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1

Development of Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen Technology...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen Technology for Integration in IGCC and Other Advanced Power Generation Systems Background The Gasification Technologies Program at the National...

2

Program on Technology Innovation: Ion Transport Membrane Oxygen Technology for Advanced Power Generation Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents an Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Technology Innovation (TI) project that provides background information and increased understanding to EPRI members of the potential benefits of integrating ion transport membrane (ITM) technology for oxygen production with integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and oxyfuel combustion pulverized coal power plants. This TI project also generated new learning by conducting literature reviews of existing and new air separation technolo...

2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

3

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the following tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints; Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability; Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres; Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures; Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability; and Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

SciTech Connect

In the present quarter, the possibility of using a more complex interfacial engineering approach to the development of reliable and stable oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes/metal seals is discussed. Experiments are presented and ceramic/metal interactions are characterized. Crack growth and fracture toughness of the membrane in the reducing conditions are also discussed. Future work regarding this approach is proposed are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

6

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Oxygen Transport Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

S. Bandopadhyay

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

9

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ti doping on La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF) tends to increase the oxygen equilibration kinetics of LSF in lower oxygen activity environment because of the high valence state of Ti. However, the addition of Ti decreases the total conductivity because the acceptor ([Sr{prime}{sub La}]) is compensated by the donor ([Ti{sub Fe}{sup {sm_bullet}}]) which decreases the carrier concentration. The properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSFT, x = 0.45) have been experimentally and theoretically investigated to elucidate (1) the dependence of oxygen occupancy and electrochemical properties on temperature and oxygen activity by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (2) the electrical conductivity and carrier concentration by Seebeck coefficient and electrical measurements. In the present study, dual phase (La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) membranes have been evaluated for structural properties such as hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength. The effect of high temperature and slightly reducing atmosphere on the structural properties of the membranes was studied. The flexural strength of the membrane decreases upon exposure to slightly reducing conditions at 1000 C. The as-received and post-fractured membranes were characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA to understand the fracture mechanisms. Changes in structural properties of the composite were sought to be correlated with the physiochemical features of the two-phases. We have reviewed the electrical conductivity data and stoichiometry data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} some of which was reported previously. Electrical conductivity data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCrF) were obtained in the temperature range, 752 {approx} 1055 C and in the pO{sub 2} range, 10{sup -18} {approx} 0.5 atm. The slope of the plot of log {sigma} vs. log pO{sub 2} is {approx} 1/5 in the p-type region, pO{sub 2} = 10{sup -5} {approx} 10{sup -1} atm. The pO{sub 2} at which the p-n transition is observed increases with increasing temperature. The activation energy for ionic conduction was estimated to be 0.86 eV from an Arrhenius plot of the minimum conductivity vs. reciprocal temperature. At temperatures below 940 C, a plateau in the conductivity isotherm suggests the presence of a two-phase region. Most likely, phase separation occurs to form a mixture of a perovskite phase and an oxygen vacancy ordered phase related to brownmillerite. Additional data for the oxygen non stoichiometry are presented.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

10

Innovative oxygen separation membrane prototype  

SciTech Connect

Improvements are still needed to gas separation processes to gain industry acceptance of coal gasification systems. The Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) technology, being developed by the US Department of Energy and its partners, offers an opportunity to lower overall plant cost and improve efficiency compared to cryogenic distillation and pressure swing adsorption methods. The technology is based on a novel class of perovskite ceramic oxides which can selectively separate oxygen ions from a stream of air at high temperature and pressure. Those ions are transported across the ITM leaving non-permeate air which can be integrated with a fuel-fired gas system, enabling co-production of power and steam along with the concentrated, high-purity oxygen. The project is at the second phase, to scale up the ITM Oxygen ceramic devices to demonstrate the technology at the 1-5 tpd capability in the Subscale Engineering Prototype. A third phase to demonstrate commercial viability extends to the end of the decade. 2 figs.

NONE

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

11

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Oxy-combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

combustion: Oxygen Transport combustion: Oxygen Transport Membrane Development Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. The EPEC R&D

13

Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this quarter a systematic analysis on the decomposition behavior of the OTM membranes at air and nitrogen were initiated to understand the structural and stoichiometric changes associated with elevated temperatures. Evaluation of the flexural strengths using 4-point bend test was also started for the dual phase membranes. Initial results on the synthesis of dual phase composite materials have been obtained. The measurements have focused on the compatibility of mixed conductors with the pure ionic conductors yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and gadolinium doped ceria (GDC). The initial results obtained for three different mixed conductors suggest that (GDC) is the better choice. A new membrane permeation system has been designed and tested and sintering studies of biphasic systems are in progress.

S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment are begun. The studies are to be in parallel with LSFCO composition to characterize the segregation of cations and slow crack growth in environmental conditions. La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} has also been characterized for paramagnetic ordering at room temperature and the evolution of magnetic moments as a function of temperature are investigated. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport.

Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

16

Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

Lin, Haiqing

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

17

NETL: Gasification - Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Feed Systems Feed Systems Recovery Act: Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen Technology for Integration in IGCC and Other Advanced Power Generation Systems Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Project Number: FC26-98FT40343 Project Description Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing, scaling-up, and demonstrating a novel air separation technology for large-scale production of oxygen (O2) at costs that are approximately one-third lower than conventional cryogenic plants. An Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen plant co-produces power and oxygen. A phased technology RD&D effort is underway to demonstrate all necessary technical and economic requirements for scale-up and industrial commercialization. The ITM Oxygen production technology is a radically different approach to producing high-quality tonnage oxygen and to enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle and other advanced power generation systems. Instead of cooling air to cryogenic temperatures, oxygen is extracted from air at temperatures synergistic with power production operations. Process engineering and economic evaluations of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants comparing ITM Oxygen with a state-of-the-art cryogenic air separation unit are aimed to show that the installed capital cost of the air separation unit and the installed capital of IGCC facility are significantly lower compared to conventional technologies, while improving power plant output and efficiency. The use of low-cost oxygen in combustion processes would provide cost-effective emission reduction and carbon management opportunities. ITM Oxygen is an enabling module for future plants for producing coal derived shifted synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen [H2] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) ultimately for producing clean energy and fuels. Oxygen-intensive industries such as steel, glass, non-ferrous metallurgy, refineries, and pulp and paper may also realize cost and productivity benefits as a result of employing ITM Oxygen.

18

New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful April 22, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -- The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies. ITM Oxygen will enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, as well as other gasification-based processes. The technology will also enhance the economics of oxy-fired combustion technologies, making it an attractive option for the capture of carbon

19

Dense ceramic membranes for partial oxygenation of methane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The most significant cost associated with partial oxidation of methane to syngas is that of the oxygen plant. In this paper, the authors offer a technology that is based on dense ceramic membranes and that uses air as the oxidant for methane-conversion reactions, thus eliminating the need for the oxygen plant. Certain ceramic materials exhibit both electronic and ionic conductivities (of particular interest is oxygen-ion conductivity). These materials transport not only oxygen ions (functioning as selective oxygen separators) but also electrons back from the reactor side to the oxygen/reduction interface. No external electrodes are required and if the driving potential of transport is sufficient, the partial oxidation reactions should be spontaneous. Such a system will operate without an externally applied potential. Oxygen is transported across the ceramic material in the form of oxygen anions, not oxygen molecules. In principle, the dense ceramic materials can be shaped into a hollow-tube reactor, with air passed over the outside of the membrane and methane through the inside. The membrane is permeable to oxygen at high temperatures, but not to nitrogen or any other gas. Long tubes of La-Sr-Fe-Co-O (SFC) membrane were fabricated by plastic extrusion, and thermal stability of the tubes was studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure by high-temperature XRD. Mechanical properties were measured and found to be acceptable for a reactor material. Fracture of certain SFC tubes was the consequence of an oxygen gradient that introduced a volumetric lattice difference between the inner and outer walls. However, tubes made with a particular stoichiometry (SFC-2) provided methane conversion efficiencies of >99% in a reactor. Some of the reactor tubes have operated for up to {approx} 1,000 h.

Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Sweeney, S.M.; Mieville, R.L.; Maiya, P.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Pei, S.; Kobylinski, T.P. [Amoco Research Center, Naperville, IL (United States); Bose, A.C. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

NETL: News Release - New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

22, 2009 22, 2009 New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful Ceramic Membrane Enables Efficient, Cost-Effective Co-Production of Power and Oxygen Washington, D.C. -The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies. ITM Oxygen will enhance the performance of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, as well as other gasification-based processes. The technology will also enhance the economics of oxy-fired combustion technologies, making it an attractive option for the capture of carbon dioxide from existing coal-fired power plants.

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21

Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM); Cornelius, Christopher J. (Blackburg, VA)

2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

22

Mixed-conducting ceramic membranes for partial oxygenation of methane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The most significant cost associated with the conventional partial oxidation of methane is that of an oxygen plant. Our new technology offers a way to lower this cost, and in this paper we explore the technology that is based on dense ceramic membranes and that uses air as the oxidant for methane-conversion reactions. Mixed-conducting ceramic materials have been produced from mixed-oxide systems of the La-Sr-Fe-Co-O (SFC) type, in the form of tubes and bars. Thermodynamic stability of the tubes was studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure by high-temperature XRD. Mechanical properties were measured and found to be adequate for a reactor in the case of SFC-2: Electronic and ionic conductivities were measured; SFC-2 is unique in the sense that the ratio of ionic to electronic conductance is close to unity. Performance of the membrane tubes was good only with SFC-2. Fracture of other SFC tubes was the consequence of an oxygen gradient that introduced a volumetric lattice difference between the inner and outer walls. SFC-2 tubes provided methane conversion efficiencies of >99% in a reactor. These tubes have operated for >1000 h.

Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Maiya, P.S.; Mieville, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kleefisch, M.S.; Udovich, C.A. [Amoco Corp., Naperville, IL (United States); Bose, A.C. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

NETL: Gasification - Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Presentations, Papers, and Publications Presentations, Papers, and Publications ITM Oxygen Development for Advanced Oxygen Supply (Oct 2011) Ted Foster, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. presented at the Gasification Technologies Conference, San Francisco, CA Oct 9-12, 2011. ASU/IGCC Integration Strategies (Oct 2009), David McCarthy, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., 2009 Gasification Technologies Conference, Colorado Springs, CO. ITM Oxygen: Taking the Next Step (Oct 2009), VanEric Stein, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., 2009 Gasification Technologies Conference, Colorado Springs, CO. ITM Oxygen: Scaling Up a Low-Cost Oxygen Supply Technology (Oct 2006) Philip Armstrong, Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., 2006 Gasification Technologies Conference, Washington, D.C. ITM Oxygen: The New Oxygen Supply for the New IGCC Market (Oct 2005)

24

Oxygen-permeable ceramic membranes for gas separation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mixed-conducting oxides have a wide range of applications, including fuel cells, gas separation systems, sensors, and electrocatalytic equipment. Dense ceramic membranes made of mixed-conducting oxides are particularly attractive for gas separation and methane conversion processes. Membranes made of Sr-Fe-Co oxide, which exhibits high combined electronic and oxygen ionic conductivities, can be used to selectively transport oxygen during the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas, i.e., CO + H{sub 2}). The authors have fabricated tubular Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes and tested them (some for more than 1,000 h) in a methane conversion reactor that was operating at 850--950 C. An oxygen permeation flux of {approx} 10 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained at 900 C in a tubular membrane with a wall thickness of 0.75 mm. Using a gas-tight electrochemical cell, the authors have also measured the steady-state oxygen permeability of flat Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure(pO{sub 2}). Steady-state oxygen permeability increases with increasing temperature and with the difference in pO{sub 2} on the two sides of the membrane. At 900 C, an oxygen permeability of {approx} 2.5 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained in a 2.9-mm-thick membrane. This value agrees with that obtained in methane conversion reactor experiments. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics determined in the gas-tight cell indicate that bulk effect, rather than surface exchange effect, is the main limiting factor for oxygen permeation of {approx} 1-mm-thick Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes at elevated temperatures (> 650 C).

Balachandran, U.; Ma, B.; Maiya, P.S.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L.; Picciolo, J.J.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Novel membrane technology for green ethylene production.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ethylene is currently produced by pyrolysis of ethane in the presence of steam. This reaction requires substantial energy input, and the equilibrium conversion is thermodynamically limited. The reaction also produces significant amounts of greenhouse gases (CO and CO{sub 2}) because of the direct contact between carbon and steam. Argonne has demonstrated a new way to make ethylene via ethane dehydrogenation using a dense hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to drive the unfavorable equilibrium conversion. Preliminary experiments show that the new approach can produce ethylene yields well above existing pyrolysis technology and also significantly above the thermodynamic equilibrium limit, while completely eliminating the production of greenhouse gases. With Argonne's approach, a disk-type dense ceramic/metal composite (cermet) membrane is used to produce ethylene by dehydrogenation of ethane at 850 C. The gas-transport membrane reactor combines a reversible chemical reaction with selective separation of one product species and leads to increased reactant conversion to the desired product. In an experiment ethane was passed over one side of the HTM membrane and air over the other side. The hydrogen produced by the dehydrogenation of ethane was removed and transported through the HTM to the air side. The air provided the driving force required for the transport of hydrogen through the HTM. The reaction between transported hydrogen and oxygen in air can provide the energy needed for the dehydrogenation reaction. At 850 C and 1-atm pressure, equilibrium conversion of ethane normally limits the ethylene yield to 64%, but Argonne has shown that an ethylene yield of 69% with a selectivity of 88% can be obtained under the same conditions. Coking was not a problem in runs extending over several weeks. Further improved HTM materials will lower the temperature required for high conversion at a reasonable residence time, while the lower temperature will suppress unwanted side reactions and prolong membrane life. With the Argonne approach, oxygen does not contact the ethane/ethylene stream, so oxidation products are not formed. Consequently, higher selectivity to ethylene and fewer by-products can be achieved. Some benefits are: (1) Simplifies overall product purification and processing schemes; (2) Results in greater energy efficiency; (3) Completely eliminates greenhouse gases from the reactor section; and (4) Lowers the cost of the 'back end' purification train, which accounts for about 70% of the capital cost of a conventional ethylene production unit.

Balachandran, U.; Lee, T. H.; Dorris, S. E.; Udovich, C. A.; Scouten, C. G.; Marshall, C. L. (Energy Systems); ( CSE)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reforming of Renewable Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) * U. (Balu) Balachandran, T. H. Lee, C. Y. Park, and S. E. Dorris Energy Systems Division E-mail: balu@anl.gov * Work supported by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Presented at the Bio-derived Liquids Working Group (BILIWG) Meeting, Nov. 6, 2007. BILIWG Meeting, Nov. 6, 2007 2 Objective & Rationale Objective: Develop compact dense ceramic membrane reactors that enable the efficient and cost-effective production of hydrogen by reforming renewable liquid fuels using pure oxygen produced by water splitting and transported by an OTM. Rationale: Membrane technology provides the means to attack barriers to the

27

CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the second year of the program are to define a material composition and composite architecture that enable the oxygen flux and stability targets to be obtained in high-pressure flux tests. Composite technology will be developed to enable the production of high-quality, defect free membranes of a thickness that allows the oxygen flux target to be obtained. The fabrication technology will be scaled up to produce three feet composite tubes with the desired leak rate. A laboratory scale, multi-tube pilot reactor will be designed and constructed to produce oxygen. In the third quarter of the second year of the program, work has focused on materials optimization, composite and manufacturing development and oxygen flux testing at high pressures. This work has led to several major achievements, summarized by the following statements: Oxygen has been produced under conditions similar to IGCC operation using composite OTM elements at a flux greater than the 2001 target. Under conditions with a greater driving force the commercial target flux has been met. Methods to significantly increase the oxygen flux without compromise to its mechanical integrity have been identified. Composite OTM elements have demonstrated stable operation at {Delta}P > 250 psi Design of the pilot plant is complete and construction will begin next quarter.

Ravi Prasad

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Oxygen transport by oxygen potential gradient in dense ceramic oxide membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Numerous studies have been conducted in recent years on the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas: CO + H{sub 2}) with air as the oxidant. In partial oxidation, a mixed-oxide ceramic membrane selectively transports oxygen from the air; this transport is driven by the oxygen potential gradient. Of the several ceramic materials the authors have tested, a mixed oxide based on the Sr-Fe-Co-O system has been found to be very attractive. Extensive oxygen permeability data have been obtained for this material in methane conversion experiments carried out in a reactor. The data have been analyzed by a transport equation based on the phenomenological theory of diffusion under oxygen potential gradients. Thermodynamic calculations were used to estimate the driving force for the transport of oxygen ions. The results show that the transport equation deduced from the literature describes the permeability data reasonably well and can be used to determine the diffusion coefficients and the associated activation energy of oxygen ions in the ceramic membrane material.

Maiya, P.S.; Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Udovich, C.A. [Amoco Exploration/Production, Naperville, IL (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

New Membrane Technology Boosts Efficiency in Industrial Gas Processes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Fact sheet from Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. about its pilot-scale industrial membrane system that was funded by the SBIR program.

30

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 High Temperature 9 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2009 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on AddThis.com...

31

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About About Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2005 High

32

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About About Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2004 High

33

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About About Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2010 High

34

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About About Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2007 High

35

Transformer Life Extension: Membrane Technologies for Lifelong Oil Filtration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Moisture and oxygen are two key factors aging oil and paper in a power transformer; therefore, they must be kept low. An on-line system using a hollow fiber membrane unit removes moisture and oxygen continuously from the oil of an operational transformer. This technical update describes previous work using hollow fiber membranes and vacuum, and details novel techniques applied to extend power transformer life.The project team designed, built, commissioned, and partially aged two models ...

2013-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

36

Scaling-Up Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Technology for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Scaling-Up Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Technology for Magnesium Production. Author(s), Soobhankar Pati, Adam Powell, Steve...

37

Hydrogen Production from Methane Using Oxygen-permeable Ceramic Membranes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Non-porous ceramic membranes with mixed ionic and electronic conductivity have received significant interest as membrane reactor systems for the conversion of methane and higher hydrocarbons (more)

Faraji, Sedigheh

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

New Membrane Technology Boosts Efficiency in Industrial Gas Processes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Membrane Technology and Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR), based in Menlo Park, CA, is a privately- owned developer, manufacturer, and supplier of customized membrane process solutions. Currently, the company's principal membrane products are * VaporSep® systems to remove organic vapors from air and nitrogen * NitroSep TM and fuel gas conditioning systems for natural gas treatment * Hydrogen recovery systems for refinery and other applications MTR's current R&D is extending use of membranes to carbon sequestration and biofuels separations. www.mtrinc.com New Membrane Technology Boosts Efficiency in Industrial Gas Processes Challenge Membrane technology was first commercialized in the 1960s and 1970s for well-known applications such as water filtration

39

Process engineering and economic evaluations of diaphragm and membrane chlorine cell technologies. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The chlor-alkali manufacturing technologies of (1), diaphragm cells (2), current technology membrane cells (3), catalytic cathode membrane cells (4), oxygen-cathode membrane cells and to a lesser extent several other related emerging processes are studied. Comparisons have been made on the two bases of (1) conventional industrial economics, and (2) energy consumption. The current diaphragm cell may have a small economic advantage over the other technologies at the plant size of 544 metric T/D (600 T/D). The three membrane cells all consume less energy, with the oxygen-cathode cell being the lowest. The oxygen-cathode cell appears promising as a low energy chlor-alkali cell where there is no chemical market for hydrogen. Federal funding of the oxygen-cathode cell has been beneficial to the development of the technology, to electrochemical cell research, and may help maintain the US's position in the international chlor-alkali technology marketplace. Tax law changes inducing the installation of additional cells in existing plants would produce the quickest reduction in power consumption by the chlor-alkali industry. Alternative technologies such as the solid polymer electrolyte cell, the coupling of diaphragm cells with fuel cells and the dynamic gel diaphragm have a strong potential for reducing chloralkali industry power consumption. Adding up all the recent and expected improvements that have become cost-effective, the electrical energy required to produce a unit of chlorine by 1990 should be only 50% to 60% of that used in 1970. In the United States the majority of the market does not demand salt-free caustic. About 75% of the electrolytic caustic is produced in diaphragm cells and only a small part of that is purified. This study indicates that unless membrane cell costs are greatly reduced or a stronger demand develops for salt-free caustic, the diaphragm cells will remain competitive. (WHK)

Not Available

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS Oxygen PrOductiOn  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen PrOductiOn Oxygen PrOductiOn B-500 Oxygen PrOductiOn u.S. dePartment Of energy advanced carbOn diOxide caPture r&d PrOgram: technOlOgy uPdate, may 2013 itm Oxygen technOlOgy fOr integratiOn in igcc and Other advanced POwer generatiOn SyStemS primary project goals Air Products and Chemicals set out to design and develop an ion transport membrane (ITM) based on ceramics that selectively transport oxygen (O 2 ) ions when operated at high temperature. This high-temperature process may be integrated with advanced power genera- tion processes that require O 2 as a feedstock, such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and other clean energy and industrial applications. technical goals * Design, construct, and operate a 0.1-ton/day (TPD) technology development unit

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane oxygen technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to conduct a technology development program to advance the state-of-the-art in ceramic Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTM) to the level required to produce step change improvements in process economics, efficiency, and environmental benefits for commercial IGCC systems and other applications. The IGCC program is focused on addressing key issues in materials, processing, manufacturing, engineering and system development that will make the OTM a commercial reality. The objective of the OTM materials development task is to identify a suitable material that can be formed into a thin film to produce the target oxygen flux. This requires that the material have an adequate permeation rate, and thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical properties such that the material is able to be supported on the desired substrate and sufficient mechanical strength to survive the stresses involved in operation. The objective of the composite OTM development task is to develop the architecture and fabrication techniques necessary to construct stable, high performance, thin film OTMs supported on suitable porous, load bearing substrates. The objective of the process development task of this program to demonstrate the program objectives on a single OTM tube under test conditions simulating those of the optimum process cycle for the power plant.

Ravi Prasad

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Ceramic Membranes for Hydrogen/Oxygen Production - Energy ...  

Ceramic Membranes Developed at Argonne May Bring Fuel-Cell Cars Closer to Reality ... pure hydrogen for transportation and power applications from fossil fuels.

43

CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for Phase 1 Program during the quarter April to June 2002. In task 1 improvements to the membrane material have shown increased flux, stability and strength. In task 2, composite development has demonstrated the ability to cycle membranes. In task 3, scale-up issues associated with manufacturing large elements have been identified and are being addressed. The work in task 4 has demonstrated that composite OTM elements can produce oxygen at greater than 95% purity after 10 thermal and pressure cycles. In task 5 the multi-tube OTM reactor has been operated and produced oxygen.

Ravi Prasad

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Integration of Ion Transport Membrane Technology with Oxy-Combustion Power Generation Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in conjunction with Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., (AP) has reviewed oxy-combustion, a methodology to burn coal using oxygen rather than air to aid in removing carbon by producing a more concentrated stream of carbon dioxide (CO2) for remediation, which reduces the cost and energy required to do so. This report discusses the ion transport membrane (ITM), a technology developed by AP under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States ...

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

45

Membrane Technologies for Lifelong Oil Filtration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical update describes work to date on a novel technique to extend the life of power transformers. A hollow fiber unit is used to remove moisture and oxygen continuously from the oil of an operational transformer. Moisture and oxygen are two key aging factors of oil and paper in a power transformer. Thus it is imperative to keep these low at all times. By maintaining moisture and oxygen at low levels at all times, the aging of both oil and paper will be retarded.To date work has ...

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

46

CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to conduct a technology development program to advance the state-of-the-art in ceramic Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTM) to the level required to produce step change improvements in process economics, efficiency, and environmental benefits for commercial IGCC systems and other applications. The IGCC program is focused on addressing key issues in materials, processing, manufacturing, engineering and system development that will make the OTM a commercial reality. The objective of the OTM materials development task is to identify a suitable material that can be formed into a thin film to produce the target oxygen flux. This requires that the material have an adequate permeation rate, and thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical properties such that the material is able to be supported on the desired substrate and sufficient mechanical strength to survive the stresses involved in operation. The objective of the composite OTM development task is to develop the architecture and fabrication techniques necessary to construct stable, high performance, thin film OTMs supported on suitable porous, load bearing substrates. The objective of the process development task of this program to demonstrate the program objectives on a single OTM tube under test conditions simulating those of the optimum process cycle for the power plant. Good progress has been made towards achieving the DOE-IGCC program objectives. Two promising candidates for OTM materials have been identified and extensive characterization will continue. New compositions are being produced and tested which will determine if the material can be further improved in terms of flux, thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical properties. Process protocols for the composite OTM development of high quality films on porous supports continues to be optimized. Dense and uniform PSO1 films were successfully applied on porous disc and tubular substrates with good bonding between the films and substrates, and no damage to the substrates or films.

Ravi Prasad

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Bus application of oxygen-enrichment technology and diesel-electric hybrid systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) mandate very strict limits on particulate, smoke, and other emissions from city buses. The use of alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or methanol, can help transit operators, such as the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA), meet the mandated limits. However, the capital investment needed to convert the fueling infrastructure and buses is large, as is the expense of training personnel. If a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus can be implemented with the help of oxygen-enrichment technology or a diesel-electric hybrid system, this large investment could be postponed for many years. The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) initiated this project to evaluate the possibility of applying these technologies to CTA buses. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a limited number of engine tests and computer analyses and concluded that both concepts are practical and will help in a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus that can meet the mandated limits of the CAA amendments. The oxygen enrichment of combustion air depends on the availability of a compact and economical membrane separator. Because the technology for this critical component is still under development, it is recommended that an actual bus demonstration be delayed until prototype membranes are available. The hybrid propulsion system is ready for the demonstration phase, and it is recommended that the CTA and RTA commence planning for a bus demonstration.

Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Ceramic Membranes for Hydrogen/Oxygen Production - Energy ...  

Hydrogen separation technology is integral to successful fossil-based hydrogen production ... a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide made by ...

49

Available Technologies: Water-retaining Polymer Membranes ...  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: PEM fuel cells for transportation and portable electronic devices (e.g., laptop, mp3 players, cell phones)

50

CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for Phase 1 Program during the quarter July to September 2002. In task 1 characterization of PSO1x has shown no decrease in strength at operating temperature. In task 2, composite development has demonstrated the ability to fabricate membranes of the new material PSO1x. In task 3, increased length elements have been fabricated. The work in task 4 testing of PSO1x has demonstrated oxygen purity of greater than 95% after more than 500 hours of testing. In task 5 the multi-element OTM reactor has been operated and produced oxygen at greater than target purity and flux.

Ravi Prasad

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for Phase 1 Program during the quarter January to March 2002. In task 1 improvements to the membrane material have shown increased flux, and high temperature mechanical properties are being measured. In task 2, composite development has shown that alternative fabrication routes of the substrate can improve membrane performance under certain conditions. In task 3, scale-up issues associated with manufacturing large tubes have been identified and are being addressed. The work in task 4 has demonstrated that composite OTM elements can produce oxygen at greater than 95% purity for more than 1000 hours of the target flux under simulated IGCC operating conditions. In task 5 the multi-tube OTM reactor has been operated and produced oxygen.

Ravi Prasad

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

NETL: Gasification - Development of Ion-Transport Membrane Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Background and Project Benefits Program Background and Project Benefits Gasification is used to convert a solid feedstock, such as coal, petcoke, or biomass, into a gaseous form, referred to as synthesis gas or syngas, which is primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide. With gasification-based technologies, pollutants can be captured and disposed of or converted to useful products. Gasification can generate clean power by adding steam to the syngas in a water-gas-shift reactor to convert the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO2) and to produce additional hydrogen. The hydrogen and CO2 are separated-the hydrogen is used to make power and the CO2 is sent to storage, converted to useful products or used for EOR. In addition to efficiently producing electric power, a wide range of transportation fuels and chemicals can be produced from the cleaned syngas, thereby providing the flexibility needed to capitalize on the changing economic market. As a result, gasification provides a flexible technology option for using domestically available resources while meeting future environmental emission standards. Polygeneration plants that produce multiple products are uniquely possible with gasification technologies. The Gasification Systems program is developing technologies in three key areas to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of producing syngas: (1) Feed Systems, (2) Gasifier Optimization and Plant Supporting Systems, and (3) Syngas Processing Systems.

53

Mixed-Conducting Oxygen Permeable Ceramic Membrane and its Application in the Production of Synthesis Gas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study detailedly investigated the effects of the preparation parameters on the performance of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2Ox (BSCF) membranes. In addition, the dominant step of the oxygen (more)

Jiang, Qiying

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Ceramic Membrane Enabling Technology for Improved IGCC Efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This final report summarizes work accomplished in the program from October 1, 1999 through December 31,2004. While many of the key technical objectives for this program were achieved, after a thorough economic and OTM (Oxygen Transport Membrane) reliability analysis were completed, a decision was made to terminate the project prior to construction of a second pilot reactor. In the program, oxygen with purity greater than 99% was produced in both single tube tests and multi-tube pilot plant tests for over 1000 hours. This demonstrated the technical viability of using ceramic OTM devices for producing oxygen from a high pressure air stream. The oxygen fluxes that were achieved in single tube tests exceeded the original target flux for commercial operation. However, extended testing showed that the mean time to failure of the ceramics was insufficient to enable a commercially viable system. In addition, manufacturing and material strength constraints led to size limitations of the OTM tubes that could be tested. This has a severe impact on the cost of both the ceramic devices, but also the cost of assembling the OTM tubes in a large reactor. As such and combined with significant progress in cost reduction of large cryogenic oxygen separation devices, an economic gain that justifies continued development could not be derived.

John Sirman; Bart vanHassel

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Carbon dioxide remediation via oxygen-enriched combustion using dense ceramic membranes  

SciTech Connect

A method of combusting pulverized coal by mixing the pulverized coal and an oxidant gas to provide a pulverized coal-oxidant gas mixture and contacting the pulverized coal-oxidant gas mixture with a flame sufficiently hot to combust the mixture. An oxygen-containing gas is passed in contact with a dense ceramic membrane of metal oxide material having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity that is gas-impervious until the oxygen concentration on one side of the membrane is not less than about 30% by volume. An oxidant gas with an oxygen concentration of not less than about 30% by volume and a CO.sub.2 concentration of not less than about 30% by volume and pulverized coal is contacted with a flame sufficiently hot to combust the mixture to produce heat and a flue gas. One dense ceramic membrane disclosed is selected from the group consisting of materials having formulae SrCo.sub.0.8 Fe.sub.0.2 O.sub.x, SrCo.sub.0.5 FeO.sub.x and La.sub.0.2 Sr.sub.0.8 Co.sub.0.4 Fe.sub.0.6 O.sub.x.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Bose, Arun C. (Pittsburgh, PA); McIlvried, Howard G. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

MHK Technologies/Oxygen Releasing and Carbon Absorbing Ocean Based  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Releasing and Carbon Absorbing Ocean Based Releasing and Carbon Absorbing Ocean Based Renewable Energy System < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Oxygen Releasing and Carbon Absorbing Ocean Based Renewable Energy System.jpg Technology Profile Technology Description The benefits of the system developed and patented by AEEA are 1 exploitation of the greater wave energy density in the more remote off shore locations 2 usage of existing industrial fuel storage and distribution infrastructure 3 provision for a gradual transition to widespread electric vehicle use 4 avoidance of environmental destruction and visual impairment with minimal impact on commercial fishing and recreation uses 5 fostering the development of a new maritime and energy industry 6 avoidance of the high capital investment in mooring and anchoring seabed electrical cable installation and seabed restoration 7 development of flexibility by deployment of fleets of these vessels to supply widely separated market locations using coastal and national waterways and 8 provision for the addition of fleets without depletion of primary feed stocks as in nuclear energy systems 2 Fig 1 In summary the system converts wave energy from the nearly unlimited world wide

57

Application of polymer membrane technology in coal combustion processes  

SciTech Connect

The energy efficiency and the environmental consequences of typical coal upgrading processes, such as combustion, depend to a large extent on the degree of gas separation, recovery, and recycle. Among the available methods used in chemical industry for a variety of gas separation tasks, the technology of polymer membranes offers several advantages such as low size, simplicity of operation and maintenance, compatibility, and use with a diversity of fuel sources. To examine the impact of membrane separation on coal upgrading processes, the Aspen Plus simulation software was used, in combination with developed membrane mathematical models. Energy analysis in coal combustion processes, where the main scope is CO{sub 2} removal, showed that very promising results can be attained. It is estimated that 95% of the emitted CO{sub 2} can be captured with a moderately low energy penalty (10%). This penalty can be further decreased if higher selectivity and/or permeability polymers can be developed.

Kaldis, S.P.; Skodras, G.; Grammelis, P.; Sakellaropoulos, G.P. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the first year of phase 2 of the program are to construct and operate an engineering pilot reactor for OTM oxygen. Work to support this objective is being undertaken in the following areas in this quarter: Element reliability; Element fabrication; Systems technology; Power recovery; and IGCC process analysis and economics. The major accomplishments this quarter were Preferred OTM architectures have been identified through stress analysis; and The 01 reactor was operated at target flux and target purity for 1000 hours.

Ravi Prasad

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

59

Application of Inorganic Membrane Technology to Hydrogen-hydrocarbon Separations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Separation efficiency for hydrogen/light hydrocarbon mixtures was examined for three inorganic membranes. Five binary gas mixtures were used in this study: H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} , H{sub 2}/C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, H{sub 2}/C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, He/CO{sub 2}, and He/Ar. The membranes examined were produced during a development program at the Inorganic Membrane Technology Laboratory in Oak Ridge and provided to us for this testing. One membrane was a (relatively) large-pore-diameter Knudsen membrane, and the other two had much smaller pore sizes. Observed separation efficiencies were generally lower than Knudsen separation but, for the small-pore membranes, were strongly dependent on temperature, pressure, and gas mixture, with the most condensable gases showing the strongest effect. This finding suggests that the separation is strongly influenced by surface effects (i.e., adsorption and diffusion), which enhance the transport of the heavier and more adsorption-prone component and may also physically impede flow of the other component. In one series of experiments, separation reversal was observed (the heavier component preferentially separating to the low-pressure side of the membrane). Trends showing increased separation factors at higher temperatures as well as observations of some separation efficiencies in excess of that expected for Knudsen flow suggest that at higher temperatures, molecular screening effects were observed. For most of the experiments, surface effects were stronger and thus apparently overshadow molecular sieving effects.

Trowbridge, L.D.

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

60

Advanced membrane separation technology for biosolvents. Final CRADA report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Argonne and Vertec Biosolvents investigated the stability and perfonnance for a number of membrane systems to drive the 'direct process' for pervaporation-assisted esterification to produce lactate esters. As outlined in Figure 1, the target is to produce ammonium lactate by fennentation. After purification and concentration, ammonium lactate is reacted with ethanol to produce the ester. Esterification is a reversible reaction so to drive the reaction forward, the produced ammonia and water must be rapidly separated from the product. The project focused on selecting pervaporation membranes with (1) acid functionality to facilitate ammonia separation and (2) temperature stability to be able to perform that reaction at as high a temperature as possible (Figure 2). Several classes of commercial membrane materials and functionalized membrane materials were surveyed. The most promising materials were evaluated for scale-up to a pre-commercial application. Over 4 million metric tons per year of solvents are consumed in the U.S. for a wide variety of applications. Worldwide the usage exceeds 10 million metric tons per year. Many of these, such as the chlorinated solvents, are environmentally unfriendly; others, such as the ethylene glycol ethers and N Methyl Pyrrolidone (NMP), are toxic or teratogenic, and many other petroleum-derived solvents are coming under increasing regulatory restrictions. High performance, environmentally friendly solvents derived from renewable biological resources have the potential to replace many of the chlorinated and petrochemical derived solvents. Some of these solvents, such as ethyl lactate; d-limonene, soy methyl esters, and blends ofthese, can give excellent price/perfonnance in addition to the environmental and regulatory compliance benefits. Advancement of membrane technologies, particularly those based on pervaporation and electrodialysis, will lead to very efficient, non-waste producing, and economical manufacturing technologies for production of ethyl lactate and other esters.

Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane oxygen technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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61

Development of Nanofiller-Modulated Polymeric Oxygen Enrichment Membranes for Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides in Coal Combustion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

North Carolina A&T State University in Greensboro, North Carolina, has undertaken this project to develop the knowledge and the material to improve the oxygen-enrichment polymer membrane, in order to provide high-grade oxygen-enriched streams for coal combustion and gasification applications. Both experimental and theoretical approaches were used in this project. The membranes evaluated thus far include single-walled carbon nano-tube, nano-fumed silica polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and zeolite-modulated polyimide membranes. To document the nanofiller-modulated polymer, molecular dynamics simulations have been conducted to calculate the theoretical oxygen molecular diffusion coefficient and nitrogen molecular coefficient inside single-walled carbon nano-tube PDMS membranes, in order to predict the effect of the nano-tubes on the gas-separation permeability. The team has performed permeation and diffusion experiments using polymers with nano-silica particles, nano-tubes, and zeolites as fillers; studied the influence of nano-fillers on the self diffusion, free volume, glass transition, oxygen diffusion and solubility, and perm-selectivity of oxygen in polymer membranes; developed molecular models of single-walled carbon nano-tube and nano-fumed silica PDMS membranes, and zeolites-modulated polyimide membranes. This project partially supported three graduate students (two finished degrees and one transferred to other institution). This project has resulted in two journal publications and additional publications will be prepared in the near future.

Jianzhong Lou; Shamsuddin Ilias

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

62

CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for Phase 1 Program during the quarter October to December 2001. In task 1 optimization of the substrate material has yielded substantial improvements to membrane life. In task 2, composite development has enabled 50% of the target flux under Type 1B process conditions. In task 3, manufacturing development has demonstrated that 36 inch long tubes can be produced. The work in task 4 has demonstrated that composite OTM elements can produce oxygen at greater than 95% purity for more than 500 hours of the target flux. In task 5 construction of the multi-tube OTM reactor is completed and initial startup testing was carried out.

Ravi Prasad

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for Phase 2 Program during the quarter April to June 2004. In task 7, reactor cost analysis was performed to determine whether OTM technology when integrated with IGCC provides a commercially attractive process. In task 9, discussions with DOE regarding restructuring the program continued. The objectives of the second year of phase 2 of the program are to construct and operate an engineering pilot reactor for OTM oxygen. Work to support this objective is being undertaken in the following areas in this quarter: IGCC process analysis and economics.

John Sirman

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Membrane Technology for Produced Water in Lea County  

SciTech Connect

Southeastern New Mexico (SENM) is rich in mineral resources, including oil and gas. Produced water is a byproduct from oil and gas recovery operations. SENM generates approximately 400 million barrels per year of produced water with total dissolved solids (TDS) as high as ~ 200,000 ppm. Typically, produced water is disposed of by transporting it to injection wells or disposal ponds, costing around $1.2 billion per year with an estimated use of 0.3 million barrels of transportation fuel. New Mexico ranks first among U.S. states in potash production. Nationally, more than 85% of all potash produced comes from the Carlsbad potash district in SENM. Potash manufacturing processes use large quantities of water, including fresh water, for solution mining. If the produced water from oilfield operations can be treated and used economically in the potash industry, it will provide a beneficial use for the produced water as well as preserve valuable water resources in an area where fresh water is scarce. The goal of this current research was to develop a prototype desalination system that economically treats produced water from oil and/or natural gas operations for the beneficial use of industries located in southeastern New Mexico. Up until now, most water cleaning technologies have been developed for treating water with much lower quantities of TDS. Seawater with TDS of around 30,000 ppm is the highest concentration that has been seriously studied by researchers. Reverse osmosis (RO) technology is widely used; however the cost remains high due to high-energy consumption. Higher water fluxes and recoveries are possible with a properly designed Forward Osmosis (FO) process as large driving forces can be induced with properly chosen membranes and draw solution. Membrane fouling and breakdown is a frequent and costly problem that drives the cost of desalination very high. The technology developed by New Mexico Tech (NMT) researchers not only protects the membrane, but has also proven to generate higher water flux, based on the series of experiments conducted. Laboratory tests at NMT demonstrated that an unprecedented water flux of 1300 l/m2/hr (where typical flux is on the order of 0-3 l/m{sup 2}/hr) can be achieved from a properly designed membrane module. The patent pending NMT system, which was designed and developed at NMT was successful in reducing the possibility for concentration polarization and thereby increasing the permeate water flux, while still maintaining a high salt rejection rate of 96% or greater. For feed solutions having a dissolved contaminant concentration greater than 10,000 ppm, preliminary economic analysis demonstrates that a well-designed FO process will outperform an RO process. Most produced water generated in SENM has TDS higher than 10,000 ppm. Therefore, it is logical to use FO to desalinate the water. Since the issues associated with concentration polarization has only recently been solved by our mechanically enhanced membrane module, the level of system maturity is not at the same level as that for RO. Our efforts going forward will be directed at taking the technology to a higher level of system maturity. With the superior cost effectiveness for FO, it is imperative that this technology reach a point that is competitive with RO in order to meet the expanding need for water for industries in SENM. NMT seeks to demonstrate the greater cost effectiveness by proving the process through a scaled up model. To ensure success, NMT feels it is important to demonstrate this technology in a larger system, (~ 100,000 GPD), before venturing to the commercial scale. This will build confidence in the process with the commercial sector. In addition, it will be possible to develop some of the operational processes around renewable energy sources for the scaled up model. This will further lower the operating costs and enhance the environmentally clean aspect of the process.

Cecilia Nelson; Ashok Ghosh

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

65

ZERO EMISSION POWER PLANTS USING SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS AND OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Over 16,700 hours of operational experience was gained for the Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) elements of the proposed SOFC/OTM zero-emission power generation concept. It was repeatedly demonstrated that OTMs with no additional oxidation catalysts were able to completely oxidize the remaining depleted fuel in a simulated SOFC anode exhaust at an O{sub 2} flux that met initial targets. In such cases, neither residual CO nor H{sub 2} were detected to the limits of the gas chromatograph (<10 ppm). Dried OTM afterburner exhaust streams contained up to 99.5% CO{sub 2}. Oxygen flux through modified OTMs was double or even triple that of the standard OTMs used for the majority of testing purposes. Both the standard and modified membranes in laboratory-scale and demonstration-sized formats exhibited stable performance over extended periods (2300 to 3500 hours or 3 to 5 months). Reactor contaminants, were determined to negatively impact OTM performance stability. A method of preventing OTM performance degradation was developed and proven to be effective. Information concerning OTM and seal reliability over extended periods and through various chemical and thermal shocks and cycles was also obtained. These findings were used to develop several conceptual designs for pilot (10 kWe) and commercial-scale (250 kWe) SOFC/OTM zero emission power generation systems.

G. Maxwell Christie; Troy M. Raybold

2003-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

66

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: High Temperature Membrane Working...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells typically operate at temperatures no higher than 60C-80C due to structural limitations of the membrane. Operating PEM fuel...

67

CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for Phase 2 Program during the quarter July to September 2003. In task 1 OTM development has led to improved strength and composite design. In task 2, the manufacture of robust PSO1d elements has been scaled up. In task 3, operational improvements in the lab-scale pilot reactor have reduced turn-around time and increased product purity. In task 7, economic models show substantial benefit of OTM IGCC over CRYO based oxygen production. The objectives of the first year of phase 2 of the program are to construct and operate an engineering pilot reactor for OTM oxygen. Work to support this objective is being undertaken in the following areas in this quarter: Element reliability; Element fabrication; Systems technology; Power recovery; and IGCC process analysis and economics. The major accomplishments this quarter were Element production at Praxair's manufacturing facility is being scaled up and Substantial improvements to the OTM high temperature strength have been made.

Ravi Prasad

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

This yearly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for Phase 1 Program during the program year 2000/2001. In task 1, the lead material composition was modified to enable superior fluxes and its mechanical properties improved. In task 2, composite OTM elements were fabricated that enable oxygen production at the commercial target purity and 75% of the target flux. In task 3, manufacturing development demonstrated the technology to fabricate an OTM tube of the size required for the multi-tube tester. The work in task 4 has enabled a preferred composite architecture and process conditions to be predicted. In task 5, the multi-tube reactor is designed and fabrication almost complete.

Ravi Prasad

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Zero Emission Power Plants Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Oxygen Transport Membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Siemens Westinghouse Power Corp. (SWPC) is engaged in the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stationary power systems. SWPC has combined DOE Developmental funds with commercial customer funding to establish a record of successful SOFC field demonstration power systems of increasing size. SWPC will soon deploy the first unit of a newly developed 250 kWe Combined Heat Power System. It will generate electrical power at greater than 45% electrical efficiency. The SWPC SOFC power systems are equipped to operate on lower number hydrocarbon fuels such as pipeline natural gas, which is desulfurized within the SOFC power system. Because the system operates with a relatively high electrical efficiency, the CO2 emissions, {approx}1.0 lb CO2/ kW-hr, are low. Within the SOFC module the desulfurized fuel is utilized electrochemically and oxidized below the temperature for NOx generation. Therefore the NOx and SOx emissions for the SOFC power generation system are near negligible. The byproducts of the power generation from hydrocarbon fuels that are released into the environment are CO2 and water vapor. This forward looking DOE sponsored Vision 21 program is supporting the development of methods to capture and sequester the CO2, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system. To accomplish this, SWPC is developing a SOFC module design, to be demonstrated in operating hardware, that will maintain separation of the fuel cell anode gas, consisting of H2, CO, H2O and CO2, from the vitiated air. That anode gas, the depleted fuel stream, containing less than 18% (H2 + CO), will be directed to an Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) Afterburner that is being developed by Praxair, Inc.. The OTM is supplied air and the depleted fuel. The OTM will selectively transport oxygen across the membrane to oxidize the remaining H2 and CO. The water vapor is then condensed from the totally 1.5.DOC oxidized fuel stream exiting the afterburner, leaving only the CO2 in gaseous form. That CO2 can then be compressed and sequestered, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system operating on hydrocarbon fuel that adds only water vapor to the environment. Praxair has been developing oxygen separation systems based on dense walled, mixed electronic, oxygen ion conducting ceramics for a number of years. The oxygen separation membranes find applications in syngas production, high purity oxygen production and gas purification. In the SOFC afterburner application the chemical potential difference between the high temperature SOFC depleted fuel gas and the supplied air provides the driving force for oxygen transport. This permeated oxygen subsequently combusts the residual fuel in the SOFC exhaust. A number of experiments have been carried out in which simulated SOFC depleted fuel gas compositions and air have been supplied to either side of single OTM tubes in laboratory-scale reactors. The ceramic tubes are sealed into high temperature metallic housings which precludes mixing of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel and air streams. In early tests, although complete oxidation of the residual CO and H2 in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel was achieved, membrane performance degraded over time. The source of degradation was found to be contaminants in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream. Following removal of the contaminants, stable membrane performance has subsequently been demonstrated. In an ongoing test, the dried afterburner exhaust composition has been found to be stable at 99.2% CO2, 0.4% N2 and 0.6%O2 after 350 hours online. Discussion of these results is presented. A test of a longer, commercial demonstration size tube was performed in the SWPC test facility. A similar contamination of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream occurred and the performance degraded over time. A second test is being prepared. Siemens Westinghouse and Praxair are collaborating on the preliminary design of an OTM equipped Afterburner demonstration unit. The intent is to test the afterburner in conjunction with a reduced size SOFC test module that has the anode gas separati

Shockling, Larry A.; Huang, Keqin; Gilboy, Thomas E. (Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation); Christie, G. Maxwell; Raybold, Troy M. (Praxair, Inc.)

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

70

Myocardial Reloading after Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Alters Substrate Metabolism While Promoting Protein Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) unloads the heart providing a bridge to recovery in children after myocardial stunning. Mortality after ECMO remains high.Cardiac substrate and amino acid requirements upon weaning are unknown and may impact recovery. We assessed the hypothesis that ventricular reloading modulates both substrate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) and myocardial protein synthesis. Fourteen immature piglets (7.8-15.6 kg) were separated into 2 groups based on ventricular loading status: 8 hour-ECMO (UNLOAD) and post-wean from ECMO (RELOAD). We infused [2-13C]-pyruvate as an oxidative substrate and [13C6]-L-leucine, as a tracer of amino acid oxidation and protein synthesis into the coronary artery. RELOAD showed marked elevations in myocardial oxygen consumption above baseline and UNLOAD. Pyruvate uptake was markedly increased though RELOAD decreased pyruvate contribution to oxidative CAC metabolism.RELOAD also increased absolute concentrations of all CAC intermediates, while maintaining or increasing 13C-molar percent enrichment. RELOAD also significantly increased cardiac fractional protein synthesis rates by >70% over UNLOAD. Conclusions: RELOAD produced high energy metabolic requirement and rebound protein synthesis. Relative pyruvate decarboxylation decreased with RELOAD while promoting anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation and amino acid incorporation into protein rather than to the CAC for oxidation. These perturbations may serve as therapeutic targets to improve contractile function after ECMO.

Kajimoto, Masaki; Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

71

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS Oxygen PrOductiOn  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen PrOductiOn B-500 Oxygen PrOductiOn u.S. dePartment Of energy advanced carbOn diOxide caPture r&d PrOgram: technOlOgy uPdate, may 2013 itm Oxygen technOlOgy fOr integratiOn...

72

CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the first year of phase 2 of the program are to construct and operate an engineering pilot reactor for OTM oxygen. Work to support this objective is being undertaken in the following areas in this quarter: Element reliability; Element fabrication; Systems technology; Power recovery; and IGCC process analysis and economics. The major accomplishments this quarter were: (1) Methods to improve the strength and stability of PSO1x were identified. (2) The O1 reactor was operated at target flux and target purity for 1000 hours. This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for Phase 2 Program during the quarter October to December 2002. In task 1 improvements to PSO1x have shown increased performance in strength and stability. In task 2, PSO1d and PSO1x elements have been fabricated for testing in the pilot reactor. In task 3, the lab-scale pilot reactor has been operated for 1000 hours. In task 6 initial power recovery simulation has begun. In task 7, HYSIS models have been developed to optimize the process for a future demonstration unit.

Ravi Prasad

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Advancing the technology base for high-temperature membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project addresses the major issues confronting the implementation of high-temperature membranes for separations and catalysis. We are pursuing high-temperature membrane systems that can have a large impact for DOE and be industrially relevant. A major obstacle for increased use of membranes is that most applications require the membrane material to withstand temperatures above those acceptable for polymer-based systems. Advances made by this project have helped industry and DOE move toward high-temperature membrane applications to improve overall energy efficiency.

Dye, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.; Snow, R.C. [and others

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

MHK Technologies/WaveBlanket PolymerMembrane | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

WaveBlanket PolymerMembrane WaveBlanket PolymerMembrane < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage WaveBlanket PolymerMembrane.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Wind Waves and Sun Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Oscillating Wave Surge Converter Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 1 3 Discovery Concept Def Early Stage Dev Design Engineering Technology Description WaveBlanket could be called the accordion of the sea Poetically speaking It is simply a bellows played upon by the swells of the ocean WaveBlanket is a flexible polymer membrane which uses air pressure rather than steel to achieve its lateral strength and as a result produces about 1000 times more energy per unit of mass than rigid green energy designs

75

Myocardial Oxidative Metabolism and Protein Synthesis during Mechanical Circulatory Support by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation  

SciTech Connect

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides mechanical circulatory support essential for survival in infants and children with acute cardiac decompensation. However, ECMO also causes metabolic disturbances, which contribute to total body wasting and protein loss. Cardiac stunning can also occur which prevents ECMO weaning, and contributes to high mortality. The heart may specifically undergo metabolic impairments, which influence functional recovery. We tested the hypothesis that ECMO alters oxidative. We focused on the amino acid leucine, and integration with myocardial protein synthesis. We used a translational immature swine model in which we assessed in heart (i) the fractional contribution of leucine (FcLeucine) and pyruvate (FCpyruvate) to mitochondrial acetyl-CoA formation by nuclear magnetic resonance and (ii) global protein fractional synthesis (FSR) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Immature mixed breed Yorkshire male piglets (n = 22) were divided into four groups based on loading status (8 hours of normal circulation or ECMO) and intracoronary infusion [13C6,15N]-L-leucine (3.7 mM) alone or with [2-13C]-pyruvate (7.4 mM). ECMO decreased pulse pressure and correspondingly lowered myocardial oxygen consumption (~ 40%, n = 5), indicating decreased overall mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. However, FcLeucine was maintained and myocardial protein FSR was marginally increased. Pyruvate addition decreased tissue leucine enrichment, FcLeucine, and Fc for endogenous substrates as well as protein FSR. Conclusion: The heart under ECMO shows reduced oxidative metabolism of substrates, including amino acids, while maintaining (i) metabolic flexibility indicated by ability to respond to pyruvate, and (ii) a normal or increased capacity for global protein synthesis, suggesting an improved protein balance.

Priddy, MD, Colleen M.; Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena; Bouchard, Bertrand; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: High Temperature Membrane Working Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Temperature Membrane Working Group High Temperature Membrane Working Group The High Temperature Membrane Working Group consists of government, industry, and university researchers interested in developing high temperature membranes for fuel cells. Description Technical Targets Meetings Contacts Description Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells typically operate at temperatures no higher than 60°C-80°C due to structural limitations of the membrane. Operating PEM fuel cell stacks at higher temperatures (120°C for transportation and 150°C for stationary applications), however, would yield significant energy benefits. For example, heat rejection is easier at higher temperatures, which would allow use of smaller heat exchangers in fuel cell power systems. In addition, for reformate fuel cell systems, carbon monoxide (CO) tolerance of the stack is less problematic at higher temperatures, which would reduce the size requirements or possibly eliminate the need for some CO clean-up beds in the fuel processor.

77

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2006 High Temperature Membrane...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Systems for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Polymer-Type Membranes, Andrew Herring, Colorado School of Mines (PDF 213 KB) Design and Development of High-Performance...

78

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Renewable Energy Laboratory Anion Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells, Prof. Andrew Herring, Colorado School of Mines Electrocatalysis in Alkaline Electrolytes, Prof. Sanjeev...

79

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation in the immature swine heart in vivo  

SciTech Connect

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports infants and children with severe cardiopulmonary compromise. Nutritional support for these children includes provision of medium- and long-chain fatty acids (FAs). However, ECMO induces a stress response, which could limit the capacity for FA oxidation. Metabolic impairment could induce new or exacerbate existing myocardial dysfunction. Using a clinically relevant piglet model, we tested the hypothesis that ECMO maintains the myocardial capacity for FA oxidation and preserves myocardial energy state. Provision of 13-Carbon labeled medium-chain FA (octanoate), longchain free FAs (LCFAs), and lactate into systemic circulation showed that ECMO promoted relative increases in myocardial LCFA oxidation while inhibiting lactate oxidation. Loading of these labeled substrates at high dose into the left coronary artery demonstrated metabolic flexibility as the heart preferentially oxidized octanoate. ECMO preserved this octanoate metabolic response, but also promoted LCFA oxidation and inhibited lactate utilization. Rapid upregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) protein appeared to participate in this metabolic shift during ECMO. ECMO also increased relative flux from lactate to alanine further supporting the role for pyruvate dehydrogenase inhibition by PDK4. High dose substrate loading during ECMO also elevated the myocardial energy state indexed by phosphocreatine to ATP ratio. ECMO promotes LCFA oxidation in immature hearts, while maintaining myocardial energy state. These data support the appropriateness of FA provision during ECMO support for the immature heart.

Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Portman, Michael A.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Conception and construction of an LPG tank using a composite membrane technology  

SciTech Connect

TECHNIGAZ and TOTAL C.F.P. have developed a new LPG storage technology derived from the membrane concept used for LNG storage and transportation. This technology called GMS uses a composite membrane as primary barrier. A 2 000 m/sup 3/ storage pilot unit, based on that concept, is under construction in TOTAL's refinery at DUNKIRK (France) since September 1983.

Fuvel, P.; Claude, J.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane oxygen technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Low cost hydrogen/novel membrane technology for hydrogen separation from synthesis gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The production of hydrogen from synthesis gas made by gasification of coal is expensive. The separation of hydrogen from synthesis gas is a major cost element in the total process. In this report we describe the results of a program aimed at the development of membranes and membrane modules for the separation and purification of hydrogen from synthesis gas. The performance properties of the developed membranes were used in an economic evaluation of membrane gas separation systems in the coal gasification process. Membranes tested were polyetherimide and a polyamide copolymer. The work began with an examination of the chemical separations required to produce hydrogen from synthesis gas, identification of three specific separations where membranes might be applicable. A range of membrane fabrication techniques and module configurations were investigated to optimize the separation properties of the membrane materials. Parametric data obtained were used to develop the economic comparison of processes incorporating membranes with a base-case system without membranes. The computer calculations for the economic analysis were designed and executed. Finally, we briefly investigated alternative methods of performing the three separations in the production of hydrogen from synthesis gas. The three potential opportunities for membranes in the production of hydrogen from synthesis gas are: (1) separation of hydrogen from nitrogen as the final separation in a air-blown or oxygen-enriched air-blown gasification process, (2) separation of hydrogen from carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide to reduce or eliminate the conventional ethanolamine acid gas removal unit, and (3) separation of hydrogen and/or carbon dioxide form carbon monoxide prior to the shift reactor to influence the shift reaction. 28 refs., 54 figs., 40 tabs.

Baker, R.W.; Bell, C.M.; Chow, P.; Louie, J.; Mohr, J.M.; Peinemann, K.V.; Pinnau, I.; Wijmans, J.G.; Gottschlich, D.E.; Roberts, D.L.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Development of Asymmeteric Membranes for Oxygen Separation by Tape Casting and Dip Coating.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Ceramic membranes made from mixed ionic and electronic conductive oxide materials have received much attention over the last decade due to their ability to (more)

Talic, Belma

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Development of alternative oxygen production source using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this multiyear effort was the development, fabrication and testing of a zirconia oxygen production module capable of delivering approximately 100 liters/minute (LPM) of oxygen. The work discussed in this report consists of development and improvement of the zirconia cell along with manufacture of cell components, preliminary design of the final plant, additional economic analysis and industrial participation. (VC)

Suitor, J.W.; Clark, D.J.; Losey, R.W.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Development of alternative oxygen production source using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this multiyear effort was the development, fabrication and testing of a zirconia oxygen production module capable of delivering approximately 100 liters/minute (LPM) of oxygen. The work discussed in this report consists of development and improvement of the zirconia cell along with manufacture of cell components, preliminary design of the final plant, additional economic analysis and industrial participation. (VC)

Suitor, J.W.; Clark, D.J.; Losey, R.W.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for Phase 1 Program during the quarter October to December 2000. In task 1 careful modification of the processing conditions of the OTM has improved the properties of the final element. In addition, finite element modeling has been used to predict the mechanical behavior of OTM tubes and to identify strategies for improving OTM robustness. In task 2, composite elements of PSO1d have been prepared and tested for over 800 hours without degradation in oxygen flux. Alternative materials for composite OTM and architectures have been examined with success. In task 3, modification of fabrication routes has resulted in a substantial increase in the yield of PSO1d composite elements. The work in task 4 has demonstrated that composite OTM elements can produce oxygen at atmospheric pressure of greater than 95% purity from a high-pressure air feed gas. The work in task 5 to construct a multi-tube OTM reactor has begun.

Ravi Prasad

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for Phase 2 Program during the quarter April to June 2004. In task 1, long term testing of OTM elements at different temperatures and process conditions continued. In task 2, OTM elements were manufactured as necessary for task 1. In task 7, advanced OTM and cryogenic IGCC cases for near-term integration were developed, leading to cost requirements for commercial viability. In task 9, discussion with DOE regarding restructuring the program for subsequent phases were initiated. The objectives of the second year of phase 2 of the program are to construct and operate an engineering pilot reactor for OTM oxygen. Work to support this objective is being undertaken in the following areas in this quarter: Element reliability; Element fabrication; and IGCC process analysis and economics. The major accomplishments this quarter were: Long term life test of OTM element passed nine months at different testing conditions.

Ravi Prasad

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for Phase 1 Program during the quarter January to March 2001. In task 1 careful modification of the composition and processing conditions of the OTM has enabled manufacture of high quality OTM elements. In addition, finite element modeling has been used to identify a suitable composition and geometry for successful pilot plant operation. In task 2, composite elements of materials with improved mechanical properties have been developed. In task 3, development of preferred fabrication methods has resulted in production of pilot plant scale composite elements. The work in task 4 has demonstrated that composite OTM elements can produce oxygen at atmospheric pressure of greater than 95% purity from a high-pressure air feed gas. The work in task 5 to construct a multi-tube OTM reactor is ongoing.

Ravi Prasad

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Advancing the Technology Base for High Temperature Hydrogen Membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High purity hydrogen is a critical component for at least two major industrial processes: 1) the refining of conventional steels and raw pig iron into low carbon steels and high purity iron used for high performance magnets in motors, generators, alternators, transformers, and etc.; and 2) refining metallurgical grade silicon to the high- purity, polycrystalline silicon used in fabricating single crystal silicon wafers for semiconductor manufacturing. In the process of producing low carbon iron products, CO and CO2 impurities prevent efficient removal of the carbon already in the raw iron. In the refining of metallurgical grade silicon, the presence of any impurity above the part-per- million level prevents the ultimate fabrication of the large scale single crystals that are essential to the semiconductor device. In a lesser magnitude role, high quality hydrogen is used in a variety of other processes, including specialty metals refining (e.g., iridium, osmium, palladium, platinum, and ruthenium) and R{ampersand}D in areas such as organic synthesis and development of certain types of fuel cells. In all of these applications, a high-temperature hydrogen membrane can provide a method for achieving a very high purity level of hydrogen in a manner that is more economical and/or more rugged than existing techniques.

Dye, Robert C.; Moss, Thomas S.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

89

Development of Supported Polymeric Liquid Membrane Technology for Aqueous MTBE Mitigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) as a gasoline additive has generated a serious, widespread groundwater contamination problem in California. This study evaluated the use of supported polymeric liquid membrane technology in the remediation of MTBE contaminated groundwater.

2002-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

90

Ceramic membranes for partial oxygenation of hydrocarbon fuels to high-value-added products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This report describes the design of a membrane reactor for converting methane into value added products. The design includes an outer tube of perovskite which contacts air, an inner tube of zirconium oxide which contacts methane, and a bonding layer of a mixture of zirconium oxide and perovskite.

Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Kobylinski, T.P.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

91

Mixed Ionic/Electronic Conducting Ceramic Membranes for Oxygen-Assisted CO2 Reforming.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Incorporating a SrFeCo0.5Ox (SFC) membrane into a CO2 reforming reactor doubles methane conversion with a powder Pt/ZrO2 catalyst. The deactivation of both Pt/ZrO2 and a (more)

Slade, David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Rooftop Membrane Temperature Reductions with Green Roof Technology in South-Central Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Early green roof cooling and energy reduction research in North America took place in Canada and the northern latitudes of the United States, where green roofs reduced rooftop temperatures by 70% to 90%. Less is known about green roof technology in the southern Untied States; where energy demand for cooling buildings is high, and the urban heat island effect is more pronounced. This paper reports early findings for rooftop membrane temperature reductions from 11.6-cm-deep modular green roof trays, typical of large-scaled, low-maintenance applications. Measurements observed during May, 2010 reveal that temperatures below the modular planted green roof units were 82% to 91.6% cooler compared to the surface temperatures of the control roof membrane. These findings on low-input modular green roof trays reinforce other research findings that indicate green roof technology can dramatically reduce and modify temperatures on roof deck surfaces during peak energy demand periods in hot sunny climates.

Dvorak, B.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Significance of Pressurized Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid Technology to Ion Transport Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the research, history, and demonstration of pressurized solid oxide fuel cells (PSOFC)-gas turbine (GT) hybrid systems and compares and contrasts their evolution with ion transport membranes (ITM). There exists a wealth of available documentation on the PSOFC hybrid technology including multiple Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) reports documenting these systems. This report incorporates the findings of the EPRI reports, conference proceedings, journal articles, ...

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

94

Cost effectiveness analysis of the SEAMIST{trademark} membrane system technology  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the cost and performance characteristics of SEAMIST{trademark}, an innovative technology that facilitates measurements of contaminants in both vertical and horizontal vadose zone boreholes. This new technology consists of an airtight membrane linear that is pneumatically emplaced inside the borehole structure. Sampling ports with attached tubing, absorbent collectors, or various in situ measuring devices can be fabricated into the linear and used for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), pesticides, herbicides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, or radioactive substances. In addition, small instruments can be guided through the lined borehole and measurements taken inside at specified intervals.

Henriksen, A.D.; Booth, S.R.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Control Technology - Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-Flow  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control Control Control Technologies - Multi-Pollutant Control Using Membrane-Based Up-Flow Wet Precipitation Up-Flow Wet Precipitation The primary objective of this work is to compare the performance of metallic collecting surfaces to the performance of membrane collecting surfaces in a wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP), in terms of their efficiency in removing fine particulates, acid aerosols, and mercury from an actual power plant flue gas stream. The relative durability and overall cost-effectiveness of the membrane collectors versus metallic collectors will also be evaluated. Due to the higher specific powers, superior corrosion resistance, and better wetting and cleaning qualities, the membrane-collecting surface is expected to perform better than the metallic surface. The second objective of the project will be to compare the overall fine particulate, acid aerosol, and mercury removal efficiency of the baseline flue gas treatment system on BMP Units 1 and 2 to the efficiencies obtained when the two wet ESP systems (metallic and membrane collectors) are added to the existing treatment system.

96

Advanced Membrane Separation Technologies for Energy Recovery from Industrial Process Streams  

SciTech Connect

Recovery of energy from relatively low-temperature waste streams is a goal that has not been achieved on any large scale. Heat exchangers do not operate efficiently with low-temperature streams and thus require such large heat exchanger surface areas that they are not practical. Condensing economizers offer one option for heat recovery from such streams, but they have not been widely implemented by industry. A promising alternative to these heat exchangers and economizers is a prototype ceramic membrane system using transport membrane technology for separation of water vapor and recovery of heat. This system was successfully tested by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) on a natural gas fired boiler where the flue gas is relatively clean and free of contaminants. However, since the tubes of the prototype system were constructed of aluminum oxide, the brittle nature of the tubes limited the robustness of the system and even limited the length of tubes that could be used. In order to improve the robustness of the membrane tubes and make the system more suitable for industrial applications, this project was initiated with the objective of developing a system with materials that would permit the system to function successfully on a larger scale and in contaminated and potentially corrosive industrial environments. This required identifying likely industrial environments and the hazards associated with those environments. Based on the hazardous components in these environments, candidate metallic materials were identified that are expected to have sufficient strength, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance to permit production of longer tubes that could function in the industrial environments identified. Tests were conducted to determine the corrosion resistance of these candidate alloys, and the feasibility of forming these materials into porous substrates was assessed. Once the most promising metallic materials were identified, the ability to form an alumina membrane layer on the surface of the metallic tubes was evaluated. Evaluation of this new style of membrane tube involved exposure to SO{sub 2} containing gases as well as to materials with a potential for fouling. Once the choice of substrate and membrane materials and design were confirmed, about 150 tubes were fabricated and assembled into three modules. These modules were mounted on an industrial size boiler and their performance carefully monitored during a limited testing period. The positive results of this performance test confirm the feasibility of utilizing such a system for recovery of heat and water from industrial waste streams. The improved module design along with use of long metallic substrate tubes with a ceramic membrane on the outer surface resulted in the successful, limited scale demonstration of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in the GTI test facility. This test showed this technology can successfully recover a significant amount of heat and water from gaseous waste streams. However, before industry will make the investment to install a full scale TMC, a full scale system will need to be constructed, installed and successfully operated at a few industrial sites. Companies were identified that had an interest in serving as a host site for a demonstration system.

Keiser, J. R.; Wang, D. [Gas Technology Institute; Bischoff, B.; Ciora, [Media and Process Technology; Radhakrishnan, B.; Gorti, S. B.

2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

97

Membrane filtration waste treatment technology comes of age in battery manufacturing plants  

SciTech Connect

A new waste treatment system from MEMTEK Corporation incorporates membrane filtration, and makes possible the effective treatment of waste streams containing a number of toxic heavy metals. Using this membrane technology, MEMTEK is capable of treating the wastewater in battery manufacturing plants to meet even the strictest limits imposed by local regulatory agencies and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Lead and zinc in the treated effluent are typically below 0.1 ppm. The typical battery manufacturing processes introduce metals, primarily lead, into plant effluents, especially from formation, battery wash, and laundry operation. Due to the high usage of acid in the plant, the wastewater is also usually of a low pH, typically 2 or less. The dissolved and particulate contaminants in this effluent must be removed to very low levels before the water can be released to the sewer or the environment. The waste treatment process is described.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Membrane technologies for hydrogen and carbon monoxide recovery from residual gas streams. Tecnologas de membranas para la recuperacin de hidrgeno y monxido de carbono de gases residuales.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This PhD thesis work is aimed to the separation and recovery of valuable gases from industrial residual gas streams by means of membrane technology. In (more)

David, Oana Cristina

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Utilizing intake-air oxygen-enrichment technology to reduce cold- phase emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oxygen-enriched combustion is a proven, serious considered technique to reduce exhaust hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from automotive gasoline engines. This paper presents the cold-phase emissions reduction results of using oxygen-enriched intake air containing about 23% and 25% oxygen (by volume) in a vehicle powered by a spark-ignition (SI) engine. Both engineout and converter-out emissions data were collected by following the standard federal test procedure (FTP). Converter-out emissions data were also obtained employing the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) ``Off-Cycle`` test. Test results indicate that the engine-out CO emissions during the cold phase (bag 1) were reduced by about 46 and 50%, and HC by about 33 and 43%, using nominal 23 and 25% oxygen-enriched air compared to ambient air (21% oxygen by volume), respectively. However, the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) emissions were increased by about 56 and 79%, respectively. Time-resolved emissions data indicate that both HC and CO emissions were reduced considerably during the initial 127 s of the cold-phase FTP, without any increase in NO, emissions in the first 25 s. Hydrocarbon speciation results indicate that all major toxic pollutants, including ozone-forming specific reactivity factors, such as maximum incremental reactivity (NUR) and maximum ozone incremental reactivity (MOIR), were reduced considerably with oxygen-enrichment. Based on these results, it seems that using oxygen-enriched intake air during the cold-phase FTP could potentially reduce HC and CO emissions sufficiently to meet future emissions standards. Off-cycle, converter-out, weighted-average emissions results show that both HC and CO emissions were reduced by about 60 to 75% with 23 or 25% oxygen-enrichment, but the accompanying NO{sub x}, emissions were much higher than those with the ambient air.

Poola, R.B.; Ng, H.K.; Sekar, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Baudino, J.H. [Autoresearch Labs., Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Colucci, C.P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

100

Electronically conducting proton exchange polymers as catalyst supports for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction, hydrogen oxidation, and methanol oxidation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A variety of supported catalysts were prepared by the chemical deposition of Pt and Pt-Ru particles on chemically prepared poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) and PEDOT/polyvinylsulfate (PVS) composites. The polymer particles were designed to provide a porous, proton-conducting and electron-conducting catalyst support for use in fuel cells. These polymer-supported catalysts were characterized by electron microscopy, impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and conductivity measurements. Their catalytic activities toward hydrogen and methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction were evaluated in proton exchange membrane fuel-cell-type gas diffusion electrodes. Activities for oxygen reduction comparable to that obtained with a commercial carbon-supported catalyst were observed, whereas those for hydrogen and methanol oxidation were significantly inferior, although still high for prototype catalysts.

Lefebvre, M.C.; Qi, Z.; Pickup, P.G. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John`s, Newfoundland (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane oxygen technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Low-Cost, High-Performance Hybrid Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries - Hongxing Hu, Amsen Technologies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DESIGN © 2008 DESIGN © 2008 www.PosterPresentations.com Low-Cost, High-Performance Hybrid Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries Hongxing Hu, Amsen Technologies LLC DOE SBIR Project, Program Manager at DOE: Dr. Imre Gyuk Objectives and Technical Approach Objectives: This SBIR project aims to develop low-cost, high performance hybrid polymeric PEMs for redox flow batteries (RFBs). Such membranes shall have high chemical stability in RFB electrolytes, high proton conductivity, low permeability of vanadium ions, along with high dimensional stability, high mechanical strength and durability, and lower cost than Nafion membranes. Approach: * Hybrid membranes of sulfonated polymers * Balance between different types of polymers for proton conductivity and chemical stability

102

Numerical simulations of ion transport membrane oxy-fuel reactors for CO? capture applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the key features of oxygen permeation and hydrocarbon conversion in ion transport membrane (ITM) reactors. ITM reactors have been suggested as a novel technology to enable ...

Hong, Jongsup

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

SAO network analysis of patents for technology trends identification: a case study of polymer electrolyte membrane technology in proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper suggests a method for Subject---Action---Object (SAO) network analysis of patents for technology trends identification by using the concept of function. The proposed method solves the shortcoming of the keyword-based approach to identification ... Keywords: Actor network theory, C63, C82, Co-word analysis, Function, Patent analysis, Patent mining, Technology Subject-Action-Object (SAO), Technology trends analysis

Sungchul Choi; Janghyeok Yoon; Kwangsoo Kim; Jae Yeol Lee; Cheol-Han Kim

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Novel selective surface flow (SSF{trademark}) membranes for the recovery of hydrogen from waste gas streams. Phase 2: Technology development, final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Phase II of the Selective Surface Flow Membrane program was Technology Development. Issues addressed were: (i) to develop detailed performance characteristics on a 1 ft{sup 2} multi- tube module and develop design data, (ii) to build a field test rig and complete field evaluation with the 1 ft{sup 2} area membrane system, (iii) to implement membrane preparation technology and demonstrate membrane performance in 3.5 ft long tube, (iv) to complete detailed process design and economic analysis.

Anand, M.; Ludwig, K.A.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Development of dense ceramic membranes for methane conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The most significant cost associated with partial oxidation of methane to syngas is that of the oxygen plant. In this paper, the authors offer a technology, based on dense ceramic membranes, that uses air as the oxidant for methane conversion reactions, thus eliminating the need for the oxygen plant. Certain ceramic materials exhibit both electronic and ionic conductivities (of particular interest is oxygen-ion conductivity). These materials transport not only oxygen ions (functioning as selective oxygen separators) but also electrons back from the reactor side to the oxygen/reduction interface. No external electrodes are required, and, if the driving potential of transport is adequate, the partial oxidation reactions should be spontaneous. Such a system will operate without an externally applied potential. Oxygen is transported across the ceramic material in the form of oxygen ions, not oxygen molecules. Recent reports in the literature suggest that dense ceramic membranes made of these mixed conductors can successfully separate oxygen from air at flux rates that could be considered commercially feasible. Thus, these membranes have the potential to improve the economics of methane conversion processes. In principle, the dense ceramic materials can be shaped into hollow-tube reactors, in which air passes over the outside of the membrane and methane flows through the inside. The surfaces can also be reversed. The membrane is permeable to oxygen at high temperatures, but not to nitrogen or other gases. Thus, only oxygen from air can be transported through the membrane to the inside of the reactor surface, where it reacts with methane. Other geometric forms, such as honeycombs or corrugations, of the reactor are possible and can provide substantially greater surface areas for reaction.

Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Maiya, P.S.; Ma, B.; Mieville, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Udovich, C.A.; Fleisch, T.H. [Amoco Exploration/Production, Naperville, IL (United States); Bose, A.C. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Redox Flow Battery (RFB) with Low-cost Electrolyte and Membrane Technologies - Thomas Kodenkandath, ITN Energy Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Innovative, high energy density Mn-V based RFB electrolytes as a Innovative, high energy density Mn-V based RFB electrolytes as a low-cost alternate to all-Vanadium systems * Low-cost membrane technology, based on renewable biopolymer Chitosan with improved proton conduction & chemical stability, adaptable to Mn-V system * Scale-up of electrolyte and membrane technologies in pursuit of ARPA-E's goal for a 2.5kW/10kWh RFB stack with integrated BoS at a total cost of ~$1000/unit and ~1.2 m 3 footprint ITN Energy Systems, Inc., Littleton, CO 2.5kW/10kWh Redox Flow Battery (RFB) with Low-cost Electrolyte and Membrane Technologies $2.1 M, 33-month program awarded by ARPA-E Sept 7, 2012 Dr. Thomas Kodenkandath High-Performance, Low-cost RFB through Electrolyte & Membrane Innovations Technology Summary

108

Evaluation of Membrane Treatment Technology to Optimize and Reduce Hypersalinity Content of Produced Brine for Reuse in Unconventional Gas Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over 18 billion barrels of waste fluids are generated annually from oil and gas production in the United States. As a large amount of water is used for oilfield operations, treating and reusing produced water can cut the consumption of fresh water in well sites. This research has helped to develop a membrane process train for a mobile produced water treatment unit for treating oilfield produced brine for reuse. To design the process train, over 30 sets of combination tests at pilot laboratory scale were performed using pretreatment, microfiltration and nanofiltration processes. Membrane performance was selected based on high flux separation efficiency, high tolerance for solids and fluid treatments. Over 95 % solids rejection and greater than 80 % oil removal efficiency were obtained in all these tests. Process train (pre-treatment and membrane) performance was monitored by chemical analysis of permeate and models fitting experimental data for the process. From the results, hydrocarbon rejection was analyzed; total organic carbon rejection was 47.9 %, total carbon content averaged 37.3 % rejection and total inorganic carbon rejection was at 3.66 %. BTEX removal efficiency ranged from 0.98 % to 52.7 % with the progressive pretreatment methods of using cartridge filters. The nanofiltration membrane showed significant reduction in total dissolved solids and in both anionic and cationic species. The process train is seen to follow a sequence of treatment from cartridge and oil removal filter treatment to microfiltration treatment to ultrafiltration, followed by nanofiltration for the purpose of this research. Further research still needs to be done on to determine the kind of analytical test which will give real time feedback on effectiveness of filters. In summary, the process train developed by TAMU-GPRI possesses distinct advantages in treating oilfield produced brine using membrane technology. These advantages include high quality of permeate, reduced sludge and the possibility of total recycle water systems. The small space requirement, moderate capital costs and ease of operation associated with the use of the mobile unit membrane technology also makes it a very competitive alternative to conventional technologies.

Eboagwu, Uche

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Engineering Development of Ceramic Membrane Reactor System for Converting Natural Gas to Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas for Liquid Transportation Fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An Air Products-led team successfully developed ITM Syngas technology from the concept stage to a stage where a small-scale engineering prototype was about to be built. This technology produces syngas, a gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by reacting feed gas, primarily methane and steam, with oxygen that is supplied through an ion transport membrane. An ion transport membrane operates at high temperature and oxygen ions are transported through the dense membrane's crystal lattice when an oxygen partial pressure driving force is applied. This development effort solved many significant technical challenges and successfully scaled-up key aspects of the technology to prototype scale. Throughout the project life, the technology showed significant economic benefits over conventional technologies. While there are still on-going technical challenges to overcome, the progress made under the DOE-funded development project proved that the technology was viable and continued development post the DOE agreement would be warranted.

Air Products and Chemicals

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

110

Advances in Acid Concentration Membrane Technology for the Sulfur-Iodine Thermochemical Cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the most promising cycles for the thermochemical generation of hydrogen is the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) process, where aqueous HI is thermochemically decomposed into H2 and I2 at approximately 350 degrees Celsius. Regeneration of HI is accomplished by the Bunsen reaction (reaction of SO2, water, and iodine to generate H2SO4 and HI). Furthermore, SO2 is regenerated from the decomposition of H2SO4 at 850 degrees Celsius yielding the SO2 as well as O2. Thus, the cycle actually consists of two concurrent oxidation-reduction loops. As HI is regenerated, co-produced H2SO4 must be separated so that each may be decomposed. Current flowsheets employ a large amount (~83 mol% of the entire mixture) of elemental I2 to cause the HI and the H2SO4 to separate into two phases. To aid in the isolation of HI, which is directly decomposed into hydrogen, water and iodine must be removed. Separation of iodine is facilitated by removal of water. Sulfuric acid concentration is also required to facilitate feed recycling to the sulfuric acid decomposer. Decomposition of the sulfuric acid is an equilibrium limited process that leaves a substantial portion of the acid requiring recycle. Distillation of water from sulfuric acid involves significant corrosion issues at the liquid-vapor interface. Thus, it is desirable to concentrate the acid without boiling. Recent efforts at the INL have concentrated on applying pervaporation through Nafion-117, Nafion-112, and sulfonated poly(etheretherketone) (S-PEEK) membranes for the removal of water from HI/water and HI/Iodine/water feedstreams. In pervaporation, a feed is circulated at low pressure across the upstream side of the membrane, while a vacuum is applied downstream. Selected permeants sorb into the membrane, transport through it, and are vaporized from the backside. Thus, a concentration gradient is established, which provides the driving force for transport. In this work, membrane separations have been performed at temperatures as high as 134 degrees Celsius. Transmembrane fluxes of water are commercially competitive (~5000 g/m2h) and separation factors have been measured as high as 8000, depending on the membrane and the water content. For the Nafion-117 experiments, the common trade off in membrane performance is observed in that as flux is increased, separation factor decreases. Nafion-112, a thinner membrane, exhibited much higher fluxes than the Nafion-117; however without the expected loss in separation factor indicating that the permeability of iodine and HI through Nafion materials is low. Preliminary data for the sulfuric acid concentration suggests performance similar to the HI experiments. All membranes studied for the HI, HI/iodine and sulfuric acid feeds exhibited no degradation in membrane performance during use.

Frederick F. Stewart; Christopher J. Orme

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Technical and economic feasibility of membrane technology. Fourth technical progress report, June 17-September 16, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported on the investigation of the potential application of reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration and electrodialysis to the system of solids concentration in beet sugar process streams. During this period, emphasis was put on running reverse osmosis tests with a new prototype machine to select the most suitable membranes for the concentrating of sugar solutions. An economic analysis of using reverse osmosis in a factory producing 10/sup 6/ gal/day of thin juice is discussed. (DMC)

Sandre, A.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Membranes Phosphazene  

INLs new phosphazene membrane technology provides a method for making polydichlorophosphazene using solid state reactants that simplifies previous processes with a single pot two-step process. The process eliminates use of chlorinated hydrocarbon ...

113

Oxygen Nonstoichiometry, Thermo-chemical Stability and Crystal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... gas separation membranes and oxygen sensors, oxygen nonstoichiometry and crystal ... New Electric Current Effects on 8-Y Zirconia Ceramics: Pore/Bubble...

114

Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

Nexant Inc.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Oxygen ion conducting materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Evaluation of oxygen-enrichment system for alternative fuel vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results on the reduction in exhaust emissions achieved by using oxygen-enriched intake air on a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) that used Indolene and M85 as test fuels. The standard federal test procedure (FTP) and the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) off-cycle (REP05) test were followed. The report also provides a review of literature on the oxygen membrane device and design considerations. It presents information on the sources and contributions of cold-phase emissions to the overall exhaust emissions from light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and on the various emission standards and present-day control technologies under consideration. The effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on FTP and off-cycle emissions are discussed on the basis of test results. Conclusions are drawn from the results and discussion, and different approaches for the practical application of this technology in LDVs are recommended.

Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.R.; Ng, H.K.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

OXIDATIVE COUPLING OF METHANE USING INORGANIC MEMBRANE REACTORS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to study the oxidative coupling of methane in catalytic inorganic membrane reactors. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and higher yields than in conventional non-porous, co-feed, fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for the formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause of decreased selectivity in the oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Membrane reactor technology also offers the potential for modifying the membranes both to improve catalytic properties as well as to regulate the rate of the permeation/diffusion of reactants through the membrane to minimize by-product generation. Other benefits also exist with membrane reactors, such as the mitigation of thermal hot-spots for highly exothermic reactions such as the oxidative coupling of methane. The application of catalytically active inorganic membranes has potential for drastically increasing the yield of reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity.

Dr. Y.H. Ma; Dr. W.R. Moser; Dr. A.G. Dixon; Dr. A.M. Ramachandra; Dr. Y. Lu; C. Binkerd

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) - Energy ...  

Technology Marketing Summary The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is an essential, yet highly expensive component of any polymer electrolyte membrane ...

119

Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process for Synthetic Natural Gas and Hydrogen Coproduction Year 6 - Activity 1.14 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology  

SciTech Connect

The GreatPoint Energy (GPE) concept for producing synthetic natural gas and hydrogen from coal involves the catalytic gasification of coal and carbon. GPEs technology refines coal by employing a novel catalyst to crack the carbon bonds and transform the coal into cleanburning methane (natural gas) and hydrogen. The GPE mild catalytic gasifier design and operating conditions result in reactor components that are less expensive and produce pipeline-grade methane and relatively high purity hydrogen. The system operates extremely efficiently on very low cost carbon sources such as lignites, subbituminous coals, tar sands, petcoke, and petroleum residual oil. In addition, GPEs catalytic coal gasification process eliminates troublesome ash removal and slagging problems, reduces maintenance requirements, and increases thermal efficiency, significantly reducing the size of the air separation plant (a system that alone accounts for 20% of the capital cost of most gasification systems) in the catalytic gasification process. Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale gasification facilities were used to demonstrate how coal and catalyst are fed into a fluid-bed reactor with pressurized steam and a small amount of oxygen to fluidize the mixture and ensure constant contact between the catalyst and the carbon particles. In this environment, the catalyst facilitates multiple chemical reactions between the carbon and the steam on the surface of the coal. These reactions generate a mixture of predominantly methane, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Product gases from the process are sent to a gas-cleaning system where CO{sub 2} and other contaminants are removed. In a full-scale system, catalyst would be recovered from the bottom of the gasifier and recycled back into the fluid-bed reactor. The by-products (such as sulfur, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2}) would be captured and could be sold to the chemicals and petroleum industries, resulting in near-zero hazardous air or water pollution. This technology would also be conducive to the efficient coproduction of methane and hydrogen while also generating a relatively pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or sequestration. Specific results of bench-scale testing in the 4- to 38-lb/hr range in the EERC pilot system demonstrated high methane yields approaching 15 mol%, with high hydrogen yields approaching 50%. This was compared to an existing catalytic gasification model developed by GPE for its process. Long-term operation was demonstrated on both Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and on petcoke feedstocks utilizing oxygen injection without creating significant bed agglomeration. Carbon conversion was greater than 80% while operating at temperatures less than 1400F, even with the shorter-than-desired reactor height. Initial designs for the GPE gasification concept called for a height that could not be accommodated by the EERC pilot facility. More gas-phase residence time should allow the syngas to be converted even more to methane. Another goal of producing significant quantities of highly concentrated catalyzed char for catalyst recovery and material handling studies was also successful. A PdCu membrane was also successfully tested and demonstrated to produce 2.54 lb/day of hydrogen permeate, exceeding the desired hydrogen permeate production rate of 2.0 lb/day while being tested on actual coal-derived syngas that had been cleaned with advanced warm-gas cleanup systems. The membranes did not appear to suffer any performance degradation after exposure to the cleaned, warm syngas over a nominal 100-hour test.

Swanson, Michael; Henderson, Ann

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SEQUESTRATION Oxygen Transport Membrane Hydrogen Transport Membrane Natural Gas Coal Biomass Syngas CO/H2 WGS H2 operating experience. #12;ELTRON RESEARCH INC. Syngas Production Rate ­ 60 mL/min cm2 @ 900°C Equivalent O2 Operational Experience Under High Pressure Differential SUMMARY OF ELTRON OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANE SYNGAS

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121

Appendix B: CArBon dioxide CApture teChnology SheetS Oxy-COmbustiOn  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxy-COmbustiOn Oxy-COmbustiOn B-424 Oxy-COmbustiOn u.s. Department Of energy aDvanCeD CarbOn DiOxiDe Capture r&D prOgram: teChnOlOgy upDate, may 2013 Oxygen transpOrt membranes fOr inDustrial appliCatiOns primary project goals Praxair is optimizing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) performance, materials, and process configurations leading to subsequent development-scale testing of OTM technology for synthesis gas (syngas) production applications, providing valuable experience needed to develop commercial OTM technology in industrial applications and future utility-scale

122

Technology Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Novel Solvent Extraction Process With Bottom Gas Injection for Liquid Waste ... Membrane Technology for Treatment of Wastes Containing Dissolved Metals:...

123

Non-precious Co3O4 nano-rod electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in anion-exchange membrane fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-precious Co3O4 nano-rod electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in anion 2011 DOI: 10.1039/c1ee01431e We report preparation of carbon-supported Co3O4 electrocatalysts with nano that the non-precious Co3O4 electrocatalyst with the nano-rod structure ($12 nm in length and $5.1 nm

Zhao, Tianshou

124

Technologies  

Technologies Materials. Aggregate Spray for Air Particulate; Actuators Made From Nanoporous Materials; Ceramic Filters; Energy Absorbing Material; Diode Arrays for ...

125

Technologies  

Science & Technology. Weapons & Complex Integration. News Center. News Center. Around the Lab. Contacts. For Reporters. Livermore Lab Report. ...

126

Technologies  

Technologies Energy. Advanced Carbon Aerogels for Energy Applications; Distributed Automated Demand Response; Electrostatic Generator/Motor; Modular Electromechanical ...

127

Technologies  

Technologies Energy, Utilities, & Power Systems. Advanced Carbon Aerogels for Energy Applications; Distributed Automated Demand Response; Electrostatic Generator/Motor

128

Technologies  

Technologies Research Tools. Cell-Free Assembly of NanoLipoprotein Particles; Chemical Prism; Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA) ...

129

Theoretical and experimental investigation of membrane distillation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Invented in the 1960s, membrane distillation is an emerging technology for water treatment attracting more attention since 1980s. There are four configurations of membrane distillations (more)

Zhang, Jianhua

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Reactive Air Brazing of Nicrofer-6025HT to BSCF for Oxygen ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Oxygen separation membranes can be used to provide oxygen for ... with an oxide component that promotes wetting of ceramic materials.

131

Application of oxygen-enriched combustion for locomotive diesel engines. Phase 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A thermodynamic simulation is used to study the effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on the performance and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. The parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the oxygen-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, the gross and net power outputs of an engine operating under different levels of oxygen enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in an increase in net engine power of approximately 13% when intake air with an oxygen content of 28% by volume is used and fuel injection timing is retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure improves power by only 4%. If part of the significantly higher exhaust enthalpies available as a result of oxygen enrichment are recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met, resulting in substantial net power improvements. Oxygen enrichment reduces particulate and visible smoke emissions but increases NO emissions. However, a combination of retarded fuel injection timing and post-treatment of exhaust gases may be adequate to meet the locomotive diesel engine NO{sub x} standards. Exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required to realize the full potential of oxygen enrichment. Economic analysis shows that oxygen-enrichment technology is economically feasible and provides high returns on investment. The study also indicates the strong influence of membrane parasitic requirements and exhaust energy recovery on economic benefits. To obtain an economic advantage while using a membrane with higher parasitic power requirements, it is necessary to recover a part of the exhaust energy.

Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.R.; Assanis, D.N.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Technologies  

High Performance Computing (HPC) Technologies; Industrial Partnerships Office P.O. Box 808, L-795 Livermore, CA 94551 Phone: (925) 422-6416 Fax: (925) ...

133

An investigation of gas separation membranes for reduction of thermal treatment emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Gas permeable membranes were evaluated for possible use as air pollution control devices on a fluidized bed catalytic incineration unit. The unit is a candidate technology for treatment of certain mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant. Cellulose acetate and polyimide membranes were tested to determine the permeance of typical off-gas components such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen. Multi-component permeation studies included gas mixtures containing light hydrocarbons. Experiments were also conducted to discover information about potential membrane degradation in the presence of organic compounds.

Stull, D.M.; Logsdon, B.W. [EG and G Rocky Flats, Inc., Golden, CO (United States). Rocky Flats Plant; Pellegrino, J.J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1994-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

134

Secondary Transport Phenomena in Ceramic Membranes under ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Dense ceramic membranes are used at high temperatures as ... Stability and Oxygen Exchange Kinetics of Oxide Hetero-Junction Electrodes.

135

Oxygen analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

Benner, William H. (Danville, CA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Copper Palladium Hydrogen Separation Membranes  

This patent-pending technology, Cu-Pd Hydrogen Separation Membranes with Reduced Palladium Content and Improved Performance, consists of copper-palladium alloy compositions for hydrogen separation membranes that use less palladium and have a ...

137

Technolog  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research in Research in Science and Technolog y Sandia pushes frontiers of knowledge to meet the nation's needs, today and tomorrow Sandia National Laboratories' fundamental science and technology research leads to greater understanding of how and why things work and is intrinsic to technological advances. Basic research that challenges scientific assumptions enables the nation to push scientific boundaries. Innovations and breakthroughs produced at Sandia allow it to tackle critical issues, from maintaining the safety, security and effectiveness of the nation's nuclear weapons and preventing domestic and interna- tional terrorism to finding innovative clean energy solutions, develop- ing cutting-edge nanotechnology and moving the latest advances to the marketplace. Sandia's expertise includes:

138

Oxygen analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

Benner, W.H.

1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

139

Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology Computers and the internet play an increasingly larger role in the lives of students. In this activity, students must use various web sites to locate specific pieces of...

140

Microchemical systems for singlet oxygen generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers (COIL) are a technology of interest for industrial and military audiences. COILs are flowing gas lasers where the gain medium of iodine atoms is collisionally pumped by singlet delta oxygen ...

Hill, Tyrone F. (Tyrone Frank), 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane oxygen technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process  

This patent-pending technology, Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process, provides a metal-oxide oxygen carrier for application in fuel combustion processes that use oxygen.

142

Effect of Dopants on Interdiffusion of Aluminum and Oxygen through ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the mutual GB transport of aluminum and oxygen in RE-doped polycrystalline ... Secondary Transport Phenomena in Ceramic Membranes under...

143

First-Principles Study of the Oxygen Evolution Reaction and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this talk, we present our study of the mechanisms of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) ... Secondary Transport Phenomena in Ceramic Membranes under...

144

Insitu Oxygen Conduction Into Internal Combustion Chamber  

Insitu Oxygen Conduction Into Internal Combustion Chamber Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

145

Feed gas contaminant removal in ion transport membrane systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen ion transport membrane process wherein a heated oxygen-containing gas having one or more contaminants is contacted with a reactive solid material to remove the one or more contaminants. The reactive solid material is provided as a deposit on a support. The one or more contaminant compounds in the heated oxygen-containing gas react with the reactive solid material. The contaminant-depleted oxygen-containing gas is contacted with a membrane, and oxygen is transported through the membrane to provide transported oxygen.

Underwood, Richard Paul (Allentown, PA); Makitka, III, Alexander (Hatfield, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

146

Ion transport membrane module and vessel system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

Stein, VanEric Edward (Allentown, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Chen, Christopher M. (Allentown, PA); Armstrong, Phillip Andrew (Orefield, PA); Wahle, Harold W. (North Canton, OH); Ohrn, Theodore R. (Alliance, OH); Kneidel, Kurt E. (Alliance, OH); Rackers, Keith Gerard (Louisville, OH); Blake, James Erik (Uniontown, OH); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson (West Jordan, UT)

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

147

Ion transport membrane module and vessel system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

Stein, VanEric Edward (Allentown, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Chen, Christopher M. (Allentown, PA); Armstrong, Phillip Andrew (Orefield, PA); Wahle, Harold W. (North Canton, OH); Ohrn, Theodore R. (Alliance, OH); Kneidel, Kurt E. (Alliance, OH); Rackers, Keith Gerard (Louisville, OH); Blake, James Erik (Uniontown, OH); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson (West Jordan, UT)

2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

148

Oxygen Isotopes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pages to Isotopes Data Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane 800,000 Deuterium Record and Shorter Records of...

149

Effects of Pressure on Oxygen Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To measure the effects of pressure on the output of a membrane oxygen sensor and a nonmembrane oxygen sensor, the authors pressure cycled a CTD sensor package in a laboratory pressure facility. The CTD sensor package was cycled from 30 to 6800 db ...

M. J. Atkinson; F. I. M. Thomas; N. Larson

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Oxygen in Underwater Cave  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen in Underwater Cave Oxygen in Underwater Cave Name: Natalie Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: HI Country: USA Date: Spring 2011 Question: Is it possible for there to be free oxygen in an underwater cave? If it is, then how does it work? Replies: Yes it is possible as I have personally experienced. If the cave roof rises to a level above the water, air dissolved in the water will slowly out gas until the water is at the same level at all places. A pocket of breathable air will form. In many caves the roof dips below water level in one place but it above it on both sides. Think of a U shaped tube where the bottom of the U is blocked by water. This is called a siphon and I have passed through many of these to find breathable air on the other side. R. W. "Bob" Avakian Oklahoma State Univ. Inst. of Technology

151

Oxygen Permeable Solid/Melt Composite Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cathodic Behavior of Silicon (?) in BaF2-CaF2 SiO2 Melts ... Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy of Uranium Chloride in Molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic.

152

A bacterial factory for the production of MEMBRANE PROTEINS  

Office of Technology Transfer A bacterial factory for the production of MEMBRANE PROTEINS Cell membranes are important biological structures as they ...

153

Low cost hydrogen/novel membranes technology for hydrogen separation from synthesis gas, Phase 1. Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending June 30, 1987  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this quarter, work continued on the development of high-flux palladium-silver membranes for the separation of hydrogen from carbon dioxide. Palladium-silver/poly(etherimide) composite membranes were prepared by a vacuum sputtering technique. The influence of different poly(etherimide) support membranes on the performance of palladium-silver membranes was investigated. All membranes tested showed a hydrogen/carbon dioxide selectivity lower than that of the uncoated poly(etherimide)/poly(dimethylsiloxane) membranes. This is probably due to damage of the skin layer of the asymmetric poly(etherimide) support membranes during the palladium-silver electron bombardment. Polysulfone/poly(dimethylsiloxane) / poly(ether-ester-amide) composite membranes were also prepared. Membrane samples consistently showed a carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity of 9 to 10 and a normalized carbon dioxide flux of 2 to 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} cm{sup 3} (STP)/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}sec{center_dot}cmHg. These are extremely good values, superior to any commercially available membranes for this separation. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Not Available

1987-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

154

Battery utilizing ceramic membranes  

SciTech Connect

A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

Yahnke, Mark S. (Berkeley, CA); Shlomo, Golan (Haifa, IL); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Development of energy efficient membrane distillation systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential as a means of desalination and water purification. As a thermally driven membrane technology which runs at relatively low pressure, which can withstand high salinity feed ...

Summers, Edward K

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Membrane stabilizer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material. 10 figs.

Mingenbach, W.A.

1988-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

157

Technology transfer | Argonne National Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology transfer Technology transfer Technology available for licensing: CURLSNovember 21, 2013 Containment Unidirectional Resource Loading System expands flexibility of glove boxes and other containment systems. Read more about Technology available for licensing: CURLS Rhodobacter System for the Expression of Membrane Proteins Using photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodobacter) for the expression of heterologous membrane proteins Read more about Rhodobacter System for the Expression of Membrane Proteins Synthesizing Membrane Proteins Using In Vitro Methodology This in vitro, cell-free expression system caters to the production of protein types that are challenging to study: membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins, and soluble proteins that require complex redox cofactors.

158

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode. The study shows that two types of hydroxyl intermediates (non-hydrated OH and hydrated OH) with distinct activities coexist on a fuel-cell cathode. The performance of polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells is limited by the reduction at the cathode of various oxygenated intermediates in the four-electron pathway of the oxygen reduction reaction. A research team led by SLAC scientists performed x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode

159

Solid Oxide Membrane Process for Solar Grade Silicon Production ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Solid Oxide Membrane Process for Solar Grade Silicon ... Polysilicon in Photovoltaics: Market Conditions & Competing PV Technologies.

160

High Permeability Ternary Palladium Alloy Membranes with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiple membranes have been tested under the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Test Protocol with initial promising results from Au containing ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane oxygen technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Membrane distillation : module design and modeling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for seawater desalination that is traditionally accomplished by conventional separation processes such as thermal distillation or reverse osmosis. (more)

Yang, Xing.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Semipermeable Membranes for Micromachined Silicon Surfaces ...  

Technology Marketing Summary Sandia National Laboratories has developed semipermeable silicon nitride membranes using an etch process to be co-manufactured on a ...

163

Information Technology Solutions - Industrial Partnerships Office  

used in fossil fuel based production proc-esses. Immobilization in NLPs introduces the capa-bility to use high oxygen sensitive mem-brane bound hydrogenases.

164

Hydropower Technology Roundup Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI's 2002 report, Maintaining and Monitoring Dissolved Oxygen at Hydroelectric Projects: Status Report (1005194) provided a comprehensive review of a wide range of techniques and technologies for improving the dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in releases from hydroelectric projects. This report supplements EPRI 1005194, focusing primarily on aerating turbine technologies for new turbine installations and for turbine upgrades.

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

165

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions and their uses are described. Mixed metal oxide compositions of the invention have stratified crystalline structure identifiable by means of powder X-ray diffraction patterns. In the form of dense ceramic membranes, the present compositions demonstrate an ability to separate oxygen selectively from a gaseous mixture containing oxygen and one or more other volatile components by means of ionic conductivities.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Plainfield, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Prospect, PA); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

NETL: 2011 Conference Proceedings - 2011 NETL CO2 Capture Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2011 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting 2011 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting August 22 - 26, 2011 Previous Proceedings 2009: Annual NETL CO2 Capture Technology for Existing Plants R&D Meeting 2010: 2010 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting Proceedings of the 2011 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting Table of Contents Presentations Monday, August 22 Opening/Overview Post-combustion Sorbent-Based Capture Post-combustion Membrane-Based Capture Tuesday, August 23 Post-combustion Solvent-Based Capture ARPA-E Capture Projects Wednesday, August 24 Oxy-Combustion and Oxygen Production Chemical Looping Process CO2 Compression Thursday, August 25 FutureGen 2.0, CCPI and ICCS Demonstration Projects System Studies and Modeling Pre-Combustion Capture Projects Friday, August 26 Pre-combustion Capture Projects Posters

167

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen ...  

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group

168

Battery utilizing ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

169

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

A technical and economic analysis of a natural gas combined cycle power plant with carbon dioxide capture using membrane separation technology.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is a key technology to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate the potential effects of climate (more)

Ducker, Michael Jay

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible using a Membrane-PSA system.

Staiger, C. L.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

NREL: Technology Transfer - NREL's Industry Growth Forum  

... to 7AC Technologies, Inc., a Massachusetts company that is commercializing a novel membrane-based liquid desiccant HVAC system.

174

APPENDIX B: CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY SHEETS PRE-COMBUSTION SOLVENTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY SHEETS PRE-COMBUSTION SOLVENTS PRE-COMBUSTION SORBENTS PRE-COMBUSTION MEMBRANES POST-COMBUSTION SOLVENTS POST-COMBUSTION SORBENTS POST-COMBUSTION MEMBRANES OXY-COMBUSTION OXYGEN PRODUCTION CHEMICAL LOOPING ADVANCED COMPRESSION R&D COLLABORATIONS B-1 APPENDIX B: CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY SHEETS APPENDIX B: CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY SHEETS NATIONAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY PRE-COMBUSTION SOLVENTS B-6 SRI International - CO 2 Capture Using AC-ABC Processt B-7 PRE-COMBUSTION SORBENTS B-14 TDA Research - CO 2 Capture for Low-Rank Coal IGCC Systems B-15 URS Group - Sorbent Development for WGS B-18 Air Products and Chemicals - Advanced Acid Gas Separation B-24 Ohio State University-Department of Chemical Engineering - Calcium Looping for Hydrogen Production B-33

175

Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Durable, Low-cost, Improved Durable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes US Department of Energy Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Kickoff Meeting, Washington DC, February 13, 2007 Michel Fouré Project Objectives z To develop a low cost (vs. perfluorosulfonated ionomers), durable membrane. z To develop a membrane capable at 80°C at low relative humidity (25-50%). z To develop a membrane capable of operating at 120°C for brief periods of time. z To elucidate membrane degradation and failure mechanisms. U:jen/slides/pres.07/FC kickoff Washington DC 2-13-07 2 Technical Barriers Addressed z Membrane Cost z Membrane Durability z Membrane capability to operate at low relative humidity. z Membrane capability to operate at 120ºC for brief period of times.

176

Flame aerosol nano-technology has been developed to preparation of thin and defect-free porous membrane from the gas phase as a one step method in preparation of membrane for gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Flame aerosol nano-technology has been developed to preparation of thin and defect on deposition of nano particles (-Al2O3, MgO or spinel MgAl2O4), formed in the premixed flame reactor through/or aluminium precursors in the flame to form nano-particles of -Al2O3, MgO or MgAl2O4 spinel. The generated

177

Experimental characterization of an Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) reactor for methane oxyfuel combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ion Transport Membranes (ITM) which conduct both electrons and oxygen ions have been investigated experimentally for oxygen separation and fuel (mostly methane) conversion purposes over the last three decades. The fuel ...

Apo, Daniel Jolomi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov December 2012 This patent-pending technology, "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process," provides a metal-oxide oxygen carrier for application in fuel combustion processes that use oxygen. This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Patent Details U.S. Non-Provisional Patent Application No. 13/159,553; titled "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid

179

Novel carbon dioxide tolerant ceramic membrane for air separation and clean energy delivery.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The ceramic membrane is drawing ever-increasing attention due to its potential in oxygen production and clean energy delivery. However, there are still many challenges which (more)

Zhang, Kun

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Microporous Inorganic Membranes for Hydrogen Purification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microporous Microporous Inorganic Membranes for Hydrogen Purification Brian L. Bischoff, Roddie R. Judkins, and Timothy R. Armstrong Oak Ridge National Laboratory Presented at: DOE Workshop on Hydrogen Separations and Purification Technologies Arlington, Virginia September 8, 2004 2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Hydrogen Separation Membranes * Non-Porous - Palladium based films - Ion transport membranes * Porous - Ordered microporous membranes (IUPAC Recommendations 2001), e.g. zeolite membranes - Microporous membranes 3 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Microporous Membranes * IUPAC defines micropores as pores smaller than 2nm in diameter * Generally a microporous membrane is made by applying 1 to 3 thin layers to a porous support * Porous support can be ceramic or metallic

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane oxygen technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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181

Engineering Development of Ceramic Membrane Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Syngas Technology Provides the Benefits of Oxygen-Based ATR at Significantly Reduced Cost Steam Low Syngas Technology Critical Features: · Promote steam reforming reaction · Promote partial oxidation Syngas Technology Platform Test Systems #12;6 Three Phase Industry-DOE Project with Broad Development

182

Sweeping Gas Membrane Desalination Using Commercial Hydrophobic Hollow Fiber Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water shortages affect 88 developing countries that are home to half of the world's population. In these places, 80-90% of all diseases and 30% of all deaths result from poor water quality. Furthermore, over the next 25 years, the number of people affected by severe water shortages is expected to increase fourfold. Low cost methods of purifying freshwater, and desalting seawater are required to contend with this destabilizing trend. Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for separations that are traditionally accomplished via conventional distillation or reverse osmosis. As applied to desalination, MD involves the transport of water vapor from a saline solution through the pores of a hydrophobic membrane. In sweeping gas MD, a flowing gas stream is used to flush the water vapor from the permeate side of the membrane, thereby maintaining the vapor pressure gradient necessary for mass transfer. Since liquid does not penetrate the hydrophobic membrane, dissolved ions are completely rejected by the membrane. MD has a number of potential advantages over conventional desalination including low temperature and pressure operation, reduced membrane strength requirements, compact size, and 100% rejection of non-volatiles. The present work evaluated the suitability of commercially available technology for sweeping gas membrane desalination. Evaluations were conducted with Celgard Liqui-Cel{reg_sign} Extra-Flow 2.5X8 membrane contactors with X-30 and X-40 hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes. Our results show that sweeping gas membrane desalination systems are capable of producing low total dissolved solids (TDS) water, typically 10 ppm or less, from seawater, using low grade heat. However, there are several barriers that currently prevent sweeping gas MD from being a viable desalination technology. The primary problem is that large air flows are required to achieve significant water yields, and the costs associated with transporting this air are prohibitive. To overcome this barrier, at least two improvements are required. First, new and different contactor geometries are necessary to achieve efficient contact with an extremely low pressure drop. Second, the temperature limits of the membranes must be increased. In the absence of these improvements, sweeping gas MD will not be economically competitive. However, the membranes may still find use in hybrid desalination systems.

EVANS, LINDSEY; MILLER, JAMES E.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Ionically Conducting Membranes for Hydrogen Production and Separation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND SEPARATION Presented by Tony Sammells Eltron Research Inc. Boulder, Colorado www.eltronresearch.com Presented at DOE Hydrogen Separations Workshop Arlington, Virginia September 8, 2004 ELTRON RESEARCH INC. TO BE DISCUSSED * Membranes for Hydrogen Production - Compositions - Feedstocks - Performance - Key Technical Hurdles * Membranes for Hydrogen Separation - Compositions - Ex Situ vs. In Situ WGS - Performance - Key Technical Hurdles ELTRON RESEARCH INC. OVERALL SCHEME FOR CONVERTING FEEDSTOCK TO HYDROGEN WITH SIMULTANEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION Oxygen Transport Membrane Hydrogen Transport Membrane Natural Gas Coal Biomass Syngas CO/H 2 WGS H 2 O CO 2 /H 2 1618afs.dsf H 2 CO 2 ELTRON RESEARCH INC. INCENTIVES FOR OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR

184

Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane, also known as polymer electrolyte membrane, fuel cells (PEMFCs) offer the promise of efficient conversion of chemical energy of fuel, such as hydrogen or methanol, into electricity with minimal pollution. Their widespread use to power zero-emission automobiles as part of a hydrogen economy can contribute to enhanced energy security and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, the commercial viability of PEMFC technology is hindered by high cost associated with the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and poor membrane durability under prolonged operation at elevated temperature. Membranes for automotive fuel cell applications need to perform well over a period comparable to the life of an automotive engine and under heavy load cycling including start-stop cycling under sub-freezing conditions. The combination of elevated temperature, changes in humidity levels, physical stresses and harsh chemical environment contribute to membrane degradation. Perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA)-based membranes, such as Nafion, have been the mainstay of PEMFC technology. Their limitations, in terms of cost and poor conductivity at low hydration, have led to continuing research into membranes that have good proton conductivity at elevated temperatures above 120 C and under low humidity conditions. Such membranes have the potential to avoid catalyst poisoning, simplify fuel cell design and reduce the cost of fuel cells. Hydrocarbon-based membranes are being developed as alternatives to PFSA membranes, but concerns about chemical and mechanical stability and durability remain. Novel anhydrous membranes based on polymer gels infused with protic ionic liquids have also been recently proposed, but considerable fundamental research is needed to understand proton transport in novel membranes and evaluate durability under fuel cell operating conditions. In order to advance this promising technology, it is essential to rationally design the next generation of PEMs based on an understanding of chemistry, membrane morphology and proton transport obtained from experiment, theory and computer simulation.

Devanathan, Ramaswami

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

Arthur J. Ragauskas

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

186

Theory of proton exchange membranes fuel cells and the testing of performance characteristics of polymer electrolyte membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells hold great promise as source of power. A hydrogen and oxygen PEM fuel is a simple fuel cell that can be theoretically characterized. The performance of a PEM fuel cell can be ...

Cruz-Gonzalez, Tizoc, 1982-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Hybrid organic-inorganic pervaporation membranes for desalination.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Membrane desalination using reverse osmosis (RO) has been the leading candidate technology for supplying fresh water in recent years. However, there is a strong motivation (more)

Xie, Zongli

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Polyaniline-Based Membranes for Separating Carbon Dioxide and Methane  

Berkeley Lab researchers have optimized polymer membrane technology to more efficiently remove carbon dioxide (CO2) from natural gas. The invention ...

189

Blue Membranes GmbH | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Wiesbaden, Hessen, Germany Zip D-65203 Sector Carbon Product It develops unique carbon nano- technology for superior surface, carrier and membrane systems. Fuel cells are one of...

190

Gas separation with glass membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop high temperature, high pressure inorganic membrane technology to perform a variety of gas separation processes to improve the efficiency and economics of advanced power generation systems such as direct coal-fueled turbines (DCFT) and the integrated gasification combined cycle process (IGCC). The temperatures encountered in these power generation systems are far above the temperature range for organic membrane materials. Inorganic materials such as ceramics are therefore the most likely membrane materials for use at high temperatures. This project focussed on silica glass fiber membranes made by PPG Industries (Pittsburgh, PA). The goals were both experimental and theoretical. The first objective was to develop a rational theory for the performance of these membranes. With existing theories as a starting point, a new theory was devised to explain the unusual molecular sieving'' behavior exhibited by these glass membranes. An apparatus was then devised for making permeation performance measurements at conditions of interest to DOE (temperatures to 2000[degrees]F; pressures to 1000 psia). With this apparatus, gas mixtures could be made typical of coal combustion or coal gasification processes, these gases could be passed into a membrane test cell, and the separation performance determined. Data were obtained for H[sub 2]/CO,N[sub 2]/CO[sub 2], 0[sub 2]/N[sub 2], and NH[sub 3]/N[sub 2] mixtures and for a variety of pure component gases (He, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], N[sub 2], CO, NH[sub 3]). The most challenging part of the project turned out to be the sealing of the membrane at high temperatures and pressures. The report concludes with an overview of the practical potential of these membranes and of inorganic membranes in general of DOE and other applications.

Roberts, D.L.; Abraham, L.C.; Blum, Y.; Way, J.D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

NETL: Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes Project No.: DE-FE0001322 The University of Minnesota is developing a technically and economically viable membrane for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation from typical water-gas-shift (WGS) mixture feeds. The goal of this project is to further develop recently developed membrane technology based on exfoliated zeolite coatings as components for carbon capture in integrated gasification combined cycle plants. These membranes have the potential to contribute to carbon capture by high-temperature separation of hydrogen from CO2 and other gases present in shifted synthesis gas. Molecular sieve membrane for the pre-combustion capture of CO2. Molecular sieve membrane for the pre-combustion capture of CO2. Related Papers and Publications:

192

NREL: Technology Transfer - NREL's 20th Industry Growth Forum ...  

Porous Power Technologies, LLC Tim Feaver, CEO Presentation: Microporous Membranes for Highly Efficient Lithium Batteries ... Vortex Hydro Energy, LLC

193

Fundamental studies of heterostructured oxide thin film electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction at high temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Searching for active and cost-effective catalysts for oxygen electrocatalysis is essential for the development of efficient clean electrochemical energy technologies. Perovskite oxides are active for surface oxygen exchange ...

Crumlin, Ethan J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Methane coupling by membrane reactor. Quarterly technical progress report, December 25, 1995--March 24, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methane oxidative coupling experiments were conducted in a packed-bed reactor using La/MgO catalyst. The results were in agreement with those reported in the literature. Oxygen permeability through an oxygen-conductive dense membrane was measured. The oxygen permeability was about 20% of the reported values and increased with the sweep flow rate of helium in the tube side. Blank runs under methane coupling conditions were carried out with no catalyst packed in the dense membrane tube. Nearly 100% CO{sub 2} selectivity was observed, suggesting that the membrane material is a facile total oxidation catalyst. After the experiment the membrane tube was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy.

NONE

1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

195

Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

Stuart Nemser, PhD

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Combustion Process Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Reactivity and Capacity of Oxygen Carriers for the Chemical Looping Combustion Process Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov February 2013 This...

197

Liquid membrane purification of biogas  

SciTech Connect

Conventional gas purification technologies are highly energy intensive. They are not suitable for economic removal of CO{sub 2} from methane obtained in biogas due to the small scale of gas production. Membrane separation techniques on the other hand are ideally suited for low gas production rate applications due to their modular nature. Although liquid membranes possess a high species permeability and selectivity, they have not been used for industrial applications due to the problems of membrane stability, membrane flooding and poor operational flexibility, etc. A new hollow-fiber-contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) technique has been developed recently. This technique overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional immobilized liquid membrane technology. A new technique uses two sets of hydrophobic, microporous hollow fine fibers, packed tightly in a permeator shell. The inter-fiber space is filled with an aqueous liquid acting as the membrane. The feed gas mixture is separated by selective permeation of a species through the liquid from one fiber set to the other. The second fiber set carries a sweep stream, gas or liquid, or simply the permeated gas stream. The objectives (which were met) of the present investigation were as follows. To study the selective removal of CO{sub 2} from a model biogas mixture containing 40% CO{sub 2} (the rest being N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4}) using a HFCLM permeator under various operating modes that include sweep gas, sweep liquid, vacuum and conventional permeation; to develop a mathematical model for each mode of operation; to build a large-scale purification loop and large-scale permeators for model biogas separation and to show stable performance over a period of one month.

Majumdar, S.; Guha, A.K.; Lee, Y.T.; Papadopoulos, T.; Khare, S. (Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Application of Oak Ridge Inorganic Membrane  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oak Ridge Inorganic Membrane Oak Ridge Inorganic Membrane Technology to Cat Cracker Recycle Gas Hydrogen* FINAL REPORT DOE FEW FEAC324 June 2003 L.D. Trowbridge *AKA: Application of Inorganic Membrane Technology to Hydrogen-Hydrocarbon Separations ORNL/TM-2003/139 Application of Inorganic Membrane Technology To Hydrogen-hydrocarbon Separations June 2003 Prepared by L. D. Trowbridge DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge: Web site: http://www.osti.gov/bridge Reports produced before January 1, 1996, may be purchased by members of the public from the following source: National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 Telephone: 703-605-6000 (1-800-553-6847)

199

Maintaining and Monitoring Dissolved Oxygen at Hydroelectric Projects: Status Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an update of EPRI's 1990 report, "Assessment and Guide for Meeting Dissolved Oxygen Water Quality Standards for Hydroelectric Plant Discharges" (GS-7001). The report provides an updated review of technologies and techniques for enhancing dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in reservoirs and releases from hydroelectric projects and state-of-the-art methods, equipment, and techniques for monitoring DO.

2002-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

200

Size Influence on the Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity and Instability of Supported Pt Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Size-dependent oxygen reduction reaction activity (ORR) and instability of Pt nanoparticles is of great importance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications. In this study, the size-dependence of ORR activity on ...

Sheng, Wenchao

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane oxygen technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Advanced membrane devices. Interim report for October 1996--September 1997  

SciTech Connect

Under this Cooperative Agreement, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has continued to investigate and develop improved membrane technology for removal of carbon dioxide from natural gas. The task schedule for this reporting period included a detailed assessment of the market opportunity (Chapter 2), continued development and evaluation of membranes and membrane polymers (Chapter 3) and a detailed economic analysis comparing the potential of Air Products membranes to that of established acid gas removal processes (Chapter 4).

Laciak, D.V.; Langsam, M.; Lewnard, J.J.; Reichart, G.C.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

202

Technology Transfer: Available Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Biofuels Biofuels Biotechnology and Medecine Biotechnology & Medicine Chemistry Developing World Energy Efficient Technologies Energy Environmental Technologies...

203

Table II: Technical Targets for Membranes: Automotive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

II: Technical Targets for Membranes: Automotive II: Technical Targets for Membranes: Automotive All targets must be achieved simultaneously Characteristics Units Calendar year 2000 status a 2005 2010 Membrane conductivity, operating temperature Ω-cm -1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Room temperature Ω-cm -1 -20 o C Ω-cm -1 Oxygen cross-over b mA/cm 2 5 5 2 Hydrogen cross-over b mA/cm 2 5 5 2 Cost $/kW 50 5 Operating Temperature o C 80 120 120 Durability Hours 1000 d >4000 e >5000 f Survivability c o C -20 -30 -40 Thermal cyclability in presence of condensed water yes yes yes Notes: a) Status is present day 80 o C unless otherwise noted; targets are for new membranes/CCMs b) Tested in CCM c) Indicates temperature from which bootstrapping stack must be achieved

204

Algae for Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Algae for Oxygen Algae for Oxygen Name: Pam Burkardt Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Hi, I am Pam Burkardt, a seventh grader at Fox Chapel School. I have a question on algae. I read somewhere that someday people might take bath tubs full of algae onto spaceships to provide oxygen for the crew. How much oxygen does algae give off, is this really possible? Replies: I think that most of the oxygen in the atmosphere comes in fact from one-celled plants in the oceans, like algae. They are likely to produce a lot of oxygen per unit weight because they don't have non-photosynthesizing bark, roots, branches, etc., nor (I think) a major dormant period like temperate-zone plants. The cost of space travel at present is dominated by the expense of heaving weight up into Earth orbit (it costs very little extra to send it to the Moon, for example, or Mars). For missions of short duration the weight of the compressed oxygen you need to carry is less than the weight of algae, water and extra plumbing you'd need to carry if you relied on algae to produce your oxygen. The important use of green plants would be in very long duration space flight (years) or permanent inhabitation of worlds like the Moon, where you need an unlimited supply of oxygen. Now if you want to fantasize, Venus' atmosphere is almost all carbon dioxide. Suppose you dropped a whole lot of specially gene-tailored one-celled plants into the atmosphere (not the surface, it's too hot). Why then they might eat up all the carbon dioxide and produce a breathable atmosphere. The "greenhouse effect" would go away, and Venus would become a nice habitable if tropical world only 50 million miles away.

205

Plants making oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plants making oxygen Plants making oxygen Name: Doug Status: N/A Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: Around 1993 Question: How many plants are needed to make enough oxygen for one person for one hour? We are experimenting with Anacharis plants. Replies: The problem can be solved when broken down into smaller questions: 1. How much oxygen does a person need in an hour? 2. How much oxygen does a plant produce in an hour? 3. Based on the above, how many plants will provide the oxygen needs of the person for the hour? Here is the solution to the first question: A resting, healthy adult on an average, cool day breathes in about 53 liters of oxygen per hour. An average, resting, health adult breathes in about 500 mL of air per breath. This is called the normal tidal volume. Now, 150 mL of this air will go to non- functioning areas of the lung, called the "dead space." The average breath rate for this average person is 12 breaths per minute. So, the amount of air breathed in by the person which is available for use is 12 x (500 mL -150 mL) = 4,200 mL/minute. Multiply by 60 to get 252,000 mL/hour. That is, every hour, the person will breathe in 252 L of air. Now, on an average, cool, clear day, only 21% of that air is oxygen. So, 21% of 252 L is 53 L. So, in an hour, the person breathes in about 53 L of oxygen.

206

Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air ...  

The system is a unique gas separation system that ... Energy Innovation ... Sandia National Laboratories - Visit the Intellectual Property Management and ...

207

Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes Background An important component of the Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Program is the development of carbon capture technologies for power systems. Capturing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from mixed-gas streams is a first and critical step in carbon sequestration. To be technically and economically viable, a successful separation method must be applicable to industrially relevant gas streams at realistic

208

High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

Lucian A. Lucia

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

209

Oxygen detection in biological systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

kinetics of flash induced oxygen evolution of algae through measuring ...... (1999) Fast response oxygen micro-optodes based on novel soluble ormosil glasses.

210

Inorganic Polymer Derived Ceramic Membranes 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ceramic porous membranes capable of molecular sieving represent a promising alternative to energy-intensive distillation or cryogenic separation technologies used for processes such as purification of natural gas, air separation, and flue gas cleanup. Such membranes, fabricated at laboratory scale as part of this study, are capable of operating at temperatures as high as 200 degrees Celsius and can withstand harsh chemical environments and aggressive cleaning after fouling. Their selectivity factors and ...

2001-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

211

Membrane Research for Water and Wastewater Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document summarizes two research projects involving the use of membranes in water treatment: o Technologies for Improving Water Desalination -- The objectives of this study were to compare capacitive deionization (CDI) with carbon aerogel and reverse osmosis (RO) for salinity reduction using conventional treatment, conventional treatment with ozone and biologically active filters, and microfiltration as the pretreatment step. o Membrane Pretreatment of Reclaimed Wastewater for Reverse Osmosis Desali...

2001-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

212

Composite sensor membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sensor may include a membrane to deflect in response to a change in surface stress, where a layer on the membrane is to couple one or more probe molecules with the membrane. The membrane may deflect when a target molecule reacts with one or more probe molecules.

Majumdar, Arun (Orinda, CA); Satyanarayana, Srinath (Berkeley, CA); Yue, Min (Albany, CA)

2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

213

ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Engineering Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Mechatronics Technology, and Renewable Energy Technology. Career Opportunities Graduates of four origin, gender, age, marital status, sexual orientation, status as a Vietnam-era veteran, or disability

214

Technology Transfer: Available Technologies  

Please refer to the list of technologies below for licensing and research collaboration availability. If you can't find the technology you ...

215

Surface-Modified Membrane as A Separator for Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the fabrication of novel modified polyethylene (PE) membranes using plasma technology to create high-performance and cost-effective separator membranes for practical applications in lithium-ion polymer ...

Kim, Jun Young

216

NETL: Novel Polymer Membrane Process for Pre-Combustions CO2...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Novel Polymer Membrane Process for Pre-Combustions CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Syngas Project No.: DE-FE0001124 Membrane Technology Research (MTR) is developing a high-temperature...

217

Photoluminescent Aerogel Oxygen Sensor  

Nanocomposite Aerogels, IB-929; Aerogels: Reduction of Inorganic Oxide Aerogels Using Reactive Plasma, IB-1125; See More Materials Technologies. ...

218

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

Kebabian, P.

1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

219

Fabrication and characterization of dense ceramic membranes for partial oxidation of methane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this technology, air is used as the oxidant for methane conversion reactions, thiu eliminating tne need for an expensive oxygen plant. Mixed-conducting ceramic materials have been produced from mixed-oxide system of the La-Sr-Fe-Co-O (SFC) type, in the form of tubes and bars. Thermodynamic stability of the tubes was studied vs oxygen partial pressure by high-temperature XRD. Mechanical properties of the SFC-2 (SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub x}) material were adequate for reactor use. Electronic and ionic conductivities showed that SFC-2 is unique in that its ratio of ionic to electronic conductance is close to unity. Performance of the membrane tubes was good only with SFC-2. Fracture of other SFC tubes was consequence of an oxygen gradient that introduced a volumetric lattice difference between the inner and outer walls. SFC-2 tubes provided methane conversion efficiencies >99% in a reactor and have operated successfully for >1000 h.

Balachandran, U.; Ma, B.; Dusek, J.T.; Picciolo, J.J.; Mieville, R.L.; Maiya, P.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kleefisch, M.S.; Udovich, C.A. [Amoco Research Center, Naperville, IL (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations are critical. DOC technology will continue to have a highly competitive role in retrofit applications requiring increases in furnace productivity.

Riley, M.F.

2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane oxygen technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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221

Membrane separation advances in FE hydrogen program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since its inception in Fiscal Year 2003 the US Office of Fossil Energy (FE) Hydrogen from Coal Program has sponsored more than 60 projects and made advances in the science of separating out pure hydrogen from syngas produced through coal gasification. The Program is focusing on advanced hydrogen separation technologies, which include membranes, and combining the WGS reaction and hydrogen separation in a single operation known as process intensification. The article explains the technologies and describes some key FE membrane projects. More details are available from http://www.fossil.energy.gov. 1 fig.

NONE

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

222

Dense ceramic membranes for converting methane to syngas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Dense mixed-oxide ceramics capable of conducting both electrons and oxygen ions are promising materials for partial oxygenation of methane to syngas. We are particularly interested in an oxide based on the Sr-Fe-Co-O system. Dense ceramic membrane tubes have been fabricated by a plastic extrusion technique. The sintered tubes were then used to selectively transport oxygen from air through the membrane to make syngas without the use of external electrodes. The sintered tubes have operated for >1000 h, and methane conversion efficiencies of >98% have been observed. Mechanical properties, structural integrity of the tubes during reactor operation, results of methane conversion, selectivity of methane conversion products, oxygen permeation, and fabrication of multichannel configurations for large-scale production of syngas will be presented.

Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Picciolo, J.J.; Ma, B.; Maiya, P.S.; Mieville, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kleefisch, M.S.; Udovich, C.A. [Amoco Exploration/Production, Naperville, IL (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report originated in the authors participation in a multi-country study of national innovation systems and their impact on new technology development, sponsored by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Our task was to look at the U.S. national innovation systems impact on the commercial development of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells for residential power applications. Early drivers of PEM fuel cell innovation were the aerospace and defense programs, in particular the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which used fuel cells on its spacecraft. In the early 1990s, deregulation hit the electric utility industry, which made utilities and entrepreneurs see the potential in generating electricity from distributed power. Throughout the 1990s, the Department of Energy funded a significant portion of civilian fuel cell research, while the Department of Defense and NASA funded more esoteric military and space applications. In 1998, the Department of Commerces Advanced Technology Program (ATP) awarded the first of 25 fuel cell projects, as prospects for adoption and commercialization of fuel cell technologies improved.

John M. Nail; Gary Anderson; Gerald Ceasar; Christopher J. Hansen; John M. Nail; Gerald Ceasar; Christopher J. Hansen; Carlos M. Gutierrez; Hratch G. Samerjian; Acting Director; Marc G. Stanley; Director Abstract

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

NETL: Gasification - Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Syngas Processing Systems Syngas Processing Systems Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Coal Gasification Praxair Inc. Project Number: FE0004908 Project Description Praxair is conducting research to develop hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) technology to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen (H2) in coal-derived syngas for IGCC applications. The project team has fabricated palladium based membranes and measured hydrogen fluxes as a function of pressure, temperature, and membrane preparation conditions. Membranes are a commercially-available technology in the chemical industry for CO2 removal and H2 purification. There is, however, no commercial application of membrane processes that aims at CO2 capture for IGCC syngas. Due to the modular nature of the membrane process, the design does not exhibit economy of scale-the cost of the system will increase linearly as the plant system scale increases making the use of commercially available membranes, for an IGCC power plant, cost prohibitive. For a membrane process to be a viable CO2 capture technology for IGCC applications, a better overall performance is required, including higher permeability, higher selectivity, and lower membrane cost.

225

Hybrid Membranes for Light Gas Separations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Membrane separations provide a potentially attractive technology over conventional processes due to their advantages, such as low capital cost and energy consumption. The goal of this thesis is to design hybrid membranes that facilitate specific gas separations, especially olefin/paraffin separations. This thesis focuses on the designing dendrimer-based hybrid membranes on mesoporous alumina for reverse-selective separations, synthesizing Cu(I)-dendrimer hybrid membrane to facilitate olefin/paraffin separations, particularly ethylene/methane separation, and investigating the influence of solvent, stabilizing ligands on facilitated transport membrane. Reverse-selective gas separations have attracted considerable attention in removing the heavier/larger molecules from gas mixtures. In this study, dendrimer-based chemistry was proved to be an effective method by altering dendrimer structures and generations. G6-PIP, G4-AMP and G3-XDA are capable to fill the alumina mesopores and slight selectivity are observed. Facilitated transport membranes were made to increase the olefin/paraffin selectivity based on their chemical interaction with olefin molecules. Two approaches were explored, the first was to combine facilitator Cu(I) with dendrimer hybrid membrane to increase olefin permeance and olefin/paraffin selectivity simultaneously, and second was to facilitate transport membrane functionality by altering solvents and stabilizing ligands. Promising results were found by these two approaches, which were: 1) olefin/paraffin selectivity slightly increased by introducing facilitator Cu(I), 2) the interaction between Cu(I) and dendrimer functional groups are better known.

Liu, Ting

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Membrane degumming of crude vegetable oil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Crude vegetable oils contain various minor substances like phospholipids, coloring pigments, and free fatty acids (FFA) that may affect quality of the oil. Reduction of energy costs and waste disposal are major concerns for many oil refiners who are looking for alternative methods to improve conventional refining methods. During the last decade, energy efficient membrane separation technology has evolved dramatically. This thesis reports a study on degumming crude vegetable oil using membrane separation. In the bench-scale study, two membranes were evaluated for their flux and rejection properties. Process parameters including pressure, temperature, feed velocity and volumetric concentration factor were examined. A 99.6% rejection of phospholipids and a flux of 22.4 LMH were achieved at pressure 300 psi, temperature 40'C and feed velocity 220 1/hr using DS-7 membrane, and significant reduction of the coloring pigments was observed as well. In the pilot-scale study, the spiral wound DS-7 membrane was found effective for 100% rejection of phospholipids with a permeate flux of 57.6 LMH. The rejection rates of phospholipids, Mg and Ca were 100%, 99.6% and 54.6%, respectively. Resistance-in-series model of the membrane system was also studied. The membrane resistance, the fouling resistance, and the polarization resistance for the pilotscale system were 0.29, 0.043, and 4.49, respectively. Evaluation on membrane fouling and cleaning showed that flux decreased rapidly during the first several hours and membrane cleaning presented no significant problem. The pilot-scale study confirmed results of the bench-scale system and provides useful data for commercializing membrane refining process in the near future. KEY WORDS: Membrane separation, crude vegetable oil, degumming, phospholipids.

Lin, Lan

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Dense ceramic membranes for methane conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report focuses on a mechanism for oxygen transport through mixed- oxide conductors as used in dense ceramic membrane reactors for the partial oxidation of methane to syngas (CO and H{sub 2}). The in-situ separation of O{sub 2} from air by the membrane reactor saves the costly cryogenic separation step that is required in conventional syngas production. The mixed oxide of choice is SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x}, which exhibits high oxygen permeability and has been shown in previous studies to possess high stability in both oxidizing and reducing conditions; in addition, it can be readily formed into reactor configurations such as tubes. An understanding of the electrical properties and the defect dynamics in this material is essential and will help us to find the optimal operating conditions for the conversion reactor. In this paper, we discuss the conductivities of the SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub x} system that are dependent on temperature and partial pressure of oxygen. Based on the experimental results, a defect model is proposed to explain the electrical properties of this system. The oxygen permeability of SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub x} is estimated by using conductivity data and is compared with that obtained from methane conversion reaction.

Balachandran, U.; Mieville, R.L.; Ma, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Udovich, C.A. [Amoco Oil Co., Naperville, IL (United States)

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. A family of hydrogen separation membranes was developed including single phase mixed conducting ceramics, ceramic/ceramic composites, cermet membranes, cermet membranes containing a hydrogen permeable metal, and intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. Each membrane type had different operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages that were documented over the course of the project. Research on these membranes progressed from ceramics to cermets to intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. During this progression performance was increased from 0.01 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2} up to 423 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2}. Eltron and team membranes not only developed each membrane type, but also membrane surface catalysis and impurity tolerance, creation of thin film membranes, alternative applications such as membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation, demonstration of scale-up testing, and complete engineering documentation including process and mechanical considerations necessary for inclusion of Eltron membranes in a full scale integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. The results of this project directly led to a new $15 million program funded by the Department of Energy. This new project will focus exclusively on scale-up of this technology as part of the FutureGen initiative.

Carl R. Evenson; Shane E. Roark

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

229

Systems-level design of ion transport membrane oxy-combustion power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxy-fuel combustion, particularly using an integrated oxygen ion transport membrane (ITM), is a thermodynamically attractive concept that seeks to mitigate the penalties associated with CO 2 capture from power plants. ...

Mancini, Nicholas D. (Nicholas David)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Optical oxygen concentration monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Oxygen-Consuming Chlor-Alkali Cell Configured To Minimize Peroxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen-Consuming Chlor-Alkali Cell Oxygen-Consuming Chlor-Alkali Cell Oxygen-Consuming Chlor-Alkali Cell Configured To Minimize Peroxide Formation Oxygen-consuming zero gap chlor-alkali cell was configured to minimize peroxide formation. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Oxygen-Consuming Chlor-Alkali Cell Configured To Minimize Peroxide Formation Oxygen-consuming zero gap chlor-alkali cell was configured to minimize peroxide formation. The cell included an ion-exchange membrane that divided the cell into an anode chamber including an anode and a cathode chamber including an oxygen gas diffusion cathode. The cathode included a single-piece of electrically conducting graphitized carbon cloth. Catalyst and polytetrafluoroethylene were attached to only one side of the cloth.

232

Development of Inorganic Membranes for Hydrogen Separation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents information and data relative to recent advances in the development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory of porous inorganic membranes for high-temperature hydrogen separation. The Inorganic Membrane Technology Laboratory, which was formerly an organizational element of Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC, was formally transferred to Oak Ridge National Laboratory on August 1, 2002, as a result of agreements reached between Bechtel Jacobs Company, the management and integration contractor at the East Tennessee Technology Park (formerly the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant or Oak Ridge K-25 Site); UT-Battelle, the management and operating contractor of Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office. Research emphasis during the last year has been directed toward the development of high-permeance (high-flux) and high-separation-factor metal-supported membranes. Performance data for these membranes are presented and are compared with performance data for membranes previously produced under this program and for membranes produced by other researchers. New insights into diffusion mechanisms are included in the discussion. Fifteen products, many of which are the results of research sponsored by the DOE Fossil Energy Advanced Research Materials Program, have been declared unclassified and have been approved for commercial production.

Bischoff, B.L.; Judkins, R.R.

2003-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

233

Composite zeolite membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new class of composite zeolite membranes and synthesis techniques therefor has been invented. These membranes are essentially defect-free, and exhibit large levels of transmembrane flux and of chemical and isotopic selectivity.

Nenoff, Tina M. (Albuquerque, NM); Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Supported inorganic membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Supported inorganic membranes capable of molecular sieving, and methods for their production, are provided. The subject membranes exhibit high flux and high selectivity. The subject membranes are substantially defect free and less than about 100 nm thick. The pores of the subject membranes have an average critical pore radius of less than about 5 .ANG., and have a narrow pore size distribution. The subject membranes are prepared by coating a porous substrate with a polymeric sol, preferably under conditions of low relative pressure of the liquid constituents of the sol. The coated substrate is dried and calcined to produce the subject supported membrane. Also provided are methods of derivatizing the surface of supported inorganic membranes with metal alkoxides. The subject membranes find use in a variety of applications, such as the separation of constituents of gaseous streams, as catalysts and catalyst supports, and the like.

Sehgal, Rakesh (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, Charles Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Technology Search  

home \\ technologies \\ search. Technologies: Ready-to-Sign Licenses: Software: Patents: Technology Search. ... Operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, ...

236

ESS 2012 Peer Review - Low-Cost, High-Performance Hybrid Membranes...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DESIGN 2008 www.PosterPresentations.com Low-Cost, High-Performance Hybrid Membranes for Redox Flow Batteries Hongxing Hu, Amsen Technologies LLC DOE SBIR Project, Program...

237

Composite fuel cell membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane is described suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

Plowman, K.R.; Rehg, T.J.; Davis, L.W.; Carl, W.P.; Cisar, A.J.; Eastland, C.S.

1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

238

Building Technologies Office: Emerging Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emerging Technologies Emerging Technologies Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Building Technologies Office: Emerging Technologies to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Emerging Technologies on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Emerging Technologies on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Emerging Technologies on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Emerging Technologies on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Emerging Technologies on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Emerging Technologies on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner with DOE Activities Technology Research, Standards, & Codes Popular Links Success Stories Previous Next Lighten Energy Loads with System Design.

239

The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

All three are closely related, crucial aspects of the design and development of new and improved polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes on which the future of fuel cell technology for portable applications depends.

Allcock, Harry R., Benesi, Alan, Macdonald, Digby, D.

2010-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

240

Gas separation with glass membranes. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to develop high temperature, high pressure inorganic membrane technology to perform a variety of gas separation processes to improve the efficiency and economics of advanced power generation systems such as direct coal-fueled turbines (DCFT) and the integrated gasification combined cycle process (IGCC). The temperatures encountered in these power generation systems are far above the temperature range for organic membrane materials. Inorganic materials such as ceramics are therefore the most likely membrane materials for use at high temperatures. This project focussed on silica glass fiber membranes made by PPG Industries (Pittsburgh, PA). The goals were both experimental and theoretical. The first objective was to develop a rational theory for the performance of these membranes. With existing theories as a starting point, a new theory was devised to explain the unusual ``molecular sieving`` behavior exhibited by these glass membranes. An apparatus was then devised for making permeation performance measurements at conditions of interest to DOE (temperatures to 2000{degrees}F; pressures to 1000 psia). With this apparatus, gas mixtures could be made typical of coal combustion or coal gasification processes, these gases could be passed into a membrane test cell, and the separation performance determined. Data were obtained for H{sub 2}/CO,N{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}, 0{sub 2}/N{sub 2}, and NH{sub 3}/N{sub 2} mixtures and for a variety of pure component gases (He, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO, NH{sub 3}). The most challenging part of the project turned out to be the sealing of the membrane at high temperatures and pressures. The report concludes with an overview of the practical potential of these membranes and of inorganic membranes in general of DOE and other applications.

Roberts, D.L.; Abraham, L.C.; Blum, Y.; Way, J.D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane oxygen technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Cadmium sulfide membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

Spanhel, Lubomir (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

1992-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

242

Cadmium sulfide membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

Spanhel, Lubomir (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

1991-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

243

Polyphosphazene semipermeable membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semipermeable, inorganic membrane is disclosed; the membrane is prepared from a phosphazene polymer and, by the selective substitution of the constituent groups bound to the phosphorous in the polymer structure, the selective passage of fluid from a feedstream can be controlled. Resistance to high temperatures and harsh chemical environments is observed in the use of the phosphazene polymers as semipermeable membranes.

Allen, Charles A. (Idaho Falls, ID); McCaffrey, Robert R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Cummings, Daniel G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grey, Alan E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jessup, Janine S. (Darlington, ID); McAtee, Richard E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

NETL: Low-Pressure Membrane Contactors for CO2 Capture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Pressure Membrane Contactors for CO2 Capture Low-Pressure Membrane Contactors for CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0007553 Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) is developing a new type of membrane contactor (or mega-module) to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) from power plant flue gas. This module's membrane area is 500 square meters, 20 to 25 times larger than that of current modules used for CO2 capture. A 500-MWe coal power plant requires 0.5 to 1 million square meters of membrane to achieve 90 percent CO2 capture. The new mega-modules can drastically reduce the cost, complexity, and footprint of commercial-scale membrane module integration. Energy savings due to low-pressure drops for gases circulated through the modules, as well as improved countercurrent flow, are additional benefits. The feasibility of using mega-modules in several different hybrid process designs is being evaluated for future development potential.

245

Power Technologies Energy Data Book: Fourth Edition, Chapter...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells Technology Description A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that converts hydrogen and oxygen into electricity and water. This unique process is...

246

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

Morris, D.E.

1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

247

High pressure oxygen furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Fuel cell oxygen electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A.sub.x WO.sub.3 where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt.sub.y WO.sub.3 where y is at least 0.8.

Shanks, Howard R. (Ames, IA); Bevolo, Albert J. (Ames, IA); Danielson, Gordon C. (Ames, IA); Weber, Michael F. (Wichita, KS)

1980-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

249

NREL Develops Technique to Measure Membrane Thickness and Defects in Polymer Electrode Membrane Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in fuel cell membrane electrode assembly research and development. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center and the National Center for Photovoltaics.

Not Available

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

CO2 Capture by Sub-Ambient Membrane Operation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by Sub-Ambient Membrane by Sub-Ambient Membrane Operation Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing

251

KRW oxygen-blown gasification combined cycle: Carbon dioxide recovery, transport, and disposal  

SciTech Connect

This project emphasizes CO{sub 2}-capture technologies combined with integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. Complementary evaluations address CO{sub 2} transportation, CO{sub 2} use, and options for the long-term sequestration of unused CO{sub 2}. The intent is to provide the CO{sub 2} budget, or an equivalent CO{sub 2} budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps, in addition to process design capital and operating costs. The base case is a 458-MW (gross generation) IGCC system that uses an oxygen-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal feed, and low-pressure glycol sulfur removal followed by Claus/SCOT treatment to produce a saleable product. Mining, feed preparation, and conversion result in a net electric power production for the entire energy cycle of 411 MW, with a CO{sub 2} release rate of 0.801 kg/k Whe. For comparison, in two cases, the gasifier output was taken through water-gas shift and then to low-pressure glycol H{sub 2}S recovery, followed by either low-pressure glycol or membrane CO{sub 2} recovery and then by a combustion turbine being fed a high-hydrogen-content fuel. Two additional cases employed chilled methanol for H{sub 2}S recovery and a fuel cell as the topping cycle with no shift stages. From the IGCC plant, a 500-km pipeline took the CO{sub 2} to geological sequestering. In a comparison of air-blown and oxygen-blown CO{sub 2}-release base cases, the cost of electricity for the air-blown IGCC was 56.86 mills/kWh, and the cost of oxygen-blown IGCC was 58.29 mills/kWh.

Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.R.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Methane coupling by membrane reactor. Quarterly technical progress report, March 25--June 24, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The experimental study was continued on methane oxidative coupling using an oxygen-permeable dense membrane reactor. The oxygen permeance through the dense membrane was measured and preliminary experiments were conducted with the catalytic membrane reactor. The oxygen permeance was found to be similar to that obtained earlier without catalyst packing. No C{sub 2} hydrocarbons were observed in the catalytic membrane reactor for methane coupling. In order to reduce the non-selective, total oxidation activity of the dense membrane material, the inner surface of the dense membrane tube was deposited by the sol-gel technique with BaCe{sub 0.6}Sm{sub 0.4}O{sub 3}, which is a catalytic, oxygen-conductive material without total oxidation catalytic activity. The dense membrane tube was examined by XRD before and after the deposition. Catalytic experiments with the coated dense membrane reactor were carried out and higher C{sub 2} selectivity was observed than with the co-feed reactor.

NONE

1996-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

253

Technology Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Homeland Security & Defense Homeland Security & Defense Information Technology & Communications Information Technology & Communications Sensors, Electronics &...

254

NETL: Electrochemical Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochemical Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power Generation Electrochemical Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Power Generation Project No.: DE-FE0007634 FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed a novel system concept for the separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from greenhouse gas (GHG) emission sources using an electrochemical membrane. The proposed membrane has its genesis from the company's patented Direct FuelCell® (DFC®) technology. The prominent feature of the DFC membrane is its capability to produce power while capturing CO2 from the flue gas from a pulverized coal (PC) plant. The DFC membrane does not require flue gas compression as it operates on the principles of electrochemistry, resulting in net efficiency gains. The membrane utilizes a fuel (different from the plant flue gas, such as coal-derived syngas, natural gas, or a renewable resource) as the driver for the combined carbon capture and electric power generation. The electrochemical membrane consists of ceramic-based layers filled with carbonate salts, separating CO2 from the flue gas. Because of the electrode's high reaction rates, the membrane does not require a high CO2 concentration in its feed gas. The planar geometry of the membrane offers ease of scalability to large sizes suitable for deployment in PC plants, which is an important attribute in membrane design. The membrane has been tested at the laboratory scale, verifying the feasibility of the technology for CO2 separation from simulated flue gases of PC plants as well as combined cycle power plants and other industrial facilities. Fuel Cell Energy, Inc. is advancing the technology to a maturity level suitable for adaption by industry for pilot-scale demonstration and subsequent commercial deployment.

255

High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product  

SciTech Connect

This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

Single Membrane Reactor Configuration for Separation of Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the project was to develop a novel complementary membrane reactor process that can consolidate two or more downstream unit operations of a coal gasification system into a single module for production of a pure stream of hydrogen and a pure stream of carbon dioxide. The overall goals were to achieve higher hydrogen production efficiencies, lower capital costs and a smaller overall footprint than what could be achieved by utilizing separate components for each required unit process/operation in conventional coal-to-hydrogen systems. Specifically, this project was to develop a novel membrane reactor process that combines hydrogen sulfide removal, hydrogen separation, carbon dioxide separation and water-gas shift reaction into a single membrane configuration. The carbon monoxide conversion of the water-gas-shift reaction from the coal-derived syngas stream is enhanced by the complementary use of two membranes within a single reactor to separate hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Consequently, hydrogen production efficiency is increased. The single membrane reactor configuration produces a pure H{sub 2} product and a pure CO{sub 2} permeate stream that is ready for sequestration. This project focused on developing a new class of CO{sub 2}-selective membranes for this new process concept. Several approaches to make CO{sub 2}-selective membranes for high-temperature applications have been tested. Membrane disks using the technique of powder pressing and high temperature sintering were successfully fabricated. The powders were either metal oxide or metal carbonate materials. Experiments on CO{sub 2} permeation testing were also performed in the temperature range of 790 to 940 C for the metal carbonate membrane disks. However, no CO{sub 2} permeation rate could be measured, probably due to very slow CO{sub 2} diffusion in the solid state carbonates. To improve the permeation of CO{sub 2}, one approach is to make membranes containing liquid or molten carbonates. Several different types of dual-phase membranes were fabricated and tested for their CO{sub 2} permeation in reducing conditions without the presence of oxygen. Although the flux was quite low, on the order of 0.01-0.001 cc STP/cm{sup 2}/min, the selectivity of CO{sub 2}/He was almost infinite at temperatures of about 800 C. A different type of dual-phase membrane prepared by Arizona State University (ASU) was also tested at GTI for CO{sub 2} permeation. The measured CO{sub 2} fluxes were 0.015 and 0.02 cc STP/cm{sup 2}/min at 750 and 830 C, respectively. These fluxes were higher than the previous flux obtained ({approx}0.01 cc STP/cm{sup 2}/min) using the dual-phase membranes prepared by GTI. Further development in membrane development should be conducted to improve the CO{sub 2} flux. ASU has also focused on high temperature permeation/separation experiments to confirm the carbon dioxide separation capabilities of the dual-phase membranes with La{sup 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF6482) supports infiltrated with a Li/Na/K molten carbonate mixture (42.5/32.5/25.0 mole %). The permeation experiments indicated that the addition of O{sub 2} does improve the permeance of CO{sub 2} through the membrane. A simplified membrane reactor model was developed to evaluate the performance of the process. However, the simplified model did not allow the estimation of membrane transport area, an important parameter for evaluating the feasibility of the proposed membrane reactor technology. As a result, an improved model was developed. Results of the improved membrane reactor model show that the membrane shift reaction has promise as a means to simplify the production of a clean stream of hydrogen and a clean stream of carbon dioxide. The focus of additional development work should address the large area required for the CO{sub 2} membrane as identified in the modeling calculations. Also, a more detailed process flow diagram should be developed that includes integration of cooling and preheating feed streams as well as particulate removal so that stea

Micheal Roberts; Robert Zabransky; Shain Doong; Jerry Lin

2008-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

257

Biomimetric Membrane for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomimetic memBrane for co Biomimetic memBrane for co 2 capture from flue Gas Background Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is a three-step process including capture, pipeline transport and geologic storage of which the capture of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the most costly and technically challenging. Current available methods impose significant energy burdens that severely impact their overall effectiveness as a significant deployment option. Of the available capture technologies for post combustion applications - absorption, adsorption, reaction and membranes chemically facilitated absorption promises to be the most cost-effective membrane solution for post combustion application. The Carbozyme technology extracts CO 2 from low concentration, low pressure sources by means of chemical facilitation of a polymer membrane. The chemical

258

Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A separation membrane useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C.sub.2+ hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is chosen from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R.sub.2 is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) PMP!. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations.

Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Morisato, Atsushi (Tokyo, JP)

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

259

Supported liquid membrane system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cell apparatus for a supported liquid membrane including opposing faceplates, each having a spirally configured groove, an inlet groove at a first end of the spirally configured groove, and an outlet groove at the other end of the spirally configured groove, within the opposing faces of the faceplates, a microporous membrane situated between the grooved faces of the faceplates, said microporous membrane containing an extractant mixture selective for a predetermined chemical species within the pores of said membrane, means for aligning the grooves of the faceplates in an directly opposing configuration with the porous membrane being situated therebetween, such that the aligned grooves form a pair of directly opposing channels, separate feed solution and stripping solution compartments connected to respective channels between the faceplates and the membrane, separate pumping means for passing feed solution and stripping solution through the channels is provided.

Takigawa, D.Y.; Bush, H. Jr.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

260

Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A separation membrane is described which is useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C{sub 2+} hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula shown in the accompanying diagram, wherein R{sub 1} is chosen from the group consisting of C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R{sub 2} is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP]. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations. 4 figs.

Pinnau, I.; Morisato, Atsushi

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane oxygen technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Siloxane-grafted membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Composite cellulosic semipermeable membranes are disclosed which are the covalently bonded reaction product of an asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membrane and a polysiloxane containing reactive functional group. The two reactants chemically bond by ether, ester, amide or acrylate linkages to form a siloxane-grafted cellulosic membrane having superior selectivity and flux stability. Selectivity may be enhanced by wetting the surface with a swelling agent such as water.

Friesen, D.T.; Obligin, A.S.

1989-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

262

Novel Metallic Membranes for Hydrogen Separation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To reduce dependence on oil and emission of greenhouse gases, hydrogen is favored as an energy carrier for the near future. Hydrogen can be converted to electrical energy utilizing fuel cells and turbines. One way to produce hydrogen is to gasify coal which is abundant in the U.S. The coal gasification produces syngas from which hydrogen is then separated. Designing metallic alloys for hydrogen separation membranes which will work in a syngas environment poses significant challenges. In this presentation, a review of technical targets, metallic membrane development activities at NETL and challenges that are facing the development of new technologies will be given.

Dogan, Omer

2011-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

263

Membranes for Clean Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Membranes for Clean Water. Summary: ... Description: Impact. Access to affordable, clean water is vital to the nation's economic growth and security. ...

2013-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

264

Anion exchange membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

265

Methane coupling by membrane reactor. Quarterly technical progress report, June 25, 1994--September 24, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This quarterly report describes results from the experimental studies on oxidative coupling of methane, oxygen conducting perovskite dense membrane synthesis and modeling studies of the methane coupling reaction. The focus of the experimental study is to explore the effects of varying catalyst loading, varying methane to oxygen ratios and feed conditions when the oxygen conversion is much less than 100%. Results from these studies help in understanding the effects of various parameters controlling methane coupling. Dense membrane synthesis and characterization results are presented which describe new approaches to the synthesis and characterization of these membranes. The modeling results described in this report present a theoretical fit to the experimental data on oxidative coupling of methane in fixed bed reactors. The parameters from the fit are used to predict the trends in experimental data obtained from VYCOR membrane reactors. The predicted trends are based on a theoretical model employing simplified methane coupling kinetics.

Ma, Yi Hua

1995-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

266

NETL: IEP - Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Membrane Process to  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Membrane Process to Capture CO2 from Power Plant Flue Gas Membrane Process to Capture CO2 from Power Plant Flue Gas Project No.: DE-NT0005312 CLICK ON IMAGE TO ENLARGE MTR membrane test skid. Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) Inc. is preparing commercial-scale membrane modules that meet low pressure-drop and high packing-density performance targets using carbon dioxide (CO2) capture membranes developed under FC26-07NT43085, a previous MTR project with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. These thin-film membranes utilize Pebax® polyether-polyamide copolymers. The new research will involve the construction of an approximately 1 ton of CO2 per day capacity membrane skid for use in a six-month pilot-scale field test using a slip-stream of flue gas from a coal-fired power plant.

267

NETL: Novel Polymer Membrane Process for Pre-Combustions CO2 Capture from  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polymer Membrane Process for Pre-Combustions CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Syngas Polymer Membrane Process for Pre-Combustions CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Syngas Project No.: DE-FE0001124 Membrane Technology Research (MTR) is developing a high-temperature stable polymer membrane to separate hydrogen from carbon dioxide (H2/CO2). MTR will investigate novel high-temperature-stable polymers identified by Tetramer for use in H2/CO2 selective membranes. They will also conduct bench-scale testing of optimized membranes and membrane modules with simulated syngas to evaluate the membrane performance and lifetime under expected operating conditions. The advantages of this technology are that the process can be done warm/hot to reduce the need for heat exchange and nitrogen sweep can be used to maintain permeate fuel gas at turbine pressure.

268

Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2006.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. This goal of this project is to develop two types of dense ceramic membrane for producing hydrogen nongalvanically, i.e., without electrodes or external power supply, at commercially significant fluxes under industrially relevant operating conditions. The first type of membrane, hydrogen transport membranes (HTMs), will be used to separate hydrogen from gas mixtures such as the product streams from coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. Potential ancillary uses of HTMs include dehydrogenation and olefin production, as well as hydrogen recovery in petroleum refineries and ammonia synthesis plants, the largest current users of deliberately produced hydrogen. The second type of membrane, oxygen transport membranes (OTMs), will produce hydrogen by nongalvanically removing oxygen that is generated when water dissociates at elevated temperatures. This report describes progress that was made during FY 2006 on the development of OTM and HTM materials.

Balachandran, U.; Chen, L.; Ciocco, M.; Doctor, R. D.; Dorris, S.E.; Emerson, J. E.; Fisher, B.; Lee, T. H.; Killmeyer, R. P.; Morreale,B.; Picciolo, J. J.; Siriwardane, R. V.; Song, S. J.

2007-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

269

Vendor / Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Brake Assessment Tools Commercial Motor Vehicle Roadside Technology Corridor Safety Technology Showcase October 14, 2010 Commercial Motor Vehicle Roadside Technology Corridor...

270

Vendor / Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Brake-Related Research Commercial Motor Vehicle Roadside Technology Corridor Safety Technology Showcase October 14, 2010 Commercial Motor Vehicle Roadside Technology Corridor...

271

Faience Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by Joanne Hodges. Faience Technology, Nicholson, UEE 2009Egyptian materials and technology, ed. Paul T. Nicholson,Nicholson, 2009, Faience Technology. UEE. Full Citation:

Nicholson, Paul

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Methane coupling by membrane reactor. Quarterly technical progress report, March 25, 1995--June 24, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research focus, for the development of a radial flow catalytic membrane reactor for studying methane coupling concentrated on understanding the effects of pore size on improving the hydrocarbon selectivity for the reaction. The effect of pressure on the reaction was also investigated. Experimental results from the catalytic studies of oxidative coupling of methane in the radial flow membrane reactors presented in this report augment earlier work on membranes of pore diameters of 2.0{mu}m, 0.2{mu}m, and 0.02{mu}m, indicating better performance with the larger pore diameter membranes. Higher operating pressures seem to enhance gas phase non-selective reactions during methane coupling. The chemistry of oxygen conducting materials that could be used as dense membranes in the membrane reactors was investigated by studying the catalytic activity of several oxygen conducting perovskites for methane coupling. Heavy metal oxides of lanthanum, strontium and iron, which form good oxygen conductors, showed very poor methane coupling activity. Perovskites of the Strontium-Cerium-Yttribium series showed moderate activity for methane coupling. These could serve as candidates for dense membrane synthesis, since they also have moderate oxygen conduction properties.

Yi Hua Ma

1995-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

273

Separating hydrogen from coal gasification gases with alumina membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Synthesis gas produced in coal gasification processes contains hydrogen, along with carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, water, nitrogen, and other gases, depending on the particular gasification process. Development of membrane technology to separate the hydrogen from the raw gas at the high operating temperatures and pressures near exit gas conditions would improve the efficiency of the process. Tubular porous alumina membranes with mean pore radii ranging from about 9 to 22 {Angstrom} have been fabricated and characterized. Based on hydrostatic tests, the burst strength of the membranes ranged from 800 to 1600 psig, with a mean value of about 1300 psig. These membranes were evaluated for separating hydrogen and other gases. Tests of membrane permeabilities were made with helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. Measurements were made at room temperature in the pressure range of 15 to 589 psi. Selected membranes were tested further with mixed gases simulating a coal gasification product gas. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Egan, B.Z. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.; White, D.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Methane coupling by membrane reactor. Quarterly report, June 25--September 24, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To prevent the deep oxidation of methane catalyzed by the direct contact between methane and the dense membrane material (SrFeCo{sub 0.5}O{sub 3{minus}x}), BaCe{sub 0.6}Sm{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} perovskite was coated on the inner surface of the dense membrane tube by the sol-gel technique. Different pretreatment methods were tested to compare their effects on the coated film. The morphology of the coated membrane was studied by SEM. The BaCe{sub 0.6}Sm{sub 0.4}O{sub 3}-coated membrane which was pretreated with a basic solution before coating was more evenly covered by the coating material. The oxygen permanence through the modified membrane tube were measured at different temperatures. The oxygen permanence were found to be about 70% lower than those of the unmodified tubes. The catalytic runs were carried out with La/MgO catalyst packed inside the membrane tube. The C{sub 2} yields obtained using the dense membrane reactor were less than 4%. This may have resulted from the fact that the methane fed to the tube side was still exposed to the uncoated area of the dense membrane surface due to the incomplete coverage of the coating material (BaCe{sub 0.6}Sm{sub 0.4}O{sub 3}). A hybrid dense membrane reactor, in which the oxygen was supplied by co-feeding oxygen with methane to the tube side and feeding air to the shell side, was used for the oxidative coupling of methane. Again, the inner surface of the membrane tube was coated with BaCe{sub 0.6}Sm{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} by the sol-gel technique, and the La/MgO catalyst was packed inside the membrane tube. The oxygen permanence through the membrane tube was found to be about ten times higher than that under non-reaction conditions. C{sub 2} yields up to 12% were obtained using the coated dense membrane reactor. These yields are higher than those obtained in an uncoated dense membrane reactor setup with methane and oxygen co-fed into the tube side, where the same catalyst was packed.

Ma, Y.H.

1996-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

275

Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

O' Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O' Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

276

Oxygen to the core  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1-01 1-01 For immediate release: 01/10/2013 | NR-13-01-01 Oxygen to the core Anne M Stark, LLNL, (925) 422-9799, stark8@llnl.gov Printer-friendly An artist's conception of Earth's inner and outer core. LIVERMORE, Calif. -- An international collaboration including researchers from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has discovered that the Earth's core formed under more oxidizing conditions than previously proposed. Through a series of laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments at high pressure (350,000 to 700,000 atmospheres of pressure) and temperatures (5,120 to 7,460 degrees Fahrenheit), the team demonstrated that the depletion of siderophile (also known as "iron loving") elements can be produced by core formation under more oxidizing conditions than earlier

277

Mixed conducting membranes for syngas production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention presents a new class of multicomponent metallic oxides which are particularly suited toward use in fabricating components used in processes for producing syngas. The non-stoichiometric, A-site rich compositions of the present invention are represented by the formula (Ln.sub.x Ca.sub.1-x).sub.y FeO.sub.3-.delta. wherein Ln is La or a mixture of lanthanides comprising La, and wherein 1.0>x>0.5, 1.1.gtoreq.y>1.0 and .delta. is a number which renders the composition of matter charge neutral. Solid-state membranes formed from these compositions provide a favorable balance of oxygen permeance and resistance to degradation when employed in processes for producing syngas. This invention also presents a process for making syngas which utilizes such membranes.

Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Butt, Darryl (Gainesville, FL); Van Doorn, Rene Hendrick Elias (Neckarsulm, DE); Cutler, Raymond Ashton (Bountiful, UT)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Summary - Caustic Recovery Technology  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Caustic Recovery Technology Caustic Recovery Technology ETR Report Date: July 2007 ETR-7 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External Technical Review of Caustic Recovery Technology Why DOE-EM Did This Review The Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office (EM-21) has been developing caustic recovery technology for application to the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) to reduce the amount of Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrified. Recycle of sodium hydroxide with an efficient caustic recovery process could reduce the amount of waste glass produced by greater than 30%. The Ceramatec Sodium (Na), Super fast Ionic CONductors (NaSICON) membrane has shown promise for directly producing 50% caustic with high sodium selectivity. The external review

279

Transport Reactor Development Unit Modification to Provide a Syngas Slipstream at Elevated Conditions to Enable Separation of 100 LB/D of Hydrogen by Hydrogen Separation Membranes Year - 6 Activity 1.15 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology  

SciTech Connect

Gasification of coal when associated with carbon dioxide capture and sequestration has the potential to provide low-cost as well as low-carbon hydrogen for electric power, fuels or chemicals production. The key element to the success of this concept is inexpensive, effective separation of hydrogen from carbon dioxide in synthesis gas. Many studies indicate that membrane technology is one of the most, if not the most, economical means of accomplishing separation; however, the advancement of hydrogen separation membrane technology is hampered by the absence of experience or demonstration that the technology is effective economically and environmentally at larger scales. While encouraging performance has been observed at bench scale (less than 12 lb/d hydrogen), it would be imprudent to pursue a largescale demonstration without testing at least one intermediate scale, such as 100 lb/d hydrogen. Among its many gasifiers, the Energy & Environmental Research Center is home to the transport reactor demonstration unit (TRDU), a unit capable of firing 200500 lb/hr of coal to produce 400 scfm of synthesis gas containing more than 200 lb/d of hydrogen. The TRDU and associated downstream processing equipment has demonstrated the capability of producing a syngas over a wide range of temperatures and contaminant levels some of which approximate conditions of commercial-scale gasifiers. Until this activity, however, the maximum pressure of the TRDU s product syngas was 120 psig, well below the 400+ psig pressures of existing large gasifiers. This activity installed a high-temperature compressor capable of accepting the range of TRDU products up to 450F and compressing them to 500 psig, a pressure comparable to some large scale gasifiers. Thus, with heating or cooling downstream of the TRDU compressor, the unit is now able to present a near-raw to clean gasifier synthesis gas containing more than 100 lb/d of hydrogen at up to 500 psig over a wide range of temperatures to hydrogen separation membranes or other equipment for development and demonstration.

Schlasner, Steven

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

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281

Membrane module assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

Kaschemekat, J.

1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

282

Microporous alumina ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Sheng, Guangyao (Madison, WI)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Microporous alumina ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

Anderson, M.A.; Guangyao Sheng.

1993-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

284

Technology Transfer: Available Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

test test Please refer to the list of technologies below for licensing and research collaboration availability. If you can't find the technology you're interested in, please contact us at TTD@lbl.gov. Energy ENERGY EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGIES Aerosol Sealing Aerosol Remote Sealing System Clog-free Atomizing and Spray Drying Nozzle Air-stable Nanomaterials for Efficient OLEDs Solvent Processed Nanotube Composites OLEDS with Air-stable Structured Electrodes APIs for Online Energy Saving Tools: Home Energy Saver and EnergyIQ Carbon Dioxide Capture at a Reduced Cost Dynamic Solar Glare Blocking System Electrochromic Device Controlled by Sunlight Electrochromic Windows with Multiple-Cavity Optical Bandpass Filter Electrochromic Window Technology Portfolio Universal Electrochromic Smart Window Coating

285

Membranes with a boundary  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the recently developed theory of multiple membranes. In particular, we consider open membranes, i.e. the theory defined on a membrane world volume with a boundary. We first restrict our attention to the gauge sector of the theory. We obtain a boundary action from the Chern-Simons terms. Secondly, we consider the addition of certain boundary terms to various Chern-Simons theories coupled to matter. These terms ensure the full bulk plus boundary action has the correct amount of supersymmetry. For the ABJM model, this construction motivates the inclusion of a boundary quartic scalar potential. The boundary dynamics obtained from our modified theory produce Basu-Harvey type equations describing membranes ending on a fivebrane. The ultimate goal of this work is to throw light on the theory of fivebranes using the theory of open membranes.

David S Berman; Daniel C Thompson

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Sunnyside Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Technologies Inc Technologies Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Sunnyside Technologies, Inc Place Minneapolis, Minnesota Zip 55413 Sector Carbon, Hydro, Hydrogen Product Technology firm developing advanced materials and nanotechnologies including carbon nanofiber reinforced composite fabrication, polymer membranes, thin film deposition, inorganic membranes, low-cost hydrogen and single crystal growth. References Sunnyside Technologies, Inc[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Sunnyside Technologies, Inc is a company located in Minneapolis, Minnesota . References ↑ "Sunnyside Technologies, Inc" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Sunnyside_Technologies_Inc&oldid=351815"

287

Methane coupling by membrane reactor. Quarterly technical progress report, December 25, 1994--March 24, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research efforts during this quarter concentrated on two issues. The first issue is related to the chemistry of oxygen conducting materials that could be used as dense membranes in the membrane reactors. Mixed oxides of La, Sr, Fe, Ce, Yb etc., were synthesized, characterized and studied for their catalytic activity towards the oxidative coupling of methane. Heavy metal oxides of lanthanum, strontium and iron, which form good oxygen conductors, showed very poor methane coupling activity. Perovskites of the Strontium-Cerium-Yitribium series showed moderate activity for methane coupling. These could be potential candidates for dense membrane synthesis, since they also have moderate oxygen conduction properties. The second area of research focus was the development of a radial flow catalytic membrane reactor in which methane coupling was carried out over a catalyst that was deposited inside the pores of a ceramic porous membrane. Catalytic results from the high temperature oxidative coupling of methane in these radial flow membrane reactors are presented in this report. By exploring the reactor performance in membranes of pore diameters of 2.0{mu}m, 0.2{mu}m, and 0.02{mu}m, the effect of the diffusional regime on the methane. coupling activity was demonstrated. The smallest pore diameter membranes exhibited lowest hydrocarbon selectivities.

Ma, Hua Yi

1995-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

288

Oxygen-blown gasification combined cycle: Carbon dioxide recovery, transport, and disposal  

SciTech Connect

This project emphasizes CO2-capture technologies combined with integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems, CO2 transportation, and options for the long-term sequestration Of CO2. The intent is to quantify the CO2 budget, or an ``equivalent CO2`` budget, associated with each of the individual energy-cycle steps, in addition to process design capital and operating costs. The base case is a 458-MW (gross generation) IGCC system that uses an oxygen-blown Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW) agglomerating fluidized-bed gasifier, bituminous coal feed, and low-pressure glycol sulfur removal, followed by Claus/SCOT treatment, to produce a saleable product. Mining, feed preparation, and conversion result in a net electric power production for the entire energy cycle of 411 MW, with a CO2 release rate of 0.801 kg/kV-Whe. For comparison, in two cases, the gasifier output was taken through water-gas shift and then to low-pressure glycol H2S recovery, followed by either low-pressure glycol or membrane CO2 recovery and then by a combustion turbine being fed a high-hydrogen-content fuel. Two additional cases employed chilled methanol for H2S recovery and a fuel cell as the topping cycle, with no shift stages. From the IGCC plant, a 500-km pipeline takes the CO2 to geological sequestering. For the optimal CO2 recovery case, the net electric power production was reduced by 37.6 MW from the base case, with a CO2 release rate of 0.277 kg/kWhe (when makeup power was considered). In a comparison of air-blown and oxygen-blown CO2-release base cases, the cost of electricity for the air-blown IGCC was 56.86 mills/kWh, while the cost for oxygen-blown IGCC was 58.29 mills/kWh. For the optimal cases employing glycol CO2 recovery, there was no clear advantage; the cost for air-blown IGCC was 95.48 mills/kWh, and the cost for the oxygen-blown IGCC was slightly lower, at 94.55 mills/kWh.

Doctor, R.D.; Molburg, J.C.; Thimmapuram, P.R.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

289

One Step Biomass Gas Reforming-Shift Separation Membrane Reactor  

SciTech Connect

GTI developed a plan where efforts were concentrated in 4 major areas: membrane material development, membrane module development, membrane process development, and membrane gasifier scale-up. GTI assembled a team of researchers to work in each area. Task 1.1 Ceramic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by Arizona State University (ASU), Task 1.2 Metallic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by the U.S. National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Task 1.3 was conducted by SCHOTT, and GTI was to test all membranes that showed potential. The initial focus of the project was concentrated on membrane material development. Metallic and glass-based membranes were identified as hydrogen selective membranes under the conditions of the biomass gasification, temperatures above 700C and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. Membranes were synthesized by arc-rolling for metallic type membranes and incorporating Pd into a glass matrix for glass membranes. Testing for hydrogen permeability properties were completed and the effects of hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide were investigated for perspective membranes. The initial candidate membrane of Pd80Cu20 chosen in 2008 was selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. Although the H2A analysis results indicated a $1.96 cost per gge H2 based on a 5A (micron) thick PdCu membrane, there was not long-term operation at the required flux to satisfy the go/no go decision. Since the future PSA case yielded a $2.00/gge H2, DOE decided that there was insufficient savings compared with the already proven PSA technology to further pursue the membrane reactor design. All ceramic membranes synthesized by ASU during the project showed low hydrogen flux as compared with metallic membranes. The best ceramic membrane showed hydrogen permeation flux of 0.03 SCFH/ft2 at the required process conditions while the metallic membrane, Pd80Cu20 showed a flux of 47.2 SCFH/ft2 (3 orders of magnitude difference). Results from NETL showed Pd80Cu20 with the highest flux, therefore it was chosen as the initial and eventually, final candidate membrane. The criteria for choice were high hydrogen flux, long-term stability, and H2S tolerance. Results from SCHOTT using glass membranes showed a maximum of 0.25 SCFH/ft2, that is an order of magnitude better than the ceramic membrane but still two orders of magnitude lower than the metallic membrane. A membrane module was designed to be tested with an actual biomass gasifier. Some parts of the module were ordered but the work was stopped when a no go decision was made by the DOE.

Roberts, Michael J. [Gas Technology Institute; Souleimanova, Razima [Gas Technology Institute

2012-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

290

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294

Plants and Night Oxygen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plants and Night Oxygen Production Plants and Night Oxygen Production Name: Ashar Status: other Grade: other Location: Outside U.S. Country: India Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: I would like to know if there are any plants which produces oxygen at night (without photosynthesis). I was told by a friend that Holy Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) produces oxygen even at night and I'm not convinced. I would like to get confirmation from experts. Replies: Some plants (particularly those of dry regions, e.g., deserts) only open their stomates at night to avoid drying out to intake CO2 (and output O2) (CAM photosynthesis) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crassulacean_acid_metabolism Sincerely, Anthony R. Brach, PhD Missouri Botanical Garden Bringing oxygen producing plants into your home is a way to mimic the healthy lifestyle factors of longevity in humans from the longest lived cultures.

295

MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MTBE, Oxygenates, and MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an

296

Semipermeable thin-film membranes comprising siloxane, alkoxysilyl and aryloxysilyl oligomers and copolymers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel semipermeable membranes and thin film composite (TFC) gas separation membranes useful in the separation of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, lower hydrocarbons, and other gases are disclosed. The novel semipermeable membranes comprise the polycondensation reaction product of two complementary polyfunctional compounds, each having at least two functional groups that are mutually reactive in a condensation polymerization reaction, and at least one of which is selected from siloxanes, alkoxsilyls and aryloxysilyls. The TFC membrane comprises a microporous polymeric support, the surface of which has the novel semipermeable film formed thereon, preferably by interfacial polymerization.

Babcock, W.C.; Friesen, D.T.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials.

Bitensky, Mark W. (Boston, MA); Yoshida, Tatsuro (Newton, MA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials. 8 figs.

Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

299

THE OXYGEN PERMEATION PROPERTIES OF NANO CRYSTALLINE CEO2 THIN FILMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The measurement of oxygen flux across nanocrystalline CeO{sub 2} cerium oxide thin films at intermediate temperature (650 to 800 C) is presented. Porous ceria support substrates were fabricated by sintering with carbon additions. The final dense film was deposited from an optimized sol-gel solution resulting in a mean grain size of 50 nm which displayed oxygen flux values of up to 0.014 {micro}mol/cm{sup 2}s over the oxygen partial pressure range from air to helium gas used in the measurement at 800 C. The oxygen flux characteristics confirm mixed ionic and electronic conductivity in nanocrystalline ceria films and demonstrate the role of size dependent materials properties as a design parameter in functional membranes for oxygen separation.

Brinkman, K.

2010-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

300

Technology Transfer: Available Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Please refer to the list of technologies below for licensing and research Please refer to the list of technologies below for licensing and research collaboration availability. If you can't find the technology you're interested in, please contact us at TTD@lbl.gov. Biotechnology and Medicine DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPEUTICS CANCER CANCER PROGNOSTICS 14-3-3 Sigma as a Biomarker of Basal Breast Cancer ANXA9: A Therapeutic Target and Predictive Marker for Early Detection of Aggressive Breast Cancer Biomarkers for Predicting Breast Cancer Patient Response to PARP Inhibitors Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk Analysis Using Selected Gene Expression Comprehensive Prognostic Markers and Therapeutic Targets for Drug-Resistant Breast Cancers Diagnostic Test to Personalize Therapy Using Platinum-based Anticancer Drugs Early Detection of Metastatic Cancer Progenitor Cells

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301

Novel, Ceramic Membrane System For Hydrogen Separation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Separation of hydrogen from coal gas represents one of the most promising ways to produce alternative sources of fuel. Ceramatec, teamed with CoorsTek and Sandia National Laboratories has developed materials technology for a pressure driven, high temperature proton-electron mixed conducting membrane system to remove hydrogen from the syngas. This system separates high purity hydrogen and isolates high pressure CO{sub 2} as the retentate, which is amenable to low cost capture and transport to storage sites. The team demonstrated a highly efficient, pressure-driven hydrogen separation membrane to generate high purity hydrogen from syngas using a novel ceramic-ceramic composite membrane. Recognizing the benefits and limitations of present membrane systems, the all-ceramic system has been developed to address the key technical challenges related to materials performance under actual operating conditions, while retaining the advantages of thermal and process compatibility offered by the ceramic membranes. The feasibility of the concept has already been demonstrated at Ceramatec. This project developed advanced materials composition for potential integration with water gas shift rectors to maximize the hydrogenproduction.

Elangovan, S.

2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

302

Technology Transfer: Available Technologies  

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Software and Information Technologies Software and Information Technologies Algorithm for Correcting Detector Nonlinearites Chatelet: More Accurate Modeling for Oil, Gas or Geothermal Well Production Collective Memory Transfers for Multi-Core Processors Energy Efficiency Software EnergyPlus:Energy Simulation Software for Buildings Tools, Guides and Software to Support the Design and Operation of Energy Efficient Buildings Flexible Bandwidth Reservations for Data Transfer Genomic and Proteomic Software LABELIT - Software for Macromolecular Diffraction Data Processing PHENIX - Software for Computational Crystallography Vista/AVID: Visualization and Allignment Software for Comparative Genomics Geophysical Software Accurate Identification, Imaging, and Monitoring of Fluid Saturated Underground Reservoirs

303

Available Technologies  

... a nanoscale metal grid can be placed on the slide to confine lateral mobility within the lower membrane to precisely ... test new drugs that ...

304

Ceramic membrane reactor with two reactant gases at different pressures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a ceramic membrane reactor for syngas production having a reaction chamber, an inlet in the reactor for natural gas intake, a plurality of oxygen permeating ceramic slabs inside the reaction chamber with each slab having a plurality of passages paralleling the gas flow for transporting air through the reaction chamber, a manifold affixed to one end of the reaction chamber for intake of air connected to the slabs, a second manifold affixed to the reactor for removing the oxygen depleted air, and an outlet in the reaction chamber for removing syngas.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Mieville, Rodney L. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.  

SciTech Connect

All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily Lepalovsky; and Translator Vladimir Litvinov. During this trip project participants were to discuss with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and representative of Praxair Inc. J. Chen the results of project activities (prospects of transition metal-doped material application in oxygen pumps), as well as the prospects of cooperation with Praxair at the meeting with the company management in the following fields: (1) Deposition of thin films of oxide materials of complex composition on support by magnetron and ion sputtering, research of coatings properties; (2) Development of block-type structure technology (made of porous and dense ceramics) for oxygen pump. The block-type structure is promising because when the size of electrolyte block is 2 x 2 inches and assembly height is 10 inches (5 blocks connected together) the area of active surface is ca. 290 square inches (in case of 8 slots), that roughly corresponds to one tube with diameter 1 inch and height 100 inches. So performance of the system made of such blocks may be by a factor of two or three higher than that of tube-based system. However one month before the visit, J. Chen notified us of internal changes at Praxair and the cancellation of the visit to Tonawanda, NY. During consultations with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and Senior Project Manager A. Taylor a decision was made to extend the project term by 2 quarters to prepare proposals for follow-on activities during this extension (development of block-type structures made of dense and porous oxide ceramics for electrochemical oxygen pumps) using the funds that were not used for the trip to the US.

Carter, J. D. Noble, J.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Oxygenates vs. synthesis gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methanol synthesis from H{sub 2}/CO has been carried out at 7.6 MPa over zirconia-supported copper catalysts. Catalysts with nominal compositions of 10/90 mol% and 30/70 mol% Cu/ZrO{sub 2} were used in this study. Additionally, a 3 mol% cesium-doped 10/90 catalyst was prepared to study the effect of doping with heavy alkali, and this promoter greatly increased the methanol productivity. The effects of CO{sub 2} addition, water injection, reaction temperature, and H{sub 2}/C0 ratio have been investigated. Both CO{sub 2} addition to the synthesis gas and cesium doping of the catalyst promoted methanol synthesis, while inhibiting the synthesis of dimethyl ether. Injection of water, however, was found to slightly suppress methanol and dimethyl ether formation while being converted to CO{sub 2} via the water gas shift reaction over these catalysts. There was no clear correlation between copper surface area and catalyst activity. Surface analysis of the tested samples revealed that copper tended to migrate and enrich the catalyst surface. The concept of employing a double-bed reactor with a pronounced temperature gradient to enhance higher alcohol synthesis was explored, and it was found that utilization of a Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a first lower temperature bed and a Cs-promoted ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a second high-temperature bed significantly promoted the productivity of 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas mixtures. While the conversion of CO to C{sub 2+} oxygenates over the double-bed configuration was comparable to that observed over the single Cu-based catalyst, major changes in the product distribution occurred by the coupling to the zinc chromite catalyst; that is, the productivity of the C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols decreased dramatically, and 2-methyl branched alcohols were selectively formed. The desirable methanol/2-methyl oxygenate molar ratios close to 1 were obtained in the present double-bed system that provides the feedstock for the synthesis of high octane and high cetane ethers, where the isobutanol productivity was as high as 139 g/kg cat/hr. Higher alcohol synthesis has been investigated over a Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at temperatures higher (up to 703K) than those previously utilized, and no sintering of the catalyst was observed during the short-term testing. However, the higher reaction temperatures led to lower CO conversion levels and lower yield of alcohols, especially of methanol, because of equilibrium limitations. With the double catalyst bed configuration, the effect of pressure in the range of 7.6--12.4 MPa on catalyst activity and selectivity was studied. The upper bed was composed of the copper-based catalyst at 598K, and the lower bed consisted of a copper-free Cs-ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at a high temperature of 678K. High pressure was found to increase CO conversion to oxygenated products, although the increase in isobutanol productivity did not keep pace with that of methanol. It was also shown that the Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst could be utilized to advantage as the second-bed catalyst at 613--643K instead of the previously used copper-free Cs-ZnO/ Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at higher temperature, With double Cs/Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, high space time yields of up to 202 g/kg cat/hr, with high selectivity to isobutanol, were achieved.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Alessandra Beretta; Maria A. Burcham; Qun Sun; Yeping Cai; Biswanath Roy

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Membranes Improve Insulation Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been determined from extensive tests involving test models and home attics that loose fill and fiber batt insulation does not function as expected by the industry. The reason for this deficiency is current test methods do not accurately predict the magnitude of air infiltration into fiber insulation as used in home attics, radiant heat infiltration into the insulation during summer, or radiant heat loss through the insulation during winter conditions. The use of (1) moisture permeable membranes over the insulation, and (2) layered membranes between fiber batts to form closed cells in the insulation both dramatically improve the efficiency of the fiber insulation. The efficiency of this insulation will be improved to an even greater degree if these membranes reflect radiant heat as well as reduce convection air currents. Extensive tests have also been conducted which show that if moisture permeable membranes are used over fiber insulation, the moisture content of the insulation will be reduced.

Bullock, C. A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Fuel cell membrane humidification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

310

On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol Particles Title On The Importance of Organic Oxygen for Understanding Organic Aerosol Particles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2006 Authors Pang, Yanbo, B. J. Turpin, and Lara A. Gundel Journal Journal of Aerosol Science and Technology Volume 40 Start Page Chapter Pagination 128-133 Abstract This study shows how aerosol organic oxygen data could provide new and independent information about organic aerosol mass, aqueous solubility of organic aerosols, formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and the relative contributions of anthropogenic and biogenic sources. For more than two decades atmospheric aerosol organic mass concentration has usually been estimated by multiplying the measured carbon content by an assumed organic mass (OM)-to-organic carbon (OC ) factor of 1.4. However, this factor can vary from 1.0 to 2.5 depending on location. This great uncertainty about aerosol organic mass limits our understanding of the influence of organic aerosol on climate, visibility and health.New examination of organic aerosol speciation data shows that the oxygen content is the key factor responsible for the observed range in the OM-to-OC factor. When organic oxygen content is excluded, the ratio of non-oxygen organic mass to carbon mass varies very little across different environments (1.12 to 1.14). The non-oxygen-OM-to-non-oxygen OC factor for all studied sites (urban and non-urban) is 1.13± 0.02. The uncertainty becomes an order of magnitude smaller than the uncertainty in the best current estimates of organic mass to organic carbon ratios (1.6± 0.2 for urban and 2.1± 0.2 for non-urban areas). When aerosol organic oxygen data become available, organic aerosol mass can be quite accurately estimated using just OC and organic oxygen (OO) without the need to know whether the aerosol is fresh or aged. In addition, aerosol organic oxygen data will aid prediction of water solubility since compounds with OO-to-OC higher than 0.4 have water solubilities higher than 1g per 100 g water

311

A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR FOR DIRECT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gas Technology Institute is developing a novel concept of membrane gasifier for high efficiency, clean and low cost production of hydrogen from coal. The concept incorporates a hydrogen-selective membrane within a gasification reactor for direct extraction of hydrogen from coal synthesis gases. The objective of this project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this concept by screening, testing and identifying the potential candidate membranes under high temperature, high pressure, and harsh environments of the coal gasification conditions. The best performing membranes will be selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. To evaluate the candidate membrane performance under the gasification conditions, a high temperature/high pressure hydrogen permeation unit will be constructed in this project. During this reporting period, the design of this unit was completed. The unit will be capable of operating at temperatures up to 1100 C and pressures to 60 atm for evaluation of ceramic membranes such as mixed ionic conducting membrane. The membranes to be tested will be in disc form with a diameter of about 3 cm. By operating at higher temperatures and higher hydrogen partial pressures, we expect to demonstrate commercially relevant hydrogen flux, 10 {approx} 50 cc/min/cm{sup 2}, from the membranes made of the perovskite type of ceramic material. The construction of the unit is planned to be completed by the end of the next reporting period.

Shain Doong; Estela Ong; Mike Atroshenko; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts

2004-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

312

HYDROGEN ISOTOPE RECOVERY USING PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A critical component of tritium glovebox operations is the recovery of high value tritium from the water vapor in the glove box atmosphere. One proposed method to improve existing tritium recovery systems is to replace the disposable hot magnesium beds used to separate the hydrogen and oxygen in water with continuous use Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzers (PEMEs). This study examines radiation exposure to the membrane of a PEME and examines the sizing difference that would be needed if the electrolyzer were operated with a cathode water vapor feed instead of an anode liquid water feed.

Fox, E; Scott Greenway, S; Amy Ekechukwu, A

2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

313

Microprobes aluminosilicate ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods have been developed to make mixed alumina-silicate and aluminosilicate particulate microporous ceramic membranes. One method involves the making of separate alumina and silica sols which are then mixed. Another method involves the creation of a combined sol with aluminosilicate particles. The resulting combined alumina and silica membranes have high surface area, a very small pore size, and a very good temperature stability.

Anderson, Marc A. (2114 Chadbourne Ave., Madison, WI 53705); Sheng, Guangyao (45 N. Orchard St., Madison, WI 53715)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Advanced Palladium Membrane Scale-up for Hydrogen Separation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Palladium Membrane Scale-up Palladium Membrane Scale-up for Hydrogen Separation Background Among the options being considered to establish greater U.S. independence from foreign energy sources is to increase the use of the nation's domestic coal reserves. The Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to supporting research and development of technologies for the reliable, efficient and environmentally friendly conversion of coal to hydrogen for utilization in advanced gasification-based electric power generation

315

Biominetic Membrane for Co2 Capture from Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomimetic Membrane for CO Biomimetic Membrane for CO 2 Capture from Flue Gas Background Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) is a three-step process including capture, pipeline transport, and geologic storage of which the capture of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the most costly and technically challenging. Current available methods impose significant energy burdens that severely impact their overall effectiveness as a significant deployment option. Of the available capture technologies for post

316

The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes  

SciTech Connect

The research carried out under grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46371, "The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes", during the period June 1, 2008 -May 31, 2010 was comprised of three related parts. These are: 1. An examination of the state of water in classical proton conduction membranes with the use of deuterium T1 NMR spectroscopy (Allcock and Benesi groups). 2. A dielectric relaxation examination of the behavior of water in classical ionomer membranes (Macdonald program). 3. Attempts to synthesize new proton-conduction polymers and membranes derived from the polyphosphazene system. (Allcock program) All three are closely related, crucial aspects of the design and development of new and improved polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes on which the future of fuel cell technology for portable applications depends.

Allcock, Harry R., Benesi, Alan, Macdonald, Digby, D.

2010-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

317

Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes - annual report for FY 2008.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that, without using an external power supply or circuitry, can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation. This project grew from an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen production by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen by means of OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.; Energy Systems

2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

318

Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes - annual report for FY 2010.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation without using an external power supply or circuitry. This project grew from an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen production by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen using OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J. (Energy Systems)

2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

319

A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR FOR DIRECT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gas Technology Institute is developing a novel concept of membrane gasifier for high efficiency, clean and low cost production of hydrogen from coal. The concept incorporates a hydrogen-selective membrane within a gasification reactor for direct extraction of hydrogen from coal synthesis gases. The objective of this project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this concept by screening, testing and identifying potential candidate membranes under high temperature, high pressure, and harsh environments of the coal gasification conditions. The best performing membranes will be selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. To evaluate the performances of the candidate membranes under the gasification conditions, a high temperature/high pressure hydrogen permeation unit will be constructed in this project. During this reporting period, the mechanical construction of the permeation unit was completed. Commissioning and shake down tests are being conducted. The unit is capable of operation at temperatures up to 1100 C and pressures to 60 atm for evaluation of ceramic membranes such as mixed ionic conducting membrane. The membranes to be tested will be in disc form with a diameter of about 3 cm. Operation at these high temperatures and high hydrogen partial pressures will demonstrate commercially relevant hydrogen flux, 10{approx}50 cc/min/cm{sup 2}, from the membranes made of the perovskite type of ceramic material. Preliminary modeling was also performed for a tubular membrane reactor within a gasifier to estimate the required membrane area for a given gasification condition. The modeling results will be used to support the conceptual design of the membrane reactor.

Shain Doong; Estela Ong; Mike Atroshenko; Mike Roberts; Francis Lau

2004-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

320

NETL: Gasification Systems - ITM Oxygen Technology for integration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quality History Key Staff KEY ISSUES & MANDATES Secure & Reliable Energy Clean Power Generation Toward a Hydrogen Economy Climate Change Energy Efficiency Critical...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane oxygen technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

A New Copper Smelting Technology Bottom Blown Oxygen ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of Low-grade Manganese Oxide Ores Using Biomass Charcoal as Reductant ... of Carbon-Coated LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 Via Microwave-pyrolysis Method.

322

MHK Technologies/Oxygen Releasing and Carbon Absorbing Ocean...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and distribution infrastructure 3 provision for a gradual transition to widespread electric vehicle use 4 avoidance of environmental destruction and visual impairment with...

323

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oxygenate Supply/Demand Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale This article first appeared in the Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1995, Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA-0202(95) (Washington, DC, July 1995), pp. 33-42, 83-85. The regression results and historical data for production, inventories, and imports have been updated in this presentation. Contents * Introduction o Table 1. Oxygenate production capacity and demand * Oxygenate demand o Table 2. Estimated RFG demand share - mandated RFG areas, January 1998 * Fuel ethanol supply and demand balance o Table 3. Fuel ethanol annual statistics * MTBE supply and demand balance o Table 4. EIA MTBE annual statistics * Refinery balances

324

It's Elemental - The Element Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Previous Element (Nitrogen) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Fluorine) Fluorine The Element Oxygen [Click for Isotope Data] 8 O Oxygen 15.9994 Atomic Number: 8 Atomic Weight: 15.9994 Melting Point: 54.36 K (-218.79°C or -361.82°F) Boiling Point: 90.20 K (-182.95°C or -297.31°F) Density: 0.001429 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 16 Group Name: Chalcogen What's in a name? From the greek words oxys and genes, which together mean "acid forming." Say what? Oxygen is pronounced as OK-si-jen. History and Uses: Oxygen had been produced by several chemists prior to its discovery in 1774, but they failed to recognize it as a distinct element. Joseph

325

Oxygen sensitive, refractory oxide composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oxide compositions containing niobium pentoxide and an oxide selected from the group consisting of hafnia, titania, and zirconia have electrical conductivity characteristics which vary greatly depending on the oxygen content.

Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Smith, Douglas D. (Knoxville, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Wensheng He, David Mountz, Tao Zhang, Chris Roger July 17, 2012 2 Outline Background on Arkema's polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) blend membrane technology Overview of membrane properties and performance Summary 3 Membrane Technology Polymer Blend * Kynar ® PVDF * Chemical and electrochemical stability * Mechanical strength * Excellent barrier against methanol * Polyelectrolyte * H + conduction and water uptake Flexible Blending Process  PVDF can be compatibilized with a number of polyelectrolytes  Process has been scaled to a pilot line Property Control * Morphology: 10-100s nm domains * Composition can be tailored to minimize methanol permeation, while optimizing

327

ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this quarter long term and high pressure hydrogen separation experiments were performed on Eltron's composite layered membranes. Membranes were tested at 400 C and a 300 psig feed stream with 40% hydrogen for up to 400 continuous hours. In addition membranes were tested up to 1000 psig as demonstration of the ability for this technology to meet DOE goals. Progress was made in the development of new hydrogen separation cermets containing high permeability metals. A sulfur tolerant catalyst deposition technique was optimized and engineering work on mechanical and process & control reports was continued.

Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard T. Treglio; Adam E. Calihman; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Chandra Ratnasamy; Mahendra Sunkara; Jyothish Thangla; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs; James Lockhart

2005-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

328

Regional imaging with oxygen-14  

SciTech Connect

The metabolic significance of the distribution of labeled oxygen was studied in the dog by inhalation of gas mixtures labeled with oxygen-14 (T/sub /sup 1///sub 2// = 71 seconds) maintained at a constant level of activity. Under steady-state conditions, whole-body images were developed by detection of the positron annihilation emissions with a dual head rectilinear scanner in the coincidence mode. (auth)

Russ, G.A.; Bigler, R.E.; Dahl, J.R.; Kostick, J.; McDonald, J.M.; Tilbury, R.S.; Laughlin, J.S.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Tools & Technologies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Weprovide leadership for transforming workforce development through the power of technology. It develops corporate educational technology policy and enables the use of learning tools and...

330

Available Technologies  

The technologys subnanometer resolution is a result of superior ... Additional R&D will be required ... U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF SCIENCE ...

331

Technology Transfer: Available Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ion Sources and Beam Technologies Ion Sources and Beam Technologies GENERATORS AND DETECTORS Compact, Safe and Energy Efficient Neutron Generator Fast Pulsed Neutron Generator High Energy Gamma Generator Lithium-Drifted Silicon Detector with Segmented Contacts Low Power, High Energy Gamma Ray Detector Calibration Device Nested Type Coaxial Neutron Generator Neutron and Proton Generators: Cylindrical Neutron Generator with Nested Option, IB-1764 Neutron-based System for Nondestructive Imaging, IB-1794 Mini Neutron Tube, IB-1793a Ultra-short Ion and Neutron Pulse Production, IB-1707 Mini Neutron Generator, IB-1793b Compact Spherical Neutron Generator, IB-1675 Plasma-Driven Neutron/Gamma Generators Portable, Low-cost Gamma Source for Active Interrogation ION SOURCES WITH ANTENNAS External Antenna for Ion Sources

332

Vehicle Technologies Office: Vehicle Technologies Office Organization...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organization and Contacts Organization Chart for the Vehicle Technologies Program Fuel Technologies and Deployment, Technology Managers Advanced Combustion Engines, Technology...

333

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Technology Validation  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Information Technology Validation Search Search Help Technology Validation EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Technology Validation Printable Version Share this resource...

334

Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving Complex of Photosynthesis Arguably the most important chemical reaction on earth is the photosynthetic splitting of water to molecular oxygen by the Mn-containing oxygen-evolving complex (Mn-OEC) in the protein known as photosystem II (PSII). It is this reaction which has, over the course of some 3.8 billion years, gradually filled our atmosphere with O2 and consequently enabled and sustained the evolution of complex aerobic life. Coupled to the reduction of carbon dioxide, biological photosynthesis contributes foodstuffs for nutrition while recycling CO2 from the atmosphere and replacing it with O2. By utilizing sunlight to power these energy-requiring reactions, photosynthesis also serves as a model for addressing societal energy needs as we enter an era of diminishing fossil fuel resources and climate change. Understanding, at the molecular level, the dynamics and mechanisms behind photosynthesis is of fundamental importance and will prove critical to the future design of devices aimed at converting sunlight into electrochemical energy and transportable fuel.

335

Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Russek, Steven Lee (Allentown, PA); Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Chemistry - Technology Transfer: Available Technologies  

Please refer to the list of technologies below for licensing and research collaboration availability. If you can't find the technology you ...

337

Technology Analysis - Heavy Vehicle Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the GPRA benefits estimates for EERE's Vehicle Technologies Program's heavy vehicle technology research activities. Argonne researchers develop the benefits analysis using four...

338

Available Technologies  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Thermal management for: microelectronic devices; solar cells and solar energy management systems ; refrigerators

339

Available Technologies  

Energy Storage and Recovery; Renewable Energy; Environmental Technologies. Monitoring and Imaging; Remediation; Modeling; Imaging & Lasers.

340

A Novel Membrane Reactor for Direct Hydrogen Production from Coal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gas Technology Institute is developing a novel concept of membrane gasifier for high efficiency, clean and low cost production of hydrogen from coal. The concept incorporates a hydrogen-selective membrane within a gasification reactor for direct extraction of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gases. The objective of this project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this concept by screening, testing and identifying potential candidate membranes under high temperature, high pressure, and harsh environments of the coal gasification conditions. The best performing membranes will be selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. To evaluate the performances of the candidate membranes under the gasification conditions, a high temperature/high pressure hydrogen permeation unit has been constructed in this project. The unit is designed to operate at temperatures up to 1100 C and pressures to 60 atm for evaluation of ceramic membranes such as mixed ionic conducting membrane. Several perovskite membranes based on the formulations of BCN (BaCe{sub 0.8}Nd{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x}) and BCY (BaCe{sub 0.8}Y{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x}) were prepared by GTI and successfully tested in the new permeation unit. During this reporting period, two different types of membranes, Eu-doped SrCeO{sub 3} (SCE) and SrCe{sub 0.95}Tm{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} (SCTm) provided by the University of Florida and the University of Cincinnati, respectively were tested in the high pressure permeation unit. The SCTm membrane, with a thickness of 1.7 mm, showed the highest hydrogen permeability among the perovskite membranes tested in this project so far. The hydrogen flux measured for the SCTm membrane was close to 0.8 cc/min/cm{sup 2} at a hydrogen feed pressure of about 4 bar at 950 C. SEM and EDX analysis for the tested SCTm membrane showed a separate Ce-rich phase deposited along the grain boundaries in the region towards the feed side of the membrane. No such phase separation was observed towards the permeate side. Partial reduction of the SCTm perovskite material by the high pressure hydrogen, especially in the feed side of the membrane, was postulated to be the possible reason for the phase separation. Further investigation of the stability issue of the perovskite membrane is needed.

Shain Doong, Estela Ong; Mike Atroshenko; Francis Lau; Mike Robers

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane oxygen technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

EVALUATING AN INNOVATIVE OXYGEN SENSOR FOR REMOTE SUBSURFACE OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxygen is a primary indicator of whether anaerobic reductive dechlorination and similar redox based processes contribute to natural attenuation remedies at chlorinated solvent contaminated sites. Thus, oxygen is a viable indicator parameter for documenting that a system is being sustained in an anaerobic condition. A team of researchers investigated the adaptation of an optical sensor that was developed for oceanographic applications. The optical sensor, because of its design and operating principle, has potential for extended deployment and sensitivity at the low oxygen levels relevant to natural attenuation. The results of the research indicate this tool will be useful for in situ long-term monitoring applications, but that the traditional characterization tools continue to be appropriate for characterization activities.

Millings, M; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Karen Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B

2006-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

342

The Automorphic Membrane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a 1-loop toroidal membrane winding sum reproducing the conjectured $M$-theory, four-graviton, eight derivative, $R^4$ amplitude. The $U$-duality and toroidal membrane world-volume modular groups appear as a Howe dual pair in a larger, exceptional, group. A detailed analysis is carried out for $M$-theory compactified on a 3-torus, where the target-space $Sl(3,\\Zint)\\times Sl(2,\\Zint)$ $U$-duality and $Sl(3,\\Zint)$ world-volume modular groups are embedded in $E_{6(6)}(\\Zint)$. Unlike previous semi-classical expansions, $U$-duality is built in manifestly and realized at the quantum level thanks to Fourier invariance of cubic characters. In addition to winding modes, a pair of new discrete, flux-like, quantum numbers are necessary to ensure invariance under the larger group. The action for these modes is of Born-Infeld type, interpolating between standard Polyakov and Nambu-Goto membrane actions. After integration over the membrane moduli, we recover the known $R^4$ amplitude, including membrane instantons. Divergences are disposed of by trading the non-compact volume integration for a compact integral over the two variables conjugate to the fluxes -- a constant term computation in mathematical parlance. As byproducts, we suggest that, in line with membrane/fivebrane duality, the $E_6$ theta series also describes five-branes wrapped on $T^6$ in a manifestly U-duality invariant way. In addition we uncover a new action of $E_6$ on ten dimensional pure spinors, which may have implications for ten dimensional super Yang--Mills theory. An extensive review of $Sl(3)$ automorphic forms is included in an Appendix.

Boris Pioline; Andrew Waldron

2004-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

343

State-of-the-Art Assessment of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells for Distributed Power Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell technology targeted for transportation markets has been rapidly advancing the past few years. This technology represents a potentially strategic retail access technology that could be useful in a variety of utility, commercial, and residential distributed power and retail energy service applications.

1997-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

344

Demonstration of oxygen-enriched combustion system on a light-duty vehicle to reduce cold-start emissions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The oxygen content in the ambient air drawn by combustion engines can be increased by polymer membranes. The authors have previously demonstrated that 23 to 25% (concentration by volume) oxygen-enriched intake air can reduce hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), air toxics, and ozone-forming potential (OFP) from flexible-fueled vehicles (FFVs) that use gasoline or M85. When oxygen-enriched air was used only during the initial start-up and warm-up periods, the emission levels of all three regulated pollutants [CO, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and NO{sub x}] were lower than the U.S. EPA Tier II (year 2004) standards (without adjusting for catalyst deterioration factors). In the present work, an air separation membrane module was installed on the intake of a 2.5-L FFV and tested at idle and free acceleration to demonstrate the oxygen-enrichment concept for initial start-up and warm-up periods. A bench-scale, test set-up was developed to evaluate the air separation membrane characteristics for engine applications. On the basis of prototype bench tests and from vehicle tests, the additional power requirements and module size for operation of the membrane during the initial period of the cold-phase, FTP-75 cycle were evaluated. A prototype membrane module (27 in. long, 3 in. in diameter) supplying about 23% oxygen-enriched air in the engine intake only during the initial start-up and warm-up periods of a 2.5-L FFV requires additional power (blower) of less than one horsepower. With advances in air separation membranes to develop compact modules, oxygen enrichment of combustion air has the potential of becoming a more practical technique for controlling exhaust emissions from light-duty vehicles.

Sekar, R.; Poola, R.B.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Supported microporous ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for permformation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms.

Webster, Elizabeth (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc (Madison, WI)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Supported microporous ceramic membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the formation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms. 4 figures.

Webster, E.; Anderson, M.

1993-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

347

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Technology Validation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Technology Validation to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Technology Validation on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies...

348

The functions of tryptophan residues in membrane proteins  

SciTech Connect

Membrane proteins in general have a significantly higher Trp content than do soluble proteins. This is especially true for the M and L subunits of the photosynthetic reaction center from purple bacteria. The Trp residues are located mostly in the segments that connect the transmembrane helices. Further, they are concentrated at the periplasmic side of the complex. Within the protein subunits, many form hydrogen bonds with carbonyl oxygens of the main chain, thereby stabilizing the protein. On the surface of the molecule, they are correctly positioned to form hydrogen bonds with the lipid head groups while their hydrophobic rings are immersed in the lipid part of the bilayer. We suggest that Trp residues are involved in the translocation of protein through the membrane and that following translocation, Trp residues serve as anchors on the periplasmic side of the membrane.

Schiffer, M.; Chang, C.H.; Stevens, F.J.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm[sup 3]-atm)[sup 1/2]. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes. 3 figs.

Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

1988-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

350

Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm.sup.3 -atm).sup.1/2. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes.

Matson, Stephen L. (Harvard, MA); Lee, Eric K. L. (Acton, MA); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Kelly, Donald J. (Bend, OR)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MCFC) and solid oxide (SOFC). Proton exchange membrane (PEM)technology. Hence, MCFC and SOFC offer the most potentialfuel cell system, MCFC and SOFC offer the most potential.

Bailey, Owen; Worrell, Ernst

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

DOE Approves Field Test for Promising Carbon Capture Technology |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Approves Field Test for Promising Carbon Capture Technology Approves Field Test for Promising Carbon Capture Technology DOE Approves Field Test for Promising Carbon Capture Technology November 20, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A promising post combustion membrane technology that can separate and capture 90 percent of the carbon dioxide (CO2) from a pulverized coal plant has been successfully demonstrated and received Department of Energy (DOE) approval to advance to a larger-scale field test. In an $18.75 million project funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, Membrane Technology and Research Inc. (MTR) and its partners tested the Polaris™ membrane system, which uses a CO2-selective polymeric membrane (micro-porous films which act as semi-permeable barriers to separate two different mediums) material and

353

Cu-Pd Hydrogen Separation Membranes with Reduced Palladium Content and Improved Performance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cu-Pd Hydrogen Separation Membranes with Reduced Cu-Pd Hydrogen Separation Membranes with Reduced Palladium Content and Improved Performance Opportunity This patent-pending technology, "Cu-Pd Hydrogen Separation Membranes with Reduced Palladium Content and Improved Performance," consists of copper-palladium alloy compositions for hydrogen separation membranes that use less palladium and have a potential increase in hydrogen permeability and resistance to sulfur degradation compared to currently available copper-palladium membranes. This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview NETL is working to help produce and deliver hydrogen from fossil fuels including coal in commercially applicable and environmentally

354

Hydrogen-selective membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2} s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

355

Hydrogen-Selective Membrane  

SciTech Connect

A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 .mu.m but typically less than about 20 .mu.m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m.sup.2.s at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400.degree. C. and less than about 1000.degree. C. before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process.

Collins, John P. (Boulder, CO); Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO)

1995-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

356

Hydrogen-selective membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 .mu.m but typically less than about 20 .mu.m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m.sup.2. s at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400.degree. C. and less than about 1000.degree. C. before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process.

Collins, John P. (Boulder, CO); Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Hydrogen-selective membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2}s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

1995-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

358

HYDROGEN SEPARATION MEMBRANES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A likely membrane for future testing of high-temperature hydrogen separation from a gasification product stream was targeted as an inorganic analog of a dense-metal membrane, where the hydrogen would dissolve into and diffuse through the membrane structure. An amorphous membrane such as zinc sulfide appeared to be promising. Previously, ZnS film coating tests had been performed using an electron-beam vacuum coating instrument, with zinc films successfully applied to glass substrates. The coatings appeared relatively stable in air and in a simple simulated gasification atmosphere at elevated temperature. Because the electron-beam coating instrument suffered irreparable breakdown, several alternative methods were tested in an effort to produce a nitrogen-impermeable, hydrogen-permeable membrane on porous sintered steel substrates. None of the preparation methods proved successful in sealing the porous substrate against nitrogen gas. To provide a nitrogen-impermeable ZnS material to test for hydrogen permeability, two ZnS infrared sample windows were purchased. These relatively thick ''membranes'' did not show measurable permeation of hydrogen, either due to lack of absorption or a negligible permeation rate due to their thickness. To determine if hydrogen was indeed adsorbed, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses tests were performed on samples of ZnS powder. A significant uptake of hydrogen gas occurred, corresponding to a maximum of 1 mole H{sub 2} per 1 mole ZnS at a temperature of 175 C. The hydrogen remained in the material at ambient temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere, but approximately 50% would be removed in argon. Reheating in a hydrogen atmosphere resulted in no additional hydrogen uptake. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the hydrogen uptake was probably due to the formation of a zinc-sulfur-hydrogen species resulting in the formation of hydrogen sulfide. The zinc sulfide was found to be unstable above approximately 200 C, probably with the reduction to metallic zinc with the evolution of hydrogen sulfide. The work has shown that ZnS is not a viable candidate for a high-temperature hydrogen separation membrane.

Donald P. McCollor; John P. Kay

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

NHI-Acid Concentration Membranes -- Membrane Recommendations for the S-I Cycle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Scope: The purpose of this draft report is to make recommendations concerning the applicability of specific membrane materials for acid concentration processes to the Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) thermochemical cycle integrated laboratory scale (ILS) demonstration. Introduction Acid concentration membrane processes have been studied for possible inclusion in the Sulfur-Iodine integrated laboratory scale (S-I ILS) demonstration. The need for this technology is driven by the chemical processes required for economical water splitting using the S-I cycle. Of the chemical processes inherent to the S-I cycle that have been identified as targets for deployment of membrane technology, three have been studied during the past three fiscal years as a part of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. First, the ability to concentrate hydriodic acid (HI) and iodine mixtures was sought as a method for aiding in the isolation of HI away from water and iodine. Isolated HI would then be delivered to the HI decomposition process for liberation of product hydrogen. Second, an extension of this technology to sulfuric acid was proposed to benefit sulfuric acid decomposition recycle. Third, decomposition of HI to form hydrogen is equilibrium limited. Removal of hydrogen, utilizing Le Chateliers principle, will increase to overall conversion and thus increasing the efficiency of the S-I cycle.

Frederick F Stewart

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR FOR DIRECT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gas Technology Institute is developing a novel concept of membrane gasifier for high efficiency, clean and low cost production of hydrogen from coal. The concept incorporates a hydrogen-selective membrane within a gasification reactor for direct extraction of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gases. The objective of this project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this concept by screening, testing and identifying potential candidate membranes under high temperature, high pressure, and harsh environments of the coal gasification conditions. The best performing membranes will be selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. To evaluate the performances of the candidate membranes under the gasification conditions, a high temperature/high pressure hydrogen permeation unit has been constructed in this project. During this reporting period, the unit has been fully commissioned and is operational. The unit is capable of operating at temperatures up to 1100 C and pressures to 60 atm for evaluation of ceramic membranes such as mixed ionic conducting membrane. A double-seal technique has been developed and tested successfully to achieve leak-tight seal for the membranes. Initial data for a commercial Palladium-Gold membrane were obtained at temperatures to 450 C and pressures to 13 atm. Tests for the perovskite membranes are being performed and the results will be reported in the next quarter. A membrane gasification reactor model was developed to consider the H{sub 2} permeability of the membrane, the kinetics and the equilibriums of the gas phase reactions in the gasifier, the operating conditions and the configurations of the membrane reactor. The results show that the hydrogen production efficiency using the novel membrane gasification reactor concept can be increased by about 50% versus the conventional gasification process. This confirms the previous evaluation results from the thermodynamic equilibrium calculation. A rigorous model for hydrogen permeation through mixed proton-electron conducting ceramic membranes was also developed based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The results from the simulation work confirm that the hydrogen flux increases with increasing partial pressure of hydrogen. The presence of steam in the permeate side can have a small negative effect on the hydrogen flux, in the order of 10%. When the steam partial pressure is greater than 1 atm, the hydrogen flux becomes independent of the steam pressure.

Shain Doong; Estela Ong; Mike Atroshenko; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts

2004-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

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361

CO2 Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CO CO 2 Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas Background The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Program is performing research to develop advanced technologies focusing on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions control for existing pulverized coal-fired plants. This new focus on post-combustion and oxy-combustion CO 2 emissions control technology, CO 2 compression, and beneficial reuse is in response to the priority for advanced

362

Ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods have been developed to make porous ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels therethrough. The novel membranes are formed by temporarily supporting the sol-gel membrane precursor on an organic support which is ultimately removed from the interior of the membrane, preferably by pyrolysis or by chemical destruction. The organic support may also include an inorganic metal portion that remains on destruction of the organic portion, providing structural support and/or chemical reactivity to the membrane. The channels formed when the organic support is destroyed provide the ability to withdraw small catalytic products or size-separated molecules from the metal oxide membrane. In addition, the channel-containing membranes retain all of the advantages of existing porous ceramic membranes.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Peterson, Reid A. (Madison, WI)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods have been developed to make porous ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels therethrough. The novel membranes are formed by temporarily supporting the sol-gel membrane precursor on an organic support which is ultimately removed from the interior of the membrane, preferably by pyrolysis or by chemical destruction. The organic support may also include an inorganic metal portion that remains on destruction of the organic portion, providing structural support and/or chemical reactivity to the membrane. The channels formed when the organic support is destroyed provide the ability to withdraw small catalytic products or size-separated molecules from the metal oxide membrane. In addition, the channel-containing membranes retain all of the advantages of existing porous ceramic membranes. 1 fig.

Anderson, M.A.; Peterson, R.A.

1996-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

364

PEM fuel cellstack development based on membrane-electrode assemblies of ultra-low platinum loadings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Attempt is made to scale-up single cell technology, based on ultra-low platinum loadings, to develop a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack for stationary power generation.

Zawodzinski, C.; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Mechanics and multi-physics deformation behavior of polymer electrolyte membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel cells are a developing technology within the energy sector that offer both efficiency and environmental advantages over traditional combustion processes. In particular, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are ...

Silberstein, Meredith N

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Hydrogen separation using silica membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Silica membranes were synthesized on tubular supports of alumina by dipping in silica colloidal solutions. The quality and the performance of the silica membranes were tested by experiments on single gas permeation and gas separation of mixed N2, ... Keywords: Knudsen diffusion, colloidal solution, gas permeation, hydrogen separation, silica membranes

Salvador Alfaroa; Miguel A. Valenzuelaa; Pedro Bosch

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Processing Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 5, 2013... relevant polymers and hybrid nanocomposite material systems. ... technology to perform lightweight manufacturing of car components.

368

Technology Transfer  

A new search feature has been implemented, which allows searching of technology transfer information across the Department of Energy Laboratories.

369

Technology Transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... get started on understanding accessibility in elections and voting technology. ... bibliography was created by the Georgia Tech Research Institute ...

2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

370

ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS TO PD MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PURIFICATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Development of advanced hydrogen separation membranes in support of hydrogen production processes such as coal gasification and as front end gas purifiers for fuel cell based system is paramount to the successful implementation of a national hydrogen economy. Current generation metallic hydrogen separation membranes are based on Pd-alloys. Although the technology has proven successful, at issue is the high cost of palladium. Evaluation of non-noble metal based dense metallic separation membranes is currently receiving national and international attention. The focal point of the reported work was to evaluate two different classes of materials for potential replacement of conventional Pd-alloy purification/diffuser membranes. Crystalline V-Ni-Ti and Amorphous Fe- and Co-based metallic glass alloys have been evaluated using both electrochemical and gaseous hydrogen permeation testing techniques..

Adams, T; Paul Korinko, P

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

371

ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS TO PD MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PURIFICATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Development of advanced hydrogen separation membranes in support of hydrogen production processes such as coal gasification and as front end gas purifiers for fuel cell based system is paramount to the successful implementation of a national hydrogen economy. Current generation metallic hydrogen separation membranes are based on Pd-alloys. Although the technology has proven successful, at issue is the high cost of palladium. Evaluation of non-noble metal based dense metallic separation membranes is currently receiving national and international attention. The focal point of the reported work was to evaluate two different classes of materials for potential replacement of conventional Pd-alloy purification/diffuser membranes. Crystalline V-Ni-Ti and Amorphous Fe- and Co-based metallic glass alloys have been evaluated using gaseous hydrogen permeation testing techniques.

Korinko, P; T. Adams

2008-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

372

Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal membrane distillation is one of the novel separation methods in the process industry. It involves the simultaneous heat and mass transfer through a hydrophobic semipermeable membrane through the use of thermal energy to bring about the separation of a feed mixture into two streams- a permeate and a retentate stream. Traditionally, studies on this technology have focused on the performance of individual modules as a function of material of the membrane and also configuration of the membrane. However, an investigation into the performance of a network of these modules has not been conducted in the past. A hierarchical parametric programming technique for synthesis of an optimal network of these modules is presented. A global mass allocation representation involving sources and sinks was used to solve the problem and derive criteria for optimality in specific regions of the parametric space. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate the applicability of the presented methodology.

Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Oxygen transport in the Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 3{minus}x}Co{sub x}O{sub y} system.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mixed-conducting Sr-Fe-Co oxide has potential use as a gas separation membrane. Its superior oxygen transport reveals the feasibility of using oxide membranes in large-scale oxygen separation. Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 3{minus}x}Co{sub x}O{sub y} (with x = 0.0, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.0) samples were made by solid state reaction. To understand the oxygen transport mechanism in this system, conductivity and thermogravimetry experiments were conducted at high temperature in various oxygen partial pressure environments. The oxygen diffusion coefficient was determined from the time relaxation transient behavior of the specimen after switching the surrounding atmosphere. Mobility of the charge carrier was derived from relative conductivity and weight changes. X-ray diffraction experiments were carried out on these samples to determine their crystal structures.

Ma, B.

1999-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

374

Lake Michigan Membrane/Ozone Research and Demonstration Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Drinking water standards in the United States have become increasingly stringent. The recently-promulgated Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (ESWTR) requires controlling for Cryptosporidium, a pathogen that is resistant to chlorine. This report evaluates the effectiveness of membrane and ozone technologies for reducing Cryptosporidium risks.

1999-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

375

Technology Strategies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From the Book:PrefaceTechnology as the Strategic AdvantageWhen I began writing this book I struggled with the direction I wanted it to take. Is this book to be about business, technology, or even the business of technology? I ...

Cooper Smith

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Slipstream Testing of a Membrane CO2 Capture Process for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing of a Membrane CO Testing of a Membrane CO 2 Capture Process for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of

377

Membrane Process to Capture CO2 from Power Plant Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Membrane Process to Capture CO Membrane Process to Capture CO 2 from Power Plant Flue Gas Background The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Innovations for Existing Plants (IEP) Program is performing research to develop advanced technologies focusing on carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions control for existing pulverized coal-fired plants. This new focus on post-combustion and oxy-combustion CO 2 emissions control technology, CO 2 compression, and beneficial reuse is in response to the priority for advanced

378

Membrane Stability Testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Electrosynthesis Co. Inc. (ESC) was contracted by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company to investigate the long term performance and durability of cell components (anode, membrane, cathode) in an electrochemical caustic recovery process using a simulated SRC liquid waste as anolyte solution. This report details the results of two long-term studies conducted using an ICI FM01 flow cell. This cell is designed and has previously been demonstrated to scale up directly into the commercial scale ICI FM21 cell.

Hobbs, D.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1997-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

379

NETL: IEP – Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control - Oxygen-Based PC Boiler  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

– Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control – Oxy-Combustion CO2 Emissions Control Oxygen-Based PC Boiler Project No.: FC26-04NT42207 & FC26-03NT41736 Spatial Comparison of an Air-Fired Furnace versus an Oxygen-Fired Furnace. Spatial Comparison of an Air-Fired Furnace versus an Oxygen-Fired Furnace. Foster Wheeler North America Corporation will conduct to two projects to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) capture technology by developing a conceptual pulverized coal-fired boiler system design using oxygen as the combustion medium. Using oxygen instead of air produces a flue gas with a high CO2 concentration, which will facilitate CO2 capture for subsequent sequestration. The first project will develop modeling simulations that will lead to a conceptual design that addresses costs, performance, and emissions, and

380

Composite Membranes for CO2 Capture: High Performance Metal Organic Frameworks/Polymer Composite Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: A team of six faculty members at Georgia Tech are developing an enhanced membrane by fitting metal organic frameworks, compounds that show great promise for improved carbon capture, into hollow fiber membranes. This new material would be highly efficient at removing CO2 from the flue gas produced at coal-fired power plants. The team is analyzing thousands of metal organic frameworks to identify those that are most suitable for carbon capture based both on their ability to allow coal exhaust to pass easily through them and their ability to select CO2 from that exhaust for capture and storage. The most suitable frameworks would be inserted into the walls of the hollow fiber membranes, making the technology readily scalable due to their high surface area. This composite membrane would be highly stable, withstanding the harsh gas environment found in coal exhaust.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane oxygen technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Entropic Tension in Crowded Membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unlike their model membrane counterparts, biological membranes are richly decorated with a heterogeneous assembly of membrane proteins. These proteins are so tightly packed that their excluded area interactions can alter the free energy landscape controlling the conformational transitions suffered by such proteins. For membrane channels, this effect can alter the critical membrane tension at which they undergo a transition from a closed to an open state, and therefore influence protein function in vivo. Despite their obvious importance, crowding phenomena in membranes are much less well studied than in the cytoplasm. Using statistical mechanics results for hard disk liquids, we show that crowding induces an entropic tension in the membrane, which influences transitions that alter the projected area and circumference of a membrane protein. As a specific case study in this effect, we consider the impact of crowding on the gating properties of bacterial mechanosensitive membrane channels, which are thought to confer osmoprotection when these cells are subjected to osmotic shock. We find that crowding can alter the gating energies by more than 2 kBT in physiological conditions, a substantial fraction of the total gating energies in some cases. Given the ubiquity of membrane crowding, the nonspecific nature of excluded volume interactions, and the fact that the function of many membrane proteins involve significant

Martin Lindn; Pierre Sens; Rob Phillips

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study: Phase 1, Interim/final report: Volume 1, Technical and economic analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical and economic feasibility of using oxygen enriched combustion (OEC) and preheated oxygen enriched combustion (POEC) for industrial furnace applications was evaluated. The potential for fuel savings and productivity improvements with OEC/POEC systems was parametrically analyzed for a broad range of furnace conditions including those for steel heating, glass melting and aluminum melting. The changes in combustion characteristics with OEC were reviewed and their effects on furnace applications discussed. Relative advantages of different enrichment techniques, safety considerations and the effects of OEC on combustion-generated pollutants were also evaluated. The characteristics and economics of the state-of-the-art oxygen generation methods including PSA, membrane and cryogenic systems were evaluated to identify cost effective methods of supplying oxygen enriched air. The potential synergistic effects of combining preheating and oxygen enrichment were investigated by analyzing fuel savings and the capital and operating costs. The overall process economics of conventional heat recovery systems, and various OEC/POEC systems were compared.

Kobayashi, Hisashi

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Co-PIs: Jia Wang, Miomir Vukmirovic, Kotaro Sasaki, Brookhaven National Laboratory Yang Shao-Horn Massachusetts Institute of Technology Rachel O'Malley, David Thompsett, Sarah Ball, Graham Hard Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells Radoslav Adzic Brookhaven National Laboratory DOE Projects Kickoff Meeting September 30 , 2009 2 Project Overview Project Overview 1. Objectives: Objectives: Developing high performance fuel cell electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) comprising contiguous Pt monolayer Pt monolayer on stable, inexpensive metal or alloy nanorods, nanowires, nanobars and

384

Oxygen Electrocatalysts for Water Electrolyzers and Reversible Fuel Cells: Status and Perspective  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen production by electrochemical water electrolysis has received great attention as an alternative technology for energy conversion and storage. The oxygen electrode has a substantial effect on the performance and durability in water electrolyzers and reversible fuel cells because of its intrinsically slow kinetics for oxygen evolution/reduction and poor durability under harsh operating environments. To improve oxygen kinetics and durability of the electrode, extensive studies for highly active and stable oxygen electrocatalyst have been performed. However, due to the thermodynamic instability of transition metals in acidic media, noble metal compounds have been primarily utilized as electrocatalysts in water electrolyzers and reversible fuel cells. For water electrolyzer applications, single noble metal oxides such as ruthenium oxide and iridium oxide have been studied, and binary or ternary metal oxides have been developed to take synergestic effects of each component. On the other hand, a variety of bifunctional electrocatalysts with a combination of monofunctional electrocatalysts such as platinum for oxygen reduction and iridium oxide for oxygen evolution for reversible fuel cell applications have been mainly proposed. Practically, supported iridium oxide-on-platinum, its reverse type, and non-precious metal-supported platinum and iridium bifunctional electrocatalysts have been developed. Recent theoretical calculations and experimental studies in terms of water electrolysis and fuel cell technology suggest effective ways to cope with current major challenges of cost and durability of oxygen electrocatalysts for technical applications.

Park, Seh Kyu; Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

High-Performance Palladium Based Membrane for Hydrogen Separation and Purification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mission of the DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies'?Hydrogen Fuels R&D effort is to research, develop, and validate technologies for producing, storing, and delivering hydrogen in an efficient, clean, safe, reliable, and affordable manner. A key program technical milestone for hydrogen technology readiness is to produce hydrogen from diverse, domestic resources at $2.00-$3.00 per gallon of gasoline equivalent (gge) delivered, untaxed. Low-cost, high-temperature hydrogen separation membranes represent a key enabling technology for small-scale distributed hydrogen production units. Availability of such membranes with high selectivity and high permeability for hydrogen will allow their integration with hydrocarbon reforming and water gas shift reactions, potentially reducing the cost of hydrogen produced. Pd-metal-based dense membranes are known for their excellent hydrogen selectivity and permeability characteristics, however, utilization of these membranes has so far been limited to small scale niche markets for hydrogen purification primarily due to the relatively high cost of Pd-alloy tubes compared to pressure swing adsorption (PSA) units. This project was aimed at development of thin-film Pd-alloy membranes deposited on Pall Corporation's DOE-based AccuSep® porous metal tube substrates to form a composite hydrogen separation membrane for these applications. Pall's composite membrane development addressed the typical limitations of composite structures by developing robust membranes capable of withstanding thermal and mechanical stresses resulting from high temperature (400C), high pressure (400 psi steam methane reformer and 1000 psi coal) operations and thermal cycling involved in conventional hydrogen production. In addition, the Pd-alloy membrane composition was optimized to be able to offer the most stability in the typical synthesis gas environments produced by reforming of natural gas and bio-derived liquid fuels (BILI) validating the technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the technology demonstrated. Results from this research added technology and product design information that offers the potential to significantly advance the commercial viability of hydrogen production.

Scott Hopkins

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

386

Current developments of microfiltration technology in the dairy industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review Current developments of microfiltration technology in the dairy industry Luciana V. SABOYAa of them just patented, in the dairy industry. Combination of the use of uniform trans- membrane hydraulic porosity gradient and of new ceramic membrane materials allows nowa- days to get a differential separation

Recanati, Catherine

387

Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

Ulloa, Osvaldo

388

Oxygen Sensitivity of Krypton and Lyman-? Hygrometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxygen sensitivity of krypton and Lyman-? hygrometers is studied. Using a dewpoint generator and a controlled nitrogen/oxygen flow the extinction coefficients of five hygrometers associated with the third-order Taylor expansion of the Lambert...

Arjan van Dijk; Wim Kohsiek; Henk A. R. de Bruin

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Technology '90  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories have a long history of excellence in performing research and development in a number of areas, including the basic sciences, applied-energy technology, and weapons-related technology. Although technology transfer has always been an element of DOE and laboratory activities, it has received increasing emphasis in recent years as US industrial competitiveness has eroded and efforts have increased to better utilize the research and development resources the laboratories provide. This document, Technology '90, is the latest in a series that is intended to communicate some of the many opportunities available for US industry and universities to work with the DOE and its laboratories in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. Technology '90 is divided into three sections: Overview, Technologies, and Laboratories. The Overview section describes the activities and accomplishments of the DOE research and development program offices. The Technologies section provides descriptions of new technologies developed at the DOE laboratories. The Laboratories section presents information on the missions, programs, and facilities of each laboratory, along with a name and telephone number of a technology transfer contact for additional information. Separate papers were prepared for appropriate sections of this report.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Building Technologies Office: Technology Research, Standards...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Technology Research, Standards, and Codes in Emerging Technologies on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies...

391

Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture by a Nanoporous, Superhydrophobic Membrane Contactor Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes progress made during Phase I and Phase II of the project: "Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture by a Nanoporous, Superhydrophobic Membrane Contactor Process," under contract DE-FE-0000646. The objective of this project is to develop a practical and cost effective technology for CO{sub 2} separation and capture for pre-combustion coal-based gasification plants using a membrane contactor/solvent absorption process. The goals of this technology development project are to separate and capture at least 90% of the CO{sub 2} from Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants with less than 10% increase in the cost of energy services. Unlike conventional gas separation membranes, the membrane contactor is a novel gas separation process based on the gas/liquid membrane concept. The membrane contactor is an advanced mass transfer device that operates with liquid on one side of the membrane and gas on the other. The membrane contactor can operate with pressures that are almost the same on both sides of the membrane, whereas the gas separation membranes use the differential pressure across the membrane as driving force for separation. The driving force for separation for the membrane contactor process is the chemical potential difference of CO{sub 2} in the gas phase and in the absorption liquid. This process is thus easily tailored to suit the needs for pre-combustion separation and capture of CO{sub 2}. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and PoroGen Corporation (PGC) have developed a novel hollow fiber membrane technology that is based on chemically and thermally resistant commercial engineered polymer poly(ether ether ketone) or PEEK. The PEEK membrane material used in the membrane contactor during this technology development program is a high temperature engineered plastic that is virtually non-destructible under the operating conditions encountered in typical gas absorption applications. It can withstand contact with most of the common treating solvents. GTI and PGC have developed a nanoporous and superhydrophobic PEEK-based hollow fiber membrane contactor tailored for the membrane contactor/solvent absorption application for syngas cleanup. The membrane contactor modules were scaled up to 8-inch diameter commercial size modules. We have performing extensive laboratory and bench testing using pure gases, simulated water-gas-shifted (WGS) syngas stream, and a slipstream from a gasification derived syngas from GTIâ??s Flex-Fuel Test Facility (FFTF) gasification plant under commercially relevant conditions. The team have also carried out an engineering and economic analysis of the membrane contactor process to evaluate the economics of this technology and its commercial potential. Our test results have shown that 90% CO{sub 2} capture can be achieved with several physical solvents such as water and chilled methanol. The rate of CO{sub 2} removal by the membrane contactor is in the range of 1.5 to 2.0 kg/m{sup 2}/hr depending on the operating pressures and temperatures and depending on the solvents used. The final economic analysis has shown that the membrane contactor process will cause the cost of electricity to increase by 21% from the base plant without CO{sub 2} capture. The goal of 10% increase in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) from base DOE Case 1(base plant without capture) is not achieved by using the membrane contactor. However, the 21% increase in LCOE is a substantial improvement as compared with the 31.6% increase in LCOE as in DOE Case 2(state of art capture technology using 2-stages of Selexol{TM}).

Howard Meyer; S.James Zhou; Yong Ding; Ben Bikson

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

392

Computational and experimental study of nanoporous membranes for water desalination and decontamination.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fundamentals of ion transport in nanopores were studied through a joint experimental and computational effort. The study evaluated both nanoporous polymer membranes and track-etched nanoporous polycarbonate membranes. The track-etched membranes provide a geometrically well characterized platform, while the polymer membranes are more closely related to ion exchange systems currently deployed in RO and ED applications. The experimental effort explored transport properties of the different membrane materials. Poly(aniline) membranes showed that flux could be controlled by templating with molecules of defined size. Track-etched polycarbonate membranes were modified using oxygen plasma treatments, UV-ozone exposure, and UV-ozone with thermal grafting, providing an avenue to functionalized membranes, increased wettability, and improved surface characteristic lifetimes. The modeling effort resulted in a novel multiphysics multiscale simulation model for field-driven transport in nanopores. This model was applied to a parametric study of the effects of pore charge and field strength on ion transport and charge exclusion in a nanopore representative of a track-etched polycarbonate membrane. The goal of this research was to uncover the factors that control the flux of ions through a nanoporous material and to develop tools and capabilities for further studies. Continuation studies will build toward more specific applications, such as polymers with attached sulfonate groups, and complex modeling methods and geometries.

Hickner, Michael A. (Penn State University, University Park, PA); Chinn, Douglas Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Adalsteinsson, Helgi; Long, Kevin R. (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX); Kent, Michael Stuart (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Debusschere, Bert J.; Zendejas, Frank J.; Tran, Huu M.; Najm, Habib N.; Simmons, Blake Alexander

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR FOR DIRECT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gas Technology Institute is developing a novel concept of membrane reactor coupled with a gasifier for high efficiency, clean and low cost production of hydrogen from coal. The concept incorporates a hydrogen-selective membrane within a gasification reactor for direct extraction of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gases. The objective of this project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this concept by screening, testing and identifying potential candidate membranes under high temperature, high pressure, and harsh environments of the coal gasification conditions. The best performing membranes will be selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. To evaluate the performances of the candidate membranes under the gasification conditions, a high temperature/high pressure hydrogen permeation unit has been constructed in this project. The unit is designed to operate at temperatures up to 1100 C and pressures to 60 atm for evaluation of ceramic membranes such as mixed protonic-electronic conducting membrane. Several perovskite membranes based on the formulations of BCN (BaCe{sub 0.8}Nd{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x}), BCY (BaCe{sub 0.8}Y{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x}), Eu-doped SrCeO{sub 3} (SCE) and SrCe{sub 0.95}Tm{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} (SCTm) were successfully tested in the new permeation unit. During this reporting period, a thin BCN membrane supported on a porous BCN layer was fabricated. The objective was to increase the hydrogen flux with a further reduction of the thickness of the active membrane layer. The thinnest dense layer that could be achieved in our laboratory currently was about 0.2 mm. Nevertheless, the membrane was tested in the permeation unit and showed reasonable flux compared to the previous BCN samples of the same thickness. A long term durability test was conducted for a SCTm membrane with pure hydrogen in the feed side and nitrogen in the sweep side. The pressure was 1 bar and the temperature was around 1010 C. No decline of hydrogen flux was observed after continuous running of over 250 hours. This long term test indicates that the perovskite membrane has good thermal stability under the reducing conditions of the hydrogen atmosphere. A conceptual design of the membrane reactor configuration for a 1000 tons-per-day (TPD) coal gasifier was completed. The design considered a tubular membrane module located within the freeboard area of a fluidized bed gasifier. The membrane ambipolar conductivity was based on the value calculated from the measured permeation data. A membrane thickness of 25 micron was assumed in the calculation. The GTI's gasification model combined with a membrane reactor model were used to determine the dimensions of the membrane module. It appears that a membrane module can be configured within a fluidized bed gasifier without substantial increase of the gasifier dimensions.

Shain Doong; Estela Ong; Mike Atroshenko; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts

2005-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

394

Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20???ºC to 120???ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20???ºC to 120???ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA?¢????s comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20???ºC to 120???ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA?¢????s, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year R&D Plan. In the course of this four-year program we developed a new PEM with improved proton conductivity, chemical stability and mechanical stability. We incorporated this new membrane into MEAs and evaluated performance and durability.

Hamrock, Steven J.

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

395

NETL: Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Designing and Validating Ternay Pd Alloys for Optimum Sulfur/Carbon Resistance Designing and Validating Ternay Pd Alloys for Optimum Sulfur/Carbon Resistance Project No.: DE-FE0001181 Gas Permeation Cell and Test Stand Pall Corporation is developing an economically-viable hydrogen/carbon dioxide (H2/CO2) separation membrane system that would allow efficient capture of CO2 at high temperature and pressure from gasified coal in the presence of typical contaminants. Goals for the project include creating an advanced palladium alloy for optimum hydrogen separation performance using combinatorial material methods for high-throughput screening, testing, and characterization and demonstrating durability by long term testing of a pilot membrane module at a commercial coal gasification facility. The advantages of this technology are reduction of CO2 compression costs, lack of need for both upstream and downstream heat exchange and complex heat integration, and the potential for integration with water gas shift in a single compact membrane reactor system.

396

Available Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 News Stories (and older) 6 News Stories (and older) 12.21.2005___________________________________________________________________ Genzyme acquires gene therapy technology invented at Berkeley Lab. Read more here. 07.19.2005 _________________________________________________________________ Symyx, a start up company using Berkeley Lab combinatorial chemistry technology licensed by the Technology Transfer Department and developed by Peter Schultz and colleagues in the Materials Sciences Division, will be honored with Frost & Sullivan's 2005 Technology Leadership Award at their Excellence in Emerging Technologies Awards Banquet for developing enabling technologies and methods to aid better, faster and more efficient R&D. Read more here. 07.11.2005 _________________________________________________________________ Nanosys, Inc., a Berkeley Lab startup, is among the solar nanotech companies investors along Sand Hill Road in Menlo Park hope that thinking small will translate into big profits. Read more here.

397

NETL: Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

projects are designed to: enhance domestic oil and natural gas supplies through advanced exploration and production technology; examine water related concerns; investigate...

398

Microwave Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 20, 2011 ... These wastes are found in the market. ... Cherian1; Michael Kirksey1; Sandwip Dey2; 1Spheric Technologies Inc; 2Arizona State University

399

Transmission Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

electronically (shift-by-wire) and performed by a hydraulic system or electric motor. In addition, technologies can be employed to make the shifting process smoother than...

400

Advanced Combustion Technologies | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation » Clean Coal » Advanced Combustion Science & Innovation » Clean Coal » Advanced Combustion Technologies Advanced Combustion Technologies Joe Yip, a researcher at FE's National Energy Technology Laboratory, uses laser-based Rayleigh light scattering to measure flame density and speed over a flat flame burner. Oxyfuel combustion, using oxygen in place of air with diluents such as steam or carbon dioxide, can reduce pollutant emissions in advanced power cycles using gas turbines. Photo courtesy of NETL Multimedia. Joe Yip, a researcher at FE's National Energy Technology Laboratory, uses laser-based Rayleigh light scattering to measure flame density and speed over a flat flame burner. Oxyfuel combustion, using oxygen in place of air with diluents such as steam or carbon dioxide, can reduce pollutant

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane oxygen technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Microsoft PowerPoint - Nano Sep Membrane for H2 Flux brief.ppt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Membrane separations are a key enabling technology for energy conversion devices. Ionic transport Membrane separations are a key enabling technology for energy conversion devices. Ionic transport membranes must have both proton and electronic conductivity to function as hydrogen separation membranes without an external power supply. In addition, membrane materials electronic conductivity or material crystal stability should not be greatly affected by the presence of contaminant gases such as CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , and H 2 O that are associated with steam reforming/water gas shift reactions. SRNL is managed and operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC glance at a  improved electronic conduction  suitable for hydrogen separation  separates contaminant gases  patent pending Background SRNL-L5210-2011-00005

402

Highly Selective H2 Separation Zeolite Membranes for Coal Gasification Membrane Reactor Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Zeolite membranes are thermally, chemically, and mechanically stable. They also have tunable molecular sieving and catalytic ability. These unique properties make zeolite membrane an excellent candidate for use in catalytic membrane reactor applications related to coal conversion and gasification, which need high temperature and high pressure range separation in chemically challenging environment where existing technologies are inefficient or unable to operate. Small pore, good quality, and thin zeolite membranes are needed for highly selective H2 separation from other light gases (CO2, CH4, CO). However, current zeolite membranes have either too big zeolite pores or a large number of defects and have not been successful for H2 separation from light gases. The objective of this study is to develop zeolite membranes that are more suitable for H2 separation. In an effort to tune the size of zeolite pores and/or to decrease the number of defects, medium-pore zeolite B-ZSM-5 (MFI) membranes were synthesized and silylated. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 crystals reduced MFI-zeolite pore volume, but had little effect on CO2 and CH4 adsorption. Silylation on B-ZSM-5 membranes increased H2 selectivity both in single component and in mixtures with CO2, CH4, or N2. Single gas and binary mixtures of H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 were permeated through silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes at feed pressures up to 1.7 MPa and temperatures up to 773 K. For one B-ZSM-5 membrane after silylation, the H2/CO2 separation selectivity at 473 K increased from 1.4 to 37, whereas the H2/CH4 separation selectivity increased from 1.6 to 33. Hydrogen permeance through a silylated BZSM-5 membrane was activated with activation energy of {approx}10 kJ/mol, but the CO2 and CH4 permeances decreased slightly with temperature in both single gas and in mixtures. Therefore, the H2 permeance and H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 separation selectivities increased with temperature. At 673 K, the H2 permeance was 1.0x10-7 mol{center_dot}m-2{center_dot}s-1{center_dot}Pa-1, and the H2/CO2 separation selectivity was 47. Above 673 K, the silylated membrane catalyzed reverse water gas shift reaction and still separated H2 with high selectivity; and it was thermally stable. However, silylation decreased H2 permeance more than one order of magnitude. Increasing the membrane feed pressure increased the H2 flux and the H2 mole fraction in the permeate stream for both H2/CO2 and H2/CH4 mixtures. The H2 separation performance of the silylated B-ZSM-5 membranes depended on the initial membrane quality and acidity, as well as the silane precursors. Another approach used in this study is optimizing the synthesis of small-pore SAPO-34 (CHA) membranes and/or modifying SAPO-34 membranes by silylation or ion exchange. For SAPO-34 membranes, strong CO2 adsorption inhibited H2 adsorption and decreased H2 permeances, especially at low temperatures. At 253 K, CO2/H2 separation selectivities of a SAPO-34 membrane were greater than 100 with CO2 permeances of about 3 x 10-8 mol{center_dot}m-2{center_dot}s-1{center_dot}Pa-1. The high reverse-selectivity of the SAPO-34 membranes can minimize H2 recompression because H2 remained in the retentate stream at a higher pressure. The CO2/H2 separation selectivity exhibited a maximum with CO2 feed concentration possibly caused by a maximum in the CO2/H2 sorption selectivity with increased CO2 partial pressure. The SAPO-34 membrane separated H2 from CH4 because CH4 is close to the SAPO-34 pore size so its diffusivity (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

Mei Hong; Richard Noble; John Falconer

2007-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

403

Development of mixed-conducting ceramic membrane for hydrogen separation.  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Fossil Energy of the US Department of Energy is formulating ''Vision 21,'' a program aimed at developing technologies for highly efficient power and coproduction plants that discharge almost no pollutants and close the carbon cycle. An integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) system is a likely modular component of a Vision 21 coproduction plant. IGCC technology is ideally suited for the coproduction of electricity and high-quality transportation fuel and/or a host of high-value chemicals. As part of the IGCC system, high-temperature membranes for separating hydrogen from coal gasification and other partial-oxidation-product streams are being considered. Thin and dense ceramic membranes fabricated from mixed protonic and electronic conductors provide a simple, efficient means for separating hydrogen from gas streams. Dense mixed-conducting ceramic membranes effect transport via ion- and electron-conducting mechanisms. Because these membranes have no interconnected porosity, selectively for hydrogen is nearly 100%. Hydrogen separation is achieved in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without the need for electrodes and external power supply to drive the separation. BaCeO{sub 3}-based materials exhibit protonic conductivity that is significantly higher than its electronic conductivity. To enhance the electronic conductivity and increase hydrogen permeation, we have fabricated BaCeO{sub 3}-containing cermet membranes and used them in a nongalvanic mode to separate hydrogen from gas streams containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and trace amounts of H{sub 2}S. Material selection, fabrication, performance as well as technical/technological challenges of the ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation are discussed in this talk.

Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Lee, T. H.

1999-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

404

Method of producing metallized chloroplasts and use thereof in the photochemical production of hydrogen and oxygen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is primarily a metallized chloroplast composition for use in a photosynthetic reaction. A catalytic metal is precipitated on a chloroplast membrane at the location where a catalyzed reduction reaction occurs. This metallized chloroplast is stabilized by depositing it on a support medium such as fiber so that it can be easily handled. A possible application of this invention is the splitting of water to form hydrogen and oxygen that can be used as a renewable energy source.

Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Proton and methanol transport in poly(perfluorosulfonate) membranes containing Cs{sup +} and H{sup +} cations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poly(perfluorosulfonate acid) membranes were doped with cesium ions to several degrees. These, along with the H{sup +}-form membrane, were investigated in relation to methanol permeability as well as hydrogen ion conductivity. While retaining considerable conductivity, the cesium-doped membranes are highly impermeable to methanol. The author found that methanol permeability in the membrane reduced by over one order of magnitude, owing to the presence of cesium ions. These findings are discussed on the basis of alterations produced by cesium in the membrane microstructure. Also discussed is the potential implication of these results in the direct methanol fuel cell technology.

Tricoli, V. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Carbon Dioxide Separation with Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Supported liquid membranes are a class of materials that allow the researcher to utilize the wealth of knowledge available on liquid properties as a direct guide in the development of a capture technology. These membranes also have the advantage of liquid phase diffusivities higher than those observed in polymeric membranes which grant proportionally greater permeabilities. The primary shortcoming of the supported liquid membranes demonstrated in past research has been the lack of stability caused by volatilization of the transport liquid. Ionic liquids, which possess high carbon dioxide solubility relative to light gases such as hydrogen, are an excellent candidate for this type of membrane since they have negligible vapor pressure and are not susceptible to evaporation. A study has been conducted evaluating the use of several ionic liquids, including 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazolium bis(trifuoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium nitrate, and 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium sulfate in supported ionic liquid membranes for the capture of carbon dioxide from streams containing hydrogen. In a joint project, researchers at the University of Notre Dame lent expertise in ionic liquid synthesis and characterization, and researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory incorporated candidate ionic liquids into supports and evaluated the resulting materials for membrane performance. Initial results have been very promising with carbon dioxide permeabilities as high as 950 barrers and significant improvements in carbon dioxide/hydrogen selectivity over conventional polymers at 37C and at elevated temperatures. Results include a comparison of the performance of several ionic liquids and a number of supports as well as a discussion of innovative fabrication techniques currently under development.

Luebke, D.R.; Ilconich, J.B.; Myers, C.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

GAS/LIQUID MEMBRANES FOR NATURAL GAS UPGRADING  

SciTech Connect

Efforts this quarter have concentrated on legal agreements, including alternative field sites. Preliminary design of the bench-scale equipment continues. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is conducting this research program whose objective is to develop gas/liquid membranes for natural gas upgrading to assist DOE in achieving their goal of developing novel methods of upgrading low quality natural gas to meet pipeline specifications. Kvaerner Process Systems (KPS) and W. L. Gore & Associates (GORE) gas/liquid membrane contactors are based on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membranes acting as the contacting barrier between the contaminated gas stream and the absorbing liquid. These resilient membranes provide much greater surface area for transfer than other tower internals, with packing densities five to ten times greater, resulting in equipment 50--70% smaller and lower weight for the same treating service. The scope of the research program is to (1) build and install a laboratory- and a field-scale gas/liquid membrane absorber; (2) operate the units with a low quality natural gas feed stream for sufficient time to verify the simulation model of the contactors and to project membrane life in this severe service; and (3) conducted an economic evaluation, based on the data, to quantify the impact of the technology. Chevron, one of the major producers of natural gas, has offered to host the test at a gas treating plant. KPS will use their position as a recognized leader in the construction of commercial amine plants for building the unit along with GORE providing the membranes. GTI will provide operator and data collection support during lab- and field-testing to assure proper analytical procedures are used. Kvaerner and GTI will perform the final economic evaluation. GTI will provide project management and be responsible for reporting and interactions with DOE on this project.

Howard S. Meyer

2002-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

408

NanoEner Technologies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

NanoEner Technologies NanoEner Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name NanoEner Technologies Place Fort Lauderdale, Florida Product Develops and markets nanomaterials and related nanotechnology processes that have applications in primary and rechargeable batteries, super capacitors, electronic devices, wires, sensors and fuel cell membranes. References NanoEner Technologies[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. NanoEner Technologies is a company located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida . References ↑ "NanoEner Technologies" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=NanoEner_Technologies&oldid=349020" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

409

Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Dempsey, Michael D. (Revere, MA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Metering Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities are looking to replace meters that only measure kilowatt-hours with advanced meters with greater features and functions. This White Paper describes the smart metering technology that is already available or will be available in the near future. It also provides a high-level overview of the wired and wireless communication technologies used in the metering industry.

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

411

Technology Search Results | Brookhaven Technology ...  

BSA 11-30: Enhanced Alkane production by Aldehyde Decarbonylase Fusion Constructs; BSA 12-36: Oil Accumulation in Plant Leaves; Find a Technology.

412

Technology Search Results | Brookhaven Technology ...  

There are 9 technologies tagged "cancer". BSA 01-02: ... a limited-liability company founded by the Research Foundation for the State University of ...

413

Manufacturing Science and Technology: Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Courtesy of ZCorp The Rapid Prototyping Laboratory (RPL) supports internal design, manufacturing, and process development with three rapid prototyping (RP) technologies:...

414

Manufacturing Science and Technology: Technologies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

parts Brazing large complex parts The joining and heat-treating technologies in the Thin Film, Vacuum, & Packaging department include brazing, heat-treating, diffusion...

415

The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air Products supplies oxygen to a number of coal gasification and partial oxidation facilities worldwide. At the high operating pressures of these processes, economics favor the use of 90% and higher oxygen purities. The effect of inerts in the oxidant on gasifier and downstream production units also favor the use of oxygen in place of air. Factors that must be considered in selecting the optimum oxygen purity include: end use of the gasifier products, oxygen delivery pressure and the cost of capital and energy. This paper examines the major factors in oxygen purity selection for typical coal gasifiers. Examples demonstrating the effect of oxygen purity on several processes are presented: production of synthetic natural gas (SNG), integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power generation and methanol synthesis. The potential impact of a non-cryogenic air separation process currently under development is examined based on integration with a high temperature processes.

Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Oxygen enriched combustion system performance study  

SciTech Connect

The current study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) oxygen plant to provide oxygen for industrial combustion applications. PSA oxygen plants utilize a molecular sieve material to separate air into an oxygen rich product stream and a nitrogen rich exhaust stream. These plants typically produce 90-95% purity oxygen and are located in close proximity to the point of use. In contrast, high purity (99.999%) oxygen is produced by the distillation of liquid air at a remote plant and is usually transported to the point of use either as a cryogenic liquid in a tank trailer or as a high pressure gas via pipeline. In this study, experiments were performed to the test PSA system used in conjunction with an A'' burner and comparisons were made with the results of the previous study which utilized high purity liquid oxygen. 4 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

Delano, M.A. (Union Carbide Industrial Gases, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (USA)); Kwan, Y. (Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (USA))

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Hydrogen production from simulated hot coke oven gas by using oxygen-permeable ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen production from simulated hot coke oven gas (HCOG) was investigated in a BaCo{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 0.2}Nb{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BCFNO) membrane reactor combined with a Ni/Mg(Al)O catalyst by the partial oxidation with toluene as a model tar compound under atmospheric pressure. The reaction results indicated that toluene was completely converted to H{sub 2} and CO in the catalytic reforming of the simulated HCOG in the temperature range from 825 to 875{sup o}C. Both thermodynamically predicated values and experimental data showed that the selective oxidation of toluene took precedence over that of CH{sub 4} in the reforming reaction. At optimized reaction conditions, the dense oxygen-permeable membrane has an oxygen permeation flux around 12.3 mL cm{sup -2} min{sup -1}, and a CH{sub 4} conversion of 86%, a CO{sub 2} conversion of 99%, a H{sub 2} yield of 88%, and a CO yield of 87% have been achieved. When the toluene and methane were reformed, the amount of H{sub 2} in the reaction effluent gas was about 2 times more than that of original H{sub 2} in simulated HCOG. The results reveal that it is feasible for hydrogen production from HCOG by reforming hydrocarbon compounds in a ceramic oxygen-permeable membrane reactor. 27 refs., 10 figs., 3 abs.

Hongwei Cheng; Yuwen Zhang; Xionggang Lu; Weizhong Ding; Qian Li [Shanghai University, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Novel Membrane Technology for Green Ethylene Production - Energy ...  

Ethylene is currently produced by pyrolysis of ethane in the presence of steam. This reaction requires substantial energy input, and the equilibrium conversion is ...

419

CERAMIC MEMBRANE ENABLING TECHNOLOGY FOR IMPROVED IGCC EFFICIENCY  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for Phase 2 Program during the quarter January to March 2004. In task 1 OTM development has led to improved strength and composite design for lower temperatures. In task 2, the measurement system of OTM element dimensions was improved. In task 3, a 10-cycle test of a three-tube submodule was reproduced successfully. In task 5, sizing of several potential heat recovery systems was initiated. In task 7, advanced OTM and cryogenic IGCC cases for near-term integration were developed.

Ravi Prasad

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

420

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2003 High Temperature Membrane...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in New Electrolytes, Bryan Pivovar, LANL (PDF 731 KB) Hetero-Polyacids, Andrew Herring, Colorado School of Mines (PDF 5 MB) New Polymeric Proton Conductors for High...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "membrane oxygen technology" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

NETL: News Release - DOE Supports Promising Membrane Technology...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production Government-Industry Cost-Shared Project Advances Visionary Power Plant PITTSBURGH, PA - Taking a step closer toward its vision of ultraclean, highly...

422

Available Technologies: Membrane-Electrode Structures for Low Cost ...  

Medical Devices; Medical Imaging Mouse Models; Research Tools; Developing World; Energy. Energy Efficiency; Energy Storage and Recovery; Renewable Energy;

423

Available Technologies: Membrane-Derivatized Colloids for the ...  

... of putative ligands. The specific binding of a ligand to an embedded receptor protein then triggers a change in the distribution of the ...

424

ITM Syngas: Ceramic Membrane Technology for Lower Cost Conversion...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ASU water use - Less Plot Area required - approx. 50% less - Fuel flexibility - natural gas, syngas, liquid fuels - Excellent integration capability with existing high...

425

Vehicle Technologies Office: Graduate Automotive Technology Education  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Deployment Deployment Site Map Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Vehicle Technologies Office: Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) on AddThis.com...

426

Building Technologies Office: Emerging Technologies Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Emerging Technologies Emerging Technologies Activities to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Emerging Technologies Activities on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Emerging Technologies Activities on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Emerging Technologies Activities on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Emerging Technologies Activities on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Emerging Technologies Activities on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Emerging Technologies Activities on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner with DOE Activities Appliances Research Building Envelope Research Windows, Skylights, & Doors Research Space Heating & Cooling Research Water Heating Research

427

Vehicle Technologies Office: Vehicle Technologies Office Recognizes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vehicle Technologies Vehicle Technologies Office Recognizes Outstanding Researchers to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Vehicle Technologies Office Recognizes Outstanding Researchers on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Vehicle Technologies Office Recognizes Outstanding Researchers on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Vehicle Technologies Office Recognizes Outstanding Researchers on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Vehicle Technologies Office Recognizes Outstanding Researchers on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Vehicle Technologies Office Recognizes Outstanding Researchers on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Vehicle Technologies Office Recognizes Outstanding Researchers on AddThis.com...

428

A Membrane Process for Industrial Water Treatment: From Bench to Pilot Demonstration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A rotary membrane filtration system was used to separate die lubricant from a manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by factors of 20 to 25, carbon oxygen demand by 1.5 to 2, and total organic carbon by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand remained constant. The rotary membranes were not fouled as badly as static membranes, and the rotary membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the static membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary ultrafilter can concentrate the die lubricant, remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lubricant suitable for in-plant recycling. The recycling system operated for 6 weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that when recycled die lubricant was used, the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. Rotary ultrafiltration presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

Eric S. Peterson; Bill Cleary; Michael Hackett; Jessica Trudeau

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

A Novel Membrane Reactor for Direct Hydrogen Production From Coal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gas Technology Institute has developed a novel concept of a membrane reactor closely coupled with a coal gasifier for direct extraction of hydrogen from coal-derived syngas. The objective of this project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this concept by screening, testing and identifying potential candidate membranes under the coal gasification conditions. The best performing membranes were selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimate. The overall economics of hydrogen production from this new process was assessed and compared with conventional hydrogen production technologies from coal. Several proton-conducting perovskite membranes based on the formulations of BCN (BaCe{sub 0.8}Nd{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x}), BCY (BaCe{sub 0.8}Y{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x}), SCE (Eu-doped SrCeO{sub 3}) and SCTm (SrCe{sub 0.95}Tm{sub 0.05}O{sub 3}) were successfully tested in a new permeation unit at temperatures between 800 and 1040 C and pressures from 1 to 12 bars. The experimental data confirm that the hydrogen flux increases with increasing hydrogen partial pressure at the feed side. The highest hydrogen flux measured was 1.0 cc/min/cm{sup 2} (STP) for the SCTm membrane at 3 bars and 1040 C. The chemical stability of the perovskite membranes with respect to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S can be improved by doping with Zr, as demonstrated from the TGA (Thermal Gravimetric Analysis) tests in this project. A conceptual design, using the measured hydrogen flux data and a modeling approach, for a 1000 tons-per-day (TPD) coal gasifier shows that a membrane module can be configured within a fluidized bed gasifier without a substantial increase of the gasifier dimensions. Flowsheet simulations show that the coal to hydrogen process employing the proposed membrane reactor concept can increase the hydrogen production efficiency by more than 50% compared to the conventional process. Preliminary economic analysis also shows a 30% cost reduction for the proposed membrane reactor process, assuming membrane materials meeting DOE's flux and cost target. Although this study shows that a membrane module can be configured within a fluidized bed gasifier, placing the membrane module outside the gasifier in a closely coupled way in terms of temperature and pressure can still offer the same performance advantage. This could also avoid the complicated fluid dynamics and heat transfer issues when the membrane module is installed inside the gasifier. Future work should be focused on improving the permeability and stability for the proton-conducting membranes, testing the membranes with real syngas from a gasifier and scaling up the membrane size.

Shain Doong; Estela Ong; Mike Atrosphenko; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts

2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

430

Ohio State Develops Game-Changing CO2 Capture Membranes in DOE-Funded  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ohio State Develops Game-Changing CO2 Capture Membranes in Ohio State Develops Game-Changing CO2 Capture Membranes in DOE-Funded Project Ohio State Develops Game-Changing CO2 Capture Membranes in DOE-Funded Project November 15, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - In a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (FE), researchers at The Ohio State University have developed a groundbreaking new hybrid membrane that combines the separation performance of inorganic membranes with the cost-effectiveness of polymer membranes. The breakthrough technology has vast commercial potential for use at coal-fired power plants with carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), a key element in national efforts to mitigate climate change. Before the carbon dioxide (CO2) generated at a power plant can be securely

431

Durable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of low cost, durable membranes and membranes electrode assemblies (MEAs) that operate under reduced relative humidity (RH) conditions remain a critical challenge for the successful introduction of fuel cells into mass markets. It was the goal of the team lead by Arkema, Inc. to address these shortages. Thus, this project addresses the following technical barriers from the fuel cells section of the Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: (A) Durability (B) Cost Arkemas approach consisted of using blends of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and proprietary sulfonated polyelectrolytes. In the traditional approach to polyelectrolytes for proton exchange membranes (PEM), all the required properties are packaged in one macromolecule. The properties of interest include proton conductivity, mechanical properties, durability, and water/gas transport. This is the case, for example, for perfluorosulfonic acid-containing (PFSA) membranes. However, the cost of these materials is high, largely due to the complexity and the number of steps involved in their synthesis. In addition, they suffer other shortcomings such as mediocre mechanical properties and insufficient durability for some applications. The strength and originality of Arkemas approach lies in the decoupling of ion conductivity from the other requirements. Kynar PVDF provides an exceptional combination of properties that make it ideally suited for a membrane matrix (Kynar is a registered trademark of Arkema Inc.). It exhibits outstanding chemical resistance in highly oxidative and acidic environments. In work with a prior grant, a membrane known as M41 was developed by Arkema. M41 had many of the properties needed for a high performance PEM, but had a significant deficiency in conductivity at low RH. In the first phase of this work, the processing parameters of M41 were explored as a means to increase its proton conductivity. Optimizing the processing of M41 was found to increase its proton conductivity by almost an order of magnitude at 50% RH. Characterization of the membrane morphology with Karren More at Oak Ridge National Laboratory showed that the membrane morphology was complex. This technology platform was dubbed M43 and was used as a baseline in the majority of the work on the project. Although its performance was superior to M41, M43 still showed proton conductivity an order of magnitude lower than that of a PFSA membrane at 50% RH. The MEA performance of M43 could be increased by reducing the thickness from 1 to 0.6 mils. However, the performance of the thinner M43 still did not match that of a PFSA membrane.

Chris Roger; David Mountz; Wensheng He; Tao Zhang

2011-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

432

A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR FOR DIRECT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gas Technology Institute is developing a novel concept of membrane reactor coupled with a gasifier for high efficiency, clean and low cost production of hydrogen from coal. The concept incorporates a hydrogen-selective membrane within a gasification reactor for direct extraction of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gases. The objective of this project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this concept by screening, testing and identifying potential candidate membranes under high temperature, high pressure, and harsh environments of the coal gasification conditions. The best performing membranes will be selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. Hydrogen permeation data for several perovskite membranes BCN (BaCe{sub 0.9}Nd{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-x}), SCE (SrCe{sub 0.9}Eu{sub 0.1}O{sub 3}) and SCTm (SrCe{sub 0.95}Tm{sub 0.05}O{sub 3}) have been successfully obtained for temperatures between 800 and 950 C and pressures from 1 to 12 bar in this project. However, it is known that the cerate-based perovskite materials can react with CO{sub 2}. Therefore, the stability issue of the proton conducting perovskite materials under CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}S environments was examined. Tests were conducted in the Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA) unit for powder and disk forms of BCN and SCE. Perovskite materials doped with zirconium (Zr) are known to be resistant to CO{sub 2}. The results from the evaluation of the chemical stability for the Zr doped perovskite membranes are presented. During this reporting period, flowsheet simulation was also performed to calculate material and energy balance based on several hydrogen production processes from coal using high temperature membrane reactor (1000 C), low temperature membrane reactor (250 C), or conventional technologies. The results show that the coal to hydrogen process employing both the high temperature and the low temperature membrane reactors can increase the hydrogen production efficiency (cold gas efficiency) by more than 50% compared to the conventional process. Using either high temperature or low temperature membrane reactor process also results in an increase of the cold gas efficiencies as well as the thermal efficiencies of the overall process.

Shain Doong; Estela Ong; Mike Atroshenko; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts

2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

433

Assessment of battery technologies for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This document, Part 2 of Volume 2, provides appendices to this report and includes the following technologies, zinc/air battery; lithium/molybdenum disulfide battery; sodium/sulfur battery; nickel/cadmium battery; nickel/iron battery; iron/oxygen battery and iron/air battery. (FI)

Ratner, E.Z. (Sheladia Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD (USA)); Henriksen, G.L. (ed.) (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes. Annual report for FY 2007.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that, without using an external power supply or circuitry, can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation. This project grew out of an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions [1]. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen to be produced by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting [1, 2]. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen by means of OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

Balachandran, U.; Chen, L.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.; Song, S. J.; Energy Systems

2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

435

Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

Repasky, John Michael

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

436

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.eere.energy.gov/informationcenter hydrogen and electricity for fuel cell and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles while using proven stationary vehicles with its own fuel cell technology. Currently, advanced vehicle technologies are being evalu- ated and fuel cells offer great