National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for membrane oxygen technology

  1. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  2. Composite oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

    2014-08-05

    A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

  3. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay

    2008-08-30

    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phase membranes have been evaluated for structural properties. An increasing crack growth resistance was observed for the membranes heat-treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} with increasing crack length. The combined effect of thermal and elastic mismatch stresses on the crack path was studied and the fracture behavior of the dual phase composite at the test conditions was analyzed. Ceramic/metal (C/M) seals are needed to form a leak-tight interface between the OTM and a nickel-base super alloy. It was concluded that Ni-based brazing alloys provided the best option in terms of brazing temperature and final operating conditions after analyzing several possible brazing systems. A mechanical testing procedure has been developed. This model was tested with model ceramic/metal systems but it is expected to be useful for testing concentric perovskite/metal seals.

  4. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

    2003-08-07

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

  5. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2006-05-01

    In this quarter a systematic analysis on the decomposition behavior of the OTM membranes at air and nitrogen were initiated to understand the structural and stoichiometric changes associated with elevated temperatures. Evaluation of the flexural strengths using 4-point bend test was also started for the dual phase membranes. Initial results on the synthesis of dual phase composite materials have been obtained. The measurements have focused on the compatibility of mixed conductors with the pure ionic conductors yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and gadolinium doped ceria (GDC). The initial results obtained for three different mixed conductors suggest that (GDC) is the better choice. A new membrane permeation system has been designed and tested and sintering studies of biphasic systems are in progress.

  6. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2003-01-01

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment are begun. The studies are to be in parallel with LSFCO composition to characterize the segregation of cations and slow crack growth in environmental conditions. La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} has also been characterized for paramagnetic ordering at room temperature and the evolution of magnetic moments as a function of temperature are investigated. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport.

  7. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-07-01

    This is the fourth quarterly report on a new study to develop a ceramic membrane/metal joint. The first experiments using the La-Sr-Fe-O ceramic are reported. Some of the analysis performed on the samples obtained are commented upon. A set of experiments to characterize the mechanical strength and thermal fatigue properties of the joints has been designed and begun. Finite element models of joints used to model residual stresses are described.

  8. Membrane Technology Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Charles Page (Air Products & Chemicals, Inc.) for the Membrane Technology Workshop held July 24, 2012

  9. New Oxygen-Production Technology Proving Successful

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has partnered with Air Products and Chemicals Inc. of Allentown, Penn. to develop the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen, a revolutionary new oxygen-production technology that requires less energy and offers lower capital costs than conventional technologies.

  10. Membrane Technology Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the Membrane Technology Workshop (held July 24, 2012, in Rosemont, IL), stakeholders from industry and academia explored the status of membrane research and development (R&D). Participants ...

  11. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  12. Novel Membranes and Processes for Oxygen Enrichment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Haiqing

    2011-11-15

    The overall goal of this project is to develop a membrane process that produces air containing 25-35% oxygen, at a cost of $25-40/ton of equivalent pure oxygen (EPO2). Oxygen-enriched air at such a low cost will allow existing air-fueled furnaces to be converted economically to oxygen-enriched furnaces, which in turn will improve the economic and energy efficiency of combustion processes significantly, and reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration from flue gases throughout the U.S. manufacturing industries. During the 12-month Concept Definition project: We identified a series of perfluoropolymers (PFPs) with promising oxygen/nitrogen separation properties, which were successfully made into thin film composite membranes. The membranes showed oxygen permeance as high as 1,200 gpu and oxygen/nitrogen selectivity of 3.0, and the permeance and selectivity were stable over the time period tested (60 days). We successfully scaled up the production of high-flux PFP-based membranes, using MTR's commercial coaters. Two bench-scale spiral-wound modules with countercurrent designs were made and parametric tests were performed to understand the effect of feed flow rate and pressure, permeate pressure and sweep flow rate on the membrane module separation properties. At various operating conditions that modeled potential industrial operating conditions, the module separation properties were similar to the pure-gas separation properties in the membrane stamps. We also identified and synthesized new polymers [including polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) and polyimides] with higher oxygen/nitrogen selectivity (3.5-5.0) than the PFPs, and made these polymers into thin film composite membranes. However, these membranes were susceptible to severe aging; pure-gas permeance decreased nearly six-fold within two weeks, making them impractical for industrial applications of oxygen enrichment. We tested the effect of oxygen-enriched air on NO{sub x} emissions using a Bloom baffle burner at GTI. The results are positive and confirm that oxygen-enriched combustion can be carried out without producing higher levels of NOx than normal air firing, if lancing of combustion air is used and the excess air levels are controlled. A simple economic study shows that the membrane processes can produce O{sub 2} at less than $40/ton EPO{sub 2} and an energy cost of 1.1-1.5 MMBtu/ton EPO{sub 2}, which are very favorable compared with conventional technologies such as cryogenics and vacuum pressure swing adsorption processes. The benefits of integrated membrane processes/combustion process trains have been evaluated, and show good savings in process costs and energy consumption, as well as reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. For example, if air containing 30% oxygen is used in natural gas furnaces, the net natural gas savings are an estimated 18% at a burner temperature of 2,500 F, and 32% at a burner temperature of 3,000 F. With a 20% market penetration of membrane-based oxygen-enriched combustion in all combustion processes by 2020, the energy savings would be 414-736 TBtu/y in the U.S. The comparable net cost savings are estimated at $1.2-2.1 billion per year by 2020, calculated as the value of fuel savings subtracted from the cost of oxygen production. The fuel savings of 18%-32% by the membrane/oxygen-enriched combustion corresponds to an 18%-32% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, or 23-40 MM ton/y less CO{sub 2} from natural gas-fired furnaces by 2020. In summary, results from this project (Concept Definition phase) are highly promising and clearly demonstrate that membrane processes can produce oxygen-enriched air in a low cost manner that will lower operating costs and energy consumption in industrial combustion processes. Future work will focus on proof-of-concept bench-scale demonstration in the laboratory.

  13. Ceramic Membranes for Hydrogen/Oxygen Production - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Startup America Startup America Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Ceramic Membranes for Hydrogen/Oxygen Production Ceramic Membranes Developed at Argonne May Bring Fuel-Cell Cars Closer to Reality Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary In the long term, hydrogen is expected to be the fuel of choice for both the

  14. SUPPORTED DENSE CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR OXYGEN SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy L. Ward

    2002-07-01

    Mixed-conducting ceramics have the ability to conduct oxygen with perfect selectivity at elevated temperatures, making them extremely attractive as membrane materials for oxygen separation and membrane reactor applications. While the conductivity of these materials can be quite high at elevated temperatures (typically 800-1000 C), much higher oxygen fluxes, or, alternatively, equivalent fluxes at lower temperatures, could be provided by supported thin or thick film membrane layers. Based on that motivation, the objective of this project was to explore the use of ultrafine aerosol-derived powder of a mixed-conducting ceramic material for fabrication of supported thick-film dense membranes. The project focused on the mixed-conducting ceramic composition SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} (SCFO) because of the desirable permeability and stability of that material, as reported in the literature. Appropriate conditions to produce the submicron SrCo{sub 0.5}FeO{sub x} powder using aerosol pyrolysis were determined. Porous supports of the same composition were produced by partial sintering of a commercially obtained powder that possessed significantly larger particle size than the aerosol-derived powder. The effects of sintering conditions (temperature, atmosphere) on the porosity and microstructure of the porous discs were studied, and a standard support fabrication procedure was adopted. Subsequently, a variety of paste and slurry formulations were explored utilizing the aerosol-derived SCFO powder. These formulations were applied to the porous SCFO support by a doctor blade or spin coating procedure. Sintering of the supported membrane layer was then conducted, and additional layers were deposited and sintered in some cases. The primary characterization methods were X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and room-temperature nitrogen permeation was used to assess defect status of the membranes.We found that non-aqueous paste/slurry formulations incorporating dispersant, plasticizer and binder provided superior cracking resistance compared to simple water, alcohol, or polyethylene glycol (PEG) based formulations. With a formulation employing castor oil as dispersant, isopropyl alcohol/mineral spirits as solvent, polyvinyl butyral as binder, and dibutyl phthalate/PEG as plasticizer, sintered SCFO membrane layers approximately 5 {micro}m thick with no apparent cracks were prepared using spin coating with several coats and sintering cycles. A similar but more viscous formulation applied by doctor blade gave a {approx} 10 {micro}m thick membrane layer in one coat, but with some apparent cracking. We demonstrated that the membrane layer could be densified while retaining porosity in the chemically identical support. This was accomplished by pre-sintering the support in air (1050 C), which coarsened the grain size and provided a relatively stable plate-shaped granular microstructure, followed by membrane layer fabrication with the highly-sinterable aerosol powder. Final densification was conducted by sintering in nitrogen ({approx}1100 C), which provided accelerated sintering rates and led to the desired layered perovskite phase content. In spite of these successes, low-temperature pressure-driven permeation testing with N2 showed that even the best membranes were not sufficiently defect free for high-temperature oxygen permeation testing. The source of these defects were not readily apparent from scanning electron microscopy, though incomplete or nonuniform membrane layer coverage from edge to edge of the support was probably one important factor.

  15. Membrane Technology Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Page - Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. Chicago 24 July 2012 Modules & Vessels Membranes System Design: Pretreatment & Controls Three Critical Areas So Much Work! Performance  Thick dense films in the lab do not perform the same as the thin skin separating layer of the actual membrane  Mixed gas + contaminant vs. pure gas data basis  Reference conditions vs. realistic operating environment  Wall resistance and fiber morphology/geometry effects Cost / availability of polymer

  16. Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM); Cornelius, Christopher J. (Blackburg, VA)

    2011-01-25

    A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

  17. Membrane Technology Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop Membrane Technology Workshop July 24, 2012 At the Membrane Technology Workshop (held July 24, 2012, in Rosemont, IL), stakeholders from industry and academia explored the status of membrane research and development (R&D). Participants discussed R&D barriers, emerging applications, and advanced membrane technologies in commercial and industrial applications. Presenters provided an overview of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office, results of previous membrane workshops, and

  18. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2005-09-27

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  19. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammels, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  20. Oxygen-permeable ceramic membranes for gas separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Ma, B.; Maiya, P.S.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L.; Picciolo, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    Mixed-conducting oxides have a wide range of applications, including fuel cells, gas separation systems, sensors, and electrocatalytic equipment. Dense ceramic membranes made of mixed-conducting oxides are particularly attractive for gas separation and methane conversion processes. Membranes made of Sr-Fe-Co oxide, which exhibits high combined electronic and oxygen ionic conductivities, can be used to selectively transport oxygen during the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas, i.e., CO + H{sub 2}). The authors have fabricated tubular Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes and tested them (some for more than 1,000 h) in a methane conversion reactor that was operating at 850--950 C. An oxygen permeation flux of {approx} 10 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained at 900 C in a tubular membrane with a wall thickness of 0.75 mm. Using a gas-tight electrochemical cell, the authors have also measured the steady-state oxygen permeability of flat Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure(pO{sub 2}). Steady-state oxygen permeability increases with increasing temperature and with the difference in pO{sub 2} on the two sides of the membrane. At 900 C, an oxygen permeability of {approx} 2.5 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained in a 2.9-mm-thick membrane. This value agrees with that obtained in methane conversion reactor experiments. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics determined in the gas-tight cell indicate that bulk effect, rather than surface exchange effect, is the main limiting factor for oxygen permeation of {approx} 1-mm-thick Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes at elevated temperatures (> 650 C).

  1. Advanced Membrane Technology for Hydrocarbon Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a membrane technology for superior, robust, low-cost natural gas dehydration.

  2. Novel membrane technology for green ethylene production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Lee, T. H.; Dorris, S. E.; Udovich, C. A.; Scouten, C. G.; Marshall, C. L.

    2008-01-01

    Ethylene is currently produced by pyrolysis of ethane in the presence of steam. This reaction requires substantial energy input, and the equilibrium conversion is thermodynamically limited. The reaction also produces significant amounts of greenhouse gases (CO and CO{sub 2}) because of the direct contact between carbon and steam. Argonne has demonstrated a new way to make ethylene via ethane dehydrogenation using a dense hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to drive the unfavorable equilibrium conversion. Preliminary experiments show that the new approach can produce ethylene yields well above existing pyrolysis technology and also significantly above the thermodynamic equilibrium limit, while completely eliminating the production of greenhouse gases. With Argonne's approach, a disk-type dense ceramic/metal composite (cermet) membrane is used to produce ethylene by dehydrogenation of ethane at 850 C. The gas-transport membrane reactor combines a reversible chemical reaction with selective separation of one product species and leads to increased reactant conversion to the desired product. In an experiment ethane was passed over one side of the HTM membrane and air over the other side. The hydrogen produced by the dehydrogenation of ethane was removed and transported through the HTM to the air side. The air provided the driving force required for the transport of hydrogen through the HTM. The reaction between transported hydrogen and oxygen in air can provide the energy needed for the dehydrogenation reaction. At 850 C and 1-atm pressure, equilibrium conversion of ethane normally limits the ethylene yield to 64%, but Argonne has shown that an ethylene yield of 69% with a selectivity of 88% can be obtained under the same conditions. Coking was not a problem in runs extending over several weeks. Further improved HTM materials will lower the temperature required for high conversion at a reasonable residence time, while the lower temperature will suppress unwanted side reactions and prolong membrane life. With the Argonne approach, oxygen does not contact the ethane/ethylene stream, so oxidation products are not formed. Consequently, higher selectivity to ethylene and fewer by-products can be achieved. Some benefits are: (1) Simplifies overall product purification and processing schemes; (2) Results in greater energy efficiency; (3) Completely eliminates greenhouse gases from the reactor section; and (4) Lowers the cost of the 'back end' purification train, which accounts for about 70% of the capital cost of a conventional ethylene production unit.

  3. Advanced Membrane Separation Technologies for Energy Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop novel materials for use in membrane separation technologies for the recovery of waste energy and water from industrial process streams.

  4. Progress Towards Commercialization of Electrochemical Membrane Technology

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for CO2 Capture and Power Generation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Progress Towards Commercialization of Electrochemical Membrane Technology for CO2 Capture and Power Generation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Progress Towards Commercialization of Electrochemical Membrane Technology for CO2 Capture and Power Generation To address the concerns about climate change resulting from emission of CO2 by coal-fueled power plants, FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed Combined Electric

  5. Development of ITM oxygen technology for integration in IGCC and other advanced power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Phillip A.

    2015-03-31

    Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) technology is based on the oxygen-ion-conducting properties of certain mixed-metal oxide ceramic materials that can separate oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas, such as air, under a suitable driving force. The “ITM Oxygen” air separation system that results from the use of such ceramic membranes produces a hot, pure oxygen stream and a hot, pressurized, oxygen-depleted stream from which significant amounts of energy can be extracted. Accordingly, the technology integrates well with other high-temperature processes, including power generation. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., the Recipient, in conjunction with a dozen subcontractors, developed ITM Oxygen technology under this five-phase Cooperative Agreement from the laboratory bench scale to implementation in a pilot plant capable of producing power and 100 tons per day (TPD) of purified oxygen. A commercial-scale membrane module manufacturing facility (the “CerFab”), sized to support a conceptual 2000 TPD ITM Oxygen Development Facility (ODF), was also established and operated under this Agreement. In the course of this work, the team developed prototype ceramic production processes and a robust planar ceramic membrane architecture based on a novel ceramic compound capable of high oxygen fluxes. The concept and feasibility of the technology was thoroughly established through laboratory pilot-scale operations testing commercial-scale membrane modules run under industrial operating conditions with compelling lifetime and reliability performance that supported further scale-up. Auxiliary systems, including contaminant mitigation, process controls, heat exchange, turbo-machinery, combustion, and membrane pressure vessels were extensively investigated and developed. The Recipient and subcontractors developed efficient process cycles that co-produce oxygen and power based on compact, low-cost ITMs. Process economics assessments show significant benefits relative to state-of-the-art cryogenic air separation technology in energy-intensive applications such as IGCC with and without carbon capture.

  6. Membrane Technology Workshop Summary Report, November 2012 | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Membrane Technology Workshop Summary Report, November 2012 Membrane Technology Workshop Summary Report, November 2012 PDF icon membrane_tech_workshop_summary.pdf More Documents & Publications Membrane Technology Workshop Review of Historical Membrane Workshop Results Process Intensification Workshop - September 29-30, 2015

  7. Method and apparatus for producing oxygen and nitrogen and membrane therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, I.C.; Baker, R.W.

    1985-09-17

    Process and apparatus for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen as well as a novel membrane useful therein are disclosed. The process utilizes novel facilitated transport membranes to selectively transport oxygen from one gaseous stream to another, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the method, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a polar organic membrane which separates a gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. In an alternate mode of operation, the feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane and the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. Under such conditions, the carrier acts as a shuttle, picking up oxygen at the feed side of the membrane, diffusing across the membrane as the oxygenated complex, releasing oxygen to the product stream, and then diffusing back to the feed side to repeat the process. Exceptionally and unexpectedly high O[sub 2]/N[sub 2] selectivity, on the order of 10 to 30, is obtained, as well as exceptionally high oxygen permeability, on the order of 6 to 15 [times] 10[sup [minus]8] cm[sup 3]-cm/cm[sup 2]-sec-cmHg, as well as a long membrane life of in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible. 2 figs.

  8. Method and apparatus for producing oxygen and nitrogen and membrane therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roman, Ian C. (Bend, OR); Baker, Richard W. (Bend, OR)

    1985-01-01

    Process and apparatus for the separation and purification of oxygen and nitrogen as well as a novel membrane useful therein are disclosed. The process utilizes novel facilitated transport membranes to selectively transport oxygen from one gaseous stream to another, leaving nitrogen as a byproduct. In the method, an oxygen carrier capable of reversibly binding molecular oxygen is dissolved in a polar organic membrane which separates a gaseous feed stream such as atmospheric air and a gaseous product stream. The feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane, while the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently low oxygen pressure to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. In an alternate mode of operation, the feed stream is maintained at a sufficiently low temperature and high oxygen pressure to keep the oxygen carrier in its oxygenated form at the interface of the feed stream with the membrane and the product stream is maintained at a sufficiently high temperature to keep the carrier in its deoxygenated form at the interface of the product stream with the membrane. Under such conditions, the carrier acts as a shuttle, picking up oxygen at the feed side of the membrane, diffusing across the membrane as the oxygenated complex, releasing oxygen to the product stream, and then diffusing back to the feed side to repeat the process. Exceptionally and unexpectedly high O.sub.2 /N.sub.2 selectivity, on the order of 10 to 30, is obtained, as well as exceptionally high oxygen permeability, on the order of 6 to 15.times.10.sup.-8 cm.sup.3 -cm/cm.sup.2 -sec-cmHg, as well as a long membrane life of in excess of 3 months, making the process commercially feasible.

  9. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  10. Membrane Technology Workshop Summary Report, November 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MANUFACTURING OFFICE Membrane Technology Workshop Summary Report Final Report November 2012 Workshop held on July 24, 2012 Rosemont, Illinois DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information,

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for High Efficiency...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor Bosch Powertrain Technologies Advanced Combustion Concepts - Enabling Systems and Solutions (ACCESS) for High Efficiency...

  13. Novel Membrane Technology for Green Ethylene Production - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Novel Membrane Technology for Green Ethylene Production Argonne National ... This reaction requires substantial energy input, and the equilibrium conversion is ...

  14. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2001-01-01

    A process for production of synthesis gas employing a catalytic membrane reactor wherein the membrane comprises a mixed metal oxide material.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Robert Bosch at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensors.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Robert Bosch at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensor.

  17. New Membrane Technology for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Begins

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Pilot-Scale Test | Department of Energy Membrane Technology for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Begins Pilot-Scale Test New Membrane Technology for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Begins Pilot-Scale Test January 26, 2015 - 8:14am Addthis A promising new technology sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for economically capturing 90 percent of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted from a coal-burning power plant has begun pilot-scale testing. The technology is the PolarisTM membrane

  18. Carbon dioxide remediation via oxygen-enriched combustion using dense ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Bose, Arun C. (Pittsburgh, PA); McIlvried, Howard G. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2001-01-01

    A method of combusting pulverized coal by mixing the pulverized coal and an oxidant gas to provide a pulverized coal-oxidant gas mixture and contacting the pulverized coal-oxidant gas mixture with a flame sufficiently hot to combust the mixture. An oxygen-containing gas is passed in contact with a dense ceramic membrane of metal oxide material having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity that is gas-impervious until the oxygen concentration on one side of the membrane is not less than about 30% by volume. An oxidant gas with an oxygen concentration of not less than about 30% by volume and a CO.sub.2 concentration of not less than about 30% by volume and pulverized coal is contacted with a flame sufficiently hot to combust the mixture to produce heat and a flue gas. One dense ceramic membrane disclosed is selected from the group consisting of materials having formulae SrCo.sub.0.8 Fe.sub.0.2 O.sub.x, SrCo.sub.0.5 FeO.sub.x and La.sub.0.2 Sr.sub.0.8 Co.sub.0.4 Fe.sub.0.6 O.sub.x.

  19. Natural Gas Treatment and Fuel Gas Conditioning: Membrane Technology

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Applied to New Gas Finds | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Natural Gas Treatment and Fuel Gas Conditioning: Membrane Technology Applied to New Gas Finds Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) SBIR/STTR Home About Funding Opportunity Announcements (FOAs) Applicant and Awardee Resources Commercialization Assistance Other Resources Awards SBIR/STTR Highlights Reporting Fraud Contact Information Small Business Innovation Research and Small

  20. Advanced membrane separation technology for biosolvents. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-08

    Argonne and Vertec Biosolvents investigated the stability and perfonnance for a number of membrane systems to drive the 'direct process' for pervaporation-assisted esterification to produce lactate esters. As outlined in Figure 1, the target is to produce ammonium lactate by fennentation. After purification and concentration, ammonium lactate is reacted with ethanol to produce the ester. Esterification is a reversible reaction so to drive the reaction forward, the produced ammonia and water must be rapidly separated from the product. The project focused on selecting pervaporation membranes with (1) acid functionality to facilitate ammonia separation and (2) temperature stability to be able to perform that reaction at as high a temperature as possible (Figure 2). Several classes of commercial membrane materials and functionalized membrane materials were surveyed. The most promising materials were evaluated for scale-up to a pre-commercial application. Over 4 million metric tons per year of solvents are consumed in the U.S. for a wide variety of applications. Worldwide the usage exceeds 10 million metric tons per year. Many of these, such as the chlorinated solvents, are environmentally unfriendly; others, such as the ethylene glycol ethers and N Methyl Pyrrolidone (NMP), are toxic or teratogenic, and many other petroleum-derived solvents are coming under increasing regulatory restrictions. High performance, environmentally friendly solvents derived from renewable biological resources have the potential to replace many of the chlorinated and petrochemical derived solvents. Some of these solvents, such as ethyl lactate; d-limonene, soy methyl esters, and blends ofthese, can give excellent price/perfonnance in addition to the environmental and regulatory compliance benefits. Advancement of membrane technologies, particularly those based on pervaporation and electrodialysis, will lead to very efficient, non-waste producing, and economical manufacturing technologies for production of ethyl lactate and other esters.

  1. Impact of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Degradation Products on Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity for Platinum Electrocatalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Christ, J. M.; Neyerlin, K. C.; Wang, H.; Richards, R.; Dinh, H. N.

    2014-10-30

    The impact of model membrane degradation compounds on the relevant electrochemical parameters for the oxygen reduction reaction (i.e. electrochemical surface area and catalytic activity), was studied for both polycrystalline Pt and carbon supported Pt electrocatalysts. Model compounds, representing previously published, experimentally determined polymer electrolyte membrane degradation products, were in the form of perfluorinated organic acids that contained combinations of carboxylic and/or sulfonic acid functionality. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids of carbon chain length C1 – C6 were found to have an impact on electrochemical surface area (ECA). The longest chain length acid also hindered the observed oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance, resultingmore » in a 17% loss in kinetic current (determined at 0.9 V). Model compounds containing sulfonic acid functional groups alone did not show an effect on Pt ECA or ORR activity. Lastly, greater than a 44% loss in ORR activity at 0.9V was observed for diacid model compounds DA-Naf (perfluoro(2-methyl-3-oxa-5-sulfonic pentanoic) acid) and DA-3M (perfluoro(4-sulfonic butanoic) acid), which contained both sulfonic and carboxylic acid functionalities.« less

  2. Membrane Technology for Produced Water in Lea County

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cecilia Nelson; Ashok Ghosh

    2011-06-30

    Southeastern New Mexico (SENM) is rich in mineral resources, including oil and gas. Produced water is a byproduct from oil and gas recovery operations. SENM generates approximately 400 million barrels per year of produced water with total dissolved solids (TDS) as high as ~ 200,000 ppm. Typically, produced water is disposed of by transporting it to injection wells or disposal ponds, costing around $1.2 billion per year with an estimated use of 0.3 million barrels of transportation fuel. New Mexico ranks first among U.S. states in potash production. Nationally, more than 85% of all potash produced comes from the Carlsbad potash district in SENM. Potash manufacturing processes use large quantities of water, including fresh water, for solution mining. If the produced water from oilfield operations can be treated and used economically in the potash industry, it will provide a beneficial use for the produced water as well as preserve valuable water resources in an area where fresh water is scarce. The goal of this current research was to develop a prototype desalination system that economically treats produced water from oil and/or natural gas operations for the beneficial use of industries located in southeastern New Mexico. Up until now, most water cleaning technologies have been developed for treating water with much lower quantities of TDS. Seawater with TDS of around 30,000 ppm is the highest concentration that has been seriously studied by researchers. Reverse osmosis (RO) technology is widely used; however the cost remains high due to high-energy consumption. Higher water fluxes and recoveries are possible with a properly designed Forward Osmosis (FO) process as large driving forces can be induced with properly chosen membranes and draw solution. Membrane fouling and breakdown is a frequent and costly problem that drives the cost of desalination very high. The technology developed by New Mexico Tech (NMT) researchers not only protects the membrane, but has also proven to generate higher water flux, based on the series of experiments conducted. Laboratory tests at NMT demonstrated that an unprecedented water flux of 1300 l/m2/hr (where typical flux is on the order of 0-3 l/m{sup 2}/hr) can be achieved from a properly designed membrane module. The patent pending NMT system, which was designed and developed at NMT was successful in reducing the possibility for concentration polarization and thereby increasing the permeate water flux, while still maintaining a high salt rejection rate of 96% or greater. For feed solutions having a dissolved contaminant concentration greater than 10,000 ppm, preliminary economic analysis demonstrates that a well-designed FO process will outperform an RO process. Most produced water generated in SENM has TDS higher than 10,000 ppm. Therefore, it is logical to use FO to desalinate the water. Since the issues associated with concentration polarization has only recently been solved by our mechanically enhanced membrane module, the level of system maturity is not at the same level as that for RO. Our efforts going forward will be directed at taking the technology to a higher level of system maturity. With the superior cost effectiveness for FO, it is imperative that this technology reach a point that is competitive with RO in order to meet the expanding need for water for industries in SENM. NMT seeks to demonstrate the greater cost effectiveness by proving the process through a scaled up model. To ensure success, NMT feels it is important to demonstrate this technology in a larger system, (~ 100,000 GPD), before venturing to the commercial scale. This will build confidence in the process with the commercial sector. In addition, it will be possible to develop some of the operational processes around renewable energy sources for the scaled up model. This will further lower the operating costs and enhance the environmentally clean aspect of the process.

  3. Investigation of Zr-doped BSCF perovskite membrane for oxygen separation in the intermediate temperature range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravkina, Olga; Klande, Tobias; Feldhoff, Armin

    2013-05-01

    The series of (Ba?.?Sr?.?)(Co?.?Fe?.?){sub 1z}Zr{sub z}O{sub 3?} (z=0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, and 0.09) was synthesized by a solgel method. The materials with a zirconium content up to 3 mol% were found to be single phase. Further increase results in formation of a mixed (Ba,Sr)ZrO? by-phase, which was found along the grain boundaries and in the grains. With increasing zirconium content the oxygen permeation flux decreases considerably. The effect of the zirconium substitution on the long-term phase stability was investigated by long-term oxygen permeation experiments and X-ray diffraction. A slight stabilization of the oxygen flux of (Ba?.?Sr{sub 0.5})(Co?.?Fe?.?)?.??Zr?.??O{sub 3?} was found after 180 h at 1023 K. However, all compositions show a decrease in permeation flux with time, but the pure BSCF membrane exhibited the strongest drop after 180 h of operation. The decomposition products of the cubic perovskite phase were found to be a hexagonal Ba{sub 0.5x}Sr{sub 0.5x}CoO? and a rhombohedral Ba{sub 1x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 2y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 5?}. - Graphical abstract: Backscattered-electron channeling contrast image of BSCF membrane cross-section after long-term oxygen permeation at 1023 K showing different phases in different colors. Highlights: Ba?.?Sr?.?Co?.?Fe?.?O{sub 3?} systematically doped with increasing amount of zirconium. Cubic single-phase materials up to 3 wt% zirconium. Mixed (Ba,Sr)ZrO? by-phase formed mainly in the grain boundaries. Jnecke prism was proposed by XRD and EDXS data. (Ba?.?Sr?.?)(Co?.?Fe?.?)?.??Zr?.??O{sub 3?} showed a slight stabilization of oxygen flux as compared to pure Ba?.?Sr?.?Co?.?Fe?.?O{sub 3?}.

  4. Concentration Effects of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Degradation Products on Oxygen Reduction Activity for Three Platinum Catalysts

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Christ, J. M.; Neyerlin, K. C.; Richards, R.; Dinh, H. N.

    2014-10-04

    A rotating disk electrode (RDE) along with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), were used to investigate the impact of two model compounds representing degradation products of Nafion and 3M perfluorinated sulfonic acid membranes on the electrochemical surface area (ECA) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of polycrystalline Pt, nano-structured thin film (NSTF) Pt (3M), and Pt/Vulcan carbon (Pt/Vu) (TKK) electrodes. ORR kinetic currents (measured at 0.9 V and transport corrected) were found to decrease linearly with the log of concentration for both model compounds on all Pt surfaces studied. Ultimately, model compound adsorption effects on ECA weremore » more abstruse due to competitive organic anion adsorption on Pt surfaces superimposing with the hydrogen underpotential deposition (HUPD) region.« less

  5. Advancing the technology base for high-temperature membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dye, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.; Snow, R.C. [and others

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project addresses the major issues confronting the implementation of high-temperature membranes for separations and catalysis. We are pursuing high-temperature membrane systems that can have a large impact for DOE and be industrially relevant. A major obstacle for increased use of membranes is that most applications require the membrane material to withstand temperatures above those acceptable for polymer-based systems. Advances made by this project have helped industry and DOE move toward high-temperature membrane applications to improve overall energy efficiency.

  6. Conception and construction of an LPG tank using a composite membrane technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuvel, P.; Claude, J.

    1985-03-01

    TECHNIGAZ and TOTAL C.F.P. have developed a new LPG storage technology derived from the membrane concept used for LNG storage and transportation. This technology called GMS uses a composite membrane as primary barrier. A 2 000 m/sup 3/ storage pilot unit, based on that concept, is under construction in TOTAL's refinery at DUNKIRK (France) since September 1983.

  7. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation in the immature swine heart in vivo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-09-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports infants and children with severe cardiopulmonary compromise. Nutritional support for these children includes provision of medium- and long-chain fatty acids (FAs). However, ECMO induces a stress response, which could limit the capacity for FA oxidation. Metabolic impairment could induce new or exacerbate existing myocardial dysfunction. Using a clinically relevant piglet model, we tested the hypothesis that ECMO maintains the myocardial capacity for FA oxidation and preserves myocardial energy state. Provision of 13-Carbon labeled medium-chain FA (octanoate), longchain free FAs (LCFAs), and lactate into systemic circulation showed that ECMO promoted relative increases in myocardial LCFA oxidation while inhibiting lactate oxidation. Loading of these labeled substrates at high dose into the left coronary artery demonstrated metabolic flexibility as the heart preferentially oxidized octanoate. ECMO preserved this octanoate metabolic response, but also promoted LCFA oxidation and inhibited lactate utilization. Rapid upregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) protein appeared to participate in this metabolic shift during ECMO. ECMO also increased relative flux from lactate to alanine further supporting the role for pyruvate dehydrogenase inhibition by PDK4. High dose substrate loading during ECMO also elevated the myocardial energy state indexed by phosphocreatine to ATP ratio. ECMO promotes LCFA oxidation in immature hearts, while maintaining myocardial energy state. These data support the appropriateness of FA provision during ECMO support for the immature heart.

  8. Development of Advanced Membranes Technology Platform for Hydrocarbon Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalthod, Dr Dilip

    2010-03-01

    Virtually all natural gas is dehydrated during its production, transmission and storage, mostly by absorption processes. Membranes offer many potential advantages over absorption, including smaller footprints, lighter-weight packages, packaging flexibility, minimal electrical power duty, amenability to expansion due to system modularity, reduced maintenance costs, reduced emissions of heavy hydrocarbons, no liquid waste streams, and amenability to unmanned operation. The latter is particularly valuable because new natural gas sources are generally located in remote onshore and offshore sites. Most commercially-available membranes for natural gas upgrading involve high capital costs, high methane loss and performance degradation from operational upsets all of which are barriers to their widespread adoption by the industry. The original focus of the project was to develop and demonstrate robust, high-performance membranes for natural gas dehydration. The first task completed was a user needs-and-wants study to 1) clarify the expectations of system fabricators and end users of the new separations equipment, and 2) establish the required technical and commercial targets for the membrane products. Following this, membrane system modeling and membrane development in the lab proceeded in parallel. Membrane module diameter and length, as well as and the fiber outer and inner fiber diameter, were optimized from a mathematical model that accounts for the relevant fluid dynamics and permeation phenomena. Module design was evaluated in the context of overall system design, capital costs and energy consumption, including the process scheme (particularly sweep generation), feed pretreatment, system layout, and process control. This study provided targets for membrane permeation coefficients and membrane geometry in a commercial offering that would be competitive with absorption systems. A commercially-available polymer with good tensile strength and chemical resistance was selected for membrane development. A novel dope composition and spinning process were developed, which provide a new approach to controlling membrane porosity and wall and skin morphology. A hollow-fiber membrane with an external dense skin was produced that has a high water vapor permeation coefficient and selectivity, durability when in operation at 1000 psig and 70C, and the ability to withstand aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon vapors for an extended period. The fiber meets the technical requirements for a commercial product offering in gas dehydration. It can be readily manufactured with some changes in process equipment and process conditions, and is an excellent candidate for scale-up to full-size membrane modules.

  9. New Membrane Technology for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Begins...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Data from this pilot test will provide the Department, MTR, and their project partners ... Feeds Related Articles DOE Approves Field Test for Promising Carbon Capture Technology ...

  10. Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Phillip

    2014-11-01

    Air Products is carrying out a scope of work under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 “Development of ITM Oxygen Technology for Low-cost and Low-emission Gasification and Other Industrial Applications.” The Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) includes a Task 4f in which a Decision Point shall be reached, necessitating a review of Tasks 2-5 with an emphasis on Task 4f. This Topical Report constitutes the Decision Point Application pertaining to Task 4f. The SOPO under DOE Award No. DE-FE0012065 is aimed at furthering the development of the Ion Transport Membrane (ITM) Oxygen production process toward a demonstration scale facility known as the Oxygen Development Facility (ODF). It is anticipated that the completion of the current SOPO will advance the technology significantly along a pathway towards enabling the design and construction of the ODF. Development progress on several fronts is critical before an ODF project can commence; this Topical Report serves as an early update on the progress in critical development areas. Progress was made under all tasks, including Materials Development, Ceramic Processing Development, Engineering Development, and Performance Testing. Under Task 4f, Air Products carried out a cost and performance study in which several process design and cost parameters were varied and assessed with a process model and budgetary costing exercise. The results show that the major variables include ceramic module reliability, ITM operating temperature, module production yield, and heat addition strategy. High-temperature compact heat exchangers are shown to contribute significant cost benefits, while directly firing into the feed stream to an ITM are even a mild improvement on the high-temperature recuperation approach. Based on the findings to-date, Air Products recommends no changes to the content or emphasis in the current SOPO and recommends its completion prior to another formal assessment of these factors.

  11. Advancing the Technology Base for High Temperature Hydrogen Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dye, Robert C.; Moss, Thomas S.

    1997-12-31

    High purity hydrogen is a critical component for at least two major industrial processes: 1) the refining of conventional steels and raw pig iron into low carbon steels and high purity iron used for high performance magnets in motors, generators, alternators, transformers, and etc.; and 2) refining metallurgical grade silicon to the high- purity, polycrystalline silicon used in fabricating single crystal silicon wafers for semiconductor manufacturing. In the process of producing low carbon iron products, CO and CO2 impurities prevent efficient removal of the carbon already in the raw iron. In the refining of metallurgical grade silicon, the presence of any impurity above the part-per- million level prevents the ultimate fabrication of the large scale single crystals that are essential to the semiconductor device. In a lesser magnitude role, high quality hydrogen is used in a variety of other processes, including specialty metals refining (e.g., iridium, osmium, palladium, platinum, and ruthenium) and R{ampersand}D in areas such as organic synthesis and development of certain types of fuel cells. In all of these applications, a high-temperature hydrogen membrane can provide a method for achieving a very high purity level of hydrogen in a manner that is more economical and/or more rugged than existing techniques.

  12. Assessment of the potential for refinery applications of inorganic membrane technology: An identification and screening analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, H.E.; Schulman, B.L.

    1993-05-01

    Commercial application of membrane technology in the separation of gas, liquid, and solid streams has grown to a business with worldwide revenues exceeding $1 billion annually. Use of organic membranes for industrial gas separation, particularly in the refining industry, is one of the major growth areas. However, organic membranes based on polymeric separation barriers, are susceptible to damage by liquids, and careful precautions must be taken to retain the system integrity. Researchers are currently developing small pore sized inorganic membranes which may substantially increase the efficiency and economics in selected refinery separation applications. Expected advantages of these advanced inorganic membranes include high permeability, high selectivity, and low manufacturing cost. SFA Pacific conducted a screening analysis to identify applications for inorganic membrane technology in the petroleum refining industry and their potential cost advantages over competing separation systems. Two meetings were held in connection with this project. Copies of Viewgraphs presented by SFA Pacific at these meetings are attached in Appendices A and C. Potential high priority applications and market impacts of advanced inorganic membrane technology in the refining industry are addressed in this report, and include the following areas: Competitive separation technologies; application of those technologies; incentives for inorganic membranes; market benefits and impacts of inorganic membranes.

  13. Differential Effects Of Octanoate And Heptanoate On Myocardial Metabolism During Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation In An Infant Swine Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R.; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2015-10-01

    Background: Nutritional energy support during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) should promote successful myocardial adaptation and eventual weaning from the ECMO circuit. Fatty acids (FAs) are a major myocardial energy source, and medium-chain FAs (MCFAs) are easily taken up by cell and mitochondria without membrane transporters. Oddnumbered MCFAs supply carbons to the citric acid cycle (CAC) via anaplerotic propionyl-CoA as well as acetyl-CoA, the predominant betaoxidation product for even-numbered MCFA. Theoretically, this anaplerotic pathway enhances carbon entry into the CAC, and provides superior energy state and preservation of protein synthesis. We tested this hypothesis in an immature swine model undergoing ECMO. Methods: Fifteen male Yorkshire pigs (26-45 days old) with 8-hour ECMO were received either normal saline, heptanoate (odd-numbered MCFA) or octanoate (even-numbered MCFA) at 2.3 ?mol/kg body wt/min as MCFAs systemically during ECMO (n = 5 per group). The 13-Carbon (13C)-labeled substrates ([2-13C]lactate, [5,6,7-13C3]heptanoate and [U-13C6]leucine) were systemically infused as metabolic markers for the final 60 minutes before left ventricular tissue extraction. Extracted tissues were analyzed for the 13C-labeled and absolute concentrations of metabolites by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: Octanoate produced markedly higher myocardial citrate concentration, and led to a higher [ATP]/[ADP] ratio compared with other http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/jpen Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition For Peer Review groups. Unexpectedly, octanoate increased the flux of propionyl-CoA relative to acetyl-CoA into the CAC as well as heptanoate. MCFAs promoted increases in leucine oxidation, but were not associated with a difference in fractional protein synthesis rate. Conclusion: Octanoate provides energetic advantages to the heart over heptanoate, while preserving protein synthesis.

  14. Advanced Membrane Separation Technologies for Energy Recovery from Industrial Process Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, J.R.; Wang, D.; Bischoff, B.; Ciora; Radhakrishnan, B.; Gorti, S.B.

    2013-01-14

    Recovery of energy from relatively low-temperature waste streams is a goal that has not been achieved on any large scale. Heat exchangers do not operate efficiently with low-temperature streams and thus require such large heat exchanger surface areas that they are not practical. Condensing economizers offer one option for heat recovery from such streams, but they have not been widely implemented by industry. A promising alternative to these heat exchangers and economizers is a prototype ceramic membrane system using transport membrane technology for separation of water vapor and recovery of heat. This system was successfully tested by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) on a natural gas fired boiler where the flue gas is relatively clean and free of contaminants. However, since the tubes of the prototype system were constructed of aluminum oxide, the brittle nature of the tubes limited the robustness of the system and even limited the length of tubes that could be used. In order to improve the robustness of the membrane tubes and make the system more suitable for industrial applications, this project was initiated with the objective of developing a system with materials that would permit the system to function successfully on a larger scale and in contaminated and potentially corrosive industrial environments. This required identifying likely industrial environments and the hazards associated with those environments. Based on the hazardous components in these environments, candidate metallic materials were identified that are expected to have sufficient strength, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance to permit production of longer tubes that could function in the industrial environments identified. Tests were conducted to determine the corrosion resistance of these candidate alloys, and the feasibility of forming these materials into porous substrates was assessed. Once the most promising metallic materials were identified, the ability to form an alumina membrane layer on the surface of the metallic tubes was evaluated. Evaluation of this new style of membrane tube involved exposure to SO{sub 2} containing gases as well as to materials with a potential for fouling. Once the choice of substrate and membrane materials and design were confirmed, about 150 tubes were fabricated and assembled into three modules. These modules were mounted on an industrial size boiler and their performance carefully monitored during a limited testing period. The positive results of this performance test confirm the feasibility of utilizing such a system for recovery of heat and water from industrial waste streams. The improved module design along with use of long metallic substrate tubes with a ceramic membrane on the outer surface resulted in the successful, limited scale demonstration of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in the GTI test facility. This test showed this technology can successfully recover a significant amount of heat and water from gaseous waste streams. However, before industry will make the investment to install a full scale TMC, a full scale system will need to be constructed, installed and successfully operated at a few industrial sites. Companies were identified that had an interest in serving as a host site for a demonstration system.

  15. A Novel System for Carbon Dioxide Capture Utilizing Electrochemical Membrane Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Jolly, Stephen; Patel, Dilip; Hunt, Jennifer; Steen, William A.; Richardson, Carl F.; Marina, Olga A.

    2013-06-03

    FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and URS Corporation, is developing a novel Combined Electric Power and Carbon-Dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FE0007634), to efficiently and cost effectively separate carbon dioxide from the emissions of existing coal fired power plants. The CEPACS system is based on FCEs electrochemical membrane (ECM) technology utilizing the Companys internal reforming carbonate fuel cell products carrying the trade name of Direct FuelCell (DFC). The unique chemistry of carbonate fuel cells offers an innovative approach for separation of CO2 from existing fossil-fuel power plant exhaust streams (flue gases). The ECM-based CEPACS system has the potential to become a transformational CO2-separation technology by working as two devices in one: it separates the CO2 from the exhaust of other plants such as an existing coal-fired plant and simultaneously produces clean and environmentally benign (green) electric power at high efficiency using a supplementary fuel. The overall objective of this project is to successfully demonstrate the ability of FCEs electrochemical membrane-based CEPACS system technology to separate ? 90% of the CO2 from a simulated Pulverized Coal (PC) power plant flue-gas stream and to compress the captured CO2 to a state that can be easily transported for sequestration or beneficial use. Also, a key project objective is to show, through a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study and bench scale testing (11.7 m2 area ECM), that the electrochemical membrane-based CEPACS system is an economical alternative for CO2 capture in PC power plants, and that it meets DOE objectives for the incremental cost of electricity (COE) for post-combustion CO2 capture.

  16. Final Report - Energy Reduction and Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, John; Fanselow, Dan; Abbas, Charles; Sammons, Rhea; Kinchin, Christopher

    2014-08-06

    3M and Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and demonstrate a novel membrane solvent extraction (MSE) process that can substantially reduce energy and water consumption in ethanol production, and accelerate the fermentation process. A cross-flow membrane module was developed, using porous membrane manufactured by 3M. A pilot process was developed that integrates fermentation, MSE and vacuum distillation. Extended experiments of 48-72 hours each were conducted to develop the process, verify its performance and begin establishing commercial viability.

  17. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  18. Effects of Continuous Triiodothyronine Infusion on Citric Acid Cycle in the Normal Immature Swine Heart under Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in vivo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-02-15

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is frequently used in infants with postoperative cardiopulmonary failure. ECMO also suppresses circulating triiodothyronine (T3) levels and modifies myocardial metabolism. We assessed the hypothesis that T3 supplementation reverses ECMO induced metabolic abnormalities in the immature heart. Twenty-two male Yorkshire pigs (age 25-38 days) with ECMO were received [2-13C]lactate, [2,4,6,8-13C]octanoate (medium chain fatty acid) and [U-13C]long-chain fatty acids as metabolic tracers either systemically (totally physiological intracoronary concentration) or directly into the coronary artery (high substrate concentration) for the last 60 minutes of each protocol. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of left ventricular tissue determined the fractional contribution (Fc) of these substrates to the citric acid cycle (CAC). Fifty percent of the pigs in each group received intravenous T3 supplement (bolus at 0.6 ?g/kg and then continuous infusion at 0.2 ?g/kg/hour) during ECMO. Under both substrate loading conditions T3 significantly increased lactate-Fc with a marginal increase in octanoate-Fc. Both T3 and high substrate provision increased myocardial energy status indexed by [Phosphocreatine]/[ATP]. In conclusion, T3 supplementation promoted lactate metabolism to the CAC during ECMO suggesting that T3 releases inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Manipulation of substrate utilization by T3 may be used therapeutically during ECMO to improve resting energy state and facilitate weaning.

  19. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  20. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Sante Fe, NM); Chung, Brandon W. (Los Alamos, NM); Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  1. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of Pefi's Oxygenated Transportation Fuels Production Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-05-01

    Coal-cleaning processes have been utilized to increase the heating value of coal by extracting ash-forming minerals in the coal. These processes involve the crushing or grinding of raw coal followed by physical separation processes, taking advantage of the density difference between carbonaceous particles and mineral particles. In addition to the desired increase in the heating value of coal, a significant reduction of the sulfur content of the coal fed to a combustion unit is effected by the removal of pyrite and other sulfides found in the mineral matter. WRI is assisting PulseWave to develop an alternate, more efficient method of liberating and separating the undesirable mineral matter from the carbonaceous matter in coal. The approach is based on PulseWave's patented resonance disintegration technology that reduces that particle size of materials by application of destructive resonance, shock waves, and vortex generating forces. Illinois No.5 coal, a Wyodak coal, and a Pittsburgh No.8 coal were processed using the resonance disintegration apparatus then subjected to conventional density separations. Initial microscopic results indicate that up to 90% of the pyrite could be liberated from the coal in the machine, but limitations in the density separations reduced overall effectiveness of contaminant removal. Approximately 30-80% of the pyritic sulfur and 30-50% of the mercury was removed from the coal. The three coals (both with and without the pyritic phase separated out) were tested in WRI's 250,000 Btu/hr Combustion Test Facility, designed to replicate a coal-fired utility boiler. The flue gases were characterized for elemental, particle bound, and total mercury in addition to sulfur. The results indicated that pre-combustion cleaning could reduce a large fraction of the mercury emissions.

  2. Proton exchange membrane materials for the advancement of direct methanol fuel-cell technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cornelius, Christopher J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-04

    A new class of hybrid organic-inorganic materials, and methods of synthesis, that can be used as a proton exchange membrane in a direct methanol fuel cell. In contrast with Nafion.RTM. PEM materials, which have random sulfonation, the new class of materials have ordered sulfonation achieved through self-assembly of alternating polyimide segments of different molecular weights comprising, for example, highly sulfonated hydrophilic PDA-DASA polyimide segment alternating with an unsulfonated hydrophobic 6FDA-DAS polyimide segment. An inorganic phase, e.g., 0.5 5 wt % TEOS, can be incorporated in the sulfonated polyimide copolymer to further improve its properties. The new materials exhibit reduced swelling when exposed to water, increased thermal stability, and decreased O.sub.2 and H.sub.2 gas permeability, while retaining proton conductivities similar to Nafion.RTM.. These improved properties may allow direct methanol fuel cells to operate at higher temperatures and with higher efficiencies due to reduced methanol crossover.

  3. Membrane Applications at Ceramatec

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Membrane Applications at Ceramatec Solid Electrolyte Ion Conductors CO 2 to Syngas GTL Advanced Batteries oxygen Fluorine Hydrogen Alkali metals Specialty Chemicals Waste Remediation Disinfection Chemicals Sensors Agro- chemicals Organo- metallics Biofuels Commercial Pilot Bench Next Generation - Ceramic membrane devices Historical Effort:  Crystalline alkali ions (Li, K, Na) conducting membranes * Selective and conductive at low temperatures (R.T. to 150 o C) * Material development and

  4. OXIDATIVE COUPLING OF METHANE USING INORGANIC MEMBRANE REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Y.H. Ma; Dr. W.R. Moser; Dr. A.G. Dixon; Dr. A.M. Ramachandra; Dr. Y. Lu; C. Binkerd

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this research is to study the oxidative coupling of methane in catalytic inorganic membrane reactors. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and higher yields than in conventional non-porous, co-feed, fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for the formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause of decreased selectivity in the oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Membrane reactor technology also offers the potential for modifying the membranes both to improve catalytic properties as well as to regulate the rate of the permeation/diffusion of reactants through the membrane to minimize by-product generation. Other benefits also exist with membrane reactors, such as the mitigation of thermal hot-spots for highly exothermic reactions such as the oxidative coupling of methane. The application of catalytically active inorganic membranes has potential for drastically increasing the yield of reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity.

  5. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  6. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  7. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-01-01

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  8. Membrane Permeation Testing System

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    A simple and rapid method for the screening of the permeability and selectivity of membranes for gas separation has been developed. A high throughput membrane testing system permits simultaneous evaluation of multiple membranes under conditions of moderate pressure and temperature for both pure gases and gas mixtures. The modular design, on-line sample analysis, and automation-competence of the technology provides a cost-effective approach to identify the optimal membrane for a given gas...

  9. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  10. An investigation of gas separation membranes for reduction of thermal treatment emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, D.M.; Logsdon, B.W.; Pellegrino, J.J.

    1994-05-16

    Gas permeable membranes were evaluated for possible use as air pollution control devices on a fluidized bed catalytic incineration unit. The unit is a candidate technology for treatment of certain mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant. Cellulose acetate and polyimide membranes were tested to determine the permeance of typical off-gas components such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen. Multi-component permeation studies included gas mixtures containing light hydrocarbons. Experiments were also conducted to discover information about potential membrane degradation in the presence of organic compounds.

  11. Solid-state membrane module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hinklin, Thomas Ray; Lewinsohn, Charles Arthur

    2015-06-30

    A module for separating oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture comprising planar solid-state membrane units, each membrane unit comprising planar dense mixed conducting oxides layers, planar channel-free porous support layers, and one or more planar intermediate support layers comprising at least one channeled porous support layer. The porosity of the planar channeled porous support layers is less than the porosity of the planar channel-free porous support layers.

  12. Review of Historical Membrane Workshop Results | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Historical Membrane Workshop Results Review of Historical Membrane Workshop Results PDF icon membrane_workshop_ornl.pdf More Documents & Publications Membrane Technology Workshop ITP Chemicals: Hybripd Separations/Distillation Technology. Research Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction Membrane Technology Workshop Summary Report, November 2012

  13. Economical Large Scale Advanced Membrane and Sorbent Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by William Koros (Georgia Institute of Technology) for the Membrane Technology Workshop held July 24, 2012

  14. Challenges in Bio-Inspired Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Jun Lin (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PNNL) for the Membrane Technology Workshop held July 24, 2012

  15. Membrane stabilizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mingenbach, William A. (P.O. Box 49, Taos, NM 87571)

    1988-01-01

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material.

  16. Application of oxygen-enriched combustion for locomotive diesel engines. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.R.; Assanis, D.N.

    1996-09-01

    A thermodynamic simulation is used to study the effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on the performance and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. The parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the oxygen-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, the gross and net power outputs of an engine operating under different levels of oxygen enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in an increase in net engine power of approximately 13% when intake air with an oxygen content of 28% by volume is used and fuel injection timing is retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure improves power by only 4%. If part of the significantly higher exhaust enthalpies available as a result of oxygen enrichment are recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met, resulting in substantial net power improvements. Oxygen enrichment reduces particulate and visible smoke emissions but increases NO emissions. However, a combination of retarded fuel injection timing and post-treatment of exhaust gases may be adequate to meet the locomotive diesel engine NO{sub x} standards. Exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required to realize the full potential of oxygen enrichment. Economic analysis shows that oxygen-enrichment technology is economically feasible and provides high returns on investment. The study also indicates the strong influence of membrane parasitic requirements and exhaust energy recovery on economic benefits. To obtain an economic advantage while using a membrane with higher parasitic power requirements, it is necessary to recover a part of the exhaust energy.

  17. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, William H. (Danville, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  18. Membrane projection lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burckel, David Bruce; Davids, Paul S; Resnick, Paul J; Draper, Bruce L

    2015-03-17

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a three dimensional manufacturing technique for application with semiconductor technologies. A membrane layer can be formed over a cavity. An opening can be formed in the membrane such that the membrane can act as a mask layer to the underlying wall surfaces and bottom surface of the cavity. A beam to facilitate an operation comprising any of implantation, etching or deposition can be directed through the opening onto the underlying surface, with the opening acting as a mask to control the area of the underlying surfaces on which any of implantation occurs, material is removed, and/or material is deposited. The membrane can be removed, a new membrane placed over the cavity and a new opening formed to facilitate another implantation, etching, or deposition operation. By changing the direction of the beam different wall/bottom surfaces can be utilized to form a plurality of structures.

  19. TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM PLAN

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Key Technology-Membranes FE-10-002 Los Alamos National Laboratory High-Temperature Polymer- Based Membrane Systems for Pre-Combustion CO 2 Capture 3 Develop a polymer membrane...

  20. A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric S. Peterson; Jessica Trudeau; Bill Cleary; Michael Hackett; William A. Greene

    2003-04-01

    An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 2025X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  1. A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, E. S.; Trudeau, J.; Cleary, B.; Hackett, M.; Greene, W. A.

    2003-04-30

    An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 20-25X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  2. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward; Carolan, Michael Francis; Chen, Christopher M.; Armstrong, Phillip Andrew; Wahle, Harold W.; Ohrn, Theodore R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Blake, James Erik; Nataraj, Shankar; van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias; Wilson, Merrill Anderson

    2007-02-20

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  3. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward (Allentown, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Chen, Christopher M. (Allentown, PA); Armstrong, Phillip Andrew (Orefield, PA); Wahle, Harold W. (North Canton, OH); Ohrn, Theodore R. (Alliance, OH); Kneidel, Kurt E. (Alliance, OH); Rackers, Keith Gerard (Louisville, OH); Blake, James Erik (Uniontown, OH); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson (West Jordan, UT)

    2012-02-14

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel. The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  4. Ion transport membrane module and vessel system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stein, VanEric Edward (Allentown, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Chen, Christopher M. (Allentown, PA); Armstrong, Phillip Andrew (Orefield, PA); Wahle, Harold W. (North Canton, OH); Ohrn, Theodore R. (Alliance, OH); Kneidel, Kurt E. (Alliance, OH); Rackers, Keith Gerard (Louisville, OH); Blake, James Erik (Uniontown, OH); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); van Doorn, Rene Hendrik Elias (Obersulm-Willsbach, DE); Wilson, Merrill Anderson (West Jordan, UT)

    2008-02-26

    An ion transport membrane system comprising (a) a pressure vessel having an interior, an exterior, an inlet, and an outlet; (b) a plurality of planar ion transport membrane modules disposed in the interior of the pressure vessel and arranged in series, each membrane module comprising mixed metal oxide ceramic material and having an interior region and an exterior region, wherein any inlet and any outlet of the pressure vessel are in flow communication with exterior regions of the membrane modules; and (c) one or more gas manifolds in flow communication with interior regions of the membrane modules and with the exterior of the pressure vessel.The ion transport membrane system may be utilized in a gas separation device to recover oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas or as an oxidation reactor to oxidize compounds in a feed gas stream by oxygen permeated through the mixed metal oxide ceramic material of the membrane modules.

  5. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  6. Feed gas contaminant removal in ion transport membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Underwood, Richard Paul (Allentown, PA); Makitka, III, Alexander (Hatfield, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA)

    2012-04-03

    An oxygen ion transport membrane process wherein a heated oxygen-containing gas having one or more contaminants is contacted with a reactive solid material to remove the one or more contaminants. The reactive solid material is provided as a deposit on a support. The one or more contaminant compounds in the heated oxygen-containing gas react with the reactive solid material. The contaminant-depleted oxygen-containing gas is contacted with a membrane, and oxygen is transported through the membrane to provide transported oxygen.

  7. Membrane Permeation Testing System - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Membrane Permeation Testing System National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Constant Pressure High Throughput Membrane Permeation Testing System (443 KB) Technology Marketing Summary A simple and rapid method for the screening of the permeability and selectivity of membranes for gas separation has been developed. A high throughput membrane testing system permits

  8. Membrane stabilizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mingenbach, W.A.

    1988-02-09

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material. 10 figs.

  9. Copper Palladium Hydrogen Separation Membranes - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper Palladium Hydrogen Separation Membranes with Reduced Palladium Content and Improved Performance National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Cu-Pd Hydrogen Separation Membranes: Technology Summary and Partnership Opportunity (336 KB) Technology Marketing Summary This patent-pending technology, "Cu-Pd Hydrogen Separation Membranes with Reduced Palladium Content and Improved Performance," consists of

  10. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions Technology available for licensing: Selective permeation of gases using an air separation membrane. Can be retrofitted...

  11. Rhodobacter System for the Expression of Membrane Proteins |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rhodobacter System for the Expression of Membrane Proteins Technology available for licensing: A unique system for membrane protein expression makes it possible to obtain...

  12. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, Mark S. (Berkeley, CA); Shlomo, Golan (Haifa, IL); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  13. Technolog

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research in Science and Technolog y Sandia pushes frontiers of knowledge to meet the nation's needs, today and tomorrow Sandia National Laboratories' fundamental science and technology research leads to greater understanding of how and why things work and is intrinsic to technological advances. Basic research that challenges scientific assumptions enables the nation to push scientific boundaries. Innovations and breakthroughs produced at Sandia allow it to tackle critical issues, from

  14. Oxygen-producing inert anodes for SOM process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, Uday B

    2014-02-25

    An electrolysis system for generating a metal and molecular oxygen includes a container for receiving a metal oxide containing a metallic species to be extracted, a cathode positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an oxygen-ion-conducting membrane positioned to contact a metal oxide housed within the container; an anode in contact with the oxygen-ion-conducting membrane and spaced apart from a metal oxide housed within the container, said anode selected from the group consisting of liquid metal silver, oxygen stable electronic oxides, oxygen stable crucible cermets, and stabilized zirconia composites with oxygen stable electronic oxides.

  15. Membranes - Phosphazene - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Membranes - Phosphazene Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL's new phosphazene membrane technology provides a method for making polydichlorophosphazene using solid state reactants that simplifies previous processes with a "single pot" two-step process. The process eliminates use of chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents, reducing the costs of equipment and increasing economies. Polyphosphazene polymers are inorganic in nature and

  16. Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) | Department of Energy Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. PDF icon 11_anl_distributed_reforming_using_otm.pdf More Documents & Publications Cost

  17. Multicomponent membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    A multicomponent membrane which may be used for separating various components which are present in a fluid feed mixture comprises a mixture of a plasticizer such as a glycol and an organic polymer cast upon a porous organic polymer support. The membrane may be prepared by casting an emulsion or a solution of the plasticizer and polymer on the porous support, evaporating the solvent and recovering the membrane after curing.

  18. Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 13159553.pdf (405 KB) Technology Marketing Summary This patent-pending technology, "Regenerable Mixed Copper-Iron-Inert Support Oxygen Carriers for Solid Fuel Chemical Looping Combustion Process," provides a metal-oxide oxygen

  19. Zeolite Nanosheet Membrane Process - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Zeolite Nanosheet Membrane Process University of Minnesota DOE Grant Recipients Contact GRANT About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Zeolite Nanosheet Membranes for use as a Molecular Sieve A method of zeolite membrane fabrication that gives high aspect ratio nanosheets with high purity and precise pore structure has been developed. When combined with other technologies created by the research group, such

  20. Review of Historical Membrane Workshop Results

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review of Historical Membrane Workshop Results Sharon Robinson Oak Ridge National Laboratory Membrane Technology Workshop DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Chicago, IL July 24, 2012 2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Previous Membrane R&D Needs Studies * Workshop reports and documents developed for DOE OIT/ITP/AMO to support the Technology Vision2020: The Chemical Industry (1996) as requested by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy - Separation

  1. Use of Membranes in Non-Traditional Applications and Emerging Markets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Zissis Dardas (United Technologies Research Center, UTRC) for the Membrane Technology Workshop held July 24, 2012

  2. An Industrial Wish List for Membrane-Based Separations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Shawn Feist (The Dow Chemical Company) for the Membrane Technology Workshop held July 24, 2012

  3. Ceramic-zeolite Composite Membranes and Use for Separation of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryHaving both high selectivity and high permeability, the zeolite membranes have great potential for highly selective separation of...

  4. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  5. Hydrogen production by high-temperature water splitting using electron-conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Tae H.; Wang, Shuangyan; Dorris, Stephen E.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2004-04-27

    A device and method for separating water into hydrogen and oxygen is disclosed. A first substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing hydrogen is provided and spaced from a second substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing oxygen. When steam is passed between the two membranes at disassociation temperatures the hydrogen from the disassociation of steam selectively and continuously passes through the first membrane and oxygen selectively and continuously passes through the second membrane, thereby continuously driving the disassociation of steam producing hydrogen and oxygen.

  6. Process for Preparing Palladium Alloy Composite Membranes for Use in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Separation, Palladium Alloy Composite Membranes and Products Incorporating or Made from the Membranes - Energy Innovation Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Process for Preparing Palladium Alloy Composite Membranes for Use in Hydrogen Separation, Palladium Alloy Composite Membranes and Products Incorporating or Made from the Membranes Colorado School of Mines Contact CSM About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThis

  7. Immobilized fluid membranes for gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei; Canfield, Nathan L; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-03-18

    Provided herein are immobilized liquid membranes for gas separation, methods of preparing such membranes and uses thereof. In one example, the immobilized membrane includes a porous metallic host matrix and an immobilized liquid fluid (such as a silicone oil) that is immobilized within one or more pores included within the porous metallic host matrix. The immobilized liquid membrane is capable of selective permeation of one type of molecule (such as oxygen) over another type of molecule (such as water). In some examples, the selective membrane is incorporated into a device to supply oxygen from ambient air to the device for electrochemical reactions, and at the same time, to block water penetration and electrolyte loss from the device.

  8. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Plainfield, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Prospect, PA); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

    1998-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions and their uses are described. Mixed metal oxide compositions of the invention have stratified crystalline structure identifiable by means of powder X-ray diffraction patterns. In the form of dense ceramic membranes, the present compositions demonstrate an ability to separate oxygen selectively from a gaseous mixture containing oxygen and one or more other volatile components by means of ionic conductivities.

  9. Performance and results of the LBNE 35 ton membrane cryostat prototype

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Montanari, David; Adamowski, Mark; Hahn, Alan; Norris, Barry; Reichenbacher, Juergen; Rucinski, Russell; Stewart, Jim; Tope, Terry

    2015-07-15

    We report on the performance and commissioning of the first membrane cryostat to be used for scientific application. The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) has designed and fabricated a membrane cryostat prototype in collaboration with Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI). LBNE has designed and fabricated the supporting cryogenic system infrastructure and successfully commissioned and operated the first membrane cryostat. Original goals of the prototype are: to demonstrate the membrane cryostat technology in terms of thermal performance, feasibility for liquid argon and leak tightness; to demonstrate that we can remove all the impurities from the vessel and achieve the puritymore » requirements in a membrane cryostat without evacuation; to demonstrate that we can achieve and maintain the purity requirements of the liquid argon using mol sieve and copper filters. The purity requirements of a large liquid argon detector such as LBNE are contaminants below 200 parts per trillion (ppt) oxygen equivalent. LBNE is planning the design and construction of a large liquid argon detector. This presentation will present requirements, design and construction of the LBNE 35 ton membrane cryostat prototype, and detail the commissioning and performance. The experience and results of this prototype are extremely important for the development of the LBNE detector.« less

  10. Performance and results of the LBNE 35 ton membrane cryostat prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montanari, David; Adamowski, Mark; Hahn, Alan; Norris, Barry; Reichenbacher, Juergen; Rucinski, Russell; Stewart, Jim; Tope, Terry

    2015-07-15

    We report on the performance and commissioning of the first membrane cryostat to be used for scientific application. The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) has designed and fabricated a membrane cryostat prototype in collaboration with Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI). LBNE has designed and fabricated the supporting cryogenic system infrastructure and successfully commissioned and operated the first membrane cryostat. Original goals of the prototype are: to demonstrate the membrane cryostat technology in terms of thermal performance, feasibility for liquid argon and leak tightness; to demonstrate that we can remove all the impurities from the vessel and achieve the purity requirements in a membrane cryostat without evacuation; to demonstrate that we can achieve and maintain the purity requirements of the liquid argon using mol sieve and copper filters. The purity requirements of a large liquid argon detector such as LBNE are contaminants below 200 parts per trillion (ppt) oxygen equivalent. LBNE is planning the design and construction of a large liquid argon detector. This presentation will present requirements, design and construction of the LBNE 35 ton membrane cryostat prototype, and detail the commissioning and performance. The experience and results of this prototype are extremely important for the development of the LBNE detector.

  11. A Ceramic membrane to Recycle Caustic | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Ceramic membrane to Recycle Caustic A Ceramic membrane to Recycle Caustic PDF icon A Ceramic membrane to Recycle Caustic More Documents & Publications Caustic Recovery Technology System Planning for Low-Activity Waste at Hanford Waste Processing Annual Technology Development Report 2007

  12. Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staiger, C. L.

    2012-03-01

    The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible using a Membrane-PSA system.

  13. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

    1996-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  14. Oxygen ion-conducting dense ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Kleefisch, Mark S. (Naperville, IL); Kobylinski, Thaddeus P. (Lisle, IL); Morissette, Sherry L. (Las Cruces, NM); Pei, Shiyou (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation, structure, and properties of mixed metal oxide compositions containing at least strontium, cobalt, iron and oxygen are described. The crystalline mixed metal oxide compositions of this invention have, for example, structure represented by Sr.sub..alpha. (Fe.sub.1-x Co.sub.x).sub..alpha.+.beta. O.sub..delta. where x is a number in a range from 0.01 to about 1, .alpha. is a number in a range from about 1 to about 4, .beta. is a number in a range upward from 0 to about 20, and .delta. is a number which renders the compound charge neutral, and wherein the composition has a non-perovskite structure. Use of the mixed metal oxides in dense ceramic membranes which exhibit oxygen ionic conductivity and selective oxygen separation, are described as well as their use in separation of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture.

  15. membrane-mtr | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low-Pressure Membrane Contactors for CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0007553 Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) is developing a new type of membrane contactor (or mega-module) to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) from power plant flue gas. This module's membrane area is 500 square meters, 20 to 25 times larger than that of current modules used for CO2 capture. A 500-MWe coal power plant requires 0.5 to 1 million square meters of membrane to achieve 90 percent CO2 capture. The new

  16. Methods for separating oxygen from oxygen-containing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mackay, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    This invention provides mixed conducting metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes. The materials of this invention have the general formula: A.sub.x A'.sub.x A".sub.2-(x+x') B.sub.y B'.sub.y B".sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z ; where x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is less than or equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the f block lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides or Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof; and B' and B" are different elements and are independently selected from the group of elements Mg or the d-block transition elements. The invention also provides methods for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula. Examples of the materials used for the preparation of the membrane include A.sub.x Sr.sub.x' B.sub.y Fe.sub.y' Co.sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z, where x is about 0.3 to about 0.5, x' is about 1.5 to about 1.7, y is 0.6, y' is between about 1.0 and 1.4 and B is Ga or Al.

  17. Hydrogen Selective Exfoliated Zeolite Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsapatsis, Michael; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Elyassi, Bahman; Lima, Fernando; Iyer, Aparna; Agrawal, Kumar; Sabnis, Sanket

    2015-04-06

    The objective of this project was to develop and evaluate an innovative membrane technology at process conditions that would be representative of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) advanced power generation with pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide (CO2). This research focused on hydrogen (H2)-selective zeolite membranes that could be utilized to separate conditioned syngas into H2-rich and CO2-rich components. Both experiments and process design and optimization calculations were performed to evaluate the concept of ultra-thin membranes made from zeolites nanosheets. In this work, efforts in the laboratory were made to tackle two fundamental challenges in application of zeolite membranes in harsh industrial environments, namely, membrane thickness and membrane stability. Conventional zeolite membranes have thicknesses in the micron range, limiting their performance. In this research, we developed a method for fabrication of ultimately thin zeolite membranes based on zeolite nanosheets. A range of layered zeolites (MWW, RWR, NSI structure types) suitable for hydrogen separation was successfully exfoliated to their constituent nanosheets. Further, membranes were made from one of these zeolites, MWW, to demonstrate the potential of this group of materials. Moreover, long-term steam stability of these zeolites (up to 6 months) was investigated in high concentrations of steam (35 mol% and 95 mole%), high pressure (10 barg), and high temperatures (350 °C and 600 °C) relevant to conditions of water-gas-shift and steam methane reforming reactions. It was found that certain nanosheets are stable, and that stability depends on the concentration of structural defects. Additionally, models that represent a water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor equipped with the zeolite membrane were developed for systems studies. These studies had the aim of analyzing the effect of the membrane reactor integration into IGCC plants in terms of performance and economic aspects of the plants. Specifically, simulation and design optimization studies were performed using the developed stand-alone membrane reactor models to identify the membrane selectivity and permeance characteristics necessary to achieve desired targets of CO2 capture and H2 recovery, as well as guide the selection of the optimal reactor design that minimizes the membrane cost as a function of its surface area required. The isothermal membrane reactor model was also integrated into IGCC system models using both the MATLAB and Aspen software platforms and techno-economic analyses of the integrated plants have been carried out to evaluate the feasibility of replacing current technologies for pre-combustion capture by the proposed novel approach in terms of satisfying stream constraints and achieving the DOE target goal of 90% CO2 capture. The results of the performed analyses based on present value of annuity calculations showed break even costs for the membrane reactor within the feasible range for membrane fabrication. However, the predicted membrane performance used in these simulations exceeded the performance achieved experimentally. Therefore, further work is required to improve membrane performance.

  18. Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton | Department of Energy by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton Presentation slides and speaker biographies from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton" held on May 23, 2011. PDF icon Water

  19. Omniphobic Membrane for Robust Membrane Distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, SH; Nejati, S; Boo, C; Hu, YX; Osuji, CO; Ehmelech, M

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we fabricate an omniphobic microporous membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a hydrophilic glass fiber membrane with silica nanoparticles followed by surface fluorination and polymer coating. The modified glass fiber membrane exhibits an anti-wetting property not only against water but also against low surface tension organic solvents that easily wet a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane that is commonly used in MD applications. By comparing the performance of the PTFE and omniphobic membranes in direct contact MD experiments in the presence of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), we show that SDS wets the hydrophobic PTFE membrane but not the omniphobic membrane. Our results suggest that omniphobic membranes are critical for MD applications with feed waters containing surface active species, such as oil and gas produced water, to prevent membrane pore wetting.

  20. Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Wensheng He, David Mountz, Tao Zhang, Chris Roger July 17, 2012 2 Outline Background on Arkema's polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) blend membrane technology Overview of membrane properties and performance Summary 3 Membrane Technology Polymer Blend * Kynar ® PVDF * Chemical and electrochemical stability * Mechanical strength * Excellent barrier against methanol * Polyelectrolyte * H + conduction and water uptake

  1. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  2. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  3. Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose primary goal is to achieve a major improvement in the combined economics and performance of polymenzimidazole-based (PBI) membrane technology in the application of hydrogen separation from a syngas stream.

  4. Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)Electrolysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation slides and speaker biographies from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on ...

  5. High Performance Composite Membranes for Separation of Carbon Dioxide from

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome High Performance Composite Membranes for Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Methane

  6. Blue Membranes GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    unique carbon nano- technology for superior surface, carrier and membrane systems. Fuel cells are one of its application areas. Coordinates: 50.084592, 8.242302 Show Map...

  7. Magnetic Membrane System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElfresh, Michael W.; (Livermore, CA); Lucas, Matthew S.; (Pasadena, CA)

    2004-12-30

    The present invention provides a membrane with magnetic particles. In one embodiment the membrane is created by mixing particles in a non-magnetic base. The membrane may act as an actuator, a sensor, a pump, a valve, or other device. A magnet is operatively connected to the membrane. The magnet acts on and changes the shape of the membrane.

  8. Hydrogen production by high temperature water splitting using electron conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Wang, Shuangyan; Dorris, Stephen E.; Lee, Tae H.

    2006-08-08

    A device and method for separating water into hydrogen and oxygen is disclosed. A first substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing protons or hydrogen is provided and spaced from a second substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing oxygen. When steam is passed between the two membranes at dissociation temperatures the hydrogen from the dissociation of steam selectively and continuously passes through the first membrane and oxygen selectively and continuously passes through the second membrane, thereby continuously driving the dissociation of steam producing hydrogen and oxygen. The oxygen is thereafter reacted with methane to produce syngas which optimally may be reacted in a water gas shift reaction to produce CO2 and H2.

  9. hybrid-membrane | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hybrid Membrane/Absorption Process for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Project No.: DE-FE0004787 Gas Technology Institute is partnering with PoroGen Corporation and Aker Process Systems in a three-year effort to develop a hybrid technology for CO2 capture from flue gases based on a combination of solvent absorption and hollow fiber membrane technologies. The technology could also apply to removal of numerous other gas pollutants such as NOx and SOx, separation of CO2 from hydrogen in refinery

  10. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces NOx Emissions Technology available for licensing: Selective permeation of gases using an air separation membrane. Can be retrofitted to existing engines Significantly reduces NOx emissions (as much as 70%) with just a 2% nitrogen enrichment of intake air PDF icon air_separation_membranes

  11. Microcomposite Fuel Cell Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary of microcomposite fuel cell membrane work presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003

  12. Hybrid System for Separating Oxygen from Air - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Hybrid System for Separating Oxygen from Air Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (765 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Sandia has developed a portable, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98 percent and flow rates significantly greater than commercially

  13. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas Lucian A. Lucia Hasan Jameel

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

  14. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion; Industrial Technologies Program ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... appli- cation is a PHAST analysis of a forging furnace where the flue gas temperature is ... Reference Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry. DOE and ...

  15. novel-polymer-membrane-mtr | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polymer Membrane Process for Pre-Combustions CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Syngas Project No.: DE-FE0001124 Membrane Technology Research (MTR) is developing a high-temperature stable polymer membrane to separate hydrogen from carbon dioxide (H2/CO2). MTR will investigate novel high-temperature-stable polymers identified by Tetramer for use in H2/CO2 selective membranes. They will also conduct bench-scale testing of optimized membranes and membrane modules with simulated syngas to evaluate the

  16. ITP Chemicals: Hybripd Separations/Distillation Technology. Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction | Department of Energy Hybripd Separations/Distillation Technology. Research Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction ITP Chemicals: Hybripd Separations/Distillation Technology. Research Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction PDF icon hybrid_separation.pdf More Documents & Publications Review of Historical Membrane Workshop Results Membrane Technology Workshop Summary Report, November 2012 Membrane Technology Workshop

  17. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Santa Fe, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures.

  18. Constant Pressure High Throughput Membrane Permeation Testing System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Constant Pressure High Throughput Membrane Permeation Testing System Opportunity A simple and rapid method for the screening of the permeability and selectivity of membranes for gas separation has been developed. A high throughput membrane testing system permits simultaneous evaluation of multiple membranes under conditions of moderate pressure and temperature for both pure gases and gas mixtures. The modular design, on-line sample analysis, and automation-competence of the technology provides a

  19. Advanced membrane devices. Interim report for October 1996--September 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laciak, D.V.; Langsam, M.; Lewnard, J.J.; Reichart, G.C.

    1997-12-31

    Under this Cooperative Agreement, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has continued to investigate and develop improved membrane technology for removal of carbon dioxide from natural gas. The task schedule for this reporting period included a detailed assessment of the market opportunity (Chapter 2), continued development and evaluation of membranes and membrane polymers (Chapter 3) and a detailed economic analysis comparing the potential of Air Products membranes to that of established acid gas removal processes (Chapter 4).

  20. Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Download presentation slides from the June 19, 2012, Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar, "BNL's Low-Platinum Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs)." PDF icon BNL's Low-Platinum Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications Contiguous Platinum

  1. Phosphazene Membranes for Gas Separations - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phosphazene Membranes for Gas Separations Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL has developed novel membrane materials for the selective removal of polar gases from non-polar gases, such as methane. These phosphazene membranes are mechanically durable, as well as flexible, permitting their application for a wide variety of uses. They are effective when used in challenging environments, such as high temperatures (stable at approximately 300

  2. Composite sensor membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majumdar, Arun (Orinda, CA); Satyanarayana, Srinath (Berkeley, CA); Yue, Min (Albany, CA)

    2008-03-18

    A sensor may include a membrane to deflect in response to a change in surface stress, where a layer on the membrane is to couple one or more probe molecules with the membrane. The membrane may deflect when a target molecule reacts with one or more probe molecules.

  3. Enzymatically active high-flux selectively gas-permeable membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ying-Bing; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Rempe, Susan; FU, Yaqin; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2016-01-26

    An ultra-thin, catalyzed liquid transport medium-based membrane structure fabricated with a porous supporting substrate may be used for separating an object species such as a carbon dioxide object species. Carbon dioxide flux through this membrane structures may be several orders of magnitude higher than traditional polymer membranes with a high selectivity to carbon dioxide. Other gases such as molecular oxygen, molecular hydrogen, and other species including non-gaseous species, for example ionic materials, may be separated using variations to the membrane discussed.

  4. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  5. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured.

  6. Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies | Department of Energy Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for the intake manifold of a diesel engine equipped with EGR, along with a virtual intake manifold O2 sensor, show good accuracy with stationary measurements PDF icon deer09_traver.pdf More Documents & Publications Simulation and Analysis of HP/LP EGR for Heavy-Duty Applications

  7. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  8. Membrane Based Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Membrane Based Air Conditioning Membrane Based Air Conditioning Lead Performer: Dais Analytic Corporation - Odessa, FL Partners: - Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN - Xergy Inc. - Seaford, DE DOE Total Funding: $1,500,000 Cost Share: $300,000 Project Term: October 1, 2015 - September 30, 2016 Funding Opportunity: Building Energy Efficiency Frontiers and Innovation (BENEFIT) - 2015 Project Objective NanoAir HVAC technology transfers water molecules through a patented nanostructured

  9. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, F.H.; Brosha, E.L.

    1997-12-09

    A potentiometric oxygen sensor is formed having a logarithmic response to a differential oxygen concentration while operating as a Nernstian-type sensor. Very thin films of mixed conducting oxide materials form electrode services while permitting diffusional oxygen access to the interface between the zirconia electrolyte and the electrode. Diffusion of oxygen through the mixed oxide is not rate-limiting. Metal electrodes are not used so that morphological changes in the electrode structure do not occur during extended operation at elevated temperatures. 6 figs.

  10. Supported inorganic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sehgal, Rakesh; Brinker, Charles Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    Supported inorganic membranes capable of molecular sieving, and methods for their production, are provided. The subject membranes exhibit high flux and high selectivity. The subject membranes are substantially defect free and less than about 100 nm thick. The pores of the subject membranes have an average critical pore radius of less than about 5 .ANG., and have a narrow pore size distribution. The subject membranes are prepared by coating a porous substrate with a polymeric sol, preferably under conditions of low relative pressure of the liquid constituents of the sol. The coated substrate is dried and calcined to produce the subject supported membrane. Also provided are methods of derivatizing the surface of supported inorganic membranes with metal alkoxides. The subject membranes find use in a variety of applications, such as the separation of constituents of gaseous streams, as catalysts and catalyst supports, and the like.

  11. Composite zeolite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nenoff, Tina M. (Albuquerque, NM); Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM); Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of composite zeolite membranes and synthesis techniques therefor has been invented. These membranes are essentially defect-free, and exhibit large levels of transmembrane flux and of chemical and isotopic selectivity.

  12. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Huntington Beach, CA); Sahimi, Muhammad (Altadena, CA); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Richmond, CA); Harale, Aadesh (Los Angeles, CA); Park, Byoung-Gi (Yeosu, KR); Liu, Paul K. T. (Lafayette Hill, PA)

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  13. Composite fuel cell membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plowman, Keith R. (Lake Jackson, TX); Rehg, Timothy J. (Lake Jackson, TX); Davis, Larry W. (West Columbia, TX); Carl, William P. (Marble Falls, TX); Cisar, Alan J. (Cypress, TX); Eastland, Charles S. (West Columbia, TX)

    1997-01-01

    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  14. Composite fuel cell membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plowman, K.R.; Rehg, T.J.; Davis, L.W.; Carl, W.P.; Cisar, A.J.; Eastland, C.S.

    1997-08-05

    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane is described suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  15. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carl R. Evenson; Shane E. Roark

    2006-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. A family of hydrogen separation membranes was developed including single phase mixed conducting ceramics, ceramic/ceramic composites, cermet membranes, cermet membranes containing a hydrogen permeable metal, and intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. Each membrane type had different operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages that were documented over the course of the project. Research on these membranes progressed from ceramics to cermets to intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. During this progression performance was increased from 0.01 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2} up to 423 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2}. Eltron and team membranes not only developed each membrane type, but also membrane surface catalysis and impurity tolerance, creation of thin film membranes, alternative applications such as membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation, demonstration of scale-up testing, and complete engineering documentation including process and mechanical considerations necessary for inclusion of Eltron membranes in a full scale integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. The results of this project directly led to a new $15 million program funded by the Department of Energy. This new project will focus exclusively on scale-up of this technology as part of the FutureGen initiative.

  16. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dye, Robert C. (Irvine, CA); Jorgensen, Betty (Jemez Springs, NM); Pesiri, David R. (Aliso Viejo, CA)

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  17. Meniscus membranes for separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dye, Robert C. (Irvine, CA); Jorgensen, Betty (Jemez Springs, NM); Pesiri, David R. (Aliso Viejo, CA)

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  18. Polyphosphazene semipermeable membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Charles A. (Idaho Falls, ID); McCaffrey, Robert R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Cummings, Daniel G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Grey, Alan E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jessup, Janine S. (Darlington, ID); McAtee, Richard E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1988-01-01

    A semipermeable, inorganic membrane is disclosed; the membrane is prepared from a phosphazene polymer and, by the selective substitution of the constituent groups bound to the phosphorous in the polymer structure, the selective passage of fluid from a feedstream can be controlled. Resistance to high temperatures and harsh chemical environments is observed in the use of the phosphazene polymers as semipermeable membranes.

  19. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spanhel, Lubomir (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1991-10-22

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  20. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spanhel, Lubomir (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1992-07-07

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  1. Membrane separation advances in FE hydrogen program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-12-31

    Since its inception in Fiscal Year 2003 the US Office of Fossil Energy (FE) Hydrogen from Coal Program has sponsored more than 60 projects and made advances in the science of separating out pure hydrogen from syngas produced through coal gasification. The Program is focusing on advanced hydrogen separation technologies, which include membranes, and combining the WGS reaction and hydrogen separation in a single operation known as process intensification. The article explains the technologies and describes some key FE membrane projects. More details are available from http://www.fossil.energy.gov. 1 fig.

  2. Gas separation by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matson, Stephen L.; Lee, Eric K. L.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Kelly, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    There is disclosed a composite immobulized liquid membrane of a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous organic or inorganic support, the solvent being at least one highly polar solvent containing at least one nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous or sulfur atom, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a specified solubility parameter. The solvent or solvent mixture is homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. The membrane is suitable for acid gas scrubbing and oxygen/nitrogen separation.

  3. Gas separation by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

    1989-04-25

    There is disclosed a composite immobilized liquid membrane of a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous organic or inorganic support, the solvent being at least one highly polar solvent containing at least one nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus or sulfur atom, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a specified solubility parameter. The solvent or solvent mixture is homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. The membrane is suitable for acid gas scrubbing and oxygen/nitrogen separation. 3 figs.

  4. Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technique | Department of Energy Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, "Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique," held March 12, 2013. Presenters were Shyam S. Kocha, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Yannick Garsany, Naval Research

  5. Use of Membranes in Non-Traditional Applications and Emerging Markets

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Use of Membranes in Non-Traditional Applications and Emerging Markets DOE Membrane Technology Workshop July 24, 2012 Zissis Dardas Group Leader, Environmental Science Physical Sciences Department United Technologies Research Center US Energy Consumption* 33% 28% 39% Transportation Aircraft Fuel tank inerting Fuel deoxygenation Automotive PEM Fuel Cells Perishable Transport (O 2 /N 2 separation) UTC Membrane Applications for Energy & Environment Polymer membranes significantly enhance the

  6. Lattice Distortions and Oxygen Vacancies Produced in Au+-Irradiated Nanocrystalline Cubic Zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmondson, P. D.; Weber, William J.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen

    2011-07-13

    The oxygen ion conductivity, attributed to an oxygen vacancy mechanism, of yttria-stabilized zirconia membranes used in solid oxide fuel cells is restricted due to trapping limitations. In this work, a high concentration of oxygen vacancies has been deliberately introduced into nanocrystalline stabilizer-free zirconia through ion-irradiation. Oxygen vacancies with different charge states can be produced by varying irradiation temperatures. Due to the reduced trapping sites and high oxygen vacancy concentration, this work suggests that the efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells can be improved.

  7. Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers Directly Observe Oxygen Signature in the Oxygen-evolving Complex of Photosynthesis Arguably the most important chemical reaction on earth is the photosynthetic...

  8. Phosphazene membranes for gas separations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stewart, Frederick F.; Harrup, Mason K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2006-07-11

    A polyphosphazene having a glass transition temperature ("T.sub.g") of approximately -20.degree. C. or less. The polyphosphazene has at least one pendant group attached to a backbone of the polyphosphazene, wherein the pendant group has no halogen atoms. In addition, no aromatic groups are attached to an oxygen atom that is bound to a phosphorus atom of the backbone. The polyphosphazene may have a T.sub.g ranging from approximately -100.degree. C. to approximately -20.degree. C. The polyphosphazene may be selected from the group consisting of poly[bis-3-phenyl-1-propoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(2-phenyl-1-ethoxy)phosphazene], poly[bis-(dodecanoxypolyethoxy)-phosphazene], and poly[bis-(2-(2-(2-.omega.-undecylenyloxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)phosphazene]- . The polyphosphazene may be used in a separation membrane to selectively separate individual gases from a gas mixture, such as to separate polar gases from nonpolar gases in the gas mixture.

  9. Whitefox Technologies Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    London-based cleantech engineering company specializing in advances in the design, manufacturing and application of membrane technology. Coordinates: 51.506325, -0.127144 Show...

  10. Zero Liquid Discharge Technology | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Purifies Water GE's Reverse Osmosis (RO) Membrane technology addresses industrial waste water treatment and recycling needs, purifying water for cooling, boilers, and general...

  11. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  12. Composite metal membranes for hydrogen separation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, T.S.; Dye, R.C.

    1997-06-01

    A novel multilayer metal membrane has been developed that can be used for the separation of hydrogen from feed streams with near perfect selectivity. The membrane is comprised of very thin layers of fully dense palladium film deposited on both sides of a thin Group V metal foil, ion-milled prior to sputtering of the palladium. Palladium loading are kept low using the thin film deposition technology: 0.0012 grams of palladium per square centimeter of membrane is typically used, although thinner coatings have been employed. This membrane operates at temperatures on the order of 300 C and is capable of high rates of hydrogen flow. Flows are dependent on the pressure differential applied to the membrane, but flows of 105 sccm/cm{sup 2} and higher are regularly observed with differentials below one atmosphere. Long term testing of the membrane for a period in excess of 775 hours under constant conditions showed stable flows and an 85% hydrogen recovery efficiency. A system has been successfully applied to the hydrogen handling system of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and was tested using a pseudo-reformate feed stream without any degradation in performance.

  13. Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications | Department of Energy Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Download the presentation slides from Arkema at the July 17, 2012, Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar, "Fuel Cells for Portable Power." PDF icon Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications

  14. Lyotropic Liquid Crystal (LLC) Nanofiltration Membranes - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Lyotropic Liquid Crystal (LLC) Nanofiltration Membranes Applications in biofuels and bio-process mixture separations University of Colorado Contact CU About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication CU2412B (Advanced LLC Membranes) Marketing Summary.pdf (154 KB) Lyotropic Liquid Crystal (LLC) Nanofiltration Membranes Lyotropic Liquid Crystal (LLC)

  15. Synergy between Membranes and Microbial Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synergy between Membranes and Microbial Fuel Cells Synergy between Membranes and Microbial Fuel Cells Presentation by Jason He, Virginia Tech, during the "Targeting High-Value Challenges" panel at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop held March 18-19, 2015. PDF icon Synergy between Membranes and Microbial Fuel Cells More Documents & Publications Electrolyte Materials for AMFCs and AMFC Performance Microbial Fuel Cell Technologies-MxCs: Can

  16. Oxygen-consuming chlor alkali cell configured to minimize peroxide formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chlistunoff, Jerzy B.; Lipp, Ludwig; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    2006-08-01

    Oxygen-consuming zero gap chlor-alkali cell was configured to minimize peroxide formation. The cell included an ion-exchange membrane that divided the cell into an anode chamber including an anode and a cathode chamber including an oxygen gas diffusion cathode. The cathode included a single-piece of electrically conducting graphitized carbon cloth. Catalyst and polytetrafluoroethylene were attached to only one side of the cloth. When the cathode was positioned against the cation exchange membrane with the catalyst side away from the membrane, electrolysis of sodium chloride to chlorine and caustic (sodium hydroxide) proceeded with minimal peroxide formation.

  17. Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Morisato, Atsushi (Tokyo, JP)

    1998-01-13

    A separation membrane useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C.sub.2+ hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is chosen from the group consisting of C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R.sub.2 is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) PMP!. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations.

  18. Substituted polyacetylene separation membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, I.; Morisato, Atsushi

    1998-01-13

    A separation membrane is described which is useful for gas separation, particularly separation of C{sub 2+} hydrocarbons from natural gas. The invention encompasses the membrane itself, methods of making it and processes for using it. The membrane comprises a polymer having repeating units of a hydrocarbon-based, disubstituted polyacetylene, having the general formula shown in the accompanying diagram, wherein R{sub 1} is chosen from the group consisting of C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} alkyl and phenyl, and wherein R{sub 2} is chosen from the group consisting of hydrogen and phenyl. In the most preferred embodiment, the membrane comprises poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) [PMP]. The membrane exhibits good chemical resistance and has super-glassy properties with regard to separating certain large, condensable permeant species from smaller, less-condensable permeant species. The membranes may also be useful in other fluid separations. 4 figs.

  19. Siloxane-grafted membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, D.T.; Obligin, A.S.

    1989-10-31

    Composite cellulosic semipermeable membranes are disclosed which are the covalently bonded reaction product of an asymmetric cellulosic semipermeable membrane and a polysiloxane containing reactive functional group. The two reactants chemically bond by ether, ester, amide or acrylate linkages to form a siloxane-grafted cellulosic membrane having superior selectivity and flux stability. Selectivity may be enhanced by wetting the surface with a swelling agent such as water.

  20. Polyarylether composition and membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hung, Joyce; Brunelle, Daniel Joseph; Harmon, Marianne Elisabeth; Moore, David Roger; Stone, Joshua James; Zhou, Hongyi; Suriano, Joseph Anthony

    2010-11-09

    A composition including a polyarylether copolymer is provided. The copolymer includes a polyarylether backbone; and a sulfonated oligomeric group bonded to the polyarylether suitable for use as a cation conducting membrane. Method of bonding a sulfonated oligomeric group to the polyarylether backbone to form a polyarylether copolymer. The membrane may be formed from the polyarylether copolymer composition. The chain length of the sulfonated oligomeric group may be controlled to affect or control the ion conductivity of the membrane.

  1. Anion exchange membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  2. CO? Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toy, Lora; Kataria, Atish; Gupta, Raghubir

    2011-09-30

    Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nation's energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO?, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO? capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO? from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO? purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO?-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO?, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: - Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO? over N? and CO? permeance greater than 300 gas permeation units (GPU) targeted; - Development of next-generation polycarbonate hollow-fiber membranes and membrane modules with higher CO? permeance than current commercial polycarbonate membranes; - Development and fabrication of membrane hollow fibers and modules from candidate polymers; - Development of a CO? capture membrane process design and integration strategy suitable for end-of-pipe, retrofit installation; and - Techno-economic evaluation of the "best" integrated CO? capture membrane process design package In this report, the results of the project research and development efforts are discussed and include the post-combustion capture properties of the two membrane material platforms and the hollow-fiber membrane modules developed from them and the multi-stage process design and analysis developed for 90% CO? capture with 95% captured CO? purity.

  3. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, P.

    1997-07-22

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen`s A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2,000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest. 4 figs.

  4. Microsoft PowerPoint - Nano Sep Membrane for H2 Flux brief.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are a key enabling technology for energy conversion devices. Ionic transport membranes must have both proton and electronic conductivity to function as hydrogen separation...

  5. Novel Membranes | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies | Blandine Jerome Novel Membranes Previous Next List Brett Helms Brett Helms Hopkinson David Hopkinson tsapatsis Michael Tsapatsis Ting Xu Ting Xu

  6. Caustic Recovery Technology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Caustic Recovery Technology Caustic Recovery Technology Full Document and Summary Versions are available for download PDF icon Caustic Recovery Technology PDF icon Summary - Caustic Recovery Technology More Documents & Publications A Ceramic membrane to Recycle Caustic Waste Processing Annual Technology Development Report 2007 System Planning for Low-Activity Waste at Hanford

  7. Water-retaining Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Water-retaining Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Water uptake results from PSS-PMBs as a function of temperature at RH = 98%. Water uptake results from PSS-PMBs as a function of temperature at RH = 98%. Technology Marketing SummaryWhile polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells offer promising power alternatives, the performance of current state-of-the-art PEMs is hindered by water loss

  8. Directed Spontaneous Assembly of Membrane Protein with Amphiphilic Block

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copolymers - Energy Innovation Portal Directed Spontaneous Assembly of Membrane Protein with Amphiphilic Block Copolymers Colorado School of Mines Contact CSM About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThis invention describes a method for using membrane proteins (MPs) in synthetic systems for biosensor design, high-throughput drug-screening, catalysis or energy harvesting. DescriptionCurrent efforts in the art face a challenge that practical applications involving liposomes have been

  9. Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2014-01-28

    Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  10. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.; Guangyao Sheng.

    1993-05-04

    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  11. Membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschemekat, J.

    1994-03-15

    A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

  12. Polymide gas separation membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  13. Membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen (Palo Alto, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  14. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Sheng, Guangyao (Madison, WI)

    1993-01-01

    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  15. Optical oxygen concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kebabian, Paul (Acton, MA)

    1997-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

  16. Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Chen, L.; Ciocco, M.; Doctor, R. D.; Dorris, S.E.; Emerson, J. E.; Fisher, B.; Lee, T. H.; Killmeyer, R. P.; Morreale,B.; Picciolo, J. J.; Siriwardane, R. V.; Song, S. J.

    2007-02-05

    The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. This goal of this project is to develop two types of dense ceramic membrane for producing hydrogen nongalvanically, i.e., without electrodes or external power supply, at commercially significant fluxes under industrially relevant operating conditions. The first type of membrane, hydrogen transport membranes (HTMs), will be used to separate hydrogen from gas mixtures such as the product streams from coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. Potential ancillary uses of HTMs include dehydrogenation and olefin production, as well as hydrogen recovery in petroleum refineries and ammonia synthesis plants, the largest current users of deliberately produced hydrogen. The second type of membrane, oxygen transport membranes (OTMs), will produce hydrogen by nongalvanically removing oxygen that is generated when water dissociates at elevated temperatures. This report describes progress that was made during FY 2006 on the development of OTM and HTM materials.

  17. High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

    2013-05-15

    This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

  18. Novel Metallic Membranes for Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dogan, Omer

    2011-02-27

    To reduce dependence on oil and emission of greenhouse gases, hydrogen is favored as an energy carrier for the near future. Hydrogen can be converted to electrical energy utilizing fuel cells and turbines. One way to produce hydrogen is to gasify coal which is abundant in the U.S. The coal gasification produces syngas from which hydrogen is then separated. Designing metallic alloys for hydrogen separation membranes which will work in a syngas environment poses significant challenges. In this presentation, a review of technical targets, metallic membrane development activities at NETL and challenges that are facing the development of new technologies will be given.

  19. Mixed conducting membranes for syngas production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA); Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Butt, Darryl (Gainesville, FL); Van Doorn, Rene Hendrick Elias (Neckarsulm, DE); Cutler, Raymond Ashton (Bountiful, UT)

    2002-01-01

    This invention presents a new class of multicomponent metallic oxides which are particularly suited toward use in fabricating components used in processes for producing syngas. The non-stoichiometric, A-site rich compositions of the present invention are represented by the formula (Ln.sub.x Ca.sub.1-x).sub.y FeO.sub.3-.delta. wherein Ln is La or a mixture of lanthanides comprising La, and wherein 1.0>x>0.5, 1.1.gtoreq.y>1.0 and .delta. is a number which renders the composition of matter charge neutral. Solid-state membranes formed from these compositions provide a favorable balance of oxygen permeance and resistance to degradation when employed in processes for producing syngas. This invention also presents a process for making syngas which utilizes such membranes.

  20. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  1. New membranes could speed the biofuels conversion process and reduce cost

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hu, Michael

    2014-08-06

    ORNL researchers have developed a new class of membranes that could enable faster, more cost efficient biofuels production. These membranes are tunable at the nanopore level and have potential uses in separating water from fuel and acid from bio-oils. The membrane materials technology just won an R&D 100 award. ORNL and NREL are partnering, with support from the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office, to determine the best uses of these membranes to speed the biofuels conversion process. Development of the membranes was funded by DOE BETO and ORNL's Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.

  2. New membranes could speed the biofuels conversion process and reduce cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Michael

    2014-07-23

    ORNL researchers have developed a new class of membranes that could enable faster, more cost efficient biofuels production. These membranes are tunable at the nanopore level and have potential uses in separating water from fuel and acid from bio-oils. The membrane materials technology just won an R&D 100 award. ORNL and NREL are partnering, with support from the DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office, to determine the best uses of these membranes to speed the biofuels conversion process. Development of the membranes was funded by DOE BETO and ORNL's Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.

  3. Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes Print Found ubiquitously in both bacteria and humans, membrane proteins of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter...

  4. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The High Temperature Membrane Working Group consists of government, industry, and university researchers interested in developing high temperature membranes for fuel cells.

  5. Nanoengineered membrane electrode assembly interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A

    2013-08-06

    A membrane electrode structure suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that comprises membrane-affixed metal nanoparticles whose formation is controlled by a photochemical process that controls deposition of the metal nanoparticles using a photocatalyst integrated with a polymer electrolyte membrane, such as an ionomer membrane. Impregnation of the polymer membrane with the photocatalyst prior to metal deposition greatly reduces the required amount of metal precursor in the deposition reaction solution by restricting metal reduction substantially to the formation of metal nanoparticles affixed on or near the surface of the polymer membrane with minimal formation of metallic particles not directly associated with the membrane.

  6. Integrated Ceramic Membrane System for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Lim, Hankwon; Drnevich, Raymond

    2010-08-05

    Phase I was a technoeconomic feasibility study that defined the process scheme for the integrated ceramic membrane system for hydrogen production and determined the plan for Phase II. The hydrogen production system is comprised of an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) and a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM). Two process options were evaluated: 1) Integrated OTM-HTM reactor in this configuration, the HTM was a ceramic proton conductor operating at temperatures up to 900C, and 2) Sequential OTM and HTM reactors in this configuration, the HTM was assumed to be a Pd alloy operating at less than 600C. The analysis suggested that there are no technical issues related to either system that cannot be managed. The process with the sequential reactors was found to be more efficient, less expensive, and more likely to be commercialized in a shorter time than the single reactor. Therefore, Phase II focused on the sequential reactor system, specifically, the second stage, or the HTM portion. Work on the OTM portion was conducted in a separate program. Phase IIA began in February 2003. Candidate substrate materials and alloys were identified and porous ceramic tubes were produced and coated with Pd. Much effort was made to develop porous substrates with reasonable pore sizes suitable for Pd alloy coating. The second generation of tubes showed some improvement in pore size control, but this was not enough to get a viable membrane. Further improvements were made to the porous ceramic tube manufacturing process. When a support tube was successfully coated, the membrane was tested to determine the hydrogen flux. The results from all these tests were used to update the technoeconomic analysis from Phase I to confirm that the sequential membrane reactor system can potentially be a low-cost hydrogen supply option when using an existing membrane on a larger scale. Phase IIB began in October 2004 and focused on demonstrating an integrated HTM/water gas shift (WGS) reactor to increase CO conversion and produce more hydrogen than a standard water gas shift reactor would. Substantial improvements in substrate and membrane performance were achieved in another DOE project (DE-FC26-07NT43054). These improved membranes were used for testing in a water gas shift environment in this program. The amount of net H2 generated (defined as the difference of hydrogen produced and fed) was greater than would be produced at equilibrium using conventional water gas shift reactors up to 75 psig because of the shift in equilibrium caused by continuous hydrogen removal. However, methanation happened at higher pressures, 100 and 125 psig, and resulted in less net H2 generated than would be expected by equilibrium conversion alone. An effort to avoid methanation by testing in more oxidizing conditions (by increasing CO2/CO ratio in a feed gas) was successful and net H2 generated was higher (40-60%) than a conventional reactor at equilibrium at all pressures tested (up to 125 psig). A model was developed to predict reactor performance in both cases with and without methanation. The required membrane area depends on conditions, but the required membrane area is about 10 ft2 to produce about 2000 scfh of hydrogen. The maximum amount of hydrogen that can be produced in a membrane reactor decreased significantly due to methanation from about 2600 scfh to about 2400 scfh. Therefore, it is critical to eliminate methanation to fully benefit from the use of a membrane in the reaction. Other modeling work showed that operating a membrane reactor at higher temperature provides an opportunity to make the reactor smaller and potentially provides a significant capital cost savings compared to a shift reactor/PSA combination.

  7. Fabrication of catalyzed ion transport membrane systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Kibby, Charles Leonard

    2013-06-04

    Process for fabricating a catalyzed ion transport membrane (ITM). In one embodiment, an uncatalyzed ITM is (a) contacted with a non-reducing gaseous stream while heating to a temperature and for a time period sufficient to provide an ITM possessing anion mobility; (b) contacted with a reducing gaseous stream for a time period sufficient to provide an ITM having anion mobility and essentially constant oxygen stoichiometry; (c) cooled while contacting the ITM with the reducing gaseous stream to provide an ITM having essentially constant oxygen stoichiometry and no anion mobility; and (d) treated by applying catalyst to at least one of (1) a porous mixed conducting multicomponent metallic oxide (MCMO) layer contiguous with a first side of a dense layer of MCMO and (2) a second side of the dense MCMO layer. In another embodiment, these steps are carried out in the alternative order of (a), (d), (b), and (c).

  8. Nanoporous Membranes for Pretreatment of Lignocellulose and Other

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nanoporous Membranes for Pretreatment of Lignocellulose and Other Applications Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Final 12-G00208_2406.pdf (1,333 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryResearchers at ORNL have developed an

  9. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Brent J. (West Richland, WA); Coomes, Edmund P. (West Richland, WA)

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  10. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowser, John

    2004-04-13

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In one of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the other part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. Ambient air is charged to the membrane separation unit during the latter part of the cycle.

  11. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nemser, Stuart M.

    2005-05-03

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In the first part of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the second part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. In one aspect of this invention, a vacuum is drawn in the membrane separation unit thus reducing overall VOC emissions.

  12. Composite metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peachey, N.M.; Dye, R.C.; Snow, R.C.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1998-04-14

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  13. Composite metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peachey, Nathaniel M. (Espanola, NM); Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Ronny C. (Los Alamos, NM); Birdsell, Stephan A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of Group IVB met or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof is provided together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture including contacting a hydrogen-containing gaseous mixture with a first side of a nonporous composite metal membrane including a first metal of Group IVB metals or Group VB metals, the first metal layer sandwiched between two layers of an oriented metal of palladium, platinum or alloys thereof, and, separating hydrogen from a second side of the nonporous composite metal membrane.

  14. Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray...

  15. Take care in picking membranes to combine with other processes for CO/sub 2/ removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schendel, R.; Seymour, J.

    1985-02-18

    Membranes are somewhat unique in gas processing. Membrane processing is different enough from conventional processing that each project must be examined on its own merits. Membranes should be considered based on their characteristics in combination with other technologies as well as by themselves, and used where they show advantage. Membranes may find use in unusual applications and may not be best in traditional applications. Membrane systems are easily simulated and evaluation of membrane applications can be made quickly. Using a mainframe computer, response is essentially instantaneous.

  16. One Step Biomass Gas Reforming-Shift Separation Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Michael J.; Souleimanova, Razima

    2012-12-28

    GTI developed a plan where efforts were concentrated in 4 major areas: membrane material development, membrane module development, membrane process development, and membrane gasifier scale-up. GTI assembled a team of researchers to work in each area. Task 1.1 Ceramic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by Arizona State University (ASU), Task 1.2 Metallic Membrane Synthesis and Testing was conducted by the U.S. National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Task 1.3 was conducted by SCHOTT, and GTI was to test all membranes that showed potential. The initial focus of the project was concentrated on membrane material development. Metallic and glass-based membranes were identified as hydrogen selective membranes under the conditions of the biomass gasification, temperatures above 700C and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. Membranes were synthesized by arc-rolling for metallic type membranes and incorporating Pd into a glass matrix for glass membranes. Testing for hydrogen permeability properties were completed and the effects of hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide were investigated for perspective membranes. The initial candidate membrane of Pd80Cu20 chosen in 2008 was selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. Although the H2A analysis results indicated a $1.96 cost per gge H2 based on a 5A (micron) thick PdCu membrane, there was not long-term operation at the required flux to satisfy the go/no go decision. Since the future PSA case yielded a $2.00/gge H2, DOE decided that there was insufficient savings compared with the already proven PSA technology to further pursue the membrane reactor design. All ceramic membranes synthesized by ASU during the project showed low hydrogen flux as compared with metallic membranes. The best ceramic membrane showed hydrogen permeation flux of 0.03 SCFH/ft2 at the required process conditions while the metallic membrane, Pd80Cu20 showed a flux of 47.2 SCFH/ft2 (3 orders of magnitude difference). Results from NETL showed Pd80Cu20 with the highest flux, therefore it was chosen as the initial and eventually, final candidate membrane. The criteria for choice were high hydrogen flux, long-term stability, and H2S tolerance. Results from SCHOTT using glass membranes showed a maximum of 0.25 SCFH/ft2, that is an order of magnitude better than the ceramic membrane but still two orders of magnitude lower than the metallic membrane. A membrane module was designed to be tested with an actual biomass gasifier. Some parts of the module were ordered but the work was stopped when a no go decision was made by the DOE.

  17. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  18. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  19. Hydrogen transport membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mundschau, Michael V.

    2005-05-31

    Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

  20. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  1. Fuel cell oxygen electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shanks, Howard R. (Ames, IA); Bevolo, Albert J. (Ames, IA); Danielson, Gordon C. (Ames, IA); Weber, Michael F. (Wichita, KS)

    1980-11-04

    An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A.sub.x WO.sub.3 where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt.sub.y WO.sub.3 where y is at least 0.8.

  2. Membrane reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo; Bloom, Ira D.

    1989-01-01

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured with high spatial resolution.

  3. Membrane reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

    1988-01-21

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

  4. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funk, Edward W.; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Chang, Y. Alice

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture over a polymeric membrane which comprises a polymer capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds at temperature ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psi. The membranes which possess pore sizes ranging from about 10 to about 500 Angstroms are cast from a solvent solution and recovered.

  5. Alkaline Membrane Electrolysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RPTnnnn Membrane-Based Electrolysis: Overview * Many cost and efficiency advancements still feasible for PEM electrolysis - >50% reduction in membrane thickness - >90% reduction in catalyst loading - Improved O 2 evolution activity - Part integration and high speed manufacturing - Balance of plant improvements: drying, electronics * AEM electrolysis can enable new cost curve - Will need to balance with potential efficiency loss based on OH- conduction - Durability still needs significant

  6. Microprobes aluminosilicate ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (2114 Chadbourne Ave., Madison, WI 53705); Sheng, Guangyao (45 N. Orchard St., Madison, WI 53715)

    1993-01-01

    Methods have been developed to make mixed alumina-silicate and aluminosilicate particulate microporous ceramic membranes. One method involves the making of separate alumina and silica sols which are then mixed. Another method involves the creation of a combined sol with aluminosilicate particles. The resulting combined alumina and silica membranes have high surface area, a very small pore size, and a very good temperature stability.

  7. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL); Hryn, John N. (Naperville, IL); Elam, Jeffrey W. (Elmhurst, IL)

    2009-12-01

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity.

  8. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation provides an overview of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  9. Novel, Ceramic Membrane System For Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elangovan, S.

    2012-12-31

    Separation of hydrogen from coal gas represents one of the most promising ways to produce alternative sources of fuel. Ceramatec, teamed with CoorsTek and Sandia National Laboratories has developed materials technology for a pressure driven, high temperature proton-electron mixed conducting membrane system to remove hydrogen from the syngas. This system separates high purity hydrogen and isolates high pressure CO{sub 2} as the retentate, which is amenable to low cost capture and transport to storage sites. The team demonstrated a highly efficient, pressure-driven hydrogen separation membrane to generate high purity hydrogen from syngas using a novel ceramic-ceramic composite membrane. Recognizing the benefits and limitations of present membrane systems, the all-ceramic system has been developed to address the key technical challenges related to materials performance under actual operating conditions, while retaining the advantages of thermal and process compatibility offered by the ceramic membranes. The feasibility of the concept has already been demonstrated at Ceramatec. This project developed advanced materials composition for potential integration with water gas shift rectors to maximize the hydrogenproduction.

  10. Semipermeable thin-film membranes comprising siloxane, alkoxysilyl and aryloxysilyl oligomers and copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR)

    1988-01-01

    Novel semiperimeable membranes and thin film composite (TFC) gas separation membranes useful in the separation of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, lower hydrocarbons, and other gases are disclosed. The novel semipermeable membranes comprise the polycondensation reaction product of two complementary polyfunctional compounds, each having at least two functional groups that are mutually reactive in a condensation polymerization reaction, and at least one of which is selected from siloxanes, alkoxsilyls and aryloxysilyls. The TFC membrane comprises a microporous polymeric support, the surface of which has the novel semipermeable film formed thereon, preferably by interfacial polymerization.

  11. Semipermeable thin-film membranes comprising siloxane, alkoxysilyl and aryloxysilyl oligomers and copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, W.C.; Friesen, D.T.

    1988-11-01

    Novel semipermeable membranes and thin film composite (TFC) gas separation membranes useful in the separation of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, lower hydrocarbons, and other gases are disclosed. The novel semipermeable membranes comprise the polycondensation reaction product of two complementary polyfunctional compounds, each having at least two functional groups that are mutually reactive in a condensation polymerization reaction, and at least one of which is selected from siloxanes, alkoxsilyls and aryloxysilyls. The TFC membrane comprises a microporous polymeric support, the surface of which has the novel semipermeable film formed thereon, preferably by interfacial polymerization.

  12. Supported Molten Metal Membranes for Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Datta, Ravindra; Ma, Yi Hua; Yen, Pei-Shan; Deveau, Nicholas; Fishtik, Ilie; Mardilovich, Ivan

    2013-09-30

    We describe here our results on the feasibility of a novel dense metal membrane for hydrogen separation: Supported Molten Metal Membrane, or SMMM.1 The goal in this work was to develop these new membranes based on supporting thin films of low-melting, non- precious group metals, e.g., tin (Sn), indium (In), gallium (Ga), or their alloys, to provide a flux and selectivity of hydrogen that rivals the conventional but substantially more expensive palladium (Pd) or Pd alloy membranes, which are susceptible to poisoning by the many species in the coal-derived syngas, and further possess inadequate stability and limited operating temperature range. The novelty of the technology presented numerous challenges during the course of this project, however, mainly in the selection of appropriate supports, and in the fabrication of a stable membrane. While the wetting instability of the SMMM remains an issue, we did develop an adequate understanding of the interaction between molten metal films with porous supports that we were able to find appropriate supports. Thus, our preliminary results indicate that the Ga/SiC SMMM at 550 C has a permeance that is an order of magnitude higher than that of Pd, and exceeds the 2015 DOE target. To make practical SMM membranes, however, further improving the stability of the molten metal membrane is the next goal. For this, it is important to better understand the change in molten metal surface tension and contact angle as a function of temperature and gas-phase composition. A thermodynamic theory was, thus, developed, that is not only able to explain this change in the liquid-gas surface tension, but also the change in the solid-liquid surface tension as well as the contact angle. This fundamental understanding has allowed us to determine design characteristics to maintain stability in the face of changing gas composition. These designs are being developed. For further progress, it is also important to understand the nature of solution and permeation process in these molten metal membranes. For this, a comprehensive microkinetic model was developed for hydrogen permeation in dense metal membranes, and tested against data for Pd membrane over a broad range of temperatures.3 It is planned to obtain theoretical and experimental estimates of the parameters to corroborate the model against mental results for SMMM.

  13. Materials and methods for the separation of oxygen from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacKay, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2003-07-15

    Metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes having the formula: O.sub.5+z where: x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof and B" is Co or Mg, with the exception that when B" is Mg, A' and A" are not Mg. The metal oxides are useful for preparation of dense membranes which may be formed from dense thin films of the mixed metal oxide on a porous metal oxide element. The invention also provides methods and catalytic reactors for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula.

  14. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, Raymond J. (Mt. Prospect, IL); Kurek, Paul R. (Schaumburg, IL)

    1988-01-01

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  15. Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swedo, R.J.; Kurek, P.R.

    1988-07-19

    Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

  16. Ceramic membrane reactor with two reactant gases at different pressures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Mieville, Rodney L. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    2001-01-01

    The invention is a ceramic membrane reactor for syngas production having a reaction chamber, an inlet in the reactor for natural gas intake, a plurality of oxygen permeating ceramic slabs inside the reaction chamber with each slab having a plurality of passages paralleling the gas flow for transporting air through the reaction chamber, a manifold affixed to one end of the reaction chamber for intake of air connected to the slabs, a second manifold affixed to the reactor for removing the oxygen depleted air, and an outlet in the reaction chamber for removing syngas.

  17. The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allcock, Harry R.; Benesi, Alan; Macdonald, Digby D.

    2010-08-27

    The research carried out under grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46371, "The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes", during the period June 1, 2008 - May 31, 2010 was comprised of three related parts. These are: 1. An examination of the state of water in classical proton conduction membranes with the use of deuterium T1 NMR spectroscopy (Allcock and Benesi groups). 2. A dielectric relaxation examination of the behavior of water in classical ionomer membranes (Macdonald program). 3. Attempts to synthesize new proton-conduction polymers and membranes derived from the polyphosphazene system. (Allcock program) All three are closely related, crucial aspects of the design and development of new and improved polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes on which the future of fuel cell technology for portable applications depends.

  18. The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allcock, Harry R., Benesi, Alan, Macdonald, Digby, D.

    2010-08-27

    The research carried out under grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46371, "The State of Water in Proton Conducting Membranes", during the period June 1, 2008 -May 31, 2010 was comprised of three related parts. These are: 1. An examination of the state of water in classical proton conduction membranes with the use of deuterium T1 NMR spectroscopy (Allcock and Benesi groups). 2. A dielectric relaxation examination of the behavior of water in classical ionomer membranes (Macdonald program). 3. Attempts to synthesize new proton-conduction polymers and membranes derived from the polyphosphazene system. (Allcock program) All three are closely related, crucial aspects of the design and development of new and improved polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes on which the future of fuel cell technology for portable applications depends.

  19. Study of using oxygen-enriched combustion air for locomotive diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.; Assanis, D.N.; Cataldi, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    A thermodynamic simulation is used to study the effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on the performance and nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions of a locomotive diesel engine. The parasitic power of the air separation membrane required to supply the oxygen-enriched air is also estimated. For a given constraint on peak cylinder pressure, the gross and net power output of an engine operating under different levels of oxygen enrichment are compared with those obtained when a high-boost turbocharged engine is used. A 4% increase in peak cylinder pressure can result in an increase in net engine power of approximately 13% when intake air with an oxygen content of 28% by volume is used and fuel injection timing is retarded by 4 degrees. When the engine is turbocharged to a higher inlet boost, the same increase in peak cylinder pressure can improve power by only 4%. If part of the significantly higher exhaust enthalpies available as a result of oxygen enrichment are recovered, the power requirements of the air separator membrane can be met, resulting in substantial net power improvements. Oxygen enrichment with its attendant higher combustion temperatures, reduces emissions of particulates and visible smoke but increases NO emissions (by up to three times at 26% oxygen content). Therefore, exhaust gas after-treatment and heat recovery would be required if the full potential of oxygen enrichment for improving the performance of locomotive diesel engines is to be realized.

  20. Mass-selected Nanoparticles of PtxY as Model Catalysts for Oxygen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electroreduction | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Mass-selected Nanoparticles of PtxY as Model Catalysts for Oxygen Electroreduction Thursday, July 31, 2014 A team of researchers from the Technical University of Denmark and the SUNCAT Institute at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has demonstrated the superior performance of nanoparticles of platinum-yttrium (PtxY) as catalysts for oxygen electroreduction. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

  1. Supported microporous ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webster, Elizabeth (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc (Madison, WI)

    1993-01-01

    A method for permformation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms.

  2. Supported microporous ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webster, E.; Anderson, M.

    1993-12-14

    A method for the formation of microporous ceramic membranes onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal or metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or molecular sieving having mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms. 4 figures.

  3. Transport Reactor Development Unit Modification to Provide a Syngas Slipstream at Elevated Conditions to Enable Separation of 100 LB/D of Hydrogen by Hydrogen Separation Membranes Year - 6 Activity 1.15 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlasner, Steven

    2012-03-01

    Gasification of coal when associated with carbon dioxide capture and sequestration has the potential to provide low-cost as well as low-carbon hydrogen for electric power, fuels or chemicals production. The key element to the success of this concept is inexpensive, effective separation of hydrogen from carbon dioxide in synthesis gas. Many studies indicate that membrane technology is one of the most, if not the most, economical means of accomplishing separation; however, the advancement of hydrogen separation membrane technology is hampered by the absence of experience or demonstration that the technology is effective economically and environmentally at larger scales. While encouraging performance has been observed at bench scale (less than 12 lb/d hydrogen), it would be imprudent to pursue a largescale demonstration without testing at least one intermediate scale, such as 100 lb/d hydrogen. Among its many gasifiers, the Energy & Environmental Research Center is home to the transport reactor demonstration unit (TRDU), a unit capable of firing 200—500 lb/hr of coal to produce 400 scfm of synthesis gas containing more than 200 lb/d of hydrogen. The TRDU and associated downstream processing equipment has demonstrated the capability of producing a syngas over a wide range of temperatures and contaminant levels — some of which approximate conditions of commercial-scale gasifiers. Until this activity, however, the maximum pressure of the TRDU’ s product syngas was 120 psig, well below the 400+ psig pressures of existing large gasifiers. This activity installed a high-temperature compressor capable of accepting the range of TRDU products up to 450°F and compressing them to 500 psig, a pressure comparable to some large scale gasifiers. Thus, with heating or cooling downstream of the TRDU compressor, the unit is now able to present a near-raw to clean gasifier synthesis gas containing more than 100 lb/d of hydrogen at up to 500 psig over a wide range of temperatures to hydrogen separation membranes or other equipment for development and demonstration.

  4. Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 Chapter 4: Advancing Clean...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology can already exceed 60% electrical efficiency on hydrogen fuel, and research and development (R&D) are under way to reach 70%...

  5. 2007 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    power, and transportation -- including data on the range of fuel cell technologies -- polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), alkaline...

  6. Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on...

  7. Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces Engine NOx Emissions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Find More Like This Return to Search Novel Application of Air Separation Membranes Reduces Engine NOx Emissions Alternative to Exhaust Gas Recirculation that involves the nitrogen enrichment of intake air. Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology <p> Schematic representation of the air separation process through a membrane module</p> Schematic representation of the air separation process through

  8. Composite membrane with integral rim (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Composite membrane with integral rim Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Composite membrane with integral rim × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from

  9. Functionalized High Performance Polymer Membranes for Separation of Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dioxide and Methane | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Functionalized High Performance Polymer Membranes for Separation of Carbon Dioxide and Methane Previous Next List Natalia Blinova and Frantisek Svec, J. Mater. Chem. A, 2, 600-604 (2014) DOI: 10.1039/C3TA14095D Abstract: A significant enhancement in separation performance of supported polyaniline and polypyrrole membranes after chemical modification via grafting and solvation with a

  10. Functionalized polyaniline-based composite membranes with vastly improved

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    performance for separation of carbon dioxide from methane | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Functionalized polyaniline-based composite membranes with vastly improved performance for separation of carbon dioxide from methane Previous Next List Natalia V. Blinova, Frantisek Svec, J. Membr. Sci. 423-424: 514-521 (2012) DOI: 10.1016/j.memsci.2012.09.003 Full-size image (75 K) Abstract: Polypropylene supported polyaniline membranes photografted

  11. Economical Large Scale Advanced Membrane and Sorbent Strategies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demand growth for chemical commodities, plus the high energy intensity of separations used in commodity production, present opportunities. William J. Koros Georgia Institute of Technology Economical Large Scale Advanced Membrane & Sorbent Strategies *Membranes and sorbents, offering up to 10X reductions in process energy intensity and CO 2 emissions, enable many opportunities. *An approach is outlined to pursue these opportunities and to provide competitive advantages and environmental

  12. sub-ambient-membrane | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Sub-Ambient Membrane Operation Project No.: DE-FE0004278/FE0013163 American Air Liquide, Inc. will develop a system for CO2 capture based on sub-ambient temperature operation of a hollow fiber membrane. The membrane will be coupled with cryogenic processing technology in a closed-loop, bench scale test system that will initially be tested on synthetic flue gas and then on actual flue gas at the National Carbon Capture Center to verify the effect of possible contaminants, such as SOx, NOx and

  13. Oxygenates from synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falter, W.; Keim, W.

    1994-12-31

    The direct synthesis of oxygenates starting from synthesis gas is feasible by homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Homogeneous Rh and Ru based catalysts yielding methyl formate and alcohols will be presented. Interestingly, modified heterogeneous catalysts based on {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysis, practized in Germany (BRD) up to 1952 and in the former DDR until recently, yield isobutanol in addition to methanol. These {open_quotes}Isobutyl Oel{close_quotes} catalysts are obtained by adding a base such as Li < Na < K < Cs to a Zn-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} methanol catalyst. Isobutanol is obtained in up to 15% yield. Our best catalyst a Zr-Zn-Mn-Li-Pd catalyst produced isobotanol up to 60% at a rate of 740g isobutanol per liter catalyst and hour.

  14. Pilot Scale Water Gas Shift - Membrane Device for Hydrogen from Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, Tom

    2013-06-30

    The objectives of the project were to build pilot scale hydrogen separation systems for use in a gasification product stream. This device would demonstrate fabrication and manufacturing techniques for producing commercially ready facilities. The design was a 2 lb/day hydrogen device which included composite hydrogen separation membranes, a water gas shift monolith catalyst, and stainless steel structural components. Synkera Technologies was to prepare hydrogen separation membranes with metallic rims, and to adjust the alloy composition in their membranes to a palladium-gold composition which is sulfur resistant. Chart was to confirm their brazing technology for bonding the metallic rims of the composite membranes to their structural components and design and build the 2 lbs/day device incorporating membranes and catalysts. WRI prepared the catalysts and completed the testing of the membranes and devices on coal derived syngas. The reactor incorporated eighteen 2'' by 7'' composite palladium alloy membranes. These membranes were assembled with three stacks of three paired membranes. Initial vacuum testing and visual inspection indicated that some membranes were cracked, either in transportation or in testing. During replacement of the failed membranes, while pulling a vacuum on the back side of the membranes, folds were formed in the flexible composite membranes. In some instances these folds led to cracks, primarily at the interface between the alumina and the aluminum rim. The design of the 2 lb/day device was compromised by the lack of any membrane isolation. A leak in any membrane failed the entire device. A large number of tests were undertaken to bring the full 2 lb per day hydrogen capacity on line, but no single test lasted more than 48 hours. Subsequent tests to replace the mechanical seals with brazing have been promising, but the technology remains promising but not proven.

  15. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, John P. (Boulder, CO); Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO)

    1997-01-01

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 .mu.m but typically less than about 20 .mu.m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m.sup.2. s at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400.degree. C. and less than about 1000.degree. C. before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process.

  16. Hydrogen-Selective Membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, John P. (Boulder, CO); Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO)

    1995-09-19

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 .mu.m but typically less than about 20 .mu.m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m.sup.2.s at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400.degree. C. and less than about 1000.degree. C. before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process.

  17. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1995-09-19

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2}s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  18. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1997-07-29

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2} s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  19. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  20. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline Contents * Introduction * Federal gasoline product quality regulations * What are oxygenates? * Who gets gasoline with oxygenates? * Which areas get MTBE? * How much has been invested in MTBE production capacity? * What does new Ethanol capacity cost? * What would an MTBE ban cost? * On-line information resources * Endnotes * Summary of revisions to this analysis Introduction The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased

  1. EIA-819, Monthly Oxygenate Report ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (EIA) Form EIA-819, "Monthly Biofuel and Oxygenate Report," is used to collect data on ethanol production capacity, as well as stocks, receipts, inputs, production, and blending of...

  2. Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) A revolutionary method of building a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for...

  3. Ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.; Peterson, R.A.

    1996-09-03

    Methods have been developed to make porous ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels therethrough. The novel membranes are formed by temporarily supporting the sol-gel membrane precursor on an organic support which is ultimately removed from the interior of the membrane, preferably by pyrolysis or by chemical destruction. The organic support may also include an inorganic metal portion that remains on destruction of the organic portion, providing structural support and/or chemical reactivity to the membrane. The channels formed when the organic support is destroyed provide the ability to withdraw small catalytic products or size-separated molecules from the metal oxide membrane. In addition, the channel-containing membranes retain all of the advantages of existing porous ceramic membranes. 1 fig.

  4. Ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Peterson, Reid A. (Madison, WI)

    1996-01-01

    Methods have been developed to make porous ceramic membranes having macroscopic channels therethrough. The novel membranes are formed by temporarily supporting the sol-gel membrane precursor on an organic support which is ultimately removed from the interior of the membrane, preferably by pyrolysis or by chemical destruction. The organic support may also include an inorganic metal portion that remains on destruction of the organic portion, providing structural support and/or chemical reactivity to the membrane. The channels formed when the organic support is destroyed provide the ability to withdraw small catalytic products or size-separated molecules from the metal oxide membrane. In addition, the channel-containing membranes retain all of the advantages of existing porous ceramic membranes.

  5. Automotive Perspective on Membrane Evaluation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation at the 2008 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held June 9, 2008, in Washington, DC

  6. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matson, Stephen L.; Lee, Eric K. L.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Kelly, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100.degree. C. and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm.sup.3 -atm).sup.1/2. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes.

  7. Acid gas scrubbing by composite solvent-swollen membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matson, S.L.; Lee, E.K.L.; Friesen, D.T.; Kelly, D.J.

    1988-04-12

    A composite immobilized liquid membrane suitable for acid gas scrubbing is disclosed. The membrane is a solvent-swollen polymer and a microporous polymeric support, the solvent being selected from a class of highly polar solvents containing at least one atom selected from nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur, and having a boiling point of at least 100 C and a solubility parameter of from about 7.5 to about 13.5 (cal/cm[sup 3]-atm)[sup 1/2]. Such solvents are homogeneously distributed through the solvent-swollen polymer from 20% to 95% by weight. Also disclosed are methods of acid gas scrubbing of high- and low-Btu gas effluents with such solvent-swollen membranes. 3 figs.

  8. Palladium-coated zirconium membranes for oxidative extraction of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, C.; Buxbaum, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Palladium-coated metal membranes are attractive choices for low pressure, high temperature hydrogen and hydrogen isotope extractions, e.g. from fusion blanket fluids. The authors present experimental data on hydrogen transport through palladium-coated zirconium membranes at 600 - 700/sup 0/K. The upstream hydrogen pressure range is 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup -6/ torr and an oxygen-containing gas flows over the downstream side of the membrane. Thus, the irreversible oxidation reaction drives the flux. Deuterium permeabilities in zirconium are 2.00x10/sup -6/exp(59/T)+-20% g-mol/m.s.Pa/sup 1/2/, similar to the values obtained from diffusivity and solubility measurements. Extrapolated deuterium absorptive sticking coefficients on palladium are about .05.

  9. Synthesis gas production by mixed conducting membranes with integrated conversion into liquid products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA); Russek, Steven Lee (Allentown, PA); Dyer, Paul Nigel (Allentown, PA)

    2000-01-01

    Natural gas or other methane-containing feed gas is converted to a C.sub.5 -C.sub.19 hydrocarbon liquid in an integrated system comprising an oxygenative synthesis gas generator, a non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator, and a hydrocarbon synthesis process such as the Fischer-Tropsch process. The oxygenative synthesis gas generator is a mixed conducting membrane reactor system and the non-oxygenative synthesis gas generator is preferably a heat exchange reformer wherein heat is provided by hot synthesis gas product from the mixed conducting membrane reactor system. Offgas and water from the Fischer-Tropsch process can be recycled to the synthesis gas generation system individually or in combination.

  10. Real Space Mapping of Oxygen Vacancy Diffusion and Electrochemical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformations by Hysteretic Current Reversal Curve Measurements - Energy Innovation Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Real Space Mapping of Oxygen Vacancy Diffusion and Electrochemical Transformations by Hysteretic Current Reversal Curve Measurements Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryElectrochemical energy storage and conversion systems based on

  11. Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dissolution Rates - Energy Innovation Portal Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation and Dissolution Rates Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Electrodeposition of Pt onto RuO2 (110) Single-crystal Surface. (437 KB) Scanning tunneling micrograph showing atoms of platinum on an oxide surface. Scanning tunneling micrograph showing atoms of platinum on an oxide surface. Technology Marketing Summary

  12. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Y. Alice; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  13. Long Term Innovative Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Long Term Innovative Technologies Long Term Innovative Technologies Presentation by Bryan Pivovar on DOE's Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies, Fuel Cell Presolicitation Workshop - Lakewood, CO March 16, 2010 PDF icon fuelcell_pre-solicitation_wkshop_mar10_pivovar.pdf More Documents & Publications Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Welcome and OverviewInnovation Resonance-Stabilized Anion Exchange Polymer Electrolytes Advanced Cathode Catalysts

  14. Oxygen detection using evanescent fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Weenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-08-28

    An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from 21.degree. C. to 35.degree. C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

  15. Recycling of used perfluorosulfonic acid membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grot, Stephen (Middletown, DE); Grot, Walther (Chadds Ford, PA)

    2007-08-14

    A method for recovering and recycling catalyst coated fuel cell membranes includes dissolving the used membranes in water and solvent, heating the dissolved membranes under pressure and separating the components. Active membranes are produced from the recycled materials.

  16. Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1998-08-04

    Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials. 8 figs.

  17. Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitensky, Mark W. (Boston, MA); Yoshida, Tatsuro (Newton, MA)

    1998-01-01

    Prolonged cold storage of red blood cells by oxygen removal and additive usage. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. The improved in vivo survival and the preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels, along with reduction in hemolysis and membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time, is achieved by reducing the oxygen level therein at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing the cells with an inert gas, and storing them in an aqueous solution which includes adenine, dextrose, mannitol, citrate ion, and dihydrogen phosphate ion, but no sodium chloride, in an oxygen-permeable container which is located in an oxygen-free environment containing oxygen-scavenging materials.

  18. Solid-state membrane module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard (Salt Lake City, UT); Taylor, Dale M. (Murray, UT)

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  19. LOW-PRESSURE MEMBRANE CONTACTORS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Richard; Kniep, Jay; Hao, Pingjiao; Chan, Chi Cheng; Nguyen, Vincent; Huang, Ivy; Amo, Karl; Freeman, Brice; Fulton, Don; Ly, Jennifer; Lipscomb, Glenn; Lou, Yuecun; Gogar, Ravikumar

    2014-09-30

    This final technical progress report describes work conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of low-pressure membrane contactors for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from power plant flue gas (award number DE-FE0007553). The work was conducted from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2014. The overall goal of this three-year project was to build and operate a prototype 500 m2 low-pressure sweep membrane module specifically designed to separate CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. MTR was assisted in this project by a research group at the University of Toledo, which contributed to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of module design and process simulation. This report details the work conducted to develop a new type of membrane contactor specifically designed for the high-gas-flow, low-pressure, countercurrent sweep operation required for affordable membrane-based CO2 capture at coal power plants. Work for this project included module development and testing, design and assembly of a large membrane module test unit at MTR, CFD comparative analysis of cross-flow, countercurrent, and novel partial-countercurrent sweep membrane module designs, CFD analysis of membrane spacers, design and fabrication of a 500 m2 membrane module skid for field tests, a detailed performance and cost analysis of the MTR CO2 capture process with low-pressure sweep modules, and a process design analysis of a membrane-hybrid separation process for CO2 removal from coal-fired flue gas. Key results for each major task are discussed in the report.

  20. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Cole, Roger L. (Elmhurst, IL)

    1997-01-01

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  1. Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, W. S. Winston

    2012-10-02

    Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes are provided. The membranes can include at least one hydrophilic polymer, at least one cross-linking agent, at least one base, and at least one amino compound. The methods of separating gases using membranes can include contacting a gas stream containing at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl with one side of a nonporous and at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl selectively permeable membrane such that at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl is selectively transported through the membrane.

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office: Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To support DOE's goal to provide clean and secure energy, the Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) invests in research and development that:

  3. Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air | Department of Energy Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_bowser.pdf More Documents & Publications Membrane Technology Workshop Advanced Reciprocating Engine Systems (ARES) R&D - Presentation by Argonne National Laboratory, June 2011 Diesel Engine Alternatives

  4. ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS TO PD MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PURIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, T; Paul Korinko, P

    2007-11-13

    Development of advanced hydrogen separation membranes in support of hydrogen production processes such as coal gasification and as front end gas purifiers for fuel cell based system is paramount to the successful implementation of a national hydrogen economy. Current generation metallic hydrogen separation membranes are based on Pd-alloys. Although the technology has proven successful, at issue is the high cost of palladium. Evaluation of non-noble metal based dense metallic separation membranes is currently receiving national and international attention. The focal point of the reported work was to evaluate two different classes of materials for potential replacement of conventional Pd-alloy purification/diffuser membranes. Crystalline V-Ni-Ti and Amorphous Fe- and Co-based metallic glass alloys have been evaluated using both electrochemical and gaseous hydrogen permeation testing techniques..

  5. ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS TO PD MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PURIFICATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korinko, P; T. Adams

    2008-09-12

    Development of advanced hydrogen separation membranes in support of hydrogen production processes such as coal gasification and as front end gas purifiers for fuel cell based system is paramount to the successful implementation of a national hydrogen economy. Current generation metallic hydrogen separation membranes are based on Pd-alloys. Although the technology has proven successful, at issue is the high cost of palladium. Evaluation of non-noble metal based dense metallic separation membranes is currently receiving national and international attention. The focal point of the reported work was to evaluate two different classes of materials for potential replacement of conventional Pd-alloy purification/diffuser membranes. Crystalline V-Ni-Ti and Amorphous Fe- and Co-based metallic glass alloys have been evaluated using gaseous hydrogen permeation testing techniques.

  6. Exploiting lipopolysaccharide-induced deformation of lipid bilayers to modify membrane composition and generate two-dimensional geometric membrane array patterns

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adams, Peter G.; Swingle, Kirstie L.; Paxton, Walter F.; Nogan, John J.; Stromberg, Loreen R.; Firestone, Millicent A.; Mukundan, Harshini; Montaño, Gabriel A.

    2015-05-27

    Supported lipid bilayers have proven effective as model membranes for investigating biophysical processes and in development of sensor and array technologies. The ability to modify lipid bilayers after their formation and in situ could greatly advance membrane technologies, but is difficult via current state-of-the-art technologies. Here we demonstrate a novel method that allows the controlled post-formation processing and modification of complex supported lipid bilayer arrangements, under aqueous conditions. We exploit the destabilization effect of lipopolysaccharide, an amphiphilic biomolecule, interacting with lipid bilayers to generate voids that can be backfilled to introduce desired membrane components. We further demonstrate that when usedmore » in combination with a single, traditional soft lithography process, it is possible to generate hierarchically-organized membrane domains and microscale 2-D array patterns of domains. Significantly, this technique can be used to repeatedly modify membranes allowing iterative control over membrane composition. This approach expands our toolkit for functional membrane design, with potential applications for enhanced materials templating, biosensing and investigating lipid-membrane processes.« less

  7. Nitrogen/oxygen separations in metal-organic frameworks for clean fossil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fuel combustion | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Nitrogen/oxygen separations in metal-organic frameworks for clean fossil fuel combustion

  8. Composite Membranes for CO2 Capture: High Performance Metal Organic Frameworks/Polymer Composite Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: A team of six faculty members at Georgia Tech are developing an enhanced membrane by fitting metal organic frameworks, compounds that show great promise for improved carbon capture, into hollow fiber membranes. This new material would be highly efficient at removing CO2 from the flue gas produced at coal-fired power plants. The team is analyzing thousands of metal organic frameworks to identify those that are most suitable for carbon capture based both on their ability to allow coal exhaust to pass easily through them and their ability to select CO2 from that exhaust for capture and storage. The most suitable frameworks would be inserted into the walls of the hollow fiber membranes, making the technology readily scalable due to their high surface area. This composite membrane would be highly stable, withstanding the harsh gas environment found in coal exhaust.

  9. Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model By Tancred C.M. Lidderdale This article first appeared in the Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement 1995, Energy Information Administration, DOE/EIA-0202(95) (Washington, DC, July 1995), pp. 33-42, 83-85. The regression results and historical data for production, inventories, and imports have been updated in this presentation. Contents * Introduction o Table 1. Oxygenate production capacity and demand *

  10. Electrochemical oxygen pumps. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, J. D. Noble, J.

    2009-10-01

    All tasks of the Work Plan of ISTC Project 2277p have been completed, thus: (1) techniques of chemical synthesis were developed for more than ten recipes of electrolyte based on cerium oxide doped with 20 mole% of gadolinium (CeGd)O{sub 2}, doped by more than 10 oxide systems including 6 recipes in addition to the Work Plan; (2) electric conductivity and mechanical strength of CeGd specimens with additions of oxide systems were performed, two candidate materials for the electrolyte of electrochemical oxygen pump (pure CeGd and CeGd doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal) were chosen; (3) extended studies of mechanical strength of candidate material specimens were performed at room temperature and at 400, 600, 800 C; (4) fixtures for determination of mechanical strength of tubes by external pressure above 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C were developed and fabricated; and (5) technology of slip casting of tubes from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} and of (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} doped by 0.2 wt% of a transition metal, withstanding external pressure of minimum 40 atmospheres at temperature up to 700 C was developed, a batch of tubes was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (6) technology of making nanopowder from pure (Ce,Gd)O{sub 2} was developed based on chemical synthesis and laser ablation techniques, a batch of nanopowder with the weight 1 kg was sent for testing to Argonne National Laboratory; (7) a business plan for establishing a company for making powders of materials for electrochemical oxygen pump was developed; and (8) major results obtained within the Project were reported at international conferences and published in the Russian journal Electrochemistry. In accordance with the Work Plan a business trip of the following project participants was scheduled for April 22-29, 2006, to Tonawanda, NY, USA: Manager Victor Borisov; Leader of technology development Gennady Studenikin; Leader of business planning Elena Zadorozhnaya; Leader of production Vasily Lepalovsky; and Translator Vladimir Litvinov. During this trip project participants were to discuss with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and representative of Praxair Inc. J. Chen the results of project activities (prospects of transition metal-doped material application in oxygen pumps), as well as the prospects of cooperation with Praxair at the meeting with the company management in the following fields: (1) Deposition of thin films of oxide materials of complex composition on support by magnetron and ion sputtering, research of coatings properties; (2) Development of block-type structure technology (made of porous and dense ceramics) for oxygen pump. The block-type structure is promising because when the size of electrolyte block is 2 x 2 inches and assembly height is 10 inches (5 blocks connected together) the area of active surface is ca. 290 square inches (in case of 8 slots), that roughly corresponds to one tube with diameter 1 inch and height 100 inches. So performance of the system made of such blocks may be by a factor of two or three higher than that of tube-based system. However one month before the visit, J. Chen notified us of internal changes at Praxair and the cancellation of the visit to Tonawanda, NY. During consultations with the project Technical Monitor J.D. Carter and Senior Project Manager A. Taylor a decision was made to extend the project term by 2 quarters to prepare proposals for follow-on activities during this extension (development of block-type structures made of dense and porous oxide ceramics for electrochemical oxygen pumps) using the funds that were not used for the trip to the US.

  11. Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes Print Wednesday, 26 October 2005 00:00 Found ubiquitously in both bacteria and humans, membrane proteins of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family have been implicated in both antibiotic and cancer-drug resistance. The mechanisms used by these proteins to expel toxins from cells therefore represent key targets for the development of drugs designed to combat the growing problem of

  12. Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Dempsey, Michael D. (Revere, MA)

    1986-01-01

    Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

  13. Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Download presentation slides from the June 19,...

  14. Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamrock, Steven J.

    2011-06-30

    The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20???ºC to 120???ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20???ºC to 120???ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA?¢????s comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20???ºC to 120???ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA?¢????s, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year R&D Plan. In the course of this four-year program we developed a new PEM with improved proton conductivity, chemical stability and mechanical stability. We incorporated this new membrane into MEAs and evaluated performance and durability.

  15. Composite membrane with integral rim

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Routkevitch, Dmitri; Polyakov, Oleg G

    2015-01-27

    Composite membranes that are adapted for separation, purification, filtration, analysis, reaction and sensing. The composite membranes can include a porous support structure having elongate pore channels extending through the support structure. The composite membrane also includes an active layer comprising an active layer material, where the active layer material is completely disposed within the pore channels between the surfaces of the support structure. The active layer is intimately integrated within the support structure, thus enabling great robustness, reliability, resistance to mechanical stress and thermal cycling, and high selectivity. Methods for the fabrication of composite membranes are also provided.

  16. Layered ZIF-Polymer Membranes Through On-Polymer Chemical Transformations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Colloidal Nanocrystal Films | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Layered ZIF-Polymer Membranes Through On-Polymer Chemical Transformations of Colloidal Nanocrystal Films

  17. MHK Technologies/Oxygen Releasing and Carbon Absorbing Ocean...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    8 provision for the addition of fleets without depletion of primary feed stocks as in nuclear energy systems 2 Fig 1 In summary the system converts wave energy from the nearly...

  18. Use of exhaust gas as sweep flow to enhance air separation membrane performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutart, Charles H. (Washington, IL); Choi, Cathy Y. (Morton, IL)

    2003-01-01

    An intake air separation system for an internal combustion engine is provided with purge gas or sweep flow on the permeate side of separation membranes in the air separation device. Exhaust gas from the engine is used as a purge gas flow, to increase oxygen flux in the separation device without increasing the nitrogen flux.

  19. Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture by a New Dual Phase Ceramic-Carbonate Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jerry

    2014-09-30

    This report documents synthesis, characterization and carbon dioxide permeation and separation properties of a new group of ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes and results of a laboratory study on their application for water gas shift reaction with carbon dioxide separation. A series of ceramic-carbonate dual phase membranes with various oxygen ionic or mixed ionic and electronic conducting metal oxide materials in disk, tube, symmetric, and asymmetric geometric configurations was developed. These membranes, with the thickness of 10 ?m to 1.5 mm, show CO2 permeance in the range of 0.5-510-7 molm-2s-1Pa-1 in 500-900oC and measured CO2/N2 selectivity of up to 3000. CO2 permeation mechanism and factors that affect CO2 permeation through the dual-phase membranes have been identified. A reliable CO2 permeation model was developed. A robust method was established for the optimization of the microstructures of ceramic-carbonate membranes. The ceramic-carbonate membranes exhibit high stability for high temperature CO2 separations and water gas shift reaction. Water gas shift reaction in the dual-phase membrane reactors was studied by both modeling and experiments. It is found that high temperature syngas water gas shift reaction in tubular ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane reactor is feasible even without catalyst. The membrane reactor exhibits good CO2 permeation flux, high thermal and chemical stability and high thermal shock resistance. Reaction and separation conditions in the membrane reactor to produce hydrogen of 93% purity and CO2 stream of >95% purity, with 90% CO2 capture have been identified. Integration of the ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane reactor with IGCC process for carbon dioxide capture was analyzed. A methodology was developed to identify optimum operation conditions for a membrane tube of given dimensions that would treat coal syngas with targeted performance. The calculation results show that the dual-phase membrane reactor could improve IGCC process efficiency but the cost of the membrane reactor with membranes having current CO2 permeance is high. Further research should be directed towards improving the performance of the membranes and developing cost-effective, scalable methods for fabrication of dual-phase membranes and membrane reactors.

  20. EVALUATING AN INNOVATIVE OXYGEN SENSOR FOR REMOTE SUBSURFACE OXYGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millings, M; Brian Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Karen Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B

    2006-10-12

    Oxygen is a primary indicator of whether anaerobic reductive dechlorination and similar redox based processes contribute to natural attenuation remedies at chlorinated solvent contaminated sites. Thus, oxygen is a viable indicator parameter for documenting that a system is being sustained in an anaerobic condition. A team of researchers investigated the adaptation of an optical sensor that was developed for oceanographic applications. The optical sensor, because of its design and operating principle, has potential for extended deployment and sensitivity at the low oxygen levels relevant to natural attenuation. The results of the research indicate this tool will be useful for in situ long-term monitoring applications, but that the traditional characterization tools continue to be appropriate for characterization activities.

  1. Project Information by Key Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project Information Project Information by Key Technology Jump to: High Performance Materials Innovative Energy Concepts Sensors and Controls Simulation-Based Engineering Water Management R&D View Project Information by Program Area HIGH PERFORMANCE MATERIALS Agreement Number Project Title Performer Name Program Area FE0024076 Advanced Ultrasupercritical (AUSC) Tube Membrane Panel Development Alstom Power Inc. Plant Optimization Technologies FWP-AL-10-450-007 Design of Multiscale Systems

  2. Science & Technology Review Articles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NIF & Photon Science News Press Releases Experimental Highlights Efficiency Improvements Science & Technology Meetings and Workshops Papers and Presentations NIF&PS People In the News Press Kit S&TR Articles home / news Science & Technology Review Articles Title Year Month Author Description Downoad Developing Lightweight Optics for Space 2013 January Jerry Britten Fabricating a large-aperture transmissive diffractive optic for DARPA's Membrane Optic Imager Real-Time

  3. Low Cost Fabrication of Thin-Film Ceramic Membranes for Nonshrinking

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Substrates - Energy Innovation Portal Low Cost Fabrication of Thin-Film Ceramic Membranes for Nonshrinking Substrates Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryCertain fuel cell manufacturing specifications require deposition of a thin ceramic membrane onto a substrate that doesn't shrink over it's lifetime. Pre-firing the substrate improves substrate reliability and may lower its cost. This requires a film that has minimal volume

  4. High Flux Metallic Membranes for Hydrogen Recovery and Membrane Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buxbaum, Robert

    2010-06-30

    We made and tested over 250 new alloys for use as lower cost, higher flux hydrogen extraction membrane materials. Most of these were intermetallic, or contained significant intermetallic content, particularly based on B2 alloy compositions with at least one refractory component; B2 intermetallics resemble BCC alloys, in structure, but the atoms have relatively fixed positions, with one atom at the corners of the cube, the other at the centers. The target materals we were looking for would contain little or no expensive elements, no strongly toxic or radioactive elements, would have high flux to hydrogen, while being fabricable, brazable, and relatively immune to hydrogen embrittlement and corrosion in operation. The best combination of properties of the membrane materials we developed was, in my opinion, a Pd-coated membrane consisting of V -9 atomic % Pd. This material was relatively cheap, had 5 times the flux of Pd under the same pressure differential, was reasonably easy to fabricate and braze, and not bad in terms of embrittlement. Based on all these factors we project, about 1/3 the cost of Pd, on an area basis for a membrane designed to last 20 years, or 1/15 the cost on a flux basis. Alternatives to this membrane replaced significant fractions of the Pd with Ni and or Co. The cost for these membranes was lower, but so was the flux. We produced successful brazed products from the membrane materials, and made them into flat sheets. We tested, unsuccessfully, several means of fabricating thematerials into tubes, and eventually built a membrane reactor using a new, flat-plate design: a disc and doughnut arrangement, a design that seems well- suited to clean hydrogen production from coal. The membranes and reactor were tested successfully at Western Research. A larger equipment company (Chart Industries) produced similar results using a different flat-plate reactor design. Cost projections of the membrane are shown to be attractive.

  5. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  6. Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture by a Nanoporous, Superhydrophobic Membrane Contactor Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard Meyer; S.James Zhou; Yong Ding; Ben Bikson

    2012-03-31

    This report summarizes progress made during Phase I and Phase II of the project: "Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture by a Nanoporous, Superhydrophobic Membrane Contactor Process," under contract DE-FE-0000646. The objective of this project is to develop a practical and cost effective technology for CO{sub 2} separation and capture for pre-combustion coal-based gasification plants using a membrane contactor/solvent absorption process. The goals of this technology development project are to separate and capture at least 90% of the CO{sub 2} from Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants with less than 10% increase in the cost of energy services. Unlike conventional gas separation membranes, the membrane contactor is a novel gas separation process based on the gas/liquid membrane concept. The membrane contactor is an advanced mass transfer device that operates with liquid on one side of the membrane and gas on the other. The membrane contactor can operate with pressures that are almost the same on both sides of the membrane, whereas the gas separation membranes use the differential pressure across the membrane as driving force for separation. The driving force for separation for the membrane contactor process is the chemical potential difference of CO{sub 2} in the gas phase and in the absorption liquid. This process is thus easily tailored to suit the needs for pre-combustion separation and capture of CO{sub 2}. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and PoroGen Corporation (PGC) have developed a novel hollow fiber membrane technology that is based on chemically and thermally resistant commercial engineered polymer poly(ether ether ketone) or PEEK. The PEEK membrane material used in the membrane contactor during this technology development program is a high temperature engineered plastic that is virtually non-destructible under the operating conditions encountered in typical gas absorption applications. It can withstand contact with most of the common treating solvents. GTI and PGC have developed a nanoporous and superhydrophobic PEEK-based hollow fiber membrane contactor tailored for the membrane contactor/solvent absorption application for syngas cleanup. The membrane contactor modules were scaled up to 8-inch diameter commercial size modules. We have performing extensive laboratory and bench testing using pure gases, simulated water-gas-shifted (WGS) syngas stream, and a slipstream from a gasification derived syngas from GTIâ??s Flex-Fuel Test Facility (FFTF) gasification plant under commercially relevant conditions. The team have also carried out an engineering and economic analysis of the membrane contactor process to evaluate the economics of this technology and its commercial potential. Our test results have shown that 90% CO{sub 2} capture can be achieved with several physical solvents such as water and chilled methanol. The rate of CO{sub 2} removal by the membrane contactor is in the range of 1.5 to 2.0 kg/m{sup 2}/hr depending on the operating pressures and temperatures and depending on the solvents used. The final economic analysis has shown that the membrane contactor process will cause the cost of electricity to increase by 21% from the base plant without CO{sub 2} capture. The goal of 10% increase in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) from base DOE Case 1(base plant without capture) is not achieved by using the membrane contactor. However, the 21% increase in LCOE is a substantial improvement as compared with the 31.6% increase in LCOE as in DOE Case 2(state of art capture technology using 2-stages of Selexol{TM}).

  7. Gas separations using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, P.K.T.; Lin, C.L.; Flowers, D.L.; Wu, J.C.S.; Smith, G.W.

    1992-12-01

    Alcoa`s commercial membrane with 40{Angstrom} pore diameter has been identified as one of the potential candidates for high temperature gas separations. This asymmetric multiple layer membrane have been well characterized and evaluated. It has excellent thermal stability and acceptably hydrothermal stability at {approximately}650{degree}C or above. Gas separations with this membrane follow Knudsen diffusion. Its selectivity is suitable for bulk separations, or for reduction/elimination of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} via selective removal of hydrogen. An improved separation efficiency with this membrane is highly desirable for applications involving hydrogen separation, and the removal of trace contaminants, such as H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. One of the effective avenues in improving the efficiency of the existing membrane is to narrow its pore size through surface modifications. Thus membranes with a smaller pore size can be readily available through minor modifications of the existing commercial product. In this paper focus is on the morphological characterization and performance evaluation of hydrogen-selective and zeolitic membranes developed from existing commercial membranes.

  8. Gas separations using ceramic membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, P.K.T.; Lin, C.L.; Flowers, D.L.; Wu, J.C.S.; Smith, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    Alcoa's commercial membrane with 40[Angstrom] pore diameter has been identified as one of the potential candidates for high temperature gas separations. This asymmetric multiple layer membrane have been well characterized and evaluated. It has excellent thermal stability and acceptably hydrothermal stability at [approximately]650[degree]C or above. Gas separations with this membrane follow Knudsen diffusion. Its selectivity is suitable for bulk separations, or for reduction/elimination of H[sub 2]S and NH[sub 3] via selective removal of hydrogen. An improved separation efficiency with this membrane is highly desirable for applications involving hydrogen separation, and the removal of trace contaminants, such as H[sub 2]S and NH[sub 3]. One of the effective avenues in improving the efficiency of the existing membrane is to narrow its pore size through surface modifications. Thus membranes with a smaller pore size can be readily available through minor modifications of the existing commercial product. In this paper focus is on the morphological characterization and performance evaluation of hydrogen-selective and zeolitic membranes developed from existing commercial membranes.

  9. Separation of tritiated water using graphene oxide membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Gotthold, David W.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Frost, Anthony P.; Bratton, Wesley

    2015-06-28

    In future nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and possibly for nuclear power plants, the cleanup of tritiated water will be needed for hundreds of thousands of gallons of water with low activities of tritium. This cleanup concept utilizes graphene oxide laminar membranes (GOx) for the separation of low-concentration (10-3-10 Ci/g) tritiated water to create water that can be released to the environment and a much smaller waste stream with higher tritium concentrations. Graphene oxide membranes consist of hierarchically stacked, overlapping molecular layers and represent a new class of materials. A permeation rate test was performed with a 2-m-thick cast Asbury membrane using mixed gas permeability testing with zero air (highly purified atmosphere) and with air humidified with either H2O or D2O to a nominal 50% relative humidity. The membrane permeability for both H2O and D2O was high with N2 and O2 at the system measurement limit. The membrane water permeation rate was compared to a Nafion membrane and the GOx permeation was approximately twice as high at room temperature. The H2O vapor permeation rate was 5.9 102 cc/m2/min (1.2 10-6 g/min-cm2), which is typical for graphene oxide membranes. To demonstrate the feasibility of such isotopic water separation through GOX laminar membranes, an experimental setup was constructed to use pressure-driven separation by heating the isotopic water mixture at one side of the membrane to create steam while cooling the other side. Several membranes were tested and were prepared using different starting materials and by different pretreatment methods. The average separation result was 0.8 for deuterium and 0.6 for tritium. Higher or lower temperatures may also improve separation efficiency but neither has been tested yet. A rough estimate of cost compared to current technology was also included as an indication of potential viability of the process. The relative process costs were based on the rough size of facility to accommodate the large surface area of the membranes and the energy needed to evaporate the water and pass through the membranes as compared to the currently used combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange process.

  10. Olefin separation membrane and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, I.; Toy, L.G.; Casillas, C.

    1997-09-23

    A membrane and process are disclosed for separating unsaturated hydrocarbons from fluid mixtures. The membrane and process differ from previously known membranes and processes, in that the feed and permeate streams can both be dry, the membrane need not be water or solvent swollen, and the membrane is characterized by a selectivity for an unsaturated hydrocarbon over a saturated hydrocarbon having the same number of carbon atoms of at least about 20, and a pressure-normalized flux of said unsaturated hydrocarbon of at least about 5{times}10{sup {minus}6}cm{sup 3}(STP)/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s{center_dot}cmHg, said flux and selectivity being measured with a gas mixture containing said unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, and in a substantially dry environment. 4 figs.

  11. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  12. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2014-05-20

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  13. Olefin separation membrane and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Toy, Lora G. (San Francisco, CA); Casillas, Carlos (San Jose, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A membrane and process for separating unsaturated hydrocarbons from fluid mixtures. The membrane and process differ from previously known membranes and processes, in that the feed and permeate streams can both be dry, the membrane need not be water or solvent swollen, and the membrane is characterized by a selectivity for an unsaturated hydrocarbon over a saturated hydrocarbon having the same number of carbon atoms of at least about 20, and a pressure-normalized flux of said unsaturated hydrocarbon of at least about 5.times.10.sup.-6 cm.sup.3 (STP)/cm.sup.2 .multidot.s.multidot.cmHg, said flux and selectivity being measured with a gas mixture containing said unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, and in a substantially dry environment.

  14. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2013-04-16

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  15. Integrated Water Gas Shift Membrane Reactors Utilizing Novel, Non Precious Metal Mixed Matrix Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferraris, John

    2013-09-30

    Nanoparticles of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks and other related hybrid materials were prepared by modifying published synthesis procedures by introducing bases, changing stoichiometric ratios, or adjusting reaction conditions. These materials were stable at temperatures >300 C and were compatible with the polymer matrices used to prepare mixed- matrix membranes (MMMs). MMMs tested at 300 C exhibited a >30 fold increase in permeability, compared to those measured at 35 C, while maintaining H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity. Measurements at high pressure (up to 30 atm) and high temperature (up to 300 C) resulted in an increase in gas flux across the membrane with retention of selectivity. No variations in permeability were observed at high pressures at either 35 or 300 C. CO{sub 2}-induced plasticization was not observed for Matrimid, VTEC, and PBI polymers or their MMMs at 30 atm and 300 C. Membrane surface modification by cross-linking with ethanol diamine resulted in an increase in H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity at 35 C. Spectrometric analysis showed that the cross-linking was effective to temperatures <150 C. At higher temperatures, the cross-linked membranes exhibit a H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity similar to the uncross-linked polymer. Performance of the polybenzimidazole (PBI) hollow fibers prepared at Santa Fe Science and Technology (SFST, Inc.) showed increased flux o to a flat PBI membrane. A water-gas shift reactor has been built and currently being optimized for testing under DOE conditions.

  16. A Membrane Process for Industrial Water Treatment: From Bench to Pilot Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric S. Peterson; Bill Cleary; Michael Hackett; Jessica Trudeau

    2005-01-01

    A rotary membrane filtration system was used to separate die lubricant from a manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by factors of 20 to 25, carbon oxygen demand by 1.5 to 2, and total organic carbon by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand remained constant. The rotary membranes were not fouled as badly as static membranes, and the rotary membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the static membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary ultrafilter can concentrate the die lubricant, remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lubricant suitable for in-plant recycling. The recycling system operated for 6 weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that when recycled die lubricant was used, the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. Rotary ultrafiltration presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  17. HOGEN{trademark} proton exchange membrane hydrogen generators: Commercialization of PEM electrolyzers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, W.F.; Molter, T.M.

    1997-12-31

    PROTON Energy Systems` new HOGEN series hydrogen generators are Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) based water electrolyzers designed to generate 300 to 1000 Standard Cubic Feet Per Hour (SCFH) of high purity hydrogen at pressures up to 400 psi without the use of mechanical compressors. This paper will describe technology evolution leading to the HOGEN, identify system design performance parameters and describe the physical packaging and interfaces of HOGEN systems. PEM electrolyzers have served US and UK Navy and NASA needs for many years in a variety of diverse programs including oxygen generators for life support applications. In the late 1970`s these systems were advocated for bulk hydrogen generation through a series of DOE sponsored program activities. During the military buildup of the 1980`s commercial deployment of PEM hydrogen generators was de-emphasized as priority was given to new Navy and NASA PEM electrolysis systems. PROTON Energy Systems was founded in 1996 with the primary corporate mission of commercializing PEM hydrogen generators. These systems are specifically designed and priced to meet the needs of commercial markets and produced through manufacturing processes tailored to these applications. The HOGEN series generators are the first step along the path to full commercial deployment of PEM electrolyzer products for both industrial and consumer uses. The 300/1000 series are sized to meet the needs of the industrial gases market today and provide a design base that can transition to serve the needs of a decentralized hydrogen infrastructure tomorrow.

  18. Ion-conduction mechanisms in NaSICON-type membranes for energy storage and utilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDaniel, Anthony H.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Bartelt, Norman Charles

    2015-10-01

    Next generation metal-ion conducting membranes are key to developing energy storage and utilization technologies like batteries and fuel ce lls. Sodium super-ionic conductors (aka NaSICON) are a class of compounds with AM 1 M 2 (PO 4 ) 3 stoichiometry where the choice of "A" and "M" cation varies widely. This report, which de scribes substitutional derivatives of NZP (NaZr 2 P 3 O 12 ), summarizes the accomplishments of a Laboratory D irected Research and Development (LDRD) project to analyze transport mec hanisms using a combination of in situ studies of structure, composition, and bonding, com bined with first principles theory and modeling. We developed an experimental platform and applied methods, such as synchrotron- based X-ray spectroscopies, to probe the electronic structure of compositionally well-controlled NaSICON films while in operation ( i.e ., conducting Na ions exposed to oxygen or water va por atmospheres). First principles theory and modeling were used to interpret the experimental observations and develop an enhanced understanding of atomistic processes that give rise to, and affect, ion conduction.

  19. 2015 CO2 Capture Technology Meeting | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 Capture Technology Meeting 2015 NETL CO2 CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY MEETING June 23-26, 2015 Meeting Summary Previous Proceedings 2014: NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting 2013: NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting 2012: NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting Proceedings of the 2015 NETL CO2 Capture Technology Meeting Table of Contents Presentations Tuesday, June 23, 2015 Opening/Overview Systems Studies and Modeling Post-Combustion Membrane-Based Capture Wednesday, June 24, 2015 Post-Combustion

  20. Trifluorostyrene containing compounds, and their use in polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choudhury, Biswajit (Kingston, CA); Roelofs, Mark Gerrit (Hockessin, DE); Yang; Zhen-Yu (Hockessin, DE)

    2009-07-21

    A fluorinated ion exchange polymer is prepared by grafting a monomer onto a base polymer, wherein the grafting monomer is selected from the group consisting of structure 1a, 1b and mixture thereof; ##STR00001## wherein Y is selected from the group consisting of --R.sub.FSO.sub.2F, --R.sub.FSO.sub.3M, --R.sub.SO.sub.2NH.sub.2 and --R.sub.FSO.sub.2N(M)SO.sub.2R.sup.2.sub.F, where in M is hydrogen, an alkali cation or ammonium; and R.sub.F and R.sup.2.sub.F are perfluorinated or partially fluorinated, and may optionally include ether oxygens; and n is between 1 and 2 for 1a, or n is between 1 and 3 for 1b. These ion exchange polymers are useful is preparing catalyst coated membranes and membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  1. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-08-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  2. Separation science and technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, B.F.; Sauer, N.; Chamberlin, R.M.; Gottesfeld, S.; Mattes, B.R.; Li, D.Q.; Swanson, B.

    1998-12-31

    The focus of this project is the demonstration and advancement of membrane-based separation and destruction technologies. The authors are exploring development of membrane systems for gas separations, selective metal ion recovery, and for separation or destruction of hazardous organics. They evaluated existing polymers and polymer formulations for recovery of toxic oxyanionic metals such as chromate and arsenate from selected waste streams and developed second-generation water-soluble polymeric systems for highly selective oxyanion removal and recovery. They optimized the simultaneous removal of radioactive strontium and cesium from aqueous solutions using the new nonhazardous separations agents, and developed recyclable, redox-active extractants that permitted recovery of the radioactive ions into a minimal waste volume. They produced hollow fibers and fabricated prototype hollow-fiber membrane modules for applications to gas separations and the liquid-liquid extraction and recovery of actinides and nuclear materials from process streams. They developed and fabricated cyclodextrin-based microporous materials that selectively absorb organic compounds in an aqueous environment; the resultant products gave pure water with organics at less than 0.05 parts per billion. They developed new, more efficient, membrane-based electrochemical reactors for use in organic destruction in process waste treatment. They addressed the need for advanced oxidation technologies based on molecular-level materials designs that selectively remove or destroy target species. They prepared and characterized surface-modified TiO{sub 2} thin films using different linking approaches to attach ruthenium photosensitizers, and they started the measurement of the photo-degradation products generated using surface modified TiO{sub 2} films in reaction with chlorophenol.

  3. New Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on New Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  4. Membrane Protein Crystallization in Lipidic Mesophases. Hosting...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Membrane Protein Crystallization in Lipidic Mesophases. Hosting Lipid Effects on the ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Membrane Protein Crystallization in Lipidic ...

  5. Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

  6. Fullerene-Nafion Composite Recast Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Fullerene-Nafion Composite Recast Membranes to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  7. Apparatus for tensioning a heliostat membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sallis, Daniel V. (P.O. Box 554, Littleton, CO 80120)

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for pneumatically or hydraulically tensioning a membrane, which stretched membrane can support a reflective surface for use as a heliostat in a solar energy collection system.

  8. Metallic Membrane Materials Development for Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metallic Membrane Materials Development for Hydrogen Production from Coal Derived Syngas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metallic Membrane Materials Development for...

  9. Webinar: Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton Webinar: Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotligh...

  10. Membrane and MEA Accelerated Stress Test Protocols

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation on fuel cell membrane and MEA stress test protocols was given by T. Benjamin at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  11. Thermally tolerant multilayer metal membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dye, Robert C. (Los Alamos, NM); Snow, Ronny C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A composite metal membrane including a first metal layer of a Group IVB or Group VB metal sandwiched between two layers of a Group VIIIB metal selected from the group consisting of palladium, platinum, nickel, rhodium, iridium, cobalt, and alloys thereof, and a non-continuous layer of a metal chalcogenide upon one layer of the Group VIIIB metal is disclosed together with a process for the recovery of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture using such a composite membrane and a process for forming such a composite metal membrane.

  12. Zeolite Membrane Reactor for Water Gas Shift Reaction for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jerry Y.S.

    2013-01-29

    Gasification of biomass or heavy feedstock to produce hydrogen fuel gas using current technology is costly and energy-intensive. The technology includes water gas shift reaction in two or more reactor stages with inter-cooling to maximize conversion for a given catalyst volume. This project is focused on developing a membrane reactor for efficient conversion of water gas shift reaction to produce a hydrogen stream as a fuel and a carbon dioxide stream suitable for sequestration. The project was focused on synthesizing stable, hydrogen perm-selective MFI zeolite membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation; fabricating tubular MFI zeolite membrane reactor and stable water gas shift catalyst for membrane reactor applications, and identifying experimental conditions for water gas shift reaction in the zeolite membrane reactor that will produce a high purity hydrogen stream. The project has improved understanding of zeolite membrane synthesis, high temperature gas diffusion and separation mechanisms for zeolite membranes, synthesis and properties of sulfur resistant catalysts, fabrication and structure optimization of membrane supports, and fundamentals of coupling reaction with separation in zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction. Through the fundamental study, the research teams have developed MFI zeolite membranes with good perm-selectivity for hydrogen over carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water vapor, and high stability for operation in syngas mixture containing 500 part per million hydrogen sulfide at high temperatures around 500C. The research teams also developed a sulfur resistant catalyst for water gas shift reaction. Modeling and experimental studies on the zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction have demonstrated the effective use of the zeolite membrane reactor for production of high purity hydrogen stream.

  13. Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dissolution Rates - Energy Innovation Portal Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation and Dissolution Rates Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Electrodeposition of Pt onto RuO2 (110) Single-Crystal Surface (437 KB) <p> Results of a density functional theory calculation of atomic positions of platinum on an oxide surface, showing good agreement with experimental results.</p> Results of a density

  14. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, W.C.

    1994-10-11

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is [>=]2 and is the number of selective layers. 2 figs.

  15. Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A workshop on alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFC) was held May 8-9, 2011, before the 2011 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Annual Merit Review, at Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia.

  16. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M. (Shrewsbury, MA); Kovar, Robert F. (Wrentham, MA); Osenar, Paul (Watertown, MA); Landrau, Nelson (Marlborough, MA); Rubin, Leslie S. (Newton, MA)

    2001-06-19

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  17. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2006-05-30

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  18. Layered plasma polymer composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR)

    1994-01-01

    Layered plasma polymer composite fluid separation membranes are disclosed, which comprise alternating selective and permeable layers for a total of at least 2n layers, where n is .gtoreq.2 and is the number of selective layers.

  19. Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... industry. 85 86 1.2. R2R Processing Mechanisms 87 Silicon wafers, cadmium-telluride solar cells, battery electrodes, fuel cell membranes, and high 88 performance window films are ...

  20. Membrane-based systems for carbon capture and hydrogen purification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berchtold, Kathryn A

    2010-11-24

    This presentation describes the activities being conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory to develop carbon capture technologies for power systems. This work is aimed at continued development and demonstration of a membrane based pre- and post-combustion carbon capture technology and separation schemes. Our primary work entails the development and demonstration of an innovative membrane technology for pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide that operates over a broad range of conditions relevant to the power industry while meeting the US DOE's Carbon Sequestration Program goals of 90% CO{sub 2} capture at less than a 10% increase in the cost of energy services. Separating and capturing carbon dioxide from mixed gas streams is a first and critical step in carbon sequestration. To be technically and economically viable, a successful separation method must be applicable to industrially relevant gas streams at realistic temperatures and pressures as well as be compatible with large gas volumes. Our project team is developing polymer membranes based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) chemistries that can purify hydrogen and capture CO{sub 2} at industrially relevant temperatures. Our primary objectives are to develop and demonstrate polymer-based membrane chemistries, structures, deployment platforms, and sealing technologies that achieve the critical combination of high selectivity, high permeability, chemical stability, and mechanical stability all at elevated temperatures (> 150 C) and packaged in a scalable, economically viable, high area density system amenable to incorporation into an advanced Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) plant for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. Stability requirements are focused on tolerance to the primary synthesis gas components and impurities at various locations in the IGCC process. Since the process stream compositions and conditions (temperature and pressure) vary throughout the IGCC process, the project is focused on the optimization of a technology that could be positioned upstream or downstream of one or more of the water-gas-shift reactors (WGSRs) or integrated with a WGSR.

  1. Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Flips Lipids Across Membranes Print Found ubiquitously in both bacteria and humans, membrane proteins of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family have been implicated in both antibiotic and cancer-drug resistance. The mechanisms used by these proteins to expel toxins from cells therefore represent key targets for the development of drugs designed to combat the growing problem of multidrug resistance. Toward this end, researchers from The Scripps Research

  2. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynn, Nicholas P (Palo Alto, CA); Fulton, Donald A. (Fairfield, CA)

    2009-03-31

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  3. Amorphous Alloy Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coulter, K

    2013-09-30

    At the beginning of this project, thin film amorphous alloy membranes were considered a nascent but promising new technology for industrial-scale hydrogen gas separations from coal- derived syngas. This project used a combination of theoretical modeling, advanced physical vapor deposition fabricating, and laboratory and gasifier testing to develop amorphous alloy membranes that had the potential to meet Department of Energy (DOE) targets in the testing strategies outlined in the NETL Membrane Test Protocol. The project is complete with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), and Western Research Institute (WRI) having all operated independently and concurrently. GT studied the hydrogen transport properties of several amorphous alloys and found that ZrCu and ZrCuTi were the most promising candidates. GT also evaluated the hydrogen transport properties of V, Nb and Ta membranes coated with different transition-metal carbides (TMCs) (TM = Ti, Hf, Zr) catalytic layers by employing first-principles calculations together with statistical mechanics methods and determined that TiC was the most promising material to provide catalytic hydrogen dissociation. SwRI developed magnetron coating techniques to deposit a range of amorphous alloys onto both porous discs and tubular substrates. Unfortunately none of the amorphous alloys could be deposited without pinhole defects that undermined the selectivity of the membranes. WRI tested the thermal properties of the ZrCu and ZrNi alloys and found that under reducing environments the upper temperature limit of operation without recrystallization is ~250 C. There were four publications generated from this project with two additional manuscripts in progress and six presentations were made at national and international technical conferences. The combination of the pinhole defects and the lack of high temperature stability make the theoretically identified most promising candidate amorphous alloys unsuitable for application as hydrogen separation membranes in coal fire systems.

  4. Fuels Technologies

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fuels Technologies Program Mission To develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies that enable America to use less petroleum. --EERE Strategic Plan, October 2002-- Kevin Stork, Team Leader Fuel Technologies & Technology Deployment Vehicle Technologies Program Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy DEER 2008 August 6, 2008 Presentation Outline n Fuel Technologies Research Goals Fuels as enablers for advanced engine

  5. Composite oxygen ion transport element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Besecker, Charles J. (Batavia, IL); Chen, Hancun (Williamsville, NY); Robinson, Earil T. (Mentor, OH)

    2007-06-12

    A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

  6. Achieving very low mercury levels in refinery wastewater by membrane filtration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urgun Demirtas, M.; Benda, P.; Gillenwater, P. S.; Negri, M. C.; Xiong, H.; Snyder, S. W.

    2012-05-15

    Microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were evaluated for their ability to achieve the world's most stringent Hg discharge criterion (<1.3 ng/L) in an oil refinery's wastewater. The membrane processes were operated at three different pressures to demonstrate the potential for each membrane technology to achieve the targeted effluent mercury concentrations. The presence of mercury in the particulate form in the refinery wastewater makes the use of MF and UF membrane technologies more attractive in achieving very low mercury levels in the treated wastewater. Both NF and RO were also able to meet the target mercury concentration at lower operating pressures (20.7 bar). However, higher operating pressures ({ge}34.5 bar) had a significant effect on NF and RO flux and fouling rates, as well as on permeate quality. SEM images of the membranes showed that pore blockage and narrowing were the dominant fouling mechanisms for the MF membrane while surface coverage was the dominant fouling mechanism for the other membranes. The correlation between mercury concentration and particle size distribution was also investigated to understand mercury removal mechanisms by membrane filtration. The mean particle diameter decreased with filtration from 1.1 {+-} 0.0 {micro}m to 0.74 {+-} 0.2 {micro}m after UF.

  7. Ninth International Workshop on Plant Membrane Biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This report is a compilation of abstracts from papers which were discussed at a workshop on plant membrane biology. Topics include: plasma membrane ATP-ases; plant-environment interactions, membrane receptors; signal transduction; ion channel physiology; biophysics and molecular biology; vaculor H+ pumps; sugar carriers; membrane transport; and cellular structure and function.

  8. Hydrogen purifier module with membrane support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

    2012-07-24

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

  9. Evaluating Membrane Processes for Air Conditioning, Highlights in Research and Development (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL compiles state-of-the-art review on membrane processes for air conditioning to identify future research opportunities. Researchers are pursuing alternatives to conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) practices, especially cool- ing and dehumidification, because of high energy use, environmentally harmful refrigerants, and a need for better humidity control. Advancements in membrane technology enable new possibilities in this area. Membranes are traditionally used for

  10. Method of producing metallized chloroplasts and use thereof in the photochemical production of hydrogen and oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1987-01-01

    The invention is primarily a metallized chloroplast composition for use in a photosynthetic reaction. A catalytic metal is precipitated on a chloroplast membrane at the location where a catalyzed reduction reaction occurs. This metallized chloroplast is stabilized by depositing it on a support medium such as fiber so that it can be easily handled. A possible application of this invention is the splitting of water to form hydrogen and oxygen that can be used as a renewable energy source.

  11. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Lawrence M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elastic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  12. Tensioning device for a stretched membrane collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a solar concentrating collector comprising an elestic membrane member for concentrating sunlight, a frame for holding the membrane member in plane and in tension, and a tensioning means for varying the tension of the membrane member. The tensioning means is disposed at the frame and is adapted to releasably attach the membrane member thereto. The tensioning means is also adapted to uniformly and symmetrically subject the membrane member to stretching forces such that membrane stresses produced thereby are distributed uniformly over a thickness of the membrane member and reciprocal twisting moments are substantially prevented from acting about said frame.

  13. Organic fluid permeation through fluoropolymer membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nemser, Stuart M.; Kosaraju, Praveen; Bowser, John

    2015-07-14

    Separation of the components of liquid mixtures is achieved by contacting a liquid mixture with a nonporous membrane having a fluoropolymer selectively permeable layer and imposing a pressure gradient across the membrane from feed side to permeate side. Unusually high transmembrane flux is obtained when the membrane is subjected to one or more process conditions prior to separation. These include (a) leaving some residual amount of membrane casting solvent in the membrane, and (b) contacting the membrane with a component of the mixture to be separated for a duration effective to saturate the membrane with the component.

  14. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen-Enriched Combustion Oxygen-Enriched Combustion This tip sheet discusses how an increase in oxygen in combustion air can reduce the energy loss in the exhaust gases and increase process heating system efficiency. PROCESS HEATING TIP SHEET #3 PDF icon Oxygen-Enriched Combustion (September 2005) More Documents & Publications Save Energy Now in Your Process Heating Systems Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A

  15. membrane-process | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2 Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas Project No.: DE-NT0005313 (click on image to enlarge) Research Triangle Institute (RTI) International is researching fluorinated polymer membranes for carbon dioxide capture. RTI's research effort includes membrane materials development, module design, and process design. RTI is pursuing the development of two hollow-fiber membrane materials. First, RTI is working with Generon to develop a membrane material constructed of polycarbonate-based

  16. Challenges in Bio-Inspired Membranes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHALLENGES IN BIO-INSPIRED MEMBRANES JUN LIU PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY, RICHLAND, WA 99252 Supported by Transformational Materials Science Initiative (PNNL), Basic Energy Science, Office of Science, Department of Energy OUTLINE 2  Attributes of biological membranes  Importance of selective membranes in energy Current efforts in bio-inspired membranes  Future directions through self-assembly? Lessons form biological membranes to develop low cost energy storage devices

  17. Exploration Technologies - Technology Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, Amanda I.; Thorsteinsson, Hildigunnur; Reinhardt, Tim; Solomon, Samantha; James, Mallory

    2011-06-01

    This assessment is a critical component of ongoing technology roadmapping efforts, and will be used to guide the Geothermal Technology Program's research and development.

  18. Technology Development Advances EM Cleanup | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development Advances EM Cleanup Technology Development Advances EM Cleanup The unique nature of many of EM's remaining facilities will require a strong and responsive engineering and technology program to improve work and public safety, and reduce costs and environmental impacts while completing the cleanup program. A Ceramic membrane to Recycle Caustic Waste Processing Annual Technology Development Report 2007

  19. NREL: Technology Transfer - Technology Partnership Agreements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ombuds. Printable Version Technology Transfer Home About Technology Transfer Technology Partnership Agreements Agreements for Commercializing Technology CRADAs Work for...

  20. High Impact Technology Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies High Impact Technology Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies The Energy Department released the High Impact Technology Catalyst: ...

  1. Manufacturing and Scale Up Challenges: Cell Components, Membranes, & Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    M Confidential. 1 28 April 2014 . All Rights Reserved. © 3M Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office hosted by: NREL, Golden, Colorado Feb. 27th and 28th, 2014. "Manufacturing and Scale Up Challenges: Cell Components, Membranes, & Catalysts". by Krzysztof A. Lewinski, 3M 3M Confidential. 2 28 April 2014 . All Rights Reserved. © 3M Greatest Challenges and Opportunities:  PEM electrolyzer market at an early stage;  Market development gaining

  2. Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Yupo J.; Snyder, Seth W.

    2012-02-07

    The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

  3. High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal Oxide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Internal Reference | Department of Energy High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal Oxide Internal Reference High-Temperature Zirconia Oxygen Sensor with Sealed Metal/Metal Oxide Internal Reference Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon

  4. Discovery of oxygen in atmosphere could mean life for Saturn's moon Dione

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Discovery of oxygen in atmosphere could mean life for Saturn's moon Dione Discovery of oxygen in atmosphere could mean life for Saturn's moon Dione Discovery could mean ingredients for life are abundant on icy space bodies. March 5, 2012 Curiosity rover bears three LANL technologies Inside Titan: This artist's concept shows a possible scenario for the internal structure of Titan, as suggested by data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft. Scientists have been trying to determine what is under Titan's

  5. Advanced Combustion Technologies | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Advanced Combustion Technologies Advanced Combustion Technologies Joe Yip, a researcher at FE's National Energy Technology Laboratory, uses laser-based Rayleigh light scattering to measure flame density and speed over a flat flame burner. Oxyfuel combustion, using oxygen in place of air with diluents such as steam or carbon dioxide, can reduce pollutant emissions in advanced power cycles using gas turbines. Photo courtesy of NETL Multimedia. Joe Yip, a researcher at FE's National Energy

  6. Flux Enhancement in Crossflow Membrane Filtration: Fouling and It's Minimization by Flow Reversal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2005-08-04

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). Three feed solutions (Bovine serum albumin (BSA), apple juice and citrus fruit pectin) were studied in crossflow membrane filtration. These solutes are well-known in membrane filtration for their fouling and concentration polarization potentials. Laboratory-scale tests on a hollow-fiber ultrafiltration membrane module using each of the feed solutes show that under flow reversal conditions, the permeate flux is significantly enhanced when compared with the conventional unidirectional flow. The flux enhancement is dramatic (by an order of magnitude) with increased feed concentration and operating transmembrane pressure. Thus, flow reversal technology seems an attractive alternative to mitigate fouling problem in crossflow membrane filtration.

  7. Method and apparatus for reducing cold-phase emissions by utilizing oxygen-enriched intake air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Stork, Kevin C. (Chicago, IL)

    1997-01-01

    An oxygen-enriched air intake control system for an internal combustion engine includes air directing apparatus to control the air flow into the intake of the engine. During normal operation of the engine, ambient air flowing from an air filter of the engine flows through the air directing apparatus into the intake of the engine. In order to decrease the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions that tend to be produced by the engine during a short period of time after the engine is started, the air directing apparatus diverts for a short period of time following the start up of the engine at least a portion of the ambient air from the air filter through a secondary path. The secondary path includes a selectively permeable membrane through which the diverted portion of the ambient air flows. The selectively permeable membrane separates nitrogen and oxygen from the diverted air so that oxygen enriched air containing from about 23% to 25% oxygen by volume is supplied to the intake of the engine.

  8. Nanoengineered membranes for controlled transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doktycz, Mitchel J. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; McKnight, Timothy E. (Greenback, TN) [Greenback, TN; Melechko, Anatoli V. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Lowndes, Douglas H. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Guillorn, Michael A. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Merkulov, Vladimir I. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-01-05

    A nanoengineered membrane for controlling material transport (e.g., molecular transport) is disclosed. The membrane includes a substrate, a cover definining a material transport channel between the substrate and the cover, and a plurality of fibers positioned in the channel and connected to an extending away from a surface of the substrate. The fibers are aligned perpendicular to the surface of the substrate, and have a width of 100 nanometers or less. The diffusion limits for material transport are controlled by the separation of the fibers. In one embodiment, chemical derivitization of carbon fibers may be undertaken to further affect the diffusion limits or affect selective permeability or facilitated transport. For example, a coating can be applied to at least a portion of the fibers. In another embodiment, individually addressable carbon nanofibers can be integrated with the membrane to provide an electrical driving force for material transport.

  9. Architectured Nanomembranes for In-Situ Energy Conversion Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-01

    This fact sheet describes a study whose objective is to explore engineering concepts and analyze the technological and economic impacts of a novel type of architecture in nanocomposite membranes.

  10. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Multi-Year Research, Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to use pressure swing adsorption to remove impurities from gaseous hydrogen for use in fuel cells. This is done at the point of production. Other technologies include membrane and...

  11. Surface Segregation in a PdCu Alloy Hydrogen Separation Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.B.; Matranga, C.S.; Gellman, A.J.

    2007-06-01

    Separation of hydrogen from mixed gas streams is an important step for hydrogen generation technologies, including hydrocarbon reforming and coal/biomass gasification. Dense palladium-based membranes have received significant attention for this application because of palladiums ability to dissociatively adsorb molecular hydrogen at its surface for subsequent transport of hydrogen atoms through its bulk. Alloying palladium with minor components, like copper, has been shown to improve both the membranes structural characteristics and resistance to poisoning of its catalytic surface [1]. Surface segregationa composition difference between the bulk material and its surfaceis common in alloys and can affect important surface processes. Rational design of alloy membranes requires that surface segregation be understood, and possibly controlled. In this work, we examine surface segregation in a polycrystalline Pd70Cu30 hydrogen separation membrane as a function of thermal treatment and adsorption of hydrogen sulfide.

  12. Continuous production of polymethylpentene membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epperson, B.J.; Burnett, L.J.; Helm, V.D.

    1983-11-15

    Gas separation membranes may be prepared in a continuous manner by passing a porous support which may, if so desired, be backed by a fabric through a solution of polymethylpentene dissolved in an organic solvent such as hexane. The support member is passed through the solution while one side thereof is in contact with a roller, thereby permitting only one side of the support member to be coated with the polymer. After continuously withdrawing the support member from the bath, the solvent is allowed to evaporate and the resulting membrane is recovered.

  13. Advanced Water Technologies | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water We're developing ways to purify and conserve this vital resource. Take a look at our work. Home > Innovation > Water Innovation 24/7: We're Always Open At GE Global Research, we work around the clock and across the globe to build, power, move and cure the world. Click the image... Read More » Reverse Osmosis (RO) Membrane Technology Purifies Water GE's Reverse Osmosis (RO) Membrane technology addresses industrial waste water treatment and recycling needs, purifying water... Read

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office - Materials Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Materials Technologies Ed Owens Jerry Gibbs Will Joost eere.energy.gov 2 | Vehicle Technologies Program Materials Technologies Materials Technologies $36.9 M Lightweight Materials $28.0 M Values are FY14 enacted Propulsion Materials $8.9 M Properties and Manufacturing Multi-Material Enabling Modeling & Computational Mat. Sci. Engine Materials, Cast Al & Fe High Temp Alloys Exhaust Sys. Materials, Low T Catalysts Lightweight Propulsion FY13 Enacted $27.5 M

  15. Membrane-Electrode Structures for Low Cost Molecular Catalysts in Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells and Other Electrochemical Devices - Energy Innovation Portal Membrane-Electrode Structures for Low Cost Molecular Catalysts in Fuel Cells and Other Electrochemical Devices Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary A team of Berkeley Lab researchers has developed a technology to coat electrode surfaces with a homogeneous catalyst that has been immobilized within a polymer layer. The team demonstrated that a 3-D distributed array

  16. Comparison of Fuel Cell Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Information More information on the Fuel Cell Technologies Offce is available at http://www.hydrogenandfuelcells.energy.gov. Fuel Cell Type Common Electrolyte Operating Temperature Typical Stack Size Electrical Efficiency (LHV) Applications Advantages Challenges Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Perfluorosulfonic acid <120°C <1 kW - 100 kW 60% direct H 2 ; i 40% reformed fuel ii * Backup power * Portable power * Distributed generation * Transportation * Specialty vehicles * Solid

  17. An Industrial Membrane System Suitable for Distributed Used Oil Re-refining

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    An Industrial Membrane System Suitable for Distributed Used Oil Re-refining DE-SC0006185 Dr. Richard J. Ciora, Jr., Media and Process Technology Inc. 1155 William Pitt Way, Pittsburgh, PA 15238 412 292-4057, rciora@mediaandprocess.com US DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Program Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 28 - 29, 2015 1 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objectives Ceramic membranes for large scale hydrocarbon

  18. Composite membranes and methods for making same (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    membranes and methods for making same Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Composite membranes and methods for making same × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public

  19. Advanced Membrane Separations to Improve Efficiency of Thermochemical Conversion Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 Project Peer Review Advanced Membrane Separations to Improve Efficiency of Thermochemical Conversion March 24, 2015 Technology Area Review Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Project Team: Michael Hu Brian Bischoff Chaiwat Engtrakul Mark Davis High Performance Architectured Surface-Selective (HiPAS) 2 Presentation name Goal Statement This project seeks to develop & employ a new class of HiPAS membranes, to improve the efficiency of bio-oil

  20. Universal Membrane Classification Scheme: Maximizing the Return on High Temperature PEM Membrane Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This presentation on maximizing the return of high temperature PEM membrane research was given at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  1. Solvent-resistant microporous polymide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, W.K.; McCray, S.B.; Friesen, D.T.

    1998-03-10

    An asymmetric microporous membrane with exceptional solvent resistance and highly desirable permeability is disclosed. The membrane is made by a solution-casting or solution-spinning process from a copolyamic acid comprising the condensation reaction product in a solvent of at least three reactants selected from certain diamines and dianhydrides and post-treated to imidize and in some cases cross-link the copolyamic acid. The membrane is useful as an uncoated membrane for ultrafiltration, microfiltration, and membrane contactor applications, or may be used as a support for a permselective coating to form a composite membrane useful in gas separations, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, pervaporation, or vapor permeation.

  2. Solvent-resistant microporous polymide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR); McCray, Scott B. (Bend, OR); Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR)

    1998-01-01

    An asymmetric microporous membrane with exceptional solvent resistance and highly desirable permeability is disclosed. The membrane is made by a solution-casting or solution-spinning process from a copolyamic acid comprising the condensation reaction product in a solvent of at least three reactants selected from certain diamines and dianhydrides and post-treated to imidize and in some cases cross-link the copolyamic acid. The membrane is useful as an uncoated membrane for ultrafiltration, microfiltration, and membrane contactor applications, or may be used as a support for a permselective coating to form a composite membrane useful in gas separations, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, pervaporation, or vapor permeation.

  3. Production of permeable cellulose triacetate membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, B.M.

    1986-12-23

    A phase inversion process for the preparation of cellulose triacetate (CTA) and regenerated cellulose membranes is disclosed. Such membranes are useful as supports for liquid membranes in facilitated transport processes, as microfiltration membranes, as dialysis or ultrafiltration membranes, and for the preparation of ion-selective electrodes. The process comprises the steps of preparing a casting solution of CTA in a solvent comprising a mixture of cyclohexanone and methylene chloride, casting a film from the casting solution, and immersing the cast film in a methanol bath. The resulting CTA membrane may then be hydrolyzed to regenerated cellulose using conventional techniques.

  4. Production of permeable cellulose triacetate membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Bruce M. (Bend, OR)

    1986-01-01

    A phase inversion process for the preparation of cellulose triacetate (CTA) and regenerated cellulose membranes is disclosed. Such membranes are useful as supports for liquid membranes in facilitated transport processes, as microfiltration membranes, as dialysis or ultrafiltration membranes, and for the preparation of ion-selective electrodes. The process comprises the steps of preparing a casting solution of CTA in a solvent comprising a mixture of cyclohexanone and methylene chloride, casting a film from the casting solution, and immersing the cast film in a methanol bath. The resulting CTA membrane may then be hydrolyzed to regenerated cellulose using conventional techniques.

  5. Bimetallic Fe-Ni Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhavsar, Saurabh; Veser, Goetz

    2013-11-06

    The relative abundance, low cost, and low toxicity of iron make Fe-based oxygen carriers of great interest for chemical looping combustion (CLC), an emerging technology for clean and efficient combustion of fossil and renewable fuels. However, Fe also shows much lower reactivity than other metals (such as Ni and Cu). Here, we demonstrate strong improvement of Fe-based carriers by alloying the metal phase with Ni. Through a combination of carrier synthesis and characterization with thermogravimetric and fixed-bed reactor studies, we demonstrate that the addition of Ni results in a significant enhancement in activity as well as an increase in selectivity for total oxidation. Furthermore, comparing alumina and ceria as support materials highlights the fact that reducible supports can result in a strong increase in oxygen carrier utilization.

  6. Preparation of gas selective membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Funk, E.W.

    1988-06-14

    Gas separation membranes which possess improved characteristics as exemplified by selectivity and flux may be prepared by coating a porous organic polymer support with a solution or emulsion of a plasticizer and an organic polymer, said coating being effected at subatmospheric pressures in order to increase the penetration depth of the coating material.

  7. Preparation of gas selective membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    Gas separation membranes which possess improved characteristics as exemplified by selectivity and flux may be prepared by coating a porous organic polymer support with a solution or emulsion of a plasticizer and an organic polymer, said coating being effected at subatmospheric pressures in order to increase the penetration depth of the coating material.

  8. Available Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    application. Search Our Technologies submit Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Biotechnology Biotechnology Chemistry Chemistry Energy Energy High Performance Computing:...

  9. Licensing Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Licensing Technology Licensing Technology The primary function of Los Alamos Licensing Program is to move Los Alamos technology to the marketplace for the benefit of the U.S. economy. Our intellectual property may be licensed for commercial use, research applications, and U.S. government use. Contact thumbnail of Marcus Lucero Head of Licensing Marcus Lucero Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation (505) 665-6569 Email Although Los Alamos's primary mission is national security, our technologies

  10. Technology Opportunities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intellectual Property » Technology Opportunities Technology Opportunities We deliver innovation through an integrated portfolio of R&D work across our key national security sponsoring agencies, enhanced by the ideas developed through our strategic internal investments. Contact Business Development Team Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation (505) 665-9090 Email Periodically, the Laboratory notifies the public of technologies and capabilities that may be of interest. These technologies may

  11. Technology Partnering

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    on Technology Transfer and Related Technology Partnering Activities at the National Laboratories and Other Facilities Fiscal Years 2009-2013 Report to Congress May 2015 United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Message from the Secretary The Report on Technology Transfer and Related Partnering Activities at the National Laboratories and Other Facilities for Fiscal Year 2009-2013 is prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Technology Transfer and Commercialization Act of

  12. Cell-free system for synthesizing membrane proteins cell free method for synthesizing membrane proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laible, Philip D; Hanson, Deborah K

    2013-06-04

    The invention provides an in vitro method for producing proteins, membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins, and soluble proteins that interact with membrane-associated proteins for assembly into an oligomeric complex or that require association with a membrane for proper folding. The method comprises, supplying intracytoplasmic membranes from organisms; modifying protein composition of intracytoplasmic membranes from organism by modifying DNA to delete genes encoding functions of the organism not associated with the formation of the intracytoplasmic membranes; generating appropriate DNA or RNA templates that encode the target protein; and mixing the intracytoplasmic membranes with the template and a transcription/translation-competent cellular extract to cause simultaneous production of the membrane proteins and encapsulation of the membrane proteins within the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  13. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grot, Stephen President, Ion Power Inc.

    2013-09-30

    One of the most challenging aspects of traditional PEM fuel cell stacks is the difficulty achieving the platinum catalyst utilization target of 0.2 gPt/kWe set forth by the DOE. Good catalyst utilization can be achieved with state-of-the-art catalyst coated membranes (CCM) when low catalyst loadings (<0.3 mg/cm2) are used at a low current. However, when low platinum loadings are used, the peak power density is lower than conventional loadings, requiring a larger total active area and a larger bipolar plate. This results in a lower overall stack power density not meeting the DOE target. By corrugating the fuel cell membrane electrode structure, Ion Power?s goal is to realize both the Pt utilization targets as well as the power density targets of the DOE. This will be achieved by demonstrating a fuel cell single cell (50 cm2) with a twofold increase in the membrane active area over the geometric area of the cell by corrugating the MEA structure. The corrugating structure must be able to demonstrate the target properties of < 10 mOhm-cm2 electrical resistance at > 20 psi compressive strength over the active area, in combination with offering at least 80% of power density that can be achieved by using the same MEA in a flat plate structure. Corrugated membrane fuel cell structures also have the potential to meet DOE power density targets by essentially packaging more membrane area into the same fuel cell volume as compared to conventional stack constructions.

  14. Energy Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies Our Vision National User Facilities Research Areas In Focus Global Solutions ⇒ Navigate Section Our Vision National User Facilities Research Areas In Focus Global Solutions Energy Technologies Area (ETA) Building Technology & Urban Systems Energy Analysis & Environmental Impacts Energy Storage & Distributed Resources

  15. Technology Assessment

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - DRAFT 1 Advanced Composites Materials and their Manufacture 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ................................................................................................ 2 4 2. Technology Potential and Assessment .................................................................................................. 4 5 2.1 The Potential for Advanced Composites for Clean Energy Application Areas

  16. Nanoporous carbon catalytic membranes and method for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foley, Henry C. (Hockessin, DE); Strano, Michael (Wilmington, DE); Acharya, Madhav (New Castle, DE); Raich, Brenda A. (Houston, TX)

    2002-01-01

    Catalytic membranes comprising highly-dispersed, catalytically-active metals in nanoporous carbon membranes and a novel single-phase process to produce the membranes.

  17. Novel Membranes and Systems for Industrial and Municipal Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    performance membranes are key to reduce energy consumption Project Objective Achieve 50% energy reduction in membrane processes through Novel membranes & systems ...

  18. Renaturing Membrane Proteins in the Lipid Cubic Phase, a Nanoporous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Renaturing Membrane Proteins in the Lipid Cubic Phase, a Nanoporous Membrane Mimetic Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Renaturing Membrane Proteins in the Lipid Cubic ...

  19. Gelled Ionic Liquid-Based Membranes: Achieving a 10,000 GPU Permeance for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture with Gelled Ionic Liquid-Based Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-02-02

    IMPACCT Project: Alongside Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Electric Power Research Institute, CU-Boulder is developing a membrane made of a gelled ionic liquid to capture CO2 from the exhaust of coal-fired power plants. The membranes are created by spraying the gelled ionic liquids in thin layers onto porous support structures using a specialized coating technique. The new membrane is highly efficient at pulling CO2 out of coal-derived flue gas exhaust while restricting the flow of other materials through it. The design involves few chemicals or moving parts and is more mechanically stable than current technologies. The team is now working to further optimize the gelled materials for CO2 separation and create a membrane layer that is less than 1 micrometer thick.

  20. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Waste treatment by reverse osmosis and membrane processes: Industrial. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*Plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of membranes in the treatment of industrial wastewaters. Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, electrodialysis, liquid membranes, and ultrafiltration techniques are described. Wastewater treatments for removal of metals, ammonia, sodium compounds, nitrates, fluorides, dyes, biologicals, and radioactive waste using membrane technology are discussed. Applications of this technology to the chemical, petrochemical, pulp, textile, steel, ore treatment, electro-plating, and other wastewater and groundwater-remediation industries are included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no degradation in Polaris membrane performance during two months of continuous operation in a simulated flue gas environment containing up to 1,000 ppm SO{sub 2}. A successful slipstream field test at the APS Cholla power plant was conducted with commercialsize Polaris modules during this project. This field test is the first demonstration of stable performance by commercial-sized membrane modules treating actual coal-fired power plant flue gas. Process design studies show that selective recycle of CO{sub 2} using a countercurrent membrane module with air as a sweep stream can double the concentration of CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas with little energy input. This pre-concentration of CO{sub 2} by the sweep membrane reduces the minimum energy of CO{sub 2} separation in the capture unit by up to 40% for coal flue gas. Variations of this design may be even more promising for CO{sub 2} capture from NGCC flue gas, in which the CO{sub 2} concentration can be increased from 4% to 20% by selective sweep recycle. EPRI and WP conducted a systems and cost analysis of a base case MTR membrane CO{sub 2} capture system retrofitted to the AEP Conesville Unit 5 boiler. Some of the key findings from this study and a sensitivity analysis performed by MTR include: The MTR membrane process can capture 90% of the CO{sub 2} in coal flue gas and produce high-purity CO{sub 2} (>99%) ready for sequestration. CO{sub 2} recycle to the boiler appears feasible with minimal impact on boiler performance; however, further study by a boiler OEM is recommended. For a membrane process built today using a combination of slight feed compression, permeate vacuum, and current compression equipment costs, the membrane capture process can be competitive with the base case MEA process at 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a coal-fired power plant. The incremental LCOE for the base case membrane process is about equal to that of a base case MEA process, within the uncertainty in the analysis. With advanced membranes (5,000 gpu for CO{sub 2} and 50 for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}), operating with no feed compression and low-cost CO{sub 2} compression equipment, an incremental LCOE of $33/MWh at 90% capture can be achieved (40% lower than the advanced MEA case). Even with lower cost compression, it appears unlikely that a membrane process using high feed compression (>5 bar) can be competitive with amine absorption, due to the capital cost and energy consumption of this equipment. Similarly, low vacuum pressure (<0.2 bar) cannot be used due to poor efficiency and high cost of this equipment. High membrane permeance is important to reduce the capital cost and footprint of the membrane unit. CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity is less important because it is too costly to generate a pressure ratio where high selectivity can be useful. A potential cost ?sweet spot? exists for use of membrane-based technology, if 50-70% CO{sub 2} capture is acceptable. There is a minimum in the cost of CO{sub 2} avoided/ton that membranes can deliver at 60% CO{sub 2} capture, which is 20% lower than the cost at 90% capture. Membranes operating with no feed compression are best suited for lower capture rates. Currently, it appears that the biggest hurdle to use of membranes for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture is compression equipment cost. An alternative approach is to use sweep membranes in parallel with another CO{sub 2} capture technology that does not require feed compression or vacuum equipment. Hybrid designs that utilize sweep membranes for selective CO{sub 2} recycle show potential to significantly reduce the minimum energy of CO{sub 2} separation.

  4. Energy minimization of separation processes using conventional/membrane hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gottschlich, D.E.; Roberts, D.L. )

    1990-09-28

    The purpose of this study was to identify the general principles governing the choice of hybrid separation systems over straight membrane or straight nonmembrane systems and to do so by examining practical applications (process design and economics). Our focus was to examine the energy consumption characteristics and overall cost factors of the membrane and nonmembrane technologies that cause hybrid systems to be preferred over nonhybrid systems. We evaluated four cases studies, chosen on the basis of likelihood of commercial viability of a hybrid system and magnitude of energy savings: (1) propane/propylene separation; (2) removal of nitrogen from natural gas; (3) concentration of Kraft black liquor; and (4)solvent deasphalting. For propane/propylene splitting, the membrane proved to be superior to distillation in both thermodynamic efficiency and processing cost (PC) when the product was 95% pure propylene. However, to produce higher purity products, the membrane alone could not perform the separation, and a membrane/distillation hybrid was required. In these cases, there is an optimum amount of separation to be accomplished by the membrane (expressed as the fraction of the total availability change of the membrane/distillation hybrid that takes place in the membrane and defined as {phi}{sub m}, the thermodynamic extent of separation). Qualitative and quantitative guidelines are discussed with regard to choosing a hybrid system. 54 refs., 66 figs., 36 tabs.

  5. Constant pressure high throughput membrane permeation testing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    system provides a pressurized flow of a feed and sweep gas to each membrane testing cell in a plurality of membrane testing cells while a stream of retentate gas from each...

  6. Tetrakis-amido high flux membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCray, S.B.

    1989-10-24

    Composite RO membranes of a microporous polymeric support and a polyamide reaction product of a tetrakis-aminomethyl compound and a polyacylhalide are disclosed, said membranes exhibiting high flux and good chlorine resistance.

  7. Tetrakis-amido high flux membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCray, Scott B. (Bend, OR)

    1989-01-01

    Composite RO membranes of a microporous polymeric support and a polyamide reaction product of a tetrakis-aminomethyl compound and a polyacylhalide are disclosed, said membranes exhibiting high flux and good chlorine resistance.

  8. Using Fuel Cell Membranes to Improve Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cell Membranes to Improve Power As part of its Sustainable Energy Program, Sandia National Laboratories works to find new ways to use fuel cell membranes to improve energy...

  9. Oxygen ion-beam microlithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.

    1991-08-20

    A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used. 5 figures.

  10. Device and method for separating oxygen isotopes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockwood, Stephen D. (Los Alamos, NM); Sander, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A device and method for separating oxygen isotopes with an ArF laser which produces coherent radiation at approximately 193 nm. The output of the ArF laser is filtered in natural air and applied to an irradiation cell where it preferentially photodissociates molecules of oxygen gas containing .sup.17 O or .sup.18 O oxygen nuclides. A scavenger such as O.sub.2, CO or ethylene is used to collect the preferentially dissociated oxygen atoms and recycled to produce isotopically enriched molecular oxygen gas. Other embodiments utilize an ArF laser which is narrowly tuned with a prism or diffraction grating to preferentially photodissociate desired isotopes. Similarly, desired mixtures of isotopic gas can be used as a filter to photodissociate enriched preselected isotopes of oxygen.

  11. Steel Industry Technology Roadmap | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steel Industry Technology Roadmap Steel Industry Technology Roadmap Table of Contents Introduction Process Improvement 2.1 Cokemaking 2.2 Ironmaking 2.3 Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) Steelmaking 2.4 Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) Steelmaking 2.5 Ladle Refining 2.6 Casting 2.7 Rolling and Finishing 2.8 Refractories Iron Recycling Unit 3.1 By-products 3.2 Obsolete Scrap Environment 4.1 Cokemaking 4.2 Ironmaking 4.3 Steelmaking - Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) 4.4 Steelmaking - Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) 4.5

  12. Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports | Department of Energy Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 - October 1, 2009 PDF icon adzic_bnl_kickoff.pdf More Documents & Publications Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

  13. Agenda: High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agenda for the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG) meeting on May 18, 2009, in Arlington, Virginia

  14. Jupiter Oxygen Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Schiller Park, Illinois Zip: 60176 Product: Illinois-based oxy-fuel combustion company involved in the capture of CO2. References: Jupiter Oxygen Corporation1...

  15. Identification of an Archean marine oxygen oasis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riding, Dr Robert E; Fralick, Dr Philip; Liang, Liyuan

    2014-01-01

    The early Earth was essentially anoxic. A number of indicators suggest the presence of oxygenic photosynthesis 2700 3000 million years (Ma) ago, but direct evidence for molecular oxygen (O2) in seawater has remained elusive. Here we report rare earth element (REE) analyses of 2800 million year old shallowmarine limestones and deep-water iron-rich sediments at Steep Rock Lake, Canada. These show that the seawater from which extensive shallow-water limestones precipitated was oxygenated, whereas the adjacent deeper waters where iron-rich sediments formed were not. We propose that oxygen promoted limestone precipitation by oxidative removal of dissolved ferrous iron species, Fe(II), to insoluble Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, and estimate that at least 10.25 M oxygen concentration in seawater was required to accomplish this at Steep Rock. This agrees with the hypothesis that an ample supply of dissolved Fe(II) in Archean oceans would have hindered limestone formation. There is no direct evidence for the oxygen source at Steep Rock, but organic carbon isotope values and diverse stromatolites in the limestones suggest the presence of cyanobacteria. Our findings support the view that during the Archean significant oxygen levels first developed in protected nutrient-rich shallow marine habitats. They indicate that these environments were spatially restricted, transient, and promoted limestone precipitation. If Archean marine limestones in general reflect localized oxygenic removal of dissolved iron at the margins of otherwise anoxic iron-rich seas, then early oxygen oases are less elusive than has been assumed.

  16. Inorganic dual-layer microporous supported membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Tsai, Chung-Yi; Lu, Yungfeng

    2003-03-25

    The present invention provides for a dual-layer inorganic microporous membrane capable of molecular sieving, and methods for production of the membranes. The inorganic microporous supported membrane includes a porous substrate which supports a first inorganic porous membrane having an average pore size of less than about 25 .ANG. and a second inorganic porous membrane coating the first inorganic membrane having an average pore size of less than about 6 .ANG.. The dual-layered membrane is produced by contacting the porous substrate with a surfactant-template polymeric sol, resulting in a surfactant sol coated membrane support. The surfactant sol coated membrane support is dried, producing a surfactant-templated polymer-coated substrate which is calcined to produce an intermediate layer surfactant-templated membrane. The intermediate layer surfactant-templated membrane is then contacted with a second polymeric sol producing a polymeric sol coated substrate which is dried producing an inorganic polymeric coated substrate. The inorganic polymeric coated substrate is then calcined producing an inorganic dual-layered microporous supported membrane in accordance with the present invention.

  17. Strategies for Probing Nanometer-Scale Electrocatalysts: From Single Particles to Catalyst-Membrane Architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korzeniewski, Carol

    2014-01-20

    The project primary objectives are to prepare and elucidate the promoting properties of materials that possess high activity for the conversion of hydrogen and related small molecules (water, oxygen, carbon monoxide and methanol) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. One area of research has focused on the study of catalyst materials. Protocols were developed for probing the structure and benchmarking the activity of Pt and Pt bimetallic nanometer-scale catalyst against Pt single crystal electrode standards. A second area has targeted fuel cell membrane and the advancement of simple methods mainly based on vibrational spectroscopy that can be applied broadly in the study of membrane structure and transport properties. Infrared and Raman methods combined with least-squares data modeling were applied to investigate and assist the design of robust, proton conductive membranes, which resist reactant crossover.

  18. Computational and experimental platform for understanding and optimizing water flux and salt rejection in nanoporous membranes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rempe, Susan B.

    2010-09-01

    Affordable clean water is both a global and a national security issue as lack of it can cause death, disease, and international tension. Furthermore, efficient water filtration reduces the demand for energy, another national issue. The best current solution to clean water lies in reverse osmosis (RO) membranes that remove salts from water with applied pressure, but widely used polymeric membrane technology is energy intensive and produces water depleted in useful electrolytes. Furthermore incremental improvements, based on engineering solutions rather than new materials, have yielded only modest gains in performance over the last 25 years. We have pursued a creative and innovative new approach to membrane design and development for cheap desalination membranes by approaching the problem at the molecular level of pore design. Our inspiration comes from natural biological channels, which permit faster water transport than current reverse osmosis membranes and selectively pass healthy ions. Aiming for an order-of-magnitude improvement over mature polymer technology carries significant inherent risks. The success of our fundamental research effort lies in our exploiting, extending, and integrating recent advances by our team in theory, modeling, nano-fabrication and platform development. A combined theoretical and experimental platform has been developed to understand the interplay between water flux and ion rejection in precisely-defined nano-channels. Our innovative functionalization of solid state nanoporous membranes with organic protein-mimetic polymers achieves 3-fold improvement in water flux over commercial RO membranes and has yielded a pending patent and industrial interest. Our success has generated useful contributions to energy storage, nanoscience, and membrane technology research and development important for national health and prosperity.

  19. Comparison of Fuel Cell Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Comparison of Fuel Cell Technologies Comparison of Fuel Cell Technologies Each fuel cell technology has advantages and disadvantages. See how fuel cell technologies compare with one another. This comparison chart is also available as a fact sheet. Fuel Cell Type Common Electrolyte Operating Temperature Typical Stack Size Electrical Efficiency (LHV) Applications Advantages Disadvantages Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Perfluorosulfonic acid <120°C <1 kW-100 kW 60% direct H2;a 40%

  20. Technology '90

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories have a long history of excellence in performing research and development in a number of areas, including the basic sciences, applied-energy technology, and weapons-related technology. Although technology transfer has always been an element of DOE and laboratory activities, it has received increasing emphasis in recent years as US industrial competitiveness has eroded and efforts have increased to better utilize the research and development resources the laboratories provide. This document, Technology '90, is the latest in a series that is intended to communicate some of the many opportunities available for US industry and universities to work with the DOE and its laboratories in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. Technology '90 is divided into three sections: Overview, Technologies, and Laboratories. The Overview section describes the activities and accomplishments of the DOE research and development program offices. The Technologies section provides descriptions of new technologies developed at the DOE laboratories. The Laboratories section presents information on the missions, programs, and facilities of each laboratory, along with a name and telephone number of a technology transfer contact for additional information. Separate papers were prepared for appropriate sections of this report.

  1. Surface selective membranes for carbon dioxide separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.; Myers, C.R.

    2005-09-01

    In this study, hybrid membranes have been developed for the selective separation of CO2 from mixtures containing H2. Beginning with commercially available Pall alumina membrane tubes with nominal pore diameter of 5 nm, hybrids were produced by silation with a variety of functionalities designed to facilitate the selective adsorption of CO2 onto the pore surface. The goal is to produce a membrane which can harness the power of surface diffusion to give the selectivity of polymer membranes with the permeance of inorganic membranes.

  2. Process for restoring membrane permeation properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, I.; Toy, L.G.; Casillas, C.G.

    1997-05-20

    A process is described for restoring the selectivity of high-free-volume, glassy polymer membranes for condensable components over less-condensable components or non-condensable components of a gas mixture. The process involves exposing the membrane to suitable sorbent vapor, such as propane or butane, thereby reopening the microvoids that make up the free volume. The selectivity of an aged membrane may be restored to 70--100% of its original value. The selectivity of a membrane which is known to age over time can also be maintained by keeping the membrane in a vapor environment when it is not in use. 8 figs.

  3. Dense, layered membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roark, Shane E.; MacKay, Richard; Mundschau, Michael V.

    2006-02-21

    This invention provides hydrogen-permeable membranes for separation of hydrogen from hydrogen-containing gases. The membranes are multi-layer having a central hydrogen-permeable layer with one or more catalyst layers, barrier layers, and/or protective layers. The invention also relates to membrane reactors employing the hydrogen-permeable membranes of the invention and to methods for separation of hydrogen from a hydrogen-containing gas using the membranes and reactors. The reactors of this invention can be combined with additional reactor systems for direct use of the separated hydrogen.

  4. Process for restoring membrane permeation properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA); Toy, Lora G. (San Francisco, CA); Casillas, Carlos G. (San Jose, CA)

    1997-05-20

    A process for restoring the selectivity of high-flee-volume, glassy polymer membranes for condensable components over less-condensable components or non-condensable components of a gas mixture. The process involves exposing the membrane to suitable sorbent vapor, such as propane or butane, thereby reopening the microvoids that make up the free volume. The selectivity of an aged membrane may be restored to 70-100% of its original value. The selectivity of a membrane which is known to age over time can also be maintained by keeping the membrane in a vapor environment when it is not in use.

  5. Separation of metals by supported liquid membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takigawa, Doreen Y. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A supported liquid membrane system for the separation of a preselected chemical species within a feedstream, preferably an aqueous feedstream, includes a feed compartment containing a feed solution having at least one preselected chemical species therein, a stripping compartment containing a stripping solution therein, and a microporous polybenzimidazole membrane situated between the compartments, the microporous polybenzimidazole membrane containing an extractant mixture selective for the preselected chemical species within the membrane pores is disclosed along with a method of separating preselected chemical species from a feedstream with such a system, and a supported liquid membrane for use in such a system.

  6. High-Performance Palladium Based Membrane for Hydrogen Separation and Purification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hopkins

    2012-01-31

    The mission of the DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies'™Hydrogen Fuels R&D effort is to research, develop, and validate technologies for producing, storing, and delivering hydrogen in an efficient, clean, safe, reliable, and affordable manner. A key program technical milestone for hydrogen technology readiness is to produce hydrogen from diverse, domestic resources at $2.00-$3.00 per gallon of gasoline equivalent (gge) delivered, untaxed. Low-cost, high-temperature hydrogen separation membranes represent a key enabling technology for small-scale distributed hydrogen production units. Availability of such membranes with high selectivity and high permeability for hydrogen will allow their integration with hydrocarbon reforming and water gas shift reactions, potentially reducing the cost of hydrogen produced. Pd-metal-based dense membranes are known for their excellent hydrogen selectivity and permeability characteristics, however, utilization of these membranes has so far been limited to small scale niche markets for hydrogen purification primarily due to the relatively high cost of Pd-alloy tubes compared to pressure swing adsorption (PSA) units. This project was aimed at development of thin-film Pd-alloy membranes deposited on Pall Corporation's DOE-based AccuSep® porous metal tube substrates to form a composite hydrogen separation membrane for these applications. Pall's composite membrane development addressed the typical limitations of composite structures by developing robust membranes capable of withstanding thermal and mechanical stresses resulting from high temperature (400C), high pressure (400 psi steam methane reformer and 1000 psi coal) operations and thermal cycling involved in conventional hydrogen production. In addition, the Pd-alloy membrane composition was optimized to be able to offer the most stability in the typical synthesis gas environments produced by reforming of natural gas and bio-derived liquid fuels (BILI) validating the technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the technology demonstrated. Results from this research added technology and product design information that offers the potential to significantly advance the commercial viability of hydrogen production.

  7. Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DIFFUSION; MEMBRANES; METHANOL; TRANSPORT; WATER; GOLD; SURFACES; COMPUTER CALCULATIONS DIFFUSION; WATER; METHANOL; GOLD; MEMBRANES; SURFACES; COMPUTER CALCULATIONS Word Cloud ...

  8. EIA-819, Monthly Oxygenate Report Page 1

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    EIA-819, Monthly Oxygenate Report Page 1 U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION Washington, D. C. 20585 OMB No. 1905-0165 Expiration Date: 05/31/2016 (Revised 2013) EIA-819 MONTHLY OXYGENATE REPORT INSTRUCTIONS ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... QUESTIONS If, after reading the

  9. Photo-switchable membrane and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Kenneth L; Glowacki, Eric

    2013-05-07

    Switchable gas permeation membranes in which a photo-switchable low-molecular-weight liquid crystalline (LC) material acts as the active element, and a method of making such membranes. Different LC eutectic mixtures were doped with mesogenic azo dyes and infused into track-etched porous membranes with regular cylindrical pores. Photo-induced isothermal phase changes in the imbibed mesogenic material afforded large, reversible changes in the permeability of the photo-switchable membrane to nitrogen. For example, membranes imbibed with a photo-switchable cyanobiphenyl LC material demonstrated low permeability in the nematic state, while the photo-generated isotropic state demonstrated a 16.times.-greater sorption coefficient. Both states obey a high linear sorption behavior in accordance with Henry's Law. In contrast, membranes imbibed with a photo-switchable phenyl benzoate LC material showed the opposite permeability behavior to the biphenyl-imbibed membrane, along with nonlinear sorption behavior.

  10. Dialysis membrane for separation on microchips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Anup K.; Kirby, Brian J.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2010-07-13

    Laser-induced phase-separation polymerization of a porous acrylate polymer is used for in-situ fabrication of dialysis membranes inside glass microchannels. A shaped 355 nm laser beam is used to produce a porous polymer membrane with a thickness of about 15 .mu.m, which bonds to the glass microchannel and forms a semi-permeable membrane. Differential permeation through a membrane formed with pentaerythritol triacrylate was observed and quantified by comparing the response of the membrane to fluorescein and fluorescently tagging 200 nm latex microspheres. Differential permeation was observed and quantified by comparing the response to rhodamine 560 and lactalbumin protein in a membrane formed with SPE-methylene bisacrylamide. The porous membranes illustrate the capability for the present technique to integrate sample cleanup into chip-based analysis systems.

  11. Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gasification Process for Synthetic Natural Gas and Hydrogen Coproduction Year 6 - Activity 1.14 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process for Synthetic Natural Gas and Hydrogen Coproduction Year 6 - Activity 1.14 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint

  12. Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gasification Process for Synthetic Natural Gas and Hydrogen Coproduction Year 6 - Activity 1.14 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process for Synthetic Natural Gas and Hydrogen Coproduction Year 6 - Activity 1.14 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint

  13. Huazhong Science Technology University Yongtai Science Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Huazhong Science Technology University Yongtai Science Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Huazhong Science & Technology University Yongtai Science & Technology Co...

  14. FLUX ENHANCEMENT IN CROSSFLOW MEMBRANE FILTRATION: FOULING AND IT'S MINIMIZATION BY FLOW REVERSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsuddin Ilias

    2005-01-25

    Fouling problems are perhaps the single most important reason for relatively slow acceptance of ultrafiltration in many areas of chemical and biological processing. To overcome the losses in permeate flux associated with concentration polarization and fouling in cross flow membrane filtration, we investigated the concept of flow reversal as a method to enhance membrane flux in ultrafiltration. Conceptually, flow reversal prevents the formation of stable hydrodynamic and concentration boundary layers at or near the membrane surface. Further more, periodic reversal of the flow direction of the feed stream at the membrane surface results in prevention and mitigation of membrane fouling. Consequently, these advantages are expected to enhance membrane flux significantly. A crossflow membrane filtration unit was designed and built to test the concept of periodic flow reversal for flux enhancement. The essential elements of the system include a crossflow hollow fiber membrane module integrated with a two-way valve to direct the feed flow directions. The two-way valve is controlled by a controller-timer for periodic reversal of flow of feed stream. Another important feature of the system is that with changing feed flow direction, the permeate flow direction is also changed to maintain countercurrent feed and permeate flows for enhanced mass transfer driving force (concentration difference). In this report, we report our application of Flow Reversal technique in clarification of apple juice containing pectin. The presence of pectin in apple juice makes the clarification process difficult and is believed to cause membrane fouling. Of all compounds found in apple juice, pectin is most often identified as the major hindrance to filtration performance. Based on our ultrafiltration experiments with apple juice, we conclude that under flow reversal conditions, the permeate flux is significantly enhanced when compared with the conventional unidirectional flow. Thus, flow reversal technology seems an attractive alternative to mitigate fouling problem in crossflow membrane filtration.

  15. Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

    2013-01-01

    Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

  16. NREL: Technology Deployment - Technology Acceleration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Acceleration NREL offers technology-specific assistance to federal and private industry to help address market barriers to sustainable energy technologies. Learn more about NREL's work in the following areas: Biopower and Waste-to-Energy Biopower and Waste-to-Energy Buildings Buildings Fuels, Vehicles, & Transportation Fuels, Vehicles, and Transportation Microgrid Design Microgrid Design Solar Solar Wind Wind Contact Us For more information on NREL's market transformation work,

  17. Thermally activated technologies: Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting Americas wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  18. Technology Assessment

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Roll to Roll (R2R) Processing 1 Technology Assessment 2 3 Contents 4 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 5 1.1. Introduction to R2R Processing..................................................................................................... 2 6 1.2. R2R Processing Mechanisms ......................................................................................................... 3 7 2.

  19. METHOD TO PREVENT SULFUR ACCUMULATION INSIDE MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.; Steeper, T.; Herman, D.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Elvington, M.

    2009-06-22

    HyS is conceptually the simplest of the thermochemical cycles and involves only sulfur chemistry. In the HyS Cycle hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced at the cathode of the electrochemical cell (or electrolyzer). Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is oxidized at the anode to form sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and protons (H{sup +}) as illustrated below. A separate high temperature reaction decomposes the sulfuric acid to water and sulfur dioxide which are recycled to the electrolyzers, and oxygen which is separated out as a secondary product. The electrolyzer includes a membrane that will allow hydrogen ions to pass through but block the flow of hydrogen gas. The membrane is also intended to prevent other chemical species from migrating between electrodes and undergoing undesired reactions that could poison the cathode or reduce overall process efficiency. In conventional water electrolysis, water is oxidized at the anode to produce protons and oxygen. The standard cell potential for conventional water electrolysis is 1.23 volts at 25 C. However, commercial electrolyzers typically require higher voltages ranging from 1.8 V to 2.6 V [Kirk-Othmer, 1991]. The oxidation of sulfur dioxide instead of water in the HyS electrolyzer occurs at a much lower potential. For example, the standard cell potential for sulfur dioxide oxidation at 25 C in 50 wt % sulfuric acid is 0.29 V [Westinghouse, 1980]. Since power consumption by the electrolyzers is equal to voltage times current, and current is proportional to hydrogen production, a large reduction in voltage results in a large reduction in electrical power cost per unit of hydrogen generated.

  20. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

  1. Technology Commercialization Showcase 2008 Vehicle Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Patrick B.

    2009-06-19

    Presentation illustrating various technology commercialization opportunities and unexploited investment gaps for the Vehicle Technologies Program.

  2. COMBUSTION-ASSISTED CO2 CAPTURE USING MECC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, K.; Gray, J.

    2012-03-30

    Mixed Electron and Carbonate ion Conductor (MECC) membranes have been proposed as a means to separate CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Here a modified MECC CO{sub 2} capture process is analyzed that supplements retentate pressurization and permeate evacuation as a means to create a CO{sub 2} driving force with a process assisted by the catalytic combustion of syngas on the permeate side of the membrane. The combustion reactions consume transported oxygen, making it unavailable for the backwards transport reaction. With this change, the MECC capture system becomes exothermic, and steam for electricity production may be generated from the waste heat. Greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} in the flue gas may be captured, and a compressed CO{sub 2} product stream is produced. A fossil-fueled power plant using this process would consume 14% more fuel per unit electricity produced than a power plant with no CO{sub 2} capture system, and has the potential to meet U.S. DOE's goal that deployment of a CO{sub 2} capture system at a fossil-fueled power plant should not increase the cost of electricity from the combined facility by more than 30%.

  3. Petrochemical feedstock from basic oxygen steel furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenwood, C.W.; Hardwick, W.E.

    1983-10-01

    Iron bath gasification in which coal, lime, steam and oxygen are injected into a bath of molten iron for the production of a medium-Btu gas is described. The process has its origin in basic oxygen steelmaking. It operates at high temperatures and is thus not restrictive on the type of coal used. The ash is retained in the slag. The process is also very efficient. The authors suggest that in the present economic climate in the iron and steel industry, such a plant could be sited where existing coal-handling, oxygen and steelmaking equipment are available.

  4. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pivovar, B.

    2012-02-01

    A workshop addressing the current state-of-the-art in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) was held May 8-9, 2011, at the Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. This workshop was the second of its kind, with the first being held December 11-13, 2006, in Phoenix, Arizona. The 2011 workshop and associated workshop report were created to assess the current state of AMFC technology (taking into account recent advances), investigate the performance potential of AMFC systems across all possible power ranges and applications, and identify the key research needs for commercial competitiveness in a variety of areas.

  5. Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology Polarization curves after cycling test of manufacturer&rsquo;s and LANL&rsquo;s MEAs. Curves were obtained at potential cycles from 0.6 to 1.0 V in H2/N2 conditions. The pt loading was 0.2 and 0.4 mg/cm2. Polarization curves after cycling test of manufacturer's and LANL's MEAs. Curves were obtained at potential cycles from 0.6 to 1.0 V in H2/N2 conditions. The

  6. Method for forming H2-permselective oxide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavalas, G.R.; Nam, S.W.; Tsapatsis, M.; Kim, S.

    1995-09-26

    Methods are disclosed for forming permselective oxide membranes that are highly selective to permeation of hydrogen by chemical deposition of reactants in the pore of porous tubes, such as Vycor{trademark} glass or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tubes. The porous tubes have pores extending through the tube wall. The process involves forming a stream containing a first reactant of the formula RX{sub n}, wherein R is silicon, titanium, boron or aluminum, X is chlorine, bromine or iodine, and n is a number which is equal to the valence of R; and forming another stream containing water vapor as the second reactant. Both of the reactant streams are passed along either the outside or the inside surface of a porous tube and the streams react in the pores of the porous tube to form a nonporous layer of R-oxide in the pores. The membranes are formed by the hydrolysis of the respective halides. In another embodiment, the first reactant stream contains a first reactant having the formula SiH{sub n}Cl{sub 4{minus}n} where n is 1, 2 or 3; and the second reactant stream contains water vapor and oxygen. In still another embodiment the first reactant stream containing a first reactant selected from the group consisting of Cl{sub 3}SiOSiCl{sub 3}, Cl{sub 3}SiOSiCl{sub 2}OSiCl{sub 3}, and mixtures thereof and the second reactant stream contains water vapor. In still another embodiment, membrane formation is carried out by an alternating flow deposition method. This involves a sequence of cycles, each cycle comprising introduction of the halide-containing stream and allowance of a specific time for reaction followed by purge and flow of the water vapor containing stream for a specific length of time. In all embodiments the nonporous layers formed are selectively permeable to hydrogen. 11 figs.

  7. Method for forming H2-permselective oxide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavalas, George R.; Nam, Suk Woo; Tsapatsis, Michael; Kim, Soojin

    1995-01-01

    Methods of forming permselective oxide membranes that are highly selective to permeation of hydrogen by chemical deposition of reactants in the pore of porous tubes, such as Vycor.TM. glass or Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 tubes. The porous tubes have pores extending through the tube wall. The process involves forming a stream containing a first reactant of the formula RX.sub.n, wherein R is silicon, titanium, boron or aluminum, X is chlorine, bromine or iodine, and n is a number which is equal to the valence of R; and forming another stream containing water vapor as the second reactant. Both of the reactant streams are passed along either the outside or the inside surface of a porous tube and the streams react in the pores of the porous tube to form a nonporous layer of R-oxide in the pores. The membranes are formed by the hydrolysis of the respective halides. In another embodiment, the first reactant stream contains a first reactant having the formula SiH.sub.n Cl.sub.4-n where n is 1, 2 or 3; and the second reactant stream contains water vapor and oxygen. In still another embodiment the first reactant stream containing a first reactant selected from the group consisting of Cl.sub.3 SiOSiCl.sub.3, Cl.sub.3 SiOSiCl.sub.2 OSiCl.sub.3, and mixtures thereof and the second reactant stream contains water vapor. In still another embodiment, membrane formation is carried out by an alternating flow deposition method. This involves a sequence of cycles, each cycle comprising introduction of the halide-containing stream and allowance of a specific time for reaction followed by purge and flow of the water vapor containing stream for a specific length of time. In all embodiments the nonporous layers formed are selectively permeable to hydrogen.

  8. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S

    2014-02-25

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  9. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2012-07-24

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  10. Nanofibrous membrane-based absorption refrigeration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isfahani, RN; Sampath, K; Moghaddam, S

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a study on the efficacy of highly porous nanofibrous membranes for application in membrane-based absorbers and desorbers. Permeability studies showed that membranes with a pore size greater than about one micron have a sufficient permeability for application in the absorber heat exchanger. Membranes with smaller pores were found to be adequate for the desorber heat exchanger. The membranes were implemented in experimental membrane-based absorber and desorber modules and successfully tested. Parametric studies were conducted on both absorber and desorber processes. Studies on the absorption process were focused on the effects of water vapor pressure, cooling water temperature, and the solution velocity on the absorption rate. Desorption studies were conducted on the effects of wall temperature, vapor and solution pressures, and the solution velocity on the desorption rate. Significantly higher absorption and desorption rates than in the falling film absorbers and desorbers were achieved. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Method of fabrication of supported liquid membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luebke, David R.; Hong, Lei; Myers, Christina R.

    2015-11-17

    Method for the fabrication of a supported liquid membrane having a dense layer in contact with a porous layer, and a membrane liquid layer within the interconnected pores of the porous layer. The dense layer is comprised of a solidified material having an average pore size less than or equal to about 0.1 nanometer, while the porous layer is comprised of a plurality of interconnected pores and has an average pore size greater than 10 nanometers. The supported liquid membrane is fabricated through the preparation of a casting solution of a membrane liquid and a volatile solvent. A pressure difference is established across the dense layer and porous layer, the casting solution is applied to the porous layer, and the low viscosity casting solution is drawn toward the dense layer. The volatile solvent is evaporated and the membrane liquid precipitates, generating a membrane liquid layer in close proximity to the dense layer.

  12. Tag: technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tags

    technology<...

  13. Technology Validation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To reduce solar technology risks, DOE and its partners evaluate the performance and reliability of novel photovoltaic (PV) hardware and systems through laboratory and field testing. The focus of...

  14. Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toy, L.G.; Pinnau, I.

    1996-03-26

    A process is described for separating C{sub 3}+ hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane. 6 figs.

  15. Experimental phasing for structure determination using membrane...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...rane-protein crystals grown by the lipid cubic phase method Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental phasing for structure determination using membrane-protein ...

  16. Partially fluorinated cyclic ionic polymers and membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhen-Yu

    2013-04-09

    Ionic polymers are made from selected partially fluorinated dienes, in which the repeat units are cycloaliphatic. The polymers are formed into membranes.

  17. Composite membranes and methods for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Routkevitch, Dmitri; Polyakov, Oleg G

    2012-07-03

    Composite membranes that are adapted for separation, purification, filtration, analysis, reaction and sensing. The composite membranes can include a porous support structure having elongate pore channels extending through the support structure. The composite membrane also includes an active layer comprising an active layer material, where the active layer material is completely disposed within the pore channels between the surfaces of the support structure. The active layer is intimately integrated within the support structure, thus enabling great robustness, reliability, resistance to mechanical stress and thermal cycling, and high selectivity. Methods for the fabrication of composite membranes are also provided.

  18. Natural gas treatment process using PTMSP membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toy, Lora G. (San Francisco, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A process for separating C.sub.3 + hydrocarbons, particularly propane and butane, from natural gas. The process uses a poly(trimethylsilylpropyne) membrane.

  19. Inorganic Membranes for Refinery Gas Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to push the performance limits of inorganic membranes for large-scale gas separations in refinery applications.

  20. Constant pressure high throughput membrane permeation testing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and flow rates on each side of the planar membrane throughout a sampling cycle. A digital controller may be utilized to position the retentate and permeate multiport valves...

  1. Nanocrystalline Separation Membrane for Improved Hydrogen Flux...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Improved Hydrogen Flux New processing technique to develop ionic transport membranes with improved ionic and electronic conductivity Savannah River National Laboratory...

  2. Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation |...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    polymercompositemembranes.pdf More Documents & Publications Process Intensification with Integrated Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor Process Development and Scale-up of Advanced...

  3. Measuring Physical Properties of Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented by Cortney Mittelsteadt of Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC, at the DOE High Temperature Membrane Working Group held September 14, 2006.

  4. Metallic Membrane Materials Development for Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Metallic Membrane Materials Development for Hydrogen Production from Coal Derived Syngas The goals of Office of Clean Coal are: (1) Improved energy security; (2) Reduced ...

  5. Operational feasibility of underwater Stirling engine systems using oxygen-seawater extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, I.J.; Reader, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    The exploration of the oceans whether for societal, commercial, scientific or military reasons requires efficient and cost effective underwater vehicles. In turn, these vessels require efficient means of producing on board power for the propulsion and hotel load requirements of long endurance missions. The Stirling engine, because of its inherent closed-cycle operation, has long been an attractive candidate for underwater use and now has proved its reliability and maintainability in the arduous environment of a naval submarine application. More recently the Stirling has been considered for use in small long endurance unmanned underwater vessels (UUVs). However, with these type of vehicles the need to carry an on board oxygen supply in a very confined space has presented a number of design problems. The concept of using multi-stage vehicles with disposable energy pods has been explored and appears attractive although a major change in submarine design philosophy will be required if such vehicles are to launched from submarines. Another approach is to use a more space efficient source of oxygen. As seawater contains dissolved oxygen then if this source could be utilized to meet all or at least part of the engine`s need than a major design problem could be overcome. In this paper the findings of an initial study into the use of membranes or artificial gill techniques to provide oxygen for a Stirling powered DARPA type vehicle are presented. It has been found that only in certain sea areas is the concept of oxygen extraction feasible for use with power systems. Even in situations where there are sufficient levels of dissolved oxygen the gill system approach appears to have limited utility for UUV applications and a number of practical problems still need to be addressed.

  6. Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Authors: Guo, Shaojun [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2014-03-27 OSTI Identifier: 1126640 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-28233 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: 247th ACS National

  7. Effect of cation ordering on oxygen vacancy diffusion pathways in double perovskites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Pilania, Ghanshyam

    2015-07-08

    Perovskite structured oxides (ABO3) are attractive for a number of technological applications, including as superionics because of the high oxygen conductivities they exhibit. Double perovskites (AA’BB’O6) provide even more flexibility for tailoring properties. Using accelerated molecular dynamics, we examine the role of cation ordering on oxygen vacancy mobility in one model double perovskite SrLaTiAlO6. We find that the mobility of the vacancy is very sensitive to the cation ordering, with a migration energy that varies from 0.6 to 2.7 eV. In the extreme cases, the mobility is both higher and lower than either of the two end member single perovskites.more » Further, the nature of oxygen vacancy diffusion, whether one-dimensional, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional, also varies with cation ordering. We correlate the dependence of oxygen mobility on cation structure to the distribution of Ti4+ cations, which provide unfavorable environments for the positively charged oxygen vacancy. The results demonstrate the potential of using tailored double perovskite structures to precisely control the behavior of oxygen vacancies in these materials.« less

  8. Magnetism in LithiumOxygen Discharge Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-13

    Nonaqueous lithiumoxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithiumoxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithiumoxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  9. Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments...

  10. Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oxygen And Carbon Isotope Ratios Of Hydrothermal Minerals From Yellowstone Drill Cores Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Oxygen...

  11. Artificial oxygen transport protein (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Artificial oxygen transport protein Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Artificial oxygen transport protein You are accessing a document from the Department of...

  12. Artificial oxygen transport protein (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Artificial oxygen transport protein Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Artificial oxygen transport protein This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable...

  13. Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique ...

  14. Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique Webinar: Testing Oxygen Reduction Reaction Activity with the Rotating Disc Electrode Technique ...

  15. Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines Advantages of Oxygenates Fuels over Gasoline in Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engines ...

  16. Self-powered Hydrogen + Oxygen Injection System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Self-powered Hydrogen + Oxygen Injection System Self-powered Hydrogen + Oxygen Injection System Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by ...

  17. Migration Mechanisms of Oxygen Interstitial Clusters in UO2 ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Migration Mechanisms of Oxygen Interstitial Clusters in UO2 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Migration Mechanisms of Oxygen Interstitial Clusters in UO2 Understanding the ...

  18. Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Oxygen-Enriched Combustion for Military Diesel Engine Generators Substantial increases in brake power and...

  19. Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray spectroscopy identification and DFT simulations of oxygenated intermediates on a platinum fuel-cell cathode. The study shows that two types of hydroxyl intermediates (non-hydrated OH and hydrated OH) with distinct activities coexist on a fuel-cell

  20. Demonstration of membrane aeration panels: City of Geneva Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the design, construction, and testing of membrane aeration panels at the Marsh Creek wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Geneva, NY. The operators at the Geneva plant have undertaken a long-term program to upgrade wastewater treatment processes and lower operating costs. The aging mechanical surface aerators at the Marsh Creek treatment plant were replaced by a state-of-the-art membrane panel system. This fine-bubble diffused air system offers higher oxygen transfer efficiency than surface aerators or other types of fine-bubble diffused-air systems. The project had four objectives: to decrease the amount of electricity used at the plant for aeration; to enable the plant`s existing aeration basins to accommodate higher organic loads and/or nitrify the wastewater should the need arise; to provide an even distribution of dissolved oxygen within the aeration basins to enhance biological wastewater treatment activity; and to provide technical data to assess the performance of the membrane panel system versus other forms of wastewater aeration.

  1. Hybrid Solvent-Membrane CO2 Capture: A Solvent/Membrane Hybrid Post-combustion CO2 Capture Process for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: The University of Kentucky is developing a hybrid approach to capturing CO2 from the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants. In the first, CO2 is removed as flue gas is passed through an aqueous ammonium-based solvent. In the second, carbon-rich solution from the CO2 absorber is passed through a membrane that is designed to selectively transport the bound carbon, enhancing its concentration on the permeate side. The team’s approach would combine the best of both membrane- and solventbased carbon capture technologies. Under the ARPA-E award, the team is enabling the membrane operation to be a drop-in solution.

  2. Fracture modes in tubular LSFCO ceramic membranes under graded reducing conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagendra, N.; Biswas, S.; Nithyanantham, T.; Bandopadhyay, S.

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ? Microstructural evolution in LSFCO membranes under graded environment is reported. ? The role of chemically induced stresses and oxygen deficiency is evaluated. ? The stress distribution is modeled by a point defect model. - Abstract: Chromium (III) oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3})-doped LaSrFeO{sub 3} perovskite, La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3??} (LSFCO), is being considered as a potential material for applications in solid oxide fuel cells, gas separation membranes, and electrochemical reactors because of its high electro-catalytic activity. Similar to other perovskites, the performance and mechanical strength of LSFCO materials are significantly affected by environment and temperature. Here, we report a fracture gradient phenomenon in tubular C-ring-shaped LSFCO ceramic membranes under graded reducing conditions. The graded reducing condition was produced by flushing N{sub 2} on the outer side of the C-ring membranes at 1000 C while keeping the inner side untreated. The rings were then diametrically compressed to fracture, and the resultant fracture morphology was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A fracture gradient with three distinct regions across the thickness of the membranes was identified on the split surfaces. In the outer region of the C-ring specimen exposed to N{sub 2}, a mixed inter/transgranular fracture with a predominant intergranular pattern was observed. In the middle section of the fracture surface, a characteristic transgranular fracture of the perovskite grains was found. At the inner region of the ring, a mixed inter/transgranular fracture with a predominant transgranular pattern occurred. The mechanism of gradient fractures was attributed both to chemically induced stresses caused by oxygen diffusion and to the formation of a separate phase of oxygen-deficient perovskite in the parent perovskite. The stresses generated were modeled by a point defect model. This work provides significant information on microstructure evolutions of tubular LSFCO membranes under graded reducing atmospheres.

  3. Sacrificial Protective Coating Materials That Can Be Regenerated In-Situ to Enable High-Performance Membranes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Protective Coating Materials ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Protective Coating Materials Sacrificial Protective Coating Materials That Can Be Regenerated In- Situ to Enable High-Performance Membranes Membrane Technology Provides Energy-Efficient Method to Concentrate Weak Black Liquor. Among the various manufacturing processes employed across all U.S. industries, the process of concentrating weak black liquor (WBL) in the pulp and paper industry is identifed as one of the largest energy reduction

  4. DOE Approves Field Test for Promising Carbon Capture Technology |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Approves Field Test for Promising Carbon Capture Technology DOE Approves Field Test for Promising Carbon Capture Technology November 20, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A promising post combustion membrane technology that can separate and capture 90 percent of the carbon dioxide (CO2) from a pulverized coal plant has been successfully demonstrated and received Department of Energy (DOE) approval to advance to a larger-scale field test. In an $18.75 million

  5. Advancing Fuel Cell Technology at Los Alamos | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Technology at Los Alamos Advancing Fuel Cell Technology at Los Alamos July 26, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis From fuel cell electric vehicles to portable power, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been a pioneer in advancing offer alternatives that will reduce the nation's energy and petroleum requirements, as well as decrease U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. Los Alamos' technology has enabled the manufacture of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells with one-tenth the platinum content of

  6. Stable trifluorostyrene containing compounds grafted to base polymers, and their use as polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhen-Yu (Hockessin, DE); Roelofs, Mark Gerrit (Hockessin, DE)

    2010-11-09

    A fluorinated ion exchange polymer prepared by grafting at least one grafting monomer on to at least one base polymer, wherein the grafting monomer comprises structure 1a or 1b: wherein Z comprises S, SO.sub.2, or POR wherein R comprises a linear or branched perfluoroalkyl group of 1 to 14 carbon atoms optionally containing oxygen or chlorine, an alkyl group of 1 to 8 carbon atoms, an aryl group of 6 to 12 carbon atoms or a substituted aryl group of 6 to 12 carbon atoms; RF comprises a linear or branched perfluoroalkene group of 1 to 20 carbon atoms, optionally containing oxygen or chlorine; Q is chosen from F, --OM, NH.sub.2, --N(M)SO.sub.2R.sup.2.sub.F, and C(M)(SO.sub.2R.sup.2.sub.F).sub.2, wherein M comprises H, an alkali cation, or ammonium; R.sup.2.sub.F groups comprises alkyl of 1 to 14 carbon atoms which may optionally include ether oxygens or aryl of 6 to 12 carbon atoms where the alkyl or aryl groups may be perfluorinated or partially fluorinated; and n is 1 or 2 for 1a, and n is 1, 2, or 3 for 1b. These ion exchange polymers are useful in preparing catalyst coated membranes and membrane electrode assemblies used in fuel cells.

  7. Technology Roadmap Analysis 2013: Assessing Automotive Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roadmap Analysis 2013: Assessing Automotive Technology R&D Relevant to DOE Power Electronics Cost Targets Technology Roadmap Analysis 2013: Assessing Automotive Technology R&D ...

  8. National Energy Technology Laboratory Technology Marketing Summaries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory Technology Marketing Summaries Here you'll find marketing summaries for technologies available for licensing from the National Energy...

  9. Bench-Scale Development of a Hybrid Membrane-Absorption CO{sub 2} Capture Process: Preliminary Cost Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, Brice; Kniep, Jay; Pingjiao, Hao; Baker, Richard; Rochelle, Gary; Chen, Eric; Frailie, Peter; Ding, Junyuan; Zhang, Yue

    2014-03-31

    This report describes a study of capture costs for a hybrid membrane-absorption capture system based on Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR)s low-pressure membrane contactors and the University of Texas at Austins 5 m piperazine (PZ) Advanced Flash Stripper (AFS; 5 m PZ AFS) based CO2 capture system. The report is submitted for NETL review, and may be superseded by a final topical report on this topic that will be submitted to satisfy the Task 2 report requirement of the current project (DE-FE0013118).

  10. Bilayer membrane interactions with nanofabricated scaffolds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Collier, Patrick C.

    2015-07-29

    Membrane function is facilitated by lateral organization within the lipid bilayer, including phase-separation of lipids into more ordered domains (lipid rafts) and anchoring of the membrane to a cytoskeleton. These features have proven difficult to reproduce in model membrane systems such as black lipid membranes, unilamellar vesicles and supported bilayers. However, advances in micro/nanofabrication have resulted in more realistic synthetic models of membrane-cytoskeleton interactions that can help uncover the design rules responsible for biological membrane formation and organization. This review will focus on describing micro-/nanostructured scaffolds that can emulate the connections of a cellular membrane to an underlying “cytoskeleton”. Thismore » includes molecular-based scaffolds anchored to a solid substrate through surface chemistry, solid-state supports modified by material deposition, lithography and etching, the creation of micro/nanoporous arrays, integration with microfluidics, and droplet-based bilayers at interfaces.Model systems such as these are increasing our understanding of structure and organization in cell membranes, and how they result in the emergence of functionality at the nanoscale.« less

  11. 2010 Membranes: Materials & Processes Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerry Lin

    2010-07-30

    The GRC series on Membranes: Materials and Processes have gained significant international recognition, attracting leading experts on membranes and other related areas from around the world. It is now known for being an interdisciplinary and synergistic meeting. The next summer's edition will keep with the past tradition and include new, exciting aspects of material science, chemistry, chemical engineering, computer simulation with participants from academia, industry and national laboratories. This edition will focus on cutting edge topics of membranes for addressing several grand challenges facing our society, in particular, energy, water, health and more generally sustainability. During the technical program, we want to discuss new membrane structure and characterization techniques, the role of advanced membranes and membrane-based processes in sustainability/environment (including carbon dioxide capture), membranes in water processes, and membranes for biological and life support applications. As usual, the informal nature of the meeting, excellent quality of the oral presentations and posters, and ample opportunity to meet many outstanding colleagues make this an excellent conference for established scientists as well as for students. A Gordon Research Seminar (GRS) on the weekend prior to the GRC meeting will provide young researchers an opportunity to present their work and network with outstanding experts. It will also be a right warm-up for the conference participants to join and enjoy the main conference.

  12. Zein Recovery Using Non-Porous Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mairal, Anurag P. (Fremont, CA); Ng, Alvin (Palo Alto, CA); Wijmans, Johannes G. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2005-01-25

    A membrane process for treating zein solutions to increase the zein concentration in the solution. The process uses a non-porous membrane that preferentially permeates the solvent and rejects the zein. Optionally, the process can be operated as a diafiltration process to yield a concentrate of high zein purity.

  13. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2007-03-27

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  14. Defect-free ultrahigh flux asymmetric membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinnau, Ingo (Austin, TX); Koros, William J. (Austin, TX)

    1990-01-01

    Defect-free, ultrahigh flux integrally-skinned asymmetric membranes having extremely thin surface layers (<0.2 .mu.m) comprised of glassy polymers are disclosed. The membranes are formed by casting an appropriate drope followed by forced convective evaporation of solvent to obtain a dry phase separated asymmetrical structure. The structure is then washed in a precipitation liquid and dried.

  15. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2005-12-20

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  16. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caldwell, K.D.; Chu, T.J.; Pitt, W.G.

    1992-05-12

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through amino groups contained on the surface. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to the target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membranes may be reprobed numerous times. No Drawings

  17. Novel polymer membrane process for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture from coal-fired syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merkel, Tim

    2011-09-14

    This final report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of a novel polymer membrane process for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture from coalfired syngas (award number DE-FE0001124). The work was conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) from September 15, 2009, through December 14, 2011. Tetramer Technologies, LLC (Tetramer) was our subcontract partner on this project. The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) at Wilsonville, AL, provided access to syngas gasifier test facilities. The main objective of this project was to develop a cost-effective membrane process that could be used in the relatively near-term to capture CO{sub 2} from shifted syngas generated by a coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant. In this project, novel polymeric membranes (designated as Proteus membranes) with separation properties superior to conventional polymeric membranes were developed. Hydrogen permeance of up to 800 gpu and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity of >12 was achieved using a simulated syngas mixture at 150C and 50 psig, which exceeds the original project targets of 200 gpu for hydrogen permeance and 10 for H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity. Lab-scale Proteus membrane modules (with a membrane area of 0.13 m{sup 2}) were also developed using scaled-up Proteus membranes and high temperature stable module components identified during this project. A mixed-gas hydrogen permeance of about 160 gpu and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity of >12 was achieved using a simulated syngas mixture at 150C and 100 psig. We believe that a significant improvement in the membrane and module performance is likely with additional development work. Both Proteus membranes and lab-scale Proteus membrane modules were further evaluated using coal-derived syngas streams at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The results indicate that all module components, including the Proteus membrane, were stable under the field conditions (feed pressures: 150-175 psig and feed temperatures: 120-135C) for over 600 hours. The field performance of both Proteus membrane stamps and Proteus membrane modules is consistent with the results obtained in the lab, suggesting that the presence of sulfur-containing compounds (up to 780 ppm hydrogen sulfide), saturated water vapor, carbon monoxide and heavy hydrocarbons in the syngas feed stream has no adverse effect on the Proteus membrane or module performance. We also performed an economic analysis for a number of membrane process designs developed in this project (using hydrogen-selective membranes, alone or in the combination with CO{sub 2}- selective membranes). The current field performance for Proteus membranes was used in the design analysis. The study showed the current best design has the potential to reduce the increase in Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) caused by 90% CO{sub 2} capture to about 15% if co-sequestration of H{sub 2}S is viable. This value is still higher than the DOE target for increase in LCOE (10%); however, compared to the base-case Selexol process that gives a 30% increase in LCOE at 90% CO2 capture, the membrane-based process appears promising. We believe future improvements in membrane performance have the potential to reach the DOE target.

  18. Methods of making membrane electrode assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Lee, Kwan -Soo; Rockward, Tommy Q. T.

    2015-07-28

    Method of making a membrane electrode assembly comprising: providing a membrane comprising a perfluorinated sulfonic acid; providing a first transfer substrate; applying to a surface of the first transfer substrate a first ink, said first ink comprising an ionomer and a catalyst; applying to the first ink a suitable non-aqueous swelling agent; forming an assembly comprising: the membrane; and the first transfer substrate, wherein the surface of the first transfer substrate comprising the first ink and the non-aqueous swelling agent is disposed upon one surface of the membrane; and heating the assembly at a temperature of 150.degree. C. or less and at a pressure of from about 250 kPa to about 3000 kPa or less for a time suitable to allow substantially complete transfer of the first ink and the second ink to the membrane; and cooling the assembly to room temperature and removing the first transfer substrate and the second transfer substrate.

  19. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1994-01-01

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques.

  20. Fuel cell subassemblies incorporating subgasketed thrifted membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iverson, Eric J; Pierpont, Daniel M; Yandrasits, Michael A; Hamrock, Steven J; Obradovich, Stephan J; Peterson, Donald G

    2014-01-28

    A fuel cell roll good subassembly is described that includes a plurality of individual electrolyte membranes. One or more first subgaskets are attached to the individual electrolyte membranes. Each of the first subgaskets has at least one aperture and the first subgaskets are arranged so the center regions of the individual electrolyte membranes are exposed through the apertures of the first subgaskets. A second subgasket comprises a web having a plurality of apertures. The second subgasket web is attached to the one or more first subgaskets so the center regions of the individual electrolyte membranes are exposed through the apertures of the second subgasket web. The second subgasket web may have little or no adhesive on the subgasket surface facing the electrolyte membrane.