 8 illustrate some pluses and minuses of cogeneration. The electricity from the cogeneration plant can do more than meet the in-house requirements of the mill or manufacturing plant. PURPA -- the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 -- allows a cogenerator to sell power to a utility and make money on the excess power it produces. It requires the utility to buy the power at a fair price -- the utility`s {open_quotes}avoided cost.{close_quotes} This can help make operation of a cogeneration plant practical.

  5. KIRSTIN PETERSEN KirstinHP@gmail.com Cambridge, MA, USA KIRSTIN PETERSEN www.eecs.harvard.edu/~kirstin 857-869-6975

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napp, Nils

    mill, Lathe Laser cutters, 3D printers Molding and Casting, Composites #12;). 3D Tracking of Building Processes in Macrotermes. Petersen et al, VAIB Workshop, Intl. Conference. Petersen, Nagpal, and Werfel, Proc. RSS VII Distributed Multi-Robot Algorithms for the TERMES 3D Collective

  6. Rational production of veneer by IR-heating of green wood during peeling: Modeling experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (0)3 85 59 53 85 E-mail: anna.dupleix@ensam.eu Abstract Heating green wood logs by infrared (IR-line IR heating system installed on the peeling lathe. Keywords: green wood; heating; infrared; modelingRational production of veneer by IR-heating of green wood during peeling: Modeling experiments Anna

  7. CURRICULUM VITA Cornelis Folkert de Hoop May 22, 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . * Expert system to diagnose electrical, mechanical and product-quality problems with veneer lathes and pulpwood. Budgets always met at competitive rates. * Reports on government sale methodology for industry stormwater runoff, biomass energy production/consumption, firelog development and GIS applications. My

  8. Hydro, Solar, Wind The Future of Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    Hydro, Solar, Wind The Future of Renewable Energy Joseph Flocco David Lath Department of Electrical. Hydropower Water has grown in previous years to become the most widely used form of renewable energy across years to come from Hydropower. It is considered to be a renewable energy source because it uses

  9. SPINY LOBSTER GEAR AND FISHING METHODS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    14 S}:>ears 14 Approximate Costs of Spiny: A - Gypsy head powered from the main engine; and B - Gypsy head powered by a small gasoline engine Pyramid-type wooden lath trap with r emovable lid Complete buoy and lift line: A - Line; B

  10. AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ying

    and 3rd, 1979 (1% days open). The machine was last closed on April lath and Report No .15 was circul the terminal lens. When beam was put through the machine the lens controls had no effect on it. Report NoAUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS l4UDTANK OPENING REPORT NO;16 May 2nd

  11. IE 361 Exam 1 October 18, 2000 Prof. Vardeman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vardeman, Stephen B.

    ?!!!" "! part diameters via "SPC" a colleague says that the computer is already doing SPC on the lathe. What do you have to say to this person? 6. What is the purpose of Shewhart control charting? 7. You've just

  12. Assignment 4 MECH 421 Due Mon. April 10, 06 Question 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medraj, Mamoun

    energy of titanium ranges from 3.0 to 4.1 W.s/mm3 ) Question 3: A slab-milling operation is being carried mm diameter titanium alloy rod is being reduced in diameter to 6.5 mm by turning on a lathe, cutting force = 500 N, and thrust force = 200 N. Calculate the percentage of the total energy

  13. The Vanderbilt Haptic Paddle Assembly Guide and Parts List

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster III, Robert James

    the accuracy to cut a press fit hole. The laser cutter files provided on the VHP website will create a narrow Section at the end of the document. Manufacturing the VHP requires a laser cutter, lathe, and drill press. Figure 2: Laser-cut acrylic parts are bonded with acrylic cement to form a sturdy frame. 2 Press PTFE

  14. The relative basicity and reactivity of D-mannosamine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlo, Michael John

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) the failure of man. ioso:-iino i'. l'ochloride to muta- rotate. gelective i:-acylation of x a". . &inoeugar is associated v' th the nucleo:&hiiicity of t?o a::~ino function since the acg&lathing agent i, e an eleci. roi?bile, ar&d i-. he selectivity...

  15. THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK Classified Civil Service Position Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Jay

    Work Tasks - Sets up and operates machine shop equipment, such as engine lathes, shapers, milling works equipment. - Directs subordinates in the performance of various maintenance tasks. - Prepares a motor vehicle. Qualification Requirements 1. Five years of full-time satisfactory experience acquired

  16. A review of "Fashioning Adultery: Gender, Sex and Civility in England, 1660-1740." by David M. Turner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elena Levy-Navarro

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of philoso- phy? (13). In her conclusion, Hutton compares her own analysis of Conway with Carolyn Merchant?s own examination. This comparison is a good start, but Hutton needed to do more to situate her work within the history of women in science... and the history of gender and science. The reader of Anne Conway: A Female Philosopher will find a good, traditional history of Anne Conway?s intellectual world. The scholar looking for an analysis of Anne Conway and her philosophy in relation to the latest...

  17. Rethinking Things in Henry James's The Spoils of Poynton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nozaki, Naoyuki

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    pleasure while dissatisfying it at the same time. William Leach argues that ?glass democratized desire even as it dedemocratized access to goods?; the glass was a ?symbol of the merchant?s unilateral power in a capitalist society to refuse goods... members, Dr. Theodore George and Dr. Mary Ann O?Farrell, whose comments and suggestions will further develop my incipient study of James. My gratitude also goes to Dr. William Bedford Clark for helping me to find a new way to pursue my study. Shay...

  18. An internship in two market research studies: a Southwest Region Greenhouse Market Study and a local garden center market study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whisenant, Donna Kay

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potted plants, foliage plants, bedding plants and cut flowers. Market outlets were direct to the consumer, garden center, broker, mass merchant, retail florist and wholesale florist. 40. 9% sold their potted plants, 22. 7% sold bedding plants and 29. 5... GARDEN CENTER N BEDDING FOLIAGE 1 2. 3 1 23 3 68 POTTED PLTS 3 6. 8 18 40. 9 10 22. 7 1 2. 3 13 29. 5 20. 5 25. 0 11. 4 TABLE 2B: FREQUENCIES FOR MARKET UTILIZATION OF MASS MERCHANT, RETAIL FLORIST AND WHOLESALE FLORIST MASS MERCHANTRETAIL...

  19. Shallow meteoric alteration and burial diagenesis of massive dolomite in the Castle Reef Formation, northwest Montana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitsitt, Philip Mark

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ), Sawmill Creek (SC), Half Dome Crag (HDC), Morningstar Mountain (MM), Mount Field (MF), Gateway Pass (GP), North Fork of Dupuyer Creek (NFD), South Fork of Dupuyer Creek (SFD), Volcano Reef (VR), North Fork of Teton River (NFT), Teton River (TR), Cave...SHALLOW METEORIC ALTERATION AND BURIAL DIAGENESIS OF MASSIVE DOLOM I TE I N THE CASTLE REEF FORMAT I ON ~ NORTHWEST MONTANA A Thesis by PHILIP MARK WHITSITT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...

  20. 17 June 2010 About GCC Contact RSS Subscribe Twitter headlines UNEP: Existing Greenhouse Gas Reduction Pledges "Unlikely" To Hold Warming To 2 C Or Less By Mid-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Oil Sands Synthetic Crude Output to 425,000 Barrels per Day by 2020 Print this post New Institute-size engines. Vinay Patwardhan, the company's director of group planning and development and a merchant ship will be the principal investigators. From the Dashboard Prius Tops Japan Sales for Third Month in a Row in July

  1. CMAD IV 11/14/96 Information Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    utilities, power pools, vendors etc.. #12;CMAD IV 11/14/96 #12; #12; GridCo LineCo PoolCo Energy Merchant INFO INFO INFO $ $ $ PWR PWR PWR #12;CMAD IV 11/14/96 "Future" Is At Hand · Federal Energy Regulatory protection and audit practices inadequate. · Internal priorities limiting attention to security concerns

  2. The Return of the Rest of the Garbage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    continued," I have just returned from Ghilnar 6." "Can't say I've ever heard of it. Outer Rim?" Nodding, Avnar drained the last ofhis drink. "Thank you, my Lord, for the refill. Quite exquisite brandy. Ple'jan, I presume?" "Correct, Merchant. So what...

  3. The Middlebox Manifesto: Enabling Innovation in Middlebox Deployment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    -specific gateways. Several studies report on the rapid growth of this market; the market for network secu- rity-1-4503-1059-8/11/11 ...$10.00. hardware such as x86 CPUs [20, 22, 10], GPUs [15], FP- GAs [13] and merchant switch silicon

  4. How to Control Ants at Home (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merchant, Michael E.

    2002-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    E-153S 5-02 Mike Merchant Extension Entomologist Texas Cooperative Extension The Texas A&M University System Como Controlar las Hormigas en casa L as hormigas son una plaga molestosa porque a menudo entran en el hogar y con- taminan los alimentos...

  5. Flea Control (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merchant, Michael E.

    2002-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    E-149S 5-02 Mike Merchant Extension Entomologist Texas Cooperative Extension The Texas A&M University System Como Controlar las Pulgas N uevos tratamientos disponibles de los vet- erinarios y los distribuidores de productos para las mascotas hacen...

  6. Tick Control (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merchant, Michael E.

    2002-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    E-150S 5-02 Mike Merchant Extension Entomologist Texas Cooperative Extension The Texas A&M University System El Control de Garrapatas L as garrapatas son una plaga mordedora de forma aplanada que tiene ocho patas y a menudo se encuentra en las...

  7. How to Control Ants at Home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merchant, Michael E.

    2002-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    the bait fresh and moist. Once you have found the nest, treat it with an approved insecticide or spray, or use bait stations from a grocery or hardware store. When using insecticides, always read and follow the instruc- tions on the label. Mike Merchant...

  8. OLLI @Berkeley, University of California, 1925 Walnut Street #1570, Berkeley, CA 94720-1570 p. 1 OLLI @Berkeley Annual Report 201112

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    Suzan Kaufmann Dee Kursh Nikki Maziasz Mark Medress Mel Mogulof Murray Schlussel Renee Tissue Brad Wait staff lAFAyeTTe plAnning Skip Bradish Tricia Brazil, LLLCF Staff Carol Caputo John Daws Linda Delehunt Merchant, LLLCF Executive Director Janet Pease Norm Pease Brad Wait Susan Wait Hugh Winig, (Co-chair) #12

  9. Ink and Toner Recycling Rewards Program Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Steven D.

    , earning both ISO 9001 for their quality processes, and 14001 certification for environmental management and receive payment for the value of the items Program accepts all brands of ink, toner and small in providing resellers, mass merchants and value-added specialty suppliers with total environmental solutions

  10. Dear Editor: It appears to me that the basic premise of Nancy Mead's article "Who is liable for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santini, Simone

    ." The second scenario is the following. "A is driving his car, a model X, when, suddenly, the brakes fail. In the second case, they can sue the manufacturer Y for the brake failure, while in the first case they must, my bank is selling my personal information without my permission, on-line merchants are collecting

  11. Gloucester County, New Jersey Industry City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rusu, Adrian

    Gloucester County, New Jersey Industry City Number of Employees IT Service Provider Paulsboro 600 Oil Refinery Westville 479 Durable Medical Equipment Sewell 500 Flowers and Florist Wholesale Supply Sewell 550 Petroleum Refining Paulsboro 550 Warehousing Pitman 800 Packaged Frozen Food Merchant

  12. The FIA BioSum model was used to simulate three fire-hazard-reduction policies in an area comprising northern California. southwestern Oregon. and the east slopes of the Cascade Mountains in Oregon. The policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    The FIA BioSum model was used to simulate three fire-hazard-reduction policies in an area. The policy scenarios. all subject to a stand-scale fire-hazard-reduction effectiveness constraint. included merchantable timber removal (Min Merch). Differences in the area treated under each scenario were considerable

  13. Request for Online Payment Site ETSU Bursar Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karsai, Istvan

    Request for Online Payment Site ETSU Bursar Office PO Box 70732 Date*: _____________ (*allow Ustore site with inventory a credit card merchant ID will be requested for ETSU's processor, development: The requirements and responsibilities of an Online Site Manager are: 1. The site manager must be a full-time ETSU

  14. Chalmers Tekniska Hogskola Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    as Sweden's most distinguished technical universities. Surrounding area Gothenburg, on the west coast is the Bohusln west coast and its fantastic archipelago, which is perfect for sailing, fishing, diving was an important and successful merchant and freemason within the Swedish East India Company, had dedicated before

  15. Announcement (Submitted to `Photosynthesis Research, 2006)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govindjee "Gov"

    1 Announcement (Submitted to `Photosynthesis Research, 2006) Advances in Photosynthesis, in Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration (AIPH) Series, of The Structure and Function of Plastids, a book Rochaix, Michel Goldschmidt-Clermont and Sabeeha Merchant); and Volume 14 (Photosynthesis in Algae, edited

  16. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences used for identification of species in two forensic science case studies: the Monte Cristi shipwreck and a homicide case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rittenhouse, Kevin Dee

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Portions of the mitochondrial DNA control region were used to determine the species of animal hair used in a 17th century merchant ship's hull sheathing for the purpose of deterring wood boring worms (Toredo navalis). DNA was extracted from the hair...

  17. Mitigating the Untrusted Terminal Problem Using Conditional Signatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bencsth, Boldizsr

    Mitigating the Untrusted Terminal Problem Using Conditional Signatures Istvn Zsolt BERTA Levente be a user generating an elec- tronic check at a merchant's terminal in a shop. The danger is that the terminal can obtain a signature from the card on an arbitrarily chosen document, that is different from

  18. Ris-M-2914 List ofSelected Publications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .g. The visit of the US nuclear merchant ship N/S Savannah in Copenhagen in 1964 The nuclear weapons accident appointed head of the Health Physics Department at The Danish Atomic Energy Commission, Research in the late seventieths - The reactor accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine in 1986 As a scientific discipline

  19. Home | Member Services | Home Delivery | Site Map | Archives | Print Edition | Advertis Hi, dziegiel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    in evaluating security risks. USC's facility will emphasize research on threats to electrical power plants a home find an apt. list an apt. newspaper ads merchant ads find a date The State Inland Empire Los Independent News-Press Rancho Cucamonga Voice The World The Nation California / Local Business Politics Sports

  20. Byzantine naval power and trade: the collapse of the western frontier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scafuri, Michael Phillip

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the rest of the Mediterranean world. This took the form of an increased restriction and regulation of all trade within her borders. The closing of maritime trade routes hurt her own merchants more than anything else and contributed to the rising...

  1. AERODYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION BASED ON THE EULER AND NAVIERSTOKES EQUATIONS USING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peraire, Jaime

    and Kyle Anderson. Thanks to Tom Sorensen, Alex Budge, Ali Merchant, Bob Haimes, Bilal Mughal, Karen Willcox, Karen Bibb and Sean George for various technical discussions and assistance. Thanks to my officemates, David Oh, Robie Samantha Roy and the folks in the cluster. Oh, and Karen Willcox. But I already

  2. Review of Major Integrated Energy Policy Report Recommendations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -year) contracts, with contract delivery start dates through 2014. Generation projects, including merchant plants to the Energy Commission should be understood to apply to the Energy Commission or its successor. Electricity I agree that the state needs to ensure the adequacy of electricity supplies: · Incorporate the forecasts

  3. Conference Cash Handling, 1/27/10, Penny Ayers PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Industry Data Security Standard), credit card merchant. University Conference Services can provide a web to a University Conference Services web site which the conference host can list on his/her pre-existing conference web site. Please note that registrants must never send credit card information via e-mail as security

  4. Septiembre 17 al 21, 2012 XIXJORNADASACADMICAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islas, Len

    Departamento Neurobiologa Celular y Molecular Dr. Hugo Merchant Nancy Jefe de Departamento Neurobiologa Celular, UNAM MIRCOLES,SEPTIEMBRE19 Teatro Auditorio Centro Acadmico Cultural 10:00 AM 12:30 PM MESA Espinoza #12;Doctorado en el Instituto de Fisiologa Celular de la UNAM con estancias posdoctorales en el

  5. 105 FERC 61,201 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    transportation capacity to drive up natural gas prices in the periods immediately before and during Docket Nos. RP00-241-000 of the State of California RP00-241-006 RP00-241-008 v. El Paso Natural Gas of El Paso Natural Gas Company (El Paso Pipeline) and jointly, El Paso Merchant Energy-Gas, L.P. and El

  6. A review of "The Third Voyage Journals: Writing and Performance in the London East India Company, 1607-10" by Richmond Barbour

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayworth, Gene

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into the company?s attempt to cultivate markets and devise trade strategies and an account of the company?s priorities. Because merchants such as the East India Company did not want to publicize the content of the journals, which contained trade secrets...

  7. Rotary fast tool servo system and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montesanti, Richard C. (Cambridge, MA); Trumper, David L. (Plaistow, NH)

    2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A high bandwidth rotary fast tool servo provides tool motion in a direction nominally parallel to the surface-normal of a workpiece at the point of contact between the cutting tool and workpiece. Three or more flexure blades having all ends fixed are used to form an axis of rotation for a swing arm that carries a cutting tool at a set radius from the axis of rotation. An actuator rotates a swing arm assembly such that a cutting tool is moved in and away from the lathe-mounted, rotating workpiece in a rapid and controlled manner in order to machine the workpiece. A pair of position sensors provides rotation and position information for a swing arm to a control system. A control system commands and coordinates motion of the fast tool servo with the motion of a spindle, rotating table, cross-feed slide, and in-feed slide of a precision lathe.

  8. The role of molybdenum additions and prior deformation on acicular ferrite formation in microalloyed Nb-Ti low-carbon line-pipe steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang Zhenghua [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)], E-mail: n22323784@yahoo.com; Stumpf, Waldo [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Microstructures in Nb-Ti-microalloyed line-pipe steels with various molybdenum additions, consisted mostly of acicular ferrite plus polygonal ferrite after hot rolling and rapid cooling. Structure-sensitive surface relief after etching on shadowed extraction replicas, allowed quantification of the acicular and polygonal ferrite contents. Continuous cooling transformation diagrams of two alloys, one Mo-free and the other containing 0.22% Mo, were determined for cooling rates from 0.1 to 40 deg. C s{sup -1} without and with prior deformation of the austenite below the nil-recrystallisation temperature. Molybdenum additions slightly enhanced the acicular ferrite formation in the strain-free austenite whereas prior deformation had a much greater effect, and strongly promoted acicular ferrite formation in both alloys. Thin foil electron microscopy of acicular ferrite in these low-inclusion content alloys showed a preference for parallel acicular ferrite laths with less 'chaotically' nucleated laths.

  9. Apparatus for downhole drilling communications and method for making and using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Normann, R.A.; Lockwood, G.J.; Gonzales, M.

    1998-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for downhole drilling communications is presented. The apparatus includes a spool and end pieces for maintaining the spool at the bottom of a drill string near a drill bit during drilling operations. The apparatus provides a cable for communicating signals between a downhole electronics package and a surface receiver in order to perform measurements while drilling. A method of forming the apparatus is also set forth wherein the apparatus is formed about a central spindle and lathe. 6 figs.

  10. Apparatus for downhole drilling communications and method for making and using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Normann, Randy A. (Edgewood, NM); Lockwood, Grant J. (Albuquerque, NM); Gonzales, Meliton (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for downhole drilling communications is presented. The apparatus includes a spool and end pieces for maintaining the spool at the bottom of a drill string near a drill bit during drilling operations. The apparatus provides a cable for communicating signals between a downhole electronics package and a surface receiver in order to perform measurements while drilling. A method of forming the apparatus is also set forth wherein the apparatus is formed about a central spindle and lathe.

  11. A computer model to compare greenhouse structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiou, Jiun-Shian

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ). Woven polypropylene ground cover 0. 00068 (4). Sand (5). Others Structure (1). Connected even span house. material wood alone wood /w iron iron alone steel & alum. alum. alone Price (sq. ft. ) (2). Barrel vault house. material wood alone... wood /w iron iron alone steel & alum. alum. alone 1. 16 (3). Saran covered structure house material 26 wood alone wood /w iron iron alone steel & alum. alum. alone (4). Lath house. material wood alone Covering system (1). Polyethylene...

  12. FRACTURE TOUGHNESS VARIABILITY IN F82H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelles, David S.; Sokolov, M.

    2003-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The fracture toughness database for F82H displays some anomalous behavior. Metallographic examination reveals banding in the center of 25 mm thick F82H plate, which is more evident in transverse section. The banding is shown to arise because some grains are etched on a very fine scale whereas the remainder is etched more strongly and better delineates the martensite lath structure. However, the banding found does not provide explanation for the anomalous fracture toughness behavior.

  13. The Proceeds of Prosperity: Images of Domestic Money Management and Exchange in Dutch Genre Painting in the Middle of the Seventeenth Century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pokphanh, Roberta Jean

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the tradition of depicting the merchant busy at his acount books, giving evidence that the sevententh-century viewer also held a positive view of the actions necesary for a properly led busines life. 32 Pendant portraits from the studio of Rembrandt... of Daniel Bernard, 169, Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Roterdam. 32 Yamey, Art and Accounting, 20. 33 Honig, ?Counting Out Their Money.? 21 Figure 1-10: Studio of Rembrandt van Rijn, Jean...

  14. A review of "Grammar Wars: Language as Cultural Battlefield in England." by Linda C. Mitchell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melissa Mohr

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to de- fine correct grammar across a spectrum of examples?the basis for modern linguistics, according to Mitchell. The last chapter, on ?social position,? is the least successful? oddly, given Mitchell?s new historicist aims. It investigates how... of a merchant, for example, might very well learn to write the same receipts he did, while an aristocratic lady might spend more time perfecting her personal, or, like Anne Clifford, household and legal correspondence. These faults...

  15. Beacon Power Corporation NREL Industry Growth Forum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with General Electric Awarded "Engineer of the Year" @ GE B.S. and M.S. degrees in M.E. from MIT 65;7 From Flywheel to 20 MW Plant 7 #12;88 Base Business Model Build, own/co-own and operate merchant (outright or co-investment) Sell regulation systems outside the U.S. with strategic partners Sell other

  16. A proposal for federal legislation for the protection and preservation of submerged cultural resources on the outer continental shelf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Richard Evans

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the Outer Continental Shelf. (August 1978) Richard Evans Hamilton, B. S. , University of Michigan Chairman of Advisory Committee: John L. Seymour This thesis examines English and American court cases to determine the origin and applications of the so.... With these techniques, in 1968 and 1969, archaeo- logists raised and reconstructed an entire fourth-century B. C. merchant vessel sunk off the coast of Kyrenia, Cyprus. Borrowing 5 the technology of the offshore oil industry, in the form of magneto- meters, metal...

  17. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Production and Delivery Analysis in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Today Source: SRI Chemical Economics Handbook, 2002, Captive H2 At $3.50/MMBtu natural gas, H2 = $1.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 Natural Gas P ric e ($ /MMBtu) Source: Chemical Market Reporter, 2/24/03; Merchant H2.40 - 1.56/kg $0.63/kg H2 is due to the natural gas; fixed cost = $0.77 - 0.93/kg At $5.00/MMBtu

  18. The effects of petroleum residues and the associated degrading bacteria on the development and survival of the larvae of Penaeus aztecus ives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clary, John Curtis

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of oil pollutants on marine animals, especially birds, shellfish and marine mammals, are well documented. Spill incidents such as the TORREY CANYON, BURMA AGATE, ARGO MERCHANT and Santa Barbara have provided a wealth of information concerning... cited in this section document that marine waters are almost routinely polluted with petroleum from discharges, spills and seepages. Petroleum affects not only the fauna but also the flora, specifically, the bacteria. Oil-degrading bacteria appear...

  19. Correction for serial correlation in volume ratio models. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reams, G.A.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual tree volume ratio models and associated taper functions are frequently used to estimate merchantable volume of trees to specific top diameters. However, little consideration has been given to the correlation between successive observations that exists in these models. An econometric procedure that corrects for this autocorrelation is presented. The corrected model is, in theory, closer to the 'true' model form and possesses confidence intervals that are more realistic than those given by uncorrected models.

  20. Caught in the act: the stage as a backdrop for defining crime in early modern England

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orman, Lindsay Erin

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    the decay of the landed gentry and feudal power structures as they were replaced by a prosperous merchant class and capitalist ideas. A national identity was newly forged out of the divided loyalties to feudal lords, and the Church retained supreme moral... transgressions that they thetnselves were able to justify and evade punishment for based on their social positions. The rise in capitalism and the impending death of the feudal aristocracy, the growing scientific enlightenment, the rise of the middle class...

  1. Political Scenario in Bhutan during 1774-1906: An Impact Analysis on Trade and Commerce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Ratna; Ray, Indrajit

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    patronaged these fairs every year, and looked after their securities18 by stationing policemen at Phalakata and Alipur19 and entrusting the job for the Alipur fair to the military cantonment at Buxa.20 The British move to promote trade with Bhutan... Political Scenario in Bhutan during 1774-1906 business, the Deb Raja was strictly in opposition. Bogle thus revealed, The Deb Raja made many objections to allowing merchants to pass through Bhutan, insisting that it had never been the custom [for...

  2. The aftermath of primary power and its implications for independent transmission in PJM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrah, Elias G.; Elstein, S. Shamai

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent decision by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission in ''Primary Power'' will have fundamental ramifications for transmission investment in the far-reaching PJM footprint. This decision, which is pending on rehearing and will likely be appealed, will determine whether transmission projects that are entitled to regulated rate recovery under the PJM tariff can only be built by incumbent transmission owners and whether new independent transmission entities are limited to building transmission projects on a ''merchant'' basis. (author)

  3. Fieldwork as education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wax, Rosalie H.; Wax, Murray L.

    1974-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , you somehow get a grade. But the momentum of fieldwork depends totally upon your own energy. In the classroom you get the impression that social realities are understood. The field trip taught me the open-endedness of social science--there's so..., raiding, or traveling. It is no accident that the classical Athenians were seafarers, or that the ancient Hebrews were caravaneers, that the Norse and the English were pirates and merchants, and that Chinese travellers of the fifth and eighth centuries...

  4. Mast step and keelson: the early development of a shipbuilding technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geannette, Mark Alan

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the first millennium A. D. were central structural elements in a seafaring tradition whose primary vessel was the efficient merchant ship. As such, these ship timbers ex- hibit characteristics distinct from the Gallo-Roman tradi- tion of inland waterway..." arrangement which is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian tabernacle system. Early examples point to the mast step being an isolat- ed ship member, increasing in size in proportion to the enlargement in ship dimensions but remaining essentially...

  5. A review of "Ireland and the War at Sea: 1641-1653" by Elaine Murphy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furgol, Edward M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , their hired armed- merchant ship counterparts and allied privateers, not only interdicted Irish confederate commerce, but also blockaded ports, which the Irish Confederate privateers could not risk because that would have made them easy targets... for the more powerful ships of the summer and winter guards. #14;e second portion (61 pages) analyzes di#12;erent top- ics, such as the value of maritime activity to the opposing powers, the types of ships involved, the results of commerce raiding on all...

  6. Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan Bolling

    2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

  7. Microstructural development in low activation ferritic alloys irradiated to 200 dpa at 420{degree}C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Density change and microstructural development are reported for nine low activation ferritic steels covering the range 2.3 to 12 Cr with varying additions of V and/or W for hardening and up to 6.5 Mn for austenite stability. Specimens were examined following irradiation in FFTF/MOTA at 4200{degree}C to a dose exceeding 200 dpa. Void swelling was found, but the swelling remained at 5% or below, with the worst case in an alloy of 9Cr-2Mn-1WV. The carbide structure pinning Martensite lath boundaries remains in place.

  8. Electroless nickel: an important coating for diamond turning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dini, J.W.

    1980-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond turning is the use of a single-point diamond tool on a precision lathe under very precisely controlled machine and environmental conditions to fabricate finished components. With a machine presently available at LLNL a part accuracy between 0.05 and 1.0 ..mu..m (2 and 40 millionths of an inch) is obtainable. Coatings offer significant advantages for diamond turning applications inasmuch as they can be applied to lightweight substrates such as aluminum or beryllium. One of the most used coatings for diamond turning applications is electroless nickel. Purpose of this paper is to document case histories of such applications and suggest areas for future work.

  9. Effect of acicular ferrite formation on grain refinement in the coarse-grained region of heat-affected zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, X.L.; Wei, R. [Institute of Advanced Steels and Welding Technology, Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory for Systems Science on Metallurgical Processing, Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Wu, K.M., E-mail: wukaiming@wust.edu.cn [Institute of Advanced Steels and Welding Technology, Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory for Systems Science on Metallurgical Processing, Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The microstructure of acicular ferrite and its formation for the grain refinement of coarse-grained region of heat-affected zone of high strength low-alloy bainite steels were studied using three-dimensional reconstruction technique. Crystallographic grain size was analyzed by means of electron backscatter diffraction. It was revealed that the microstructure in the coarse-grained region of the heat-affected zone consisted of predominantly bainite packets and a small proportion of acicular ferrite. Acicular ferrite was of lath or plate-like rather than needle or rod-like morphology. Tempering of the coarse-grained region of heat-affected zone showed that the acicular ferrite was more stable than the bainite, indicating that the acicular ferrite was formed prior to bainite. The acicular ferrite laths or plates divided the prior austenite grains into smaller and separate regions, and confining the bainite transformed at lower temperatures in the smaller regions and hence leading to the grain refinement in the coarse-grained region of the heat-affected zone.

  10. The formation mechanisms of interlocked microstructures in low-carbon high-strength steel weld metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, X.L.; Wang, H.H.; Cheng, L.; Wu, K.M., E-mail: wukaiming2000@yahoo.com

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Microstructural features and the formation mechanisms of interlocked microstructures of acicular ferrite in a low-carbon high-strength steel weld metal were investigated by means of computer-aided three-dimensional reconstruction technique and electron backscattered diffraction analysis. Multiple nucleation on inclusions, sympathetic nucleation or repeated nucleation, hard impingement, mutual intersection, and fixed orientation relationships of acicular ferrite grains were observed. They were all responsible for the formation of interlocked microstructures in the weld metal. During the process of isothermal transformation, the pre-formed acicular ferrite laths or plates partitioned austenite grains into many small and separate regions, and the growth of later formed acicular ferrite grains was confined in these small regions. Thus, the crystallographic grain size became smaller with the increasing holding time. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acicular ferrite is formed by multiple nucleation and sympathetic nucleation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hard impingement and intersection of ferrite grains occur at later stages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pre-formed ferrite laths partition austenite grains into smaller regions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The growth of later formed ferrite grains is confined in the smaller regions.

  11. The current status of the U.S. MTBE industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, G.M. [Global Octanes Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the status of the MTBE industry from its beginnings as a result of the Clean Air Act Amendments and the need for the use of oxygenates in non-attainment areas. During 1990--93 three world scale merchant plants were constructed and in 1994 two more were brought on stream. The paper tabulates reasons why MTBE gained the lion`s share of the oxygenates market. Finally the paper discusses the problems that now plague the industry and their causes.

  12. Instrucci󮠎?ica (1587) by Diego Garc?de Palacio: an early nautical handbook from Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laanela, Erika Elizabeth

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    arrival in the Caribbean, they split into two fleets to collect consignments of royal gold and silver and to engage in trade with colonial merchants (fig. 1.1). The Tierra Firme fleet stopped at Cartagena before calling at Nombre de Dios...?a Bernal 1985, 3. 62 Visita y cuenta de los pueblos, 1583, AGN, Ramo Civil, Vol. 661, Exp. 2, transcribed in O?Gorman 1940. 63 Cuenta y visita del pueblo de Pencuyut, 1584, AGN, Tierras, Vol. 28, Exp. 20, translated in Roys et al. 1959. 64 Title...

  13. Basic Marketing of Texas Cotton: Forward Contracts, Cash Sales, Marketing Pools, and the USDA Loan Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, John; Park, John; Smith, Jackie; Anderson, Carl

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    as consider hedging with futures and options. Forward Contracts A forward contract is a legal agreement that specifi es either the price or the basis for a quantity (either bales or acreage) and quality of cotton delivered by a future date. Cotton merchants... use forward contracts to guarantee minimum supplies at an established price in order to make sale commitments to end users. Forward contracts are not used in Texas as much as in other parts of the Cotton Belt (Table 1) because the contracting...

  14. The Secure Hash Payment System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Timothy J

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 SET overview 32 2 SET messages 34 3 SET and SSL overview 36 4 Overview of SHPS 48 5 An example E C M L document 56 6 An example E C C document 57 7 An example CurrencyUpdate document 65 8 An example PurchaseRequest document... information. Netscape's Secure Socket Layer (SSL) provides the secure link between the consumer and merchant. While this approach has been successful due to the availability of SSL in most web browsers, the approach does not provide the level of security...

  15. Scale Insects on Ornamental Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muegge, Mark A.; Merchant, Michael E.

    2000-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Scale insects on o rnamental plants B-6097 8-00 Mark A. Muegge and Michael Merchant* M any species of scale insects damage land- scape plants, shrubs and trees. Scale insects insert their mouthparts into plant tissues and suck out the sap. When... period. Most species never move again in their lives. Scale insects feed by inserting their hairlike mouth- parts into plant tissue and siphoning the plant?s sap. While feeding, many species excrete a sweet, sticky liquid referred to as ?honeydew...

  16. Harvesting Residuals-Economic Energy Link

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, E. T.; Curtis, D. B.

    HARVESTING RESIDUALS-ECONOMIC ENERGY LINK E.T. Owens, R.P.F. Research and Productivity Council, Fredericton, N.B. D.B. Curtis, P.Eng. Dept. Forests, Mines and ABSTRACT A description of systems used in integrated harvesting of quality...-for-energy. economics INTRODUCTION The conventional wisdom in efficient harvesting Was to leave the non-merchantable and marginal trees because they had no economic value in the market place. Current technology and a change in the relative values of energy from...

  17. The Mepkin Abbey shipwreck: diving into Mepkin Plantation's past

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vezeau, Susan Lynn

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Congress of South Carolina in 1775; vice president of South Carolina in 1776; and president of the Continental Congress 1777-1778. Laurens was elected Minister Plenipotentiary to Holland in 1779, and was captured at sea while sailing to fulfill... a less-savory aspect: he earned his vast wealth as a trans-Atlantic merchant, and slaves were one of his most profitable cargoes. He was one of the largest owners and importers of African slaves of his period. Laurens invested his money in rice...

  18. Transcending the Limits of Turing Computability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vadim A. Adamyan; Cristian S. Calude; Boris S. Pavlov

    2003-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Hypercomputation or super-Turing computation is a ``computation'' that transcends the limit imposed by Turing's model of computability. The field still faces some basic questions, technical (can we mathematically and/or physically build a hypercomputer?), cognitive (can hypercomputers realize the AI dream?), philosophical (is thinking more than computing?). The aim of this paper is to address the question: can we mathematically build a hypercomputer? We will discuss the solutions of the Infinite Merchant Problem, a decision problem equivalent to the Halting Problem, based on results obtained in \\cite{Coins,acp}. The accent will be on the new computational technique and results rather than formal proofs.

  19. Adam Smith and the Making of the Modern World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glasgow, 1740-1750, had witnessed a very great change in the appearance of the district. Looking down from the high ground near the University, recently completed mansions of merchants and others in the course of building came into view.7 He lived... Smiths residence the celebrated Dr. Black was working out his discovery of latent heat. They gave a workshop in the College to James Watt in 1756, and made him mathematical instrument maker to the University, when the trade corporations of Glasgow...

  20. Controlling Fleas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merchant, Michael E.; Robinson, James V.

    2006-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Controlling Fleas Mike Merchant and James Robinson* F leas are small, wingless insects that feed on the blood of animals and people. Americans spend about $9 billion a year controlling fleas ? one of the biggest expenses for pet owners. In Texas... pet bedding regularly and vacuum thoroughly. Vacuuming removes up to 30 per- cent of the larvae and up to 60 percent of flea eggs from a carpet, as well as the larvae?s food supply of dried blood. Vacuum under furniture, cushions, chairs, beds...

  1. Bulletin of Tibetology: Volume 8 Number 1 : Full issue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namgyal Institute of Tibetology

    1971-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    {~ir trade, and prompted by self interest carry it on to the greatest extent". (15) In 1780 Bogle himself organised the fair at Rangpur. Having "excused all duties" there was ,1 great COI1(;oursc of Bhutan merchants. "who after buying and selling freely v... of dream phenomenon. The illusory character of our objective universe is a common doctrine of hoth the Vcdantic and the Yogacara Buddhist and the dream analogy is also a common weapon to demonstrate their position. Reference to Vasubandhu's Vimsatika...

  2. United States Department of Energy New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy. 1991--1992 Heating Oil and Propane Price Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In cooperation with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA) the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (DEPE), Office of Energy participated in a program to monitor retail prices of no. 2 heating oil and propane in New Jersey. According to program instructions, we conducted price surveys on a semi-monthly basis to obtain the necessary information from retail fuel merchants and propane dealers identified by the EIA. The period of the surveys was October 7, 1991 to March 16 1992. We submitted data collected as of specified reference dates to the EIA, within two working days of those dates.

  3. TALENT user's manual.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merchant, Bion John

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ground-Based Monitoring R and E Component Evaluation project performs testing on the hardware components that make up Seismic and Infrasound monitoring systems. The majority of the testing is focused on the Digital Waveform Recorder (DWR), Seismic Sensor, and Infrasound Sensor. The software tool used to capture and analyze the data collected from testing is called TALENT: Test and Analysis Evaluation Tool. This document is the manual for using TALENT. Other reports document the testing procedures that are in place (Kromer, 2007) and the algorithms employed in the test analysis (Merchant, 2011).

  4. Messrs H P Bainbridge | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarmsPower CoLongxing WindMaomingMerchant Green Jump

  5. Meteosim | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarmsPower CoLongxing WindMaomingMerchant Green

  6. Meyers Roman Friedberg and Lewis LPA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarmsPower CoLongxing WindMaomingMerchant GreenMeyers

  7. Miassaba Geradora Eolica | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarmsPower CoLongxing WindMaomingMerchant

  8. Michael Zilkha | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarmsPower CoLongxing WindMaomingMerchantZilkha Jump to:

  9. Michigan Public Service Commission | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarmsPower CoLongxing WindMaomingMerchantZilkha Jump

  10. Microgeneration Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarmsPower CoLongxing WindMaomingMerchantZilkha

  11. Isothermal Martensitic and Pressure-Induced ? to ?? Phase Transformations in a Pu-Ga Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, A J; Wall, M A; Farber, D L; Moore, K T; Blobaum, K M

    2007-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A Pu-2 at.% Ga alloy specimen is slowly compressed to {approx}1 GPa in a large volume moissanite anvil cell to induce the face-centered cubic {delta} to simple monoclinic {alpha}{prime} phase transformation. Optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy of the specimen recovered to ambient pressure reveal that the vast majority of the microstructure consists of the {alpha}{prime} phase with grain sizes ranging from 10 nm to several hundred nm, with the remainder being {delta} phase dispersed between the {alpha}{prime} grains. This morphology is in contrast to the transformation product of the low-temperature isothermal martensite in which the lath-shaped {alpha}{prime} particles are {approx}20 {micro}m by 2 {micro}m.

  12. An alternative to the crystallographic reconstruction of austenite in steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernier, Nicolas, E-mail: n.bernier@yahoo.fr [OCAS N.V., ArcelorMittal R and D Gent, Pres. J.F. Kennedylaan 3, 9060 Zelzate (Belgium); Bracke, Lieven, E-mail: lieven.bracke@arcelormittal.com [OCAS N.V., ArcelorMittal R and D Gent, Pres. J.F. Kennedylaan 3, 9060 Zelzate (Belgium); Malet, Loc; Godet, Stphane [Universit Libre de Bruxelles, 4 MAT (Materials Engineering, Characterisation, Synthesis and Recycling), Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, CP 194/03, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alternative crystallographic austenite reconstruction programme written in Matlab is developed by combining the best features of the existing models: the orientation relationship refinement, the local pixel-by-pixel analysis and the nuclei identification and spreading strategy. This programme can be directly applied to experimental electron backscatter diffraction mappings. Its applicability is demonstrated on both quenching and partitioning and as-quenched lath-martensite steels. - Highlights: An alternative crystallographic austenite reconstruction program is developed. The method combines a local analysis and a nuclei identification/spreading strategy. The validity of the calculated orientation relationship is verified on a Q and P steel. The accuracy of the reconstructed microtexture is investigated on a martensite steel.

  13. Transmission electron microscopy of RSP Fe/Cr/Mn/Mo/C alloy. [Fe-3 wt % Cr-2 wt % Mn-0. 5 wt % Mo, -0. 3 wt % C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayment, J.J.; Thomas, G.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid solidification processing (RSP) has been carried out on an Fe/Cr/Mn/Mo/C alloy using both electron-beam melting and piston-and-anvil techniques. Preliminary TEM results show RSP produces a refined duplex microstructure of ferrite and martensite, with a typical ferrite grain size of 0.50 - 3.0 microns. This RSP microstructure is significantly different from that observed in the conventionally austenitized and quenched alloys - a lath martensitic microstructure with thin films of retained interlath austenite. The morphological change produced by RSP is accompanied by an increase in hardness from 48R/sub c/ to 61R/sub c/ (approx. 480 to 720 VHN). It is intended to use electron-beam specimens to examine the potential beneficial effect of RSP upon sliding wear resistance and, by careful TEM studies, it will be possible to characterize the microstructure and its role in the hardness and wear behavior of the RSP alloy.

  14. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, Gareth (Berkeley, CA); Ahn, Jae-Hwan (Albany, CA); Kim, Nack-Joon (Laramie, WY)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar.sub.3 temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics.

  15. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, G.; Ahn, J.H.; Kim, N.J.

    1986-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar[sub 3] temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics. 3 figs.

  16. Influence of phosphorus content and heat treatment on the machinability of electroless nickel deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syn, C.K.; Dini, J.W.; Taylor, J.S.; Mara, G.L.; Vandervoort, R.R.; Donaldson, R.R.

    1985-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond turning is the use of a single point diamond tool on a precision lathe under very precisely controlled machine and environmental conditions to fabricate finished components. Coatings offer significant advantages for diamond turning applications inasmuch as they can be applied to light weight substrates such as aluminum or beryllium, or unusual substrates such as molybdenum or glass. One of the most used frequently employed coatings for diamond turning applications is electroless nickel. On occasions, electroless nickel deposits are not diamond turnable, e.g., tool life is shortened. This could be a function of phosphorus content, age of the solution, stress in the deposit, additives in the solution, heat treat conditions, etc. Efforts reported in this paper include machinability studies on electroless nickel deposits varying in composition from 1.8-13% phosphorus in the as-deposited condition, and after heating at 200, 400 and 600/sup 0/C.

  17. High Efficiency Germanium Immersion Gratings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmenko, P J; Davis, P J; Little, S L; Little, L M; Bixler, J V

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have fabricated several germanium immersion gratings by single crystal, single point diamond flycutting on an ultra-precision lathe. Use of a dead sharp tool produces groove corners less than 0.1 micron in radius and consequently high diffraction efficiency. We measured first order efficiencies in immersion of over 80% at 10.6 micron wavelength. Wavefront error was low averaging 0.06 wave rms (at 633 nm) across the full aperture. The grating spectral response was free of ghosts down to our detection limit of 1 part in 10{sup 4}. Scatter should be low based upon the surface roughness. Measurement of the spectral line profile of a CO{sub 2} laser sets an upper bound on total integrated scatter of 0.5%.

  18. Direct Observations of the (Alpha to Gamma) Transformation at Different Input Powers in the Heat Affected Zone of 1045 C-Mn Steel Arc Welds Observed by Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, T A; Elmer, J W

    2005-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (SRXRD) experiments have been performed during Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) welding of AISI 1045 C-Mn steel at input powers ranging from 1000 W to 3750 W. In situ diffraction patterns taken at discreet locations across the width of the heat affected zone (HAZ) near the peak of the heating cycle in each weld show regions containing austenite ({gamma}), ferrite and austenite ({alpha}+{gamma}), and ferrite ({alpha}). Changes in input power have a demonstrated effect on the resulting sizes of these regions. The largest effect is on the {gamma} phase region, which nearly triples in width with increasing input power, while the width of the surrounding two phase {alpha}+{gamma} region remains relatively constant. An analysis of the diffraction patterns obtained across this range of locations allows the formation of austenite from the base metal microstructure to be monitored. After the completion of the {alpha} {yields} {gamma} transformation, a splitting of the austenite peaks is observed at temperatures between approximately 860 C and 1290 C. This splitting in the austenite peaks results from the dissolution of cementite laths originally present in the base metal pearlite, which remain after the completion of the {alpha} {yields} {gamma} transformation, and represents the formation of a second more highly alloyed austenite constituent. With increasing temperatures, carbon, originally present in the cementite laths, diffuses from the second newly formed austenite constituent to the original austenite constituent. Eventually, a homogeneous austenitic microstructure is produced at temperatures of approximately 1300 C and above, depending on the weld input power.

  19. Production of Fast Neutron With Plasma Focus Device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moshe Gai

    2006-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Before its demise DIANA Hi-TECH, LLC, demonstrated the use of two 50 kJoule Plasma Focus devices for the copius production of fast neutrons, x-rays and radio-isotopes. Such a device is suitable for fast neutron non invasive interogation of contra-band materials including hidden nuclear materials. It could be particularly useful for a fast and fail safe interogation of large cargo containers, or in merchant marine port of entries. The performance and fast neutron production (2.5 or 14 MeV at 10^11 or 10^13 neutrons per pulse, respectively) of the two PF50 Plasma Focus devices produced by DIANA HiTECH, LLC, are discussed.

  20. US refiners choose variety of routes to MTBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1992-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that refiners and merchant manufacturers in the U.S. are gearing up to produce the large volumes of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) needed to comply with oxygenated gasoline requirements. The 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments specify that, as of the first of this coming November, gasoline containing a minimum of 2.7 wt % oxygen must be sold in 39 CO-nonattainment cities. Refiners and others are scurrying to bring MTBE capacity on line in time to meet this requirement. Many U.S. refiners already have some operating MTBE capacity, but this will not be nearly enough to meet the looming increase in demand. As a result, additional capacity is being constructed worldwide.

  1. MTBE movements between Texas Gulf Coast plants to be enhanced

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that Texas Eastern Products Pipeline Co. (Teppco), Houston, has begun construction of its shuttle pipeline, a 10-mile, 6 and 8-in. line to move methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) between producers and refiners along the Houston Ship Channel. Funding for the project has been approved, rights-of-way are secured, and procurement of materials is under way, according to Teppco. The line will flow from the western edge of Shell's refinery eastward to storage facilities of Teppco's Baytown terminal. The shuttle pipeline anticipates the US requirement for oxygenated gasolines that takes effect Nov. 1. Approximately 70% of the available US merchant capacity for MTBE is located along the shuttle's path, Teppco says.

  2. Production of Fast Neutron With Plasma Focus Device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gai, M

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Before its demise DIANA Hi-TECH, LLC, demonstrated the use of two 50 kJoule Plasma Focus devices for the copius production of fast neutrons, x-rays and radio-isotopes. Such a device is suitable for fast neutron non invasive interogation of contra-band materials including hidden nuclear materials. It could be particularly useful for a fast and fail safe interogation of large cargo containers, or in merchant marine port of entries. The performance and fast neutron production (2.5 or 14 MeV at 10^11 or 10^13 neutrons per pulse, respectively) of the two PF50 Plasma Focus devices produced by DIANA HiTECH, LLC, are discussed.

  3. Technical and economical considerations of new DRI melting process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Shuzo; Tokuda, Koji; Sammt, F.; Gray, R.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The new DRI melting process can effectively and economically produce high quality molten iron. This process utilizes hot charging of DRI directly from a reduction furnace into a dedicated new melting furnace. The molten iron from this DRI premelter can be charged into a steelmaking furnace, such as an electric arc furnace (EAF), where the molten iron, together with other iron sources, can be processed to produce steel. Alternatively the molten iron can be pigged or granulated for off-site merchant sales. Comprehensive research and development of the new process has been conducted including operational process simulation, melting tests using FASTMET DRI, slag technology development, and refractory corrosion testing. This paper describes the process concept, its operational characteristics and further applications of the process.

  4. MAGIC: Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, ER; Wiscombe, WJ; Albrecht, BA; Bland, GL; Flagg, CN; Klein, SA; Kollias, P; Mace, G; Reynolds, RM; Schwartz, SE; Siebesma, AP; Teixeira, J; Wood, R; Zhang, M

    2012-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The second Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF2) will be deployed aboard the Horizon Lines cargo container ship merchant vessel (M/V) Spirit for MAGIC, the Marine ARM GPCI1 Investigation of Clouds. The Spirit will traverse the route between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii, from October 2012 through September 2013 (except for a few months in the middle of this time period when the ship will be in dry dock). During this field campaign, AMF2 will observe and characterize the properties of clouds and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; standard meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric structure. There will also be two intensive observational periods (IOPs), one in January 2013 and one in July 2013, during which more detailed measurements of the atmospheric structure will be made.

  5. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc. , Vicksburg, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from a budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains process flowsheets and maps of the proposed site.

  6. Polymer micromold and fabrication process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Ahre, P.E.; Dupuy, P.C.

    1997-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A mold assembly is disclosed with micro-sized features in which the hollow portion thereof is fabricated from a sacrificial mandrel which is surface treated and then coated to form an outer shell. The sacrificial mandrel is then selectively etched away leaving the outer shell as the final product. The sacrificial mandrel is fabricated by a precision lathe, for example, so that when removed by etching the inner or hollow area has diameters as small as 10`s of micros ({micro}m). Varying the inside diameter contours of the mold can be accomplished with specified ramping slopes formed on the outer surface of the sacrificial mandrel, with the inside or hollow section being, for example, 275 {micro}m in length up to 150 {micro}m in diameter within a 6 mm outside diameter (o.d.) mold assembly. The mold assembly itself can serve as a micronozzle or microneedle, and plastic parts, such as microballoons for angioplasty, polymer microparts, and microactuators, etc., may be formed within the mold assembly. 6 figs.

  7. Parametric analysis of plastic strain and force distribution in single pass metal spinning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhary, Shashank, E-mail: shashankbit08@gmail.com, E-mail: mohantejesh93@gmail.com, E-mail: regalla@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in, E-mail: ksuresh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in; Tejesh, Chiruvolu Mohan, E-mail: shashankbit08@gmail.com, E-mail: mohantejesh93@gmail.com, E-mail: regalla@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in, E-mail: ksuresh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in; Regalla, Srinivasa Prakash, E-mail: shashankbit08@gmail.com, E-mail: mohantejesh93@gmail.com, E-mail: regalla@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in, E-mail: ksuresh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in; Suresh, Kurra, E-mail: shashankbit08@gmail.com, E-mail: mohantejesh93@gmail.com, E-mail: regalla@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in, E-mail: ksuresh@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, BITS-Pilani, Hyderabad Campus, Shamirpet, Hyderabad, 500078, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal spinning also known as spin forming is one of the sheet metal working processes by which an axis-symmetric part can be formed from a flat sheet metal blank. Parts are produced by pressing a blunt edged tool or roller on to the blank which in turn is mounted on a rotating mandrel. This paper discusses about the setting up a 3-D finite element simulation of single pass metal spinning in LS-Dyna. Four parameters were considered namely blank thickness, roller nose radius, feed ratio and mandrel speed and the variation in forces and plastic strain were analysed using the full-factorial design of experiments (DOE) method of simulation experiments. For some of these DOE runs, physical experiments on extra deep drawing (EDD) sheet metal were carried out using En31 tool on a lathe machine. Simulation results are able to predict the zone of unsafe thinning in the sheet and high forming forces that are hint to the necessity for less-expensive and semi-automated machine tools to help the household and small scale spinning workers widely prevalent in India.

  8. Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.

  9. Ion Beam Sputter Fabrication of Micro-Grooving and Micro-Threading Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ADAMS,DAVID P.; VASILE,M.J.; KRISHNAN,A.S.M.

    1999-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents techniques for fabricating microscopic, nonplanar features in a variety of materials. Micro-grooving and micro-threading tools having cutting dimensions of 10-30{micro}m are made by focused ion beam sputtering and used in ultra-precision machining. Tool fabrication involves directing a 20 keV gallium beam at polished cylindrical punches made of cobalt M42 high-speed steel or C2 tungsten carbide. This creates cutting edges having radii of curvature less than 0.4 {micro}m, and rake features similar to conventional lathe tools. Clearance for minimizing frictional drag of a tool results from the sputter yield dependence on ion herd target incidence angle. Numerically controlled, ultra-precision machining with micro-grooving tools results in a close matching between tool width and feature size. Microtools controllably machine 13 {micro}m wide, 4 {micro}m deep, helical grooves in polymethyl methacrylate and 6061-T6 Al cylindrical substrates. Micro-grooving tools also fabricate sinusoidal waveform features in polished metal substrates.

  10. Polymer micromold and fabrication process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Abraham P. (1428 Whitecliff Way, Walnut Creek, CA 94596); Northrup, M. Allen (923 Creston Rd., Berkeley, CA 94708); Ahre, Paul E. (1299 Gonzaga Ct., Livermore, CA 94550); Dupuy, Peter C. (1736 Waldo Ct., Modesto, CA 95358)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mold assembly with micro-sized features in which the hollow portion thereof is fabricated from a sacrificial mandrel which is surface treated and then coated to form an outer shell. The sacrificial mandrel is then selectively etched away leaving the outer shell as the final product. The sacrificial mandrel is fabricated by a precision lathe, for example, so that when removed by etching the inner or hollow area has diameters as small as 10's of micros (.mu.m). Varying the inside diameter contours of the mold can be accomplished with specified ramping slopes formed on the outer surface of the sacrificial mandrel, with the inside or hollow section being, for example, 275 .mu.m in length up to 150 .mu.m in diameter within a 6 mm outside diameter (o.d.) mold assembly. The mold assembly itself can serve as a micronozzle or microneedle, and plastic parts, such as microballoons for angioplasty, polymer microparts, and microactuators, etc., may be formed within the mold assembly.

  11. Deformation of the UI-14at%Nb shape memory alloy: experiments and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Field, Robert D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tome, Carlos N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Cabe, Rodney J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clarke, Amy J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Donald W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tupper, Catherine N [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    U-14at%Nb is a shape memory effect (SME) alloy that undergoes deformation by the motion of complex twins and twin related lath boundaries up to the limit of SME deformation ({approx}7%). All of the twins present in the as-transformed martensite and active during SME deformation are derived from those of the orthorhombic alpha-U phase, modified for the monoclinic distortion of the alpha martensite phase. In the SME regime a simple Bain strain model qualitatively predicts variant selection, texture development in polycrystalline samples, and stress-strain behavior as a function of parent phase orientation in single crystal micropillars. In the post-SME regime, unrecoverable deformation occurs by a combination of slip and twinning, with the first few percent of strain in tension apparently governed by a twin species specifically associated with the monoclinic distortion (i.e. not present in the orthorhombic alpha-U phase). The situation in compression is more complicated, with a combination of slip and twinning systems believed responsible for deformation. A review of the Bain strain model for SME deformation will be presented in conjunction with experimental data. In addition, results from modeling of post-SME behavior using the Visco-Plastic Self-Consistent (VPSC) model will be compared to experimental texture measurements.

  12. Chip breaking system for automated machine tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arehart, Theodore A. (Clinton, TN); Carey, Donald O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a rotary selectively directional valve assembly for use in an automated turret lathe for directing a stream of high pressure liquid machining coolant to the interface of a machine tool and workpiece for breaking up ribbon-shaped chips during the formation thereof so as to inhibit scratching or other marring of the machined surfaces by these ribbon-shaped chips. The valve assembly is provided by a manifold arrangement having a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart ports each coupled to a machine tool. The manifold is rotatable with the turret when the turret is positioned for alignment of a machine tool in a machining relationship with the workpiece. The manifold is connected to a non-rotational header having a single passageway therethrough which conveys the high pressure coolant to only the port in the manifold which is in registry with the tool disposed in a working relationship with the workpiece. To position the machine tools the turret is rotated and one of the tools is placed in a material-removing relationship of the workpiece. The passageway in the header and one of the ports in the manifold arrangement are then automatically aligned to supply the machining coolant to the machine tool workpiece interface for breaking up of the chips as well as cooling the tool and workpiece during the machining operation.

  13. Electromagnetic variable degrees of freedom actuator systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montesanti, Richard C. (Pleasanton, CA); Trumper, David L. (Plaistow, NH); Kirtley, Jr., James L. (Brookline, MA)

    2009-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a variable reluctance actuator system and method that can be adapted for simultaneous rotation and translation of a moving element by applying a normal-direction magnetic flux on the moving element. In a beneficial example arrangement, the moving element includes a swing arm that carries a cutting tool at a set radius from an axis of rotation so as to produce a rotary fast tool servo that provides a tool motion in a direction substantially parallel to the surface-normal of a workpiece at the point of contact between the cutting tool and workpiece. An actuator rotates a swing arm such that a cutting tool moves toward and away from a mounted rotating workpiece in a controlled manner in order to machine the workpiece. Position sensors provide rotation and displacement information for a swing arm to a control system. A control system commands and coordinates motion of the fast tool servo with the motion of a spindle, rotating table, cross-feed slide, and in feed slide of a precision lathe.

  14. Morphology and crystallographic orientation relationship in isothermally transformed FeN austenite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiao, Dongling, E-mail: dljiao@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Luo, Chengping; Liu, Jiangwen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Guoqing [Science and Technology on Advanced High Temperature Structural Materials Laboratory, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The 225 C isothermal transformation of a high-nitrogen austenite with Fe2.71 wt.% N was investigated by means of electron microscopy. It was found that the transformation products were composed of ultrafine ?-Fe and ??-Fe{sub 4}N plus retained austenite ?, which were in two types of morphologies, namely, (i) with the retained austenite patches dispersed among the (?-Fe + ??-Fe{sub 4}N) packets and (ii) with the ultrafine ?-Fe and ?/??-Fe{sub 4}N laths interwoven with each other within a single bainitic packet. A cubecube orientation relationship between the ? (austenite) and ??-Fe{sub 4}N, and a near GreningerTroiano (GT) one between the ? (austenite) and the bainitic ?-ferrite were detected. The morphology, orientation relationship and high hardness (> 1000 HV) of the transformation products indicated that the isothermal transformation of the high nitrogen austenite was analogous to a bainitic one. - Highlights: Isothermal transformation products consisted of nano-sized ?-Fe + ?? + ? (retained). The hardness of transformation product exceeded 1000 HV. The ?-Fe and ?/??-Fe{sub 4}N kept a near G-T OR in the grain interior.

  15. Fabrication and testing of diamond-machined gratings in ZnSe, GaP, and bismuth germanate for the near infrared and visible

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmenko, P J; Little, S L; Ikeda, Y; Kobayashi, N

    2008-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    High quality immersion gratings for infrared applications have been demonstrated in silicon and germanium. To extend this technology to shorter wavelengths other materials must be investigated. We selected three materials, zinc selenide, gallium phosphide and bismuth germanate (Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}), based on high refractive index, good visible transmission and commercial availability in useful sizes. Crystal samples were diamond turned on an ultra-precision lathe to identify preferred cutting directions. Using this information we diamond-flycut test gratings over a range of feed rates to determine the optimal cutting conditions. For both ZnSe and GaP good surface quality was achieved at feed rates up to 1.0 cm/minute using a special compound angle diamond tool with negative rake angles on both cutting surfaces. The surface roughness of the groove facets was about 4 nm. A Zygo interferometer measured grating wavefront errors in reflection. For the ZnSe the RMS error was < {lambda}/20 at 633nm. More extensive testing was performed with a HeNe laser source and a cooled CCD camera. These measurements demonstrated high relative diffraction efficiency (> 80%), low random groove error (2.0 nm rms), and Rowland ghost intensities at < 0.1%. Preliminary tests on bismuth germanate show high tool wear.

  16. Arco chimie focuses on PA at FOS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, D.

    1992-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Arco Chimie France (Fos-sur-Mer), at a recent meeting at its southern France manufacturing site, emphasized that future strategy is strongly focused on its propylene oxide (PO) and derivatives activities. The F2.5 billion ($466 million)-Fe billion/year operation manufactures 200,000 m.t./year of PO, about 70% for captive use and the balance for the merchant market; 550,000 m.t./year of methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE); 97,000 m.t./year of polyols; and 70,000 m.t./year of propylene glycols. There has been talk of Arco modifying its Fos MTBE plant to make it flexible for ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) output; the parent company already operates an MTBE/ETBE pilot unit at Corpus Christi, TX. But Arco Chimie notes there is insufficient bioethanol feedstock availability to convert all production to ETBE. The company would also require investment in new storage capacity for ethanol and ETBE. However, France's biofuels program is not yet clearly defined, and it is politically sensitive because it depends heavily on government subsidies offered to farmers. That, says Arco, makes it impossible to have an accurate idea of how much ethanol will be available.

  17. Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications (Report Summary) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O'Malley, M.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  18. Imaging the Antikythera Mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malzbender, Tom (Hewlett Packard Laboratories) [Hewlett Packard Laboratories

    2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1900, a party of sponge divers chanced on the wreck of a Roman merchant vessel between Crete and mainland Greece. It was found to contain numerous ancient Greek treasures, among them a mysterious lump of clay that split open to reveal 'mathematical gears' as it dried out. This object is now known as the Antikythera Mechanism, one of the most enlightening artifacts in terms of revealing the advanced nature of ancient Greek science and technology. In 2005 we travelled to the National Archeological Museum in Athens to apply our Reflectance Imaging methods to the mechanism in the hopes of revealing ancient writing on the device. We were successful, and along with the results of Microfocus CT imaging, we are able to decipher 3000 characters compared with the original 800 known. This lead to an understanding that the device was a mechanical, astronomical computer from 150 B.C.E. capable of predicting solar and lunar eclipses along with other celestial events. This talk will overview both the imaging methods as well as what they reveal about the Antikythera Mechanism.

  19. FERC Order 636 spawns flurry of U. S. gas storage projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Precisely how storage utilization will affect U.S. gas markets is uncertain because many new players are offering storage services through mostly untested contractual arrangements. But a positive development is that available gas storage capacity in the U.S. is increasing. And that is due in large part to storage's relative value in markets taking on added luster as a result of Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Order 636, which takes effect Nov. 1. Order 636 in most cases ends interstate pipeline companies merchant functions, unbundles pipeline interstate gas transportation services and fees, and opens interstate transmission capacity to access by any qualified shipper on firm or interruptible basis. Interstate pipeline gas storage capacity is among the transportation services affected. As markets set values on controlling or aggregating gas supplies at given points on the U.S. interstate pipeline grid and on transporting those volumes to end use customers, storage will be valued according to its contribution in each supply chain. And because Order 636 allows storage to play a greater role in the supply chain, its value to producers, shippers, and consumers will grow as well. The paper discusses gas storage expansions, supply area storage, seasonal versus peak storage, salt cavern storage, storage service flexibility, and several specific storage facilities.

  20. Collector main replacement at Indianapolis Coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickle, R.R. Van

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Indianapolis Coke is a merchant coke producer, supplying both foundry and blast furnace coke to the industry. The facility has three coke batteries: two 3 meter batteries, one Wilputte four divided and one Koppers Becker. Both batteries are underjet batteries and are producing 100% foundry coke at a net coking time of 30.6 hours. This paper deals with the No. 1 coke battery, which is a 72 oven, gun fired, 5 meter Still battery. No. 1 battery produces both foundry and blast furnace coke at a net coking rate of 25.4 hours. No. 1 battery was commissioned in 1979. The battery is equipped with a double collector main. Although many renovations have been completed to the battery, oven machinery and heating system, to date no major construction projects have taken place. Deterioration of the collector main was caused in part from elevated levels of chlorides in the flushing liquor, and temperature fluctuations within the collector main. The repair procedures are discussed.

  1. Controlled permeation of hydrogen through glass. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halvorson, T. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Shelby, J.E. Jr. [Alfred Univ., NY (United States). Glass Science Lab.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Storing hydrogen inside of hollow glass spheres requires that the gas permeate through the glass walls. Hydrogen permeation through glass is relatively slow and the time to charge a sphere or bed of spheres is dependent on many factors. Permeation processes are strongly temperature dependent with behavior that follows an Arrhenius function., Rate is also dependent on the pressure drop driving force across a membrane wall and inversely proportional to thickness. Once filled, glass spheres will immediately begin to leak once the pressure driving force is reversed. Practical systems would take advantage of the fact that keeping the glass at ambient temperatures can minimize outboard leakage even with significant internal pressures. If hydrogen could be loaded and unloaded from glass microspheres with significantly less energy and particularly at near ambient temperature, some of the key barriers to commercializing this storage concept would be broken and further system engineering efforts may make this approach cost-effective. There were two key objectives for this effort. The first was to evaluate the application of hollow glass microspheres for merchant hydrogen storage and distribution and then determine the hydrogen permeation performance required for practical commercial use. The second objective was to identify, through a series of fundamental experiments, a low energy, low temperature field effect that could significantly enhance hydrogen permeation through glass without application of heat. If such an effect could be found, hollow glass microspheres could be much more attractive for hydrogen storage or possibly gas separation applications.

  2. Isothermal Martensitic and Pressure-Induced Delta to Alpha-Prime Phase Transformations in a Pu-Ga Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, A J; Wall, M A; Farber, D L; Moore, K T; Blobaum, K M

    2008-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A well-homogenized Pu-2 at.% Ga alloy can be retained in the metastable face-centered cubic {delta} phase at room temperature. Ultimately, this metastable {delta} phase will decompose via a eutectoid transformation to the thermodynamically stable monoclinic {alpha} phase and the intermetallic compound Pu{sub 3}Ga over a period of approximately 10,000 years [1]. In addition, these low solute-containing {delta}-phase Pu alloys are metastable with respect to an isothermal martensitic phase transformation to the {alpha}{prime} phase during low temperature excursions [2, 3] and are also metastable with respect to a {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} phase transformation with increases in pressure [3-5]. The low temperature {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} isothermal martensitic phase transformation in the Pu-2 at.% Ga alloy only goes to {approx}25% completion with the resultant {approx}20 {micro}m long by 2 {micro}m wide lath-shaped {alpha}{prime} particles dispersed within the {delta} matrix. In recently reported studies, Faure et al. [4] have observed a {delta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {alpha}{prime} pressure-induced phase transformation sequence during a diamond anvil cell investigation and, based on x-ray diffraction and density and compressibility experiments, Harbur [5] has concluded that both {alpha}{prime} and an amorphous phase are present in samples that were pressurized and recovered. In this work, a large volume moissanite anvil cell is constructed to permit the pressurization and recovery of specimens of a size suitable for TEM and electron diffraction studies. The cell, shown in Fig. 1, has an overall diameter of 101.6 mm, a moissanite anvil diameter of 9.00 mm, a culet size of 3 mm, and a spring steel gasket 0.5 mm thick with a hole diameter of 2.5 mm. A 2.3 mm diameter by 100 {micro}m thick sample of {delta}-phase Pu-2 at.% Ga is compressed at a rate of approximately 0.05 GPa/minute to {approx}1 GPa to induce the phase transformation to {alpha}{prime}. Optical microscopy of the recovered specimen reveals a very fine microstructure that appears to be single phase, although the resolution of this technique is insufficient to differentiate between single and multiple phases if the grain size is below approximately 1 {micro}m. X-ray diffraction, using a laboratory Cu K{sub {alpha}} source with wavelength of 1.542{angstrom}, shows the monoclinic reflections from the {alpha}{prime} phase, strong peaks from the aluminum specimen holder, and weak peaks from the face-centered cubic {delta} phase as shown in Fig. 2. The recovered specimen is prepared for TEM and electron diffraction studies as described in Moore et al. [6]. TEM reveals small regions of {delta} phase with a very high dislocation density interspersed between the 10-100's nm {alpha}{prime} grains as shown in Fig. 3. Electron diffraction, shown in the insert in Fig. 3, clearly reveals the presence of the {delta} phase. This microstructure is in contrast to the {alpha}{prime} particles that form as a result of the low-temperature isothermal martensite in which the {alpha}{prime} particles are lath-shaped and significantly larger as shown in the optical micrograph in Fig. 4 of a sample cooled to -120 C and held for 10 hours. In these preliminary results, there is no evidence of either an amorphous phase, as suggested by Harbur [5], or the presence of a {gamma} phase. We expected to observe an amorphous phase based on the similarity of this experiment to that of Harbur [5]. It is possible that the {gamma} phase, as reported by Faure et al. [4], does form as an intermediate, but it is not retained to ambient pressure.

  3. Multiple Mechanisms of Uranium Immobilization by Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaswamy, Vaideeswaran; Brent Peyton; Viamajala, Sridhar; Robin Gerlach; William Apel; Rajesh Sani; Alice Dohnalkova; Thomas Borch

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) from aqueous solution was studied using a Gram-positive facultative anaerobe, Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6, under anaerobic, non growth conditions in bicarbonate and PIPES buffers. Inorganic phosphate was released by cells during the experiments providing ligands for formation of insoluble U(VI) phosphates. Phosphate release was most probably the result of anaerobic hydrolysis of intracellular polyphosphates accumulated by ES6 during aerobic growth. Microbial reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was also observed. However, the relative magnitudes of U(VI) removal by abiotic (phosphate-based) precipitation and microbial reduction depended on the buffer chemistry. In bicarbonate buffer, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis showed U precipitates containing nearly equal fractions of U(IV) and U(VI), whereas in PIPES buffer, U precipitates consisted primarily of U(VI). Mass balance calculations for U and P corroborate these observations. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR42TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed both extracellular and intracellular accumulation of U solids. The U(VI)-phosphate precipitates, confirmed by EDS as containing U and P in equimolar concentrations, had nanometer sized lath structure. When anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), a known electron shuttle, was added to the experimental reactors, U reduction became the dominant removal mechanism, in contrast to primarily phosphate-mediated precipitation observed in the absence of AQDS. Uranium immobilization by abiotic precipitation or microbial reduction has been extensively reported; however, present work suggests that strain ES6 can remove U(VI) from solution simultaneously through precipitation with phosphate ligands and microbial reduction, depending on the environmental conditions. Cellulomonadaceae are environmentally relevant subsurface bacteria and here, for the first time, t 52 he presence of multiple U immobilization mechanisms within one organism is reported using Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6.

  4. Numerical controlled polishing, continued force wear and part correction experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hannah, P.R.; Day, R.D.; Hatch, D.J.; McClure, E.R.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This abstract reports the near completion of the first phase of this program. It is the aim of this program to provide the operator of a N/C diamond turning machine or N/C grinding machine (jig grinder) with the wear characteristics necessary to achieve uniform material removal. The second phase of this program addresses a different problem, although solving this problem is highly dependent on the results of the first phase. Diamond turned, or any lathe turned surface, exhibits regular tool marks due to the tool passing over the surface being cut. Changes in depth of cut, feed rate and work rpm will change the character of these groves, but will not eliminate them. Optical surfaces produced by this process exhibit increased scattering as the light wavelength decreases limiting their use; at least for optical purposes, to IR and some visible applications. Utilizing wear information gathered in the first part of this program we will attempt to reduce these residual tool marks by polishing. The polishing of diamond turned surfaces is not new. Diamond turned metal surfaces, especially in electroless nickel and high phosphorus nickel electroplate have been polished to improve their scatter characteristics. What we believe is unique is the use of a spherical wheel, rotating on axis and being moved over the part in a prescribed manner by numerical control. Over the past year we have made some major changes in our polishing methods and procedures. We have listed below these changes, as a refresher for the reader as to our previous procedures. These changes will be addressed in the body of the text.

  5. Continued force wear and part correction experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hannah, P.R.; Day, R.D.; Hatch, D.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This abstract reports the near completion of the first phase of this program. It is the aim of this program to provide the operator of a N/C diamond turning machine or N/C grinding machine (jig grinder) with the wear characteristics necessary to achieve uniform material removal. The second phase of this program addresses a different problem, although solving this problem is highly dependent on the results of the first phase. Diamond turned, or any lathe turned surface, exhibits regular tool marks due to the tool passing over the surface being cut. Changes in depth of cut, feed rate and work rpm will change the character of these groves, but will not eliminate them. Optical surfaces produced by this process exhibit increased scattering as the light wavelength decreases limiting their use; at least for optical purposes, to IR and some visible applications. Utilizing wear information gathered in the first part of this program we will attempt to reduce these residual tool marks by polishing. The polishing of diamond turned surfaces is not new. Diamond turned metal surfaces, especially in electroless nickel and high phosphorus nickel electroplate have been polished to improve their scatter characteristics. What we believe is unique is the use of a spherical wheel, rotating on axis and being moved over the part in a prescribed manner by numerical control. Over the past year we have made some major changes in our polishing methods and procedures. We have listed below these changes, as a refresher for the reader as to our previous procedures.

  6. Waste systems progress report, March 1983 through February 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickle, G.L.

    1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary design engineering for a Beryllum Electrorefining Demonstration Process has been completed and final engineering for fabrication of the process will be completed by the fourth quarter of FY-84. A remotely operated Advanced Size Reduction Facility (ASRF) is under construction and, when completed, will be used for sectioning plutonium-contaminated gloveboxes for disposal. Modification and additions were made to the 82 kg/hr Fluidized Bed Incinerator (FBI) in preparation for turning the unit over to Production. Several types of cementation processes are being developed to treat various TRU and low-level waste streams to reduce the dispersibility of the wastes. Portland cement and Envirostone gypsum cement were investigated as immobilization media for wet precipitation sludges and organic liquid wastes. Transuranic contaminated waste is being retrieved from storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for examination at Rocky Flats Plant for compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant-Waste Acceptance Criteria. The removal of unreacted calcium metal from the waste salt formed during the direct oxide reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal is necessary in order to comply with regulations regarding the transportation and storage of waste material containing flammable substances. Chemical methods of denitrification of simulated low-level nitrate wastes were investigated on a laboratory scale. Methods of inserting the carbon composite filters into presently stored and currently generated radioactive waste drums have been investigated and their sealing efficiencies determined. Analyses of carbon tetrachloride (CCl/sub 4/) recovered from spent lathe coolant revealed contamination levels above usable limits. A handbook covering techniques and processes that have been successfully demonstrated to minimize generation of new transuranic waste is being prepared.

  7. Griffith Energy Project Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1999-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Griffith Energy Limited Liability Corporation (Griffith) proposes to construct and operate the Griffith Energy Project (Project), a natural gas-fuel, combined cycle power plant, on private lands south of Kingman, Ariz. The Project would be a ''merchant plant'' which means that it is not owned by a utility and there is currently no long-term commitment or obligation by any utility to purchase the capacity and energy generated by the power plant. Griffith applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie and Parker-Davis transmission systems. Western, as a major transmission system owner, needs to provide access to its transmission system when it is requested by an eligible organization per existing policies, regulations and laws. The proposed interconnection would integrate the power generated by the Project into the regional transmission grid and would allow Griffith to supply its power to the competitive electric wholesale market. Based on the application, Western's proposed action is to enter into an interconnection and construction agreement with Griffith for the requested interconnections. The proposed action includes the power plant, water wells and transmission line, natural gas pipelines, new electrical transmission lines and a substation, upgrade of an existing transmission line, and access road to the power plant. Construction of segments of the transmission lines and a proposed natural gas pipeline also require a grant of right-of-way across Federal lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Public comments on the Draft EIS are addressed in the Final EIS, including addenda and modifications made as a result of the comments and/or new information.

  8. Capturing the emerging market for climate-friendly technologies: opportunities for Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper briefly describes the factors driving the growing demand for climate-friendly technologies, some of the key existing companies, organizations, and resources in Ohio, and the potential for Ohio to become a leading supplier of climate solutions. These solutions include a new generation of lower-emitting coal technologies, components for wind turbines, and the feedstocks and facilities to produce biofuels. Several public-private partnerships and initiatives have been established in Ohio. These efforts have encouraged the development of numerous federal- and state-funded projects and attracted major private investments in two increasingly strategic sectors of the Ohio economy: clean-coal technology and alternative energy technology, with a focus on fuel cells. Several major clean-coal projects have been recently initiated in Ohio. In April 2006, the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio approved American Electric Power's (AEP) plan to build a 600 MW clean-coal plant along the Ohio River in Meigs County. The plant will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology which makes it easier to capture carbon dioxide for sequestration. Three other potential coal gasification facilities are being considered in Ohio: a combination IGCC and synthetic natural gas plant in Allen County by Global Energy/Lima Energy; a coal-to-fuels facility in Lawrence County by Baard Energy, and a coal-to-fuels facility in Scioto County by CME North American Merchant Energy. The paper concludes with recommendations for how Ohio can capitalize on these emerging opportunities. These recommendations include focusing and coordinating state funding of climate technology programs, promoting the development of climate-related industry clusters, and exploring export opportunities to states and countries with existing carbon constraints.

  9. Multiple Mechanisms of Uranium Immobilization by Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaswamy, Vaideeswaran; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Peyton, Brent M.; Viamajala, Sridhar; Gerlach, Robin; Apel, William; Sani, Rajesh K.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Borch, Thomas

    2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Removal of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) from aqueous solution was studied using a Gram-positive facultative anaerobe, Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6, under anaerobic, non-growth conditions in bicarbonate and PIPES buffers. Inorganic phosphate was released by cells during the experiments providing ligands for formation of insoluble U(VI) phosphates. Phosphate release was most probably the result of anaerobic hydrolysis of intracellular polyphosphates accumulated by ES6 during aerobic growth. Microbial reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was also observed. However, the relative magnitudes of U(VI) removal by abiotic (phosphate-based) precipitation and microbial reduction depended on the buffer chemistry. In bicarbonate buffer, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy showed that U in the solid phase was present primarily as a non-uraninite U(IV) phase, whereas in PIPES buffer, U precipitates consisted primarily of U(VI)-phosphate. In both bicarbonate and PIPES buffer, net release of cellular phosphate was measured to be lower than that observed in U-free controls suggesting simultaneous precipitation of U and PO3-4 . In PIPES, U(VI) phosphates formed a significant portion of U precipitates and mass balance estimates of U and P along with XAFS data corroborate this hypothesis. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of samples from PIPES treatments indeed showed both extracellular and intracellular accumulation of U solids with nanometer sized lath structures that contained U and P. In bicarbonate, however, more phosphate was removed than required to stoichiometrically balance the U(VI)/U(IV) fraction determined by XAFS, suggesting that U(IV) precipitated together with phosphate in this system. When anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), a known electron shuttle, was added to the experimental reactors, the dominant removal mechanism in both buffers was reduction to a non-uraninite U(IV) phase. Uranium immobilization by abiotic precipitation or microbial reduction has been extensively reported; however, the present work suggests that strain ES6 can remove U(VI) from solution simultaneously through precipitation with phosphate ligands and microbial reduction, depending on the environmental conditions. Cellulomonadaceae are environmentally relevant subsurface bacteria and here, for the first time, the presence of multiple U immobilization mechanisms within one organism is reported using Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6.

  10. Volcanic ash in feed coal and its influence on coal combustion products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; Brownfield, I.K.; Hower, J.C.; Stricker, G.D.; O'Connor, J.T.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Geological Survey and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with an Indiana Utility to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from a coal-fired power plant. The plant utilizes a low-sulfur (.23--.47 weight percent S) coal from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of feed coal samples identified two mineral suites. A primary suite (not authigenic) consisting of quartz (detrital and volcanic beta-form grains), biotite, and minor zircon and a secondary authigenic mineral suite containing calcite, alumino-phosphates (crandallite and gorceixite), kaolinite, quartz, anatase, barite, and pyrite. The authigenic minerals are attributed to air-fall and reworked volcanic ash that was deposited in peat-forming mires. The Powder River Basin feed coals contain higher amounts of Ba, Ca, Mg, Na, Sr, and P compared to other analyzed eastern coals. These elements are associated with alumino-phosphate, biotite, calcite, and clay minerals. The element associations are indicative of coal that incorporated volcanic ash during deposition. XRD analysis of CCPs revealed a predominance of glass, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, quartz, and phosphates with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite, hematite, and spinel group minerals in the fly ash; and quartz, plagioclase (albite and anorthite), pyroxene (augite and fassaite), rhodonite, and akermanite in the bottom ash. Microprobe and SEM analysis of fly ash samples revealed quartz, zircon, monazite, euhedral laths of corundum with merrillite, hematite, dendritic spinels/ferrites, and rounded grains of wollastonite with periclase. The abundant Ca and Mg mineral phases in the fly ashes are related to the presence of carbonate, clay, and phosphate minerals in the feed coal. The Ca- and Mg-rich mineral phases in the CCPs can be attributed to volcanic minerals deposited in the peat-forming mire. Dissolution and alteration of these minerals occurred either in the peat-forming sate or during coalification/diagenesis contributing to the authigenic mineral suite. Additionally, detrital mineral input and epigenetic ground-water flow may have affected the geochemistry of the feed coal.

  11. Phlogopite and Quartz Lamellae in Diamond-bearing Diopside from Marbles of the Kokchetav Massif Kazakhstan: Exsolution or Replacement Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L Dobrzhinetskaya; R Wirth; D Rhede; Z Liu; H Green

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Exsolution lamellae of pyroxene in garnet (grt), coesite in titanite and omphacite from UHPM terranes are widely accepted as products of decompression. However, interpretation of oriented lamellae of phyllosilicates, framework silicates and oxides as a product of decompression of pyroxene is very often under debate. Results are presented here of FIB-TEM, FEG-EMP and synchrotron-assisted infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies of phlogopite (Phlog) and phlogopite + quartz (Qtz) lamellae in diamond-bearing clinopyroxene (Cpx) from ultra-high pressure (UHP) marble. These techniques allowed collection of three-dimensional information from the grain boundaries of both the single (phlogopite), two-phase lamellae (phlogopite + quartz), and fluid inclusions inside of diamond included in K-rich Cpx and understanding their relationships and mechanisms of formation. The Cpx grains contain in their cores lamellae-I, which are represented by topotactically oriented extremely thin lamellae of phlogopite (that generally are two units cell wide but locally can be seen to be somewhat broader) and microdiamond. The core composition is: (Ca{sub 0.94}K{sub 0.04}Na{sub 0.02})(Al{sub 0.06}Fe{sub 0.08}Mg{sub 0.88})(Si{sub 1.98}Al{sub 0.02})O{sub 6.00}. Fluid inclusions rich in K and Si are recognized in the core of the Cpx, having no visible connections to the lamellae-I. Lamellar-II inclusions consist of micron-size single laths of phlogopite and lens-like quartz or slightly elongated phlogopite + quartz intergrowths; all are situated in the rim zone of the Cpx. The composition of the rim is (Ca{sub 0.95}Fe{sub 0.03}Na{sub 0.02})(Al{sub 0.05}Fe{sub 0.05}Mg{sub 0.90})Si{sub 2}O{sub 6}, and the rim contains more Ca, Mg than the core, with no K there. Such chemical tests support our microstructural observations and conclusion that the phlogopite lamellae-I are exsolved from the K-rich Cpx-precursor during decompression. It is assumed that Cpx-precursor was also enriched in H{sub 2}O, because diamond included in the core of this Cpx contains fluid inclusions. The synchrotron IR spectra of such diamond record the presence of OH{sup -} stretching and H{sub 2}O bending motion regions. Lamellar-II inclusions are interpreted as forming partly because of modification of the lamellae-i in the presence of fluid enriched in K, Fe and Si during deformation of the host diopside; the latter is probably related to the shallower stage of exhumation of the UHP marble. This study emphasizes that in each case to understand the mechanism of lamellar inclusion formation more detailed studies are needed combining both compositional, structural and three-dimensional textural features of lamellar inclusions and their host.

  12. Validation of an Integrated Hydrogen Energy Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward C. Heydorn

    2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a 10-year project conducted by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to determine the feasibility of coproducing hydrogen with electricity. The primary objective was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a hydrogen energy station using a high-temperature fuel cell designed to produce power and hydrogen. This four-phase project had intermediate go/no-go decisions and the following specific goals: ?¢???¢ Complete a technical assessment and economic analysis of the use of high-temperature fuel cells, including solid oxide and molten carbonate, for the co-production of power and hydrogen (energy park concept). ?¢???¢ Build on the experience gained at the Las Vegas H2 Energy Station and compare/contrast the two approaches for co-production. ?¢???¢ Determine the applicability of co-production from a high-temperature fuel cell for the existing merchant hydrogen market and for the emerging hydrogen economy. ?¢???¢ Demonstrate the concept on natural gas for six months at a suitable site with demand for both hydrogen and electricity. ?¢???¢ Maintain safety as the top priority in the system design and operation. ?¢???¢ Obtain adequate operational data to provide the basis for future commercial activities, including hydrogen fueling stations. Work began with the execution of the cooperative agreement with DOE on 30 September 2001. During Phase 1, Air Products identified high-temperature fuel cells as having the potential to meet the coproduction targets, and the molten carbonate fuel cell system from FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FuelCell Energy) was selected by Air Products and DOE following the feasibility assessment performed during Phase 2. Detailed design, construction and shop validation testing of a system to produce 250 kW of electricity and 100 kilograms per day of hydrogen, along with site selection to include a renewable feedstock for the fuel cell, were completed in Phase 3. The system also completed six months of demonstration operation at the wastewater treatment facility operated by Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD, Fountain Valley, CA). As part of achieving the objective of operating on a renewable feedstock, Air Products secured additional funding via an award from the California Air Resources Board. The South Coast Air Quality Management District also provided cost share which supported the objectives of this project. System operation at OCSD confirmed the results from shop validation testing performed during Phase 3. Hydrogen was produced at rates and purity that met the targets from the system design basis, and coproduction efficiency exceeded the 50% target set in conjunction with input from the DOE. Hydrogen production economics, updated from the Phase 2 analysis, showed pricing of $5 to $6 per kilogram of hydrogen using current gas purification systems. Hydrogen costs under $3 per kilogram are achievable if next-generation electrochemical separation technologies become available.

  13. Water Security Toolkit User Manual Version 1.2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klise, Katherine A.; Siirola, John Daniel; Hart, David; Hart, William E.; Phillips, Cynthia A.; Haxton, Terranna; Murray, Regan; Janke, Robert; Taxon, Thomas; Laird, Carl; Seth, Arpan; Hackebeil, Gabriel; McGee, Shawn; Mann, Angelica

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Water Security Toolkit (WST) is a suite of open source software tools that can be used by water utilities to create response strategies to reduce the impact of contamination in a water distribution network . WST includes hydraulic and water quality modeling software , optimizati on methodologies , and visualization tools to identify: (1) sensor locations to detect contamination, (2) locations in the network in which the contamination was introduced, (3) hydrants to remove contaminated water from the distribution system, (4) locations in the network to inject decontamination agents to inactivate, remove, or destroy contaminants, (5) locations in the network to take grab sample s to help identify the source of contamination and (6) valves to close in order to isolate contaminate d areas of the network. This user manual describes the different components of WST , along w ith examples and case studies. License Notice The Water Security Toolkit (WST) v.1.2 Copyright c 2012 Sandia Corporation. Under the terms of Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000, there is a non-exclusive license for use of this work by or on behalf of the U.S. government. This software is distributed under the Revised BSD License (see below). In addition, WST leverages a variety of third-party software packages, which have separate licensing policies: Acro Revised BSD License argparse Python Software Foundation License Boost Boost Software License Coopr Revised BSD License Coverage BSD License Distribute Python Software Foundation License / Zope Public License EPANET Public Domain EPANET-ERD Revised BSD License EPANET-MSX GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) v.3 gcovr Revised BSD License GRASP AT&T Commercial License for noncommercial use; includes randomsample and sideconstraints executable files LZMA SDK Public Domain nose GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) v.2.1 ordereddict MIT License pip MIT License PLY BSD License PyEPANET Revised BSD License Pyro MIT License PyUtilib Revised BSD License PyYAML MIT License runpy2 Python Software Foundation License setuptools Python Software Foundation License / Zope Public License six MIT License TinyXML zlib License unittest2 BSD License Utilib Revised BSD License virtualenv MIT License Vol Common Public License vpykit Revised BSD License Additionally, some precompiled WST binary distributions might bundle other third-party executables files: Coliny Revised BSD License (part of Acro project) Dakota GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) v.2.1 PICO Revised BSD License (part of Acro project) i Revised BSD License Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met: * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution. * Neither the name of Sandia National Laboratories nor Sandia Corporation nor the names of its con- tributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without specific prior written permission. THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS %22AS IS%22 AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IM- PLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL SANDIA CORPORATION BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUD- ING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. ii Acknowledgements This work was supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agen

  14. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; Graham, Robin Lambert [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Stokes, Bryce [Navarro Research & Engineering; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small-diameter trees were considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result of a burgeoning worldwide demand and concerns about long-term supplies. By the end of the summer, oil pri

  15. Wind Energy Forecasting: A Collaboration of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and Xcel Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, K.; Wan, Y. H.; Wiener, G.; Liu, Y.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this report is the wind forecasting system developed during this contract period with results of performance through the end of 2010. The report is intentionally high-level, with technical details disseminated at various conferences and academic papers. At the end of 2010, Xcel Energy managed the output of 3372 megawatts of installed wind energy. The wind plants span three operating companies1, serving customers in eight states2, and three market structures3. The great majority of the wind energy is contracted through power purchase agreements (PPAs). The remainder is utility owned, Qualifying Facilities (QF), distributed resources (i.e., 'behind the meter'), or merchant entities within Xcel Energy's Balancing Authority footprints. Regardless of the contractual or ownership arrangements, the output of the wind energy is balanced by Xcel Energy's generation resources that include fossil, nuclear, and hydro based facilities that are owned or contracted via PPAs. These facilities are committed and dispatched or bid into day-ahead and real-time markets by Xcel Energy's Commercial Operations department. Wind energy complicates the short and long-term planning goals of least-cost, reliable operations. Due to the uncertainty of wind energy production, inherent suboptimal commitment and dispatch associated with imperfect wind forecasts drives up costs. For example, a gas combined cycle unit may be turned on, or committed, in anticipation of low winds. The reality is winds stayed high, forcing this unit and others to run, or be dispatched, to sub-optimal loading positions. In addition, commitment decisions are frequently irreversible due to minimum up and down time constraints. That is, a dispatcher lives with inefficient decisions made in prior periods. In general, uncertainty contributes to conservative operations - committing more units and keeping them on longer than may have been necessary for purposes of maintaining reliability. The downside is costs are higher. In organized electricity markets, units that are committed for reliability reasons are paid their offer price even when prevailing market prices are lower. Often, these uplift charges are allocated to market participants that caused the inefficient dispatch in the first place. Thus, wind energy facilities are burdened with their share of costs proportional to their forecast errors. For Xcel Energy, wind energy uncertainty costs manifest depending on specific market structures. In the Public Service of Colorado (PSCo), inefficient commitment and dispatch caused by wind uncertainty increases fuel costs. Wind resources participating in the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO) footprint make substantial payments in the real-time markets to true-up their day-ahead positions and are additionally burdened with deviation charges called a Revenue Sufficiency Guarantee (RSG) to cover out of market costs associated with operations. Southwest Public Service (SPS) wind plants cause both commitment inefficiencies and are charged Southwest Power Pool (SPP) imbalance payments due to wind uncertainty and variability. Wind energy forecasting helps mitigate these costs. Wind integration studies for the PSCo and Northern States Power (NSP) operating companies have projected increasing costs as more wind is installed on the system due to forecast error. It follows that reducing forecast error would reduce these costs. This is echoed by large scale studies in neighboring regions and states that have recommended adoption of state-of-the-art wind forecasting tools in day-ahead and real-time planning and operations. Further, Xcel Energy concluded reduction of the normalized mean absolute error by one percent would have reduced costs in 2008 by over $1 million annually in PSCo alone. The value of reducing forecast error prompted Xcel Energy to make substantial investments in wind energy forecasting research and development.