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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane pem fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

2007 Status of Manufacturing: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this document we assess the North American industry's current ability to manufacture polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells.

Wheeler, D.; Sverdrup, G.

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

2007 Status of Manufacturing: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

In this document we assess the North American industry's current ability to manufacture polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells.

Wheeler, D.; Sverdrup, G.

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Development of Novel PEM Membrane and Multiphase CD Modeling of PEM Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To understand heat and water management phenomena better within an operational proton exchange membrane fuel cell's (PEMFC) conditions, a three-dimensional, two-phase computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flow model has been developed and simulated for a complete PEMFC. Both liquid and gas phases are considered in the model by taking into account the gas flow, diffusion, charge transfer, change of phase, electro-osmosis, and electrochemical reactions to understand the overall dynamic behaviors of species within an operating PEMFC. The CFD model is solved numerically under different parametric conditions in terms of water management issues in order to improve cell performance. The results obtained from the CFD two-phase flow model simulations show improvement in cell performance as well as water management under PEMFCs operational conditions as compared to the results of a single phase flow model available in the literature. The quantitative information obtained from the two-phase model simulation results helped to develop a CFD control algorithm for low temperature PEM fuel cell stacks which opens up a route in designing improvement of PEMFC for better operational efficiency and performance. To understand heat and water management phenomena better within an operational proton exchange membrane fuel cell's (PEMFC) conditions, a three-dimensional, two-phase computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flow model has been developed and simulated for a complete PEMFC. Both liquid and gas phases are considered in the model by taking into account the gas flow, diffusion, charge transfer, change of phase, electro-osmosis, and electrochemical reactions to understand the overall dynamic behaviors of species within an operating PEMFC. The CFD model is solved numerically under different parametric conditions in terms of water management issues in order to improve cell performance. The results obtained from the CFD two-phase flow model simulations show improvement in cell performance as well as water management under PEMFCs operational conditions as compared to the results of a single phase flow model available in the literature. The quantitative information obtained from the two-phase model simulation results helped to develop a CFD control algorithm for low temperature PEM fuel cell stacks which opens up a route in designing improvement of PEMFC for better operational efficiency and performance.

K. J. Berry; Susanta Das

2009-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

4

Process for recycling components of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a PEM fuel cell can be recycled by contacting the MEA with a lower alkyl alcohol solvent which separates the membrane from the anode and cathode layers of the assembly. The resulting solution containing both the polymer membrane and supported noble metal catalysts can be heated under mild conditions to disperse the polymer membrane as particles and the supported noble metal catalysts and polymer membrane particles separated by known filtration means.

Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ)

2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

5

A Mathematical Model for Predicting the Life of PEM Fuel Cell Membranes Subjected to Hydration Cycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Under typical PEM fuel cell operating conditions, part of membrane electrode assembly is subjected to humidity cycling due to variation of inlet gas RH and/or flow rate. Cyclic membrane hydration/dehydration would cause cyclic swelling/shrinking of the unconstrained membrane. In a constrained membrane, it causes cyclic stress resulting in mechanical failure in the area adjacent to the gas inlet. A mathematical modeling framework for prediction of the lifetime of a PEM FC membrane subjected to hydration cycling is developed in this paper. The model predicts membrane lifetime as a function of RH cycling amplitude and membrane mechanical properties. The modeling framework consists of three model components: a fuel cell RH distribution model, a hydration/dehydration induced stress model that predicts stress distribution in the membrane, and a damage accrual model that predicts membrane life-time. Short descriptions of the model components along with overall framework are presented in the paper. The model was used...

Burlatsky, S F; O'Neill, J; Atrazhev, V V; Varyukhin, A N; Dmitriev, D V; Erikhman, N S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Improved Membrane Materials for PEM Fuel Cell Application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall goal of this project is to collect and integrate critical structure/property information in order to develop methods that lead to significant improvements in the durability and performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) materials. This project is focused on the fundamental improvement of PEMFC membrane materials with respect to chemical, mechanical and morphological durability as well as the development of new inorganically-modified membranes.

Kenneth A. Mauritz; Robert B. Moore

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

7

PEM/SPE fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A PEM/SPE fuel cell is described including a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) having a plurality of oriented filament embedded the face thereof for supporting the MEA and conducting current therefrom to contiguous electrode plates. 4 figs.

Grot, S.A.

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

8

PEM/SPE fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A PEM/SPE fuel cell including a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) having a plurality of oriented filament embedded the face thereof for supporting the MEA and conducting current therefrom to contiguous electrode plates.

Grot, Stephen Andreas (Henrietta, NY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

160 C PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE (PEM) FUEL CELL SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this program were: (a) to develop and demonstrate a new polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system that operates up to 160 C temperatures and at ambient pressures for stationary power applications, and (b) to determine if the GTI-molded composite graphite bipolar separator plate could provide long term operational stability at 160 C or higher. There are many reasons that fuel cell research has been receiving much attention. Fuel cells represent environmentally friendly and efficient sources of electrical power generation that could use a variety of fuel sources. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI), formerly Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), is focused on distributed energy stationary power generation systems. Currently the preferred method for hydrogen production for stationary power systems is conversion of natural gas, which has a vast distribution system in place. However, in the conversion of natural gas into a hydrogen-rich fuel, traces of carbon monoxide are produced. Carbon monoxide present in the fuel gas will in time cumulatively poison, or passivate the active platinum catalysts used in the anodes of PEMFC's operating at temperatures of 60 to 80 C. Various fuel processors have incorporated systems to reduce the carbon monoxide to levels below 10 ppm, but these require additional catalytic section(s) with sensors and controls for effective carbon monoxide control. These CO cleanup systems must also function especially well during transient load operation where CO can spike 300% or more. One way to circumvent the carbon monoxide problem is to operate the fuel cell at a higher temperature where carbon monoxide cannot easily adsorb onto the catalyst and poison it. Commercially available polymer membranes such as Nafion{trademark} are not capable of operation at temperatures sufficiently high to prevent this. Hence this project investigated a new polymer membrane alternative to Nafion{trademark} that is capable of operation at temperatures up to 160 C.

L.G. Marianowski

2001-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

10

A Mathematical Model for Predicting the Life of PEM Fuel Cell Membranes Subjected to Hydration Cycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Under typical PEM fuel cell operating conditions, part of membrane electrode assembly is subjected to humidity cycling due to variation of inlet gas RH and/or flow rate. Cyclic membrane hydration/dehydration would cause cyclic swelling/shrinking of the unconstrained membrane. In a constrained membrane, it causes cyclic stress resulting in mechanical failure in the area adjacent to the gas inlet. A mathematical modeling framework for prediction of the lifetime of a PEM FC membrane subjected to hydration cycling is developed in this paper. The model predicts membrane lifetime as a function of RH cycling amplitude and membrane mechanical properties. The modeling framework consists of three model components: a fuel cell RH distribution model, a hydration/dehydration induced stress model that predicts stress distribution in the membrane, and a damage accrual model that predicts membrane life-time. Short descriptions of the model components along with overall framework are presented in the paper. The model was used for lifetime prediction of a GORE-SELECT membrane.

S. F. Burlatsky; M. Gummalla; J. O'Neill; V. V. Atrazhev; A. N. Varyukhin; D. V. Dmitriev; N. S. Erikhman

2013-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

11

Investigation of the performance and water transport of a polymer electrolyte membrane (pem) fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel cell performance was obtained as functions of the humidity at the anode and cathode sites, back pressure, flow rate, temperature, and channel depth. The fuel cell used in this work included a membrane and electrode assembly (MEA) which possessed an active area of 25, 50, and 100 cm2 with the Nafion 117 and 115 membranes. Higher flow rates of inlet gases increase the performance of a fuel cell by increasing the removal of the water vapor, and decrease the mass transportation loss at high current density. Higher flow rates, however, result in low fuel utilization. An important factor, therefore, is to find the appropriate stoichiometric flow coefficient and starting point of stoichiometric flow rate in terms of fuel cell efficiency. Higher air supply leads to have better performance at the constant stoichiometric ratio at the anode, but not much increase after the stoichiometric ratio of 5. The effects of the environmental conditions and the channel depth for an airbreathing polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell were investigated experimentally. Triple serpentine designs for the flow fields with two different flow depths was used. The shallow flow field deign improves dramatically the performance of the air-breathing fuel cell at low relative humidity, and slightly at high relative humidity. For proton exchange membrane fuel cells, proper water management is important to obtain maximum performance. Water management includes the humidity levels of the inlet gases as well as the understanding of the water process within the fuel cell. Two important processes associated with this understanding are (1) electro-osmotic drag of water molecules, and (2) back diffusion of the water molecules. There must be a neutral water balance over time to avoid the flooding, or drying the membranes. For these reasons, therefore, an investigation of the role of water transport in a PEM fuel cell is of particular importance. In this study, through a water balance experiment, the electro-osmotic drag coefficient was quantified and studied. For the cases where the anode was fully hydrated and the cathode suffered from the drying, when the current density was increased, the electro- osmotic drag coefficient decreased.

Park, Yong Hun

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

PEM FUEL CELL TURBOCOMPRESSOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective is to assist the Department of Energy in the development of a low cost, reliable and high performance air compressor/expander. Technical Objective 1: Perform a turbocompressor systems PEM fuel cell trade study to determine the enhanced turbocompressor approach. Technical Objective 2: Using the results from technical objective 1, an enhanced turbocompressor will be fabricated. The design may be modified to match the flow requirements of a selected fuel cell system developer. Technical Objective 3: Design a cost and performance enhanced compact motor and motor controller. Technical Objective 4: Turbocompressor/motor controller development.

Mark K. Gee

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: High Temperature Membrane Working...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells typically operate at temperatures no higher than 60C-80C due to structural limitations of the membrane. Operating PEM fuel...

14

Research and development of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Phase I final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objective during Phase I was to develop a methanol-fueled 10-kW fuel cell power source and evaluate its feasibility for transportation applications. This report documents research on component (fuel cell stack, fuel processor, power source ancillaries and system sensors) development and the 10-kW power source system integration and test. The conceptual design study for a PEM fuel cell powered vehicle was documented in an earlier report (DOE/CH/10435-01) and is summarized herein. Major achievements in the program include development of advanced membrane and thin-film low Pt-loaded electrode assemblies that in reference cell testing with reformate-air reactants yielded performance exceeding the program target (0.7 V at 1000 amps/ft{sup 2}); identification of oxidation catalysts and operating conditions that routinely result in very low CO levels ({le} 10 ppm) in the fuel processor reformate, thus avoiding degradation of the fuel cell stack performance; and successful integrated operation of a 10-kW fuel cell stack on reformate from the fuel processor.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

PEM fuel cellstack development based on membrane-electrode assemblies of ultra-low platinum loadings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Attempt is made to scale-up single cell technology, based on ultra-low platinum loadings, to develop a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack for stationary power generation.

Zawodzinski, C.; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

Fronk, Matthew Howard (Honeoye Falls, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY); Hulett, Jay S. (Rochester, NY); Brady, Brian K. (North Chili, NY); Cunningham, Kevin M. (Romeo, MI)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

Fronk, Matthew Howard (Honeoye Falls, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY); Hulett, Jay S. (Rochester, NY); Brady, Brian K. NY); Cunningham, Kevin M. (Romeo, MI)

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

18

Reversible (unitized) PEM fuel cell devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Regenerative fuel cells (RFCs) are enabling for many weight-critical portable applications, since the packaged specific energy (>400 Wh/kg) of properly designed lightweight RFC systems is several-fold higher than that of the lightest weight rechargeable batteries. RFC systems can be rapidly refueled (like primary fuel cells), or can be electrically recharged (like secondary batteries) if a refueling infrastructure is not conveniently available. Higher energy capacity systems with higher performance, reduced weight, and freedom from fueling infrastructure are the features that RFCs promise for portable applications. Reversible proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, also known as unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs), or reversible regenerative fuel cells, are RFC systems which use reversible PEM cells, where each cell is capable of operating both as a fuel cell and as an electrolyzer. URFCs further economize portable device weight, volume, and complexity by combining the functions of fuel cells and electrolyzers in the same hardware, generally without any system performance or efficiency reduction. URFCs are being made in many forms, some of which are already small enough to be portable. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has worked with industrial partners to design, develop, and demonstrate high performance and high cycle life URFC systems. LLNL is also working with industrial partners to develop breakthroughs in lightweight pressure vessels that are necessary for URFC systems to achieve the specific energy advantages over rechargeable batteries. Proton Energy Systems, Inc. (Proton) is concurrently developing and commercializing URFC systems (UNIGEN' product line), in addition to PEM electrolyzer systems (HOGEN' product line), and primary PEM fuel cell systems. LLNL is constructing demonstration URFC units in order to persuade potential sponsors, often in their own conference rooms, that advanced applications based on URFC s are feasible. Safety and logistics force these URFC demonstration units to be small, transportable, and easily set up, hence they already prove the viability of URFC systems for portable applications.

Mitlitsky, F; Myers, B; Smith, W F; Weisberg, Molter, T M

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention contemplates a PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements (including bipolar plates/septums) comprising a titanium nitride coated light weight metal (e.g., Al or Ti) core, having a passivating, protective metal layer intermediate the core and the titanium nitride. The protective layer forms a barrier to further oxidation/corrosion when exposed to the fuel cell's operating environment. Stainless steels rich in CR, Ni, and Mo are particularly effective protective interlayers.

Li, Yang (Troy, MI); Meng, Wen-Jin (Okemos, MI); Swathirajan, Swathy (West Bloomfield, MI); Harris, Stephen J. (Bloomfield, MI); Doll, Gary L. (Orion Township, Oakland County, MI)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Quarterly technical progress report Number 1, July 1--September 30, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the first Technical Progress Report for DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389 awarded to Ford Motor Company on July 1, 1994. The overall objective of this contract is to advance the Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology for automotive applications. Specifically, the objectives resulting from this contract are to: (1) develop and demonstrate on a laboratory propulsion system within 2-1/2 years a fully functional PEM Fuel Cell Power System (including fuel cell peripherals, peak power augmentation and controls), this propulsion system will achieve, or will be shown to have the growth potential to achieve, the weights, volumes, and production costs which are competitive with those same attributes of equivalently performing internal combustion engine propulsion systems; (2) select and demonstrate a baseline onboard hydrogen storage method with acceptable weight, volume, cost, and safety features and analyze future alternatives; (3) analyze the hydrogen infrastructure components to ensure that hydrogen can be safely supplied to vehicles at geographically widespread convenient sites and at prices which are less than current gasoline prices per vehicle-mile; (4) identify any future R and D needs for a fully integrated vehicle and for achieving the system cost and performance goals.

Oei, G.

1994-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane pem fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the fourth Technical Progress Report for DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389 awarded to Ford Motor Company on July 1, 1994. The overall objective of this contract is to advance the Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology for automotive applications. Specifically, the objectives resulting from this contract are to: (1) Develop and demonstrate on a laboratory propulsion system within 2-1/2 years a fully functional PEM Fuel Cell Power System (including fuel cell peripherals, peak power augmentation and controls). This propulsion system will achieve, or will be shown to have the growth potential to achieve, the weights, volumes, and production costs which are competitive with those same attributes of equivalently performing internal combustion engine propulsion systems; (2) Select and demonstrate a baseline onboard hydrogen storage method with acceptable weight, volume, cost, and safety features and analyze future alternatives; and (3) Analyze the hydrogen infrastructure components to ensure that hydrogen can be safely supplied to vehicles at geographically widespread convenient sites and at prices which are less than current gasoline prices per vehicle-mile; (4) Identify any future R&D needs for a fully integrated vehicle and for achieving the system cost and performance goals.

Oei, D.

1995-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

22

PEM fuel cell monitoring system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus are disclosed for monitoring the performance of H{sub 2}--O{sub 2} PEM fuel cells. Outputs from a cell/stack voltage monitor and a cathode exhaust gas H{sub 2} sensor are corrected for stack operating conditions, and then compared to predetermined levels of acceptability. If certain unacceptable conditions coexist, an operator is alerted and/or corrective measures are automatically undertaken. 2 figs.

Meltser, M.A.; Grot, S.A.

1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

23

PEM fuel cell monitoring system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for monitoring the performance of H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 PEM fuel cells. Outputs from a cell/stack voltage monitor and a cathode exhaust gas H.sub.2 sensor are corrected for stack operating conditions, and then compared to predetermined levels of acceptability. If certain unacceptable conditions coexist, an operator is alerted and/or corrective measures are automatically undertaken.

Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY); Grot, Stephen Andreas (West Henrietta, NY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Theory of proton exchange membranes fuel cells and the testing of performance characteristics of polymer electrolyte membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells hold great promise as source of power. A hydrogen and oxygen PEM fuel is a simple fuel cell that can be theoretically characterized. The performance of a PEM fuel cell can be ...

Cruz-Gonzalez, Tizoc, 1982-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Recent Progress in Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are attracting much attention as promising clean power sources and an alternative to conventional internal combustion engines, secondary batteries, and other power sources. Much effort from government laboratories, industry, and academia has been devoted to developing PEM fuel cells, and great advances have been achieved. Although prototype cars powered by fuel cells have been delivered, successful commercialization requires fuel cell electrocatalysts, which are crucial components at the heart of fuel cells, meet exacting performance targets. In this review, we present a brief overview of the recent progress in fuel cell electrocatalysts, which involves catalyst supports, Pt and Pt-based electrocatalysts, and non-Pt electrocatalysts.

Zhang, Sheng; Shao, Yuyan; Yin, Geping; Lin, Yuehe

2013-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

26

AN EVALUATION OF SELECT PEM FUEL CELL SYSTEM MODELS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EVALUATING PEM FUEL CELL SYSTEM MODELS EVALUATING PEM FUEL CELL SYSTEM MODELS Kristina Haraldsson, Keith Wipke National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS 1633 Golden, Colorado, 80401 ABSTRACT Many proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell models have been reported in publications, and some are available commercially. This paper helps users match their modeling needs with specific fuel cell models. The paper has three parts. First, it describes the model selection criteria for choosing a fuel cell model. Second, it applies these criteria to select state- of-the-art fuel cell models available in literature and commercially. The advantages and disadvantages of commercial models are discussed. Third, the paper illustrates the process of choosing a fuel cell model with an

27

Computational analysis of heat and water transfer in a PEM fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are promising power-generation sources for mobile and stationary applications. In this paper a non-isothermal, single-domain and two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model is presented to investigate ... Keywords: CFD, PEM fuel cell, heat, non-isothermal, single-domain

Ebrahim Afshari; Seyed Ali Jazayeri

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Advanced Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Webinar on PEM Fuel Cells 2-12-2013 Webinar on PEM Fuel Cells 2-12-2013 Advanced Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells Nenad M. Markovic Vojislav R. Stamenkovic Materials Science Division Argonne National Laboratory 1 st Layer 2 nd Layer 3 rd Layer Pt=100 at.% Pt=48 at.% Ni=52 at.% Pt=87 at.% Ni=13 at.% Pt[111]-Skin surface 5 nm (111) (100) 3 nm Size distribution c-15 nm Shape Bulk composition Surface structure ? HR-TEM: Characterization of Nanoscale Pt/C Catalyst x 15 x 5 Surface composition ? 2 Surface Science Approach design, synthesis, characterization, and testing of well-defined interfaces Pt/C H 2 O 2 Real Applications FUEL CELLS / BATTERIES / ELECTROLIZERS Activity and Stability Mapping DFT/MC EC Pt Au Ru Surface Characterization UHV Chemical / Physical Synthesis SXS/HRDFS FTIR HRTEM DOUBLE-LAYER-BY-DESIGN

29

Method of making MEA for PEM/SPE fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making a membrane-electrode-assembly (MEA) for a PEM/SPE fuel cell comprising applying a slurry of electrode-forming material directly onto a membrane-electrolyte film. The slurry comprises a liquid vehicle carrying catalyst particles and a binder for the catalyst particles. The membrane-electrolyte is preswollen by contact with the vehicle before the electrode-forming slurry is applied to the membrane-electrolyte. The swollen membrane-electrolyte is constrained against shrinking in the "x" and "y" directions during drying. Following assembly of the fuel cell, the MEA is rehydrated inside the fuel cell such that it swells in the "z" direction for enhanced electrical contact with contiguous electrically conductive components of the fuel cell.

Hulett, Jay S. (West Henrietta, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprises corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant. 6 figs.

Neutzler, J.K.

1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

31

Brazed bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid-cooled, bipolar plate separating adjacent cells of a PEM fuel cell comprising corrosion-resistant metal sheets brazed together so as to provide a passage between the sheets through which a dielectric coolant flows. The brazement comprises a metal which is substantially insoluble in the coolant.

Neutzler, Jay Kevin (Rochester, NY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Manufacturing Needs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PEM Fuel Cell PEM Fuel Cell Manufacturing Needs Presented by Duarte Sousa, PE Manufacturing Fuel Cell Manhattan Project  Cost drivers were identified for the following: * MEA * Plates * Balance of Plant (BOP) * Fuel Processing Manufacturing Fuel Cell Project - Phase 1 Note that this presentation will be MEA centric as this is the working group I represent...  MEA Cost Drivers Identified: Identifying MEA Cost Drivers * The MEA was readily identified as the major cost driver in a 10 kW stationary stack. * The precious metal catalyst electrode is the major cost driver for the MEA. Thus, focus cost reduction efforts on MEA manufacturing methods. Identify gaps in MEA manufacturing technology: How much better can we do? Note: Cost reductions realized from both material price reduction

33

NIST: NIF - PEM Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Fuel cells are operationally equivalent to a battery. The reactants or fuel in a fuel cell can be replaced unlike a standard disposable or rechargeable ...

34

Compressed Hydrogen and PEM Fuel Cell System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

PEMFC technology for transportation must be competitive with internal combustion engine powertrains in a number of key metrics, including performance, life, reliability, and cost. Demonstration of PEMFC cost competitiveness has its own challenges because the technology has not been applied to high volume automotive markets. The key stack materials including membranes, electrodes, bipolar plates, and gas diffusion layers have not been produced in automotive volumes to the exacting quality requirements that will be needed for high stack yields and to the evolving property specifications of high performance automotive stacks. Additionally, balance-of-plant components for air, water, and thermal management are being developed to meet the unique requirements of fuel cell systems. To address the question of whether fuel cells will be cost competitive in automotive markets, the DOE has funded this project to assess the high volume production cost of PEM fuel cell systems. In this report a historical perspective of our efforts in assessment of PEMFC cost for DOE is provided along with a more in-depth assessment of the cost of compressed hydrogen storage is provided. Additionally, the hydrogen storage costs were incorporated into a system cost update for 2004. Assessment of cost involves understanding not only material and production costs, but also critical performance metrics, i.e., stack power density and associated catalyst loadings that scale the system components. We will discuss the factors influencing the selection of the system specification (i.e., efficiency, reformate versus direct hydrogen, and power output) and how these have evolved over time. The reported costs reflect internal estimates and feedback from component developers and the car companies. Uncertainty in the cost projection was addressed through sensitivity analyses.

Eric J. Carlson

2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

35

Degradation mechanisms and accelerated testing in PEM fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The durability of PEM fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. Although there has been recent progress in improving durability, further improvements are needed to meet the commercialization targets. Past improvements have largely been made possible because of the fundamental understanding of the underlying degradation mechanisms. By investigating component and cell degradation modes; defining the fundamental degradation mechanisms of components and component interactions new materials can be designed to improve durability. Various factors have been shown to affect the useful life of PEM fuel cells. Other issues arise from component optimization. Operational conditions (such as impurities in either the fuel and oxidant stream), cell environment, temperature (including subfreezing exposure), pressure, current, voltage, etc.; or transient versus continuous operation, including start-up and shutdown procedures, represent other factors that can affect cell performance and durability. The need for Accelerated Stress Tests (ASTs) can be quickly understood given the target lives for fuel cell systems: 5000 hours ({approx} 7 months) for automotive, and 40,000 hrs ({approx} 4.6 years) for stationary systems. Thus testing methods that enable more rapid screening of individual components to determine their durability characteristics, such as off-line environmental testing, are needed for evaluating new component durability in a reasonable turn-around time. This allows proposed improvements in a component to be evaluated rapidly and independently, subsequently allowing rapid advancement in PEM fuel cell durability. These tests are also crucial to developers in order to make sure that they do not sacrifice durability while making improvements in costs (e.g. lower platinum group metal [PGM] loading) and performance (e.g. thinner membrane or a GDL with better water management properties). To achieve a deeper understanding and improve PEM fuel cell durability LANL is conducting research to better define fuel cell component degradation mechanisms and correlate AST measurements to component in 'real-world' situations.

Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Novel Hydrogen Purification Device Integrated with PEM Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A prototype device containing twelve membrane tubes was designed, built, and demonstrated. The device produced almost 300 scfh of purified hydrogen at 200 psig feed pressure. The extent of purification met the program target of selectively removing enough impurities to enable industrial-grade hydrogen to meet purity specifications for PEM fuel cells. An extrusion process was developed to produce substrate tubes. Membranes met several test objectives, including completing 20 thermal cycles, exceeding 250 hours of operating life, and demonstrating a flux of 965 scfh/ft2 at 200 psid and 400 C.

Joseph Schwartz; Hankwon Lim; Raymond Drnevich

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

37

Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

USCAR FUEL CELL TECH TEAM USCAR FUEL CELL TECH TEAM CELL COMPONENT ACCELERATED STRESS TEST PROTOCOLS FOR PEM FUEL CELLS (Electrocatalysts, Supports, Membranes, and Membrane Electrode Assemblies) Revised May 26, 2010 Fuel cells, especially for automotive propulsion, must operate over a wide range of operating and cyclic conditions. The desired operating range encompasses temperatures from below the freezing point to well above the boiling point of water, humidity from ambient to saturated, and half-cell potentials from 0 to >1.5 volts. Furthermore, the anode side of the cell may be exposed to hydrogen and air during different parts of the driving and startup/shutdown cycles. The severity in operating conditions is greatly exacerbated by the transient and cyclic nature of

38

Pattern recognition monitoring of PEM fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The CO-concentration in the H.sub.2 feed stream to a PEM fuel cell stack is monitored by measuring current and voltage behavior patterns from an auxiliary cell attached to the end of the stack. The auxiliary cell is connected to the same oxygen and hydrogen feed manifolds that supply the stack, and discharges through a constant load. Pattern recognition software compares the current and voltage patterns from the auxiliary cell to current and voltage signature determined from a reference cell similar to the auxiliary cell and operated under controlled conditions over a wide range of CO-concentrations in the H.sub.2 fuel stream.

Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Pattern recognition monitoring of PEM fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The CO-concentration in the H{sub 2} feed stream to a PEM fuel cell stack is monitored by measuring current and voltage behavior patterns from an auxiliary cell attached to the end of the stack. The auxiliary cell is connected to the same oxygen and hydrogen feed manifolds that supply the stack, and discharges through a constant load. Pattern recognition software compares the current and voltage patterns from the auxiliary cell to current and voltage signature determined from a reference cell similar to the auxiliary cell and operated under controlled conditions over a wide range of CO-concentrations in the H{sub 2} fuel stream. 4 figs.

Meltser, M.A.

1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

40

Effects of Tungsten Oxide Addition on the Electrochemical Performance of Nanoscale Tantalum Oxide-Based Electrocatalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane PEM Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present study, the properties of a series of non-platinum based nanoscale tantalum oxide/tungsten oxide-carbon composite catalysts was investigated for potential use in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the cathode side of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly. Electrochemical performance was measured using a half-cell test set up with a rotating disc electrode and compared with a commercial platinum-on-carbon (Pt/C) catalyst. Overall, all of the oxide-based composite catalysts exhibit high ORR on-set potentials, comparable to that of the baseline Pt/C catalyst. The addition of tungsten oxide as a dopant to tantalum oxide greatly improved mass specific current density. Maximum performance was achieved with a catalyst containing 32 mol% of tungsten oxide, which exhibited a mass specific current density ~8% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.6 V vs. the normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) and ~35% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.2 V vs. NHE. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the tungsten cations in the composite catalysts exist in the +6 oxidation state, while the tantalum displays an average valence of +5, suggesting that the addition of tungsten likely creates an oxygen excess in the tantalum oxide structure that influences its oxygen absorption kinetics. When the 32mol% tungsten doped catalyst loading on the working electrode was increased to five times that of the original loading (which was equivalent to that of the baseline Pt/C catalyst), the area specific current density improved four fold, achieving an area specific current density ~35% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.6 V vs. NHE.

Oh, Tak Keun; Kim, Jin Yong; Shin, Yongsoon; Engelhard, Mark H.; Weil, K. Scott

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane pem fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Thermally efficient PEM fuel cell that runs on ethanol  

PEM fuel cell with onboard conversion of ethanol into hydrogen fuel Liquid ethanol feedstock eliminates problems with storage and transportation of gaseous hydrogen Control of temperature maximizes selectivity of reformation process and prevents ...

42

Research and Development of Proton-Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for Transportation Applications: Initial Conceptual Design Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report addresses Task 1.1, model development and application, and Task 1.2, vehicle mission definition. Overall intent is to produce a methanol-fueled 10-kW power source, and to evaluate electrochemical engine (ECE) use in transportation. Major achievements include development of an ECE power source model and its integration into a comprehensive power source/electric vehicle propulsion model, establishment of candidate FCV (fuel cell powered electric vehicle) mission requirements, initial FCV studies, and a candidate FCV recommendation for further study.

Not Available

1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

43

Phase 1 feasibility study of an integrated hydrogen PEM fuel cell system. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Evaluated in the report is the use of hydrogen fueled proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells for devices requiring less than 15 kW. Metal hydrides were specifically analyzed as a method of storing hydrogen. There is a business and technical part to the study that were developed with feedback from each other. The business potential of a small PEM product is reviewed by examining the markets, projected sales, and required investment. The major technical and cost hurdles to a product are also reviewed including: the membrane and electrode assembly (M and EA), water transport plate (WTP), and the metal hydrides. It was concluded that the best potential stationary market for hydrogen PEM fuel cell less than 15 kW is for backup power use in telecommunications applications.

Luczak, F.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low-Cost Membrane - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Monjid Hamdan (Primary Contact), Tim Norman Giner, Inc. (Formerly Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC.) 89 Rumford Ave. Newton, MA 02466 Phone: (781) 529-0526 Email: mhamdan@ginerinc.com DOE Managers HQ: Erika Sutherland Phone: (202) 586-3152 Email: Erika.Sutherland@ee.doe.gov GO: David Peterson Phone: (720) 356-1747 Email: David.Peterson@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FG36-08GO18065 Subcontractors: * Virginia Polytechnic Institute and University, Blacksburg, VA * Parker Hannifin Ltd domnick hunter Division, Hemel Hempstead, United Kingdom Project Start Date: May 1, 2008

45

Novel Catalyst Support Materials for PEM Fuel Cells: Current Status and Future Prospects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The catalyst supports exhibit great influence on the cost, performance, and durability of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. This review paper is to summarize several important kinds of novel support materials for PEM fuel cells (including direct methanol fuel cell, DMFC): nanostructured carbon materials (carbon nanotubes/carbon nanofibers, mesoporous carbon), conductive doped diamonds and nanodiamonds, conductive oxides (tin oxide/indium tin oxide, titanium oxide, tungsten oxide) and carbides (tungsten carbides). The advantages and disadvantages, the acting mechanism to promote electrocatalysis, and the strategies to improve present catalyst support materials and to search for new ones are discussed. This is expected to throw light on future development of catalyst support for PEM fuel cells.

Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong; Lin, Yuehe

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

power with stationary andmotor vehicle PEM fuel cell systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This investigation examines the economics of producing electricity from proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems under various conditions, including the possibility of using fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to produce power when they are parked at office buildings and residences. The analysis shows that the economics of both stationary fuel cell and FCV-based power vary significantly with variations in key input variables such as the price of natural gas, electricity prices, fuel cell andreformer system costs, andfuel cell system durability levels. The central case results show that stationary PEM fuel cell systems can supply electricity for offices andhomes in California at a net savings when fuel cell system costs reach about $6000 for a 5 kW home system ($1200/kW) and $175,000 for a 250 kW commercial system ($700/kW) andassuming somewhat favorable natural gas costs of $6/GJ at residences and $4/GJ at commercial buildings. Grid-connected FCVs in commercial settings can also potentially supply electricity at competitive rates, in some cases producing significant annual benefits. Particularly attractive is the combination of net metering along with timeof-use electricity rates that allow power to be suppliedto the utility gridat the avoidedcost of central power plant generation. FCVbased power at individual residences does not appear to be as attractive, at least where FCV power can only be used directly or banked with the utility for net metering and not sold in greater quantity, due to the low load levels at these locations that provide a

Timothy Lipman; Jennifer L. Edwards; Daniel M. Kammen; Timothy E. Lipman; Jennifer L. Edwards; Daniel M. Kammen

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Sensor Development for PEM Fuel Cell Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document reports on the work done by Honeywell Sensing and Control to investigate the feasibility of modifying low cost Commercial Sensors for use inside a PEM Fuel Cell environment. Both stationary and automotive systems were considered. The target environment is hotter (100 C) than the typical commercial sensor maximum of 70 C. It is also far more humid (100% RH condensing) than the more typical 95% RH non-condensing at 40 C (4% RH maximum at 100 C). The work focused on four types of sensors, Temperature, Pressure, Air Flow and Relative Humidity. Initial design goals were established using a market research technique called Market Driven Product Definition (MDPD). A series of interviews were conducted with various users and system designers in their facilities. The interviewing team was trained in data taking and analysis per the MDPD process. The final result was a prioritized and weighted list of both requirements and desires for each sensor. Work proceeded on concept development for the 4 types of sensors. At the same time, users were developing the actual fuel cell systems and gaining knowledge and experience in the use of sensors and controls systems. This resulted in changes to requirements and desires that were not anticipated during the MDPD process. The concepts developed met all the predicted requirements. At the completion of concept development for the Pressure Sensor, it was determined that the Fuel Cell developers were happy with off-the-shelf automotive pressure sensors. Thus, there was no incentive to bring a new Fuel Cell Specific Pressure Sensor into production. Work was therefore suspended. After the experience with the Pressure Sensor, the requirements for a Temperature Sensor were reviewed and a similar situation applied. Commercially available temperature sensors were adequate and cost effective and so the program was not continued from the Concept into the Design Phase.

Steve Magee; Richard Gehman

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

48

Free air breathing planar PEM fuel cell design for portable electronics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PEM fuel cell technology is an energy source that can provide several times more energy per unit volume then current lithium ion batteries. However, PEM fuel cells remain to be optimized in volume and mass to create a ...

Crumlin, Ethan J

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Final Scientific Report, New Proton Conductive Composite Materials for PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

This project covered one of the main challenges in present-day PEM fuel cell technology: to design a membrane capable of maintaining high conductivity and mechanical integrity when temperature is elevated and water vapor pressure is severely reduced. The DOE conductivity milestone of 0.1 S cm-1 at 120 degrees C and 50 % relative humidity (RH) for designed membranes addressed the target for the project. Our approach presumed to develop a composite membrane with hydrophilic proton-conductive inorganic material and the proton conductive polymeric matrix that is able to bridge the conduction paths in the membrane. The unique aspect of our approach was the use of highly functionalized inorganic additives to benefit from their water retention properties and high conductivity as well. A promising result turns out that highly hydrophilic phosphorsilicate gels added in Nafion matrix improved PEM fuel cell performance by over 50% compared with bare Nafion membrane at 120 degrees C and 50 % RH. This achievement realizes that the fuel cell operating pressure can be kept low, which would make the PEM fuel cell much more cost efficient and adaptable to practical operating conditions and facilitate its faster commercialization particularly in automotive and stationary applications.

Lvov, Serguei

2010-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

50

Engineered nano-scale ceramic supports for PEM fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Catalyst support durability is currently a technical barrier for commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, especially for transportation applications. Degradation and corrosion of the conventional carbon supports leads to losses in active catalyst surface area and, consequently, reduced performance. As a result, the major aim of this work is to develop support materials that interact strongly with Pt, yet sustain bulk-like catalytic activities with very highly dispersed particles. This latter aspect is key to attaining the 2015 DOE technical targets for platinum group metal (PGM) loadings (0.20 mg/cm{sup 2}). The benefits of the use of carbon-supported catalysts to drastically reduce Pt loadings from the early, conventional Pt-black technology are well known. The supported platinum catalyzed membrane approach widely used today for fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) was developed shortly thereafter these early reports. Of direct relevance to this present work, are the investigations into Pt particle growth in PEM fuel cells, and subsequent follow-on work showing evidence of Pt particles suspended free of the support within the catalyst layer. Further, durability work has demonstrated the detrimental effects of potential cycling on carbon corrosion and the link between electrochemical surface area and particle growth. To avoid the issues with carbon degradation altogether, it has been proposed by numerous fuel cell research groups to replace carbon supports with conductive materials that are ceramic in nature. Intrinsically, these many conductive oxides, carbides, and nitrides possess the prerequisite electronic conductivity required, and offer corrosion resistance in PEMFC environments; however, most reports indicate that obtaining sufficient surface area remains a significant barrier to obtaining desirable fuel ceU performance. Ceramic materials that exhibit high electrical conductivity and necessary stability under fuel cell conditions must also exhibit high surface area as a necessary adjunct to obtaining high Pt dispersions and Pt utilization targets. Our goal in this work is to identify new synthesis approaches together with materials that will lead to ceramic supports with high surface areas and high Pt dispersions. Several strong candidates for use as PEMFC catalyst supports include: transition metal nitrides and substoichiometric titanium oxides, which hither to now have been prepared by other researcher groups with relatively low surface areas (ca. 1-50 m{sup 2}/g typical). To achieve our goals of engineering high surface area, conductive ceramic support for utilization in PEMFCs, a multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary team with experience synthesizing and investigating these materials has been assembled. This team is headed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and includes Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of New Mexico. This report describes our fiscal year 2010 technical progress related to applying advanced synthetiC methods towards the development of new ceramic supports for Pt catalysts for PEM fuel cells.

Brosha, Eric L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Blackmore, Karen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henson, Neil J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 ???????????????????????????????°C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and states of water in the membranes. Further improvements in properties were achieved through incorporation of inorganic fillers, such as phosphotungstic acid and zirconium hydrogen phosphate. Block copolymers were also studied due to the possibility to achieve a desired combination of homopolymer properties as well as the unique morphologies that are possible with block copolymers. Bezoyl substituted poly(p-phenylene) blocks were combined with poly(arylene ether) blocks to merge the structural rigidity of the poly(p-phenylene) with the ductility and high protonic conductivity of the poly(arylene ether)s. As evidenced by our many refereed publications and preprints, the research that we have conducted over the past several years has made a valuable and significant contribution to the literature and to the state of understanding of proton exchange membranes. Our early efforts at scale-up have suggested that the directly polymerized disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers are commercially viable alternatives for proton exchange membranes. A new process for bipolar plates was developed and is described. An important single domain PEMFC model was developed and is documented in this final report.

James E. McGrath

2005-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

52

Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 degrees C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and states of water in the membranes. Further improvements in properties were achieved through incorporation of inorganic fillers, such as phosphotungstic acid and zirconium hydrogen phosphate. Block copolymers were also studied due to the possibility to achieve a desired combination of homopolymer properties as well as the unique morphologies that are possible with block copolymers. Bezoyl substituted poly(p-phenylene) blocks were combined with poly(arylene ether) blocks to merge the structural rigidity of the poly(p-phenylene) with the ductility and high protonic conductivity of the poly(arylene ether)s. As evidenced by our many refereed publications and preprints, the research that we have conducted over the past several years has made a valuable and significant contribution to the literature and to the state of understanding of proton exchange membranes. Our early efforts at scale-up have suggested that the directly polymerized disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers are commercially viable alternatives for proton exchange membranes. A new process for bipolar plates was developed and is described. An important single domain PEMFC model was developed and is documented in herein.

James E. McGrath; Donald G. Baird; Michael von Spakovsky

2005-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

53

Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in PEM Fuel Cells: in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization J. Vernon Cole and Ashok Gidwani CFDRC Prepared for: DOE Hydrogen Fuel Cell Kickoff Meeting February 13, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information. Background Water Management Issues Arise From: ƒ Generation of water by cathodic reaction ƒ Membrane humidification requirements ƒ Capillary pressure driven transport through porous MEA and GDL materials ƒ Scaling bipolar plate channel dimensions J.H. Nam and M. Kaviany, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 46, pp. 4595-4611 (2003) Relevant Barriers and Targets ƒ Improved Gas Diffusion Layer, Flow Fields, Membrane Electrode Assemblies Needed to Improve Water Management: * Flooding blocks reactant transport

54

Research and development of Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Fuel cell infrastructure and commercialization study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper has been prepared in partial fulfillment of a subcontract from the Allison Division of General Motors under the terms of Allison`s contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-AC02-90CH10435). The objective of this task (The Fuel Cell Infrastructure and Commercialization Study) is to describe and prepare preliminary evaluations of the processes which will be required to develop fuel cell engines for commercial and private vehicles. This report summarizes the work undertaken on this study. It addresses the availability of the infrastructure (services, energy supplies) and the benefits of creating public/private alliances to accelerate their commercialization. The Allison prime contract includes other tasks related to the research and development of advanced solid polymer fuel cell engines and preparation of a demonstration automotive vehicle. The commercialization process starts when there is sufficient understanding of a fuel cell engine`s technology and markets to initiate preparation of a business plan. The business plan will identify each major step in the design of fuel cell (or electrochemical) engines, evaluation of the markets, acquisition of manufacturing facilities, and the technical and financial resources which will be required. The process will end when one or more companies have successfully developed and produced fuel cell engines at a profit. This study addressed the status of the information which will be required to prepare business plans, develop the economic and market acceptance data, and to identify the mobility, energy and environment benefits of electrochemical or fuel cell engines. It provides the reader with information on the status of fuel cell or electrochemical engine development and their relative advantages over competitive propulsion systems. Recommendations and descriptions of additional technical and business evaluations that are to be developed in more detail in Phase II, are included.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Performance of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Based on New Polymeric Ionomers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, novel polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) based on new sulfonated polyimides have been prepared. These polymers have structure of rigid aromatic polymer backbone and flexible aliphatic side chain terminated with sulfonic acid group. Membrane ... Keywords: PEM fuel cell, polymer electrolyte membrane, proton conductivity, fuel cell performance

Yan Yin; Qing Du; Kenichi Okamoto

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Final Report - MEA and Stack Durability for PEM Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are expected to change the landscape of power generation over the next ten years. For this to be realized one of the most significant challenges to be met for stationary systems is lifetime, where 40,000 hours of operation with less than 10% decay is desired. This project conducted fundamental studies on the durability of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) and fuel cell stack systems with the expectation that knowledge gained from this project will be applied toward the design and manufacture of MEAs and stack systems to meet DOEs 2010 stationary fuel cell stack systems targets. The focus of this project was PEM fuel cell durability understanding the issues that limit MEA and fuel cell system lifetime, developing mitigation strategies to address the lifetime issues and demonstration of the effectiveness of the mitigation strategies by system testing. To that end, several discoveries were made that contributed to the fundamental understanding of MEA degradation mechanisms. (1) The classically held belief that membrane degradation is solely due to end-group unzipping is incorrect; there are other functional groups present in the ionomer that are susceptible to chemical attack. (2) The rate of membrane degradation can be greatly slowed or possibly eliminated through the use of additives that scavenge peroxide or peroxyl radicals. (3) Characterization of GDL using dry gases is incorrect due to the fact that fuel cells operate utilizing humidified gases. The proper characterization method involves using wet gas streams and measuring capillary pressure as demonstrated in this project. (4) Not all Platinum on carbon catalysts are created equally the major factor impacting catalyst durability is the type of carbon used as the support. (5) System operating conditions have a significant impact of lifetime the lifetime was increased by an order of magnitude by changing the load profile while all other variables remain the same. (6) Through the use of statistical lifetime analysis methods, it is possible to develop new MEAs with predicted durability approaching the DOE 2010 targets. (7) A segmented cell was developed that extend the resolution from ~ 40 to 121 segments for a 50cm2 active area single cell which allowed for more precise investigation of the local phenomena in a operating fuel cell. (8) The single cell concept was extended to a fuel size stack to allow the first of its kind monitoring and mapping of an operational fuel cell stack. An internal check used during this project involved evaluating the manufacturability of any new MEA component. If a more durable MEA component was developed in the lab, but could not be scaled-up to high speed, high volume manufacturing, then that component was not selected for the final MEA-fuel cell system demonstration. It is the intent of the team to commercialize new products developed under this project, but commercialization can not occur if the manufacture of said new components is difficult or if the price is significantly greater than existing products as to make the new components not cost competitive. Thus, the end result of this project is the creation of MEA and fuel cell system technology that is capable of meeting the DOEs 2010 target of 40,000 hours for stationary fuel cell systems (although this lifetime has not been demonstrated in laboratory or field testing yet) at a cost that is economically viable for the developing fuel cell industry. We have demonstrated over 2,000 hours of run time for the MEA and system developed under this project.

Yandrasits, Michael A.

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

Method of monitoring CO concentrations in hydrogen feed to a PEM fuel cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The CO concentration in the H.sub.2 feed stream to a PEM fuel cell stack is monitored by measuring current and/or voltage behavior patterns from a PEM-probe communicating with the reformate feed stream. Pattern recognition software may be used to compare the current and voltage patterns from the PEM-probe to current and voltage telltale outputs determined from a reference cell similar to the PEM-probe and operated under controlled conditions over a wide range of CO concentrations in the H.sub.2 fuel stream. The PEM-probe is intermittently purged of any CO build-up on the anode catalyst (e.g., by (1) flushing the anode with air, (2) short circuiting the PEM-probe, or (3) reverse biasing the PEM-probe) to keep the PEM-probe at peak performance levels.

Grot, Stephen Andreas (Rochester, NY); Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY); Gutowski, Stanley (Pittsford, NY); Neutzler, Jay Kevin (Rochester, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY); Weisbrod, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Transition Metal Sulfide Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transition Metal Sulfide Transition Metal Sulfide Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells Hua Zhang 1 , Ysmael Verde-Gómez 1 and Allan J. Jacobson 1 Alejandra Ramirez 2 and Russell R. Chianelli 2 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Houston Houston, TX 77204 2 Materials Research and Technology Institute, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 Transition Metal Sulfide Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells Hua Zhang 1 , Ysmael Verde-Gómez 1 and Allan J. Jacobson 1 Alejandra Ramirez 2 and Russell R. Chianelli 2 1 Department of Chemistry, University of Houston Houston, TX 77204 2 Materials Research and Technology Institute, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968 March 21, 2003 Objectives ¾ Investigate non-platinum electro-catalysts with CO tolerance ¾ Focus on transition metal sulfides as electro-catalysts

59

Application of Neural Network approach for Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques, particularly the Neural Networks (NNs), are recently having significant impact on power electronics. In a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell system, there is a strong relationship between the available ... Keywords: NNC, PEM fuel cells, dynamic modelling, neural network controllers, neural networks, output variables, performance modelling, power electronics, proton exchange membrane

Mustapha Hatti; Mustapha Tioursi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update September 30, 2010 Prepared by: Brian D. James, Jeffrey A. Kalinoski...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane pem fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Manufacturing Needs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cell Manhattan Project #12; Cost drivers were identified for the following: · MEA · Plates · Balance of Plant (BOP) · Fuel Processing Manufacturing Fuel Cell Project ­ Phase 1 Note that this presentation-kilowatt reformer based FC generators #12;Manufacturing Fuel Cell Project ­ Phase 2 Manufacturing Roadmap · Projects

62

The Stirred Tank Reactor Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The design and operation of a differential Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell is described. The fuel cell design is based on coupled Stirred Tank Reactors (STR); the gas phase in each reactor compartment was well mixed. The characteristic times for reactant flow, gas phase diffusion and reaction were chosen so that the gas compositions at both the anode and cathode are uniform. The STR PEM fuel cell is one-dimensional; the only spatial gradients are transverse to the membrane. The STR PEM fuel cell was employed to examine fuel cell start- up, and its dynamic responses to changes in load, temperature and reactant flow rates. Multiple time scales in systems response are found to correspond to water absorption by the membrane, water transport through the membrane and stress-related mechanical changes of the membrane.

Benziger, J; Karnas, E; Moxley, J; Teuscher, C; Kevrekidis, Yu G; Benziger, Jay

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Final Report: Development of a Thermal and Water Management System for PEM Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final program report is prepared to provide the status of program activities performed over the period of 9 years to develop a thermal and water management (TWM) system for an 80-kW PEM fuel cell power system. The technical information and data collected during this period are presented in chronological order by each calendar year. Balance of plant (BOP) components of a PEM fuel cell automotive system represents a significant portion of total cost based on the 2008 study by TIAX LLC, Cambridge, MA. The objectives of this TWM program were two-fold. The first objective was to develop an advanced cooling system (efficient radiator) to meet the fuel cell cooling requirements. The heat generated by the fuel cell stack is a low-quality heat (small difference between fuel cell stack operating temperature and ambient air temperature) that needs to be dissipated to the ambient air. To minimize size, weight, and cost of the radiator, advanced fin configurations were evaluated. The second objective was to evaluate air humidification systems which can meet the fuel cell stack inlet air humidity requirements. The moisture from the fuel cell outlet air is transferred to inlet air, thus eliminating the need for an outside water source. Two types of humidification devices were down-selected: one based on membrane and the other based on rotating enthalpy wheel. The sub-scale units for both of these devices have been successfully tested by the suppliers. This project addresses System Thermal and Water Management.

Zia Mirza, Program Manager

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

64

Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of a successful U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) funded two-year $2.9 MM program lead by GrafTech International Inc. (GrafTech) are reported and summarized. The program goal was to develop the next generation of high temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell bipolar plates for use in transportation fuel cell applications operating at temperatures up to 120 C. The bipolar plate composite developed during the program is based on GrafTechs GRAFCELL? resin impregnated flexible graphite technology and makes use of a high temperature Huntsman Advanced Materials resin system which extends the upper use temperature of the composite to the DoE target. High temperature performance of the new composite is achieved with the added benefit of improvements in strength, modulus, and dimensional stability over the incumbent resin systems. Other physical properties, including thermal and electrical conductivity of the new composite are identical to or not adversely affected by the new resin system. Using the new bipolar plate composite system, machined plates were fabricated and tested in high temperature single-cell fuel cells operating at 120 C for over 1100 hours by Case Western Reserve University. Final verification of performance was done on embossed full-size plates which were fabricated and glued into bipolar plates by GrafTech. Stack testing was done on a 10-cell full-sized stack under a simulated drive cycle protocol by Ballard Power Systems. Freeze-thaw performance was conducted by Ballard on a separate 5-cell stack and shown to be within specification. A third stack was assembled and shipped to Argonne National Laboratory for independent performance verification. Manufacturing cost estimate for the production of the new bipolar plate composite at current and high volume production scenarios was performed by Directed Technologies Inc. (DTI). The production cost estimates were consistent with previous DoE cost estimates performed by DTI for the DoE on metal plates. The final result of DTIs analysis for the high volume manufacturing scenario ($6.85 /kW) came in slightly above the DoE target of $3 to $5/kW. This estimate was derived using a Best Case Scenario for many of the production process steps and raw material costs with projections to high volumes. Some of the process improvements assumed in this Best Case Scenario including high speed high impact forming and solvent-less resins, have not yet been implemented, but have a high probability of potential success.

Orest Adrianowycz; Julian Norley; David J. Stuart; David Flaherty; Ryan Wayne; Warren Williams; Roger Tietze; Yen-Loan H. Nguyen; Tom Zawodzinski; Patrick Pietrasz

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

Development of a lithium hydride powered hydrogen generator for use in long life, low power PEM fuel cell power supplies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis studies a hybrid PEM fuel cell system for use in low power, long life sensor networks. PEM fuel cells offer high efficiency and environmental friendliness but have not been widely adopted due to cost, reliability, ...

Strawser, Daniel DeWitt

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technologies Technologies Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for NNSA U N C L A S S I F I E D Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Eric L. Brosha, Anthony Burrell, Neil Henson, Jonathan Phillips, and Tommy Rockward Los Alamos National Laboratory Timothy Ward, Plamen Atanassov University of New Mexico Karren More Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fuel Cell Technologies Program Kick-off Meeting September 30 - October 1, 2009 Washington DC Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for NNSA U N C L A S S I F I E D Fuel Cell Technologies Objectives  Develop a ceramic alternative to carbon material supports for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell cathode that exhibits an enhanced resistance to corrosion and Pt coalescence while preserving positive attributes of carbon such as

67

On-Board Vehicle, Cost Effective Hydrogen Enhancement Technology for Transportation PEM Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Final Report of On-Board Vehicle, Cost Effective Hydrogen Enhancement Technology for Transportation PEM Fuel Cells. The objective of this effort was to technologically enable a compact, fast start-up integrated Water Gas Shift-Pd membrane reactor for integration into an On Board Fuel Processing System (FPS) for an automotive 50 kWe PEM Fuel Cell (PEM FC). Our approach was to: (1) use physics based reactor and system level models to optimize the design through trade studies of the various system design and operating parameters; and (2) synthesize, characterize and assess the performance of advanced high flux, high selectivity, Pd alloy membranes on porous stainless steel tubes for mechanical strength and robustness. In parallel and not part of this program we were simultaneously developing air tolerant, high volumetric activity, thermally stable Water Gas Shift catalysts for the WGS/membrane reactor. We identified through our models the optimum WGS/membrane reactor configuration, and best Pd membrane/FPS and PEM FC integration scheme. Such a PEM FC power plant was shown through the models to offer 6% higher efficiency than a system without the integrated membrane reactor. The estimated FPS response time was < 1 minute to 50% power on start-up, 5 sec transient response time, 1140 W/L power density and 1100 W/kg specific power with an estimated production cost of $35/kW. Such an FPS system would have a Catalytic Partial Oxidation System (CPO) rather than the slower starting Auto-Thermal Reformer (ATR). We found that at optimum WGS reactor configuration that H{sub 2} recovery efficiencies of 95% could be achieved at 6 atm WGS pressure. However optimum overall fuel to net electrical efficiency ({approx}31%) is highest at lower fuel processor efficiency (67%) with 85% H{sub 2} recovery because less parasitic power is needed. The H{sub 2} permeance of {approx}45 m{sup 3}/m{sup 2}-hr-atm{sup 0.5} at 350 C was assumed in these simulations. In the laboratory we achieved a H{sub 2} permeance of 50 m{sup 3}/(m{sup 2}-hr-atm{sup 0.5}) with a H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity of 110 at 350 C with pure Pd. We also demonstrated that we could produce Pd-Ag membranes. Such alloy membranes are necessary because they aren't prone to the Pd-hydride {alpha}-{beta} phase transition that is known to cause membrane failure in cyclic operation. When funding was terminated we were on track to demonstrated Pd-Ag alloy deposition on a nano-porous ({approx}80 nm) oxide layer supported on porous stainless steel tubing using a process designed for scale-up.

Thomas H. Vanderspurt; Zissis Dardas; Ying She; Mallika Gummalla; Benoit Olsommer

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

68

New approaches to improve the performance of the PEM based fuel cell power systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel cells are expected to play an important role in future power generation. However, significant technical challenges remain and the commercial breakthrough of fuel cells is hindered by the high price of fuel cell components. As is well known, the fuel cells do not provide the robust source characteristics required to effectively follow the load during significant load steps and they have limited overload-handling capability. Further, the performance of the fuel cell is significantly degraded when the CO (Carbon Monoxide) is contained in the hydrogen fuel. In this thesis several new approaches to improve the performance of PEM based fuel cell power systems are discussed. In the first section an impedance model of the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Stack (PEMFCS) is first proposed. This equivalent circuit model of the fuel cell stack is derived by a frequency response analysis (FRA) technique to evaluate the effects of the ripple current generated by the power-conditioning unit. Experimental results are presented to show the effects of the ripple currents. In the second section, a fuel cell powered UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) system is proposed. In this approach, two PEM Fuel Cell modules along with suitable DC/DC and DC/AC power electronic converter modules are employed. A Supercapacitor module is also employed to compensate for instantaneous power fluctuations including overload and to overcome the slow dynamics of the fuel processor such as reformers. A complete design example for a 1-kVA system is presented. In the third section, an advanced power converter topology is proposed to significantly improve the CO tolerance on PEM based fuel cell power systems. An additional two-stage dc-dc converter with a supercapacitor module is connected to the fuel cell to draw a low frequency (0.5Hz) pulsating current of the specific amplitude (20-30[A]) from the fuel cell stack. CO on the catalyst surface can be electro-oxidized by using this technique, and thereby the CO tolerance of the system can be significantly improved. Simulation and experimental results show the validity and feasibility of the proposed scheme.

Choi, Woojin

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Abstract: Air, Thermal and Water Management for PEM Fuel Cell Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

PEM fuel cells are excellent candidates for transportation applications due to their high efficiencies. PEM fuel cell Balance of Plant (BOP) components, such as air, thermal, and water management sub-systems, can have a significant effect on the overall system performance, but have traditionally not been addressed in research and development efforts. Recognizing this, the U.S. Department of Energy and Honeywell International Inc. are funding an effort that emphasizes the integration and optimization of air, thermal and water management sub-systems. This effort is one of the major elements to assist the fuel cell system developers and original equipment manufacturers to achieve the goal of an affordable and efficient power system for transportation applications. Past work consisted of: (1) Analysis, design, and fabrication of a motor driven turbocompressor. (2) A systematic trade study to select the most promising water and thermal management systems from five different concepts (absorbent wheel humidifier, gas to gas membrane humidifier, porous metal foam humidifier, cathode recycle compressor, and water injection pump.) This presentation will discuss progress made in the research and development of air, water and thermal management sub-systems for PEM fuel cell systems in transportation applications. More specifically, the presentation will discuss: (1) Progress of the motor driven turbocompressor design and testing; (2) Progress of the humidification component selection and testing; and (3) Progress of the thermal management component preliminary design. The programs consist of: (1) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of a compact motor driven turbocompressor operating on foil air bearings to provide contamination free compressed air to the fuel cell stack while recovering energy from the exhaust streams to improve system efficiency. (2) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of selected water and thermal management systems and components to improve system efficiency and reduce packaging size.

Mark K. Gee

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Final Report - Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The principal objectives of the program were development of a durable, low cost, high performance cathode electrode (catalyst and support), that is fully integrated into a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly with gas diffusion media, fabricated by high volume capable processes, and is able to meet or exceed the 2015 DOE targets. Work completed in this contract was an extension of the developments under three preceding cooperative agreements/grants Nos. DE-FC-02-97EE50473, DE-FC-99EE50582 and DE-FC36- 02AL67621 which investigated catalyzed membrane electrode assemblies for PEM fuel cells based on a fundamentally new, nanostructured thin film catalyst and support system, and demonstrated the feasibility for high volume manufacturability.

Mark Debe

2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

71

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Temperature Membrane Working Group High Temperature Membrane Working Group The High Temperature Membrane Working Group consists of government, industry, and university researchers interested in developing high temperature membranes for fuel cells. Description Technical Targets Meetings Contacts Description Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells typically operate at temperatures no higher than 60°C-80°C due to structural limitations of the membrane. Operating PEM fuel cell stacks at higher temperatures (120°C for transportation and 150°C for stationary applications), however, would yield significant energy benefits. For example, heat rejection is easier at higher temperatures, which would allow use of smaller heat exchangers in fuel cell power systems. In addition, for reformate fuel cell systems, carbon monoxide (CO) tolerance of the stack is less problematic at higher temperatures, which would reduce the size requirements or possibly eliminate the need for some CO clean-up beds in the fuel processor.

72

Research and development of a proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Progress report for Quarter 4 of the Phase II report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This 4th quarter report summarizes activity from July 1, 1995 through October 1, 1995; the report is organized as usual into sections describing background information and work performed under the main WBS categories: The Fuel Processor (WBS 1.0) team activity during this quarter focused on the continued design/development of the full scale fuel processing hardware. The combustor test stand has been completed allowing more detailed testing of the various parts of the combustor subsystem; this subsystem is currently being evaluated using the dual fuel (methanol/hydrogen) option to gain a better understanding of the control issues. The Fuel Cell Stack (WBS 2.0) team activity focused on material analysis and testing to determine the appropriate approach for the first GM stack. Five hundred hours of durability was achieved on a single cell fixture using coated titanium plates (anode and cathode) with no appreciable voltage degradation of the SEL (Stack Engineering Lab) produced MEA. Additionally, the voltage level drop across each of the plates remained low (<5mv) over the full test period; The system integration and control team focused on the initial layout and configuration of the system; and the Reference powertrain and commercialization studies are currently under review.

NONE

1995-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

73

System Design of a Natural Gas PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant for Buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following conclusions are made based on this analysis effort: (1) High-temperature PEM data are not available; (2) Stack development effort for Phase II is required; (3) System results are by definition preliminary, mostly due to the immaturity of the high-temperature stack; other components of the system are relatively well defined; (4) The Grotthuss conduction mechanism yields the preferred system characteristics; the Grotthuss conduction mechanism is also much less technically mature than the vehicle mechanism; (5) Fuel processor technology is available today and can be procured for Phase II (steam or ATR); (6) The immaturity of high-temperature membrane technology requires that a robust system design be developed in Phase II that is capable of operating over a wide temperature and pressure range - (a) Unpressurized or Pressurized PEM (Grotthuss mechanism) at 140 C, Highest temperature most favorable, Lowest water requirement most favorable, Pressurized recommended for base loaded operation, Unpressurized may be preferred for load following; (b) Pressurized PEM (vehicle mechanism) at about 100 C, Pressure required for saturation, Fuel cell technology currently available, stack development required. The system analysis and screening evaluation resulted in the identification of the following components for the most promising system: (1) Steam reforming fuel processor; (2) Grotthuss mechanism fuel cell stack operating at 140 C; (3) Means to deliver system waste heat to a cogeneration unit; (4) Pressurized system utilizing a turbocompressor for a base-load power application. If duty cycling is anticipated, the benefits of compression may be offset due to complexity of control. In this case (and even in the base loaded case), the turbocompressor can be replaced with a blower for low-pressure operation.

Joe Ferrall, Tim Rehg, Vesna Stanic

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

74

Design and testing criteria for bipolar plate materials for PEM fuel cell applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are currently under development. These plates separate individual cells of the fuel cell stack, and thus must be sufficiently strong to support clamping forces, be electrically conducting, be fitted with flow channels for stack thermal control, be of a low permeability material to separate safely hydrogen and oxygen feed streams, be corrosion resistant, and be fitted with distribution channels to transfer the feed streams over the plate surface. To date, bipolar plate costs dominate stack costs, and therefore future materials need to meet strict cost targets. A first step in the bipolar plate development program is an assessment of design constraints. Such constraints have been estimated and evaluated and are discussed here. Conclusions point to promising advanced materials, such as conductive, corrosion resistant coatings on metal substrates, as candidates for mass production of fuel cell bipolar plates. Possible candidate materials are identified, and testing procedures developed to determine suitability of various materials.

Borup, R.L.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cathode Catalysts and Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells DE-FG36-07GO17007 Mark K. Debe 3M Company Feb. 13, 2007 2007 DOE HFCIT Kick-off Meeting This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information Overview Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM FC's - 2007 DOE HFCIT Kick-off, Feb. 13-14, 2007 2 3 Barriers A. Electrode and MEA Durability B. Stack Material & Mfg Cost C. Electrode and MEA Performance DOE Technical Targets Electrocatalyst (2010, 2015) * Durability w/cycling: hrs < 80 o C - (5000, 5000) > 80 o C - (2000, 5000) * Cost: $/kW (5,4) * Mass activity: A/mg ( 0.44, 0.44) * PGM Total, g/ kW rated: (0.3, 0.2) MEA (2010, 2015) * Cost: $/kW (10,5) * Performance: W/cm 2 at Rated Pwr. (1,1) ; 0.8V (0.25, 0.25) Budget * Total Project funding $10.43MM

76

Non-Kinetic Losses Caused by Electrochemical Carbon Corrosion in PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

This paper presented non-kinetic losses in PEM fuel cells under an accelerated stress test of catalyst support. The cathode with carbon-supported Pt catalyst was prepared and characterized with potential hold at 1.2 V vs. SHE in PEM fuel cells. Irreversible losses caused by carbon corrosion were evaluated using a variety of electrochemical characterizations including cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and polarization technique. Ohmic losses at the cathode with potential hold were determined using its capacitive responses. Concentration losses in PEM fuel cells were analyzed in terms of Tafel behavior and thin film/flooded-agglomerate dynamics.

Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

EFFECTS OF FUEL IMPURITIES ON PEM FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Power generation with polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), particularly those designed for domestic and transportation applications, will likely operate on hydrogen reformed from hydrocarbons. The primary sources of H{sub 2} can be methane (from natural gas), gasoline or diesel fuel. Unfortunately, the reforming process generates impurities that may negatively affect FC performance. The effects of CO impurity have received most of the attention. However, there are other impurities that also may be detrimental to FC: operation. Here we present the effects of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, methane and ethylene. Two structural domains of the membrane and electrode assembly (MEA) are usually affected by the presence of a harmful impurity. First, the impurity may decrease the ionic conductivity in the catalyst layer or in the bulk membrane. Second, the impurity may chemisorb onto the anode catalyst surface, suppressing the catalyst activity for H{sub 2} oxidation. Catalyst poisoning by CO is the best known example of this kind of effect. Fuel reforming processes [1] generally involve the reaction of a fuel source with air. The simultaneous presence of N{sub 2} and H{sub 2} may generate NH{sub 3} in concentrations of 30 to 90 ppm [1]. The effect of NH{sub 3} on performance depends on the impurity concentration and the time of anode exposure [2]. Higher concentrations result in more rapid performance decreases. If the cell is exposed to ammonia for about 1 hour and then returned to neat H{sub 2}, it will recover its original performance very slowly (about 12 hrs). This behavior is quite different from that of CO, which can be quickly purged from the anode with pure H{sub 2}, resulting in complete performance restoration within a few minutes. Longer exposure times (e.g. >15 hrs) to ammonia result in severe and irreversible losses in performance. It seems that replacement of H{sup +} ions by NH{sub 4}{sup +} ions, first within the anode catalyst layer and then in the membrane, is the primary reason for cell current losses. H{sub 2}S also adversely affects FC performance. Figure 1 depicts the current density changes in a FC exposed to both 1 and 3 ppm H{sub 2}S while operating at a constant voltage of 0.5 V. As expected, the greater the contamination level the faster the current density drops. Eventually in each case the cell becomes totally disabled. The effect H{sub 2}S appears to be cumulative, because even sub-ppm H{sub 2}S levels will decrease the FC performance if the exposure is long enough. We have recorded slow current droppings to about 20% of the initial value after exposure to concentrations of H{sub 2}S of 200 parts per billion (10{sup 9}) for 650 hours. Exposure to higher concentrations of H{sub 2}S may bring catastrophic consequences. We have exposed cell anodes to H{sub 2}S burps of the order of 8 ppm, and observed that the current at 0.5 V dropped from 1.1 to 0.3 A cm{sup -2} in just few minutes. Figure 2 shows the effect of H{sub 2}S on cell polarization. Curves b and c in this figure were recorded after 4 and 21 hours of exposure to 1 ppm H{sub 2}S, respectively, while keeping the cell at a constant voltage of 0.5 V. Regardless impurity concentration and running time, replacing the contaminated fuel stream with pure H{sub 2} does not allow any recovery as observed with CO poisoning. Cyclic voltammmetry (CV) indicates that H{sub 2}S chemisorbs very strongly onto Pt catalyst surface and high voltages are required for full cleansing of the H{sub 2}S-poisoned active sites. After full anode poisoning with H{sub 2}S (curve c), the electrode was subjected to CV (up to 1.4 V) and then the polarization curve d (with neat H{sub 2}) was recorded. The complete cell performance recovery is apparent from this curve. A more extended discussion on H{sub 2}S catalyst poisoning and cleaning will be presented. We also tested methane (0.5 % by vol.) and ethylene (50 ppm) as potential fuel impurities and we found no effects on performance.

Uribe, F. A. (Francisco A.); Zawodzinski, T. A. (Thomas A.), Jr.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Bootstrapping a Sustainable North American PEM Fuel Cell Industry: Could a Federal Acquisition Program Make a Difference?  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The North American Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell industry may be at a critical juncture. A large-scale market for automotive fuel cells appears to be several years away and in any case will require a long-term, coordinated commitment by government and industry to insure the co-evolution of hydrogen infrastructure and fuel cell vehicles (Greene et al., 2008). The market for non-automotive PEM fuel cells, on the other hand, may be much closer to commercial viability (Stone, 2006). Cost targets are less demanding and manufacturers appear to be close, perhaps within a factor of two, of meeting them. Hydrogen supply is a significant obstacle to market acceptance but may not be as great a barrier as it is for hydrogen-powered vehicles due to the smaller quantities of hydrogen required. PEM fuel cells appear to be potentially competitive in two markets: (1) Backup power (BuP) supply, and (2) electrically-powered MHE (Mahadevan et al., 2007a, 2007b). There are several Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) of PEM fuel cell systems for these applications but production levels have been quite low (on the order of 100-200 per year) and cumulative production experience is also limited (on the order of 1,000 units to date). As a consequence, costs remain above target levels and PEM fuel cell OEMs are not yet competitive in these markets. If cost targets can be reached and acceptable solutions to hydrogen supply found, a sustainable North American PEM fuel cell industry could be established. If not, the industry and its North American supply chain could disappear within a year or two. The Hydrogen Fuel Cell and Infrastructure Technologies (HFCIT) program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested a rapid assessment of the potential for a government acquisition program to bootstrap the market for non-automotive PEM fuel cells by driving down costs via economies of scale and learning-by-doing. The six week study included in-depth interviews of three manufacturers, visits to two production facilities, review of the literature on potential markets in North America and potential federal government procurements, development of a cost model reflecting economies of scale and learning-by-doing, and estimation of the impact of federal PEM fuel cell procurements on fuel cell system costs and the evolution of private market demand. This report presents the findings of that study. Section 2 outlines the status of the industry and describes potential markets based on interviews of manufacturers and the existing literature. Section 3 describes the modeling methodology including key premises and assumptions, and presents estimates of market evolution under four scenarios: (1) Base Case with no federal government procurement program, (2) Scenario 1, an aggressive program beginning with less than 200 units procured in 2008 ramping up to more than 2,000 units in 2012, (3) Scenario 2 which is identical to Scenario 1 except that the private market is assumed to be twice as sensitive to price, and (4) Scenario 3, a delayed, smaller federal procurement program beginning in 2011 increasing to a maximum of just over 1,000 units per year in 2012. The analysis suggests that the aggressive program of Scenario 1 would likely stimulate a sustainable, competitive North American non-automotive PEM fuel cell industry. Given plausible assumptions about learning rates and scale economies, the procurements assumed in Scenario 1 appear to be sufficient to drive down costs to target levels. These findings are conditional on the evolution of acceptable hydrogen supply strategies, which were not explicitly analyzed in this study. Success is less certain under Scenarios 2 and 3, and there appears to be a strong probability that existing OEMs would not survive until 2011. In the Base Case, no program, a viable North American industry does not emerge before 2020.

Greene, David L [ORNL; Duleep, Dr. K. G. [Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc., an ICF Company

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Evaluation and Analysis of an Integrated PEM Fuel Cell with Absorption Cooling and Water Heating System for Sustainable Building Operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, a parametric study of a PEM fuel cell integrated with a double effect absorption system is carried out in order to study the effect of different operating conditions on the efficiency of the PEM fuel cell, utilization factor of the over all system, COPs of the double effect cooling and heating system, and power and heat output of the PEM fuel cell. It is found that the efficiency of the cell decreases, ranging from 46.2% to 24.4% with increase in membrane thickness and current density, and at the same time the COP increases ranging from 0.65 to 1.52. The heat and power output of the fuel cell decreases from 10.54 kW to 5.12 kW, and 9.12 kW to 6.99 kW, respectively for the increase in membrane thickness. However, when the temperature of the cell is increased the heat and power output increases from 5.12 kW to 10.54 kW, and 6.9 kW to 7.02 kW, respectively. The COP is found to be decreasing ranging from 1.53 to 0.33 with the increase in temperature of the cell and heat input to the HTG. As for the utilization factor, it increases ranging from 17% to 87% with increase in the temperature of the cell and heat input to the HTG. This study reveals that an integrated PEM fuel cell with a double effect absorption cooling systems has a very high potential to be an economical and environmental solution as compared with conventional systems of high electricity and natural gas prices which emit lots of harmful gasses and are not that efficient.

Gadalla, M.; Ratlamwala, T.; Dincer, I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

High Aspect Ratio Nano-Structured Pt-based PEM Fuel Cell Catalysts...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

or * nanoplates - Ni, Co, and Fe have been selected as V.D.14 High Aspect Ratio Nano-Structured Pt-Based PEM Fuel Cell Catalysts Table 1. Technical Targets for...

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81

Cost Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation: September 30, 2005  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of sensitivity and Monte Carlo analyses on PEM fuel cell components and the overall system are presented including the most important cost factors and the effects of selected scenarios.

Carlson, E. J.; Kopf, P.; Sinha, J.; Sriramulu, S.; Yang, Y.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Model-based diagnosis for proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) systems are more and more presented as a good alternative to current energy converters such as internal combustion engines. They suffer however from insufficient reliability and durability for stationary and ... Keywords: Diagnosis, Elman neural network, Flooding, PEM fuel cell, Water management

N. Yousfi Steiner; D. Candusso; D. Hissel; P. Mooteguy

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Thermally efficient PEM fuel cell that runs on ethanol  

onboard conversion of ethanol into hydrogen fuel Liquid ethanol feedstock eliminates problems with storage and transportation of gaseous hydrogen Control of temperature maximizes selectivity of reformation process and prevents membrane fouling ...

84

THE EFFECT OF LOW CONCENTRATIONS OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF PEM FUEL CELLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells use components that are susceptible to contaminants in the fuel stream. To ensure fuel quality, standards are being set to regulate the amount of impurities allowable in fuel. The present study investigates the effect of chlorinated impurities on fuel cell systems using tetrachloroethylene (PCE) as a model compound for cleaning and degreasing agents. Concentrations between 0.05 parts per million (ppm) and 30 ppm were studied. We show how PCE causes rapid drop in cell performances for all concentrations including 0.05 ppm. At concentrations of 1 and 0.05 ppm, PCE poisoned the cell at a rate dependent on the dosage of the contaminant delivered to the cell. PCE appears to affect the cell when the cell potential was over potentials higher than approximately 0.2 V. No effects were observed at voltages around or below 0.2 V and the cells could be recovered from previous poisoning performed at higher potentials. Recoveries at those low voltages could be induced by changing the operating voltage or by purging the system. Poisoning did not appear to affect the membrane conductivity. Measurements with long-path length IR results suggested catalytic decomposition of the PCE by hydrogen over the anode catalyst.

COLON-MERCHADO, H.; MARTINEZ-RODRIGUEZ, M.; FOX, E.; RHODES, W.; MCWHORTER, C.; GREENWAY, S.

2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

85

Influence of electrode stress on proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance : experimental characterization and power optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compressive stress applied to the electrode area of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell is known to significantly affect power output. In practice, electrode stress arises during operation due to the clamping force ...

Gallant, Betar M. (Betar Maurkah)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

WaterTransport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing and Design Optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water management in Proton Exchange Membrane, PEM, Fuel Cells is challenging because of the inherent conflicts between the requirements for efficient low and high power operation. Particularly at low powers, adequate water must be supplied to sufficiently humidify the membrane or protons will not move through it adequately and resistance losses will decrease the cell efficiency. At high power density operation, more water is produced at the cathode than is necessary for membrane hydration. This excess water must be removed effectively or it will accumulate in the Gas Diffusion Layers, GDLs, between the gas channels and catalysts, blocking diffusion paths for reactants to reach the catalysts and potentially flooding the electrode. As power density of the cells is increased, the challenges arising from water management are expected to become more difficult to overcome simply due to the increased rate of liquid water generation relative to fuel cell volume. Thus, effectively addressing water management based issues is a key challenge in successful application of PEMFC systems. In this project, CFDRC and our partners used a combination of experimental characterization, controlled experimental studies of important processes governing how water moves through the fuel cell materials, and detailed models and simulations to improve understanding of water management in operating hydrogen PEM fuel cells. The characterization studies provided key data that is used as inputs to all state-of-the-art models for commercially important GDL materials. Experimental studies and microscopic scale models of how water moves through the GDLs showed that the water follows preferential paths, not branching like a river, as it moves toward the surface of the material. Experimental studies and detailed models of water and airflow in fuel cells channels demonstrated that such models can be used as an effective design tool to reduce operating pressure drop in the channels and the associated costs and weight of blowers and pumps to force air and hydrogen gas through the fuel cell. Promising improvements to materials structure and surface treatments that can potentially aid in managing the distribution and removal of liquid water were developed; and improved steady-state and freeze-thaw performance was demonstrated for a fuel cell stack under the self-humidified operating conditions that are promising for stationary power generation with reduced operating costs.

J. Vernon Cole; Abhra Roy; Ashok Damle; Hari Dahr; Sanjiv Kumar; Kunal Jain; Ned Djilai

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

87

Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures  

SciTech Connect

One of the most challenging aspects of traditional PEM fuel cell stacks is the difficulty achieving the platinum catalyst utilization target of 0.2 gPt/kWe set forth by the DOE. Good catalyst utilization can be achieved with state-of-the-art catalyst coated membranes (CCM) when low catalyst loadings (<0.3 mg/cm2) are used at a low current. However, when low platinum loadings are used, the peak power density is lower than conventional loadings, requiring a larger total active area and a larger bipolar plate. This results in a lower overall stack power density not meeting the DOE target. By corrugating the fuel cell membrane electrode structure, Ion Power?s goal is to realize both the Pt utilization targets as well as the power density targets of the DOE. This will be achieved by demonstrating a fuel cell single cell (50 cm2) with a twofold increase in the membrane active area over the geometric area of the cell by corrugating the MEA structure. The corrugating structure must be able to demonstrate the target properties of < 10 mOhm-cm2 electrical resistance at > 20 psi compressive strength over the active area, in combination with offering at least 80% of power density that can be achieved by using the same MEA in a flat plate structure. Corrugated membrane fuel cell structures also have the potential to meet DOE power density targets by essentially packaging more membrane area into the same fuel cell volume as compared to conventional stack constructions.

Grot, Stephen [President, Ion Power Inc.] President, Ion Power Inc.

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

88

Carbon monoxide sensor for PEM fuel cell systems Christopher T. Holta,*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

environment; Copper-halide 1. Introduction The use of hydrocarbon fuels for generating power for cars for both transportation and residential power systems. PEM fuel cells operate on hydro- gen. However, the infrastructure for hydrogen that will support large markets is decades away. The use of hydro- carbon fuels (e

Dutta, Prabir K.

89

Fast test for the durability of PEM fuel cell catalysts  

SciTech Connect

ETek Pt/C catalyst was used as standard materials to develop a new test protocol for fast screening durable catalyst for PEM fuel cells. Potential step (Pstep) method with the upper potential of 1.4V and the potential-static (Pstat) holding at 1.4 V or 1.2V are used to degrade the catalyst. The degradation in the electrochemical surface area (ESA) for Pt/C under Pstep conditions is greatly accelerated as compared with other conditions. The durability of Pt/Vulcan and Pt/CNT were studied using the new protocol with the electrochemical stressing of Pstep(1.4V/0.6V), which provided the same results as those tested using conventional protocols: Pt/CNT is more durable than Pt/Vulcan. This confirms that the new protocol works well in screening catalyst in terms of durability. The new protocol can differentiate the durability of electrocatalysts by shortening the test time to several hours. It is reliable and time-efficient.

Shao, Yuyan; Kou, Rong; Wang, Jun; Kwak, Ja Hun; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

2008-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

90

Intergovernmental Advanced Stationary PEM Fuel Cell System Demonstration Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A program to complete the design, construction and demonstration of a PEMFC system fuelled by Ethanol, LPG or NG for telecom applications was initiated in October 2007. Early in the program the economics for Ethanol were shown to be unfeasible and permission was given by DOE to focus on LPG only. The design and construction of a prototype unit was completed in Jun 2009 using commercially available PEM FC stack from Ballard Power Systems. During the course of testing, the high pressure drop of the stack was shown to be problematic in terms of control and stability of the reformer. Also, due to the power requirements for air compression the overall efficiency of the system was shown to be lower than a similar system using internally developed low pressure drop FC stack. In Q3 2009, the decision was made to change to the Plug power stack and a second prototype was built and tested. Overall net efficiency was shown to be 31.5% at 3 kW output. Total output of the system is 6 kW. Using the new stack hardware, material cost reduction of 63% was achieved over the previous Alpha design. During a November 2009 review meeting Plug Power proposed and was granted permission, to demonstrate the new, commercial version of Plug Power's telecom system at CERL. As this product was also being tested as part of a DOE Topic 7A program, this part of the program was transferred to the Topic 7A program. In Q32008, the scope of work of this program was expanded to include a National Grid demonstration project of a micro-CHP system using hightemperature PEM technology. The Gensys Blue system was cleared for unattended operation, grid connection, and power generation in Aug 2009 at Union College in NY state. The system continues to operate providing power and heat to Beuth House. The system is being continually evaluated and improvements to hardware and controls will be implemented as more is learned about the system's operation. The program is instrumental in improving the efficiency and reducing costs of PEMFC based power systems using LPG fuel and continues to makes steps towards meeting DOE's targets. Plug Power would like to thank DOE for their support of this program.

Rich Chartrand

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

91

Cathode porous transport irreversibility model for PEM fuel cell design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence is studied of slip-irreversibility at the interface between the gas diffusion layer, also referred to here as the porous transport layer, and the catalyst layer of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). A two-dimensional cathode ... Keywords: catalyst layer, exergy, gas diffusion layer, slip flow irreversibility

E. O. B. Ogedengbe; M. A. Rosen

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alternative and Durable High Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Development of Alternative and Durable High Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells PNNL: Yong Wang Conrad Zhang Vilayanur Viswanath Yuehe Lin Jun Liu Project kick Project kick - - off meeting off meeting Feb 13 Feb 13 - - 14, 2007 14, 2007 Ballard Power Systems: Stephen Campbell University of Delaware: Jingguang Chen ORNL: Sheng Dai 2 Technical Issues and Objective Technical Issues and Objective Current technical issues z Carbon support „ Susceptible to oxidation under fuel cell operating conditions. „ Oxidation further catalyzed by Pt „ Corrosion leads to Pt migration and agglomeration

93

Load Sharing in a Hybrid Power System with a PV Panel and a PEM Fuel-Cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

varies with the time of the day. In order to improve the reliability of PV energy and at the same timeLoad Sharing in a Hybrid Power System with a PV Panel and a PEM Fuel-Cell Dachuan Yu S. Yuvarajan power system with PV panels and a PEM fuel cell is described. The system draws the maximum power

Yuvarajan, Subbaraya

94

Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane, also known as polymer electrolyte membrane, fuel cells (PEMFCs) offer the promise of efficient conversion of chemical energy of fuel, such as hydrogen or methanol, into electricity with minimal pollution. Their widespread use to power zero-emission automobiles as part of a hydrogen economy can contribute to enhanced energy security and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, the commercial viability of PEMFC technology is hindered by high cost associated with the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and poor membrane durability under prolonged operation at elevated temperature. Membranes for automotive fuel cell applications need to perform well over a period comparable to the life of an automotive engine and under heavy load cycling including start-stop cycling under sub-freezing conditions. The combination of elevated temperature, changes in humidity levels, physical stresses and harsh chemical environment contribute to membrane degradation. Perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA)-based membranes, such as Nafion, have been the mainstay of PEMFC technology. Their limitations, in terms of cost and poor conductivity at low hydration, have led to continuing research into membranes that have good proton conductivity at elevated temperatures above 120 C and under low humidity conditions. Such membranes have the potential to avoid catalyst poisoning, simplify fuel cell design and reduce the cost of fuel cells. Hydrocarbon-based membranes are being developed as alternatives to PFSA membranes, but concerns about chemical and mechanical stability and durability remain. Novel anhydrous membranes based on polymer gels infused with protic ionic liquids have also been recently proposed, but considerable fundamental research is needed to understand proton transport in novel membranes and evaluate durability under fuel cell operating conditions. In order to advance this promising technology, it is essential to rationally design the next generation of PEMs based on an understanding of chemistry, membrane morphology and proton transport obtained from experiment, theory and computer simulation.

Devanathan, Ramaswami

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Carbon composite for a PEM fuel cell bipolar plate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current major cost component for proton exchange membrane fuel cells is bipolar plate. An option being explored for replacing the current, nominal machined graphite component is a molded carbon fiber material. One face and the volume of the component will be left porous, while the opposite surface and sides are hermetically sealed via chemical vapor infiltration of carbon. This paper will address initial work on the concept.

Besmann, T.M.; Klett, J.W.; Burchell, T.D.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Composite fuel cell membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane is described suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

Plowman, K.R.; Rehg, T.J.; Davis, L.W.; Carl, W.P.; Cisar, A.J.; Eastland, C.S.

1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

97

Test of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell / Uninterruptible Power Supply for Electric Utility Battery Replacement Markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A sub-scale polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell/capacitor uninterruptible power supply (UPS) was designed and constructed based on previous research. Testing of this sub-scale UPS as a replacement for existing battery systems is documented in this report. The project verified that the PEM fuel cells, coupled with an ultracapacitor, could functionally replace batteries used for emergency power at electric generating stations. Remaining steps to commercialization include continuing market research...

2001-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

98

Novel Intermetallic Catalysts to Enhance PEM Membrane Durability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We conclude that degradation mechanisms should be studied in real fuel cell systems, rather than in ex-situ, large electrolyte volume experiments.

Francis J. DiSalvo

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

99

Degradation of Ionic Pathway in PEM Fuel Cell Cathode  

SciTech Connect

The degradation of the ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer in proton exchange membrane fuel cells was studied under an accelerated stress test of catalyst support (potential hold at 1.2 V). Electrochemical behaviors of the cathode based on graphitic mesoporous carbon supported Pt catalyst were examined using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Impedance data were plotted and expressed in the complex capacitance form to determine useful parameters in the transmission line model: the double-layer capacitance, peak frequency, and ionic resistance. Electrochemical surface area and hydrogen crossover current through the membrane were estimated from cyclic voltammogram, while cathode Faradaic resistance was compared with ionic resistance as a function of test time. It was observed that during an accelerated stress test of catalyst support, graphitic mesoporous carbon becomes hydrophilic which increases interfacial area between the ionomer and the catalyst up to 100 h. However, the ionic resistance in the catalyst layer drastically increases after 100 h with further carbon support oxidation. The underlying mechanism has been studied and it was found that significant degradation of ionic pathway throughout the catalyst layer due to catalyst support corrosion induces uneven hydration and mechanical stress in the ionomer.

Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Wan, Haiying; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Towne, Silas A.; Rieke, Peter C.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

2011-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

100

NETL: Releases & Briefs - PEMs, MEMS and microvalves  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PEMs, MEMS and Microvalves PEMs, MEMS and Microvalves PEM fuel cell on the test stand Research partners at DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the University of Pittsburgh have designed a piezoelectric microvalve for integration in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Using micro electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) technology, the fully integrated valve will optimize air and hydrogen flow to help eliminate problems including poor fuel conversion efficiency, hot spots, decreased cell life, and reduced cell voltage. Based on a patent pending flow and energy management concept developed by the NETL Gas Energy Systems Dynamics Focus Area, the system controls cell-to-cell flow distribution inside a fuel cell stack. The University of Pittsburgh is manufacturing the first prototype for testing. (photo shows PEM fuel cell on the test stand)

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101

NREL Develops Technique to Measure Membrane Thickness and Defects in Polymer Electrode Membrane Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet), Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlights (HFCTH)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 * November 2010 4 * November 2010 2-D image of a PEM fuel cell membrane sample measured with the NREL device (corresponding optical image in inset). The image shows bubble defects and a color shift in the sample. An area of approximately three inches by three inches is shown. NREL Develops Technique to Measure Membrane Thickness and Defects in Polymer Electrode Membrane Fuel Cells Project: Fuel Cell MEA Manufacturing R&D NREL Team: Hydrogen Technologies & Systems Center and National Center for Photovoltaics Accomplishment: NREL developed a technique to measure the two-dimensional thickness of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell membranes for in-line quality control during manufacturing (first reported in May 2009). The technique is based on an NREL-developed instrument currently used in continuous manufacturing of photovoltaic cells. This

102

Oxygen reduction in PEM fuel cell conditions: Heat-treated macrocycles and beyond  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reduction in PEM fuel cell conditions: reduction in PEM fuel cell conditions: Heat-treated macrocycles and beyond J. P. Dodelet INRS-Énergie et Matériaux C. P. 1020, Varennes, Québec, Canada, J3X 1S2 dodelet@inrs-ener.uquebec.ca Collaborators Michel Lefèvre (INRS) Sébastien Marcotte (INRS) Frédéric Jaouen (Royal Inst. of Technology, Sweden) Prof. Patrick Bertrand (Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium) Prof. Göran Lindbergh (Royal Inst. Of Technology, Sweden) New Orleans workshop March 21 03. DODELET, J. P. ; New Orleans, March 21, 03 1 PEM Fuel Cells Anode : 2 H 2 → 4 H + + 4 e - Electrolyte : Perfluorinated polymer - SO 3 H Cathode : O 2 + 4 H + + 4 e - → 2 H 2 O Acidic Medium ( pH ~ 1 ) Low Temperature Fuel Cell (80°C) ↓ Pt- based Anode and Cathode Catalysts Pt is not abundant and expensive

103

Design Considerations for a PEM Fuel Cell Powered Truck APU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design of a Truck- mounted Fuel Cell APU System. Society ofEngine Idling Versus Fuel Cell APUs. Society of AutomotiveJr; 2003. Evaluation of Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for

Grupp, David J; Forrest, Matthew E.; Mader, Pippin G.; Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Miller, Marshall; Dwyer, Harry A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Fuel cell membrane humidification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Manufacturing R&D of PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

established industry. Engaging the power conditioner industry into transportation fuel cell applications is a pathway for advancing fuel cell power conditioning. System Controls...

106

Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy C th d C t l t f PEM F l C ll Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell Project Kick-Off P I : Branko N Popov P. I.: Branko N. Popov Center for Electrochemical Engineering University of South Carolina Columbia SC 29208. September 28, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Center for Electrochemical Engineering, University of South Carolina 1 Overview Timeline * S Start d date: J June 01 2010 01 2010 * End date: Nov 30 2012 (Phase I) : May 31 2014 (Phase II) Budget * Total project funding ¾ DOE share: $ 4 400 000 ¾ DOE share: $ 4,400,000 ¾ Contractor share: $1,100,000 * Incremental funding received in FY10: $750,000

107

Cost Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation: September 30, 2005  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Subcontract Report Subcontract Report Cost Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell NREL/SR-560-39104 Systems for Transportation December 2005 September 30, 2005 E.J. Carlson, P. Kopf, J. Sinha, S. Sriramulu, and Y. Yang TIAX LLC Cambridge, Massachusetts NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 Cost Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation September 30, 2005 E.J. Carlson, P. Kopf, J. Sinha, S. Sriramulu, and Y. Yang TIAX LLC Cambridge, Massachusetts NREL Technical Monitor: K. Wipke Prepared under Subcontract No. KACX-5-44452-01 Subcontract Report NREL/SR-560-39104 December 2005 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy

108

Design Considerations for a PEM Fuel Cell Powered Truck APU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and standardized. Hydrogen fuel filling stations generallyat local hydrogen fill stations it was decided that filling

Grupp, David J; Forrest, Matthew E.; Mader, Pippin G.; Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Miller, Marshall; Dwyer, Harry A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Boosting PEM Fuel Cell Catalyst Utilization with Ultrafast Lasers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2009. Symposium, Fuel Cells: Materials, Processing, Manufacturing, Balance of Plant and...

110

Fe/N/C-based Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric Cell-impedance Spectroscopy at the Biological-inorganic Interface, Shewanella Oneidensis - Gold, for Microbial Fuel Cell Applications Encapsulating...

111

Available Technologies: Nanoporous PEM Fuel Cell for Enhanced ...  

IB-2013-081. APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Fuel cells for aerospace, ground transportation, and consumer electronics; Artificial photosynthesis ; ADVANTAGES:

112

Computational Chemistry for Better Fuel Cells Project at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemistry for Better Fuel Cells Computational Chemistry for Better Fuel Cells Key Challenges: Rational development of polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs). Fundamental scientific...

113

Short communication Electronic circuit model for proton exchange membrane fuel cells ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is being investigated as an alternate power source for various applications like transportation and emergency power supplies. The paper presents a novel circuit model for a PEM fuel cell that can be used to design and analyze fuel cell power systems. The PSPICE-based model uses bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and LC elements available in the PSPICE library with some modification. The model includes the phenomena like activation polarization, ohmic polarization, and mass transport effect present in a PEM fuel cell. The static and dynamic characteristics obtained through simulation are compared with experimental results obtained on a commercial fuel cell module. 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Dachuan Yu; S. Yuvarajan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Steady State Multiplicity in a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simplified differential reactor model that embodies the essential physics controlling PEM fuel cell (PEM-FC) dynamics is presented. A remarkable analogy exists between water management in the differential PEM-FC and energy balance in the classical exothermic stirred tank reactor. Water, the reaction product in the PEM-FC autocatalytically accelerates the reaction rate by enhancing proton transport through the PEM. Established analyses of heat autocatalyticity in a CSTR are modified to present water management autocatalyticity in a stirred tank reactor PEM-FC.

Ee-Sunn J. Chia; Jay B. Benziger; Ioannis G. Kevrekidis

2003-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

115

Improving Costs and Efficiency of PEM Fuel Cell Vehicles by ...  

Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to reduce our dependence on foreign oil and lower emissions. Running the vehicles motor on hydrogen rather than gasoline ...

116

Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

against * steady state and transient operational cell data. Complete fuel cell water transport model improvements * and code package development to include two phase flow....

117

Design Considerations for a PEM Fuel Cell Powered Truck APU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a proof of concept SOFC APU. [9] This demonstration wasof which was to demonstrate SOFC technology was chosen forthe ability of the SOFC to utilize liquid hydrocarbon fuels,

Grupp, David J; Forrest, Matthew E.; Mader, Pippin G.; Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Miller, Marshall; Dwyer, Harry A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Analysis of PEM electrolyzers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen and oxygen can be produced using a PEM electrolyzer. A PEM electrolyzer operates like a fuel cell in reverse. On the anode side of the electrolyzer, electrons are removed from water to form protons and oxygen molecules. The protons are then transported across the membrane. The protons then rejoin with electrons to form hydrogen molecules. In this way water is electrolyzed. In automobiles, the majority of pollutant emissions occur during the start-up of the vehicle. In order to reduce these harmful emissions, a burner will be placed at the end of process to burn off the hydrocarbon emissions. However, this burner must also be hot to completely burn the harmful pollutants. One method of heating this burner quickly is to burn hydrogen before start-up. The burning of the hydrogen will not produce any pollutants. The only products of hydrogen combustion are water and heat. For this reason, a theoretical design of an electrolyzer/burner system was developed.

Knobbe, M.W.

1998-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

119

Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project was the development and evaluation of novel hydrocarbon fuel cell (FC) membranes that possess high temperature performance and long term chemical/mechanical durability in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FC). The major research theme was synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbon polymers of the poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES) type containing sulfonic acid groups tethered to the backbone via perfluorinated alkylene linkages and in some cases also directly attached to the phenylene groups along the backbone. Other research themes were the use of nitrogen-based heterocyclics instead of acid groups for proton conduction, which provides high temperature, low relative humidity membranes with high mechanical/thermal/chemical stability and pendant moieties that exhibit high proton conductivities in the absence of water, and synthesis of block copolymers consisting of a proton conducting block coupled to poly(perfluorinated propylene oxide) (PFPO) blocks. Accomplishments of the project were as follows: 1) establishment of a vertically integrated program of synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of FC membranes, 2) establishment of benchmark membrane performance data based on Nafion for comparison to experimental membrane performance, 3) development of a new perfluoroalkyl sulfonate monomer, N,N-diisopropylethylammonium 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl) pentafluoropropanesulfonate (HPPS), 4) synthesis of random and block copolymer membranes from HPPS, 5) synthesis of block copolymer membranes containing high-acid-concentration hydrophilic blocks consisting of HPPS and 3,3'-disulfonate-4,4'-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (sDCDPS), 6) development of synthetic routes to aromatic polymer backbones containing pendent 1H-1,2,3-triazole moieties, 7) development of coupling strategies to create phase-separated block copolymers between hydrophilic sulfonated prepolymers and commodity polymers such as PFPO, 8) establishment of basic performance properties of experimental membranes, 9) fabrication and FC performance testing of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) from experimental membranes, and 10) measurement of ex situ and in situ membrane durability of experimental membranes. Although none of the experimental hydrocarbon membranes that issued from the project displayed proton conductivities that met DOE requirements, the project contributed to our basic understanding of membrane structure-property relationships in a number of key respects. An important finding of the benchmark studies is that physical degradation associated with humidity and temperature variations in the FC tend to open new fuel crossover pathways and act synergistically with chemical degradation to accelerate overall membrane degradation. Thus, for long term membrane survival and efficient fuel utilization, membranes must withstand internal stresses due to humidity and temperature changes. In this respect, rigid aromatic hydrocarbon fuel cell membranes, e.g. PAES, offer an advantage over un-modified Nafion membranes. The benchmark studies also showed that broadband dielectric spectroscopy is a potentially powerful tool in assessing shifts in the fundamental macromolecular dynamics caused by Nafion chemical degradation, and thus, this technique is of relevance in interrogating proton exchange membrane durability in fuel cells and macromolecular dynamics as coupled to proton migration, which is of fundamental relevance in proton exchange membranes in fuel cells. A key finding from the hydrocarbon membrane synthesis effort was that rigid aromatic polymers containing isolated ion exchange groups tethered tightly to the backbone (short tether), such as HPPS, provide excellent mechanical and durability properties but do not provide sufficient conductivity, in either random or block configuration, when used as the sole ion exchange monomer. However, we continue to hypothesize that longer tethers, and tethered groups spaced more closely within the hydrophilic chain elements of the polymer, will yield highly conductive materials with excellent mech

Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

120

PEM Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop Questions & Answers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop Summary of May 26, 2005 Questions and Answers 1 MULTI-YEAR RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION PLAN, TARGETS 1. What is your "vision" for...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane pem fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

PEM fuel cells for transportation and stationary power generation applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe recent activities at LANL devoted to polymer electrolyte fuel cells in the contexts of stationary power generation and transportation applications. A low cost/high performance hydrogen or reformate/air stack technology is being developed based on ultralow Pt loadings and on non-machined, inexpensive elements for flow-fields and bipolar plates. On board methanol reforming is compared to the option of direct methanol fuel cells because of recent significant power density increases demonstrated in the latter.

Cleghorn, S.J.; Ren, X.; Springer, T.E.; Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.; Zawodzinski, T.A. Jr.; Gottesfeld, S.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Ionomer Degradation in Electrodes of PEM Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect

Although PEMFC Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) durability related studies have increased dramatically since 2004, studies on ionomer degradation of the composite electrodes has received far less attention than that of the proton exchange membranes, electrocatalysts, and catalyst supports. The catalyst layer ionomer unavoidably gets involved in other components degradation processes since it is subjected to exposure to different operating effects, including the presence of the catalyst, catalyst support, and the porous nature of the electrode layer which includes 2-phase flow. PEMFC durability issues cannot be fully resolved without understanding the contribution of ionomer degradation in electrode to the performance decay in life time. However, addressing the impact of changes to the catalyst layer ionomer during durability tests is experimentally difficult mainly because of the need to separate the ionomer in the electrode from other components during chemical, electrical and materials characterization. The catalyst layer ionomer is essentially chemically identical to the membrane ionomeric material, and is composed of low atomic number elements, making characterization difficult. In the present work, MEAs with different Nafion ionomer types: stabilized and non-stablized ionomer in the electrode layer (Type I) and mixed membrane/ionomer MEAs (Type II) were designed to separate ionomer degradation from membrane degradation, as shown in Figure (1a) and (b) respectively. Stabilized and non stabilized ionomers were 5% Nafion{reg_sign} solutions (Ion Power, New Castle, Delaware). The non-stabilized version is the typical Nafion chemical structure with carboxylic acid (-COOH) end groups; these end groups are thought to be a susceptible point of degradative peroxide attack. The stabilized version replaces the -COOH end groups with -CF{sub 3} end groups to prevent peroxide attack at the end groups. Type I MEAs were designed to compare ionomer degradation and its effect on performance decay. Since F{sup -} ions are released only from PFSA based membranes, and not from non-PFSA based membranes, Type II MEAs use a hydrocarbon membrane with no fluorine with a PFSA (Nafion{reg_sign}) ionomer in the catalyst layer for FER measurements. Any F{sup -} ions measured will then have come only for the catalyst layer ionomer during degradation experiments. Type II MEAs allow more detailed chemical characterization exclusively of the catalyst layer ionomer to better understand its degradation.

Borup, Rodney L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Final Scientific Report : Development of Transition Metal/ Chalcogen Based Cathode Catalysts for PEM Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The aim of this project was to investigate the potential for using base metal sulfides and selenides as low cost replacements for precious metal catalysts, such as platinum, currently being used in PEM fuel cells. The approach was to deposit thin films of the materials to be evaluated onto inert electrodes and evaluate their activity for the cathode reaction (oxygen reduction) as well as ex-situ structural and compositional characterization. The most active materials identified are CoS2 and the 50:50 solid solution (Co,Ni)S2. However, the OCP of these materials is still considered too low, at 0.83V and 0.89V vs. RHE respectively, for testing in fuel cells. The methods employed here were necessary to compare with the activity of platinum as, when nano-dispersed on carbon supports, the active surface area of these materials is difficult to measure, making comparisons inaccurate. This research adds to the knowledge of potential candidates for platinum replacement in order to reduce the cost of PEM fuel cell technology and promote commercialization. Although the fabrication methods employed here are strictly experimental, methods were also developed to produce nano-dispersed catalysts with similar compositions, structure and activity. Cycling of these catalysts to highly oxidizing potentials resulted in an increase of the open circuit voltage to approach that of platinum, however, it proved difficult to determine why using these dispersed materials. The potential for non-precious, non-metallic, low cost, compound catalysts for PEM fuel cells has been investigated and demonstrated.

Campbell, Stephen, A.

2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

124

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Application  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update March 26, 2009 v.30.2021.052209 Prepared by: Brian D. James & Jeffrey A. Kalinoski One Virginia Square 3601 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 650 Arlington, Virginia 22201 703-243-3383 Prepared for: Contract No. GS-10F-0099J to the U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Foreword Energy security is fundamental to the mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have the potential to eliminate the need for oil in the transportation sector. Fuel cell vehicles can operate on hydrogen, which can be produced domestically, emitting less greenhouse gas and pollutants than

125

PEM Degradation Investigation Final Technical Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this paper are: (1) Develop a system capable of measuring current and voltage performance for each membrane in a Polymer Electrolyte Membranes (PEM) fuel cell stack and record the performance of each individual cell; (2) Develop a single cell PEM FC to allow in situ synchrotron x-ray measurements of the cell in operation and to perform spatially resolved x-ray measurements on fuel cell elements before and after degradation; and (3) Perform initial magnetic resonance microimaging experiments on membrane materials. The Montana State University PEM Membrane Degradation program is geared towards determining how and why membranes in fuel cells degrade and fail. By monitoring every individual membrane in a fuel cell 2000 times/sec while the cell is subjected to real-world type use, we hope to: (1) cause the types of degradation users see, but in a controlled environment; (2) determine an electrical signature that will identify what causes failure, or at least warns of impending failure; (3) allows us to perform advanced x-ray and MRI characterization of the degraded membranes to provide information that may result in improvements of the membrane material; and (4) perhaps allow design of electronic control systems that will prevent fuel cells from operating under conditions where damage is likely to occur.

Dan Stevenson; Lee H Spangler

2007-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

126

Heat and mass transfer design issues in PEM fuel cell hardware  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Dynamic moisture transport within polymeric electrolytes influences PEM fuel cell performance. Lowering electrolyte moisture content leads to decreased ionic transport rates, and other long term effects including polymer degradation. Results illustrate anode dehydration, the effect of water transport concurrent with the proton flux, is significant in single cells at current densities exceeding 500 ma/cm{sup 2}, and at higher temperatures. Evaporation and condensation to and from the gas phase contribute significantly to the cell thermal flows. Several strategies for successful high current density operation of these devices are presented. 9 refs., 7 figs.

Nguyen, Trung; Hedstrom, J.C.; Vanderborgh, N.E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Research and development of a Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Progress report for Quarter 8 of the Phase II effort, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This eighth quarterly report summarizes activity from July 1, 1996 through September 30, 1996. The report is organized in sections describing background information and work performed under the main work breakdown structure (WBS) categories. The WBS categories included are fuel processor, fuel cell stack, and system integration and controls. Program scheduling and task progress are presented in the appendix.

NONE

1996-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

128

Elucidating through-plane liquid water profile in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this paper, a numerical model incorporating micro-porous layers (MPLs) is presented for simulating water transport within the gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and MPLs as well as across their interfaces in a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. One-dimensional analysis is conducted to investigate the impacts of MPL and GDL properties on the liquid-water profile across the anode GDL-MPL and cathode MPL-GDL regions. Furthermore, two-dimensional numerical simulations that take MPLs into account are also carried out to elucidate liquid water transport, particularly through-plane liquid-water profile in a PEM fuel cell. Results from case studies are presented.

Wang, Yun (University of California, Irvine, CA); Chen, Ken Shuang

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Water-retaining Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cell ...  

PEM fuel cells for transportation and portable electronic devices (e.g., laptop, mp3 players, cell phones) Clothing that protects from dehydration;

130

Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has teamed with Plug Power, Inc. of Latham, NY, and the City of Las Vegas, NV, to develop, design, procure, install and operate an on-site hydrogen generation system, an alternative vehicle refueling system, and a stationary hydrogen fuel cell power plant, located in Las Vegas. The facility will become the benchmark for validating new natural gas-based hydrogen systems, PEM fuel cell power generation systems, and numerous new technologies for the safe and reliable delivery of hydrogen as a fuel to vehicles. Most important, this facility will serve as a demonstration of hydrogen as a safe and clean energy alternative. Las Vegas provides an excellent real-world performance and durability testing environment.

Edward F. Kiczek

2007-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

131

Economics of Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Battelle's Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems project was initiated in 2003 to evaluate the technology and markets that are near-term and potentially could support the transition to fuel cells in automotive markets. The objective of Battelle?s project was to assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for pre-automotive applications by analyzing the technical, economic, and market drivers of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell adoption. The project was executed over a 6-year period (2003 to 2010) and a variety of analyses were completed in that period. The analyses presented in the final report include: Commercialization scenarios for stationary generation through 2015 (2004); Stakeholder feedback on technology status and performance status of fuel cell systems (2004); Development of manufacturing costs of stationary PEM fuel cell systems for backup power markets (2004); Identification of near-term and mid-term markets for PEM fuel cells (2006); Development of the value proposition and market opportunity of PEM fuel cells in near-term markets by assessing the lifecycle cost of PEM fuel cells as compared to conventional alternatives used in the marketplace and modeling market penetration (2006); Development of the value proposition of PEM fuel cells in government markets (2007); Development of the value proposition and opportunity for large fuel cell system application at data centers and wastewater treatment plants (2008); Update of the manufacturing costs of PEM fuel cells for backup power applications (2009).

Mahadevan, Kathyayani

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

132

Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Markets  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This document provides information about near-term markets (such as for forklifts and telecommunications) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

133

Engineered Nano-scale Ceramic Supports for PEM Fuel Cells. Tech Team Meeting Presentaion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Catalyst support durability is currently a technical barrier for commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, especially for transportation applications. Degradation and corrosion of the conventional carbon supports leads to losses in active catalyst surface area and, consequently, reduced performance. As a result, the goal of this work is to develop support materials that interact strongly with Pt, yet sustain bulk-like catalytic activities with very highly dispersed particles. Ceramic materials that are prepared using conventional solid-state methods have large grain sizes and low surface areas that can only be minimally ameliorated through grinding and ball milling. Other synthesis routes to produce ceramic materials must be investigated and utilized in order to obtain desired surface areas. In this work, several different synthesis methods are being utilized to prepare electronically conductive ceramic boride, nitride, and oxide materials with high surface areas and have the potential for use as PEMFC catalyst supports. Polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) and aerosol-through plasma (A-T-P) torch are among several methods used to obtain ceramic materials with surface areas that are equal to, or exceed Vulcan XC-72R supports. Cubic Mo-based ceramic phases have been prepared with average XRD-determined crystallite sizes as low as 1.6 nm (from full profile, XRD fitting) and a BET surface area exceeding 200 m{sup 2}/g. Additionally, black, sub-stoichiometric TiO{sub 2-x}, have been prepared with an average crystallite size in the 4 nm range and surface areas exceeding 250 m{sup 2}/gr. Pt disposition using an incipient wetness approach produced materials with activity for hydrogen redox reactions and ORR. Cyclic voltammetry data will be shown for a variety of potential Pt/ceramic catalysts. Initial experiments indicate enhanced Pt metal-support interactions as well. Plane wave periodic density functional calculations (VASP) are being used to predict the thermodynamic and activation barriers for fundamental electrode processes occurring at platinum surfaces supported on thin films of the ceramic support materials. The results of this work will be used in order to optimize support properties.

Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elbaz Alon, Lior [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henson, Neil J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roy, Aaron [University of New Mexico; Serov, Alexey [University of New Mexico; Ward, Timothy [University of New Mexico

2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

134

Development of Micro-structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulation and Experimental Approaches  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

October 2009 October 2009 BUILDING A CLEAN ENERGY GROWTH COMPANY B A L L A R D P O W E R S Y S T E M S Development of Micro-structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulation and Experimental Approaches DOE Fuel Cell Projects Kick-off Meeting COPYRIGHT © 2009 BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Project Objectives ƒ Understand and quantify the fundamental degradation mechanisms Establish relationships between morphology, operational conditions, and the rate of catalyst/catalyst layer degradation ƒ Understand the impact of degradation on the mechanical/chemical stability of the component interfaces, including the stability of the 3-phase interface ƒ Develop mechanistic, forward predictive kinetic and materials aging models for catalyst layer degradation

135

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today's technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

Curgus, Dita Brigitte; Munoz-Ramos, Karina (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Pratt, Joseph William; Akhil, Abbas Ali (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Schenkman, Benjamin L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3-0501 3-0501 Unlimited Release Printed February 2013 Vessel Cold-Ironing Using a Barge Mounted PEM Fuel Cell: Project Scoping and Feasibility Joseph W. Pratt and Aaron P. Harris Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited. 2 Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the

137

Increasing the CO tolerance of PEM fuel cells via current pulsing and self-oxidation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An investigation was conducted to determine and compare the effect of cell current pulsing and "self-oxidation" in increasing the CO tolerance of a PEM fuel cell. The most effective pulsing parameter values were also determined. Current pulsing involves periodically demanding positive current pulses from the fuel cell to create an anode over-potential, while "self-oxidation" or sustained potential oscillations is achieved when the anode catalyst becomes so saturated with CO that the anode over-potential increases to a value at which CO is oxidized from the catalyst surface. The CO tolerance of a fuel cell system with a Pt-Ru anode was tested using 50 and 496 ppm CO in the anode fuel. The performance of the system declined with an increase in CO concentration. Current pulses of various amplitude, frequency, and duty cycle were applied to the cell while CO was present in the anode fuel. With 50 ppm CO in the anode fuel, the most effective pulse in increasing CO tolerance while maintaining normal cell operation was 1.0 A/cm2, 0.25 Hz, and a 5% duty cycle. A pulse (120 Hz, 50% duty cycle) similar to the ripple current often generated when converting DC to single-phase 60 Hz AC had a positive effect on the CO tolerance of the system, but at frequencies that high, the pulse duration was not long enough to completely oxidize the CO from the catalyst surface. With 496 ppm CO in the anode fuel, a pulse of 1.0 A/cm2, 0.5 Hz, and a 20% duty cycle proved most effective. When the cell was exposed to 496 ppm CO, without employing pulsing, "self-oxidation" occurred and CO was periodically oxidized from the catalyst surface. However, pulsing allowed the cell to operate at the desired voltage and power a higher percentage of the time than "self-oxidation"; hence, pulsing was more effective.

Thomason, Arthur Hugh

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Fuel Cells: Identifying Promising Development Opportunities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low temperature PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cells are in the initial stage of commercialization, while high temperature SOFC (solid oxide fuel cells) are under development because they hold promise of higher efficiency and lower costs. To assess their future market potential, this study analyzed several innovative market applications and technical improvements: PEM fuel cells for peak shaving, PEM fuel cells for uninterruptible power supply (UPS), tubular and planar SOFC units for residential use...

2000-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

139

Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

By corrugating the fuel cell membrane electrode structure, Ion Power?s goal is to realize both the Pt utilization targets as well as the power density targets of the DOE. This will be achieved by demonstrating a fuel cell single cell (50 cm2) with a twofold increase in the membrane active area over the geometric area of the cell by corrugating the MEA structure. The corrugating structure must be able to demonstrate the target properties of < 10 mOhm-cm2 electrical resistance at > 20 psi compressive strength over the active area, in combination with offering at least 80% of power density that can be achieved by using the same MEA in a flat plate structure. Corrugated membrane fuel cell structures also have the potential to meet DOE power density targets by essentially packaging more membrane area into the same fuel cell volume as compared to conventional stack constructions.

Grot, Stephen [President, Ion Power Inc.

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

140

Durable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of low cost, durable membranes and membranes electrode assemblies (MEAs) that operate under reduced relative humidity (RH) conditions remain a critical challenge for the successful introduction of fuel cells into mass markets. It was the goal of the team lead by Arkema, Inc. to address these shortages. Thus, this project addresses the following technical barriers from the fuel cells section of the Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: (A) Durability (B) Cost Arkemas approach consisted of using blends of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and proprietary sulfonated polyelectrolytes. In the traditional approach to polyelectrolytes for proton exchange membranes (PEM), all the required properties are packaged in one macromolecule. The properties of interest include proton conductivity, mechanical properties, durability, and water/gas transport. This is the case, for example, for perfluorosulfonic acid-containing (PFSA) membranes. However, the cost of these materials is high, largely due to the complexity and the number of steps involved in their synthesis. In addition, they suffer other shortcomings such as mediocre mechanical properties and insufficient durability for some applications. The strength and originality of Arkemas approach lies in the decoupling of ion conductivity from the other requirements. Kynar PVDF provides an exceptional combination of properties that make it ideally suited for a membrane matrix (Kynar is a registered trademark of Arkema Inc.). It exhibits outstanding chemical resistance in highly oxidative and acidic environments. In work with a prior grant, a membrane known as M41 was developed by Arkema. M41 had many of the properties needed for a high performance PEM, but had a significant deficiency in conductivity at low RH. In the first phase of this work, the processing parameters of M41 were explored as a means to increase its proton conductivity. Optimizing the processing of M41 was found to increase its proton conductivity by almost an order of magnitude at 50% RH. Characterization of the membrane morphology with Karren More at Oak Ridge National Laboratory showed that the membrane morphology was complex. This technology platform was dubbed M43 and was used as a baseline in the majority of the work on the project. Although its performance was superior to M41, M43 still showed proton conductivity an order of magnitude lower than that of a PFSA membrane at 50% RH. The MEA performance of M43 could be increased by reducing the thickness from 1 to 0.6 mils. However, the performance of the thinner M43 still did not match that of a PFSA membrane.

Chris Roger; David Mountz; Wensheng He; Tao Zhang

2011-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane pem fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Anion Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Anion Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells Andrew M. Herring CSM Bryan Pivovar NREL 1 Anion Exchange Membranes (Presented to Parallel Breakout Sessions) * Stability Challenges -...

142

Catalysts and materials development for fuel cell power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Catalytic processing of fuels was explored in this thesis for both low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell as well as high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. Novel catalysts were ...

Weiss, Steven E

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Manufacturing Readiness Assessment for Fuel Cell Stacks and Systems for the Back-up Power and Material Handling Equipment Emerging Markets (Revised)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report details NREL's activity to address the need to understand the current status and associated risk levels of the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell industry.

Wheeler, D.; Ulsh, M.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Effects of Fuel and Air Impurities on PEM Fuel Cell Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Approach * Fabricate and operate fuel cells under controlled impurity gases - Multi-gas mixing manifolds and FC test stations - Pre-blend impurity gases - Measure performance...

145

50 kW PEM Fuel Cell System Design, Fabrication, and Test: System Design -- Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final report describes the results of a development program funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy, Arthur D. Little, and EPRIsolutions. The effort was aimed at the conceptual design and optimization of a 50 kW commercial power system, using advanced proton exchange (or polymer electrolyte) membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology and the verification of key design parameters. (Note: This design effort addresses some of the key technical issues faced by the developers of commercial-scale PEMFC...

2000-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

146

Synthesis and Characterization of CO- and H2S-Tolerant Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present state-of-art Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) technology is based on platinum (Pt) as a catalyst for both the fuel (anode) and air (cathode) electrodes. This catalyst is highly active but susceptible to poisoning by CO, which may be present in the H{sub 2}-fuel used or may be introduced during the fuel processing. Presence of trace amount of CO and H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}-fuel poisons the anode irreversibly and decreases the performance of the PEMFCs. In an effort to reduce the Pt-loading and improve the PEMFC performance, we propose to synthesize a number of Pt-based binary, ternary, and quaternary electrocatalysts using Ru, Mo, Ir, Ni, and Co as a substitute for Pt. By fine-tuning the metal loadings and compositions of candidate electrocatalysts, we plan to minimize the cost and optimize the catalyst activity and performance in PEMFC. The feasibility of the novel electrocatalysts will be demonstrated in the proposed effort with gas phase CO and H{sub 2}S concentrations typical of those found in reformed fuel gas with coal/natural gas/methanol feedstocks. In this work binary, ternary, and quaternary platinum-based electrocatalysts were synthesized for the purpose of lowering the cost and increasing the CO tolerance of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) in the fuel cell. The metals Ru, Mo, W, Ir, Co and Se were alloyed with platinum on a carbon support using a modified reduction method. These catalysts were fabricated into MEAs and evaluated for electrical performance and CO tolerance with polarization experiments. The quaternary system Pt/Ru/Mo/Ir system is the most CO tolerant in the PEMFC and has a low total metal loading of 0.4 mg/cm{sup 2} in the electrode of the cell.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

147

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H 2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update September 30, 2010 Prepared by: Brian D. James, Jeffrey A. Kalinoski & Kevin N. Baum One Virginia Square 3601 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 650 Arlington, Virginia 22201 703-243-3383 Prepared under: Subcontract No. AGB-0-40628-01 to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) under Prime Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 to the U.S. Department of Energy Foreword Energy security is fundamental to the mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles have the potential to eliminate the need for oil in the transportation sector. Fuel cell vehicles can operate on hydrogen, which can be produced domestically, emitting less greenhouse gasses and pollutants than

148

Membrane-supported nonvolatile acidic electrolytes allow higher temperature operation of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of using nonvolatile molten and solid acidic electrolyte impregnated ion-exchange membranes in higher temperature proton-exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) to alleviate their water dependence is investigated. Higher temperature PEMFC operation reduces CO poisoning as well as passivation of the Pt electrocatalyst by other condensable species. Further, higher temperature operation could eventually allow direct use of low-temperature reformable fuels such as methanol in the PEMFC. The methodology proposed here involves supporting an appropriate acidic solid, melt, or solution of low volatility within the pores of Nafion{reg_sign} so as to enhance its protonic conductivity at higher temperatures and lower humidity levels. Preliminary experimental results reported here for a PEM fuel cell operating at temperatures of 110 to 120 C based on Nafion supported solutions of heteropolyacid indicate the feasibility of the technique.

Malhotra, S.; Datta, R. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Final Project Report: Development of Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulations and Experimental Approaches  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The durability of PEM fuel cells is a primary requirement for large scale commercialization of these power systems in transportation and stationary market applications that target operational lifetimes of 5,000 hours and 40,000 hours by 2015, respectively. Key degradation modes contributing to fuel cell lifetime limitations have been largely associated with the platinum-based cathode catalyst layer. Furthermore, as fuel cells are driven to low cost materials and lower catalyst loadings in order to meet the cost targets for commercialization, the catalyst durability has become even more important. While over the past few years significant progress has been made in identifying the underlying causes of fuel cell degradation and key parameters that greatly influence the degradation rates, many gaps with respect to knowledge of the driving mechanisms still exist; in particular, the acceleration of the mechanisms due to different structural compositions and under different fuel cell conditions remains an area not well understood. The focus of this project was to address catalyst durability by using a dual path approach that coupled an extensive range of experimental analysis and testing with a multi-scale modeling approach. With this, the major technical areas/issues of catalyst and catalyst layer performance and durability that were addressed are: 1. Catalyst and catalyst layer degradation mechanisms (Pt dissolution, agglomeration, Pt loss, e.g. Pt in the membrane, carbon oxidation and/or corrosion). a. Driving force for the different degradation mechanisms. b. Relationships between MEA performance, catalyst and catalyst layer degradation and operational conditions, catalyst layer composition, and structure. 2. Materials properties a. Changes in catalyst, catalyst layer, and MEA materials properties due to degradation. 3. Catalyst performance a. Relationships between catalyst structural changes and performance. b. Stability of the three-phase boundary and its effect on performance/catalyst degradation. The key accomplishments of this project are: The development of a molecular-dynamics based description of the carbon supported-Pt and ionomer system The development of a composition-based, 1D-statistical Unit Cell Performance model A modified and improved multi-pathway ORR model An extension of the existing micro-structural catalyst model to transient operation The coupling of a Pt Dissolution model to the modified ORR pathway model The Development A Semi-empirical carbon corrosion model The integration and release of an open-source forward predictive MEA performance and degradation model Completion of correlations of BOT (beginning of test) and EOT (end of test) performance loss breakdown with cathode catalyst layer composition, morphology, material properties, and operational conditions Catalyst layer durability windows and design curves A design flow path of interactions from materials properties and catalyst layer effective properties to performance loss breakdown for virgin and degraded catalyst layers In order to ensure the best possible user experience we will perform a staged release of the software leading up to the webinar scheduled in October 2013. The release schedule will be as follows (please note that the manual will be released with the beta release as direct support is provided in Stage 1): Stage 0 - Internal Ballard Release o Cross check of compilation and installation to ensure machine independence o Implement code on portable virtual machine to allow for non-UNIX use (pending) Stage 1 - Alpha Release o The model code will be made available via a GIT, sourceforge, or other repository (under discussion at Ballard) for download and installation by a small pre-selected group of users o Users will be given three weeks to install, apply, and evaluate features of the code, providing feedback on issues or software bugs that require correction prior to beta release Stage 2 - Beta Release o The model code repository is opened to the general public on a beta release c

Wessel, Silvia [Ballard Materials Products] [Ballard Materials Products; Harvey, David [Ballard Materials Products] [Ballard Materials Products

2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

150

Synthesis and Characterization of CO- and H2S-Tolerant Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present state-of-art Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) technology is based on platinum (Pt) as a catalyst for both the fuel (anode) and air (cathode) electrodes. This catalyst is highly active but susceptible to poisoning by CO, which may be present in the H{sub 2}-fuel used or may be introduced during the fuel processing. Presence of trace amount of CO and H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}-fuel poisons the anode irreversibly and decreases the performance of the PEMFCs. In an effort to reduce the Pt-loading and improve the PEMFC performance, we propose to synthesize a number of Pt-based binary, ternary, and quaternary electrocatalysts using Ru, Mo, Ir, Ni, and Co as a substitute for Pt. By fine-tuning the metal loadings and compositions of candidate electrocatalysts, we plan to minimize the cost and optimize the catalyst activity and performance in PEMFC. The feasibility of the novel electrocatalysts will be demonstrated in the proposed effort with gas phase CO and H{sub 2}S concentrations typical of those found in reformed fuel gas with coal/natural gas/methanol feedstocks. During this reporting period we used four Pt-based electrocatalysts (Pt/Ru/Mo/Se, Pt/Ru/Mo/Ir, Pt/Ru/Mo/W, Ptr/Ru/Mo/Co) in MEAs and these were evaluated for CO-tolerance with 20 and 100 ppm CO concentration in H{sub 2}-fuel. From current-voltage performance study, the catalytic activity was found in the increasing order of Pt/Ru/Mo/Ir > Pt/Ru/Mo/W > Pt/Ru/Mo/Co > Pt/Ru/MO/Se. From preliminary cost analysis it appears that could of the catalyst metal loading can reduced by 40% to 60% depending on the selection of metal combinations without compromising the fuel cell performance.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

151

DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL ELECTROCATALYSTS FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising power sources for stand-alone utility and electric vehicle applications. Platinum (Pt) Catalyst is used for both fuel and air electrodes in PEMFCs. However, carbon monoxide (CO) contamination of H{sub 2} greatly affects electro catalysts used at the anode of PEMFCs and decreases cell performance. The irreversible poisoning of the anode can occur even in CO concentrations as low as few parts per million (ppm). In this work, we have synthesized several novel elctrocatalysts (Pt/C, Pt/Ru/C, Pt/Mo/C, Pt/Ir and Pt/Ru/Mo) for PEMFCs. These catalysts have been tested for CO tolerance in the H{sub 2}/air fuel cell, using CO concentrations in the H{sub 2} fuel that varies from 10 to 100 ppm. The performance of the electrodes was evaluated by determining the cell potential against current density. The effects of catalyst composition and electrode film preparation method on the performance of PEM fuel cell were also studied. It was found that at 70 C and 3.5 atm pressure at the cathode, Pt-alloy catalyst (10 wt% Pt/Ru/C, 20 wt% Pt/Mo/C) were more CO tolerant than the 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst alone. It was also observed that spraying method was better than the brushing technique for the preparation of electrode film.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2002-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

152

A feasibility study of internal evaporative cooling for proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using the technique of ultrasonic nebulization of water into the anode gas stream for evaporative cooling of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The basic concept of this form of internal evaporative cooling of the PEM fuel cell is to introduce finely atomized liquid water into the anode gas stream, so that the finely atomized liquid water adsorbs onto the anode and then moves to the cathode via electro-osmotic drag, where this water then evaporates into the relatively dry cathode gas stream, carrying with it the waste thermal energy generated within the fuel cell. The thermal and electrical performance of a 50 cm2 PEM fuel cell utilizing this technique was compared to the performance obtained with conventional water management. Both techniques were compared over a range of humidification chamber temperatures for both the anode and cathode gas streams so as to determine the robustness of the proposed method. The proposed method produced only meager levels of evaporative cooling (at best 2 watts, for which a minimum of 30 watts was required for adequate cooling), but the average cell voltage increased considerably (as much as a 10% gain), and the technique increased the fault tolerance of the fuel cell (the Nafion? membrane did not dry out even if cell temperature went well in excess of 70° C despite both anode and cathode humidification temperatures of 55° C). An interesting phenomena was also observed wherein the fuel cell voltage oscillated regularly with a period of tens of seconds, and that the amplitude of this oscillation corresponded inversely with the level of humidification received by the fuel cell.

Snyder, Loren E

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

2005 DOE Hydrogen Program Review PresentationCOST AND PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENTS FOR A PEM FUEL CELL TURBOCOMPRESSOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of the program during the past year was to complete Technical Objectives 2 and 3 and initiate Technical Objective 4 are described. To assist the Department of Energy in the development of a low cost, reliable and high performance air compressor/expander. Technical Objective 1: Perform a turbocompressor systems PEM fuel cell trade study to determine the enhanced turbocompressor approach. Technical Objective 2: Using the results from technical objective 1, an enhanced turbocompressor will be fabricated. The design may be modified to match the flow requirements of a selected fuel cell system developer. Technical Objective 3: Design a cost and performance enhanced compact motor and motor controller. Technical Objective 4: Turbocompressor/motor controller development.

Mark K. Gee

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Design of graphene sheets-supported Pt catalyst layer in PEM fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of cathodes using Pt supported onto graphene sheets with different contents of carbon black in the catalyst layer were prepared and characterized. Carbon black was added as a spacer between two-dimensional graphene sheets in the catalyst layer to study its effect on the performances of proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Electrochemical properties and surface morphology of the cathodes with and without carbon black were characterized using cyclic voltammetry, ac-impedance spectroscopy, electrochemical polarization technique, and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that carbon black effectively modifies the array of graphene supports, resulting in more Pt nanoparticles available for electrochemical reaction and better mass transport in the catalyst layer.

Park, Seh K.; Shao, Yuyan; Wan, Haiying; Rieke, Peter C.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Towne, Silas A.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Liu, Jun; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Yong

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Synthesis and Characterization of CO- and H2S-Tolerant Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present state-of-art Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) technology is based on platinum (Pt) as a catalyst for both the fuel (anode) and air (cathode) electrodes. This catalyst is highly active but susceptible to poisoning by CO, which may be present in the H{sub 2}-fuel used or may be introduced during the fuel processing. Presence of trace amount of CO and H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}-fuel poisons the anode irreversibly and decreases the performance of the PEMFCs. In an effort to reduce the Pt-loading and improve the PEMFC performance, we propose to synthesize a number of Pt-based binary, ternary, and quaternary electrocatalysts using Ru, Mo, Ir, Ni, and Co as a substitute for Pt. By fine-tuning the metal loadings and compositions of candidate electrocatalysts, we plan to minimize the cost and optimize the catalyst activity and performance in PEMFC. The feasibility of the novel electrocatalysts will be demonstrated in the proposed effort with gas phase CO and H{sub 2}S concentrations typical of those found in reformed fuel gas with coal/natural gas/methanol feedstocks. During this reporting period we synthesized several tri-metallic electrocatalysts catalysts (Pt/Ru/Mo, Pt/Ru/Ir, Pt/Ru/W, Ptr/Ru/Co, and Pt/Ru/Se on Vulcan XG72 Carbon) by ultrasonication method. These catalysts were tested in MEAs for CO tolerance at 20 and 100 ppm CO concentrations. From Galvonstatic study the catalytic activity was found in the order of: Pt/Ru/Mo/C > Pt/Ru/Ir/C > Pt/Ru/W/C > Ptr/Ru/Co/C > and Pt/Ru/Se. The catalysts performed very well at 20 ppm CO but at 100 ppm CO performance dropped significantly.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2005-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

156

Preventing CO poisoning in fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell performance with CO contamination of the H.sub.2 fuel stream is substantially improved by injecting O.sub.2 into the fuel stream ahead of the fuel cell. It is found that a surface reaction occurs even at PEM operating temperatures below about 100.degree. C. to oxidatively remove the CO and restore electrode surface area for the H.sub.2 reaction to generate current. Using an O.sub.2 injection, a suitable fuel stream for a PEM fuel cell can be formed from a methanol source using conventional reforming processes for producing H.sub.2.

Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL ELECTROCATALYSTS FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the available chemical free energy directly into electrical energy, without going through heat exchange process. Of all different types of fuel cells, the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising power sources for stand-alone utility and electric vehicle applications. Platinum (Pt) Catalyst is used for both fuel and air electrodes in PEMFCs. However, carbon monoxide (CO) contamination of H{sub 2} greatly affects electro catalysts used at the anode of PEMFCs and decreases cell performance. The irreversible poisoning of the anode can occur even in CO concentrations as low as few parts per million (ppm). In this work, we have synthesized several novel elctrocatalysts (Pt/C, Pt/Ru/C, Pt/Mo/C, Pt/Ir and Pt/Ru/Mo) for PEMFCs. These catalysts have been tested for CO tolerance in the H{sub 2}/air fuel cell, using CO concentrations in the H{sub 2} fuel that varies from 10 to 100 ppm. The performance of the electrodes was evaluated by determining the cell potential against current density. The effects of catalyst composition and electrode film preparation method on the performance of PEM fuel cell were also studied. It was found that at 70 C and 3.5 atm pressure at the cathode, Pt-alloy catalyst (10 wt% Pt/Ru/C, 20 wt% Pt/Mo/C) were more CO tolerant than the 20 wt% Pt/C catalyst alone. It was also observed that spraying method was better than the brushing technique for the preparation of electrode film.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2003-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

158

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Renewable Energy Laboratory Anion Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells, Prof. Andrew Herring, Colorado School of Mines Electrocatalysis in Alkaline Electrolytes, Prof. Sanjeev...

159

Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells; Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storate  

SciTech Connect

Symposium T: Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are under intense investigation worldwide for applications ranging from transportation to portable power. The purpose of this seminar is to focus on the nanomaterials and nanostructures inherent to polymer fuel cells. Symposium topics will range from high-activity cathode and anode catalysts, to theory and new analytical methods. Symposium U: Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storage Electricity, which can be generated in a variety of ways, offers a great potential for meeting future energy demands as a clean and efficient energy source. However, the use of electricity generated from renewable sources, such as wind or sunlight, requires efficient electrical energy storage. This symposium will cover the latest material developments for batteries, advanced capacitors, and related technologies, with a focus on new or emerging materials science challenges.

Gopal Rao, MRS Web-Editor; Yury Gogotsi, Drexel University; Karen Swider-Lyons, Naval Research Laboratory

2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

160

Liquid-Water Uptake and Removal in PEM Fuel-Cell Components  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Management of liquid water is critical for optimal fuel-cell operation, especially at low temperatures. It is therefore important to understand the wetting properties and water holdup of the various fuel-cell layers. While the gas-diffusion layer is relatively hydrophobic and exhibits a strong intermediate wettability, the catalyst layer is predominantly hydrophilic. In addition, the water content of the ionomer in the catalyst layer is lower than that of the bulk membrane, and is affected by platinum surfaces. Liquid-water removal occurs through droplets on the surface of the gas-diffusion layer. In order to predict droplet instability and detachment, a force balance is used. While the pressure or drag force on the droplet can be derived, the adhesion or surface-tension force requires measurement using a sliding-angle approach. It is shown that droplets produced by forcing water through the gas-diffusion layer rather than placing them on top of it show much stronger adhesion forces owing to the contact to the subsurface water.

Das, Prodip K.; Gunterman, Haluna P.; Kwong, Anthony; Weber, Adam Z.

2011-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

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161

REFORMING OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS IN A NOVEL HYDROGEN-SELECTIVE MEMBRANE-BASED FUEL PROCESSOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We propose to develop an inorganic metal-metal composite membrane to study reforming of liquid hydrocarbons and methanol by equilibrium shift in membrane-reactor configuration, viewed as fuel processor. Based on our current understanding and experience in the Pd-ceramic composite membrane, we propose to further develop this membrane to a Pd and Pd-Ag alloy membrane on microporous stainless steel support to provide structural reliability from distortion due to thermal cycling. Because of the metal-metal composite structure, we believe that the associated end-seal problem in the Pd-ceramic composite membrane in tubular configuration would not be an issue at all. We plan to test this membrane as membrane-reactor-separator for reforming liquid hydrocarbons and methanol for simultaneous production and separation of high-purity hydrogen for PEM fuel cell applications. To improve the robustness of the membrane film and deep penetration into the pores, we have used osmotic pressure field in the electroless plating process. Using this novel method, we deposited thin Pd-film on the inside of microporous stainless steel tube and the deposited film appears to robust and defect free. Work is in progress to evaluate the hydrogen perm-selectivity of the Pd-stainless steel membrane.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

162

Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Durable, Low-cost, Improved Durable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes US Department of Energy Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Kickoff Meeting, Washington DC, February 13, 2007 Michel Fouré Project Objectives z To develop a low cost (vs. perfluorosulfonated ionomers), durable membrane. z To develop a membrane capable at 80°C at low relative humidity (25-50%). z To develop a membrane capable of operating at 120°C for brief periods of time. z To elucidate membrane degradation and failure mechanisms. U:jen/slides/pres.07/FC kickoff Washington DC 2-13-07 2 Technical Barriers Addressed z Membrane Cost z Membrane Durability z Membrane capability to operate at low relative humidity. z Membrane capability to operate at 120ºC for brief period of times.

163

DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL ELECTROCATALYSTS FOR PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising power sources for space and electric vehicle applications. Platinum (Pt) catalyst is used for both fuel and air electrodes in PEMFCs. The carbon monoxide (CO) contamination of H{sub 2} greatly affects electrocatalysts used at the anode of PEMFCs and decrease the cell performance. This irreversible poisoning of the anode can happen even in CO concentrations as low as few ppm, and therefore, require expensive scrubbing of the H{sub 2}-fuel to reduce the contaminant concentration to acceptable level. In order to commercialize this environmentally sound source of energy/power system, development of suitable CO-tolerant catalyst is needed. In this work, we have synthesized several novel electrocatalysts (Pt/C, Pt/Ru/C Pt/Mo/C, Pt/Ir and Pt/Ru/Mo) for PEMFCs. These catalysts have been tested for CO tolerance in the H{sub 2}/air fuel cell. The concentration of CO in the H{sub 2} fuel varied from 10 ppm to 100 ppm. The performance of the electrodes was evaluated by determining the cell potential against current density. The effect of temperature, catalyst compositions, and electrode film preparation methods on the performance of PEM fuel cell has also been studied. It was found that at 70 C and 3.5 atm pressure at the cathode, Pt-alloy catalysts (10 wt % Pt/Ru/C, 20 wt % Pt/Mo/C) were more CO-tolerant than 20 wt % Pt catalyst alone. It was also observed that spraying method is better for the preparation of electrode film than the brushing technique. Some of these results are summarized in this report.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2001-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

164

R&D on an Ultra-Thin Composite Membrane for High-Temperature Operation in PEMFC. Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

FuelCell Energy developed a novel high-temperature proton exchange membrane for PEM fuel cells for building applications. The laboratory PEM fuel cell successfully operated at 100-400{supdegree}C and low relative humidity to improve CO tolerance, mitigate water and thermal management challenges, and reduce membrane cost. The developed high-temperature membrane has successfully completed 500h 120C endurance testing.

Yuh, C.-Y.

2003-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

165

Electrochemical energy storage using PEM systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper gives the results of an engineering assessment for future, long-lived space power systems for extraterrestrial applications. Solar-based, regenerative fuel cell power plants formed from either alkaline or PEM components are the focus. Test results on advanced PEM fuel cell stack components are presented. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Vanderborgh, N.E.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Huff, J.R.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Conceptual design report for a Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for transportation application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the conceptual design for a Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for transportation applications. The design is based on the initial selection of the Chrysler LH sedan as the target vehicle with a 50 kW (gross) PEM Fuel Cell Stack (FCS) as the primary power source, a battery-powered Load Leveling Unit (LLU) for surge power requirements, an on-board hydrogen storage subsystem containing high pressure gaseous storage, a Gas Management Subsystem (GMS) to manage the hydrogen and air supplies for the FCS, and electronic controllers to control the electrical system. The design process has been dedicated to the use of Design-to-Cost (DTC) principles. The Direct Hydrogen-Powered PEM Fuel Cell Stack Hybrid Vehicle (DPHV) system is designed to operate on the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) and Hiway Cycles. These cycles have been used to evaluate the vehicle performance with regard to range and hydrogen usage. The major constraints for the DPHV vehicle are vehicle and battery weight, transparency of the power system and drive train to the user, equivalence of fuel and life cycle costs to conventional vehicles, and vehicle range. The energy and power requirements are derived by the capability of the DPHV system to achieve an acceleration from 0 to 60 MPH within 12 seconds, and the capability to achieve and maintain a speed of 55 MPH on a grade of seven percent. The conceptual design for the DPHV vehicle is shown in a figure. A detailed description of the Hydrogen Storage Subsystem is given in section 4. A detailed description of the FCS Subsystem and GMS is given in section 3. A detailed description of the LLU, selection of the LLU energy source, and the power controller designs is given in section 5.

NONE

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

167

A Semi-Empirical Two Step Carbon Corrosion Reaction Model in PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

The cathode CL of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was exposed to high potentials, 1.0 to 1.4 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), that are typically encountered during start up/shut down operation. While both platinum dissolution and carbon corrosion occurred, the carbon corrosion effects were isolated and modeled. The presented model separates the carbon corrosion process into two reaction steps; (1) oxidation of the carbon surface to carbon-oxygen groups, and (2) further corrosion of the oxidized surface to carbon dioxide/monoxide. To oxidize and corrode the cathode catalyst carbon support, the CL was subjected to an accelerated stress test cycled the potential from 0.6 VRHE to an upper potential limit (UPL) ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 VRHE at varying dwell times. The reaction rate constants and specific capacitances of carbon and platinum were fitted by evaluating the double layer capacitance (Cdl) trends. Carbon surface oxidation increased the Cdl due to increased specific capacitance for carbon surfaces with carbon-oxygen groups, while the second corrosion reaction decreased the Cdl due to loss of the overall carbon surface area. The first oxidation step differed between carbon types, while both reaction rate constants were found to have a dependency on UPL, temperature, and gas relative humidity.

Young, Alan; Colbow, Vesna; Harvey, David; Rogers, Erin; Wessel, Silvia

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9/2011 9/2011 1 BASF Fuel Cell, Inc. Manufacturing Barriers to high temperature PEM commercialization 39 Veronica Ave Somerset , NJ 08873 Tel : (732) 545-5100 9/9/2011 2 Background on BASF Fuel Cell  BASF Fuel Cell was established in 2007, formerly PEMEAS Fuel Cells (including E-TEK)  Product line is high temperature MEAs (Celtec ® P made from PBI-phosphoric acid)  Dedicated a new advanced pilot manufacturing facility in Somerset NJ May 2009. Ribbon-cutting hosted by Dr. Kreimeyer (BASF BoD, right) and attended by various US pubic officials including former NJ Governor Jon Corzine (left) 9/9/2011 3 Multi-layer product of membrane (polybenzimidazole and phosphoric acid), gas diffusion material and catalysts Unique characteristics:  High operating temperature

169

A Dynamic Two-Phase Flow Model of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A dynamic two phase flow model for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells is presented. The two dimensional along-the-channel model includes the two phase flow of water (gaseous and liquid) in the porous diffusion layers and in the catalyst layers, as well as the transport of the species in the gas phase. Moreover, proton and water transport in the membrane and the oxygen reduction reaction in the cathodic catalyst layer is accounted for. The discretisation of the resulting flow equations is done by a mixed finite element approach. Based on this the transport equations for the species in each phase are discretised by a finite volume scheme. The coupled mixed finite element/finite volume approach gives the spatially resolved water and gas saturation and the species concentrations. In order to describe the charge transport in the fuel cell the Poisson equations for the electrons and protons are solved by using Galerkin finite element schemes.

Karsten Khn; K. Khn; Mario Ohlberger; Jrgen O. Schumacher; C. Ziegler; R. Klfkorn; Karsten Khn Ab; Mario Ohlberger Cd; Jrgen O. Schumacher A; Christoph Ziegler; Robert Klfkorn C

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); York, Cynthia A. (Newington, CT); Waszczuk, Piotr (White Bear Lake, MN); Wieckowski, Andrzej (Champaign, IL)

2009-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

171

Diffuse charge effects in fuel cell membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is commonly assumed that electrolyte membranes in fuel cells are electrically neutral, except in unsteady situations, when the double-layer capacitance is heuristically included in equivalent circuit calculations. Indeed, ...

Biesheuvel, P. M.

172

Poly(cyclohexadiene)-Based Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this research project was to create and develop fuel cell membranes having high proton conductivity at high temperatures and high chemical and mechanical durability. Poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) (PCHD) is of interest as an alternative polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) material due to its ring-like structure which is expected to impart superior mechanical and thermal properties, and due to the fact that PCHD can readily be incorporated into a range of homopolymer and copolymer structures. PCHD can be aromatized, sulfonated, or fluorinated, allowing for tuning of key performance structure and properties. These factors include good proton transport, hydrophilicity, permeability (including fuel gas impermeability), good mechanical properties, morphology, thermal stability, crystallinity, and cost. The basic building block, 1,3-cyclohexadiene, is a hydrocarbon monomer that could be inexpensively produced on a commercial scale (pricing typical of other hydrocarbon monomers). Optimal material properties will result in novel low cost PEM membranes engineered for high conductivity at elevated temperatures and low relative humidities, as well as good performance and durability. The primary objectives of this project were: (1) To design, synthesize and characterize new non-Nafion PEM materials that conduct protons at low (25-50%) RH and at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 120 C; and (2) To achieve these objectives, a range of homopolymer and copolymer materials incorporating poly(cyclohexadiene) (PCHD) will be synthesized, derivatized, and characterized. These two objectives have been achieved. Sulfonated and crosslinked PCHD homopolymer membranes exhibit proton conductivities similar to Nafion in the mid-RH range, are superior to Nafion at higher RH, but are poorer than Nafion at RH < 50%. Thus to further improve proton conductivity, particularly at low RH, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was incorporated into the membrane by blending and by copolymerization. Conductivity measurements at 120 C over RH ranging from 20 to 100% using the BekkTech protocol showed much improved proton conductivities. Conductivities for the best of these new membranes exceed the DOE Year 3 milestone of 100 mS/cm at 50% RH at 120 C. Further optimization of these very promising low cost membranes could be pursued in the future.

Mays, Jimmy W.

2011-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

173

Low-Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates - DOE Hydrogen and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Conghua "CH" Wang TreadStone Technologies, Inc. 201 Washington Rd. Princeton, NJ 08543 Phone: (609) 734-3071 Email:...

174

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: 2005 Annual Progress Report...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

129 KB) Novel, Low-cost Solid Membrane Water Electrolyzer (Phase II Project), John A. Kosek, Giner, Inc. (PDF 149 KB) Complex Coolant Fluid for PEM Fuel Cell Systems, Satish C....

175

Effect of Cathode Pore Volume on PEM Fuel Cell Cold Start Ashis Nandy,a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the intraelectrode ice formation theory,5 which explains ice formation in the cathode catalyst layer CCL as the key with resulting tem- perature rise and water production or ice formation in the CCL. Ice formation in the CCL mainly through back-diffusion into the membrane and through vapor-phase transport from CCL

176

Gradient Porous Composite Membrane for Fuel Cell Applications  

The heart of current polymer electrolyte fuel cells are the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA), which are composed of (i) an ionomer polymer membrane ...

177

PEM Degradation Investigation Final Technical Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project conducted fundamental studies of PEM MEA degradation. Insights gained from these studies were disseminated to assist MEA manufacturers in understanding degradation mechanisms and work towards DOE 2010 fuel cell durability targets.

Dan Stevenson; Lee H Spangler

2010-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

178

"Dedicated To The Continued Education, Training and Demonstration of PEM Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks In Real-World Applications."  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project objective was to further assist in the commercialization of fuel cell and H2 technology by building further upon the successful fuel cell lift truck deployments that were executed by LiftOne in 2007, with longer deployments of this technology in real-world applications. We involved facilities management, operators, maintenance personnel, safety groups, and Authorities Having Jurisdiction. LiftOne strived to educate a broad group from many areas of industry and the community as to the benefits of this technology. Included were First Responders from the local areas. We conducted month long deployments with end-users to validate the value proposition and the market requirements for fuel cell powered lift trucks. Management, lift truck operators, Authorities Having Jurisdiction and the general public experienced 'hands on' fuel cell experience in the material handling applications. We partnered with Hydrogenics in the execution of the deployment segment of the program. Air Products supplied the compressed H2 gas and the mobile fueler. Data from the Fuel Cell Power Packs and the mobile fueler was sent to the DOE and NREL as required. Also, LiftOne conducted the H2 Education Seminars on a rotating basis at their locations for lift trucks users and for other selected segments of the community over the project's 36 month duration. Executive Summary The technology employed during the deployments program was not new, as the equipment had been used in several previous demos and early adoptions within the material handling industry. This was the case with the new HyPx Series PEM - Fuel Cell Power Packs used, which had been demo'd before during the 2007 Greater Columbia Fuel Cell Challenge. The Air Products HF-150 Fueler was used outdoors during the deployments and had similarly been used for many previous demo programs. The methods used centered on providing this technology as the power for electric sit-down lift trucks at high profile companies operating large fleets. As a long-standing lift truck dealership, LiftOne was able to introduce the fuel cells to such companies in the demanding applications. Accomplishments vs Objectives: We were successful in respect to the stated objectives. The Education Segment's H2 Education Sessions were able to introduce fuel cell technology to many companies and reached the intended broad audience. Also, demos of the lift truck at the sessions as well as the conferences; expos and area events provided great additional exposure. The Deployments were successful in allowing the 6 participating companies to test the 2 fuel cell powered lift trucks in their demanding applications. One of the 6 sites (BMW) eventually adopted over 80 fuel cells from Plug Power. LiftOne was one of the 3 fuel cell demonstrators at BMW for this trial and played a major role in helping to prove the viability and efficiency of this alternative form of energy for BMW. The other 5 companies that participated in the project's deployments were encouraged by the trials and while not converting over to fuel cell power at this time, expressed the desire to revisit acquisition scenarios in the near future as the cost of fuel cells and infrastructure continue to improve. The Education sessions began in March of 2009 at the 7 LiftOne Branches and continued throughout the duration of the project. Attendees came from a large base of lift truck users in North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. The sessions were free and invitations were sent out to potential users and companies with intrigue. In addition to the Education content at the sessions (which was offered in a 'H2 101' format), LiftOne was able to demonstrate a working fuel cell powered lift truck, which proved to be a big draw with the 'hands on' experience. LiftOne also demo'd the fuel cell lift trucks at many conferences, expos, professional association meetings, trade shows and 'Green' events in major cities region including Charlotte, Greenville, and Columbia. Such events allowed for H2 Education Material to be presented, and recruit attendees for future sessi

Dever, Thomas J.

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

179

Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Indirect Methanol Pem Fuel Cell System, SAE 2001, (paperof automotive PEM fuel cell stacks, SAE 2000 (paper numberParasitic Loads in Fuel Cell Vehicles, International Journal

Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Evaluation of Plug Power Gensys 5C Fuel Cell System in Mesa, AZ: Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pre-commercial Plug Power Gensys 5C fuel cell was installed at the Arizona State University - Photovoltaic Testing Laboratory (ASU-PTL). The proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is fueled with natural gas and exports up to 5 kW to the local electrical grid. The overall performance and maintenance history over 18 months of operation is chronicled. PEM fuel cells are being positioned by Plug Power and other vendors as residential power generators.

2006-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane pem fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CO-AND H{sub 2}S-TOLERANT ELECTROCATALYSTS FOR PEM FUEL CELL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present state-of-art Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) technology is based on platinum (Pt) as a catalyst for both the fuel (anode) and air (cathode) electrodes. This catalyst is highly active but susceptible to poisoning by CO, which may be present in the H{sub 2}-fuel used or may be introduced during the fuel processing. Presence of trace amount of CO and H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}-fuel poisons the anode irreversibly and decreases the performance of the PEMFCs. In an effort to reduce the Pt-loading and improve the PEMFC performance, we propose to synthesize a number of Pt-based binary, ternary, and quaternary electrocatalysts using Ru, Mo, Ir, Ni, and Co as a substitute for Pt. By fine-tuning the metal loadings and compositions of candidate electrocatalysts, we plan to minimize the cost and optimize the catalyst activity and performance in PEMFC. The feasibility of the novel electrocatalysts will be demonstrated in the proposed effort with gas phase CO and H{sub 2}S concentrations typical of those found in reformed fuel gas with coal/natural gas/methanol feedstocks. During this reporting period, we have obtained base-line performance data of commercially available Pt-catalyst in our modified PEMFC Testing set-up. Synthesis of Pt-based bimetallic and tri-metallic electrocatalysts is in progress.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2003-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

182

Demonstrating Economic and Operational Viability of 72-Hour Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems to Support Emergency Communications on the Sprint Nextel Network - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Kevin Kenny Sprint Nextel 12000 Sunrise Valley Drive MS: VARESQ0401-E4064 Reston, VA 20191 Phone: (703) 592-8272 Email: kevin.p.kenny@sprint.com DOE Managers HQ: Sara Dillich Phone: (202) 586-7925 Email: Sara.Dillich@ee.doe.gov GO: James Alkire Phone: (720) 356-1426 Email: James.Alkire@go.doe.gov Contract Number: EE-0000486 Project Partners: * Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (Fuel Project Partner) * Altergy Systems, Folsum, CA (PEM Fuel Cell Project Partner) * Black & Veatch Corporation, Overland Park, KS (A&E

183

Catalytic membranes for fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell of the present invention comprises a cathode and an anode, one or both of the anode and the cathode including a catalyst comprising a bundle of longitudinally aligned graphitic carbon nanotubes including a catalytically active transition metal incorporated longitudinally and atomically distributed throughout the graphitic carbon walls of said nanotubes. The nanotubes also include nitrogen atoms and/or ions chemically bonded to the graphitic carbon and to the transition metal. Preferably, the transition metal comprises at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, and Cr.

Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Bolingbrook, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Naperville, IL)

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

184

Synthesis and Characterization of CO-and H2S-Tolerant Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present state-of-art Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) technology is based on platinum (Pt) as a catalyst for both the fuel (anode) and air (cathode) electrodes. This catalyst is highly active but susceptible to poisoning by CO, which may be present in the H{sub 2}-fuel used or may be introduced during the fuel processing. Presence of trace amount of CO and H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}-fuel poisons the anode irreversibly and decreases the performance of the PEMFCs. In an effort to reduce the Pt-loading and improve the PEMFC performance, we propose to synthesize a number of Pt-based binary, ternary, and quaternary electrocatalysts using Ru, Mo, Ir, Ni, and Co as a substitute for Pt. By fine-tuning the metal loadings and compositions of candidate electrocatalysts, we plan to minimize the cost and optimize the catalyst activity and performance in PEMFC. The feasibility of the novel electrocatalysts will be demonstrated in the proposed effort with gas phase CO and H{sub 2}S concentrations typical of those found in reformed fuel gas with coal/natural gas/methanol feedstocks. During this reporting period we synthesized four Pt-based electrocatalysts catalysts (Pt/Ru/Mo/Se, Pt/Ru/Mo/Ir, Pt/Ru/Mo/W, Ptr/Ru/Mo/Co) on Vulcan XG72 Carbon support by both conventional and ultra-sonication method. From current-voltage performance study, the catalytic activity was found in the increasing order of Pt/Ru/Mo/Ir > Pt/Ru/Mo/W > Pt/Ru/Mo/Co > Pt/Ru/MO/Se. Sonication method appears to provide better dispersion of catalysts on carbon support.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

185

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CO-AND H2S-TOLERANT ELECTROCATALYSTS FOR PEM FUEL CELL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present state-of-art Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) technology is based on platinum (Pt) as a catalyst for both the fuel (anode) and air (cathode) electrodes. This catalyst is highly active but susceptible to poisoning by CO, which may be present in the H{sub 2}-fuel used or may be introduced during the fuel processing. Presence of trace amount of CO and H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}-fuel poisons the anode irreversibly and decreases the performance of the PEMFCs. In an effort to reduce the Pt-loading and improve the PEMFC performance, we propose to synthesize a number of Pt-based binary, ternary, and quaternary electrocatalysts using Ru, Mo, Ir, Ni, and Co as a substitute for Pt. By fine-tuning the metal loadings and compositions of candidate electrocatalysts, we plan to minimize the cost and optimize the catalyst activity and performance in PEMFC. The feasibility of the novel electrocatalysts will be demonstrated in the proposed effort with gas phase CO and H{sub 2}S concentrations typical of those found in reformed fuel gas with coal/natural gas/methanol feedstocks. During this reporting period several bi-metallic electrocatalysts were synthesized using ultra-sonication. These catalysts (Pt/Ru, Pt/Mo and Pt/Ir) were tested in MEAs. From Galvonstatic study the catalytic activity was found in the order of: Pt/Ru/C > Pt/Mo/C > Pt/Ir/C. It appears that electrocatalysts prepared by ultra-sonication process are more active compared to the conventional technique. Work is in progress to further study these catalysts for CO-tolerance in PEMFC and identify potential candidate metals for synthesis of tri-metallic electrocatalysts.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2005-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

186

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CO-AND H2S-TOLERANT ELECTROCATALYSTS FOR PEM FUEL CELL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present state-of-art Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) technology is based on platinum (Pt) as a catalyst for both the fuel (anode) and air (cathode) electrodes. This catalyst is highly active but susceptible to poisoning by CO, which may be present in the H{sub 2}-fuel used or may be introduced during the fuel processing. Presence of trace amount of CO and H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}-fuel poisons the anode irreversibly and decreases the performance of the PEMFCs. In an effort to reduce the Pt-loading and improve the PEMFC performance, we propose to synthesize a number of Pt-based binary, ternary, and quaternary electrocatalysts using Ru, Mo, Ir, Ni, and Co as a substitute for Pt. By fine-tuning the metal loadings and compositions of candidate electrocatalysts, we plan to minimize the cost and optimize the catalyst activity and performance in PEMFC. The feasibility of the novel electrocatalysts will be demonstrated in the proposed effort with gas phase CO and H{sub 2}S concentrations typical of those found in reformed fuel gas with coal/natural gas/methanol feedstocks. During this reporting period several bi-metallic electrocatalysts were synthesized and tested in MEAs. From Galvonstatic study the catalytic activity was found in the order of: Pt/Ru/C > Pt/Mo/C > Pt/Ir/C > Pt/Ni/C > Pt/Cr/C. Work in progress to further study these catalysts for CO-tolerance in PEMFC and identify potential candidate metals for synthesis of trimetallic electrocatalysts.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

187

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CO- AND H{sub 2}S-TOLERANT ELECTROCATALYSTS FOR PEM FUEL CELL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present state-of-art Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) technology is based on platinum (Pt) as a catalyst for both the fuel (anode) and air (cathode) electrodes. This catalyst is highly active but susceptible to poisoning by CO, which may be present in the H{sub 2}-fuel used or may be introduced during the fuel processing. Presence of trace amount of CO and H{sub 2}S in the H{sub 2}-fuel poisons the anode irreversibly and decreases the performance of the PEMFCs. In an effort to reduce the Pt-loading and improve the PEMFC performance, we propose to synthesize a number of Pt-based binary, ternary, and quaternary electrocatalysts using Ru, Mo, Ir, Ni, and Co as a substitute for Pt. By fine-tuning the metal loadings and compositions of candidate electrocatalysts, we plan to minimize the cost and optimize the catalyst activity and performance in PEMFC. The feasibility of the novel electrocatalysts will be demonstrated in the proposed effort with gas phase CO and H{sub 2}S concentrations typical of those found in reformed fuel gas with coal/natural gas/methanol feedstocks. During this reporting period several tri-metallic electrocatalysts were synthesized using both ultra-sonication and conventional method. These catalysts (Pt/Ru/Mo, Pt/Ru/Ir, Pt/Ru/W, Ptr/Ru/Co, and Pt/Ru/Se on carbon) were tested in MEAs. From Galvonstatic study the catalytic activity was found in the order of: Pt/Ru/Mo/C > Pt/Ru/Ir/C > Pt/Ru/W/C > Ptr/Ru/Co/C > and Pt/Ru/Se. It appears that electrocatalysts prepared by ultra-sonication process are more active compared to the conventional technique. Work is in progress to further study these catalysts for CO-tolerance in PEMFC.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

188

Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications: Conceptual vehicle design report pure fuel cell powertrain vehicle  

SciTech Connect

In partial fulfillment of the Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389, {open_quotes}Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell for Transportation Applications{close_quotes}, this preliminary report addresses the conceptual design and packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle. Three classes of vehicles are considered in this design and packaging exercise, the Aspire representing the small vehicle class, the Taurus or Aluminum Intensive Vehicle (AIV) Sable representing the mid-size vehicle and the E-150 Econoline representing the van-size class. A fuel cell system spreadsheet model and Ford`s Corporate Vehicle Simulation Program (CVSP) were utilized to determine the size and the weight of the fuel cell required to power a particular size vehicle. The fuel cell power system must meet the required performance criteria for each vehicle. In this vehicle design and packaging exercise, the following assumptions were made: fuel cell power system density of 0.33 kW/kg and 0.33 kg/liter, platinum catalyst loading less than or equal to 0.25 mg/cm{sup 2} total and hydrogen tanks containing gaseous hydrogen under 340 atm (5000 psia) pressure. The fuel cell power system includes gas conditioning, thermal management, humidity control, and blowers or compressors, where appropriate. This conceptual design of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle will help in the determination of the propulsion system requirements for a vehicle powered by a PEMFC engine in lieu of the internal combustion (IC) engine. Only basic performance level requirements are considered for the three classes of vehicles in this report. Each vehicle will contain one or more hydrogen storage tanks and hydrogen fuel for 560 km (350 mi) driving range. Under these circumstances, the packaging of a fuel cell-only powered vehicle is increasingly difficult as the vehicle size diminishes.

Oei, D.; Kinnelly, A.; Sims, R.; Sulek, M.; Wernette, D.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 High Temperature 9 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on AddThis.com...

192

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About About Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High

193

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About About Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High

194

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About About Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High

195

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About About Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High

196

A Methanol Steam Reforming Micro Reactor for Proton Exchange Membrane Micro Fuel Cell System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The heat, mass and momentum transfer from a fuel reforming packed bed to a surrounding silicon wafer has been simulated. Modeling showed quantitatively reasonable agreement with experimental data for fuel conversion efficiency, hydrogen production rate, outlet methanol mole fraction and outlet steam mole fraction. The variation in fuel conversion efficiency with the micro reformer thermal isolation can be used to optimize fuel-processing conditions for micro PEM fuel cells.

Park, H G; Piggott, W T; Chung, J; Morse, J D; Havstad, M; Grigoropoulos, C P; Greif, R; Benett, W; Sopchak, D; Upadhye, R

2003-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

197

Membrane catalyst layer for fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas reaction fuel cell incorporates a thin catalyst layer between a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membrane and a porous electrode backing. The catalyst layer is preferably less than about 10 {mu}m in thickness with a carbon supported platinum catalyst loading less than about 0.35 mgPt/cm{sup 2}. The film is formed as an ink that is spread and cured on a film release blank. The cured film is then transferred to the SPE membrane and hot pressed into the surface to form a catalyst layer having a controlled thickness and catalyst distribution. The layer has adequate gas permeability so that cell performance is not affected and has a density and particle distribution effective to optimize proton access to the catalyst and electronic continuity for electron flow from the half-cell reaction occurring at the catalyst.

Wilson, M.S.

1991-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

198

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Wensheng He, David Mountz, Tao Zhang, Chris Roger July 17, 2012 2 Outline Background on Arkema's...

199

Membrane catalyst layer for fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas reaction fuel cell incorporates a thin catalyst layer between a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) membrane and a porous electrode backing. The catalyst layer is preferably less than about 10 .mu.m in thickness with a carbon supported platinum catalyst loading less than about 0.35 mgPt/cm.sup.2. The film is formed as an ink that is spread and cured on a film release blank. The cured film is then transferred to the SPE membrane and hot pressed into the surface to form a catalyst layer having a controlled thickness and catalyst distribution. Alternatively, the catalyst layer is formed by applying a Na.sup.+ form of a perfluorosulfonate ionomer directly to the membrane, drying the film at a high temperature, and then converting the film back to the protonated form of the ionomer. The layer has adequate gas permeability so that cell performance is not affected and has a density and particle distribution effective to optimize proton access to the catalyst and electronic continuity for electron flow from the half-cell reaction occurring at the catalyst.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Two-phase flow and transport in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two-phase flow and transport of reactants and products in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells is studied analytically and numerically. Four regimes of water distribution and transport are classified by defining three threshold current densities and a maximum current density. They correspond to first appearance of liquid water at the membrane/cathode interface, extension of the gas-liquid two-phase zone to the cathode/channel interface, saturated moist air exiting the gas channel, and complete consumption of oxygen by the electrochemical reaction. When the cell operates above the first threshold current density, liquid water appears and a two-phase zone forms within the porous cathode. A two-phase, multi-component mixture model in conjunction with a finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique is applied to simulate the cathode operation in this regime. The model is able to handle the situation where a single-phase region co-exists with a two-phase zone in the air cathode. For the first time, the polarization curve as well as water and oxygen concentration distributions encompassing both single- and two-phase regimes of the air cathode are presented. Capillary action is found to be the dominant mechanism for water transport inside the two-phase zone. The liquid water saturation within the cathode is predicted to reach 6.3% at 1.4 A/cm{sup 2}.

WANG,Z.H.; WANG,C.Y.; CHEN,KEN S.

2000-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane pem fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Case study covering Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. and its membrane vapor processor that recovers fuel vapors from gasoline refueling.

202

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2007 Update  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2007, 2010, and 2015, and is the first annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

203

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2008 Update  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report estimates fuel cell system cost for systems produced in the years 2006, 2010, and 2015, and is the second annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis.

204

PEM Electrolysis R&D Webinar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrolysis R&D Webinar Electrolysis R&D Webinar May 23, 2011 Presented by Dr. Katherine Ayers Outline * Key Messages About Electrolysis * Company Intro and Market Discussion - Electrolysis Technology Comparison * Infrastructure Challenges and Solutions - System Approaches: Capacity and Delivery Pressure - Materials Advancements: Cost and Efficiency Improvements * Summary and Future Vision 2 Key Takeaways for Today * Hydrogen markets exist today that can leverage advancements in on-site generation technologies * PEM electrolysis already highly cost competitive in these markets * PEM technology meets alkaline output capacities and has performance advantages for many applications * Multiple fueling stations utilizing hydrogen from electrolysis: can help bridge the infrastructure gap * Clear pathways exist for considerable cost reductions

205

A Materials-Based Mitigation Strategy for SU/SD in PEM Fuel Cells: Properties and Performance-Specific Testing of IrRu OER Catalysts.  

SciTech Connect

Catalysts that enable proton exchange membrane fuel cells to weather the damaging conditions experienced during transient periods of fuel starvation have been developed. The addition of minute amounts of iridium and ruthenium to the cathode enhances the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) during start-up/shutdown events, thus lowering the peak cell voltage closer to the onset of water oxidation. The catalyst loadings ranged from 1 to 10 g/cm2, but showed surprisingly high activity and durability. At such low loadings, it is possible to fully integrate the OER catalysts with negligible interference on fuel cell performance and a marginal increase in catalyst cost.

Atanasoski, Radoslav [3M Industrial Mineral Products; Cullen, David A [ORNL; Vernstrom, George [3M Industrial Mineral Products; Haugen, Gregory [3M Industrial Mineral Products; Atanasoska, Liliana [3M Industrial Mineral Products

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Anion permselective membrane. [For redox fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experimental anion permeselective membranes were improved and characterized for use as separators in a chemical redox, power storage cell being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The goal of minimal Fe/sup +3/ ion transfer was achieved for each candidate membrane system. Minimal membrane resistivity was demonstrated by reduction of film thickness using synthetic backing materials but usefulness of thin membranes was limited by the scarcity of compatible fabrics. The most durable and useful backing fabrics were modacrylics. One membrane, a copolymer of 4 vinylpyridine and vinyl benzylchloride was outstanding in overall electrochemical and physical properties. Long term (1000 hrs) membrane chemical and thermal durability in redox environment was shown by three candidate polymers and two membranes. The remainder had good durability at ambient temperature. Manufacturing capability was demonstrated for large scale production of membrane sheets 5.5 ft/sup 2/ in area for two candidate systems.

Alexander, S.S.; Hodgdon, R.B.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Mass Production Cost Estimation For Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systesm for Automotive Applications: 2010 Update  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report is the fourth annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing costs of complete 80 kWnet direct?hydrogen proton ex

208

Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for Automotive Applications: 2009 Update  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report is the third annual update of a comprehensive automotive fuel cell cost analysis. It contains estimates for material and manufacturing cost of complete 80 kWnet direct hydrogen proton exch

209

How Fuel Cells Work  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

How Fuel Cells Work How Fuel Cells Work Diagram: How a PEM fuel cell works. 1. Hydrogen fuel is channeled through field flow plates to the anode on one side of the fuel cell, while oxygen from the air is channeled to the cathode on the other side of the cell. 2. At the anode, a platinum catalyst causes the hydrogen to split into positive hydrogen ions (protons) and negatively charged electrons. 3. The Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) allows only the positively charged ions to pass through it to the cathode. The negatively charged electrons must travel along an external circuit to the cathode, creating an electrical current. 4. At the cathode, the electrons and positively charged hydrogen ions combine with oxygen to form water, which flows out of the cell.

210

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells with chromium nitride nanocrystals as electrocatalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

S. Srinivasan, V. Antonucci, Fuel Cells 1, 133 (2001). 15 Y.Proton exchange membrane fuel cells with chromium nitridePolymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are energy

Zhong, Hexiang; Chen, Xiaobo; Zhang, Huamin; Wang, Meiri; Mao, Samuel S.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Effect of scale up, stacking, self humidification and use of lightweight components on the performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of various design and operating variables on the performances of a PEM fuel cell were investigated. Performance was evaluated in terms of the polarization curves (cell potential versus current density plots). The specific effects that were investigated were : (i) effects of scale up from 5 cm 2 to 50 cm2 single cells and stacking 50 cm2- single to multicell (quad cells) stack; (ii) the performance of self humidified single and multicell stack PEMFCs with various electrode structures, platinum loadings and membranes; and (iii) light weight bipolar plates in PEMFCs. Several types and two sizes of PEMFCs were constructed and evaluated. Most membrane and electrodes assemblies (MEAs) were fabricated in-house but some specialized MEAs were provided by an outside source. Polarization plots were made for each PEMFC and the data was correlated using the five parameter empirical equation.

Tran, Doanh Thuc

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 FY 2011 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Alabama II.K.14 University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa: Protein-Templated Synthesis and Assembly of Nanostructuctures for Hydrogen Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 V.F.1 CFD Research Corporation: Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .814 V.F.1 ESI US R&D: Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .814 Arizona II.C.1 Arizona State University: Zeolite Membrane Reactor for Water-Gas Shift Reaction for Hydrogen

213

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels embedded in a structurally sound hydrophobic matrix, play a central role in the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. PEMs are humidified by contact with air (the presence of water in PEMs is essential for proton transport). In addition, PEMs must transport protons to catalyst sites, which are typically crystalline solids such as platinum. The arrangement of the hydrophilic domains in the vicinity of both air and solid substrates is thus crucial. A University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab group has now provided the first set of data on morphology of PEMs at interfaces by a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy.

214

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels embedded in a structurally sound hydrophobic matrix, play a central role in the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. PEMs are humidified by contact with air (the presence of water in PEMs is essential for proton transport). In addition, PEMs must transport protons to catalyst sites, which are typically crystalline solids such as platinum. The arrangement of the hydrophilic domains in the vicinity of both air and solid substrates is thus crucial. A University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab group has now provided the first set of data on morphology of PEMs at interfaces by a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy.

215

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels embedded in a structurally sound hydrophobic matrix, play a central role in the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. PEMs are humidified by contact with air (the presence of water in PEMs is essential for proton transport). In addition, PEMs must transport protons to catalyst sites, which are typically crystalline solids such as platinum. The arrangement of the hydrophilic domains in the vicinity of both air and solid substrates is thus crucial. A University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab group has now provided the first set of data on morphology of PEMs at interfaces by a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy.

216

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels embedded in a structurally sound hydrophobic matrix, play a central role in the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. PEMs are humidified by contact with air (the presence of water in PEMs is essential for proton transport). In addition, PEMs must transport protons to catalyst sites, which are typically crystalline solids such as platinum. The arrangement of the hydrophilic domains in the vicinity of both air and solid substrates is thus crucial. A University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab group has now provided the first set of data on morphology of PEMs at interfaces by a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy.

217

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels embedded in a structurally sound hydrophobic matrix, play a central role in the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. PEMs are humidified by contact with air (the presence of water in PEMs is essential for proton transport). In addition, PEMs must transport protons to catalyst sites, which are typically crystalline solids such as platinum. The arrangement of the hydrophilic domains in the vicinity of both air and solid substrates is thus crucial. A University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab group has now provided the first set of data on morphology of PEMs at interfaces by a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy.

218

Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton Channel Orientation in Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Proton Channel Orientation in Block-Copolymer Electrolyte Membranes Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Fuel cells have the potential to provide power for a wide variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to transportation vehicles. Cells operating with H2 and air as inputs and electric power and water as the only outputs are of particular interest because of their ability to produce power without degrading the environment. Polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs), with hydrophilic, proton-conducting channels embedded in a structurally sound hydrophobic matrix, play a central role in the operation of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. PEMs are humidified by contact with air (the presence of water in PEMs is essential for proton transport). In addition, PEMs must transport protons to catalyst sites, which are typically crystalline solids such as platinum. The arrangement of the hydrophilic domains in the vicinity of both air and solid substrates is thus crucial. A University of California, Berkeley, and Berkeley Lab group has now provided the first set of data on morphology of PEMs at interfaces by a combination of x-ray scattering and microscopy.

219

Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with acidic polymer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrolyte membrane is formed by an acidic polymer and a low-volatility acid that is fluorinated, substantially free of basic groups, and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric.

Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

220

Advanced Membrane Systems: Recovering Wasteful and Hazardous Fuel Vapors at the Gasoline Tank  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CMS to develop a membrane CMS to develop a membrane vapor processor that recovers fuel vapors from gasoline refueling with 99 percent efficiency. This membrane system enables gasoline stations to surpass environmental regulations while reducing fuel losses. Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) was founded in 1993 in Wilmington, DE, with the acquisition of rights to certain DuPont polymer membrane patents. CMS focuses

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane pem fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

The Path a Proton Takes Through a Fuel Cell Membrane  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Path a Proton Path a Proton Takes Through a Fuel Cell Membrane The Path a Proton Takes Through a Fuel Cell Membrane October 11, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Chemistry, Franklin, Hopper Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, +1 510 495 2402 Ram.jpg The cover represents the environment around the side chain. The right side is the water network that exists between the sulfonate groups shown in yellow. The left side is the short chain with the sulfonate group. Many experts believe that fuel cells may someday serve as revolutionary clean energy conversion devices for transportation and other portable power applications. Because they generate electricity by converting chemical hydrogen and oxygen into water, fuel cells generate energy much more efficiently than combustion devices, and with near-zero pollutant

222

Fuel cell with interdigitated porous flow-field  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is formed with an improved system for distributing gaseous reactants to the membrane surface. A PEM fuel cell has an ionic transport membrane with opposed catalytic surfaces formed thereon and separates gaseous reactants that undergo reactions at the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The fuel cell may also include a thin gas diffusion layer having first and second sides with a first side contacting at least one of the catalytic surfaces. A macroporous flow-field with interdigitated inlet and outlet reactant channels contacts the second side of the thin gas diffusion layer for distributing one of the gaseous reactants over the thin gas diffusion layer for transport to an adjacent one of the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The porous flow field may be formed from a hydrophilic material and provides uniform support across the backside of the electrode assembly to facilitate the use of thin backing layers.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

224

Overview of Options to Integrate Stationary Power Generation from Fuel Cells with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Moderate PEM Light Duty Vehicles- Fuel Cell Limited Limited to Moderate Steam Methane Reformer Hydrogen

225

Measurement of Species Distributions in Operating Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measurement and understanding of transient species distributions across and within fuel cells is a critical need for advancing fuel cell technology. The Spatially Resolved Capillary Inlet Mass Spectrometer (SpaciMS) instrument has been applied for in-situ measurement of transient species distributions within operating reactors; including diesel catalyst, air-exhaust mixing systems, and non-thermal plasma reactors. The work described here demonstrates the applicability of this tool to proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) research. Specifically, we have demonstrated SpaciMS measurements of (1) transient species dynamics across a PEM fuel cell (FC) associated with load switching, (2) intra-PEM species distributions, and transient species dynamics at SOFC temperatures associated with FC load switching.

Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Armstrong, Timothy R. [ORNL

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

PM PEMs On-Road Investigation With and Without DPF Equipped Engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Particle Number (#/cc) Event Trigger 1.E+06 Cummins Test #CVS #/cc PEMS4 raw Event Trigger PEMS3 raw J1939 Hp PEMS5CVS #/cc PEMS5 raw Event Trigger PEMS3 raw PEMS4 raw 1.E+07

Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Johnson, K

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells with chromium nitridenanocrystals as electrocatalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are energy conversion devices that produce electricity from a supply of fuel, such as hydrogen. One of the major challenges in achieving efficient energy conversion is the development of cost-effective materials that can act as electrocatalysts for PEMFCs. In this letter, we demonstrate that, instead of conventional noble metals, such as platinum, chromium nitride nanocrystals of fcc structure exhibit attractive catalytic activity for PEMFCs. Device testing indicates good stability of nitride nanocrystals in low temperature fuel cell operational environment.

Zhong, Hexiang; Chen, Xiaobo; Zhang, Huamin; Wang, Meiri; Mao,Samuel S.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Sulfonated Nanoplates in Proton Conducting Membranes for Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface-functionalized nanoplates are synthesized by anchoring sulfonic acid containing siloxanes on zirconium phosphate, and in turn blended with Nafion to fabricate proton conducting membranes. The effects of these sulfonated nanoplates on proton conduction, hydro-characteristics and fuel cell performance are reported.

Chen, W.F.; Nimah, H.; Yu-Cheng Shen, Y.-C.; Kuo, P.-L.

2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

229

Macroscopic Modeling of the Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel-Cell...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Macroscopic Modeling of the Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel-Cell Catalyst Layer Title Macroscopic Modeling of the Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel-Cell Catalyst Layer Publication Type...

230

Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Welcome and OverviewInnovation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Welcome and Overview Innovation for Our Energy Future Bryan Pivovar National Renewable Energy Laboratory AMFC Workshop May 8, 2011 Innovation for Our Energy Future 2 Welcome - Your participation is appreciated - Date of Workshop Innovation for Our Energy Future 3 Meeting Location Innovation for Our Energy Future Workshop Agenda SUNDAY, MAY 8, 2011 1:00 pm - 1:15 pm Welcome and Opening Remarks (Salon H) 1:15 pm - 1:45 pm Workshop Overview: Dr. Bryan Pivovar, NREL (Salon H) 1:45 pm - 2:15 pm Alkaline Membrane Research Overview: Prof. Andy Herring, Colorado School of Mines (Salon H) 2:15 pm - 2:45 pm Alkaline Electrocatalysis Research Overview: Prof. Sanjeev Mukerjee, Northeastern University (Salon H) 2:45 pm - 3:15 pm AMFCs: Tokuyama Perspective:

231

Computer Modeling Illuminates Degradation Pathways of Cations in Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cation degradation insights obtained by computational modeling could result in better performance and longer lifetime for alkaline membrane fuel cells.

Not Available

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Low-Cost Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Manufacturable Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management IIPS Number 16910 Low Low - - Cost Cost Manufacturable Manufacturable Microchannel Systems for Passive Microchannel Systems for Passive PEM Water Management PEM Water Management IIPS Number 16910 IIPS Number 16910 Ward TeGrotenhuis, Susie Stenkamp, Curt Lavender Pacific Northwest National Laboratories Richland, WA HFCIT Kick Off Meeting February 2007 2 Project objective: Create a low cost and passive PEM water management system Project objective: Project objective: Create a low cost Create a low cost and passive PEM water management system and passive PEM water management system Specific Targets Addressed for 3.4.2 Automotive-Scale: 80 kWe Integrated Transportation Fuel Cell Power Systems Operating on Direct Hydrogen

233

PEM and Other Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 29, 2009 ... Program Organizers: Prabhakar Singh, University of Connecticut; Abdul-Majeed Azad, University of Toledo; Donald Collins, Western Research...

234

Progress in PEM Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... TMS Member price: 10.00. Non-member price: 25.00. TMS Student Member price : 10.00. Product In Stock. Description The U.S. Department of...

235

Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM (Fuel Cell) Soft Goods - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Eric Stanfield (Primary Contact), Michael Stocker National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 100 Bureau Drive, MS 8211 Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8211 Phone: (301) 975-5102 Email: eric.stanfield@nist.gov, michael.stocker@nist.gov DOE Managers HQ: Nancy Garland Phone: (202) 586-5673 Email: Nancy.Garland@ee.doe.gov GO: Jesse Adams Phone: (720) 356-1421

236

Advanced direct methanol fuel cells. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of the program was an advanced proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for use as the electrolyte in a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell which provides reduced methanol crossover while simultaneously providing high conductivity and low membrane water content. The approach was to use a membrane containing precross-linked fluorinated base polymer films and subsequently to graft the base film with selected materials. Over 80 different membranes were prepared. The rate of methanol crossover through the advanced membranes was reduced 90%. A 5-cell stack provided stable performance over a 100-hour life test. Preliminary cost estimates predicted a manufacturing cost at $4 to $9 per kW.

Hamdan, Monjid; Kosek, John A.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Low-Cost Large-Scale PEM Electrolysis for Renewable Energy Storage - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Dr. Katherine Ayers (Primary Contact), Chris Capuano Proton Energy Systems d/b/a Proton OnSite 10 Technology Drive Wallingford, CT 06492 Phone: (203) 678-2190 Email: kayers@protononsite.com DOE Manager HQ: Erika Sutherland Phone: (202) 586-3152 Email: Erika.Sutherland@ee.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-SC0001338 Subcontractors: * 3M, Minneapolis, MN * University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY Project Start Date: June 19, 2010 (Phase 1) Project End Date: August 18, 2013 (with Phase 2 continuation) Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Project Objectives Demonstrate optimal membrane electrode assembly * (MEA) efficiency through: Refinement of catalyst compositions based on -

238

Development of Micro-Structural Mitigation Strategies for PEM Fuel Cells: Morphological Simulations and Experimental Approaches - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Dr. Silvia Wessel (Primary Contact), David Harvey, Dr. Vesna Colbow Ballard Power Systems 9000 Glenlyon Parkway Burnaby, B.C. V5J 5J8 Phone: (604) 453-3668 Email: silvia.wessel@ballard.com DOE Managers HQ: Kathi Epping Martin Phone: (202) 586-7425 Email: Kathi.Epping@ee.doe.gov GO: David Peterson Phone: (720) 356-1747 Email: David.Peterson@go.doe.gov Technical Advisor John Kopasz Phone: (630) 252-7531 Email: kopasz@anl.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0000466 Subcontractors: * Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (Dr. S.S. Yang) * Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (Dr. R. Borup) * Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI

239

Development of Ultra-Low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Branko N. Popov University of South Carolina (USC) 301 Main Street Columbia, SC 29208 Phone: (803) 777-7314 Email: popov@cec.sc.edu DOE Managers HQ: Donna Lee Ho Phone: (202) 586-8000 Email: Donna.Ho@ee.doe.gov GO: David Peterson Phone: (720) 356-1747 Email: David.Peterson@go.doe.gov Technical Advisor Thomas Benjamin Phone: (630) 252-1632 Email: benjamin@anl.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0000460 Subcontractor: Dr. Hansung Kim (Co-PI) Yonsei University, S. Korea. Project Start Date: September 1, 2010 Project End Date: May 31, 2014 Objectives Develop low-cost and durable hybrid cathode catalyst * (HCC). Develop Pt alloy/activated graphitic carbon catalyst. * Develop corrosion resistant supports. *

240

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Cost Analysis of Proton Exchange Membrane  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Analysis of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems for Cost Analysis of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Project Summary Full Title: Cost Analysis of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Project ID: 196 Principal Investigator: Eric Carlson Keywords: Fuel cells, fuel cell vehicles (FCV), transportation, costs Purpose Assess the cost of an 80 kW direct hydrogen fuel cell system relative to the DOE 2005 target of $125/kW. The system includes the fuel cell stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) components for water, thermal, and fuel management, but not hydrogen storage. Performer Principal Investigator: Eric Carlson Organization: TIAX, LLC Address: 15 Acorn Park Cambridge, MA 02140-2328 Telephone: 617-498-5903 Email: carlson.e@tiaxllc.com Additional Performers: P. Kopf, TIAX, LLC; J. Sinha, TIAX, LLC; S. Sriramulu, TIAX, LLC

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane pem fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. Membranes testing during this reporting period were greater than 1 mm thick and had the general perovskite composition AB{sub 1-x}B'{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where 0.05 {<=} x {<=} 0.3. These materials demonstrated hydrogen separation rates between 1 and 2 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which represents roughly 20% of the target goal for membranes of this thickness. The sintered membranes were greater than 95% dense, but the phase purity decreased with increasing dopant concentration. The quantity of dopant incorporated into the perovskite phase was roughly constant, with excess dopant forming an additional phase. Composite materials with distinct ceramic and metallic phases, and thin film perovskites (100 {micro}m) also were successfully prepared, but have not yet been tested for hydrogen transport. Finally, porous platinum was identified as a excellent catalyst for evaluation of membrane materials, however, lower cost nickel catalyst systems are being developed.

Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Adam Calihman; Andy Girard; Pamela M. Van Calcar; Richard Mackay; Tom Barton; Sara Rolfe

2001-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

242

DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program Record 12020: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Record Record Record #: 12020 Date: August 21, 2012 Title: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2012 Update to: Record 11012 Originator: Jacob Spendelow and Jason Marcinkoski Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: September 14, 2012 Item: The cost of an 80-kW net automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system based on 2012 technology 1 and operating on direct hydrogen is projected to be $47/kW when manufactured at a volume of 500,000 units/year. Rationale: The DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program supports analysis projects that perform detailed analysis to estimate cost status of fuel cell systems, updated on an annual basis [1]. In fiscal year 2012, Strategic Analysis, Inc. (SA) updated their 2011 cost analysis of an 80-kW net direct hydrogen PEM automotive fuel cell system, based on 2012 technology and projected to a

243

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur.

Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. (Balu) Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; George Farthing; Dan Rowley; Tim R. Armstrong; R.D. Carneim; P.F. Becher; C-H. Hsueh; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

244

Hydrogen Separation Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eltron Research and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. By appropriately changing the catalysts coupled with the membrane, essentially the same system can be used to facilitate alkane dehydrogenation and coupling, aromatics processing, and hydrogen sulfide decomposition.

Roark, Shane E.; Mackay, Richard; Sammells, Anthony F.

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

245

Preliminary Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D Topics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

draft research topics subject to revision prior to a solicitation being issued draft research topics subject to revision prior to a solicitation being issued May 18, 2007 FUEL CELL MANUFACTURING R & D Presently, Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks are fabricated at low volume, and the costs of these stacks range from $3,000 to $5,500 per kilowatt (kW) 1 . This is 50 to 90 times the projected cost of $60 per kW 2 for the same stack technology (2006) at high volume (500,000 units). In addition, six sigma standards must be reached for fuel cell subsystems and components to be competitive with conventional power systems such as internal combustion engines. Topics I through 5 described below provide a summary of the high-priority manufacturing needs for PEM fuel cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies (MEAs) and stacks. The overall goal is to reduce the cost of

246

2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A workshop addressing the current state-of-the-art in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) was held May 8-9, 2011, at the Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. This workshop was the second of its kind, with the first being held December 11-13, 2006, in Phoenix, Arizona. The 2011 workshop and associated workshop report were created to assess the current state of AMFC technology (taking into account recent advances), investigate the performance potential of AMFC systems across all possible power ranges and applications, and identify the key research needs for commercial competitiveness in a variety of areas.

Pivovar, B.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Grafted polyelectrolyte membranes for lithium batteries and fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Polyelectrolyte materials have been developed for lithium battery systems in response to the severe problems due to salt concentration gradients that occur in composite electrodes (aka membrane-electrode assemblies). Comb branch polymer architectures are described which allow for grafting of appropriate anions on to the polymer and also for cross-linking to provide for appropriate mechanical properties. The interactions of the polymers with the electrode surfaces are critical for the performance of the system and some of the structural features that influence this will be described. Parallels with the fuel cell MEA structures exist and will also be discussed.

Kerr, John B.

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

248

Advanced proton-exchange materials for energy efficient fuel cells.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ''Advanced Proton-Exchange Materials for Energy Efficient Fuel Cells'' Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project began in October 2002 and ended in September 2005. This LDRD was funded by the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy strategic business unit. The purpose of this LDRD was to initiate the fundamental research necessary for the development of a novel proton-exchange membranes (PEM) to overcome the material and performance limitations of the ''state of the art'' Nafion that is used in both hydrogen and methanol fuel cells. An atomistic modeling effort was added to this LDRD in order to establish a frame work between predicted morphology and observed PEM morphology in order to relate it to fuel cell performance. Significant progress was made in the area of PEM material design, development, and demonstration during this LDRD. A fundamental understanding involving the role of the structure of the PEM material as a function of sulfonic acid content, polymer topology, chemical composition, molecular weight, and electrode electrolyte ink development was demonstrated during this LDRD. PEM materials based upon random and block polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes were created and evaluated for improvements in proton conductivity, reduced swelling, reduced O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} permeability, and increased thermal stability. Results from this work reveal that the family of polyphenylenes potentially solves several technical challenges associated with obtaining a high temperature PEM membrane. Fuel cell relevant properties such as high proton conductivity (>120 mS/cm), good thermal stability, and mechanical robustness were demonstrated during this LDRD. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and results of this LDRD.

Fujimoto, Cy H.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Hickner, Michael A.; Cornelius, Christopher James; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Hibbs, Michael R.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and NORAM are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Over the past 12 months, this project has focused on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites containing hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. The ceramic/ceramic composites demonstrate the lowest hydrogen permeation rates, with a maximum of approximately 0.1 mL/min/cm{sup 2} for 0.5-mm thick membranes at 800 to 950 C. Under equivalent conditions, cermets achieve a hydrogen permeation rate near 1 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, and the metal phase also improves structural stability and surface catalysis for hydrogen dissociation. Furthermore, if metals with high hydrogen permeability are used in cermets, permeation rates near 4 mL/min/cm{sup 2} are achievable with relatively thick membranes. Layered composite membranes have by far the highest permeation rates with a maximum flux in excess of 200 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup -2}. Moreover, these permeation rates were achieved at a total pressure differential across the membrane of 450 psi. Based on these results, effort during the next year will focus on this category of membranes. This report contains long-term hydrogen permeation data over eight-months of continuous operation, and permeation results as a function of operating conditions at high pressure for layered composite membranes. Additional progress with cermet and thin film membranes also is presented.

Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Stewart R. Schesnack; Scott R. Morrison; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

2003-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

250

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, and Argonne National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize hydrogen permeation without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, a composite metal membrane based on an inexpensive hydrogen permeable metal achieved permeation rates in excess of 25 mL/min/cm{sup 2}. Preliminary attempts to incorporate this metal into a cermet were successful, and a thick cermet membrane (0.83 mm) with 40 vol.% metal phase achieved a permeation rate of nearly 0.4 mL/min/cm{sup 2}. Increasing the metal phase content and decreasing membrane thickness should significantly increase permeation, while maintaining the benefits derived from cermets. Two-phase ceramic/ceramic composite membranes had low hydrogen permeability, likely due to interdiffusion of constituents between the phases. However, these materials did demonstrate high resistance to corrosion, and might be good candidates for other composite membranes. Temperature-programmed reduction measurements indicated that model cermet materials absorbed 2.5 times as much hydrogen than the pure ceramic analogs. This characteristic, in addition to higher electron conductivity, likely explains the relatively high permeation for these cermets. Incorporation of catalysts with ceramics and cermets increased hydrogen uptake by 800 to more than 900%. Finally, new high-pressure seals were developed for cermet membranes that maintained a pressure differential of 250 psi. This result indicated that the approach for high-pressure seal development could be adapted for a range of compositions. Other items discussed in this report include mechanical testing, new proton conducting ceramics, supported thin films, and alkane to olefin conversion.

Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Stewart R. Schesnack; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. (Balu) Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

2003-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

251

Validation Testing for the PM-PEMS Measurement Allowance Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Digital Loc1 PEMS3 Digital Loc2 Event Trigger PEMS3 TailpipeDigital Loc1 PEMS3 Digital Loc2 Event Trigger PEMS3 TailpipeEvent Trig THC ppm Event Trigger Sample Time (sec) Figure 4-

Johnson, K; Durbin, T; Jung, H; Cocker III, D R; Khan, M Y

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Fuel Cells Team  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Judith Valerio at one of our 31 single-cell test stands Fuel Cell Team The FC team focus is R&D on polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells for commercial and military applications. Our program has had ongoing funding in the area of polymer electrolyte fuel cells since 1977 and has been responsible for enabling breakthroughs in the areas of thin film electrodes and air bleed for CO tolerance. For more information on the history of fuel cell research at Los Alamos, please click here. Fuel cells are an important enabling technology for the Hydrogen Economy and have the potential to revolutionize the way we power the nation and the world. The FC team is exploring the potential of fuel cells as energy-efficient, clean, and fuel-flexible alternatives that will

253

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: 2004 Annual Progress Report - Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Printable Version 2004 Annual Progress Report IV. Fuel Cells Each individual technical report is available as an individual Adobe Acrobat PDF for easier use. Download Adobe Reader. Fuel Cells Sub-Program Review, Patrick Davis, DOE (PDF 265 KB) A. MEAs and Catalysts Integrated Manufacturing for Advanced Membrane Electrode Assemblies, Emory DeCastro, De Nora (PDF 486 KB) Development of High-Temperature Membranes and Improved Cathode Catalysts Jeremy Meyers, UTC (PDF 595 KB) Advanced MEAs for Enhanced Operating Conditions, Amenable to High Volume Manufacture, Mark Debe, 3M (PDF 372 KB) Back to Top B. Membranes and MEAs High Temperature Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cells, Tom Zawodzinski, Case West Res. University (PDF 356 KB) Electrodes for Hydrogen-Air PEM Fuel Cells, Francisco Uribe, LANL

254

An Investigation of Different Methods of Fabricating Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Methanol Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methanol fuel cells are electrochemical conversion devices that produce electricity from methanol fuel. The current process of fabricating membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) is tedious and if it is not sufficiently ...

Hall, Kwame (Kwame J.)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, mixed proton/electron conductivity and hydrogen transport was measured as a function of metal phase content for a range of ceramic/metal (cermet) compositions. It was found that optimum performance occurred at 44 wt.% metal content for all compositions tested. Although each cermet appeared to have a continuous metal phase, it is believed that hydrogen transport increased with increasing metal content partially due to beneficial surface catalyst characteristics resulting from the metal phase. Beyond 44 wt.% there was a reduction in hydrogen transport most likely due to dilution of the proton conducting ceramic phase. Hydrogen separation rates for 1-mm thick cermet membranes were in excess of 0.1 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which corresponded to ambipolar conductivities between 1 x 10{sup -3} and 8 x 10{sup -3} S/cm. Similar results were obtained for multiphase ceramic membranes comprised of a proton-conducting perovskite and electron conducting metal oxide. These multi-phase ceramic membranes showed only a slight improvement in hydrogen transport upon addition of a metal phase. The highest hydrogen separation rates observed this quarter were for a cermet membrane containing a hydrogen transport metal. A 1-mm thick membrane of this material achieved a hydrogen separation rate of 0.3 mL/min/cm{sup 2} at only 700 C, which increased to 0.6 mL/min/cm{sup 2} at 950 C.

Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Alexandra Z. LaGuardia; Tom F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Mike J. Holmes; Aaron L. Wagner

2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

256

NREL Develops Technique to Measure Membrane Thickness and Defects in Polymer Electrode Membrane Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in fuel cell membrane electrode assembly research and development. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center and the National Center for Photovoltaics.

Not Available

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier Breaking the Fuel Cell Cost Barrier AMFC Workshop May 8 th , 2011, Arlington, VA Shimshon Gottesfeld, CTO The Fuel Cell Cost Challenge 2 CellEra's goal - achieve price parity with incumbents earlier on in market entry process ! Mainstream Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell ( PEM) Cost Barriers 3 Graphite / stainless steel hardware Acidic membrane Platinum based electrodes Cost barriers deeply embedded in core tech materials BOM-based cost barriers - 90% of stack cost Cost volatility - Platinum $500/Oz - $2,500/Oz The possibility of an OH - ion conducting membrane 4 Non-acidic membrane CellEra Took Advantage of this Opportunity A new type of membrane component with potential for strong fuel cell cost cuts was revealed in 2006, but was accompanied by general industry skepticism

258

Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) - Energy ...  

Technology Marketing Summary The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is an essential, yet highly expensive component of any polymer electrolyte membrane ...

259

Catalysts for improved fuel processing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers our technical progress on fuel processing catalyst characterization for the specific purpose of hydrogen production for proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells. These development efforts support DOE activities in the development of compact, transient capable reformers for on-board hydrogen generation starting from candidate fuels. The long-term objective includes increased durability and lifetime, in addition to smaller volume, improved performance, and other specifications required meeting fuel processor goals. The technical barriers of compact fuel processor size, transient capability, and compact, efficient thermal management all are functions of catalyst performance. Significantly, work at LANL now tests large-scale fuel processors for performance and durability, as influenced by fuels and fuel constituents, and complements that testing with micro-scale catalyst evaluation which is accomplished under well controlled conditions.

Borup, R.L.; Inbody, M.A. [and others

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUELS PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, and Argonne National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites containing hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This report presents hydrogen permeation data during long term tests and tests at high pressure in addition to progress with cermet, ceramic/ceramic, and thin film membranes.

Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Stewart Schesnack; Scott Morrison; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

2003-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane pem fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and NORAM are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites containing hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this final quarter of the no cost extension several planar membranes of a cermet composition referred to as EC101 containing a high permeability metal and a ceramic phase were prepared and permeability testing was performed.

Carl R. Evenson; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson

2006-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

262

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, and Argonne National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (i) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (ii) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (iii) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (iv) hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This report describes resent results for long-term hydrogen permeation and chemical stability measurements, new mixed conducting cermets, progress in cermet, thin film, and thin-walled tube fabrication, hydrogen absorption measurements for selected compositions, and membrane facilitated alkane to olefin conversion.

Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Stewart Schesnack; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. (Balu) Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

263

2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

85 85 FY 2011 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program 3M Company V.B.1 Effect of System Contaminants on PEMFC Performance and Durability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640 V.C.1 Membranes and MEAs for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 662 V.C.6 Novel Approaches to Immobilized Heteropoly Acid (HPA) Systems for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Polymer-Type Membranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 685 V.D.1 Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 699 V.D.3 Durable Catalysts for Fuel Cell Protection During Transient Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .714

264

Fuel Cell System for Transportation -- 2005 Cost Estimate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Independent review report of the methodology used by TIAX to estimate the cost of producing PEM fuel cells using 2005 cell stack technology. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Manager asked the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to commission an independent review of the 2005 TIAX cost analysis for fuel cell production. The NREL Systems Integrator is responsible for conducting independent reviews of progress toward meeting the DOE Hydrogen Program (the Program) technical targets. An important technical target of the Program is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell cost in terms of dollars per kilowatt ($/kW). The Program's Multi-Year Program Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan established $125/kW as the 2005 technical target. Over the last several years, the Program has contracted with TIAX, LLC (TIAX) to produce estimates of the high volume cost of PEM fuel cell production for transportation use. Since no manufacturer is yet producing PEM fuel cells in the quantities needed for an initial hydrogen-based transportation economy, these estimates are necessary for DOE to gauge progress toward meeting its targets. For a PEM fuel cell system configuration developed by Argonne National Laboratory, TIAX estimated the total cost to be $108/kW, based on assumptions of 500,000 units per year produced with 2005 cell stack technology, vertical integration of cell stack manufacturing, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components purchased from a supplier network. Furthermore, TIAX conducted a Monte Carlo analysis by varying ten key parameters over a wide range of values and estimated with 98% certainty that the mean PEM fuel cell system cost would be below DOE's 2005 target of $125/kW. NREL commissioned DJW TECHNOLOGY, LLC to form an Independent Review Team (the Team) of industry fuel cell experts and to evaluate the cost estimation process and the results reported by TIAX. The results of this independent review will permit NREL and DOE to better understand the credibility of the TIAX cost estimation process and to implement changes in future cost analyses, if necessary. The Team found the methodology used by TIAX to estimate the cost of producing PEM fuel cells to be reasonable and, using 2005 cell stack technology and assuming production of 500,000 units per year, to have calculated a credible cost of $108/kW.

Wheeler, D.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Available Technologies: Water-retaining Polymer Membranes ...  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: PEM fuel cells for transportation and portable electronic devices (e.g., laptop, mp3 players, cell phones)

266

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11012: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2011  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Date: August 17, 2011 2 Date: August 17, 2011 Title: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2011 Update to: Record 10004 Originator: Jacob Spendelow and Jason Marcinkoski Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: September 7, 2011 Item: The cost of an 80-kW net automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system based on 2011 technology 1 and operating on direct hydrogen is projected to be $49/kW when manufactured at a volume of 500,000 units/year. Rationale: In fiscal year 2011, Strategic Analysis, Inc. (SA) 2 updated the 2010 Directed Technologies, Inc. (DTI) cost analysis of 80-kW net direct hydrogen PEM automotive fuel cell systems, based on 2011 technology and projected to a manufacturing volume of 500,000 units per year [1]. Results from the analysis were communicated to the DOE

267

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 8002: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2007  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

02 Date: October 31, 2008 02 Date: October 31, 2008 Title: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2007 Update to: Record 5005 Originator: Nancy Garland and Jason Marcinkoski Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: April 3, 2009 Item: The cost of an 80-kW automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system operating on direct hydrogen and projected to a manufacturing volume of 500,000 units per year is $94/kW for 2007 technology in 2007 dollars ($82/kW in 2002 dollars for comparison with targets). Rationale: In fiscal year 2007, TIAX LLC (TIAX) and Directed Technologies, Inc. (DTI) each updated their 2006 cost analyses of direct hydrogen, 80-kW, PEM automotive fuel cell systems based on 2007 technology and projected to manufacturing volumes of 500,000 units per year [1,2].

268

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 9012: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2009  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Date: October 7, 2009 2 Date: October 7, 2009 Title: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2009 Update to: Record 8019 Originator: Jacob Spendelow and Jason Marcinkoski Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: October 7, 2009 Item: The cost of an 80-kW automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system operating on direct hydrogen and projected to a manufacturing volume of 500,000 units per year is $61/kW for 2009 technology in 2009 dollars ($51/kW in 2002 dollars for comparison with targets). Rationale: In fiscal year 2009, TIAX LLC (TIAX) and Directed Technologies, Inc. (DTI) each updated their 2008 cost analyses of 80-kW direct hydrogen PEM automotive fuel cell systems based on 2009 technology and projected to manufacturing volumes of 500,000 units per year [1,2]. DTI and TIAX use Design for Manufacturing and Assembly

269

Affordable Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles: Quaternary Phosphonium Based Hydroxide Exchange Membranes  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: The University of Delaware is developing a new fuel cell membrane for vehicles that relies on cheaper and more abundant materials than those used in current fuel cells. Conventional fuel cells are very acidic, so they require acid-resistant metals like platinum to generate electricity. The University of Delaware is developing an alkaline fuel cell membrane that can operate in a non-acidic environment where cheaper materials like nickel and silver, instead of platinum, can be used. In addition to enabling the use of cheaper metals, the University of Delawares membrane is 500 times less expensive than other polymer membranes used in conventional fuel cells.

None

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Arylene-fluorinated-sulfonimide ionomers and membranes for fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The preparation of aromatic sulfonimide polymers useful as membranes in electrochemical cells is described.

Teasley, Mark F. (Landenberg, PA)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. A family of hydrogen separation membranes was developed including single phase mixed conducting ceramics, ceramic/ceramic composites, cermet membranes, cermet membranes containing a hydrogen permeable metal, and intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. Each membrane type had different operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages that were documented over the course of the project. Research on these membranes progressed from ceramics to cermets to intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. During this progression performance was increased from 0.01 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2} up to 423 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2}. Eltron and team membranes not only developed each membrane type, but also membrane surface catalysis and impurity tolerance, creation of thin film membranes, alternative applications such as membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation, demonstration of scale-up testing, and complete engineering documentation including process and mechanical considerations necessary for inclusion of Eltron membranes in a full scale integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. The results of this project directly led to a new $15 million program funded by the Department of Energy. This new project will focus exclusively on scale-up of this technology as part of the FutureGen initiative.

Carl R. Evenson; Shane E. Roark

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

272

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to

273

Comparison of platinum deposit methods on carbon aerogels used in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Comparison of platinum deposit methods on carbon aerogels used in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel: carbon aerogel, platinum, Strong Electrostatic Adsorption, chemical reduction, UV With the rarefaction the diffusive phenomena limiting electrochemical performances. By contrast, carbon aerogels present

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

274

Low platinum loading electrospun electrodes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was performed to evaluate the utility of electrospun carbon nanofiber supports for sputtered platinum catalyst in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The performance of the sputtered nanofiber supports ...

Singer, Simcha Lev

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Regenerative fuel cell engineering - FY99  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors report the work conducted by the ESA-EPE Fuel Cell Engineering Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory during FY99 on regenerative fuel cell system engineering. The work was focused on the evaluation of regenerative fuel cell system components obtained through the RAFCO program. These components included a 5 kW PEM electrolyzer, a two-cell regenerative fuel cell stack, and samples of the electrolyzer membrane, anode, and cathode. The samples of the electrolyzer membrane, anode, and cathode were analyzed to determine their structure and operating characteristics. Tests were conducted on the two-cell regenerative fuel cell stack to characterize its operation as an electrolyzer and as a fuel cell. The 5 kW PEM electrolyzer was tested in the Regenerative Fuel Cell System Test Facility. These tests served to characterize the operation of the electrolyzer and, also, to verify the operation of the newly completed test facility. Future directions for this work in regenerative fuel cell systems are discussed.

Michael A. Inbody; Rodney L. Borup; James C. Hedstrom; Jose Tafoya; Byron Morton; Lois Zook; Nicholas E. Vanderborgh

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Simplified process for leaching precious metals from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The membrane electrode assemblies of fuel cells are recycled to recover the catalyst precious metals from the assemblies. The assemblies are cryogenically embrittled and pulverized to form a powder. The pulverized assemblies are then mixed with a surfactant to form a paste which is contacted with an acid solution to leach precious metals from the pulverized membranes.

Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley Heights, NJ)

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

277

Ex-situ and In-situ Stability Studies of PEM Fuel Cell Catalysts: the effect of carbon type and humidification on the thermal degradation of carbon supported catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the most significant challenges for proton exchange membrane fuel cells in stationary power generation systems is lifetime, where 40,000 hours of operation with less than 10% decay in performance is desired. There are several different membrane electrode assembly (MEA) associated degradation mechanisms inhibiting MEAs from obtaining their desired lifetime targets. The focus of this research is on the loss of cathode surface area over time, which results in MEA performance losses, since MEA performance is proportional to cathode catalyst surface area. Two proposed mechanisms, support oxidation and platinum dissolution, are studied using different accelerated tests. These results are compared to cathode catalyst surface area loss data from real-time fuel cell tests in order to decouple the two degradation mechanisms.

Haugen, G. M.; Stevens, D. A.; Hicks, M. T.; Dahn, J. R.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

DOE Hydrogen Program Record 10004, Fuel Cell System Cost - 2010  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Record Program Record Record #: 10004 Date: September 16, 2010 Title: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2010 Update to: Record 9012 Originator: Jacob Spendelow and Jason Marcinkoski Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: December 16, 2010 Item: The cost of an 80-kW net automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system based on 2010 technology and operating on direct hydrogen is projected to be $51/kW when manufactured at a volume of 500,000 units/year. Rationale: In fiscal year 2010, TIAX LLC (TIAX) and Directed Technologies, Inc. (DTI) each updated their 2009 cost analyses of 80-kW net direct hydrogen PEM automotive fuel cell systems based on 2010 technology and projected to manufacturing volumes of 500,000 units per year [1,2]. Both cost estimates are based on performance at beginning of life.

279

PEM Stack Manufacturing: Industry Status  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

© 2009 BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED © 2009 BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED JULY 2009 B U I L D I N G A C L E A N E N E R G Y G R O W T H C O M P A N Y B A L L A R D P O W E R S Y S T E M S PEM Stack Manufacturing: Industry Status Duarte R. Sousa, PE August 11, 2011 AUGUST 2009 P A G E 2 Overview of PEM Stack Manufacturing MEA Manufacturing Plate Manufacturing Stack Assembly Stack Conditioning and Testing Package and Ship For each of the four main processes, the following will be provided: 1. A brief history of where we have been; 2. Where we are today; 3. Where we would like to transition to; 4. Gaps and proposals. AUGUST 2009 P A G E 3 PEM Stack Manufacturing: Cost Overview * The MEA was readily identified as the major cost driver in a 10 kW stationary stack. * The precious metal catalyst electrode is the major cost driver for the MEA.

280

Investigation of Transient Phenomena of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Electric Vehicles · Photovoltaics ­ thin film solar cells, deployment and testing · Fuel Cells­ · Novel System with Fuel Cell #12;Hydrogen Power Park Overview · Test bed for integration and validationHNEI Overview and Fuel Cell Programs SOEST Dean's Advance by HNEI Faculty and Staff Hawaii Natural

Victoria, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane pem fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2006 High Temperature Membrane...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Systems for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Polymer-Type Membranes, Andrew Herring, Colorado School of Mines (PDF 213 KB) Design and Development of High-Performance...

282

Advanced Fuel Cell Membranes Based on Heteropolyacids (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Develop the methodology for the fabrication of 3D cross-linked, hydrocarbon-based membranes using immobilized heteropolyacids (HPAs) as the proton conducting moiety.

Turner, J. A.; Pern, F. F. J.; Herring, A. M.; Dec, S. F.

2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

283

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this quarter, work was focused on testing layered composite membranes under varying feed stream flow rates at high pressure. By optimizing conditions, H{sub 2} permeation rates as high as 423 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup -2} at 440 C were measured. Membrane stability was investigated by comparison to composite alloy membranes. Permeation of alloyed membranes showed a strong dependence on the alloying element. Impedance analysis was used to investigate bulk and grain boundary conductivity in cermets. Thin film cermet deposition procedures were developed, hydrogen dissociation catalysts were evaluated, and hydrogen separation unit scale-up issues were addressed.

Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Richard Treglio; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard Blair; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Chandra Ratnasamy; Jon P. Wagner; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs

2004-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

284

Mixed hydrocarbon/fluoropolymer membrane/ionomer MEAs for durability studies  

SciTech Connect

The durability of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. Commercial viability depends on improving the durability of the fuel cell components to increase the system reliability. The aim of this work is to separate ionomer degradation from membrane degradation via mixed membrane/ionomer MEA experiments. The challenges of mixed MEA fabrication due to the incompatibility of the membrane and the electrode are addressed. OCV accelerated testing experiment (AST) were performed. Development of in situ diagnostics and unique experiments to characterize the performance and properties of the ionomer in the electrode as a function of time is reported. These measurements, along with extensive ex situ and post-mortem characterization, can delineate the degradation mechanisms in order to develop more durable fuel cells and fuel cell components.

Li, Bo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Mahlon S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cynthia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fenton, James [FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the ninth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2005-December 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) reformate purification, (2) heat transfer enhancement, (3) autothermal reforming coal-derived methanol degradation test; and (4) model development for fuel cell system integration. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

Paul A. Erickson

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Membrane reactor advantages for methanol reforming and similar reactions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Membrane reactors achieve efficiencies by combining in one unit a reactor that generates a product with a semipermeable membrane that extracts it. One well-known benefit of this is greater conversion, as removal of a product drives reactions toward completion, but there are several potentially larger advantages that have been largely ignored. Because a membrane reactor tends to limit the partial pressure of the extracted product, it fundamentally changes the way that total pressure in the reactor affects equilibrium conversion. Thus, many gas-phase reactions that are preferentially performed at low pressures in a conventional reactor are found to have maximum conversion at high pressures in a membrane reactor. These higher pressures and reaction conversions allow greatly enhanced product extraction as well. Further, membrane reactors provide unique opportunities for temperature management which have not been discussed previously. These benefits are illustrated for methanol reforming to hydrogen for use with PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane) fuel cells.

Buxbaum, R.E. [REB Research and Consulting Co., Ferndale, MI (United States)

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Wensheng He, David Mountz, Tao Zhang, Chris Roger July 17, 2012 2 Outline Background on Arkema's polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) blend membrane technology Overview of membrane properties and performance Summary 3 Membrane Technology Polymer Blend * Kynar ® PVDF * Chemical and electrochemical stability * Mechanical strength * Excellent barrier against methanol * Polyelectrolyte * H + conduction and water uptake Flexible Blending Process  PVDF can be compatibilized with a number of polyelectrolytes  Process has been scaled to a pilot line Property Control * Morphology: 10-100s nm domains * Composition can be tailored to minimize methanol permeation, while optimizing

288

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Characterization for Electric Vehicle Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Characterization for Electric Vehicle Applications D.H. SwanHybridSystemfor Electric Vehicle Applications", SAEPaperFuel Cells for Electric Vehicles, Knowledge Gaps and

Swan, D.H.; Dickinson, B.E.; Arikara, M.P.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this quarter long term and high pressure hydrogen separation experiments were performed on Eltron's composite layered membranes. Membranes were tested at 400 C and a 300 psig feed stream with 40% hydrogen for up to 400 continuous hours. In addition membranes were tested up to 1000 psig as demonstration of the ability for this technology to meet DOE goals. Progress was made in the development of new hydrogen separation cermets containing high permeability metals. A sulfur tolerant catalyst deposition technique was optimized and engineering work on mechanical and process & control reports was continued.

Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard T. Treglio; Adam E. Calihman; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Chandra Ratnasamy; Mahendra Sunkara; Jyothish Thangla; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs; James Lockhart

2005-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

290

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this quarter work was continued on characterizing the stability of layered composite membranes under a variety of conditions. Membrane permeation was tested up to 100 hours at constant pressure, temperature, and flow rates. In addition, design parameters were completed for a scale-up hydrogen separation demonstration unit. Evaluation of microstructure and effect of hydrogen exposure on BCY/Ni cermet mechanical properties was initiated. The fabrication of new cermets containing high permeability metals is reported and progress in the preparation of sulfur resistant catalysts is discussed. Finally, a report entitled ''Criteria for Incorporating Eltron's Hydrogen Separation Membranes into Vision 21 IGCC Systems and FutureGen Plants'' was completed.

Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard T. Treglio; Jim Fisher; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Chandra Ratnasamy; Mahendra Sunkara; Jyothish Thangla; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs; James Lockhart

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

291

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this quarter, work was focused on characterizing the stability of layered composite membranes in a one hundred percent permeate environment. Permeation data was also collected on cermets as a function of thickness. A thin film deposition procedure was used to deposit dense thin BCY/Ni onto a tubular porous support. Thin film tubes were then tested for permeation at ambient pressure. Process flow diagrams were prepared for inclusion of hydrogen separation membranes into IGCC power plants under varying conditions. Finally, membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation experiments were performed.

Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard T. Treglio; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs; James Lockhart

2004-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

292

DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE MEMBRANES AND IMPROVED CATHODE CATALYSTS; PROJECT PERIOD JANUARY 1, 2002 - DECEMBER 31, 2005  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Polymer Electrolyte Membranes (PEMs) currently available for fuel cell development work are limited to the temperature range of 60-80C. For mass commercialization in the transportation arena, three important disadvantages that are linked with the relatively low operating temperature range need to be addressed. These three disadvantages are: (a) sluggish cathode kinetics, (b) CO poisoning at the anode and (c) inefficient thermal characteristics. All three of the above mentioned disadvantages could be solved by increasing the operating temperature range to 100-120C. To understand the issues associated with high temperature PEMFCs operation, UTCFC has teamed with leading research groups that possess competencies in the field of polymer chemistry. The subcontractors on the program were investigating modified Nafion and new non-Nafion based, reinforced and non-reinforced membrane systems. Nafion based PEMs rely on using high temperature inorganic solid conductor fillers like phosphotungstic acid. Hydrocarbon membrane systems are based on poly (arylene ether sulfone) polymers, PEEK, PAN, etc.

Lesia Protsailo

2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

293

Water transport in fuel cell membranes measured by laser interferometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) The coefficients of electro-osmotic drag were found to increase with the increasing water content, which indicates that the Grotthuss mechanism of proton transfer is not active in the membranes with low water ...

Kim, Jungik, 1973-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this quarter catalyst stability studies were performed on Eltron's composite layered membranes. In addition, permeation experiments were performed to determine the effect of crystallographic orientation on membrane performance. Sintering conditions were optimized for preparation of new cermets containing high permeability metals. Theoretical calculations were performed to determine potential sulfur tolerant catalysts. Finally, work was continued on mechanical and process & control documentation for a hydrogen separation unit.

Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard T. Treglio; Adam E. Calihman; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Chandra Ratnasamy; Mahendra Sunkara; Jyothish Thangala; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs; James Lockhart

2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

295

Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel processor subsystems (fuel reformer, CO cleanup, and exhaust cleanup) that were small enough to integrate on a vehicle and (2) evaluating the fuel processor system performance for hydrogen production, efficiency, thermal integration, startup, durability and ability to integrate with fuel cells. Nuvera carried out a three-part development program that created multi-fuel (gasoline, ethanol, natural gas) fuel processing systems and investigated integration of fuel cell / fuel processor systems. The targets for the various stages of development were initially based on the goals of the DOE's Partnership for New Generation Vehicles (PNGV) initiative and later on the Freedom Car goals. The three parts are summarized below with the names based on the topic numbers from the original Solicitation for Financial Assistance Award (SFAA).

Nuvera Fuel Cells

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

296

UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF COMPRESSION AND CONSTRAINTS ON WATER UPTAKE OF FUEL-CELL MEMBRANES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate characterization of polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) requires understanding the impact of mechanical and electrochemical loads on cell components. An essential aspect of this relationship is the effect of compression on the polymer membrane?s water-uptake behavior and transport properties. However, there is limited information on the impact of physical constraints on membrane properties. In this paper, we investigate both theoretically and experimentally how the water uptake of Nafion membrane changes under external compression loads. The swelling of a compressed membrane is modeled by modifying the swelling pressure in the polymer backbone which relies on the changes in the microscopic volume of the polymer. The model successfully predicts the water content of the compressed membrane measured through in-situ swelling-compression tests and neutron imaging. The results show that external mechanical loads could reduce the water content and conductivity of the membrane, especially at lower temperatures, higher humidities, and in liquid water. The modeling framework and experimental data provide valuable insight for the swelling and conductivity of constrained and compressed membranes, which are of interest in electrochemical devices such as batteries and fuel cells.

Kusoglu, Ahmet; Kienitz, Briian; Weber, Adam

2011-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

297

2006 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

AZ, USA Sponsored by Army Research Office (ARO) Principal Investigator Bryan Pivovar Fuel Cell Team Leader Los Alamos National Laboratory PO Box 1663, MS D429 Los Alamos, NM...

298

High resolution neutron imaging of water in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water transport in the ionomeric membrane, typically Nafion{reg_sign}, has profound influence on the performance of the polymer electrolyte fuel cell, in terms of internal resistance and overall water balance. In this work, high resolution neutron imaging of the Nafion{reg_sign} membrane is presented in order to measure water content and through-plane gradients in situ under disparate temperature and humidification conditions.

Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Makundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hussey, D S [NIST; Jacobson, D L [NIST; Arif, M [NIST

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Primary and secondary electrical space power based on advanced PEM systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For new space ventures, power continues to be a pacing function for mission planning and experiment endurance. Although electrochemical power is a well demonstrated space power technology, current hardware limitations impact future mission viability. In order to document and augment electrochemical technology, a series of experiments for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lewis Research Center (NASA LeRC) are underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that define operational parameters on contemporary proton exchange membrane (PEM) hardware operating with hydrogen and oxygen reactants. Because of the high efficiency possible for water electrolysis, this hardware is also thought part of a secondary battery design built around stored reactants -- the so-called regenerative fuel cell. An overview of stack testing at Los Alamos, and of analyses related to regenerative fuel cell systems are provided in this paper. Finally, this paper describes work looking at innovative concepts that remove complexity from stack hardware with the specific intent of higher system reliability. This new concept offers the potential for unprecedented electrochemical power system energy densities.

Vanderborgh, N.E.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Stroh, K.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Huff, J.R. (Ballard Power Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Primary and secondary electrical space power based on advanced PEM systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For new space ventures, power continues to be a pacing function for mission planning and experiment endurance. Although electrochemical power is a well demonstrated space power technology, current hardware limitations impact future mission viability. In order to document and augment electrochemical technology, a series of experiments for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Lewis Research Center (NASA LeRC) are underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory that define operational parameters on contemporary proton exchange membrane (PEM) hardware operating with hydrogen and oxygen reactants. Because of the high efficiency possible for water electrolysis, this hardware is also thought part of a secondary battery design built around stored reactants -- the so-called regenerative fuel cell. An overview of stack testing at Los Alamos, and of analyses related to regenerative fuel cell systems are provided in this paper. Finally, this paper describes work looking at innovative concepts that remove complexity from stack hardware with the specific intent of higher system reliability. This new concept offers the potential for unprecedented electrochemical power system energy densities.

Vanderborgh, N.E.; Hedstrom, J.C.; Stroh, K.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Huff, J.R. [Ballard Power Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane pem fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this quarter, work was focused on testing layered composite membranes under varying feed stream flow rates at high pressure. By optimizing conditions, H{sub 2} permeation rates in excess of 400 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup -2} at 440 C were measured. Membrane stability was characterized by repeated thermal and pressure cycling. The effect of cermet grain size on permeation was determined. Finally, progress is summarized on thin film cermet fabrication, catalyst development, and H{sub 2} separation unit scale up.

Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Scott R. Morrison; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard Blair; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Chandra Ratnasamy; Jon P. Wagner; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs

2004-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

302

Low-temperature fuel cell systems for commercial airplane auxiliary power.  

SciTech Connect

This presentation briefly describes the ongoing study of fuel cell systems on-board a commercial airplane. Sandia's current project is focused on Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells applied to specific on-board electrical power needs. They are trying to understand how having a fuel cell on an airplane would affect overall performance. The fuel required to accomplish a mission is used to quantify the performance. Our analysis shows the differences between the base airplane and the airplane with the fuel cell. There are many ways of designing a system, depending on what you do with the waste heat. A system that requires ram air cooling has a large mass penalty due to increased drag. The bottom-line impact can be expressed as additional fuel required to complete the mission. Early results suggest PEM fuel cells can be used on airplanes with manageable performance impact if heat is rejected properly. For PEMs on aircraft, we are continuing to perform: (1) thermodynamic analysis (investigate configurations); (2) integrated electrical design (with dynamic modeling of the micro grid); (3) hardware assessment (performance, weight, and volume); and (4) galley and peaker application.

Curgus, Dita Brigitte; Pratt, Joseph William; Akhil, Abbas Ali; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Fuel Cell Powered Vehicles Using Supercapacitors: Device Characteristics, Control Strategies, and Simulation Results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

16, Appendix I Fuel cell hybrid vehicles with load levelingfuel cell/battery hybrid vehicles, Journal of Power Sourcesfor a PEM Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle, Transactions of the

Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this quarter of the no cost extension a cermet composition referred to as EC101 containing a high permeability metal and a ceramic phase was prepared for sealing and permeability testing. Several different types of seals were developed and tested. In addition membrane surface stability was characterized.

Carl R. Evenson; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson

2006-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

305

Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this quarter composite layered membrane size was scaled-up and tested for permeation performance. Sintering conditions were optimized for a new cermet containing a high permeability metal and seals were developed to allow permeability testing. Theoretical calculations were performed to determine potential sulfur tolerant hydrogen dissociation catalysts. Finally, work was finalized on mechanical and process & control documentation for a hydrogen separation unit.

Carl R. Evenson; Harold A. Wright; Adam E. Calihman; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Chandra Ratnasamy; Mahendra Sunkara; Jyothish Thangala; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs; James Lockhart

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

306

Efficient Numerical Methods for an Anisotropic, Nonisothermal, Two-Phase Transport Model of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We carry out model and numerical studies for a three-dimensional, anisotropic, nonisothermal, two-phase steady state transport model of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) in this paper. Besides fully addressing the conservation equations of mass, ... Keywords: Anisotropy, Combined finite element-upwind finite volume, Kirchhoff transformation, Newton's linearization, Nonisothermality, Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), Two-phase transport

Pengtao Sun

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Advanced Electrocatalysts for PEM Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pt 3 Ni (111) Unique Adsorption Properties of Pt-Skin Surface: Pt 3 Ni(111) Agewandte Chemie 51(2012)3139 6 Experimental activity trends In situ characterized and computationally...

308

PEM Fuel Cell Material Durability and Degradation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Materials in Clean Power Systems V: Clean Coal-, Hydrogen...

309

Computational Modeling and Optimization of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

power density (HPD) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a geometry based on a tubular type SOFC increased power density, but still maintains the beneficial feature of secure sealing for a tubular SOFC. In this paper, the electric performance of a flat-tube HPD SOFC is studied. This paper also investigates

Victoria, University of

310

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites with hydrogen permeable alloys. The primary technical challenge in achieving the goals of this project will be to optimize membrane composition to enable practical hydrogen separation rates and chemical stability. Other key aspects of this developing technology include catalysis, ceramic processing methods, and separation unit design operating under high pressure. To achieve these technical goals, Eltron Research Inc. has organized a consortium consisting of CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, Inc. (SCI), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and NORAM. Hydrogen permeation rates in excess of 50 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} at {approx}440 C were routinely achieved under less than optimal experimental conditions using a range of membrane compositions. Factors that limit the maximum permeation attainable were determined to be mass transport resistance of H{sub 2} to and from the membrane surface, as well as surface contamination. Mass transport resistance was partially overcome by increasing the feed and sweep gas flow rates to greater than five liters per minute. Under these experimental conditions, H2 permeation rates in excess of 350 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup 2} at {approx}440 C were attained. These results are presented in this report, in addition to progress with cermets, thin film fabrication, catalyst development, and H{sub 2} separation unit scale up.

Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Scott R. Morrison; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephen; Frank E. Anderson; Shandra Ratnasamy; Jon P. Wagner; Clive Brereton

2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

311

Through-the-electrode model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell with independently measured parameters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A one dimensional model for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell was developed which makes use of independently measured parameters for predicting single cell performance. Optimization of catalyst layer formulation and properties are explored. Impact of temperature and cathode pressure upon system performance was investigated.

Weisbrod, K.R.; Grot, S.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Through-the-electrode model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell with independently measured parameters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A one dimensional model for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell was developed which makes use of independently measured parameters for predicting single cell performance. Optimization of catalyst layer formulation and properties are explored. Impact of temperature and cathode pressure upon system performance is investigated.

Weisbrod, K.R.; Grot, S.A.; Vandergborgh, N.E.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

ASU nitrogen sweep gas in hydrogen separation membrane for production of HRSG duct burner fuel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to the use of low pressure N2 from an air separation unit (ASU) for use as a sweep gas in a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to increase syngas H2 recovery and make a near-atmospheric pressure (less than or equal to about 25 psia) fuel for supplemental firing in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) duct burner.

Panuccio, Gregory J.; Raybold, Troy M.; Jamal, Agil; Drnevich, Raymond Francis

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

314

State-of-the-Art Assessment of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells for Distributed Power Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell technology targeted for transportation markets has been rapidly advancing the past few years. This technology represents a potentially strategic retail access technology that could be useful in a variety of utility, commercial, and residential distributed power and retail energy service applications.

1997-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

315

Microporous and Thin Film Membranes for Solid Oxide Fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the major limitations to the commercialization of solid oxide fuel cells is the expense of fabricating the required (anode/electrolyte/cathode) cells (currently planar or tubular). The current technology being employed by most of the producers of solid oxide fuel cells is essentially all the same in that it involves standard ceramic processing to make composite structures (either electrolyte or electrode supported). Each investigator/program has their own individual processing steps to produce the cells, but in the end, they all make these cells in a very similar manner. As a result only limited progress has been made towards cost reductions over the last 2-3 decades. It is our contention that major changes in the processing of cells need to be made before SOFCs can become economically feasible.

Dr. Harlan U. Anderson

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Precious Metal Recovery from Fuel Cell MEA's  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the next-generation power sources is the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, which runs on pure hydrogen or hydrogen-rich reformate. At the heart of the PEM fuel cell is a membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The MEA is a laminate composed of electrode layers sandwiched between outer layers, fabricated from either carbon fiber or fabric and which control the diffusion of reactant gases, and the inner polymer mebrane. Hydrogen is oxidized at the anode to form protons, which migrate through the membrane and react with oxygen at the cathode to form water. In this type of fuel cell, platinum catalyzes the reactions at both electrodes. Realization of a future that includes ubiquitous use of hydrogen fuel cell-powered vehicles will be partially contingent on a process for recycling components of the fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies. In aggregate, the platinum used for the fuel cell will represent a large pool of this precious metal, and the efficient recycling of Pt from MEA's will be a cost-enabling factor for success of this technology. Care must be taken in the reclamation process because of the presence of fluoropolymers in the MEA. While Pt is normally recovered with high yield, the combustion process commonly applied to remove an organic matrix will also liberate a large volume of HF, a gas which is both toxic and corrosive. Carbonyl fluoride, which has a recommended exposure limit of 2ppmv, is another undesirable product of fluoroploymer combustion. In 2003, the Department of Energy awarded Engelhard Corporation an 80% cost share grant for a five-year project budgeted at $5.9MM. The principal objective is reclaiming platinum from fuel cell MEA's without producing fluorine-containing emissions. Over the last three years, Engelhard has approached the problem from several directions in balancing the two goals: a commercially-viable recycling process and an environmentally favorable one. Working with both fresh and aged fuel cells, it has been shown that precious metals can be liberated at high yield using microwave assisted acid digestion, but exposure of the gas diffusion electrode surfaces is required. A low-cost solvent-stripping process has been identified for two geometries of fuel cell MEA's: GDL and GDE. This paper will detail progress made in realizing a practical, "green" process for recovery of Pt from PEM fuel cell MEA's

Lawrence Shore

2006-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

317

The use of fuel cell ion exchange membranes in electrolytic cells les membranes echangeuses d'ions des piles a combustibles  

SciTech Connect

Ion exchange membranes, previously used in fuel cells, were studied in order to examine their application to water electrolysis. State-of-the-art is reviewed from the bibliography, comparing this process with a classic one. Results show that only the cationic membranes are adequate for electrolytic cell use, being sufficiently resistant to heat and oxidation.

Damien, A.; Sohm, J.C.

1977-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Develpment of Higher Temperature Membrane and Electrode Assembly (MEA) for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our work will fucus on developing higher temperature MEAs based on SPEKK polymer blends. Thse MEAs will be designed to operatre at 120 degrees C Higher temperatures, up to 200 degrees C will also be explored. This project will develop Nafion-free MEAs using only SPEKK blends in both membrane and catalytic layers.

Susan Agro, Anthony DeCarmine, Shari Williams

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

319

Transitioning from Fuel Cells to Redox Flow Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transitioning From Fuel Cells to Redox Transitioning From Fuel Cells to Redox Flow Cells T. Zawodzinski and Matt Mench University of Tennessee and ORNL Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy 2 Acknowledgments $$ DOE-OE EPRI GCEP NSF EPSCOR (TN SCORE) UTK Governor's Chair Fund Partner in Crime Matt Mench Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy 'Peeling the Onion' Personalized History of PEM Fuel Cells We May Recapitulate This for RFBs Catalysis Test System * Small Single Cell * Large Single Cell * Stack * System Layers of the Onion Hot Topic du Jour * Water Management, Membranes * Late '80's, early '90's * Reformate Tolerance, DMFC's * Mid '90's * High Temp Membranes * Late '90's * Durability * Early '00's Modeling * Membrane/ Water * Cathode * Impedance

320

Method for recovering catalytic elements from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for recovering catalytic elements from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly is provided. The method includes converting the membrane electrode assembly into a particulate material, wetting the particulate material, forming a slurry comprising the wetted particulate material and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve at least one of the catalytic elements into a soluble catalytic element salt, separating the slurry into a depleted particulate material and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt, and washing the depleted particulate material to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted particulate material.

Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley Heights, NJ); Heinz, Robert (Ludwigshafen, DE)

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane pem fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Significance of Pressurized Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid Technology to Ion Transport Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the research, history, and demonstration of pressurized solid oxide fuel cells (PSOFC)-gas turbine (GT) hybrid systems and compares and contrasts their evolution with ion transport membranes (ITM). There exists a wealth of available documentation on the PSOFC hybrid technology including multiple Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reports documenting these systems. This report incorporates the findings of the EPRI reports, conference proceedings, journal articles, ...

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

322

Alternative Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Robson F. Storey (Primary Contact), Daniel A. Savin, Derek L. Patton The University of Southern Mississippi 118 College Drive #5050 Hattiesburg, MS 30406 Phone: (601) 266-4879 Email: Robson.Storey@usm.edu DOE Managers HQ: Dimitrios Papageorgopoulos Phone: (202) 586-5463 Email: Dimitrios.Papageorgopoulos@ee.doe.gov GO: David Peterson Phone: (720) 356-1747 Email: David.Peterson@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-FG36-08GO88106 Project Start Date: August 1, 2009 Project End Date: May 31, 2012 *Congressionally directed project Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Synthesize novel, low-cost hydrocarbon fuel cell * membrane polymers with high-temperature performance and long-term chemical/mechanical durability.

323

Gas-Crossover and Membrane-Pinhole Effects in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper investigates the effects of gas crossover. Specifically, mathematical simulations are conducted to elucidate the fundamental changes in fuel-cell operation as permeation of the various gases through the membrane increases. Two cases are explored, with the first one examining uniform increases in the set of gas-permeation coefficients, and the second one the existence of regions of high gas crossover (i.e., membrane pinholes). For the first case, operation at 120 C is studied and a maximum limit for the hydrogen permeation coefficient of 1 x 10{sup -10} mol/bar-cm-s for a 25 {micro}m membrane is determined. For the second case, it is shown that negative current densities and temperature spikes can arise due to mixed-potential and direct-combustion effects where there are large enough pinholes, thereby impacting performance and water and thermal management.

Weber, Adam; Weber, Adam Z.

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Hoku Fuel Cells | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hoku Fuel Cells Hoku Fuel Cells Jump to: navigation, search Name Hoku Fuel Cells Place Honolulu, Hawaii Zip 96814 Product Hawaii-based, subsidiary of Hoku Scientific Inc, developer, manufacturer and seller of membranes and MEAs for stationary and automotive PEM fuel cells. Coordinates 21.30477°, -157.857614° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":21.30477,"lon":-157.857614,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

325

Integrated fuel cell energy systems for modern buildings. Final technical report for contract period October 1997 to September 2001  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the activities and results of a cooperative agreement. The scope focused on natural gas fuel processing subsystems for fuel cell systems that could be used in modern buildings. The focus of this project was the development of a natural gas (NG) fueled, fuel processing subsystem (FPS) for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems in modern buildings applications. This cooperative development program was coordinated with several parallel programs that were related to integrated fuel processor developments for fuel cell systems. The most significant were the development of an integrated fuel-flexible, fuel processing subsystem (DE-FC02-97EE0482) and internal HbT programs to develop autothermal reforming (ATR) technologies and to develop a commercially viable stationary subsystem.

Woods, Richard

2001-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

326

Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20???ºC to 120???ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20???ºC to 120???ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA?¢????s comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20???ºC to 120???ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA?¢????s, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year R&D Plan. In the course of this four-year program we developed a new PEM with improved proton conductivity, chemical stability and mechanical stability. We incorporated this new membrane into MEAs and evaluated performance and durability.

Hamrock, Steven J.

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

327

Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Storage Technology: Fundamental Research for Optimization of Hydrogen Storage and Utilization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

hydrocarbon-based high-performance sulfonated proton exchange membrane (PEM) that can be manufactured at low cost and accompanied by improved mechanical and thermal stability.

Perret, Bob; Heske, Clemens; Nadavalath, Balakrishnan; Cornelius, Andrew; Hatchett, David; Bae, Chusung; Pang, Tao; Kim, Eunja; Hemmers, Oliver

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

328

Comparative analysis of selected fuel cell vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vehicles powered by fuel cells operate more efficiently, more quietly, and more cleanly than internal combustion engines (ICEs). Furthermore, methanol-fueled fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) can utilize major elements of the existing fueling infrastructure of present-day liquid-fueled ICE vehicles (ICEVs). DOE has maintained an active program to stimulate the development and demonstration o fuel cell technologies in conjunction with rechargeable batteries in road vehicles. The purpose of this study is to identify and assess the availability of data on FCVs, and to develop a vehicle subsystem structure that can be used to compare both FCVs and ICEV, from a number of perspectives--environmental impacts, energy utilization, materials usage, and life cycle costs. This report focuses on methanol-fueled FCVs fueled by gasoline, methanol, and diesel fuel that are likely to be demonstratable by the year 2000. The comparative analysis presented covers four vehicles--two passenger vehicles and two urban transit buses. The passenger vehicles include an ICEV using either gasoline or methanol and an FCV using methanol. The FCV uses a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an on-board methanol reformer, mid-term batteries, and an AC motor. The transit bus ICEV was evaluated for both diesel and methanol fuels. The transit bus FCV runs on methanol and uses a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) fuel cell, near-term batteries, a DC motor, and an on-board methanol reformer. 75 refs.

NONE

1993-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

329

Technology development goals for automotive fuel cell power systems. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report determines cost and performance requirements for Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell vehicles carrying pure H{sub 2} fuel, to achieve parity with internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. A conceptual design of a near term FCEV (fuel cell electric vehicle) is presented. Complete power system weight and cost breakdowns are presented for baseline design. Near term FCEV power system weight is 6% higher than ICE system, mid-term FCEV projected weights are 29% lower than ICE`s. There are no inherently high-cost components in FCE, and at automotive production volumes, near term FCEV cost viability is closer at hand than at first thought. PEM current vs voltage performance is presented for leading PEM manufacturers and researchers. 5 current and proposed onboard hydrogen storage techniques are critically compared: pressurized gas, cryogenic liquid, combined pressurized/cryogenic, rechargeable hydride, adsorption. Battery, capacitor, and motor/controller performance is summarized. Fuel cell power system component weight and cost densities (threshold and goal) are tabulated.

James, B.D.; Baum, G.N.; Kuhn, I.F. Jr. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Membrane Hydration by Direct Liquid Water Contact  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An effective means of providing direct liquid hydration of the membrane tends to improve performance particularly of cells with thicker membranes or at elevated temperatures. Supplying the water to the membrane from the anode flow-field through the anode backing via wicks would appear to have advantages over delivering the water through the thickness of the membrane with regards to the uniformity and stability of the supply and the use of off-the-shelf membranes or MEAs. In addition to improving cell performance, an important contribution of direct liquid hydration approaches may be that the overall fuel cell system becomes simpler and more effective. The next steps in the evolution of this approach are a demonstration of the effectiveness of this technique with larger active area cells as well as the implementation of an internal flow-field water reservoir (to eliminate the injection method). Scale-up to larger cell sizes and the use of separate water channels within the anode flow-field is described.

Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.; Gottesfeld, S.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

NMR studies of methanol transport in membranes for fuel cell applications.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Characterization of the methanol diffusion process in Nafion 117 was achieved with the use of a modified pulsed field gradient NMR technique. To ensure that the concentration of methanol was constant throughout the entire experiment, the membrane was continually immersed in the methanol solution. When using the standard pulsed field gradient NMR method, the diffusion of the methanol in the membrane is strongly influenced by the diffusion of methanol in solution. Application of a filter gradient suppresses the signal from the methanol in solution, enabling the methanol diffusion in the membrane to be observed unambiguously. Complete suppression of the solution signal was achieved when a 60% filter gradient was employed. Under such circumstances, the coefficient for diffusion of methanol within the membrane was calculated to be 4x10-6cm2s-1, which is similar to the values reported in the literature. Consequently, the use of NMR filter gradient measurements is a valid method for studying the diffusion coefficient of methanol within fuel cell membranes.

Every, H. A. (Hayley A.); Zawodzinski, T. A. (Thomas A.), Jr.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 13012: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2013  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office Record Office Record Record #: 13012 Date: September 18, 2013 Title: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2013 Update to: Record 12020 Originator: Jacob Spendelow and Jason Marcinkoski Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: October 16, 2013 Item: The cost of an 80-kW net automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell system based on 2013 technology 1 and operating on direct hydrogen is projected to be $67/kW when manufactured at a volume of 100,000 units/year, and $55/kW at 500,000 units/year. Rationale: The DOE Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Office supports projects that perform detailed analysis to estimate cost status of fuel cell systems, updated on an annual basis [1]. In fiscal year 2013, Strategic Analysis, Inc. (SA) updated their 2012 cost analysis of an 80-kW

333

High resolution neutron imaging of water in the polymer electrolyte membrane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To achieve a deeper understanding of water transport and performance issues associated with water management, we have conducted in situ water examinations to help understand the effects of components and operation. High Frequency Resistance (HFR), AC Impedance and neutron radiography were used to measure water content in operating fuel cells under various operating conditions. Variables examined include: sub-freezing conditions, inlet relative humidities, cell temperature, current density and response transients, different flow field orientations and different component materials (membranes, GDLs and MEAs). Quantification of the water within the membrane was made by neutron radiography after equilibration to different humidified gases, during fuel cell operation and in hydrogen pump mode. The water content was evaluated in bare Nafion{reg_sign} membranes as well as in MEAs operated in both fuel cell and H{sub 2} pump mode. These in situ imaging results allow measurement of the water content and gradients in the PEFC membrane and relate the membrane water transport characteristics to the fuel cell operation and performance under disparate materials and operational combinations. Flow geometry makes a large impact on MEA water content. Higher membrane water with counter flow was measured compared with co-flow for sub-saturated inlet RH's. This correlates to lower HFR and higher performance compared with co-flow. Higher anode stoichiometry helps remove water which accumulates in the anode channels and GDL material. Cell orientation was measured to affect both the water content and cell performance. While membrane water content was measured to be similar regardless of orientation, cells with the cathode on top show flooding and loss of performance compared with similarly operated cells with the anode on top. Transient fuel cell current measurements show a large degree of hysteresis in terms of membrane hydration as measured by HFR. Current step transients from 0.01 A cm{sup -2} to 0.68 A cm{sup -2} consistently show PEM wetting occurring within 5 to 20 sec. Whereas the PEM drying response to the reverse step transient of 0.68 A cm{sup -2} to 0.01 A cm{sup -2}, takes several minutes. The observed faster wetting response is due to reaction water being produced in the cathode and back diffusing into the membrane. The slower PEM drying is due to the water slowly being removed out of the wetted GDLs. This rate of removal of water and hence the PEM hydration level was found to be influenced strongly by the PTFE loadings in the GDL substrate and Microporous layer (MPL). The drying of the membrane is influenced by both the anode and cathode GDL PTFE loadings. Lower PTFE loading in the anode GDL leads to better membrane hydration probably due to the easier incorporation of water from the anode GDL into the membrane. Similarly a lower PTFE loading in the cathode GDL also results in better membrane hydration probably due to the better water retention properties (less hydrophobic) of this GDL. Fuel cells operated isothermal at sub-freezing temperatures show gradual cell performance decay over time and eventually drops to zero. AC impedance analysis indicates that losses are initially due to increasing charge transfer resistance. After time, the rate of decay accelerates rapidly due to mass transport limitations. High frequency resistance also increases over time and is a function of the initial membrane water content. These results indicate that catalyst layer ice formation is influenced strongly by the MEA and is responsible for the long-term degradation of fuel cells operated at sub-freezing temperatures. Water distribution measurements indicate that ice may be fonning mainly in the GDLs at -10 C but are concentrated in the catalyst layer at -20 C.

Spernjak, Dusan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fairweather, Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukherjee, Partha [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Stainless steel wire mesh flow-fields for polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The high cost of fuel cells has delayed their potential widespread use. Stack manufacturers have historically used high-Pt loading membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) and intricately machined graphite bipolar plates. We have focused our efforts on decreasing the cost of these components in order to demonstrate an inexpensive, yet high performance PEM fuel cell. This paper describes the design and demonstration of a 100 cm{sup 2} (active area) cell that utilizes ultra-low Pt loading MEAs and inexpensive stainless steel wire screen flow fields.

Zawodzinski, C.; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: 2012 Annual Progress Report -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Manufacturing R&D Manufacturing R&D Printable Version 2012 Annual Progress Report VI. Manufacturing R&D This section of the 2012 Annual Progress Report for the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program focuses on manufacturing R&D. Manufacturing R&D Sub-Program Overview, Nancy Garland, U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly Manufacturing R&D, Michael Ulsh, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Manufacturing of Low-Cost, Durable Membrane Electrode Assemblies Engineered for Rapid Conditioning, Colin Busby, W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. Adaptive Process Controls and Ultrasonics for High-Temperature PEM MEA Manufacture, Dan Walczyk, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Non-Contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks, Eric Stanfield,

336

Zero Emission Power Plants Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Oxygen Transport Membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Siemens Westinghouse Power Corp. (SWPC) is engaged in the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stationary power systems. SWPC has combined DOE Developmental funds with commercial customer funding to establish a record of successful SOFC field demonstration power systems of increasing size. SWPC will soon deploy the first unit of a newly developed 250 kWe Combined Heat Power System. It will generate electrical power at greater than 45% electrical efficiency. The SWPC SOFC power systems are equipped to operate on lower number hydrocarbon fuels such as pipeline natural gas, which is desulfurized within the SOFC power system. Because the system operates with a relatively high electrical efficiency, the CO2 emissions, {approx}1.0 lb CO2/ kW-hr, are low. Within the SOFC module the desulfurized fuel is utilized electrochemically and oxidized below the temperature for NOx generation. Therefore the NOx and SOx emissions for the SOFC power generation system are near negligible. The byproducts of the power generation from hydrocarbon fuels that are released into the environment are CO2 and water vapor. This forward looking DOE sponsored Vision 21 program is supporting the development of methods to capture and sequester the CO2, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system. To accomplish this, SWPC is developing a SOFC module design, to be demonstrated in operating hardware, that will maintain separation of the fuel cell anode gas, consisting of H2, CO, H2O and CO2, from the vitiated air. That anode gas, the depleted fuel stream, containing less than 18% (H2 + CO), will be directed to an Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) Afterburner that is being developed by Praxair, Inc.. The OTM is supplied air and the depleted fuel. The OTM will selectively transport oxygen across the membrane to oxidize the remaining H2 and CO. The water vapor is then condensed from the totally 1.5.DOC oxidized fuel stream exiting the afterburner, leaving only the CO2 in gaseous form. That CO2 can then be compressed and sequestered, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system operating on hydrocarbon fuel that adds only water vapor to the environment. Praxair has been developing oxygen separation systems based on dense walled, mixed electronic, oxygen ion conducting ceramics for a number of years. The oxygen separation membranes find applications in syngas production, high purity oxygen production and gas purification. In the SOFC afterburner application the chemical potential difference between the high temperature SOFC depleted fuel gas and the supplied air provides the driving force for oxygen transport. This permeated oxygen subsequently combusts the residual fuel in the SOFC exhaust. A number of experiments have been carried out in which simulated SOFC depleted fuel gas compositions and air have been supplied to either side of single OTM tubes in laboratory-scale reactors. The ceramic tubes are sealed into high temperature metallic housings which precludes mixing of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel and air streams. In early tests, although complete oxidation of the residual CO and H2 in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel was achieved, membrane performance degraded over time. The source of degradation was found to be contaminants in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream. Following removal of the contaminants, stable membrane performance has subsequently been demonstrated. In an ongoing test, the dried afterburner exhaust composition has been found to be stable at 99.2% CO2, 0.4% N2 and 0.6%O2 after 350 hours online. Discussion of these results is presented. A test of a longer, commercial demonstration size tube was performed in the SWPC test facility. A similar contamination of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream occurred and the performance degraded over time. A second test is being prepared. Siemens Westinghouse and Praxair are collaborating on the preliminary design of an OTM equipped Afterburner demonstration unit. The intent is to test the afterburner in conjunction with a reduced size SOFC test module that has the anode gas separati

Shockling, Larry A.; Huang, Keqin; Gilboy, Thomas E. (Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation); Christie, G. Maxwell; Raybold, Troy M. (Praxair, Inc.)

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

337

Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Inc Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc Place Billerica, Massachusetts Zip 1821 Product US-based developer of bipolar fuel cell stack plates to develop Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Coordinates 42.562968°, -71.270559° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.562968,"lon":-71.270559,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

338

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Novel Regenerative Fuel Cells based on Anion Exchange Membranes - Katherine Ayers, Proton Onsite  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

l l R ti F l C ll b d A i E h M b f Novel Regenerative Fuel Cells based on Anion Exchange Membranes for Novel Regenerative Fuel Cells based on Anion Exchange Membranes for g g Affordable Renewable Energy Storage Affordable Renewable Energy Storage Affordable Renewable Energy Storage PI: Dr Katherine Ayers Proton Energy Systems kayers@protononsite com PI: Dr. Katherine Ayers, Proton Energy Systems, kayers@protononsite.com y , gy y , y @p A h Key Challenges and Progress Approach Key Challenges and Progress Approach Key Challenges and Progress pp N PGM t l t ( l t l ) Fuel Cell Durability: Non-PGM catalysts (electrolyzer) * Leverage Proton experience in large scale Fuel Cell Durability: o G cata ysts (e ect o y e ) * Leverage Proton experience in large scale Anode flooding and cathode * Translation from RDE to cell results electrolysis and regenerative fuel

339

Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Stephen Grot Ion Power Incorporated 720 Governor Lea Rd New Castle, DE 19720-5501 Phone: (302) 832 9550 Email: s.grot@ion-power.com DOE Managers HQ: Donna Ho Phone: (202) 586-8000 Email: Donna.Ho@ee.doe.gov GO: Reginald Tyler Phone: (720) 356-1805 Email: Reginald.Tyler@go.doe.gov Technical Advisor Thomas Benjamin Phone: (630) 252-1632 Email: benjamin@anl.gov Subcontractors: * Graftech International Holdings Inc., Parma, OH * General Motors Corporation, Flint, MI Contract Number: DE-EE0000462 Project Start Date: September 1, 2010 Project End Date: February 28, 2014 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives

340

FUEL CELL SYSTEM ECONOMICS: COMPARING THE COSTS OF GENERATING POWER WITH STATIONARY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

during many months of the year). * Similarly, use of PEM fuel cell waste heat for hot water heating wouldFUEL CELL SYSTEM ECONOMICS: COMPARING THE COSTS OF GENERATING POWER WITH STATIONARY AND MOTOR VEHICLE PEM FUEL CELL SYSTEMS UCD-ITS-RP-04-21 April 2004 by Timothy Lipman University of California

Kammen, Daniel M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane pem fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Fuel Cell Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration (MYRDD) Plan - Appendix C: Hydrogen Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Page C - 1 Page C - 1 2012 Appendix C: Hydrogen Quality Appendix C - Hydrogen Quality The hydrogen fuel quality specification in Table C.1 below is based on the SAE International Surface Vehicle Standard SAE-2719 - Hydrogen Fuel Quality Guideline for Fuel Cell Vehicles, June 2011. This specification has been harmonized to the extent possible with the draft international standard, ISO/DIS 14687-2, Hydrogen Fuel - Product Specification - Part 2: Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell applications for road vehicles, recently approved by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The primary purpose of this specification is to ensure that the effects of possible fuel contaminants on fuel cell performance and durability in early commercial vehicles are acceptable. Modeling and

342

Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

Vitale, Nicholas G. (Albany, NY); Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Gas separation process using membranes with permeate sweep to remove CO.sub.2 from gaseous fuel combustion exhaust  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas separation process for treating exhaust gases from the combustion of gaseous fuels, and gaseous fuel combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the exhaust stream to a carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the exhaust gas stream across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas back to the combustor.

Wijmans Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA); Merkel, Timothy C. (Menlo Park, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application, the coolant is pumped to a heat recovery system. A water-to-air heat exchange system or water-to-water heat

Victoria, University of

345

An Overview of Stationary Fuel Cell Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Technology developments occurring in the past few years have resulted in the initial commercialization of phosphoric acid (PA) fuel cells. Ongoing research and development (R and D) promises further improvement in PA fuel cell technology, as well as the development of proton exchange membrane (PEM), molten carbonate (MC), and solid oxide (SO) fuel cell technologies. In the long run, this collection of fuel cell options will be able to serve a wide range of electric power and cogeneration applications. A fuel cell converts the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical energy without the use of a thermal cycle or rotating equipment. In contrast, most electrical generating devices (e.g., steam and gas turbine cycles, reciprocating engines) first convert chemical energy into thermal energy and then mechanical energy before finally generating electricity. Like a battery, a fuel cell is an electrochemical device, but there are important differences. Batteries store chemical energy and convert it into electrical energy on demand, until the chemical energy has been depleted. Depleted secondary batteries may be recharged by applying an external power source, while depleted primary batteries must be replaced. Fuel cells, on the other hand, will operate continuously, as long as they are externally supplied with a fuel and an oxidant.

DR Brown; R Jones

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

346

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SAND2011-3119 SAND2011-3119 Unlimited Release Printed May 2011 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes Joseph W. Pratt, Leonard E. Klebanoff, Karina Munoz-Ramos, Abbas A. Akhil, Dita B. Curgus, and Benjamin L. Schenkman Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 and Livermore, California 94550 Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE -AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited. Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy

347

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11013: Platinum Group Metal Loading in PEMFC Stacks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 Date: June 2, 2011 3 Date: June 2, 2011 Title: Platinum Group Metal Loading in PEMFC Stacks Originator: Jacob Spendelow and Dimitrios Papageorgopoulos Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: July 25, 2011 Item: Total loading of platinum group metals (PGMs) in state-of-the-art polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stacks has decreased by 2 orders of magnitude since the 1960s and 1 order of magnitude since the mid-1980s. Supporting Information: Prior to 1988, state-of-the-art polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) electrodes were constructed using Pt-based catalysts pressed directly into the surface of the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM). Catalyst loadings were 35 mg/cm 2 in the PEMFC electrodes used in the 1960s in NASA's Gemini program [1], though

348

ZERO EMISSION POWER PLANTS USING SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS AND OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Over 16,700 hours of operational experience was gained for the Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) elements of the proposed SOFC/OTM zero-emission power generation concept. It was repeatedly demonstrated that OTMs with no additional oxidation catalysts were able to completely oxidize the remaining depleted fuel in a simulated SOFC anode exhaust at an O{sub 2} flux that met initial targets. In such cases, neither residual CO nor H{sub 2} were detected to the limits of the gas chromatograph (<10 ppm). Dried OTM afterburner exhaust streams contained up to 99.5% CO{sub 2}. Oxygen flux through modified OTMs was double or even triple that of the standard OTMs used for the majority of testing purposes. Both the standard and modified membranes in laboratory-scale and demonstration-sized formats exhibited stable performance over extended periods (2300 to 3500 hours or 3 to 5 months). Reactor contaminants, were determined to negatively impact OTM performance stability. A method of preventing OTM performance degradation was developed and proven to be effective. Information concerning OTM and seal reliability over extended periods and through various chemical and thermal shocks and cycles was also obtained. These findings were used to develop several conceptual designs for pilot (10 kWe) and commercial-scale (250 kWe) SOFC/OTM zero emission power generation systems.

G. Maxwell Christie; Troy M. Raybold

2003-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

349

Center for Intelligent Fuel Cell Materials Design  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this work was to develop a composite proton exchange membrane utilizing 1) readily available, low cost materials 2) readily modified and 3) easily processed to meet the chemical, mechanical and electrical requirements of high temperature PEM fuel cells. One of the primary goals was to produce a conducting polymer that met the criteria for strength, binding capability for additives, chemical stability, dimensional stability and good conductivity. In addition compatible, specialty nanoparticles were synthesized to provide water management and enhanced conductivity. The combination of these components in a multilayered, composite PEM has demonstrated improved conductivity at high temperatures and low humidity over commercially available polymers. The research reported in this final document has greatly increased the knowledge base related to post sulfonation of chemically and mechanically stable engineered polymers (Radel). Both electrical and strength factors for the degree of post sulfonation far exceed previous data, indicating the potential use of these materials in suitable proton exchange membrane architectures for the development of fuel cells. In addition compatible, hydrophilic, conductive nano-structures have been synthesized and incorporated into unique proton exchange membrane architectures. The use of post sulfonation for the engineered polymer and nano-particle provide cost effective techniques to produce the required components of a proton exchange membrane. The development of a multilayer proton exchange membrane as described in our work has produced a highly stable membrane at 170C with conductivities exceeding commercially available proton exchange membranes at high temperatures and low humidity. The components and architecture of the proton exchange membrane discussed will provide low cost components for the portable market and potentially the transportation market. The development of unique components and membrane architecture provides a key element for the United States: 1) to transition the country from a fossil fuel based energy economy to a renewable energy based economy, and 2) to reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Developments of this program will serve as an important step toward continuing PEMFC technology and ultimately the broad-based commercial availability of this technology and its benefits.

Santurri, P.R., (Chemsultants International); Hartmann-Thompson, C.; Keinath, S.E. (Michigan Molecular Inst.)

2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

350

Characterization of proton exchange membrane materials for fuel cells by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to explore the nanometer-scale structure of Nafion, the widely used fuel cell membrane, and its composites. We have shown that solid-state NMR can characterize chemical structure and composition, domain size and morphology, internuclear distances, molecular dynamics, etc. The newly-developed water channel model of Nafion has been confirmed, and important characteristic length-scales established. Nafion-based organic and inorganic composites with special properties have also been characterized and their structures elucidated. The morphology of Nafion varies with hydration level, and is reflected in the changes in surface-to-volume (S/V) ratio of the polymer obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The S/V ratios of different Nafion models have been evaluated numerically. It has been found that only the water channel model gives the measured S/V ratios in the normal hydration range of a working fuel cell, while dispersed water molecules and polymer ribbons account for the structures at low and high hydration levels, respectively.

Kong, Zueqian

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

351

Fuel Cell Demonstration Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance, installation, and decommissioning the total project budget was approximately $3.7 million.

Gerald Brun

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

352

R&D Plan for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plan for the Plan for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Introduction/Background The High Temperature Membrane Working Group was established to provide a forum for greater interaction in the effort to develop high temperature membranes for PEM fuel cells. The goal of this effort is particularly challenging and requires significant fundamental research and development. The Working Group meets twice a year (immediately before or after the Electrochemical Society meeting) and includes universities, national labs, small business and industry and is open to any interested individual/organization. The first meeting was in October, 2000. Working Group members are listed in Appendix A. This plan was developed to guide the R&D activities of the Working Group. The

353

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY UNITED TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION FUEL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION FUEL TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION FUEL CELLS (UTCFC) FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE UNDER COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NUMBER DE-FC04-02AL67608, DOE WAIVER NO. W(A) 03-040. The Petitioner, UTCFC, has requested a waiver of all domestic and foreign patent rights to inventions that may be conceived or first actually reduced to practice in the course of UTCFC's work under Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC04-02AL67608 entitled "Development of High-Temperature Polymeric Membranes and Improved Cathode Structures" with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This waiver will not apply to any inventions conceived by subcontractors. The work to be done will be the design, development and delivery of two fuel cell stacks. The first stack will be a conventional PEM stack with platinum-alloy catalysts. The

354

Effects of Membrane- and Catalyst-layer-thickness Nonuniformities in Polymer-electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thicknesses for the membrane and catalyst layer. Figure 2.of dry membrane (a) and catalyst-layer (b) thickness (andhollow symbols) and catalyst-layer (filled symbols)

Weber, Adam Z.; Newman, John

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Using polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells in a hybrid surface ship propulsion plant to increase fuel efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An increasingly mobile US Navy surface fleet and oil price uncertainty contrast with the Navy's desire to lower the amount of money spent purchasing fuel. Operational restrictions limiting fuel use are temporary and cannot ...

Kroll, Douglas M. (Douglas Michael)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Advanced fuel cells for transportation applications. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Research and Development (R and D) contract was directed at developing an advanced technology compressor/expander for supplying compressed air to Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells in transportation applications. The objective of this project was to develop a low-cost high-efficiency long-life lubrication-free integrated compressor/expander utilizing scroll technology. The goal of this compressor/expander was to be capable of providing compressed air over the flow and pressure ranges required for the operation of 50 kW PEM fuel cells in transportation applications. The desired ranges of flow, pressure, and other performance parameters were outlined in a set of guidelines provided by DOE. The project consisted of the design, fabrication, and test of a prototype compressor/expander module. The scroll CEM development program summarized in this report has been very successful, demonstrating that scroll technology is a leading candidate for automotive fuel cell compressor/expanders. The objectives of the program are: develop an integrated scroll CEM; demonstrate efficiency and capacity goals; demonstrate manufacturability and cost goals; and evaluate operating envelope. In summary, while the scroll CEM program did not demonstrate a level of performance as high as the DOE guidelines in all cases, it did meet the overriding objectives of the program. A fully-integrated, low-cost CEM was developed that demonstrated high efficiency and reliable operation throughout the test program. 26 figs., 13 tabs.

NONE

1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

357

Webinars for the Fuel Cell Technologies Program, 2011  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Webinars presented in 2011: 1) Hydrogen Storage Materials Database Demonstration - EERE has launched a hydrogen storage materials database to collect and disseminate materials data and accelerate advanced materials research and development. Marni Lenahan of BCS Incorporated demonstrated the functionality of the database including accessing and extracting data, submitting new material property data for inclusion, and performing organized searches; 2) Hydrogen Production by PEM Electrolysis: Spotlight on Giner and Proton - Available commercially, Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) electrolysis is a hydrogen-production technology that can enable a zero carbon footprint when used with renewable resources. Leaders in these research efforts, Monjid Hamdan of Giner Electrochemical Systems and Kathy Ayers of Proton Onsite discussed recent progress, as well as future scenarios for renewable hydrogen production by PEM electrolysis; 3) Science Magazine Article Highlight: Moving Towards Near Zero Platinum Fuel Cells - Dr. Piotr Zelenay of Los Alamos National Laboratory described his innovative work with a family of non-precious metal catalysts that approach the performance of platinum-based systems at a cost sustainable for high-power fuel cell applications. This strategy uses polyaniline as a precursor to a carbon-nitrogen template for high-temperature synthesis of catalysts incorporating iron and cobalt; 4) I2CNER: An International Collaboration to Enable a Carbon-Neutral, Energy Economy; 5) Photosynthesis for Hydrogen and Fuels Production - Dr. Tasios Melis of the University of California at Berkeley, a pre-eminent researcher in the field of Photobiological Hydrogen Production, provided an overview of his invention disclosing methods and compositions to minimize the chlorophyll antenna size of photosynthesis by decreasing the expression of the novel TLA1 gene, thereby improving solar conversion efficiencies and photosynthetic productivity in plants and algae [copied from http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/webinar_archives_2011.html

358

Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 9 10 ER 4 5 6 7 8 - Normalized FE 1 2 3 4 Fenton Test 0 12 Normalized End-Group Count vs. Normalized End-group C t f I F t ' t t diti Count for Nafion Ionomers. Fenton s...

359

Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

effect of pressure on solid oxide fuel cell performance," inflat plate solid oxide fuel cells," in Proceedings of theSymposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Electrochem. Soc. 1993,

Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Functionalized ultra-porous titania nanofiber membranes as nuclear waste separation and sequestration scaffolds for nuclear fuels recycle.  

SciTech Connect

Advanced nuclear fuel cycle concept is interested in reducing separations to a simplified, one-step process if possible. This will benefit from the development of a one-step universal getter and sequestration material so as a simplified, universal waste form was proposed in this project. We have developed a technique combining a modified sol-gel chemistry and electrospinning for producing ultra-porous ceramic nanofiber membranes with controllable diameters and porous structures as the separation/sequestration materials. These ceramic nanofiber materials have been determined to have high porosity, permeability, loading capacity, and stability in extreme conditions. These porous fiber membranes were functionalized with silver nanoparticles and nanocrystal metal organic frameworks (MOFs) to introduce specific sites to capture gas species that are released during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Encapsulation into a durable waste form of ceramic composition was also demonstrated.

Liu, Haiqing; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Sava, Dorina Florentina; Nenoff, Tina Maria

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane pem fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Hydrogen Production by PEM Electrolysis: Spotlight on Giner and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PRODUCTION BY PEM ELECTROLYSIS: SPOTLIGHT ON GINER AND PROTON US DOE WEBINAR (May 23, 2011) 2 Webinar Outline *Water Electrolysis H 2 Production Overview DOE-EERE-FCT: Eric L....

362

Computational Fuel Cell Research and SOFC Modeling at Penn State  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computational Fuel Cell Research and SOFC Modeling at Penn State Chao-Yang Wang Professor of PEM Fuel Cells SOFC Modeling & Simulation Fuel Cell Controls Summary #12;ECEC Overview Vision: provide, DMFC, and SOFC #12;ECEC Facilities (>5,000 sq ft) Fuel Cell/Battery Experimental Labs Fuel Cell

363

Electro-osmotic drag of water in ionomeric membranes. New measurements employing a direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) employing a proton conducting membrane was used to determine the electro-osmotic drag coefficient of water in the ionomeric membrane. Water flux across the membrane in such a cell (operated with 1.0 M aqueous methanol at the anode and dry O{sub 2} at the cathode) is driven by protonic drag exclusively at sufficiently high current densities. This is evidenced experimentally by a linear relationship between cell current and flux of water measured crossing the membrane. Application of the DMFC for such water-drag measurements is significantly simpler experimentally than the approach described by the authors before, particularly so for measurements above room temperature. In measurements the authors performed in the DMFC configuration on Nafion 117 membranes, the water drag coefficient was found to increase with temperature, from 2.0 H{sub 2}O/H{sup +} at 15 C to 5.1 H{sub 2}O/H{sup +} at 130 C. Implications of these new results on water management in DMFCs are briefly discussed.

Ren, X.; Henderson, W.; Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

XVII-1 XVII-1 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Alabama V.F.5 CFD Research Corporation: Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-226 V.F.5 ESI US R&D: Water Transport in PEM Fuel Cells: Advanced Modeling, Material Selection, Testing, and Design Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V-226 Arizona VI.3 Arizona State University: Adaptive Process Controls and Ultrasonics for High-Temperature PEM MEA Manufacture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VI-17 Arkansas XII.4 FedEx Freight: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck FedEx Freight Fleet Deployment .

365

Thin graphite bipolar plate with associated gaskets and carbon cloth flow-field for use in an ionomer membrane fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention comprises a thin graphite plate with associated gaskets and pieces of carbon cloth that comprise a flow-field. The plate, gaskets and flow-field comprise a "plate and gasket assembly" for use in an ionomer membrane fuel cell, fuel cell stack or battery.

Marchetti, George A. (Western Springs, IL)

2003-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

366

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power System Development at PNNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology echnology Hydro- -Desulfurization T Funded by y Arm y y TARDEC Brass board, transportable system Ran 10 kW PEM fuel cell Demonstrated on JP-8 with...

367

Development of a Low-Cost, Durable Membrane and MEA for Stationary and Mobile Fuel Cell Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of low cost, durable membranes and membranes electrode assemblies (MEAs) remain a critical challenge for the successful introduction of fuel cells into mass markets. It was the goal of the team lead by Arkema, Inc. (formerly Atofina, Inc.) to address these shortages. Thus, this project addresses the following technical barriers from the Fuel Cells section of the Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: (A) Durability (B) Cost Arkemas approach consisted in using blends of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and proprietary sulfonated polyelectrolytes. The strength and originality of Arkemas approach lies in the decoupling of ion conductivity from the other requirements. Kynar (Arkema trade name for PVDF) provides an exceptional combination of properties that make it ideally suited for a membrane matrix. In a first phase, Arkema demonstrated the feasibility of the concept with the M31 membrane generation. After MEA optimization, it was shown that the beginning-of-life (BOL) performance of M31 MEAs was essentially on a par with that of PFSA MEAs at 60C under fully humidified conditions. On the other hand, long-term durability studies showed a high decay rate of 45V/h over a 2100 hr. test. Arkema then designed several families of polyelectrolyte candidates, which in principle could not undergo the same failure mechanisms. A new membrane candidate was developed: M41. It offered the same generally good mechanical, ex-situ conductivity and gas barrier properties as M31. In addition, ex-situ accelerated testing suggested a several orders of magnitude improvement in chemical stability. M41 based MEAs showed comparable BOL performance with that of PFSA (80C, 100% RH). M41 MEAs were further shown to be able to withstand several hours temperature excursions at 120C without apparent damage. Accelerated studies were carried out using the DOE and/or US Fuel Cell Council protocols. M41 MEAs shown sizeable advantages over PFSA MEAs in the Open Circuit Voltage Hold test, Relative Humidity Cycling test and the Voltage Cycling test. The main known limitation of the M41 family is its ability to function well at low RH.

Michel Foure, Scott Gaboury, Jim Goldbach, David Mountz and Jung Yi (no longer with company)

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

368

Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications. Hydrogen vehicle safety report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report reviews the safety characteristics of hydrogen as an energy carrier for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), with emphasis on high pressure gaseous hydrogen onboard storage. The authors consider normal operation of the vehicle in addition to refueling, collisions, operation in tunnels, and storage in garages. They identify the most likely risks and failure modes leading to hazardous conditions, and provide potential countermeasures in the vehicle design to prevent or substantially reduce the consequences of each plausible failure mode. They then compare the risks of hydrogen with those of more common motor vehicle fuels including gasoline, propane, and natural gas.

Thomas, C.E. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbons in a Novel Hydrogen-Selective Membrane-Based Fuel Processor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this work, asymmetric dense Pd/porous stainless steel composite membranes were fabricated by depositing palladium on the outer surface of the tubular support. The electroless plating method combined with an osmotic pressure field was used to deposit the palladium film. Surface morphology and microstructure of the composite membranes were characterized by SEM and EDX. The SEM and EDX analyses revealed strong adhesion of the plated pure palladium film on the substrate and dense coalescence of the Pd film. Membranes were further characterized by conducting permeability experiments with pure hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium gases at temperatures from 325 to 450 C and transmembrane pressure differences from 5 to 45 psi. The permeation results showed that the fabricated membranes have both high hydrogen permeability and selectivity. For example, the hydrogen permeability for a composite membrane with a 20 {micro}m Pd film was 3.02 x 10{sup -5} moles/m{sup 2}.s.Pa{sup 0.765} at 450 C. Hydrogen/nitrogen selectivity for this composite membrane was 1000 at 450 C with a transmembrane pressure difference of 14.7 psi. Steam reforming of methane is one of the most important chemical processes in hydrogen and syngas production. To investigate the usefulness of palladium-based composite membranes in membrane-reactor configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen, steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift was studied. The steam reforming of methane using a packed-bed inert membrane tubular reactor (PBIMTR) was simulated. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model with parallel flow configuration was developed for steam reforming of methane. The shell volume was taken as the feed and sweep gas was fed to the inside of the membrane tube. Radial diffusion was taken into account for concentration gradient in the radial direction due to hydrogen permeation through the membrane. With appropriate reaction rate expressions, a set of partial differential equations was derived using the continuity equation for the reaction system and then solved by finite difference method with appropriate boundary and initial conditions. An iterative scheme was used to obtain a converged solution. Membrane reactor performance was compared to that in a traditional non-membrane packed-bed reactor (PBR). Their performances were also compared with thermodynamic equilibrium values achievable in a conventional non-membrane reactor. Numerical results of the models show that the methane conversions in the PBIMTR are always higher than that in the PBR, as well as thermodynamic equilibrium conversions. For instance, at a reaction pressure of 6 atm, a temperature of 650 C, a space velocity of 900/16.0 SCCM/gm{sub cat}, a steam to methane molar feed ratio of 3.0, a sweep ratio of 0.15, the conversion in the membrane reactor is about 86.5%, while the conversion in the non-membrane reactor is about 50.8%. The corresponding equilibrium conversion is about 56.4%. The effects on the degree of conversion and hydrogen yield were analyzed for different parameters such as temperature, reactor pressure, feed and sweep flow rate, feed molar ratio, and space time. From the analysis of the model results, it is obvious that the membrane reactor operation can be optimized for conversion or yield through the choice of proper operating and design parameters. Comparisons with available literature data for both membrane and non-membrane reactors showed a good agreement.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

370

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through December 1999.

NONE

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through June 1998.

NONE

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through April 1998.

NONE

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through January 2000.

NONE

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through October 1999.

NONE

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through November 1999.

NONE

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through February 1999.

NONE

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through September 1999.

NONE

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Corrosion Test Cell for Biopolar Plate Materials - Energy ...  

A corrosion test cell for screening candidate bipolar plate materials for use in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells.

379

Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field there between for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells. 11 figs.

Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.

1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

380

Generating Potable Water from Fuel Cell Technology Juan E. Tibaquir  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generating Potable Water from Fuel Cell Technology Juan E. Tibaquirá Associate Professor Electricity Heat Water #12;Second Forum on Energy & Water Sustainability April 10th /09 6 PEM Fuel Cells for research 2. Fuel-cell fundamentals 3. Implications of using water from fuel cells in a society

Keller, Arturo A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane pem fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the eighth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005 and includes an entire review of the progress for year 2 of the project. This year saw progress in eight areas. These areas are: (1) steam reformer transient response, (2) steam reformer catalyst degradation, (3) steam reformer degradation tests using bluff bodies, (4) optimization of bluff bodies for steam reformation, (5) heat transfer enhancement, (6) autothermal reforming of coal derived methanol, (7) autothermal catalyst degradation, and (8) autothermal reformation with bluff bodies. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

Paul A. Erickson

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

382

Hydrogen Production by PEM Electrolysis: Spotlight on Giner and Proton  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BY BY PEM ELECTROLYSIS: SPOTLIGHT ON GINER AND PROTON US DOE WEBINAR (May 23, 2011) 2 Webinar Outline *Water Electrolysis H 2 Production Overview DOE-EERE-FCT: Eric L. Miller *Spotlight: PEM Electrolysis R&D at Giner Giner Electrochemical Systems: Monjid Hamdan *Spotlight: PEM Electrolysis R&D at Proton Proton OnSite: Kathy Ayers *Q&A 3 DOE EERE-FCT Goals and Objectives Develop technologies to produce hydrogen from clean, domestic resources at a delivered and dispensed cost of $2-$4/gge Capacity (kg/day) Distributed Central 100,000,000 100,000 50,000 10,000 1,000 10 Natural Gas Reforming Photo- electro- chemical Biological Water Electrolysis (Solar) 2015-2020 Today-2015 2020-2030 Coal Gasification (No Carbon Capture) Electrolysis Water (Grid) Coal Gasification (Carbon Capture)

383

Final Report - Effects of Impurities on Fuel Cell Performance and Durability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program is focused on the experimental determination of the effects of key hydrogen side impurities on the performance of PEM fuel cells. Experimental data has been leveraged to create mathematical models that predict the performance of PEM fuel cells that are exposed to specific impurity streams. These models are validated through laboratory experimentation and utilized to develop novel technologies for mitigating the effects of contamination on fuel cell performance. Results are publicly disseminated through papers, conference presentations, and other means.

Trent Molter

2012-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

384

Bootstrapping a Sustainable North American PEM Fuel Cell Industry...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge. Web site http:www.osti.govbridge Reports produced...

385

Design Considerations for a PEM Fuel Cell Powered Truck APU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

climate control and electrical power necessary in order toC (F) Table 5 Stock Heating Performance Electrical PowerThe electrical power needed for an APU system can be broken

Grupp, David J; Forrest, Matthew E.; Mader, Pippin G.; Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Miller, Marshall; Dwyer, Harry A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells -...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dahn, David Stevens) * Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL (V. Stamenkovic, Dennis van der Vliet, Nenad Markovic) * Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA...

387

Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Background and Mission 3 Project Objectives * Overall Objective: Develop lower cost metal bipolar plates to meet performance target and 2015 cost target (<3kW) - Develop...

388

Nanoscale Tantalum Oxide Based Catalysts for PEM Fuel Cell ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Addressing Materials Processing Issues for USC Steam Turbines: Cast Versions of ... Co-Production of Pure Hydrogen and Electricity from Coal Syngas via the...

389

Light Weight, Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Stacks  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

* Direct humidification of CCM (anode side) * No cooling plates or radiator, just a condenser DOE Kickoff Meeting, Washington DC, Feb 13-14, 2007 Approach DOE Kickoff Meeting,...

390

Platinum-Loading Reduction in PEM Fuel Cells - Available ...  

TEM bright-field and dark-field images of a commercial Pt/C catalyst and a nanoscale Pt-embedded tantalum oxide catalyst. ... Energy & Utilities; ...

391

Design Considerations for a PEM Fuel Cell Powered Truck APU  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

trucks. This amount of battery capacity can supply a 100 Wshowed that the stock battery capacity of the truck couldCapacity Table 14 - Tank Specifications L psi kg Hawker Genesis Batteries The Genesis battery

Grupp, David J; Forrest, Matthew E.; Mader, Pippin G.; Brodrick, Christie-Joy; Miller, Marshall; Dwyer, Harry A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Platinum-Loading Reduction in PEM Fuel Cells - Energy ...  

Meanwhile, electrons move from anode to cathode to generate electric current and to reduce the oxygen at cathode.

393

Low Cost PEM Fuel Cell Metal Bipolar Plates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Objectives · Overall Objective: Develop lower cost metal bipolar plates to meet performance target and 2015 cost target (usage Electrical Conductivity S /cm >100 >100 Resistivity ohm.cm 25

394

Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

complete Fe30Cr+6AT-supported SOFC membrane after firing atof Fe-Cr ferritic steels as SOFC interconnect material," inmass production route for metallic SOFC-interconnectors," in

Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Numerical simulations of ion transport membrane oxy-fuel reactors for CO? capture applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the key features of oxygen permeation and hydrocarbon conversion in ion transport membrane (ITM) reactors. ITM reactors have been suggested as a novel technology to enable ...

Hong, Jongsup

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

High Temperature PEM - Home - Energy Innovation Portal  

Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) have been identified as an attractive electrical power source due to it having a higher efficiency level and being an ...

397

Air-Cooled Stack Freeze Tolerance - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Dave Hancock Plug Power Inc. 968 Albany Shaker Rd Latham, NY 12110 Phone: (518) 782-7700 Email: david_hancock@plugpower.com DOE Managers HQ: Donna Ho Phone: (202) 586-8000 Email: Donna.Ho@ee.doe.gov GO: Reginald Tyler Phone: (720) 356-1805 Email: Reginald.Tyler@go.doe.gov Technical Advisor Walt Podolski Phone: (630) 252-7558 Email: podolski@anl.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0000473 Subcontractor: Ballard Power Systems, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada Project Start Date: June 1, 2009 Project End Date: November 15, 2011 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Advance the state of the art in technology for air-cooled * proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks and related GenDrive(tm) material handling application fuel

398

Batteries and fuel cells working group report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electrochemical energy systems are dominated by interfacial phenomena. Catalysis, corrosion, electrical and ionic contact, and wetting behavior are critical to the performance of fuel cells and batteries. Accordingly, development of processing techniques to control these surface properties is important to successful commercialization of advanced batteries and fuel cells. Many of the surface processing issues are specific to a particular electrochemical system. Therefore, the working group focused on systems that are of specific interest to DOE/Conservation and Renewable Energy. These systems addressed were: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells, Direct Methanol Oxidation (DMO) Fuel Cells, and Lithium/Polymer Batteries. The approach used by the working group for each of these systems was to follow the current path through the system and to identify the principal interfaces. The function of each interface was specified together with its desired properties. The degree to which surface properties limit performance in present systems was rated. Finally, the surface processing needs associated with the performance limiting interfaces were identified. This report summarizes this information.

Eberhardt, J. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Advanced Transportation Materials; Landgrebe, A. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Systems; Lemons, R.; Wilson, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); MacAurther, D. [CHEMAC International Corp., (United States); Savenell, R. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Swathirajan, S. [General Motors Research Labs., Warren, MI (United States); Wilson, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

399

Batteries and fuel cells working group report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electrochemical energy systems are dominated by interfacial phenomena. Catalysis, corrosion, electrical and ionic contact, and wetting behavior are critical to the performance of fuel cells and batteries. Accordingly, development of processing techniques to control these surface properties is important to successful commercialization of advanced batteries and fuel cells. Many of the surface processing issues are specific to a particular electrochemical system. Therefore, the working group focused on systems that are of specific interest to DOE/Conservation and Renewable Energy. These systems addressed were: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells, Direct Methanol Oxidation (DMO) Fuel Cells, and Lithium/Polymer Batteries. The approach used by the working group for each of these systems was to follow the current path through the system and to identify the principal interfaces. The function of each interface was specified together with its desired properties. The degree to which surface properties limit performance in present systems was rated. Finally, the surface processing needs associated with the performance limiting interfaces were identified. This report summarizes this information.

Eberhardt, J. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Advanced Transportation Materials); Landgrebe, A. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Systems); Lemons, R.; Wilson, M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); MacAurther, D. (CH

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Ceramic membranes for partial oxygenation of hydrocarbon fuels to high-value-added products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This report describes the design of a membrane reactor for converting methane into value added products. The design includes an outer tube of perovskite which contacts air, an inner tube of zirconium oxide which contacts methane, and a bonding layer of a mixture of zirconium oxide and perovskite.

Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Kobylinski, T.P.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane pem fuel" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Computational Modeling of Electrolyte/Cathode Interfaces in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interface is simulated by a MD approach. Initial results show the interfacial water dipole orientation the contributions of acidic groups on the proton exchange membrane, further perturbs interfacial water structure developed C++ MD code. Related Publications K.-Y. Yeh, S. A. Wasileski, M. J. Janik. "Electronic structure

Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

402

Real-time mass spectrometric study of the methanol crossover in a direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The products of methanol crossover through the acid-doped polybenzimidazole polymer electrolyte membrane (PBI PEM) to the cathode of a prototype direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were analyzed using multipurpose electrochemical mass spectrometry (MPEMS) coupled to the cathode exhaust gas outlet. It was found that the methanol crossing over reacts almost quantitatively to CO{sub 2} at the cathode with the platinum of the cathode acting as a heterogeneous catalyst. The cathode open-circuit potential is inversely proportional to the amount of CO{sub 2} formed. A poisoning effect on the oxygen reduction also was found. Methods for the estimation of the methanol crossover rate at operating fuel cells are suggested.

Wang, J.T.; Wasmus, S.; Savinell, R.F. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications. 26 refs., 3 figs., 25 tabs.

Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for monitoring and controlling a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell based power plant, including the fuel reformer, fuel cell stack, and thermal management system....

405

Investigating the effects of proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions on carbon supported platinum electrocatalyst composition and performance  

SciTech Connect

Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 #2;C and 100% relative humidity. In order to study modifications that are introduced to chemistry, morphology, and performance of electrocatalysts, XPS, HREELS and three-electrode rotating disk electrode experiments were performed. Before heat treatment, graphitic content varied by 20% among samples with different types of carbon supports, with distinct differences between bulk and surface compositions within each sample. Following the aging protocol, the bulk and surface chemistry of the samples were similar, with graphite content increasing or remaining constant and Pt-carbide decreasing for all samples. From the correlation of changes in chemical composition and losses in performance of the electrocatalysts, we conclude that relative distribution of Pt particles on graphitic and amorphous carbon is as important for electrocatalytic activity as the absolute amount of graphitic carbon present

Patel, Anant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen; Colbow, Vesna; Dutta, Monica; Harvey, Davie; Wessel, Silvia

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Investigating the effects of proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions on carbon supported platinum electrocatalyst composition and performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 C and 100% relative humidity. In order to study modifications that are introduced to chemistry, morphology, and performance of electrocatalysts, XPS, HREELS and three-electrode rotating disk electrode experiments were performed. Before heat treatment, graphitic content varied by 20% among samples with different types of carbon supports, with distinct differences between bulk and surface compositions within each sample. Following the aging protocol, the bulk and surface chemistry of the samples were similar, with graphite content increasing or remaining constant and Pt-carbide decreasing for all samples. From the correlation of changes in chemical composition and losses in performance of the electrocatalysts, we conclude that relative distribution of Pt particles on graphitic and amorphous carbon is as important for electrocatalytic activity as the absolute amount of graphitic carbon present

A. Patel; K. Artyushkova; P. Atanassov; V. Colbow; M. Dutta; D. Harvey; S. Wessel

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

407

Development of a Novel CO Tolerant Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Anode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Materials, School of Nanosciences and Engineering, State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York Power, Incorporated, Latham, New York 12110, USA c Energy and Environment Applications Center, Institute inherent to storing hydrogen, liquid fuels such as propane, natural gas, and gasoline are used to produce

Weidner, John W.

408

Navy fuel cell demonstration project.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the final report on a field evaluation by the Department of the Navy of twenty 5-kW PEM fuel cells carried out during 2004 and 2005 at five Navy sites located in New York, California, and Hawaii. The key objective of the effort was to obtain an engineering assessment of their military applications. Particular issues of interest were fuel cell cost, performance, reliability, and the readiness of commercial fuel cells for use as a standalone (grid-independent) power option. Two corollary objectives of the demonstration were to promote technological advances and to improve fuel performance and reliability. From a cost perspective, the capital cost of PEM fuel cells at this stage of their development is high compared to other power generation technologies. Sandia National Laboratories technical recommendation to the Navy is to remain involved in evaluating successive generations of this technology, particularly in locations with greater environmental extremes, and it encourages their increased use by the Navy.

Black, Billy D.; Akhil, Abbas Ali

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: 2008 Annual Progress Report - Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Fuel Cells Printable Version 2008 Annual Progress Report V. Fuel Cells This section of the 2008 Progress Report for the DOE Hydrogen Program focuses on fuel cells. Each technical report is available as an individual Adobe Acrobat PDF. Download Adobe Reader. Fuel Cells Sub-Program Overview, Nancy Garland, U.S. Department of Energy (PDF 204 KB) A. Analysis/Characterization Fuel Cell Systems Analysis, Rajesh Ahluwalia, Argonne National Laboratory (PDF 375 KB) Mass Production Cost Estimation for Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell System for Automotive Applications, Brian James, Directed Technologies, Inc. (PDF 1.0 MB) Cost Analyses of Fuel Cell Stack/Systems, Jayanti Sinha, TIAX LLC (PDF 437 KB) Microstructural Characterization Of PEM Fuel Cell MEAs, Karren More, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (PDF 414 KB)

410

Validation of an Integrated System for a Hydrogen-Fueled Power Park  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

analysis #12;5 Base System 50-200 kW reformer system ­ 100 kW system chosen for base case ­ Steam Methane Reforming ­ Pressure swing adsorption ­ PEM fuel cells 3 buildings located 200 yards each from the central reformer with equal loads All waste heat can be utilized 3-5 kW commercially available PEM fuel cells

411

Automotive and MHE Fuel Cell System Cost Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vince Contini, Kathya Mahadevan, Fritz Eubanks, Vince Contini, Kathya Mahadevan, Fritz Eubanks, Jennifer Smith, Gabe Stout and Mike Jansen Battelle April 16, 2013 Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Fuel Cells for Material Handling Applications 2 Presentation Outline * Background * Approach * System Design * Fuel Cell Stack Design * Stack, BOP and System Cost Models * System Cost Summary * Results Summary 3 * 10 and 25 kW PEM Fuel Cells for Material Handling Equipment (MHE) applications Background 5-year program to provide feedback to DOE on evaluating fuel cell systems for stationary and emerging markets by developing independent models and cost estimates * Applications - Primary (including CHP) power, backup power, APU, and material handling * Fuel Cell Types - 80°C PEM, 180°C PEM, SOFC technologies

412

Bipolar plate/diffuser for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combination bipolar plate/diffuser fuel cell component includes an electrically conducting solid material having: a porous region having a porous surface; and a hermetic region, the hermetic region defining at least a portion of at least one coolant channel, the porous region defining at least a portion of at least one reactant channel, the porous region defining a flow field medium for diffusing the reactant to the porous surface.

Besmann, T.M.; Burchell, T.D.

2000-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

413

Highly Efficient, 5-kW CHP Fuel Cells Demonstrating Durability and Economic Value in Residential and Light Commercial Applications - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report James Petrecky Plug Power 968 Albany Shaker Road Latham, NY 12110 Phone: (518) 782-7700 ext: 1977 Email: james_petrecky@plugpower.com DOE Managers HQ: Jason Marcinkoski Phone: (202) 586-7466 Email: Jason.Marcinkoski@ee.doe.gov GO: Reg Tyler Phone: (720) 356-1805 Email: Reginald.Tyler@go.doe.gov Vendor: ClearEdge Power, Hillsboro, OR Project Start Date: October 1, 2009 Project End Date: September 15, 2013 Objectives Quantify the durability of proton exchange membrane * (PEM) fuel cell systems in residential and light commercial combined heat and power (CHP) applications in California. Optimize system performance though testing of multiple * high-temperature units through collection of field data.

414

Fuel Chemistry Preprints  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Papers are presented under the following symposia titles: advances in fuel cell research; biorefineries - renewable fuels and chemicals; chemistry of fuels and emerging fuel technologies; fuel processing for hydrogen production; membranes for energy and fuel applications; new progress in C1 chemistry; research challenges for the hydrogen economy, hydrogen storage; SciMix fuel chemistry; and ultraclean transportation fuels.

NONE

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

415

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Non-Platinum Electrocatalysts Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Non-Platinum Electrocatalysts Workshop Non-Platinum Electrocatalysts Workshop The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored the Non-Platinum Electrocatalysts Workshop in New Orleans, Louisiana, March 21-22, 2003. Attendees included researchers, government officials, and industry members. The purpose of the workshop was to review the current status of electrocatalysts for PEM fuel cells, review the impact of platinum cost and availability on PEM fuel cell commercialization, identify potential non-platinum electrocatalysts, develop a strategy to explore the potential development of new, non-platinum electrocatalysts for PEM fuel cell applications. The presentations from the Non-Platinum Electrocatalysts Workshop are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. Download Adobe Reader. Overview (PDF 349 KB), Nancy Garland, DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office

416

Atomistic Simulations of Perfluoro Phosphonic and Phosphinic Acid Membranes and Comparisons to Nafion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We used classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the nanoscale morphology and proton transport properties of perfluoro phosphonic (FPA) and phosphinic acid (FPA-I) membranes as they are being considered for use in low temperature fuel cells. We systematically investigated these properties as a function of the hydration level. The changes in nanostructure, in transport dynamics of water and hydronium ions, and in water network percolation were extracted from MD simulations and compared with Nafion. Phosphonic and phosphinic acid moieties in FPA and FPA-I, have lower acidity than sulfonic acid in Nafion, yet the diffusion of water was observed to be faster in FPA and FPA-I than in Nafion, particularly at low hydration levels. However this did not give rise to notable differences in hydronium ion diffusion and water network percolation for these membranes over Nafion. Similar observations were also reported by our group recently in a study of perfluoro-sulfonyl imide membranes carrying stronger super-acids than sulfonic acid of Nafion. These findings together suggest no strong apparent correlation between the acidity strength of the functional acid groups and the dynamics of water and hydronium ions in hydrated polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) with similar fluorocarbon backbones and acidic group-carrying side chains. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Dupuis, Michel

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

417

Isothermal Ice-Crystallization Kinetics in the Gas-Diffusion Layer of a Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect

Nucleation and growth of ice in the fibrous gas-diffusion layer (GDL) of a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) are investigated using isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Isothermal crystallization rates and pseudo-steady-state nucleation rates are obtained as a function of subcooling from heat-flow and induction-time measurements. Kinetics of ice nucleation and growth are studied at two polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) loadings (0 and 10 wt %) in a commercial GDL for temperatures between 240 and 273 K. A nonlinear icecrystallization rate expression is developed using Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) theory, in which the heat-transfer-limited growth rate is determined from the moving-boundary Stefan problem. Induction times follow a Poisson distribution and increase upon addition of PTFE, indicating that nucleation occurs more slowly on a hydrophobic fiber than on a hydrophilic fiber. The determined nucleation rates and induction times follow expected trends from classical nucleation theory. A validated rate expression is now available for predicting icecrystallization kinetics in GDLs.

Dursch, Thomas J.; Ciontea, Monica A.; Radke, Clayton J.; Weber, Adam Z.

2011-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

418

Preliminary Design and Cost Structure of a 50-kW Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) System for Stationary Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There is a growing interest in using Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) technology in commercial on-site power and co-generation systems. However, little quantitative information is available on such factors as cost structure, size/weight characteristics, and cost/performance tradeoffs. This report both updates and refines results of prior studies to provide a more quantitative basis for developing a program that supports sound product strategy and business decisions.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

Microbial Fuel Cells -Solar Times http://solar.rain-barrel.net/microbial-fuel-cells/ 1 of 3 6/28/2006 11:32 AM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a microbial fuel cell that digests wastes, instantly producing electricity. Just take a look at Dr. EmittCell.com Hydrogen Fuel Cells Buy Commercial & Educational Stacks PEM, Fuel Cell Generators & More! www a battery that generates electricity from deep sea composting micro-organisms that just love to break down

Lovley, Derek

420

Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications development phase. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The deployment and operation of clean power generation is becoming critical as the energy and transportation sectors seek ways to comply with clean air standards and the national deregulation of the utility industry. However, for strategic business decisions, considerable analysis is required over the next few years to evaluate the appropriate application and value added from this emerging technology. To this end the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) is proposing a three-year industry-driven project that centers on the creation of ``The Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications.`` A collaborative laboratory housed at and managed by HARC, the Center will enable a core group of six diverse participating companies--industry participants--to investigate the economic and operational feasibility of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells in a variety of applications (the core project). This document describes the unique benefits of a collaborative approach to PEM applied research, among them a shared laboratory concept leading to cost savings and shared risks as well as access to outstanding research talent and lab facilities. It also describes the benefits provided by implementing the project at HARC, with particular emphasis on HARC`s history of managing successful long-term research projects as well as its experience in dealing with industry consortia projects. The Center is also unique in that it will not duplicate the traditional university role of basic research or that of the fuel cell industry in developing commercial products. Instead, the Center will focus on applications, testing, and demonstration of fuel cell technology.

NONE

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

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421

Fuel Cell Demonstration Program - Central and Remote Sites 2003  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies, the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 25 Lorax 4.5 units operated under this Award from April 2003 to December 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government, commercial, and residential customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. The deployment of the 20 Lorax 4.5 units for the Remote Sites phase of the project began in October 2004. To date, 10 fuel cells have completed their demonstrations while 10 fuel cells are currently being monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. As of June 30, 2006 the 45 fuel cells operating under this Award produced a total of 1,585,093 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included increases in system efficiency and availability. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance, installation, and decommissioning the total project budget was approximately $3.7 million.

Gerald Brun

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z