Sample records for membrane fuel cell

  1. Microcomposite Fuel Cell Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summary of microcomposite fuel cell membrane work presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003

  2. Composite fuel cell membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plowman, Keith R. (Lake Jackson, TX); Rehg, Timothy J. (Lake Jackson, TX); Davis, Larry W. (West Columbia, TX); Carl, William P. (Marble Falls, TX); Cisar, Alan J. (Cypress, TX); Eastland, Charles S. (West Columbia, TX)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  3. Composite fuel cell membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plowman, K.R.; Rehg, T.J.; Davis, L.W.; Carl, W.P.; Cisar, A.J.; Eastland, C.S.

    1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane is described suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  4. Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) A revolutionary method of building a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for...

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: fuel cell membrane

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    membrane ECIS-Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation: Hydrocarbon Membrane Fuels the Success of Future Generation Vehicles On February 14, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Energy Efficiency,...

  6. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grot, Stephen [President, Ion Power Inc.] President, Ion Power Inc.

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most challenging aspects of traditional PEM fuel cell stacks is the difficulty achieving the platinum catalyst utilization target of 0.2 gPt/kWe set forth by the DOE. Good catalyst utilization can be achieved with state-of-the-art catalyst coated membranes (CCM) when low catalyst loadings (<0.3 mg/cm2) are used at a low current. However, when low platinum loadings are used, the peak power density is lower than conventional loadings, requiring a larger total active area and a larger bipolar plate. This results in a lower overall stack power density not meeting the DOE target. By corrugating the fuel cell membrane electrode structure, Ion Power?s goal is to realize both the Pt utilization targets as well as the power density targets of the DOE. This will be achieved by demonstrating a fuel cell single cell (50 cm2) with a twofold increase in the membrane active area over the geometric area of the cell by corrugating the MEA structure. The corrugating structure must be able to demonstrate the target properties of < 10 mOhm-cm2 electrical resistance at > 20 psi compressive strength over the active area, in combination with offering at least 80% of power density that can be achieved by using the same MEA in a flat plate structure. Corrugated membrane fuel cell structures also have the potential to meet DOE power density targets by essentially packaging more membrane area into the same fuel cell volume as compared to conventional stack constructions.

  7. New Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on New Membranes for PEM Fuel Cells to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  8. DYNAMIC MODELING PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    DYNAMIC MODELING PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL OVERVIEW Current/Completed Plug Power to garner SCAQMD funding for fuel cell testing GenCore system is sensitive to diluents · As built design stream to compensate for removal of EGR · Functionality of the modified GenCore Fuel Cell system

  9. Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton exchange membrane, also known as polymer electrolyte membrane, fuel cells (PEMFCs) offer the promise of efficient conversion of chemical energy of fuel, such as hydrogen or methanol, into electricity with minimal pollution. Their widespread use to power zero-emission automobiles as part of a hydrogen economy can contribute to enhanced energy security and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, the commercial viability of PEMFC technology is hindered by high cost associated with the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and poor membrane durability under prolonged operation at elevated temperature. Membranes for automotive fuel cell applications need to perform well over a period comparable to the life of an automotive engine and under heavy load cycling including start-stop cycling under sub-freezing conditions. The combination of elevated temperature, changes in humidity levels, physical stresses and harsh chemical environment contribute to membrane degradation. Perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA)-based membranes, such as Nafion®, have been the mainstay of PEMFC technology. Their limitations, in terms of cost and poor conductivity at low hydration, have led to continuing research into membranes that have good proton conductivity at elevated temperatures above 120 °C and under low humidity conditions. Such membranes have the potential to avoid catalyst poisoning, simplify fuel cell design and reduce the cost of fuel cells. Hydrocarbon-based membranes are being developed as alternatives to PFSA membranes, but concerns about chemical and mechanical stability and durability remain. Novel anhydrous membranes based on polymer gels infused with protic ionic liquids have also been recently proposed, but considerable fundamental research is needed to understand proton transport in novel membranes and evaluate durability under fuel cell operating conditions. In order to advance this promising technology, it is essential to rationally design the next generation of PEMs based on an understanding of chemistry, membrane morphology and proton transport obtained from experiment, theory and computer simulation.

  10. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes at the University of Southern Mississipp...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes at the University of Southern Mississippi Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes at the University of Southern Mississippi April 16, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis...

  11. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report B. Pivovar National Renewable Energy Laboratory Proceedings from the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Arlington, Virginia...

  12. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board...

  13. Diffuse charge effects in fuel cell membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biesheuvel, P. M.

    It is commonly assumed that electrolyte membranes in fuel cells are electrically neutral, except in unsteady situations, when the double-layer capacitance is heuristically included in equivalent circuit calculations. Indeed, ...

  14. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  15. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  16. Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); York, Cynthia A. (Newington, CT); Waszczuk, Piotr (White Bear Lake, MN); Wieckowski, Andrzej (Champaign, IL)

    2009-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

  17. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

    2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project was the development and evaluation of novel hydrocarbon fuel cell (FC) membranes that possess high temperature performance and long term chemical/mechanical durability in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FC). The major research theme was synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbon polymers of the poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES) type containing sulfonic acid groups tethered to the backbone via perfluorinated alkylene linkages and in some cases also directly attached to the phenylene groups along the backbone. Other research themes were the use of nitrogen-based heterocyclics instead of acid groups for proton conduction, which provides high temperature, low relative humidity membranes with high mechanical/thermal/chemical stability and pendant moieties that exhibit high proton conductivities in the absence of water, and synthesis of block copolymers consisting of a proton conducting block coupled to poly(perfluorinated propylene oxide) (PFPO) blocks. Accomplishments of the project were as follows: 1) establishment of a vertically integrated program of synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of FC membranes, 2) establishment of benchmark membrane performance data based on Nafion for comparison to experimental membrane performance, 3) development of a new perfluoroalkyl sulfonate monomer, N,N-diisopropylethylammonium 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl) pentafluoropropanesulfonate (HPPS), 4) synthesis of random and block copolymer membranes from HPPS, 5) synthesis of block copolymer membranes containing high-acid-concentration hydrophilic blocks consisting of HPPS and 3,3'-disulfonate-4,4'-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (sDCDPS), 6) development of synthetic routes to aromatic polymer backbones containing pendent 1H-1,2,3-triazole moieties, 7) development of coupling strategies to create phase-separated block copolymers between hydrophilic sulfonated prepolymers and commodity polymers such as PFPO, 8) establishment of basic performance properties of experimental membranes, 9) fabrication and FC performance testing of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) from experimental membranes, and 10) measurement of ex situ and in situ membrane durability of experimental membranes. Although none of the experimental hydrocarbon membranes that issued from the project displayed proton conductivities that met DOE requirements, the project contributed to our basic understanding of membrane structure-property relationships in a number of key respects. An important finding of the benchmark studies is that physical degradation associated with humidity and temperature variations in the FC tend to open new fuel crossover pathways and act synergistically with chemical degradation to accelerate overall membrane degradation. Thus, for long term membrane survival and efficient fuel utilization, membranes must withstand internal stresses due to humidity and temperature changes. In this respect, rigid aromatic hydrocarbon fuel cell membranes, e.g. PAES, offer an advantage over un-modified Nafion membranes. The benchmark studies also showed that broadband dielectric spectroscopy is a potentially powerful tool in assessing shifts in the fundamental macromolecular dynamics caused by Nafion chemical degradation, and thus, this technique is of relevance in interrogating proton exchange membrane durability in fuel cells and macromolecular dynamics as coupled to proton migration, which is of fundamental relevance in proton exchange membranes in fuel cells. A key finding from the hydrocarbon membrane synthesis effort was that rigid aromatic polymers containing isolated ion exchange groups tethered tightly to the backbone (short tether), such as HPPS, provide excellent mechanical and durability properties but do not provide sufficient conductivity, in either random or block configuration, when used as the sole ion exchange monomer. However, we continue to hypothesize that longer tethers, and tethered groups spaced more closely within the hydrophilic chain elements of the polymer, will yield highly conductive materials with excellent mech

  18. Catalytic membranes for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Bolingbrook, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Naperville, IL)

    2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell of the present invention comprises a cathode and an anode, one or both of the anode and the cathode including a catalyst comprising a bundle of longitudinally aligned graphitic carbon nanotubes including a catalytically active transition metal incorporated longitudinally and atomically distributed throughout the graphitic carbon walls of said nanotubes. The nanotubes also include nitrogen atoms and/or ions chemically bonded to the graphitic carbon and to the transition metal. Preferably, the transition metal comprises at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, and Cr.

  19. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  20. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  1. Fuel cell subassemblies incorporating subgasketed thrifted membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iverson, Eric J; Pierpont, Daniel M; Yandrasits, Michael A; Hamrock, Steven J; Obradovich, Stephan J; Peterson, Donald G

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell roll good subassembly is described that includes a plurality of individual electrolyte membranes. One or more first subgaskets are attached to the individual electrolyte membranes. Each of the first subgaskets has at least one aperture and the first subgaskets are arranged so the center regions of the individual electrolyte membranes are exposed through the apertures of the first subgaskets. A second subgasket comprises a web having a plurality of apertures. The second subgasket web is attached to the one or more first subgaskets so the center regions of the individual electrolyte membranes are exposed through the apertures of the second subgasket web. The second subgasket web may have little or no adhesive on the subgasket surface facing the electrolyte membrane.

  2. Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Model Compound Studies of Fuel Cell Membrane Degradation to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  3. Grafted polyelectrolyte membranes for lithium batteries and fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MEMBRANES FOR LITHIUM BATTERIES AND FUEL CELLS. John Kerralso be discussed. Lithium Batteries for Transportation andpolymer membrane for lithium batteries. This paper will give

  4. Development of Advanced High Temperature Fuel Cell Membranes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Development of Advanced High Temperature Fuel Cell Membranes to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Arlington, Virginia, May 26,2005.

  5. The Path a Proton Takes Through a Fuel Cell Membrane

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Path a Proton Takes Through a Fuel Cell Membrane The Path a Proton Takes Through a Fuel Cell Membrane October 11, 2012 | Tags: Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Chemistry, Franklin,...

  6. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  7. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY); Walsh, Michael M. (Fairfield, CT)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  8. 2007 Status of Manufacturing: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheeler, D.; Sverdrup, G.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this document we assess the North American industry's current ability to manufacture polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells.

  9. Water Visualization and Flooding in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Water Visualization and Flooding in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Brian Holsclaw West- 2H2O e- e- e- e- e- H+ H+ H+ Membrane + Schematic of a PEMFC Operation #12;PFR PEM Fuel Cell Plug for membrane Two-phase flow in channels #12;CSTR PEM Fuel Cell Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor (CSTR) "Perfect

  10. Membrane processes relevant for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Membrane processes relevant for the polymer electrolyte fuel cell Aleksander Kolstad Chemical. The important aspects concerning the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell, more commonly known as Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), have been studied in two separate parts. Part 1 of the thesis

  11. Investigation of Transient Phenomena of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Investigation of Transient Phenomena of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells by Roongrojana of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells by Roongrojana Songprakorp BSc, Prince of Songkhla University to the modeling and under- standing of the dynamic behavior of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs

  12. Nafion-sepiolite composite membranes for improved Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell performance.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Nafion®-sepiolite composite membranes for improved Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell performance, characterized and integrated in Membrane-Electrodes Assembly to be tested in fuel cell operating conditions, mobile or stationary), Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) are amongst the most studied fuel

  13. Computational Modeling and Optimization of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Computational Modeling and Optimization of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells by Marc Secanell and Optimization of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells by Marc Secanell Gallart Bachelor in Engineering cells. In this thesis, a computational framework for fuel cell analysis and optimization is presented

  14. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2011-3119 Unlimited Release Printed May 2011 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes Joseph W. Pratt,...

  15. Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Welcome and OverviewInnovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Welcome and Overview Innovation for Our Energy Future Bryan Pivovar National Renewable Energy Laboratory AMFC Workshop May 8, 2011 Innovation...

  16. Fuel cell using novel electrolyte membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polak, A.J.; Beuhler, A.J.

    1986-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for producing electricity from a fuel gas having a gaseous component which is capable, in the presence of a catalytic agent, of dissociating to yield hydrogen ions comprising: (a) a thin film organic-inorganic membrane which comprises a single phase blend from about 1% to about 70% by weight of a heteropoly acid and salts; (b) a membrane housing comprising a fuel gas chamber and an oxidant gas chamber separated by a substantially imporous partition comprising the membrane defined in element (a), the membrane having a first surface in communication with the fuel gas chamber and a second surface in communication with the oxidant gas chamber; (c) two separate portions of catalytic agent effective to promote dissociation and combination, one portion in contact with the first surface of the membrane and one portion in contact with the second surface of the membrane; and, (d) means for forming electrical connection in operative contact with the catalytic agent in contact with the first surface of the membrane and in operative contact with the catalytic agent in contact with the second surface of the membrane.

  17. A Hybrid Microbial Fuel Cell Membrane Bioreactor with a Conductive Ultrafiltration Membrane Biocathode for Wastewater Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Hybrid Microbial Fuel Cell Membrane Bioreactor with a Conductive Ultrafiltration Membrane-biocathode microbial fuel cell- membrane bioreactor (MFC-MBR) system was developed to achieve simultaneous wastewater that some of these systems require wastewater aeration. Treatment technologies such as membrane bioreactors

  18. The Stirred Tank Reactor Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benziger, J; Karnas, E; Moxley, J; Teuscher, C; Kevrekidis, Yu G; Benziger, Jay

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and operation of a differential Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell is described. The fuel cell design is based on coupled Stirred Tank Reactors (STR); the gas phase in each reactor compartment was well mixed. The characteristic times for reactant flow, gas phase diffusion and reaction were chosen so that the gas compositions at both the anode and cathode are uniform. The STR PEM fuel cell is one-dimensional; the only spatial gradients are transverse to the membrane. The STR PEM fuel cell was employed to examine fuel cell start- up, and its dynamic responses to changes in load, temperature and reactant flow rates. Multiple time scales in systems response are found to correspond to water absorption by the membrane, water transport through the membrane and stress-related mechanical changes of the membrane.

  19. Design and optimization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Design and optimization of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells M. Grujicic* , K optimization algorithm to determine an optimum design of the fuel cell with respect to the operation difference has the largest effect on the predicted polarization curve of the fuel cell. However, the optimal

  20. Using Fuel Cell Membranes to Improve Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening aTurbulence mayUndergraduateAboutUser ServicesUsers'bbcpFuel Cell

  1. Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEA :Work with Jefferson Lab | JeffersonDurable Fuel Cell

  2. Self-humidified proton exchange membrane fuel cells: Operation of larger cells and fuel cell stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhar, H.P.; Lee, J.H.; Lewinski, K.A. [BCS Technology, Inc., Bryan, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The PEM fuel cell is promising as the power source for use in mobile and stationary applications primarily because of its high power density, all solid components, and simplicity of operation. For wide acceptability of this power source, its cost has to be competitive with the presently available energy sources. The fuel cell requires continuous humidification during operation as a power source. The humidification unit however, increases fuel cell volume, weight, and therefore decreases its overall power density. Great advantages in terms of further fuel cell simplification can be achieved if the humidification process can be eliminated or minimized. In addition, cost reductions are associated with the case of manufacturing and operation. At BCS Technology we have developed a technology of self-humidified operation of PEM fuel cells based on the mass balance of the reactants and products and the ability of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) to retain water necessary for humidification under the cell operating conditions. The reactants enter the fuel cell chambers without carrying any form of water, whether in liquid or vapor form. Basic principles of self-humidified operation of fuel cells as practiced by BCS Technology, Inc. have been presented previously in literature. Here, we report the operation of larger self-humidified single cells and fuel cell stacks. Fuel cells of areas Up to 100 cm{sup 2} have been operated. We also show the self-humidified operation of fuel cell stacks of 50 and 100 cm{sup 2} electrode areas.

  3. Polymer-electrolyte membrane, electrochemical fuel cell, and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Lakshmi; Yeager, Gary William; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer-electrolyte membrane is presented. The polymer-electrolyte membrane comprises an acid-functional polymer, and an additive incorporated in at least a portion of the membrane. The additive comprises a fluorinated cycloaliphatic additive, a hydrophobic cycloaliphatic additive, or combinations thereof, wherein the additive has a boiling point greater than about 120.degree. C. An electrochemical fuel cell including the polymer-electrolyte membrane, and a related method, are also presented.

  4. Interferometric tomography of fuel cells for monitoring membrane water content

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waller, Laura

    We have developed a system that uses two 1D interferometric phase projections for reconstruction of 2D water content changes over time in situ in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system. By modifying the filtered ...

  5. Catalytic membranes for CO oxidation in fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandi-Tapia, Giselle; Carrado Gregar, Kathleen; Kizilel, Riza

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen permeable membrane, which includes a polymer stable at temperatures of about 200 C having clay impregnated with Pt or Au or Ru or Pd particles or mixtures thereof with average diameters of less than about 10 nanometers (nms) is disclosed. The membranes are useful in fuel cells or any device which requires hydrogen to be separated from carbon monoxide.

  6. Improved Membrane Materials for PEM Fuel Cell Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth A. Mauritz; Robert B. Moore

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of this project is to collect and integrate critical structure/property information in order to develop methods that lead to significant improvements in the durability and performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) materials. This project is focused on the fundamental improvement of PEMFC membrane materials with respect to chemical, mechanical and morphological durability as well as the development of new inorganically-modified membranes.

  7. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with acidic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolyte membrane is formed by an acidic polymer and a low-volatility acid that is fluorinated, substantially free of basic groups, and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric.

  8. Theory of proton exchange membranes fuel cells and the testing of performance characteristics of polymer electrolyte membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cruz-Gonzalez, Tizoc, 1982-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells hold great promise as source of power. A hydrogen and oxygen PEM fuel is a simple fuel cell that can be theoretically characterized. The performance of a PEM fuel cell can be ...

  9. Recent developments in proton exchange membranes for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami

    2008-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton exchange membranes (PEMs) that operate at temperatures above 120 °C are needed to avoid catalyst poisoning, speed up electrochemical reactions, simplify the design and reduce the cost of fuel cells. This review summarizes developments in PEMs over the last five years. In order to design new membranes for elevated temperature operation, one must understand the chemistry, morphology and dynamics of protons and small molecules in existing membranes. The integration of experiments with modeling and simulation can shed light on the hierarchical structure of the membrane and dynamical processes associated with molecular transport. Based on such a fundamental understanding, membranes can be modified by controlling the polymer chemistry and architecture or adding inorganic fillers that can retain water under low relative humidity conditions. In addition, the development of anhydrous membranes based on phosphoric acid doped polymers, ionic liquid-infused polymer gels and solid acids can enable fuel cell operation above 150 °C. Considerable work remains to be done to identify proton transport mechanisms in novel membranes and evaluate membrane durability under real world operating conditions.

  10. Conductivity Measurements of Synthesized Heteropoly Acid Membranes for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Record, K.A.; Haley, B.T.; Turner, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cell technology is receiving attention due to its potential to be a pollution free method of electricity production when using renewably produced hydrogen as fuel. In a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell H2 and O2 react at separate electrodes, producing electricity, thermal energy, and water. A key component of the PEM fuel cell is the membrane that separates the electrodes. DuPont’s Nafion® is the most commonly used membrane in PEM fuel cells; however, fuel cell dehydration at temperatures near 100°C, resulting in poor conductivity, is a major hindrance to fuel cell performance. Recent studies incorporating heteropoly acids (HPAs) into membranes have shown an increase in conductivity and thus improvement in performance. HPAs are inorganic materials with known high proton conductivities. The primary objective of this work is to measure the conductivity of Nafion, X-Ionomer membranes, and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Developed Membranes that are doped with different HPAs at different concentrations. Four-point conductivity measurements using a third generation BekkTech? conductivity test cell are used to determine membrane conductivity. The effect of multiple temperature and humidification levels is also examined. While the classic commercial membrane, Nafion, has a conductivity of approximately 0.10 S/cm, measurements for membranes in this study range from 0.0030 – 0.58 S/cm, depending on membrane type, structure of the HPA, and the relative humidity. In general, the X-ionomer with H6P2W21O71 HPA gave the highest conductivity and the Nafion with the 12-phosphotungstic (PW12) HPA gave the lowest. The NREL composite membranes had conductivities on the order of 0.0013 – 0.025 S/cm.

  11. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, James M.; Pham, Phat T.; Frey, Matthew H.; Hamrock, Steven J.; Haugen, Gregory M.; Lamanna, William M.

    2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  12. Fuel cell electrolyte membrane with basic polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, James M. (Saint Paul, MN); Pham, Phat T. (Little Canada, MN); Frey, Matthew H. (Cottage Grove, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (Stillwater, MN); Haugen, Gregory M. (Edina, MN); Lamanna, William M. (Stillwater, MN)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an electrolyte membrane comprising an acid and a basic polymer, where the acid is a low-volatile acid that is fluorinated and is either oligomeric or non-polymeric, and where the basic polymer is protonated by the acid and is stable to hydrolysis.

  13. InVited Feature Article Water Dynamics and Proton Transfer in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    InVited Feature Article Water Dynamics and Proton Transfer in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes David E is the most widely used polyelectrolyte membrane in fuel cells. Ultrafast infrared spectroscopy of the O but has since become the most commonly used membrane separator in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

  14. Water Management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    ;Data Compilation ­What's Important? 1. SlugVolume (Dimensionless) Required to calculate how much power the channel (P_slug) Required to calculate how much power it takes to remove a slug Pslug #12;Square ChannelWater Management in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells Catherine Chan & Lauren Isbell

  15. Arylene-fluorinated-sulfonimide ionomers and membranes for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teasley, Mark F. (Landenberg, PA)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The preparation of aromatic sulfonimide polymers useful as membranes in electrochemical cells is described.

  16. Transport properties and fuel cell performance of sulfonated poly(imide) proton exchange membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transport properties and fuel cell performance of sulfonated poly(imide) proton exchange membranes for their performance as proton exchange membranes in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). The proton to methanol of chemical fuels, such as methanol [3]. For portable applications, proton exchange membrane fuel cells

  17. PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL OPERATION AND DEGRADATION IN SHORT-CIRCUIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL OPERATION AND DEGRADATION IN SHORT-CIRCUIT R.E. Silvaa, b, d , F exchange membrane fuel cells, short circuit, degradation mechanism, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy an electrical short circuit of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell stack. The physical quantities in the fuel

  18. Supporting Information A Hybrid Microbial Fuel Cell Membrane Bioreactor with a Conductive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Supporting Information A Hybrid Microbial Fuel Cell Membrane Bioreactor of Membrane Bioreactors in Water and Wastewater Treatment. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science, 2006. #12

  19. 160 C PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE (PEM) FUEL CELL SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.G. Marianowski

    2001-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this program were: (a) to develop and demonstrate a new polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system that operates up to 160 C temperatures and at ambient pressures for stationary power applications, and (b) to determine if the GTI-molded composite graphite bipolar separator plate could provide long term operational stability at 160 C or higher. There are many reasons that fuel cell research has been receiving much attention. Fuel cells represent environmentally friendly and efficient sources of electrical power generation that could use a variety of fuel sources. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI), formerly Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), is focused on distributed energy stationary power generation systems. Currently the preferred method for hydrogen production for stationary power systems is conversion of natural gas, which has a vast distribution system in place. However, in the conversion of natural gas into a hydrogen-rich fuel, traces of carbon monoxide are produced. Carbon monoxide present in the fuel gas will in time cumulatively poison, or passivate the active platinum catalysts used in the anodes of PEMFC's operating at temperatures of 60 to 80 C. Various fuel processors have incorporated systems to reduce the carbon monoxide to levels below 10 ppm, but these require additional catalytic section(s) with sensors and controls for effective carbon monoxide control. These CO cleanup systems must also function especially well during transient load operation where CO can spike 300% or more. One way to circumvent the carbon monoxide problem is to operate the fuel cell at a higher temperature where carbon monoxide cannot easily adsorb onto the catalyst and poison it. Commercially available polymer membranes such as Nafion{trademark} are not capable of operation at temperatures sufficiently high to prevent this. Hence this project investigated a new polymer membrane alternative to Nafion{trademark} that is capable of operation at temperatures up to 160 C.

  20. Computer Modeling Illuminates Degradation Pathways of Cations in Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cation degradation insights obtained by computational modeling could result in better performance and longer lifetime for alkaline membrane fuel cells.

  1. Three steps in the anode reaction of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Effect of CO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Three steps in the anode reaction of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Effect of CO Anne in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS mechanism 1. Introduction In the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), the largest overpotential

  2. Alkaline membrane fuel cells with in-situ cross-linked ionomers Yongjun Leng a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    optimization is needed for the commercialization of alkaline membrane fuel cell (AMFC) technologiesAlkaline membrane fuel cells with in-situ cross-linked ionomers Yongjun Leng a , Lizhu Wang b membrane fuel cell (AMFC) in-situ cross-linking ionomer net water transport coefficient A B S T R A C

  3. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pivovar, B.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A workshop addressing the current state-of-the-art in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) was held May 8-9, 2011, at the Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. This workshop was the second of its kind, with the first being held December 11-13, 2006, in Phoenix, Arizona. The 2011 workshop and associated workshop report were created to assess the current state of AMFC technology (taking into account recent advances), investigate the performance potential of AMFC systems across all possible power ranges and applications, and identify the key research needs for commercial competitiveness in a variety of areas.

  4. Grafted polyelectrolyte membranes for lithium batteries and fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Polyelectrolyte materials have been developed for lithium battery systems in response to the severe problems due to salt concentration gradients that occur in composite electrodes (aka membrane-electrode assemblies). Comb branch polymer architectures are described which allow for grafting of appropriate anions on to the polymer and also for cross-linking to provide for appropriate mechanical properties. The interactions of the polymers with the electrode surfaces are critical for the performance of the system and some of the structural features that influence this will be described. Parallels with the fuel cell MEA structures exist and will also be discussed.

  5. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell degradation prediction based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell degradation prediction based on Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference online XX XX XXXX Keywords: Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell degradation, Prognostic and Health nominal operating condition of a PEM fuel cell stack. It proposes a methodology based on Adaptive Neuro

  6. Control of the mass and energy dynamics of polybenzimidazole-membrane fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control of the mass and energy dynamics of polybenzimidazole-membrane fuel cells Federico Zenith-temperature proton- exchange-membrane fuel cell are investigated. For a particular configuration, three lumped the necessary conditions for the fuel-cell stack to operate. It is possible to control temperature by using only

  7. 2006 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    cells, in that membrane based systems avoid issues of electrolyte migration, mitigate corrosion concerns, can be operated with differential pressures, prevent carbonate...

  8. Growth of Carbon Support for Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Growth of Carbon Support for Proton-Exchange-Membrane Fuel Cell by Pulsed-Laser Deposition (PLDGDL)(catalyst) (pulsed laser deposition PLD) (plasma plume) () #12;III Abstract key word: Fuel CellPulsed Laser. People begin to develop fuel cells for seeking alternative energy sources. Fuel cell use the chemical

  9. Investigation of the performance and water transport of a polymer electrolyte membrane (pem) fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Yong Hun

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cell performance was obtained as functions of the humidity at the anode and cathode sites, back pressure, flow rate, temperature, and channel depth. The fuel cell used in this work included a membrane and electrode assembly (MEA) which...

  10. Investigation of the performance and water transport of a polymer electrolyte membrane (pem) fuel cell 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Yong Hun

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cell performance was obtained as functions of the humidity at the anode and cathode sites, back pressure, flow rate, temperature, and channel depth. The fuel cell used in this work included a membrane and electrode ...

  11. Economics of Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahadevan, Kathyayani

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Battelle's Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems project was initiated in 2003 to evaluate the technology and markets that are near-term and potentially could support the transition to fuel cells in automotive markets. The objective of Battelle?s project was to assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for pre-automotive applications by analyzing the technical, economic, and market drivers of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell adoption. The project was executed over a 6-year period (2003 to 2010) and a variety of analyses were completed in that period. The analyses presented in the final report include: Commercialization scenarios for stationary generation through 2015 (2004); Stakeholder feedback on technology status and performance status of fuel cell systems (2004); Development of manufacturing costs of stationary PEM fuel cell systems for backup power markets (2004); Identification of near-term and mid-term markets for PEM fuel cells (2006); Development of the value proposition and market opportunity of PEM fuel cells in near-term markets by assessing the lifecycle cost of PEM fuel cells as compared to conventional alternatives used in the marketplace and modeling market penetration (2006); Development of the value proposition of PEM fuel cells in government markets (2007); Development of the value proposition and opportunity for large fuel cell system application at data centers and wastewater treatment plants (2008); Update of the manufacturing costs of PEM fuel cells for backup power applications (2009).

  12. Performance of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Exposed to Transient CO Concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Zee, John W.

    . Recently, the decay and recovery of fuel cell performance in response to step changes in the level of COPerformance of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Exposed to Transient CO Concentrations fuel cell PEMFC . The data include relatively high 500 and 3000 ppm CO levels at 70°C cell temperature

  13. Low Crossover of Methanol and Water Through Thin Membranes in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low Crossover of Methanol and Water Through Thin Membranes in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Fuqiang State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA Low crossover of both methanol and water through a polymer membrane in a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC is essential for using high concentration

  14. Computational Modeling of Electrolyte/Cathode Interfaces in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

    Computational Modeling of Electrolyte/Cathode Interfaces in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Dr Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are alternative energy conversion devices that efficiently. The fundamental relationship between operating conditions and device performance will help to optimize the device

  15. An Investigation of Different Methods of Fabricating Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Methanol Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Kwame (Kwame J.)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol fuel cells are electrochemical conversion devices that produce electricity from methanol fuel. The current process of fabricating membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) is tedious and if it is not sufficiently ...

  16. Process for recycling components of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ)

    2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a PEM fuel cell can be recycled by contacting the MEA with a lower alkyl alcohol solvent which separates the membrane from the anode and cathode layers of the assembly. The resulting solution containing both the polymer membrane and supported noble metal catalysts can be heated under mild conditions to disperse the polymer membrane as particles and the supported noble metal catalysts and polymer membrane particles separated by known filtration means.

  17. Membranes produced by PECVD technique for low temperature fuel cell applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Membranes produced by PECVD technique for low temperature fuel cell applications Aboubakr to manufacture by plasma processes all active layers of fuel cells cores to be integrated in original compact stability; Transport properties. 1. Introduction Micro fuel cells have received considerable attention over

  18. Two-phase ow and transport in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Two-phase ¯ow and transport in the air cathode of proton exchange membrane fuel cells Z.H. Wanga rights reserved. Keywords: Two-phase transport; PEM fuel cells; Analytical modeling; Numerical simulation excessive water, in parti- cular, for the air cathode of direct methanol PEM fuel cells. Modeling water

  19. A Mathematical Model for Predicting the Life of PEM Fuel Cell Membranes Subjected to Hydration Cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burlatsky, S F; O'Neill, J; Atrazhev, V V; Varyukhin, A N; Dmitriev, D V; Erikhman, N S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under typical PEM fuel cell operating conditions, part of membrane electrode assembly is subjected to humidity cycling due to variation of inlet gas RH and/or flow rate. Cyclic membrane hydration/dehydration would cause cyclic swelling/shrinking of the unconstrained membrane. In a constrained membrane, it causes cyclic stress resulting in mechanical failure in the area adjacent to the gas inlet. A mathematical modeling framework for prediction of the lifetime of a PEM FC membrane subjected to hydration cycling is developed in this paper. The model predicts membrane lifetime as a function of RH cycling amplitude and membrane mechanical properties. The modeling framework consists of three model components: a fuel cell RH distribution model, a hydration/dehydration induced stress model that predicts stress distribution in the membrane, and a damage accrual model that predicts membrane life-time. Short descriptions of the model components along with overall framework are presented in the paper. The model was used...

  20. A sandwich structured membrane for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    A sandwich structured membrane for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu i g h t s " A sandwich structured membrane for DMFCs operating with neat methanol is proposed. " The membrane offers better water management for DMFCs operating with neat methanol. " The sandwich structured

  1. NREL Develops Technique to Measure Membrane Thickness and Defects in Polymer Electrode Membrane Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in fuel cell membrane electrode assembly research and development. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center and the National Center for Photovoltaics.

  2. Affordable Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles: Quaternary Phosphonium Based Hydroxide Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: The University of Delaware is developing a new fuel cell membrane for vehicles that relies on cheaper and more abundant materials than those used in current fuel cells. Conventional fuel cells are very acidic, so they require acid-resistant metals like platinum to generate electricity. The University of Delaware is developing an alkaline fuel cell membrane that can operate in a non-acidic environment where cheaper materials like nickel and silver, instead of platinum, can be used. In addition to enabling the use of cheaper metals, the University of Delaware’s membrane is 500 times less expensive than other polymer membranes used in conventional fuel cells.

  3. An alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell with a cation exchange membrane Liang An and T. S. Zhao*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    An alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell with a cation exchange membrane Liang An and T. S. Zhao the performance of anion exchange membrane (AEM) direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) is that state-of-the-art AEMs exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells (AEM- DEFCs) have received ever-increasing attention, mainly

  4. Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell System Break-Out Session

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W Residential/CHP 1 ­ 10 kW Reversible FC TBD APU 20 kW #12;Near Term Fuel Cell Requirements (3-5 years (7-12 years) · Hydrogen fuel · Transportation & Residential/CHP application · 1 ­ 100 kW · Durability

  5. Modeling of durability of polyelectrolyte membrane of O2/H2 fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atrazhev, Vadim V

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we discuss critical aspects of the mechanisms and features of polymer proton exchange membrane (PEM) degradation in low-temperature H2/O2 fuel cell. In this paper, we focused on chemical mechanism of OH radical generation and their distribution in operational fuel cell. According to the current concept, free radicals are generated from hydrogen and oxygen crossover gases at the surface of Pt particles that precipitated in the membrane. We explicitly calculate Pt precipitation rate and electrochemical potential distribution in the membrane that controls it. Based on radical generation rate and Pt distribution we calculate degradation rate of the membrane taking advantage of simple kinetics equations.

  6. A feasibility study of internal evaporative cooling for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Loren E

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using the technique of ultrasonic nebulization of water into the anode gas stream for evaporative cooling of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The basic concept of this form...

  7. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to

  8. Low platinum loading electrospun electrodes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Simcha Lev

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was performed to evaluate the utility of electrospun carbon nanofiber supports for sputtered platinum catalyst in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The performance of the sputtered nanofiber supports ...

  9. A feasibility study of internal evaporative cooling for proton exchange membrane fuel cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snyder, Loren E

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using the technique of ultrasonic nebulization of water into the anode gas stream for evaporative cooling of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The ...

  10. Influence of electrode stress on proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance : experimental characterization and power optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallant, Betar M. (Betar Maurkah)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compressive stress applied to the electrode area of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell is known to significantly affect power output. In practice, electrode stress arises during operation due to the clamping force ...

  11. Hydrogen and oxygen permeation through Nafion 117 and XUS 13204.10 fuel cell membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Steven Ray

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN PERMEATION THROUGH NAFION 117 AND XUS 13204. 10 FUEL CELL MEMBRANES A Thesis by STEVEN RAY LEE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AdrM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject Chemical Engineering HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN PERMEATION THROUGH NAFION 117 AND XUS 13204. 10 FUEL CELL MEMBRANES A Thesis by STEVEN RAY LEE Approved as to style and content by: Ralph E. White (Chair...

  12. A Comparison of Biomimetic Design and TRIZ Applied to the Design of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, Lily H.

    Engineering, University of Toronto *shu@mie.utoronto.ca Abstract The Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell Introduction A proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell converts the stored chemical energy in a fuel, e.g., hydrogen, into electrical energy. An important and current challenge in PEM fuel cells involves water

  13. Simplified process for leaching precious metals from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley Heights, NJ)

    2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The membrane electrode assemblies of fuel cells are recycled to recover the catalyst precious metals from the assemblies. The assemblies are cryogenically embrittled and pulverized to form a powder. The pulverized assemblies are then mixed with a surfactant to form a paste which is contacted with an acid solution to leach precious metals from the pulverized membranes.

  14. Biohydrogen production using green microalgae as an approach to operate a small Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Membrane Fuel Cell Samira Chader1,2,* , Bouziane Mahmah1 , Khaled Chetehouna3 , Fethia Amrouche1 , Kamel to produce hydrogen in a 500 ml photobioreactor coupled to a small Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC system show that the produced biohydrogen can be used to operate a PEM Fuel Cell with good performances

  15. Water Dynamics in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes: The Effects of Confinement and Structural Changes on the Hydrogen Bond Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Water Dynamics in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes: The Effects of Confinement and Structural Changes emissions energy source is hydrogen. Hydrogen powered vehicles using polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells and hydrophilic aggregates.1-4 Hydrogen fuel cells operate through the oxidation of hydrogen gas at the anode

  16. Temperature-Dependent Simulations of Dry Gas Transport in the Electrodes of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    Membrane Fuel Cells M. J. Kermani1 J. M. Stockie2 mkermani@unb.ca stockie@unb.ca 1 Post Doctoral Fellow the cathode of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is studied numerically. The di usion to achieve this goal is via proton exchange mem- brane (PEM) fuel cells, which in principle combine oxygen

  17. Membrane Durability in PEM Fuel Cells: Chemical Degradation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation at the 2008 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held June 9, 2008, in Washington, DC

  18. Strategy for Aging Tests of Fuel Cell Membranes (Presentation)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting (HTMWG) held October 10, 2007 in Washington, D.C.

  19. A Two-Stage Microbial Fuel Cell and Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) System for Effective Domestic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Two-Stage Microbial Fuel Cell and Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) System treatment process, consisting of microbial fuel cells and an anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor that is currently required for typical activated sludge or aerobic membrane bioreactor processes. In addition, MFCs

  20. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curgus, Dita Brigitte; Munoz-Ramos, Karina (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Pratt, Joseph William; Akhil, Abbas Ali (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Schenkman, Benjamin L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today's technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  1. A Mathematical Model for Predicting the Life of PEM Fuel Cell Membranes Subjected to Hydration Cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. F. Burlatsky; M. Gummalla; J. O'Neill; V. V. Atrazhev; A. N. Varyukhin; D. V. Dmitriev; N. S. Erikhman

    2013-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Under typical PEM fuel cell operating conditions, part of membrane electrode assembly is subjected to humidity cycling due to variation of inlet gas RH and/or flow rate. Cyclic membrane hydration/dehydration would cause cyclic swelling/shrinking of the unconstrained membrane. In a constrained membrane, it causes cyclic stress resulting in mechanical failure in the area adjacent to the gas inlet. A mathematical modeling framework for prediction of the lifetime of a PEM FC membrane subjected to hydration cycling is developed in this paper. The model predicts membrane lifetime as a function of RH cycling amplitude and membrane mechanical properties. The modeling framework consists of three model components: a fuel cell RH distribution model, a hydration/dehydration induced stress model that predicts stress distribution in the membrane, and a damage accrual model that predicts membrane life-time. Short descriptions of the model components along with overall framework are presented in the paper. The model was used for lifetime prediction of a GORE-SELECT membrane.

  2. Steady State Multiplicity in a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ee-Sunn J. Chia; Jay B. Benziger; Ioannis G. Kevrekidis

    2003-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A simplified differential reactor model that embodies the essential physics controlling PEM fuel cell (PEM-FC) dynamics is presented. A remarkable analogy exists between water management in the differential PEM-FC and energy balance in the classical exothermic stirred tank reactor. Water, the reaction product in the PEM-FC autocatalytically accelerates the reaction rate by enhancing proton transport through the PEM. Established analyses of heat autocatalyticity in a CSTR are modified to present water management autocatalyticity in a stirred tank reactor PEM-FC.

  3. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes at the University of Southern Mississippi |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergyDepartment ofATVMAgricultural OutlookDepartment of Energy

  4. Water transport in fuel cell membranes measured by laser interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jungik, 1973-

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) The coefficients of electro-osmotic drag were found to increase with the increasing water content, which indicates that the Grotthuss mechanism of proton transfer is not active in the membranes with low water ...

  5. Durable Low Cost Improved Fuel Cell Membranes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E TDrew Bittner About Us

  6. Durable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E TDrew Bittner About UsDurable, Low Cost, Improved Fuel

  7. Anion Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NMPerformanceof Energy4 * AugustAndrea-for Fuel

  8. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJuly 30, 2013Department of EnergyCore Measure5andCorrugated

  9. Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEWResponse(Expired)ofandPropertyEnergy Political

  10. 2006 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHE U.S. DEPARTMENT OFDecember 18,United4Energy 06 Alkaline

  11. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHE U.S.Energy Two0225145750414.pdf1 ARRA

  12. Membrane Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive Fuel Cell

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), OctoberMay 18-19, 2004MW Electrolysis

  13. Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISOSource Heat Pump BasicsAlexander DaneDirector,Alkaline

  14. Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Welcome and OverviewInnovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NM -Alicia Moulton About Us AliciaRPTnnnnDepartment of

  15. Synergy between Membranes and Microbial Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic SafetyGeothermal/Ground-Source HeatSwept AwaytoSynergies inSynergy

  16. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+ ReportEnergy NationalDepartmentEnergyEnergyOn-Board

  17. Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEA :Work with Jefferson Lab | JeffersonDurable Fuel

  18. High Performance Alkaline Fuel Cell Membranes > Research Highlights >

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasReleaseSpeechesHallNot Logged3 HanfordHarry| Center forResearch

  19. Water-retaining Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  20. The Path a Proton Takes Through a Fuel Cell Membrane

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesis of 2Dand WaterThe Future isThePleaseTheThe

  1. A critical review of cooling techniques in proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    of a cooling system. To promote the development of effective cooling strategies, cooling techniques reported, challenges and progress of various cooling techniques, including (i) cooling with heat spreaders (using highReview A critical review of cooling techniques in proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks

  2. Cathode and electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Allan J; Wang, Shuangyan; Kim, Gun Tae

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel cathode, electrolyte and oxygen separation materials are disclosed that operate at intermediate temperatures for use in solid oxide fuel cells and ion transport membranes based on oxides with perovskite related structures and an ordered arrangement of A site cations. The materials have significantly faster oxygen kinetics than in corresponding disordered perovskites.

  3. Proton Transport and the Water Environment in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes and AOT Reverse Micelles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Proton Transport and the Water Environment in Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes and AOT Reverse Micelles D@stanford.edu Abstract: The properties of confined water and diffusive proton-transfer kinetics in the nanoscopic water by steady-state fluorescence measurements. Proton-transfer kinetics and orientational relaxation

  4. Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells; Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopal Rao, MRS Web-Editor; Yury Gogotsi, Drexel University; Karen Swider-Lyons, Naval Research Laboratory

    2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Symposium T: Nanomaterials for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are under intense investigation worldwide for applications ranging from transportation to portable power. The purpose of this seminar is to focus on the nanomaterials and nanostructures inherent to polymer fuel cells. Symposium topics will range from high-activity cathode and anode catalysts, to theory and new analytical methods. Symposium U: Materials Challenges Facing Electrical Energy Storage Electricity, which can be generated in a variety of ways, offers a great potential for meeting future energy demands as a clean and efficient energy source. However, the use of electricity generated from renewable sources, such as wind or sunlight, requires efficient electrical energy storage. This symposium will cover the latest material developments for batteries, advanced capacitors, and related technologies, with a focus on new or emerging materials science challenges.

  5. Proton Transfer and Proton Concentrations in Protonated Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes D. B. Spry and M. D. Fayer*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Proton Transfer and Proton Concentrations in Protonated Nafion Fuel Cell Membranes D. B. Spry and M 21, 2009; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: June 3, 2009 Proton transfer in protonated Nafion fuel cell membranes is studied using several pyrene derivative photoacids. Proton transfer in the center of the Nafion

  6. Materials for use as proton conducting membranes for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Einsla, Brian R. (Blacksburg, VA); McGrath, James E. (Blacksburg, VA)

    2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A family of polymers having pendent sulfonate moieties connected to polymeric main chain phenyl groups are described. These polymers are prepared by the steps of polymerization (using a monomer with a phenyl with an alkoxy substitution), deportation by converting the alkoxy to a hydroxyl, and functionalization of the polymer with a pendant sulfonate group. As an example, sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers with pendent sulfonic acid groups are synthesized by the direct copolymerization of methoxy-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, then converting the methoxy groups to the reactive hydroxyl form, and finally functionalizing the hydroxyl form with proton-conducting sites through nucleophilic substitution. The family of polymers may have application in proton exchange membranes and in other applications.

  7. Wastewater treatment, energy recovery and desalination using a forward osmosis membrane in an air-cathode microbial osmotic fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -cathode microbial osmotic fuel cell Craig M. Werner a,n , Bruce E. Logan b , Pascal E. Saikaly a , Gary L. Amy Keywords: Forward osmosis Desalination Fouling Microbial osmotic fuel cell a b s t r a c t A microbial was compared to conventional microbial fuel cells containing a cation (CEM) or anion exchange membrane (AEM

  8. Method for recovering catalytic elements from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shore, Lawrence (Edison, NJ); Matlin, Ramail (Berkeley Heights, NJ); Heinz, Robert (Ludwigshafen, DE)

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for recovering catalytic elements from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly is provided. The method includes converting the membrane electrode assembly into a particulate material, wetting the particulate material, forming a slurry comprising the wetted particulate material and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve at least one of the catalytic elements into a soluble catalytic element salt, separating the slurry into a depleted particulate material and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt, and washing the depleted particulate material to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted particulate material.

  9. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells with chromium nitride nanocrystals as electrocatalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Hexiang; Chen, Xiaobo; Zhang, Huamin; Wang, Meiri; Mao, Samuel S.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is critical for cost-effective fuel cell devices. Transitionelectrocatalysts for cost-effective fuel cell devices. Incost-effective electrocatalyst alternatives for fuel cells.

  10. Quasi-elastic Neutron Scattering Investigation of the Hydrogen Surface Self-Diffusion on Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Catalyst Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kjelstrup, Signe

    Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Catalyst Support Ole-Erich Haas* Department of Chemistry, Norwegian Uni in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, called XC-72. QENS spectra were recorded at the time through the backing electrode and catalyst layer in the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC

  11. High performance of a carbon supported ternary PdIrNi catalyst for ethanol electro-oxidation in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    -oxidation in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells Shuiyun Shen, T. S. Zhao,* Jianbo Xu and Yinshi Li-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells (AEM DEFCs). We demonstrate that the use of the ternary PdIrNi catalyst for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in anion-exchange membrane direct ethanol fuel cells (AEM DEFCs) offers

  12. New Membranes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Heteropoly Acids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "Summary of Colorado School of Mines heteropolyacid research presented to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, Orlando FL, October 17, 2003 "

  13. Gas-Crossover and Membrane-Pinhole Effects in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Adam; Weber, Adam Z.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the effects of gas crossover. Specifically, mathematical simulations are conducted to elucidate the fundamental changes in fuel-cell operation as permeation of the various gases through the membrane increases. Two cases are explored, with the first one examining uniform increases in the set of gas-permeation coefficients, and the second one the existence of regions of high gas crossover (i.e., membrane pinholes). For the first case, operation at 120 C is studied and a maximum limit for the hydrogen permeation coefficient of 1 x 10{sup -10} mol/bar-cm-s for a 25 {micro}m membrane is determined. For the second case, it is shown that negative current densities and temperature spikes can arise due to mixed-potential and direct-combustion effects where there are large enough pinholes, thereby impacting performance and water and thermal management.

  14. The design and evaluation of a water delivery system for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Asad, Dawood Khaled Abdullah

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was performed to demonstrate system design for the delivery of water required for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The water delivery system uses spray nozzles capable of injecting water directly...

  15. The design and evaluation of a water delivery system for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Asad, Dawood Khaled Abdullah

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was performed to demonstrate system design for the delivery of water required for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The water delivery system uses spray nozzles capable of injecting water directly...

  16. Effect of direct liquid water injection and interdigitated flow field on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D. L.; Yi, Y. S.; Van Nguyen, Trung

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proper water management is vital to ensuring successful performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The effectiveness of the direct liquid water injection scheme and the interdigitated flow field design towards providing adequate gas...

  17. Pre-Oxidized and Nitrided Stainless Steel Foil for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates: Part 2- Single-Cell Fuel Cell Evaluation of Stamped Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Tortorelli, Peter F [ORNL; Pihl, Josh A [ORNL; EstevezGenCell, Francisco [GenCell Corp; Connors, Dan [GenCell Corp; Garzon, Fernando [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gervasio, Don [Arizona State University; Kosaraju, S.H. [Arizona State University

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal (gas) nitridation of stainless steel alloys can yield low interfacial contact resistance (ICR), electrically conductive and corrosion-resistant nitride containing surface layers (Cr{sub 2}N, CrN, TiN, V{sub 2}N, VN, etc.) of interest for fuel cells, batteries, and sensors. This paper presents results of proton exchange membrane (PEM) single-cell fuel cell studies of stamped and pre-oxidized/nitrided developmental Fe-20Cr-4V weight percent (wt.%) and commercial type 2205 stainless steel alloy foils. The single-cell fuel cell behavior of the stamped and pre-oxidized/nitrided material was compared to as-stamped (no surface treatment) 904L, 2205, and Fe-20Cr-4V stainless steel alloy foils and machined graphite of similar flow field design. The best fuel cell behavior among the alloys was exhibited by the pre-oxidized/nitrided Fe-20Cr-4V, which exhibited {approx}5-20% better peak power output than untreated Fe-20Cr-4V, 2205, and 904L metal stampings. Durability was assessed for pre-oxidized/nitrided Fe-20Cr-4V, 904L metal, and graphite plates by 1000+ h of cyclic single-cell fuel cell testing. All three materials showed good durability with no significant degradation in cell power output. Post-test analysis indicated no metal ion contamination of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) occurred with the pre-oxidized and nitrided Fe-20Cr-4V or graphite plates, and only a minor amount of contamination with the 904L plates.

  18. Develpment of Higher Temperature Membrane and Electrode Assembly (MEA) for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Agro, Anthony DeCarmine, Shari Williams

    2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Our work will fucus on developing higher temperature MEAs based on SPEKK polymer blends. Thse MEAs will be designed to operatre at 120 degrees C Higher temperatures, up to 200 degrees C will also be explored. This project will develop Nafion-free MEAs using only SPEKK blends in both membrane and catalytic layers.

  19. Fuel Cells Team

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    test stands Fuel Cell Team The FC team focus is R&D on polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells for commercial and military applications. Our program has had ongoing funding...

  20. Poly(cyclohexadiene)-Based Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mays, Jimmy W.

    2011-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research project was to create and develop fuel cell membranes having high proton conductivity at high temperatures and high chemical and mechanical durability. Poly(1,3-cyclohexadiene) (PCHD) is of interest as an alternative polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) material due to its ring-like structure which is expected to impart superior mechanical and thermal properties, and due to the fact that PCHD can readily be incorporated into a range of homopolymer and copolymer structures. PCHD can be aromatized, sulfonated, or fluorinated, allowing for tuning of key performance structure and properties. These factors include good proton transport, hydrophilicity, permeability (including fuel gas impermeability), good mechanical properties, morphology, thermal stability, crystallinity, and cost. The basic building block, 1,3-cyclohexadiene, is a hydrocarbon monomer that could be inexpensively produced on a commercial scale (pricing typical of other hydrocarbon monomers). Optimal material properties will result in novel low cost PEM membranes engineered for high conductivity at elevated temperatures and low relative humidities, as well as good performance and durability. The primary objectives of this project were: (1) To design, synthesize and characterize new non-Nafion PEM materials that conduct protons at low (25-50%) RH and at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 120 C; and (2) To achieve these objectives, a range of homopolymer and copolymer materials incorporating poly(cyclohexadiene) (PCHD) will be synthesized, derivatized, and characterized. These two objectives have been achieved. Sulfonated and crosslinked PCHD homopolymer membranes exhibit proton conductivities similar to Nafion in the mid-RH range, are superior to Nafion at higher RH, but are poorer than Nafion at RH < 50%. Thus to further improve proton conductivity, particularly at low RH, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was incorporated into the membrane by blending and by copolymerization. Conductivity measurements at 120 C over RH ranging from 20 to 100% using the BekkTech protocol showed much improved proton conductivities. Conductivities for the best of these new membranes exceed the DOE Year 3 milestone of 100 mS/cm at 50% RH at 120 C. Further optimization of these very promising low cost membranes could be pursued in the future.

  1. Development of Novel PEM Membrane and Multiphase CD Modeling of PEM Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. J. Berry; Susanta Das

    2009-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    To understand heat and water management phenomena better within an operational proton exchange membrane fuel cell's (PEMFC) conditions, a three-dimensional, two-phase computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flow model has been developed and simulated for a complete PEMFC. Both liquid and gas phases are considered in the model by taking into account the gas flow, diffusion, charge transfer, change of phase, electro-osmosis, and electrochemical reactions to understand the overall dynamic behaviors of species within an operating PEMFC. The CFD model is solved numerically under different parametric conditions in terms of water management issues in order to improve cell performance. The results obtained from the CFD two-phase flow model simulations show improvement in cell performance as well as water management under PEMFCs operational conditions as compared to the results of a single phase flow model available in the literature. The quantitative information obtained from the two-phase model simulation results helped to develop a CFD control algorithm for low temperature PEM fuel cell stacks which opens up a route in designing improvement of PEMFC for better operational efficiency and performance. To understand heat and water management phenomena better within an operational proton exchange membrane fuel cell's (PEMFC) conditions, a three-dimensional, two-phase computational fluid dynamic (CFD) flow model has been developed and simulated for a complete PEMFC. Both liquid and gas phases are considered in the model by taking into account the gas flow, diffusion, charge transfer, change of phase, electro-osmosis, and electrochemical reactions to understand the overall dynamic behaviors of species within an operating PEMFC. The CFD model is solved numerically under different parametric conditions in terms of water management issues in order to improve cell performance. The results obtained from the CFD two-phase flow model simulations show improvement in cell performance as well as water management under PEMFCs operational conditions as compared to the results of a single phase flow model available in the literature. The quantitative information obtained from the two-phase model simulation results helped to develop a CFD control algorithm for low temperature PEM fuel cell stacks which opens up a route in designing improvement of PEMFC for better operational efficiency and performance.

  2. Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Concept Landfill WWTP digester Biogas membrane Pipeline quality methane CH4 Pipeline Hydrogen Production To Fuel Cell Vehicles Stationary Fuel Cells With H2...

  3. Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cells Converting chemical energy of hydrogenated fuels into electricity Project Description Invented in 1839, fuels cells powered the Gemini and Apollo space missions, as well...

  4. Conceptual design report for a Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for transportation application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the conceptual design for a Direct-Hydrogen-Fueled Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for transportation applications. The design is based on the initial selection of the Chrysler LH sedan as the target vehicle with a 50 kW (gross) PEM Fuel Cell Stack (FCS) as the primary power source, a battery-powered Load Leveling Unit (LLU) for surge power requirements, an on-board hydrogen storage subsystem containing high pressure gaseous storage, a Gas Management Subsystem (GMS) to manage the hydrogen and air supplies for the FCS, and electronic controllers to control the electrical system. The design process has been dedicated to the use of Design-to-Cost (DTC) principles. The Direct Hydrogen-Powered PEM Fuel Cell Stack Hybrid Vehicle (DPHV) system is designed to operate on the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (FUDS) and Hiway Cycles. These cycles have been used to evaluate the vehicle performance with regard to range and hydrogen usage. The major constraints for the DPHV vehicle are vehicle and battery weight, transparency of the power system and drive train to the user, equivalence of fuel and life cycle costs to conventional vehicles, and vehicle range. The energy and power requirements are derived by the capability of the DPHV system to achieve an acceleration from 0 to 60 MPH within 12 seconds, and the capability to achieve and maintain a speed of 55 MPH on a grade of seven percent. The conceptual design for the DPHV vehicle is shown in a figure. A detailed description of the Hydrogen Storage Subsystem is given in section 4. A detailed description of the FCS Subsystem and GMS is given in section 3. A detailed description of the LLU, selection of the LLU energy source, and the power controller designs is given in section 5.

  5. Comparison of platinum deposit methods on carbon aerogels used in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparison of platinum deposit methods on carbon aerogels used in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel: carbon aerogel, platinum, Strong Electrostatic Adsorption, chemical reduction, UV With the rarefaction the diffusive phenomena limiting electrochemical performances. By contrast, carbon aerogels present

  6. Zero Emission Power Plants Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Oxygen Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shockling, Larry A.; Huang, Keqin; Gilboy, Thomas E. (Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation); Christie, G. Maxwell; Raybold, Troy M. (Praxair, Inc.)

    2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Siemens Westinghouse Power Corp. (SWPC) is engaged in the development of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell stationary power systems. SWPC has combined DOE Developmental funds with commercial customer funding to establish a record of successful SOFC field demonstration power systems of increasing size. SWPC will soon deploy the first unit of a newly developed 250 kWe Combined Heat Power System. It will generate electrical power at greater than 45% electrical efficiency. The SWPC SOFC power systems are equipped to operate on lower number hydrocarbon fuels such as pipeline natural gas, which is desulfurized within the SOFC power system. Because the system operates with a relatively high electrical efficiency, the CO2 emissions, {approx}1.0 lb CO2/ kW-hr, are low. Within the SOFC module the desulfurized fuel is utilized electrochemically and oxidized below the temperature for NOx generation. Therefore the NOx and SOx emissions for the SOFC power generation system are near negligible. The byproducts of the power generation from hydrocarbon fuels that are released into the environment are CO2 and water vapor. This forward looking DOE sponsored Vision 21 program is supporting the development of methods to capture and sequester the CO2, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system. To accomplish this, SWPC is developing a SOFC module design, to be demonstrated in operating hardware, that will maintain separation of the fuel cell anode gas, consisting of H2, CO, H2O and CO2, from the vitiated air. That anode gas, the depleted fuel stream, containing less than 18% (H2 + CO), will be directed to an Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) Afterburner that is being developed by Praxair, Inc.. The OTM is supplied air and the depleted fuel. The OTM will selectively transport oxygen across the membrane to oxidize the remaining H2 and CO. The water vapor is then condensed from the totally 1.5.DOC oxidized fuel stream exiting the afterburner, leaving only the CO2 in gaseous form. That CO2 can then be compressed and sequestered, resulting in a Zero Emission power generation system operating on hydrocarbon fuel that adds only water vapor to the environment. Praxair has been developing oxygen separation systems based on dense walled, mixed electronic, oxygen ion conducting ceramics for a number of years. The oxygen separation membranes find applications in syngas production, high purity oxygen production and gas purification. In the SOFC afterburner application the chemical potential difference between the high temperature SOFC depleted fuel gas and the supplied air provides the driving force for oxygen transport. This permeated oxygen subsequently combusts the residual fuel in the SOFC exhaust. A number of experiments have been carried out in which simulated SOFC depleted fuel gas compositions and air have been supplied to either side of single OTM tubes in laboratory-scale reactors. The ceramic tubes are sealed into high temperature metallic housings which precludes mixing of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel and air streams. In early tests, although complete oxidation of the residual CO and H2 in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel was achieved, membrane performance degraded over time. The source of degradation was found to be contaminants in the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream. Following removal of the contaminants, stable membrane performance has subsequently been demonstrated. In an ongoing test, the dried afterburner exhaust composition has been found to be stable at 99.2% CO2, 0.4% N2 and 0.6%O2 after 350 hours online. Discussion of these results is presented. A test of a longer, commercial demonstration size tube was performed in the SWPC test facility. A similar contamination of the simulated SOFC depleted fuel stream occurred and the performance degraded over time. A second test is being prepared. Siemens Westinghouse and Praxair are collaborating on the preliminary design of an OTM equipped Afterburner demonstration unit. The intent is to test the afterburner in conjunction with a reduced size SOFC test module that has the anode gas separati

  7. Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    "Fuel Cells for Portable Power." Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications Novel Materials...

  8. Membrane Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    September 14, 2006 Membrane Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications Tom Greszler General Motors Corporation Fuel Cell Activities Honeoye...

  9. Membrane Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications Membrane Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications Presented by Tom...

  10. Proton exchange membrane materials for the advancement of direct methanol fuel-cell technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cornelius, Christopher J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of hybrid organic-inorganic materials, and methods of synthesis, that can be used as a proton exchange membrane in a direct methanol fuel cell. In contrast with Nafion.RTM. PEM materials, which have random sulfonation, the new class of materials have ordered sulfonation achieved through self-assembly of alternating polyimide segments of different molecular weights comprising, for example, highly sulfonated hydrophilic PDA-DASA polyimide segment alternating with an unsulfonated hydrophobic 6FDA-DAS polyimide segment. An inorganic phase, e.g., 0.5 5 wt % TEOS, can be incorporated in the sulfonated polyimide copolymer to further improve its properties. The new materials exhibit reduced swelling when exposed to water, increased thermal stability, and decreased O.sub.2 and H.sub.2 gas permeability, while retaining proton conductivities similar to Nafion.RTM.. These improved properties may allow direct methanol fuel cells to operate at higher temperatures and with higher efficiencies due to reduced methanol crossover.

  11. Characterization of proton exchange membrane materials for fuel cells by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, Zueqian

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to explore the nanometer-scale structure of Nafion, the widely used fuel cell membrane, and its composites. We have shown that solid-state NMR can characterize chemical structure and composition, domain size and morphology, internuclear distances, molecular dynamics, etc. The newly-developed water channel model of Nafion has been confirmed, and important characteristic length-scales established. Nafion-based organic and inorganic composites with special properties have also been characterized and their structures elucidated. The morphology of Nafion varies with hydration level, and is reflected in the changes in surface-to-volume (S/V) ratio of the polymer obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The S/V ratios of different Nafion models have been evaluated numerically. It has been found that only the water channel model gives the measured S/V ratios in the normal hydration range of a working fuel cell, while dispersed water molecules and polymer ribbons account for the structures at low and high hydration levels, respectively.

  12. The Investigation and Development of Low Cost Hardware Components for Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George A. Marchetti

    1999-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell components, which would have a low-cost structure in mass production, were fabricated and tested. A fuel cell electrode structure, comprising a thin layer of graphite (50 microns) and a front-loaded platinum catalyst layer (600 angstroms), was shown to produce significant power densities. In addition, a PEM bipolar plate, comprising flexible graphite, carbon cloth flow-fields and an integrated polymer gasket, was fabricated. Power densities of a two-cell unit using this inexpensive bipolar plate architecture were shown to be comparable to state-of-the-art bipolar plates.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: fuel cell vehicle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fuel cell vehicle ECIS-Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation: Hydrocarbon Membrane Fuels the Success of Future Generation Vehicles On February 14, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Energy...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Automotive Fuel Cell Cooperation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Automotive Fuel Cell Cooperation ECIS-Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation: Hydrocarbon Membrane Fuels the Success of Future Generation Vehicles On February 14, 2013, in CRF, Energy,...

  15. Fuel cell water transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Hedstrom, James C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  16. Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren; Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

  17. Cell Component Accelerated Stress Test Protocols for PEM Fuel...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    USCAR FUEL CELL TECH TEAM CELL COMPONENT ACCELERATED STRESS TEST PROTOCOLS FOR PEM FUEL CELLS (Electrocatalysts, Supports, Membranes, and Membrane Electrode Assemblies) Revised May...

  18. Nonlinear modelling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack using nonlinear cancellation technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barus, R. P. P., E-mail: rismawan.ppb@gmail.com [Engineering Physics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung and Centre for Material and Technical Product, Jalan Sangkuriang No. 14 Bandung (Indonesia); Tjokronegoro, H. A.; Leksono, E. [Engineering Physics, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia); Ismunandar [Chemistry Study, Faculty of Mathematics and Science, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cells are promising new energy conversion devices that are friendly to the environment. A set of control systems are required in order to operate a fuel cell based power plant system optimally. For the purpose of control system design, an accurate fuel cell stack model in describing the dynamics of the real system is needed. Currently, linear model are widely used for fuel cell stack control purposes, but it has limitations in narrow operation range. While nonlinear models lead to nonlinear control implemnetation whos more complex and hard computing. In this research, nonlinear cancellation technique will be used to transform a nonlinear model into a linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics. The transformation is done by replacing the input of the original model by a certain virtual input that has nonlinear relationship with the original input. Then the equality of the two models is tested by running a series of simulation. Input variation of H2, O2 and H2O as well as disturbance input I (current load) are studied by simulation. The error of comparison between the proposed model and the original nonlinear model are less than 1 %. Thus we can conclude that nonlinear cancellation technique can be used to represent fuel cell nonlinear model in a simple linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics and therefore retain the wide operation range.

  19. Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Rod Borup MPA-11, Fuel Cell Program Manager Email Andrew Dattelbaum MPA-11 Group Leader Email Melissa Fox...

  20. Manufacturing Fuel Cell Manhattan Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chief Scientist. There, he was responsible for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology assessment and advanced development, as well as technical initiatives within...

  1. Development of a Low-Cost, Durable Membrane and MEA for Stationary and Mobile Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel Foure, Scott Gaboury, Jim Goldbach, David Mountz and Jung Yi (no longer with company)

    2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of low cost, durable membranes and membranes electrode assemblies (MEAs) remain a critical challenge for the successful introduction of fuel cells into mass markets. It was the goal of the team lead by Arkema, Inc. (formerly Atofina, Inc.) to address these shortages. Thus, this project addresses the following technical barriers from the Fuel Cells section of the Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: (A) Durability (B) Cost Arkema’s approach consisted in using blends of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and proprietary sulfonated polyelectrolytes. The strength and originality of Arkema’s approach lies in the decoupling of ion conductivity from the other requirements. Kynar® (Arkema trade name for PVDF) provides an exceptional combination of properties that make it ideally suited for a membrane matrix. In a first phase, Arkema demonstrated the feasibility of the concept with the M31 membrane generation. After MEA optimization, it was shown that the beginning-of-life (BOL) performance of M31 MEAs was essentially on a par with that of PFSA MEAs at 60ºC under fully humidified conditions. On the other hand, long-term durability studies showed a high decay rate of 45µV/h over a 2100 hr. test. Arkema then designed several families of polyelectrolyte candidates, which – in principle – could not undergo the same failure mechanisms. A new membrane candidate was developed: M41. It offered the same generally good mechanical, ex-situ conductivity and gas barrier properties as M31. In addition, ex-situ accelerated testing suggested a several orders of magnitude improvement in chemical stability. M41 based MEAs showed comparable BOL performance with that of PFSA (80ºC, 100% RH). M41 MEAs were further shown to be able to withstand several hours temperature excursions at 120ºC without apparent damage. Accelerated studies were carried out using the DOE and/or US Fuel Cell Council protocols. M41 MEAs shown sizeable advantages over PFSA MEAs in the Open Circuit Voltage Hold test, Relative Humidity Cycling test and the Voltage Cycling test. The main known limitation of the M41 family is its ability to function well at low RH.

  2. Thin graphite bipolar plate with associated gaskets and carbon cloth flow-field for use in an ionomer membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marchetti, George A. (Western Springs, IL)

    2003-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention comprises a thin graphite plate with associated gaskets and pieces of carbon cloth that comprise a flow-field. The plate, gaskets and flow-field comprise a "plate and gasket assembly" for use in an ionomer membrane fuel cell, fuel cell stack or battery.

  3. Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cell membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    co- firing at 1350°C. LSCF cathode L SCF cathode Electrolyte+6AT supported fuel cell with LSCF cathode before and afterProducts, Inc. Subsequently, LSCF (La 0.6 Sr 0.4 Co 0.8 FeO

  4. Control of the transient behaviour of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    a feedback control of the air-compressor-motor voltage. However, the net power provided by the fuel cell-related quantity p pressure (Pa) CM compressor-motor-related quantity t time (s) Cp compressor-related quantity volume (m3) reaction W flow rate (kg/s) H 2 hydrogen-related quantity in inlet quantity e linearized

  5. Development of Thin Film Membrane Assemblies with Novel Nanostructured Electrocatalyst for Next Generation Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Generation Fuel Cells Abstract: While problems related to CO poisoning still exist for the anode, most to internal combustion and diesel engine transportation. The present Department of energy targets. Improved CO tolerance of the anode would lead to simpler CO management systems and decrease the power

  6. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell system for transportation applications. Hydrogen vehicle safety report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, C.E. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews the safety characteristics of hydrogen as an energy carrier for a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), with emphasis on high pressure gaseous hydrogen onboard storage. The authors consider normal operation of the vehicle in addition to refueling, collisions, operation in tunnels, and storage in garages. They identify the most likely risks and failure modes leading to hazardous conditions, and provide potential countermeasures in the vehicle design to prevent or substantially reduce the consequences of each plausible failure mode. They then compare the risks of hydrogen with those of more common motor vehicle fuels including gasoline, propane, and natural gas.

  7. ZERO EMISSION POWER PLANTS USING SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS AND OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Maxwell Christie; Troy M. Raybold

    2003-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Over 16,700 hours of operational experience was gained for the Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) elements of the proposed SOFC/OTM zero-emission power generation concept. It was repeatedly demonstrated that OTMs with no additional oxidation catalysts were able to completely oxidize the remaining depleted fuel in a simulated SOFC anode exhaust at an O{sub 2} flux that met initial targets. In such cases, neither residual CO nor H{sub 2} were detected to the limits of the gas chromatograph (<10 ppm). Dried OTM afterburner exhaust streams contained up to 99.5% CO{sub 2}. Oxygen flux through modified OTMs was double or even triple that of the standard OTMs used for the majority of testing purposes. Both the standard and modified membranes in laboratory-scale and demonstration-sized formats exhibited stable performance over extended periods (2300 to 3500 hours or 3 to 5 months). Reactor contaminants, were determined to negatively impact OTM performance stability. A method of preventing OTM performance degradation was developed and proven to be effective. Information concerning OTM and seal reliability over extended periods and through various chemical and thermal shocks and cycles was also obtained. These findings were used to develop several conceptual designs for pilot (10 kWe) and commercial-scale (250 kWe) SOFC/OTM zero emission power generation systems.

  8. Bipolar plate/diffuser for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination bipolar plate/diffuser fuel cell component includes an electrically conducting solid material having: a porous region having a porous surface; and a hermetic region, the hermetic region defining at least a portion of at least one coolant channel, the porous region defining at least a portion of at least one reactant channel, the porous region defining a flow field medium for diffusing the reactant to the porous surface.

  9. Bipolar plate/diffuser for a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination bipolar plate/diffuser fuel cell component includes an electrically conducting solid material having: a porous region having a porous surface; and a hermetic region, the hermetic region defining at least a portion of at least one coolant channel, the porous region defining at least a portion of at least one reactant channel, the porous region defining a flow field medium for diffusing the reactant to the porous surface.

  10. Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.Newof Energy ForrestalPrinceton PlasmaEnergyFuel Cell

  11. Miniature fuel-cell system complete with on-demand fuel and oxidant supply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hur, JI; Kim, C-J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    scale direct methanol fuel cell development,” Energy, vol.flow-based microfluidic fuel cell," J. Am. Chem. Soc. , vol.electrolyte membrane fuel cell design," J. Power Sources,

  12. Commercialization of fuel-cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penner, S.S.; Appleby, A.J.; Baker, B.S.; Bates, J.L.; Buss, L.B.; Dollard, W.J.; Farris, P.J.; Gillis, E.A.; Gunsher, J.A.; Khandkar, A.; Krumpelt, M.; O'Sullivan, J.B.; Runte, G.; Savinell, R.F.; Selman, J.R.; Shores, D.A.; Tarman, P.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an abbreviated version of the ''Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Commercialization Working Group (AFC2WG),'' released January 1995. We describe fuel-cell commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  13. Using a Quasipotential Transformation for Modeling Diffusion Media in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Adam Z.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell , Numerical Heat Transferof Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Using a Two-EquationExchange Membrane Fuel Cells 2. Absolute Permeability ,

  14. Direct-hydrogen-fueled proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oei, D.

    1995-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fourth Technical Progress Report for DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389 awarded to Ford Motor Company on July 1, 1994. The overall objective of this contract is to advance the Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) fuel cell technology for automotive applications. Specifically, the objectives resulting from this contract are to: (1) Develop and demonstrate on a laboratory propulsion system within 2-1/2 years a fully functional PEM Fuel Cell Power System (including fuel cell peripherals, peak power augmentation and controls). This propulsion system will achieve, or will be shown to have the growth potential to achieve, the weights, volumes, and production costs which are competitive with those same attributes of equivalently performing internal combustion engine propulsion systems; (2) Select and demonstrate a baseline onboard hydrogen storage method with acceptable weight, volume, cost, and safety features and analyze future alternatives; and (3) Analyze the hydrogen infrastructure components to ensure that hydrogen can be safely supplied to vehicles at geographically widespread convenient sites and at prices which are less than current gasoline prices per vehicle-mile; (4) Identify any future R&D needs for a fully integrated vehicle and for achieving the system cost and performance goals.

  15. Positronium Formation Of Glyeisdyl Methacrylic Acid (GMA)/Styrene Grafted On PVDF Membrane For Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdel-Hady, E. E.; Abdel-Hamed, M. O. [Physics Dpt, Faculty of Science, Minia University, Minia 61519 (Egypt); Eltonny, M. M. [Polymer Dpt, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous gamma irradiation was used effectively for grafting of glycidyl methacrylic acid and styrene onto Poly vinyldine fluoride (PVDF). Membranes were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The properties of the obtained membranes were evaluated in terms of proton conductivity, methanol permeability and positron annihilation lifetime (PALS) parameters. The high probability of Positronium formation enables the application of PALS to the study of free volume. Good property values approved the applicability of the membrane from the cost benefit point of view.

  16. acinar cell membranes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on progress (more) Alaefour, Ibrahim 2012-01-01 26 Durable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes Renewable Energy Websites Summary: .5 KPaabs Membrane Conductivity at...

  17. Micro Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Micro Fuel Cells TM Direct Methanol Fuel Cells for Portable Power A Fuel Cell System Developer-17, 2002 Phoenix, Arizona #12;Micro Fuel Cells Direct Methanol Fuel Cells for Portable Power Outline (1 Energy Content (Wh) Volume(cm^3) Li-Ion Battery DMFC #12;Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Technology

  18. Investigating the effects of proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions on carbon supported platinum electrocatalyst composition and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Patel; K. Artyushkova; P. Atanassov; V. Colbow; M. Dutta; D. Harvey; S. Wessel

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 C and 100% relative humidity. In order to study modifications that are introduced to chemistry, morphology, and performance of electrocatalysts, XPS, HREELS and three-electrode rotating disk electrode experiments were performed. Before heat treatment, graphitic content varied by 20% among samples with different types of carbon supports, with distinct differences between bulk and surface compositions within each sample. Following the aging protocol, the bulk and surface chemistry of the samples were similar, with graphite content increasing or remaining constant and Pt-carbide decreasing for all samples. From the correlation of changes in chemical composition and losses in performance of the electrocatalysts, we conclude that relative distribution of Pt particles on graphitic and amorphous carbon is as important for electrocatalytic activity as the absolute amount of graphitic carbon present

  19. Investigating the effects of proton exchange membrane fuel cell conditions on carbon supported platinum electrocatalyst composition and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, Anant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen; Colbow, Vesna; Dutta, Monica; Harvey, Davie; Wessel, Silvia

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes that carbon-supported platinum electrocatalysts undergo in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment were simulated by ex situ heat treatment of catalyst powder samples at 150 #2;C and 100% relative humidity. In order to study modifications that are introduced to chemistry, morphology, and performance of electrocatalysts, XPS, HREELS and three-electrode rotating disk electrode experiments were performed. Before heat treatment, graphitic content varied by 20% among samples with different types of carbon supports, with distinct differences between bulk and surface compositions within each sample. Following the aging protocol, the bulk and surface chemistry of the samples were similar, with graphite content increasing or remaining constant and Pt-carbide decreasing for all samples. From the correlation of changes in chemical composition and losses in performance of the electrocatalysts, we conclude that relative distribution of Pt particles on graphitic and amorphous carbon is as important for electrocatalytic activity as the absolute amount of graphitic carbon present

  20. Research and development of Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Fuel cell infrastructure and commercialization study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper has been prepared in partial fulfillment of a subcontract from the Allison Division of General Motors under the terms of Allison`s contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-AC02-90CH10435). The objective of this task (The Fuel Cell Infrastructure and Commercialization Study) is to describe and prepare preliminary evaluations of the processes which will be required to develop fuel cell engines for commercial and private vehicles. This report summarizes the work undertaken on this study. It addresses the availability of the infrastructure (services, energy supplies) and the benefits of creating public/private alliances to accelerate their commercialization. The Allison prime contract includes other tasks related to the research and development of advanced solid polymer fuel cell engines and preparation of a demonstration automotive vehicle. The commercialization process starts when there is sufficient understanding of a fuel cell engine`s technology and markets to initiate preparation of a business plan. The business plan will identify each major step in the design of fuel cell (or electrochemical) engines, evaluation of the markets, acquisition of manufacturing facilities, and the technical and financial resources which will be required. The process will end when one or more companies have successfully developed and produced fuel cell engines at a profit. This study addressed the status of the information which will be required to prepare business plans, develop the economic and market acceptance data, and to identify the mobility, energy and environment benefits of electrochemical or fuel cell engines. It provides the reader with information on the status of fuel cell or electrochemical engine development and their relative advantages over competitive propulsion systems. Recommendations and descriptions of additional technical and business evaluations that are to be developed in more detail in Phase II, are included.

  1. Using polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells in a hybrid surface ship propulsion plant to increase fuel efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroll, Douglas M. (Douglas Michael)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An increasingly mobile US Navy surface fleet and oil price uncertainty contrast with the Navy's desire to lower the amount of money spent purchasing fuel. Operational restrictions limiting fuel use are temporary and cannot ...

  2. Federico Zenith Control of fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Federico Zenith Control of fuel cells Doctoral thesis for the degree of philosophiæ doctor with control of fuel cells, focusing on high-temperature proton- exchange-membrane fuel cells. Fuel cells-wide electric grids. Whereas studies about the design of fuel cell systems and the electrochemical properties

  3. Federico Zenith Control of fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Federico Zenith Control of fuel cells Doctoral thesis for the degree of philosophiæ doctor with control of fuel cells, focusing on high-temperature proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. Fuel cells-wide electric grids. Whereas studies about the design of fuel cell systems and the electrochemical properties

  4. Effects of proton-exchange membrane fuel-cell operating conditions on charge transfer resistances measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaron, Doug S [ORNL; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are highly dependent on operating conditions, such as humidity and temperature. This study employs electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to measure the effects of operating parameters on internal proton and electron transport resistance mechanisms in the PEMFC. Current-density experiments have been performed to measure the power production in a 25 cm{sup 2} Nafion 117 PEMFC at varying operating conditions. These experiments have shown that low humidity and low temperature contribute to decreased power production. EIS is currently employed to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in power production by calculating the specific resistances at various regions in the PEMFC. Experiments are performed at temperatures ranging from 30 to 50 C, feed humidities from 20 to 98%, and air stoichiometric ratios from 1.33 to 2.67. In all experiments, the hydrogen feed stoichiometric ratio was approximately 4.0. EIS is used to identify which transport steps limit the power production of the PEMFC over these ranges of conditions. The experimental data are analyzed via comparison to equivalent circuit models (ECMs), a technique that uses an electrical circuit to represent the electrochemical and transport properties of the PEMFC. These studies will aid in designing fuel cells that are more tolerant to wide-ranging operating conditions. In addition, optimal operating conditions for PEMFC operation can be identified.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: ECIS-Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ClimateECAbout ECFacilitiesCRFECIS-Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation: Hydrocarbon Membrane Fuels the Success of Future Generation Vehicles ECIS-Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation:...

  6. Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of60 DATE: MarchNEPA/309

  7. Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Markets

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),Energy Petroleum Technology VisionImproperIdahoansThis report is a

  8. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 20 Lorax 3.0 units operated under this Award from June 2002 to September 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government and commercial/industrial customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. From December 2002 to February 2005, 17 fuel cells were tested and monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. The 37 fuel cells operated under this Award produced a total of 712,635 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included a 1% increase in system efficiency. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance, installation, and decommissioning the total project budget was approximately $3.7 million.

  9. anion-exchange membrane fuel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operating Temperature Room drive cycles. High-temperature membranes are still in a development stage and durability dataDurable, Low-cost, Improved Fuel Cell Membranes US...

  10. Membranes > Batteries & Fuel Cells > Research > The Energy Materials Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > The EnergyCenter (LMI-EFRC)MaRIETechnologies |meetingsat Cornell

  11. PEM/SPE fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grot, S.A.

    1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A PEM/SPE fuel cell is described including a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) having a plurality of oriented filament embedded the face thereof for supporting the MEA and conducting current therefrom to contiguous electrode plates. 4 figs.

  12. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  13. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research Institute 1990 Fuel Cell Status," Proceedings ofMiller, "Introduction: Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicle DevelopmentPrograms," presented at Fuel Cells for Transportation,

  14. Methods of conditioning direct methanol fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, Cynthia (Newington, CT); Ren, Xiaoming (Menands, NY); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Niskayuna, NY)

    2005-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer electrolyte membrane of the membrane electrode assembly to a cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, and an electrical current of polarity opposite to that in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is drawn through the membrane electrode assembly, wherein methanol is oxidized at the cathode surface of the membrane electrode assembly while the catalyst on the anode surface is reduced. Surface oxides on the direct methanol fuel cell anode catalyst of the membrane electrode assembly are thereby reduced.

  15. Decomposition Pathways of Tetraalkylammonium Hydroxides: Experimental and DFT Studies and Their Implications for Alkaline Exchange Fuel Cell Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pivovar, B. S.; Edson, J. B.; Macomber, C. S.; Long, H.; Boncella, J. M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanism of the thermal decomposition of a series of alkyl trimethyl ammonium hydroxides ([RMe{sub 3}N][OH], R = Et, n-Pr, i-Bu, PhCH{sub 2}, Me{sub 3}CCH{sub 2}) was studied using TGA, evolved gas analysis and NMR spectroscopy due to the importance of these and related ions in anion exchange fuel cell membranes. Isotopic labeling with deuterium showed that deprotonation of the methyl groups of the ammonium ions by deuteroxide establishes a rapid equilibrium between the tetraalkyl ammonium ions and the nitrogen ylide species and water that scrambles the deuterium with the proton on the methyl groups. The products of the thermal decomposition when R = Et, n-Pr, i-Bu are predominately olefins arising from Hoffmann elimination, while the neopentyl substituted ammonium ion gives only neopentyl trimethyl amine and methanol, the products of S{sub N}2 attack of hydroxide on the methyl groups. DFT studies of these reactions confirm the relative activation barriers that are observed in the experimental decomposition studies.

  16. Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar Presentation by Sunita Satyapal at the Fuel Cell Seminar on November...

  17. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact Sheet Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact Sheet Fact sheet produced by the Fuel Cell...

  18. Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Presentation covers stationary fuel cells...

  19. A Carbon Corrosion Model to Evaluate the Effect of Steady State and Transient Operation of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pandy, Arun; Gummalla, Mallika; Atrazhev, Vadim V; Kuzminyh, Nikolay Yu; Sultanov, Vadim I; Burlatsky, Sergei F

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon corrosion model is developed based on the formation of surface oxides on carbon and platinum of the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell electrode. The model predicts the rate of carbon corrosion under potential hold and potential cycling conditions. The model includes the interaction of carbon surface oxides with transient species like OH radicals to explain observed carbon corrosion trends under normal PEM fuel cell operating conditions. The model prediction agrees qualitatively with the experimental data supporting the hypothesis that the interplay of surface oxide formation on carbon and platinum is the primary driver of carbon corrosion.

  20. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  1. anti-liver cell membrane: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assembly to be tested in fuel cell operating conditions, mobile or stationary), Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) are amongst the most studied fuel...

  2. Manufacturing and Performance Assessment of Stamped, Laser Welded, and Nitrided FeCrV Stainless Steel Bipolar Plates for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud [General Motors Technical Center; Dadheech, G [General Motors Technical Center; Bradley, J [General Motors Technical Center; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Tortorelli, Peter F [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A manufacturing and single-cell fuel cell performance study of stamped, laser welded, and gas nitrided ferritic stainless steel foils in an advanced automotive bipolar plate assembly design was performed. Two developmental foil compositions were studied: Fee20Cre4V and Fee23Cre4V wt.%. Foils 0.1 mm thick were stamped and then laser welded together to create single bipolar plate assemblies with cooling channels. The plates were then surface treated by pre-oxidation and nitridation in N2e4H2 based gas mixtures using either a conventional furnace or a short-cycle quartz lamp infrared heating system. Single-cell fuel cell testing was performed at 80 C for 500 h at 0.3 A/cm2 using 100% humidification and a 100%/40% humidification cycle that stresses the membrane and enhances release of the fluoride ion and promotes a more corrosive environment for the bipolar plates. Periodic high frequency resistance potential-current scans during the 500 h fuel cell test and posttest analysis of the membrane indicated no resistance increase of the plates and only trace levels of metal ion contamination.

  3. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  4. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Horan, James L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Caire, Benjamin R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Ziegler, Zachary C. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Herring, Andrew M. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Yang, Yuan [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO; Zuo, Xiaobing [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Robson, Michael H. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Artyushkova, Kateryna [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Patterson, Wendy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  5. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles UCD-ITS-RR-92-14 September bycost than both. Solar-hydrogen fuel- cell vehicles would becost than both. Solar-hydrogen fuel- cell vehicles would be

  6. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vehicles except the methanol/fuel cell vehicle and the BPEVe estimates for the methanol/fuel cell vehicle are based onbiomass-derived methanol used in fuel cell vehicles. Several

  7. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 14012: Fuel Cell System Cost – 2013

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This program record from the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office provides information about the cost of automotive polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems.

  8. Modeling and High-Resolution-Imaging Studies of Water-Content Profiles in a Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cell Membrane-Electrode Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Weber, A.Z.; Hickner, M.A.

    2008-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-content profiles across the membrane electrode assembly of a polymer-electrolyte fuel cell were measured using high-resolution neutron imaging and compared to mathematical-modeling predictions. It was found that the membrane held considerably more water than the other membrane-electrode constituents (catalyst layers, microporous layers, and macroporous gas-diffusion layers) at low temperatures, 40 and 60 C. The water content in the membrane and the assembly decreased drastically at 80 C where vapor transport and a heat-pipe effect began to dominate the water removal from the membrane-electrode assembly. In the regimes where vapor transport was significant, the through-plane water-content profile skewed towards the cathode. Similar trends were observed as the relative humidity of the inlet gases was lowered. This combined experimental and modeling approach has been beneficial in rationalizing the results of each and given insight into future directions for new experimental work and refinements to currently available models.

  9. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel Cell Seminar and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy Exposition DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2013 Fuel Cell Seminar and Energy Exposition Overview of DOE's...

  10. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 13012: Fuel Cell System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 13012: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2013 DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 13012: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2013 This program record from the...

  11. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Update: 2010 Fuel Cell Seminar...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Update: 2010 Fuel Cell Seminar and Exposition Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Update: 2010 Fuel Cell Seminar and Exposition Presentation by...

  12. Modeling of solid oxide fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Won Yong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) model of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC)s is developed to investigate the effect of various design and operating conditions on the cell performance and to examine the underlying ...

  13. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FUEL CELLS: The Gas Diffusion Layer Johannah Itescu Princeton University PRISM REU #12;PEM FUEL CELLS: A little background information I. What do fuel cells do? Generate electricity through chemical reaction #12;PEM FUEL CELLS: A little background information -+ + eHH 442 2 0244 22 He

  14. Research and Development of Proton-Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for Transportation Applications: Initial Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses Task 1.1, model development and application, and Task 1.2, vehicle mission definition. Overall intent is to produce a methanol-fueled 10-kW power source, and to evaluate electrochemical engine (ECE) use in transportation. Major achievements include development of an ECE power source model and its integration into a comprehensive power source/electric vehicle propulsion model, establishment of candidate FCV (fuel cell powered electric vehicle) mission requirements, initial FCV studies, and a candidate FCV recommendation for further study.

  15. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Update: 2010 Fuel Cell Seminar...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Update: 2010 Fuel Cell Seminar and Exposition Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Update: 2010 Fuel Cell Seminar and Exposition Presentation by Sunita Satyapal at the 2010 Fuel...

  16. Ballard fuel cell development for the new energy environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunnison, D.; Smith, D. [Ballard Power Systems, Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); Torpey, J. [GPU International, Parsippany, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ballard Power Systems is the world leader in the development of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells. PEM fuel cells use a solid polymer membrane as the electrolyte. These fuel cells are compact and produce powerful electric current relative to their size. PEM fuel cells can deliver higher power density than other types of fuel cells, resulting in reduced cost, weight and volume, and improved performance. The PEM fuel cell is the only fuel cell considered practical for both transportation and stationary applications. Ballard fuel cells are the heart of BGS`s products. The proprietary zero-emission engine converts natural gas, methanol or hydrogen fuel into electricity without combustion.

  17. DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group 5: Long...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    * Non-polymer based proton conductivity is needed for membranes in low temperature fuel cell system applications * Alternative electrolytes in membranes for medium temperature fuel...

  18. Catalysts and materials development for fuel cell power generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiss, Steven E

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalytic processing of fuels was explored in this thesis for both low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell as well as high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. Novel catalysts were ...

  19. Fuel Cell Technologies Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cells Key Benefits Very High Efficiency Reduced CO 2 Emissions Reduced Oil Use Reduced Air Pollution Fuel Flexibility * 40 - 60% (electrical) * > 70% (electrical, hybrid fuel...

  20. Fuel cell arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, A.O.

    1987-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell arrangement is provided wherein cylindrical cells of the solid oxide electrolyte type are arranged in planar arrays where the cells within a plane are parallel. Planes of cells are stacked with cells of adjacent planes perpendicular to one another. Air is provided to the interior of the cells through feed tubes which pass through a preheat chamber. Fuel is provided to the fuel cells through a channel in the center of the cell stack; the fuel then passes the exterior of the cells and combines with the oxygen-depleted air in the preheat chamber. 3 figs.

  1. Microbial fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nealson, Kenneth H; Pirbazari, Massoud; Hsu, Lewis

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A microbial fuel cell includes an anode compartment with an anode and an anode biocatalyst and a cathode compartment with a cathode and a cathode biocatalyst, with a membrane positioned between the anode compartment and the cathode compartment, and an electrical pathway between the anode and the cathode. The anode biocatalyst is capable of catalyzing oxidation of an organic substance, and the cathode biocatalyst is capable of catalyzing reduction of an inorganic substance. The reduced organic substance can form a precipitate, thereby removing the inorganic substance from solution. In some cases, the anode biocatalyst is capable of catalyzing oxidation of an inorganic substance, and the cathode biocatalyst is capable of catalyzing reduction of an organic or inorganic substance.

  2. Molecular modeling of the morphology and transport properties of two direct methanol fuel cell membranes: phenylated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) versus Nafion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Dupuis, Michel

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine membrane morphology and the transport of water, methanol and hydronium in phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) and Nafion membranes at 360 K for a range of hydration levels. At comparable hydration levels, the pore diameter is smaller, the sulfonate groups are more closely packed, the hydronium ions are more strongly bound to sulfonate groups, and the diffusion of water and hydronium is slower in Ph-SPEEKK relative to the corresponding properties in Nafion. The aromatic carbon backbone of Ph-SPEEKK is less hydrophobic than the fluorocarbon backbone of Nafion. Water network percolation occurs at a hydration level ({lambda}) of {approx}8 H{sub 2}O/SO{sub 3}{sup -}. At {lambda} = 20, water, methanol and hydronium diffusion coefficients were 1.4 x 10{sup -5}, 0.6 x 10{sup -5} and 0.2 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The pore network in Ph-SPEEKK evolves dynamically and develops wide pores for {lambda} > 20, which leads to a jump in methanol crossover and ion transport. This study demonstrates the potential of aromatic membranes as low-cost challengers to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications and the need to develop innovative strategies to combat methanol crossover at high hydration levels.

  3. Method of fabricating electrode catalyst layers with directionally oriented carbon support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2012-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of the invention comprises an anode and a cathode and a proton conductive membrane therebetween, the anode and the cathode each comprising a patterned sheet of longitudinally aligned transition metal-containing carbon nanotubes, wherein the carbon nanotubes are in contact with and are aligned generally perpendicular to the membrane, wherein a catalytically active transition metal is incorporated throughout the nanotubes.

  4. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    California, June (1986). General Electric, Direct Energy Conversion Programs, Feasibility Study ofSPE Fuel Cell Power Plants

  5. Webinar: Fuel Cell Buses

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording and text version of the webinar titled, Fuel Cell Buses, originally presented on September 12, 2013.

  6. Fuel Cells and Renewable Gaseous Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 3-C: Renewable Gaseous FuelsFuel Cells and Renewable Gaseous FuelsSarah Studer, ORISE Fellow—Fuel Cell Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy

  7. Fuel Cells for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    smith.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Cells at Supermarkets: NYSERDA's Perspective Fuel Cell Case Study Hydrogen Production and Storage for Fuel Cells: Current Status...

  8. Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities Pete Devlin Fuel Cell Technologies Program United States Department of Energy Federal Utility Partnership...

  9. Influence of wettability on liquid water transport in gas diffusion layer of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamza Chraibi; L. Ceballos; M. Prat; Michel Quintard; Alexandre Vabre

    2009-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Water management is a key factor that limits PEFC's performance. We show how insights into this problem can be gained from pore-scale simulations of water invasion in a model fibrous medium. We explore the influence of contact angle on the water invasion pattern and water saturation at breakthrough and show that a dramatic change in the invasion pattern, from fractal to compact, occurs as the system changes from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Then, we explore the case of a system of mixed wettability, i.e. containing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic pores. The saturation at breakthrough is studied as a function of the fraction of hydrophilic pores. The results are discussed in relation with the water management problem, the optimal design of a GDL and the fuel cell performance degradation mechanisms. We outline how the study could be extended to 3D systems, notably from binarised images of GDLs obtained by X ray microtomography.

  10. Fuel cells and fuel cell catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I.; Rice, Cynthia A.; Waszczuk, Piotr; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct organic fuel cell includes a formic acid fuel solution having between about 10% and about 95% formic acid. The formic acid is oxidized at an anode. The anode may include a Pt/Pd catalyst that promotes the direct oxidation of the formic acid via a direct reaction path that does not include formation of a CO intermediate.

  11. Micro fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zook, L.A.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hockaday, R. [Energy Related Devices Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An ambient temperature, liquid feed, direct methanol fuel cell device is under development. A metal barrier layer was used to block methanol crossover from the anode to the cathode side while still allowing for the transport of protons from the anode to the cathode. A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is an electrochemical engine that converts chemical energy into clean electrical power by the direct oxidation of methanol at the fuel cell anode. This direct use of a liquid fuel eliminates the need for a reformer to convert the fuel to hydrogen before it is fed into the fuel cell.

  12. Formic acid fuel cells and catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I.; Larsen, Robert; Ha, Su Yun

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An exemplary fuel cell of the invention includes a formic acid fuel solution in communication with an anode (12, 134), an oxidizer in communication with a cathode (16, 135) electrically linked to the anode, and an anode catalyst that includes Pd. An exemplary formic acid fuel cell membrane electrode assembly (130) includes a proton-conducting membrane (131) having opposing first (132) and second surfaces (133), a cathode catalyst on the second membrane surface, and an anode catalyst including Pd on the first surface.

  13. Mechanical and Transport Properties of Layer-by-Layer Electrospun Composite Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mannarino, Matthew M.

    Composite membranes composed of highly conductive and selective layer-by-layer (LbL) films and electrospun fiber mats were fabricated and characterized for mechanical strength and electrochemical selectivity. The LbL ...

  14. Platinum-Alloy Cathode Catalyst Degradation in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: Nanometer-Scale Compositional and Morphological Changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shuo

    Electrochemical measurements showed an ?75% Pt surface area loss and an ?40% specific activity loss for a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) cathode with acid-treated “Pt[subscript 3]Co ” catalyst particles in a H[subscript ...

  15. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  16. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Fuel Cell Activities Mr. Pete Devlin U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program Market Transformation Manager Stationary Fuel Cell Applications First National...

  17. Nanoscale study of reactive transport in catalyst layer of proton exchange membrane fuel cells with precious and non-precious catalysts using lattice Boltzmann method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Li; Kang, Qinjun; Holby, Edward F; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-resolution porous structures of catalyst layer (CL) with multicomponent in proton exchange membrane fuel cells are reconstructed using a reconstruction method called quartet structure generation set. Characterization analyses of nanoscale structures are implemented including pore size distribution, specific area and phase connectivity. Pore-scale simulation methods based on the lattice Boltzmann method are developed and used to predict the macroscopic transport properties including effective diffusivity and proton conductivity. Nonuniform distributions of ionomer in CL generates more tortuous pathway for reactant transport and greatly reduces the effective diffusivity. Tortuosity of CL is much higher than conventional Bruggeman equation adopted. Knudsen diffusion plays a significant role in oxygen diffusion and significantly reduces the effective diffusivity. Reactive transport inside the CL is also investigated. Although the reactive surface area of non-precious metal catalyst (NPMC) CL is much higher t...

  18. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 14012: Fuel Cell System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2013 DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 14012: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2013 This program record from the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell...

  19. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  20. Fuel Cell Technologies Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologies Program (FCTP)Overview Fuel CellFuel Cell Seminar

  1. Fuel Cell Technologies Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologies Program (FCTP)Overview Fuel CellFuel Cell

  2. Chalcogen catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso-Vante, Nicolas (Buxerolles, FR); Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM); Choi, Jong-Ho (Los Alamos, NM); Wieckowski, Andrzej (Champaign, IL); Cao, Dianxue (Urbana, IL)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst and a membrane electrode assembly for fuel cells that includes such a cathode catalyst. The cathode catalyst includes a support having at least one transition metal in elemental form and a chalcogen disposed on the support. Methods of making the cathode catalyst and membrane electrode assembly are also described.

  3. Chalcogen catalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM); Choi, Jong-Ho (Los Alamos, NM); Alonso-Vante, Nicolas (France, FR); Wieckowski, Andrzej (Champaign, IL); Cao, Dianxue (Urbana, IL)

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst and a membrane electrode assembly for fuel cells that includes such a cathode catalyst. The cathode catalyst includes a support having at least one transition metal in elemental form and a chalcogen disposed on the support. Methods of making the cathode catalyst and membrane electrode assembly are also described.

  4. IMIDAZOLE-BASED IONIC LIQUIDS FOR USE IN POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS: EFFECT OF ELECTRON-WITHDRAWING AND ELECTRON-DONATING SUBSTITUENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, E.; Fu, Y.; Kerr, J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) require humidifi cation for acceptable proton conductivity. Development of a novel polymer that is conductive without a water-based proton carrier is desirable for use in automobiles. Imidazole (Im) is a possible replacement for water as a proton solvent; Im can be tethered to the polymer structure by means of covalent bonds, thereby providing a solid state proton conducting membrane where the solvating groups do not leach out of the fuel cell. These covalent bonds can alter the electron availability of the Im molecule. This study investigates the effects of electron-withdrawing and electron-donating substituents on the conductivity of Im complexed with methanesulfonic acid (MSA) in the form of ionic liquids. Due to the changes in the electronegativity of nitrogen, it is expected that 2-phenylimidazole (2-PhIm, electron-withdrawing) will exhibit increased conductivity compared to Im, while 2-methylimidazole (2-MeIm, electron-donating) will exhibit decreased conductivity. Three sets of ionic liquids were prepared at defi ned molar ratios: Im-MSA, 2-PhIm-MSA, and 2-MeIm- MSA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and 1H-NMR were used to characterize each complex. Impedance analysis was used to determine the conductivity of each complex. Both the 2-PhIm-MSA and 2-MeIm-MSA ionic liquids were found to be less conductive than the Im-MSA complex at base-rich compositions, but more conductive at acid-rich compositions. 1H-NMR data shows a downfi eld shift of the proton on nitrogen in 2-PhIm compared to Im, suggesting that other factors may diminish the electronic effects of the electron withdrawing group at base-rich compositions. Further studies examining these effects may well result in increased conductivity for Im-based complexes. Understanding the conductive properties of Im-derivatives due to electronic effects will help facilitate the development of a new electrolyte appropriate for automotive fuel cell use.

  5. Improving water desalination by hydraulically coupling an osmotic microbial fuel cell with a microbial desalination cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Improving water desalination by hydraulically coupling an osmotic microbial fuel cell Keywords: Forward osmosis Ion exchange membrane Microbial fuel cell Microbial desalination cell Wastewater fuel cell (OsMFC) containing a forward-osmosis (FO) membrane was hydraulically coupled with a microbial

  6. Preventing CO poisoning in fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell performance with CO contamination of the H.sub.2 fuel stream is substantially improved by injecting O.sub.2 into the fuel stream ahead of the fuel cell. It is found that a surface reaction occurs even at PEM operating temperatures below about 100.degree. C. to oxidatively remove the CO and restore electrode surface area for the H.sub.2 reaction to generate current. Using an O.sub.2 injection, a suitable fuel stream for a PEM fuel cell can be formed from a methanol source using conventional reforming processes for producing H.sub.2.

  7. Webinar: Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting, originally presented on November 13, 2012.

  8. Module 4: Fuel Cell Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This course covers advantages and disadvantages of fuel cells, principles on which fuel cells work, operating principles and chemical reactions

  9. Fuel cell market applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, M.C.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a review of the US (and international) fuel cell development for the stationary power generation market. Besides DOE, GRI, and EPRI sponsorship, the US fuel cell program has over 40% cost-sharing from the private sector. Support is provided by user groups with over 75 utility and other end-user members. Objectives are to develop and demonstrate cost-effective fuel cell power generation which can initially be commercialized into various market applications using natural gas fuel by the year 2000. Types of fuel cells being developed include PAFC (phosphoric acid), MCFC (molten carbonate), and SOFC (solid oxide); status of each is reported. Potential international applications are reviewed also. Fuel cells are viewed as a force in dispersed power generation, distributed power, cogeneration, and deregulated industry. Specific fuel cell attributes are discussed: Fuel cells promise to be one of the most reliable power sources; they are now being used in critical uninterruptible power systems. They need hydrogen which can be generated internally from natural gas, coal gas, methanol landfill gas, or other fuels containing hydrocarbons. Finally, fuel cell development and market applications in Japan are reviewed briefly.

  10. Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation n SNL researcher Cy Fujimoto demonstrates his new flexible hydrocarbon polymer electrolyte mem- brane, which could be a key factor in realizing a...

  11. Hydrogen Fuel Cells

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    The fuel cell — an energy conversion device that can efficiently capture and use the power of hydrogen — is the key to making it happen.

  12. PEM fuel cellstack development based on membrane-electrode assemblies of ultra-low platinum loadings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zawodzinski, C.; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Attempt is made to scale-up single cell technology, based on ultra-low platinum loadings, to develop a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack for stationary power generation.

  13. Control and experimental characterization of a methanol reformer for a 350WControl and experimental characterization of a methanol reformer for a 350Wp high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell systemhigh temperature polymer electrolyte memb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Control and experimental characterization of a methanol reformer for a 350WControl and experimental characterization of a methanol reformer for a 350Wp high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, 9220 Aalborg East, Denmarkp gy gy g y pp g Introd ction Steam reforming of methanol for a HTPEM f el

  14. High Temperature Fuel Cells in the European Union

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on High Temperature Fuel Cells in the European Union to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA.

  15. DOE/Boeing Sponsored Projects in Aviation Fuel Cell Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    30, 2010, in Washington, DC. aircraft8klebanoff.pdf More Documents & Publications Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial...

  16. Fuel Cell R&D Pre-Solicitiation Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    depending on stage of development * Potential Topics of Research: * Improved Fuel Cell Membranes * Water Transport Within the Stack * Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports...

  17. Method of fabricating electrode catalyst layers with directionally oriented carbon support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia (Naperville, IL); Yang, Junbing (Willow brook, IL)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) having an anode and a cathode and a proton conductive membrane there between. A bundle of longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes with a catalytically active transition metal incorporated in the nanotubes forms at least one portion of the MEA and is in contact with the membrane. A combination selected from one or more of a hydrocarbon and an organometallic compound containing an catalytically active transition metal and a nitrogen containing compound and an inert gas and a reducing gas is introduced into a first reaction zone maintained at a first reaction temperature for a time sufficient to vaporize material therein. The vaporized material is transmitted to a second reaction zone maintained at a second reaction temperature for a time sufficient to grow longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes with a catalytically active transition metal incorporated throughout the nanotubes. The nanotubes are in contact with a portion of the MEA at production or being positioned in contact thereafter. Methods of forming a PEMFC are also disclosed.

  18. 2007 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMurphy, K.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fuel cell industry, which has experienced continued increases in sales, is an emerging clean energy industry with the potential for significant growth in the stationary, portable, and transportation sectors. Fuel cells produce electricity in a highly efficient electrochemical process from a variety of fuels with low to zero emissions. This report describes data compiled in 2008 on trends in the fuel cell industry for 2007 with some comparison to two previous years. The report begins with a discussion of worldwide trends in units shipped and financing for the fuel cell industry for 2007. It continues by focusing on the North American and U.S. markets. After providing this industry-wide overview, the report identifies trends for each of the major fuel cell applications -- stationary power, portable power, and transportation -- including data on the range of fuel cell technologies -- polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), alkaline fuel cell (AFC), molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC), and direct-methanol fuel cell (DMFC) -- used for these applications.

  19. California Fuel Cell Partnership: Alternative Fuels Research...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    by Chris White of the California Fuel Cell Partnership provides information about alternative fuels research. cafcpinitiativescall.pdf More Documents & Publications The...

  20. Fuel cell end plate structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guthrie, Robin J. (East Hartford, CT); Katz, Murray (Newington, CT); Schroll, Craig R. (Glastonbury, CT)

    1991-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  1. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimble, R.E.

    1988-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream 1 and spent fuel stream 2. Spent fuel stream 1 is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream 1 and exhaust stream 2, and exhaust stream 1 is vented. Exhaust stream 2 is mixed with spent fuel stream 2 to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells. 1 fig.

  2. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimble, Ralph E. (Finleyville, PA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  3. Catalysis Today 77 (2002) 6578 CO-free fuel processing for fuel cell applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalysis Today 77 (2002) 65­78 CO-free fuel processing for fuel cell applications T.V. Choudhary In view of the stringent CO intolerance of the state-of-the-art proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells of hydrocarbons has been proposed for production of CO-free hydrogen for fuel cell applications. The decomposition

  4. Controlling the mechanical and transport properties of layer-by-layer films and electrospun mat composite membranes for fuel cell applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, David ShinRen

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is an ever increasing need for clean, portable energy devices, such as fuel cells and high energy batteries to replace or reduce the world's dependence on fossil fuels. The continued development of thin-film solid ...

  5. Miniature ceramic fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Zuppero, Anthony C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniature power source assembly capable of providing portable electricity is provided. A preferred embodiment of the power source assembly employing a fuel tank, fuel pump and control, air pump, heat management system, power chamber, power conditioning and power storage. The power chamber utilizes a ceramic fuel cell to produce the electricity. Incoming hydro carbon fuel is automatically reformed within the power chamber. Electrochemical combustion of hydrogen then produces electricity.

  6. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program Record, Record # 11003, Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program Record, Record 11003, Fuel Cell Stack Durability DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program Record, Record 11003, Fuel Cell Stack Durability Dated...

  7. Insight into Proton Transfer in Phosphotungstic Acid Functionalized Mesoporous Silica-Based Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    University, Perth, Western Australia 6102, Australia Materials and Process Simulation Center, California 138632, Singapore § Fuels and Energy Technology Institute & Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin humidity (RH) with a low activation energy of 14 kJ mol-1 . In order to determine the energetics associated

  8. Rapidly refuelable fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joy, Richard W. (Santa Clara, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is directed to a metal-air fuel cell where the consumable metal anode is movably positioned in the cell and an expandable enclosure, or bladder, is used to press the anode into contact with separating spacers between the cell electrodes. The bladder may be depressurized to allow replacement of the anode when consumed.

  9. Internet Fuel Cells Forum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudhoff, Frederick A.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid development and integration of the Internet into the mainstream of professional life provides the fuel cell industry with the opportunity to share new ideas with unprecedented capabilities. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has undertaken the task to maintain a Fuel Cell Forum on the Internet. Here, members can exchange ideas and information pertaining to fuel cell technologies. The purpose of this forum is to promote a better understanding of fuel cell concepts, terminology, processes, and issues relating to commercialization of fuel cell power technology. The Forum was developed by METC to provide those interested with fuel cell conference information for its current concept of exchanging ideas and information pertaining to fuel cells. Last August, the Forum expanded to an on-line and world-wide network. There are 250 members, and membership is growing at a rate of several new subscribers per week. The forum currently provides updated conference information and interactive information exchange. Forum membership is encouraged from utilities, industry, universities, and government. Because of the public nature of the internet, business sensitive, confidential, or proprietary information should not be placed on this system. The Forum is unmoderated; therefore, the views and opinions of authors expressed in the forum do not necessarily state or reflect those of the U.S. government or METC.

  10. Effect of scale up, stacking, self humidification and use of lightweight components on the performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tran, Doanh Thuc

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of various design and operating variables on the performances of a PEM fuel cell were investigated. Performance was evaluated in terms of the polarization curves (cell potential versus current density plots). The specific effects...

  11. Fuel cell stack arrangements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Boro, PA); Somers, Edward V. (Murrysville, PA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arrangements of stacks of fuel cells and ducts, for fuel cells operating with separate fuel, oxidant and coolant streams. An even number of stacks are arranged generally end-to-end in a loop. Ducts located at the juncture of consecutive stacks of the loop feed oxidant or fuel to or from the two consecutive stacks, each individual duct communicating with two stacks. A coolant fluid flows from outside the loop, into and through cooling channels of the stack, and is discharged into an enclosure duct formed within the loop by the stacks and seals at the junctures at the stacks.

  12. Automotive Fuel Processor Development and Demonstration with Fuel Cell Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuvera Fuel Cells

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for fuel cell systems to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions over conventional power systems has generated significant interest in fuel cell technologies. While fuel cells are being investigated for use in many applications such as stationary power generation and small portable devices, transportation applications present some unique challenges for fuel cell technology. Due to their lower operating temperature and non-brittle materials, most transportation work is focusing on fuel cells using proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology. Since PEM fuel cells are fueled by hydrogen, major obstacles to their widespread use are the lack of an available hydrogen fueling infrastructure and hydrogen's relatively low energy storage density, which leads to a much lower driving range than conventional vehicles. One potential solution to the hydrogen infrastructure and storage density issues is to convert a conventional fuel such as gasoline into hydrogen onboard the vehicle using a fuel processor. Figure 2 shows that gasoline stores roughly 7 times more energy per volume than pressurized hydrogen gas at 700 bar and 4 times more than liquid hydrogen. If integrated properly, the fuel processor/fuel cell system would also be more efficient than traditional engines and would give a fuel economy benefit while hydrogen storage and distribution issues are being investigated. Widespread implementation of fuel processor/fuel cell systems requires improvements in several aspects of the technology, including size, startup time, transient response time, and cost. In addition, the ability to operate on a number of hydrocarbon fuels that are available through the existing infrastructure is a key enabler for commercializing these systems. In this program, Nuvera Fuel Cells collaborated with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop efficient, low-emission, multi-fuel processors for transportation applications. Nuvera's focus was on (1) developing fuel processor subsystems (fuel reformer, CO cleanup, and exhaust cleanup) that were small enough to integrate on a vehicle and (2) evaluating the fuel processor system performance for hydrogen production, efficiency, thermal integration, startup, durability and ability to integrate with fuel cells. Nuvera carried out a three-part development program that created multi-fuel (gasoline, ethanol, natural gas) fuel processing systems and investigated integration of fuel cell / fuel processor systems. The targets for the various stages of development were initially based on the goals of the DOE's Partnership for New Generation Vehicles (PNGV) initiative and later on the Freedom Car goals. The three parts are summarized below with the names based on the topic numbers from the original Solicitation for Financial Assistance Award (SFAA).

  13. Solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, T.F.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25{degrees}C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich's solution and analysis.

  14. FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Case Study: Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    through March), cooling water conveys waste heat from the fuel cells to an unfired furnace for space by the boilers. Early in the project, Verizon decided not to utilize the fuel cell's low temperature waste heat the cooling season (April through October), the high-grade waste heat from the fuel cells is used in two 70

  15. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A. Michael (Murrysville, PA); Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1993-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row.

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

    1993-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

  17. Fuel Cells Vehicle Systems Analysis (Fuel Cell Freeze Investigation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G.; Markel, T.; Wipke, K.

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation on Fuel Cells Vehicle Systems Analysis (Fuel Cell Freeze Investigation) for the 2005 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Annual Review held in Arlington, Virginia on May 23-26, 2005.

  18. Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperationalAugust August 2015 Events2-7148Automotive Fuel Cell

  19. Sandia Energy - Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear Press ReleasesInAppliedEnergy Storage ComponentsFuel Cells

  20. Method of improving fuel cell performance by removing at least one metal oxide contaminant from a fuel cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung (Los Alamos, NM); Choi, Jong-Ho (Los Alamos, NM); Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of removing contaminants from a fuel cell catalyst electrode. The method includes providing a getter electrode and a fuel cell catalyst electrode having at least one contaminant to a bath and applying a voltage sufficient to drive the contaminant from the fuel cell catalyst electrode to the getter electrode. Methods of removing contaminants from a membrane electrode assembly of a fuel cell and of improving performance of a fuel cell are also provided.

  1. Compliant fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott (Albany, NY); Gudlavalleti, Sauri (Albany, NY)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell assembly comprising at least one metallic component, at least one ceramic component and a structure disposed between the metallic component and the ceramic component. The structure is configured to have a lower stiffness compared to at least one of the metallic component and the ceramic component, to accommodate a difference in strain between the metallic component and the ceramic component of the fuel cell assembly.

  2. Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting February 13, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    9:40 New Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells J. Kerr, LBNL 10:00 The Design Davis Nancy Garland Membranes 9:20 Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions S. Hamrock, 3M M. Foure, Arkema 10:20 Break Water Transport Studies 10:50 Visualization of Fuel Cell Water

  3. Effects of Tungsten Oxide Addition on the Electrochemical Performance of Nanoscale Tantalum Oxide-Based Electrocatalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Tak Keun; Kim, Jin Yong; Shin, Yongsoon; Engelhard, Mark H.; Weil, K. Scott

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present study, the properties of a series of non-platinum based nanoscale tantalum oxide/tungsten oxide-carbon composite catalysts was investigated for potential use in catalyzing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the cathode side of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly. Electrochemical performance was measured using a half-cell test set up with a rotating disc electrode and compared with a commercial platinum-on-carbon (Pt/C) catalyst. Overall, all of the oxide-based composite catalysts exhibit high ORR on-set potentials, comparable to that of the baseline Pt/C catalyst. The addition of tungsten oxide as a dopant to tantalum oxide greatly improved mass specific current density. Maximum performance was achieved with a catalyst containing 32 mol% of tungsten oxide, which exhibited a mass specific current density ~8% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.6 V vs. the normal hydrogen electrode (NHE) and ~35% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.2 V vs. NHE. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the tungsten cations in the composite catalysts exist in the +6 oxidation state, while the tantalum displays an average valence of +5, suggesting that the addition of tungsten likely creates an oxygen excess in the tantalum oxide structure that influences its oxygen absorption kinetics. When the 32mol% tungsten doped catalyst loading on the working electrode was increased to five times that of the original loading (which was equivalent to that of the baseline Pt/C catalyst), the area specific current density improved four fold, achieving an area specific current density ~35% that of the Pt/C catalyst at 0.6 V vs. NHE.

  4. DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    t t 1 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Fuel Cell Technologies Program DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview Dr. Sunita Satyapal Program Manager U S D f E Overview U.S....

  5. Power from the Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy E.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power for Buildings Using Fuel-Cell Cars,” Proceedings ofwell as to drive down fuel-cell system costs through productthe potential advantages of fuel cells as clean and reliable

  6. HYDROGEN FUEL CELL BUS EVALUATION

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This paper describes the prototype fuel cell bus, fueling infrastructure, and maintenance facility for an early technology adopter.

  7. Proceedings of the ASME Fuel Cell Division 2000: The 2000 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chao-Yang

    Proceedings of the ASME Fuel Cell Division ­ 2000: The 2000 ASME International Mechanical ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT AND REACTION IN PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS Sukkee Um and C.Y. Wang exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells with a Nafion 117 membrane and an interdigitated flow field

  8. FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and fuel cells offer great promise for our energy future. Fuel cell vehicles are not yet commercially, such as a hydrogen fueling station or hydrogen fuel cell vehicle. Technology validation does not certify, and the Federal Government to evaluate hydrogen fuel cell vehicle and infrastructure technologies together in real

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Fuel Cell

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cell ECIS, Boeing, Caltrans, and Others: Fuel-Cell-Powered Mobile Lighting Applications On March 29, 2013, in Capabilities, CRF, Energy, Energy Efficiency, Facilities,...

  10. Fuel Cell Technologies Program Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CSD Workshop Washington, DC Fuel Cell Technologies Program Overview Dr. Sunita Satyapal Director, Fuel Cell Technologies Office Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S....

  11. Fuel Cell Technologies Program Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Non-Metallic Materials Meeting Washington, DC Fuel Cell Technologies Program Overview Dr. Sunita Satyapal U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program Program Manager...

  12. Fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, Jack (Perth Amboy, NJ); Kaufman, Arthur (West Orange, NJ); Stawsky, Alfred (Teaneck, NJ)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell system is comprised of a fuel cell module including sub-stacks of series-connected fuel cells, the sub-stacks being held together in a stacked arrangement with cold plates of a cooling means located between the sub-stacks to function as electrical terminals. The anode and cathode terminals of the sub-stacks are connected in parallel by means of the coolant manifolds which electrically connect selected cold plates. The system may comprise a plurality of the fuel cell modules connected in series. The sub-stacks are designed to provide a voltage output equivalent to the desired voltage demand of a low voltage, high current DC load such as an electrolytic cell to be driven by the fuel cell system. This arrangement in conjunction with switching means can be used to drive a DC electrical load with a total voltage output selected to match that of the load being driven. This arrangement eliminates the need for expensive voltage regulation equipment.

  13. FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of refueling today's gasoline vehicles. Using currently available high-pressure tank storage technology that can achieve similar performance, at a similar cost, as gasoline fuel storage systems. Compressed gasFUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Storage Hydrogen

  14. Summer School Diagnostics and Prognostics of Fuel Cell Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeanjean, Louis

    ANR PROPICE Summer School Diagnostics and Prognostics of Fuel Cell Systems 01-04 July 2014, FCLAB, Belfort, France https://propice.ens2m.fr/ecole-diag-pron-PAC.html Motivations and objectives Fuel Cell, particularly by increasing their limited lifespan. Indeed, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell systems (PEMFC

  15. Second International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    @rit.edu ABSTRACT The global development of fuel cell based propulsion has emphasized larger vehicles, with most is dominated by smaller two and three wheeled vehicles. A fuel cell motorcycle could replace two stroke, or be adapted to work in other small vehicles. The proton exchange membrane fuel cell system utilizes an ambient

  16. Solid oxide MEMS-based fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowksi, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  17. Solid polymer MEMS-based fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Morse, Jeffrey D. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    2008-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  18. Comparative analysis of selected fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Vehicles powered by fuel cells operate more efficiently, more quietly, and more cleanly than internal combustion engines (ICEs). Furthermore, methanol-fueled fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) can utilize major elements of the existing fueling infrastructure of present-day liquid-fueled ICE vehicles (ICEVs). DOE has maintained an active program to stimulate the development and demonstration o fuel cell technologies in conjunction with rechargeable batteries in road vehicles. The purpose of this study is to identify and assess the availability of data on FCVs, and to develop a vehicle subsystem structure that can be used to compare both FCVs and ICEV, from a number of perspectives--environmental impacts, energy utilization, materials usage, and life cycle costs. This report focuses on methanol-fueled FCVs fueled by gasoline, methanol, and diesel fuel that are likely to be demonstratable by the year 2000. The comparative analysis presented covers four vehicles--two passenger vehicles and two urban transit buses. The passenger vehicles include an ICEV using either gasoline or methanol and an FCV using methanol. The FCV uses a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, an on-board methanol reformer, mid-term batteries, and an AC motor. The transit bus ICEV was evaluated for both diesel and methanol fuels. The transit bus FCV runs on methanol and uses a Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) fuel cell, near-term batteries, a DC motor, and an on-board methanol reformer. 75 refs.

  19. Fuel cell system combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode and cathode effluents. The combustor includes a turbulator section at its input end for intimately mixing the anode and cathode effluents before they contact the combustors primary catalyst bed. The turbulator comprises at least one porous bed of mixing media that provides a tortuous path therethrough for creating turbulent flow and intimate mixing of the anode and cathode effluents therein.

  20. Fuel dissipater for pressurized fuel cell generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basel, Richard A.; King, John E.

    2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for eliminating the chemical energy of fuel remaining in a pressurized fuel cell generator (10) when the electrical power output of the fuel cell generator is terminated during transient operation, such as a shutdown; where, two electrically resistive elements (two of 28, 53, 54, 55) at least one of which is connected in parallel, in association with contactors (26, 57, 58, 59), a multi-point settable sensor relay (23) and a circuit breaker (24), are automatically connected across the fuel cell generator terminals (21, 22) at two or more contact points, in order to draw current, thereby depleting the fuel inventory in the generator.

  1. In situ PEM fuel cell water measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davey, John R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Spendelow, Jacob S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hussey, Daniel S [NIST; Jacobson, David L [NIST; Arif, Muhammad [NIST

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient PEM (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane) fuel cell performance requires effective water management. To achieve a deeper understanding of water transport and performance issues associated with water management, we have conducted in situ water examinations to help understand the effects of components and operations. High Frequency Resistance (HFR), AC Impedance and Neutron imaging were used to measure water content in operating fuel cells, with various conditions, including current density, relative humidity, inlet flows, flow orientation and variable Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) properties. High resolution neutron radiography was used to image fuel cells during a variety of conditions. The effect of specific operating conditions, including flow direction (co-flow or counter-flow) was examined. Counter-flow operation was found to result in higher water content than co-flow operation, which correlates to lower membrane resistivity. A variety of cells were used to quantify the membrane water in situ during exposure to saturated gases, during fuel cell operation, and during hydrogen pump operation. The quantitative results show lower membrane water content than previous results suggested.

  2. Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vitale, Nicholas G. (Albany, NY); Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

  3. Fuel cell generator energy dissipator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veyo, Stephen Emery (Murrysville, PA); Dederer, Jeffrey Todd (Valencia, PA); Gordon, John Thomas (Ambridge, PA); Shockling, Larry Anthony (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for eliminating the chemical energy of fuel remaining in a fuel cell generator when the electrical power output of the fuel cell generator is terminated. During a generator shut down condition, electrically resistive elements are automatically connected across the fuel cell generator terminals in order to draw current, thereby depleting the fuel

  4. Fuel cell anode configuration for CO tolerance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Uribe, Francisco A.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.

    2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is designed to operate on a reformate fuel stream containing oxygen and diluted hydrogen fuel with CO impurities. A polymer electrolyte membrane has an electrocatalytic surface formed from an electrocatalyst mixed with the polymer and bonded on an anode side of the membrane. An anode backing is formed of a porous electrically conductive material and has a first surface abutting the electrocatalytic surface and a second surface facing away from the membrane. The second surface has an oxidation catalyst layer effective to catalyze the oxidation of CO by oxygen present in the fuel stream where at least the layer of oxidation catalyst is formed of a non-precious metal oxidation catalyst selected from the group consisting of Cu, Fe, Co, Tb, W, Mo, Sn, and oxides thereof, and other metals having at least two low oxidation states.

  5. Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NETL

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Provides an overview of fuel cell technology and research projects. Discusses the basic workings of fuel cells and their system components, main fuel cell types, their characteristics, and their development status, as well as a discussion of potential fuel cell applications.

  6. Breakthrough Vehicle Development - Fuel Cells

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Document describing research and development program for fuel cell power systems for transportation applications.

  7. National Fuel Cell Research Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    the optimal conditions to operate a molten carbonate fuel cell, can be used to garner fundamental insightNational Fuel Cell Research Center www.nfcrc.uci.edu MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS STEADY STATE MODELING OF MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELLS FOR SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ANALYSES OVERVIEW Development of steady

  8. Enhanced methanol utilization in direct methanol fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The fuel utilization of a direct methanol fuel cell is enhanced for improved cell efficiency. Distribution plates at the anode and cathode of the fuel cell are configured to distribute reactants vertically and laterally uniformly over a catalyzed membrane surface of the fuel cell. A conductive sheet between the anode distribution plate and the anodic membrane surface forms a mass transport barrier to the methanol fuel that is large relative to a mass transport barrier for a gaseous hydrogen fuel cell. In a preferred embodiment, the distribution plate is a perforated corrugated sheet. The mass transport barrier may be conveniently increased by increasing the thickness of an anode conductive sheet adjacent the membrane surface of the fuel cell.

  9. An advanced fuel cell simulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acharya, Prabha Ramchandra

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cell power generation systems provide a clean alternative to the conventional fossil fuel based systems. Fuel cell systems have a high e?ciency and use easily available hydrocarbons like methane. Moreover, since the by-product is water...

  10. An advanced fuel cell simulator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acharya, Prabha Ramchandra

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cell power generation systems provide a clean alternative to the conventional fossil fuel based systems. Fuel cell systems have a high e?ciency and use easily available hydrocarbons like methane. Moreover, since ...

  11. Compact fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig (Moraga, CA); DeJonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA); Lu, Chun (Richland, WA)

    2010-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel electrochemical cell which may be a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is disclosed where the cathodes (144, 140) may be exposed to the air and open to the ambient atmosphere without further housing. Current collector (145) extends through a first cathode on one side of a unit and over the unit through the cathode on the other side of the unit and is in electrical contact via lead (146) with housing unit (122 and 124). Electrical insulator (170) prevents electrical contact between two units. Fuel inlet manifold (134) allows fuel to communicate with internal space (138) between the anodes (154 and 156). Electrically insulating members (164 and 166) prevent the current collector from being in electrical contact with the anode.

  12. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source.

  13. Fuel Quality Issues in Stationary Fuel Cell Systems | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Quality Issues in Stationary Fuel Cell Systems Fuel Quality Issues in Stationary Fuel Cell Systems This report, prepared by Argonne National Laboratory, looks at impurities...

  14. Fuel Cell Technologies Researcher Lightens Green Fuel Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Technologies Researcher Lightens Green Fuel Production Fuel Cell Technologies Researcher Lightens Green Fuel Production August 25, 2014 - 9:36am Addthis Research funded...

  15. Webinar: Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) Webinar: Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) Below is...

  16. Light Duty Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Protocol...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Light Duty Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Protocol Light Duty Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Protocol Webinar slides from the U.S. Department of Energy...

  17. Texas Hydrogen Highway - Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructu...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Highway - Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase Texas Hydrogen Highway - Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase...

  18. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Springer, Thomas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Huff, James R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  19. National Fuel Cell Research Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    National Fuel Cell Research Center www.nfcrc.uci.edu CONTROLS RESIDENTIAL FUEL CELL PHOTOVOLTAIC and efficiency, (3) RFC produces hydrogen, a flexible fuel that may be used for electricity, vehicles, heating fuel cells (RFC), we gain access to a new energy storage device that is both analogous to rechargeable

  20. An Overview of Stationary Fuel Cell Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DR Brown; R Jones

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology developments occurring in the past few years have resulted in the initial commercialization of phosphoric acid (PA) fuel cells. Ongoing research and development (R and D) promises further improvement in PA fuel cell technology, as well as the development of proton exchange membrane (PEM), molten carbonate (MC), and solid oxide (SO) fuel cell technologies. In the long run, this collection of fuel cell options will be able to serve a wide range of electric power and cogeneration applications. A fuel cell converts the chemical energy of a fuel into electrical energy without the use of a thermal cycle or rotating equipment. In contrast, most electrical generating devices (e.g., steam and gas turbine cycles, reciprocating engines) first convert chemical energy into thermal energy and then mechanical energy before finally generating electricity. Like a battery, a fuel cell is an electrochemical device, but there are important differences. Batteries store chemical energy and convert it into electrical energy on demand, until the chemical energy has been depleted. Depleted secondary batteries may be recharged by applying an external power source, while depleted primary batteries must be replaced. Fuel cells, on the other hand, will operate continuously, as long as they are externally supplied with a fuel and an oxidant.

  1. California Fuel Cell Partnership: Alternative Fuels Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy Change Request |82:91:4Applications | DepartmentFuel Cell

  2. Solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, T.F.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transport model for polymer electrolytes is presented, based on concentrated solution theory and irreversible thermodynamics. Thermodynamic driving forces are developed, transport properties are identified and experiments devised. Transport number of water in Nafion 117 membrane is determined using a concentration cell. It is 1.4 for a membrane equilibrated with saturated water vapor at 25{degrees}C, decreases slowly as the membrane is dehydrated, and falls sharply toward zero as the water content approaches zero. The relation between transference number, transport number, and electroosmotic drag coefficient is presented, and their relevance to water-management is discussed. A mathematical model of transport in a solid-polymer-electrolyte fuel cell is presented. A two-dimensional membrane-electrode assembly is considered. Water management, thermal management, and utilization of fuel are examined in detail. The membrane separators of these fuel cells require sorbed water to maintain conductivity; therefore it is necessary to manage the water content in membranes to ensure efficient operation. Water and thermal management are interrelated. Rate of heat removal is shown to be a critical parameter in the operation of these fuel cells. Current-voltage curves are presented for operation on air and reformed methanol. Equations for convective diffusion to a rotating disk are solved numerically for a consolute point between the bulk concentration and the surface. A singular-perturbation expansion is presented for the condition where the bulk concentration is nearly equal to the consolute-point composition. Results are compared to Levich`s solution and analysis.

  3. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Water loss from the cell is minimized by making the conductive cathode assembly hydrophobic and the conductive anode assembly hydrophilic.

  4. EFFECT OF FUEL IMPURITIES ON FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colon-Mercado, H.

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical energy conversion device that produces electricity during the combination of hydrogen and oxygen to produce water. Proton exchange membranes fuel cells are favored for portable applications as well as stationary ones due to their high power density, low operating temperature, and low corrosion of components. In real life operation, the use of pure fuel and oxidant gases results in an impractical system. A more realistic and cost efficient approach is the use of air as an oxidant gas and hydrogen from hydrogen carriers (i.e., ammonia, hydrocarbons, hydrides). However, trace impurities arising from different hydrogen sources and production increases the degradation of the fuel cell. These impurities include carbon monoxide, ammonia, sulfur, hydrocarbons, and halogen compounds. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has set maximum limits for trace impurities in the hydrogen stream; however fuel cell data is needed to validate the assumption that at those levels the impurities will cause no degradation. This report summarizes the effect of selected contaminants tested at SRNL at ISO levels. Runs at ISO proposed concentration levels show that model hydrocarbon compound such as tetrahydrofuran can cause serious degradation. However, the degradation is only temporary as when the impurity is removed from the hydrogen stream the performance completely recovers. Other molecules at the ISO concentration levels such as ammonia don't show effects on the fuel cell performance. On the other hand carbon monoxide and perchloroethylene shows major degradation and the system can only be recovered by following recovery procedures.

  5. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of

  6. Fuel Cell Systems Air Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air Management Honeywell TIAX UTC Mechanology, LLC · Turbocompressor for PEM Fuel Cells · Hybrid-Machined Thin Film H2 Gas Sensors - ATMI · Sensor Development for PEM Fuel Cell Systems ­ Honeywell · Gallium

  7. Fuel Cell Research at the University of Delaware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jingguang G.; Advani, Suresh G.

    2006-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The grant initiated nine basic and applied research projects to improve fundamental understanding and performance of the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, to explore innovative methods for hydrogen production and storage, and to address the critical issues and barriers to commercialization. The focus was on catalysis, hydrogen production and storage, membrane durability and flow modeling and characterization of Gas Diffusion Media. Three different types of equipment were purchase with this grant to provide testing and characterization infrastructure for fuel cell research and to provide undergraduate and graduate students with the opportunity to study fuel cell membrane design and operation. They are (i) Arbin Hydrogen cell testing station, (ii) MTS Alliance�¢���¢ RT/5 material testing system with an ESPEC custom-designed environmental chamber for membrane Durability Testing and (iii) Chemisorption for surface area measurements of electrocatalysts. The research team included ten faculty members who addressed various issues that pertain to Fuel Cells, Hydrogen Production and Storage, Fuel Cell transport mechanisms. Nine research tasks were conducted to address the critical issues and various barriers to commercialization of Fuel Cells. These research tasks are subdivided in the general areas of (i) Alternative electrocatalysis (ii) Fuel Processing and Hydrogen Storage and (iii) Modeling and Characterization of Membranes as applied to Fuel Cells research.. The summary of accomplishments and approaches for each of the tasks is presented below

  8. Hydrogen,Fuel Cells & Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;The President's FY04 Budget Request for FreedomCAR and Hydrogen Fuel Initiatives 4.0Office of Nuclear commercialization decision by 2015. Fuel Cell Vehicles in the Showroom and Hydrogen at Fueling Stations by 2020 #12

  9. Shipboard Fuel Cell Biofuel Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Update FuelCell Energy (Frank Wolak) 1230 PNNL SOFC Power Systems Update PNNL (Larry Chick) 1300 PEM

  10. Quantitative analysis of cell surface membrane proteins using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    analysis of cell surface membrane proteome changes. The strategy includes enrichment of surface membrane proteins using a membrane-impermeable chemical probe followed by...

  11. Microfluidic Fuel Cells Erik Kjeang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Microfluidic Fuel Cells by Erik Kjeang M.Sc., Umeå University, 2004 A Dissertation Submitted Supervisory Committee Microfluidic Fuel Cells by Erik Kjeang M.Sc., Umeå University, 2004 Supervisory University External Examiner Microfluidic fuel cell architectures are presented in this thesis. This work

  12. National Fuel Cell Research Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    National Fuel Cell Research Center www.nfcrc.uci.edu SOFC AND PEMFC COMPARISON Efficiency ­ Higher FOR OPTIMIZATION · Fuel Cell · Compressor · Combustor · Turbine · Storage Tank · Heat Exchanger·Battery · Motor of the system. · Operating characteristics of fuel cells at pressures less than 1 atm are largely unknown

  13. Journal of Power Sources 160 (2006) 10581064 Passive direct formic acid microfabricated fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of Power Sources 160 (2006) 1058­1064 Passive direct formic acid microfabricated fuel cells on microscale silicon-based direct formic acid fuel cells (Si-DFAFCs) in which the fuel and the oxidant. Keywords: Micro fuel cell; Membrane electrode assembly; Formic acid; Passive fuel cell 1. Introduction Many

  14. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 9, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 10 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  15. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, Rafael A. (Chicago, IL); Hrdina, Kenneth E. (Glenview, IL); Remick, Robert J. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  16. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

    1993-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  17. Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); Ha, Su (Champaign, IL); Adams, Brian (Savoy, IL)

    2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

  18. Direct methanol fuel cell and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell having an anode and a cathode and a polymer electrolyte membrane located between anode and cathode gas diffusion backings uses a methanol vapor fuel supply. A permeable polymer electrolyte membrane having a permeability effective to sustain a carbon dioxide flux equivalent to at least 10 mA/cm.sup.2 provides for removal of carbon dioxide produced at the anode by reaction of methanol with water. Another aspect of the present invention includes a superabsorpent polymer material placed in proximity to the anode gas diffusion backing to hold liquid methanol or liquid methanol solution without wetting the anode gas diffusion backing so that methanol vapor from the liquid methanol or liquid methanol-water solution is supplied to the membrane.

  19. High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering deposition of Pt inside fuel cell electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering deposition of Pt inside fuel cell electrodes S Cuynet1 as a cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. An increase of 80 % at 0.65 V of the PEMFC power density) 272001" #12;2 Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) have the potential to provide

  20. Prognostics of PEM fuel cell in a particle filtering framework Marine Jouin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Prognostics of PEM fuel cell in a particle filtering framework Marine Jouin , Rafael Gouriveau.jouin@femto-st.fr Abstract Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) suffer from a limited lifespan, which impedes of the proposed approach. Keywords: Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, Prognostics, Remaining useful life

  1. Sputter-Deposited Pt PEM Fuel Cell Electrodes: Particles vs M. D. Gasda,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gall, Daniel

    applications.1 A key hurdle for mass-market adoption of fuel cell technology is overall system cost, drivenSputter-Deposited Pt PEM Fuel Cell Electrodes: Particles vs Layers M. D. Gasda,a R. Teki,b T.-M. Lu as cathode electrodes in proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells using Nafion 1135 membranes and Teflon

  2. Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) Hydrogen Fueling for Current and Anticipated Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) Download presentation slides from...

  3. Fuel Station of the Future- Innovative Approach to Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Station of the Future- Innovative Approach to Fuel Cell Technology Unveiled in California Fuel Station of the Future- Innovative Approach to Fuel Cell Technology Unveiled in...

  4. Fuel Cells - Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cells Fuel Cells - Basics Fuel Cells - Basics Photo of a fuel cell stack A fuel cell uses the chemical energy of hydrogen to cleanly and efficiently produce electricity with...

  5. Fuel cell with interdigitated porous flow-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, M.S.

    1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is formed with an improved system for distributing gaseous reactants to the membrane surface. A PEM fuel cell has an ionic transport membrane with opposed catalytic surfaces formed thereon and separates gaseous reactants that undergo reactions at the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The fuel cell may also include a thin gas diffusion layer having first and second sides with a first side contacting at least one of the catalytic surfaces. A macroporous flow-field with interdigitated inlet and outlet reactant channels contacts the second side of the thin gas diffusion layer for distributing one of the gaseous reactants over the thin gas diffusion layer for transport to an adjacent one of the catalytic surfaces of the membrane. The porous flow field may be formed from a hydrophilic material and provides uniform support across the backside of the electrode assembly to facilitate the use of thin backing layers. 9 figs.

  6. Research and development of a proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Progress report for Quarter 4 of the Phase II report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This 4th quarter report summarizes activity from July 1, 1995 through October 1, 1995; the report is organized as usual into sections describing background information and work performed under the main WBS categories: The Fuel Processor (WBS 1.0) team activity during this quarter focused on the continued design/development of the full scale fuel processing hardware. The combustor test stand has been completed allowing more detailed testing of the various parts of the combustor subsystem; this subsystem is currently being evaluated using the dual fuel (methanol/hydrogen) option to gain a better understanding of the control issues. The Fuel Cell Stack (WBS 2.0) team activity focused on material analysis and testing to determine the appropriate approach for the first GM stack. Five hundred hours of durability was achieved on a single cell fixture using coated titanium plates (anode and cathode) with no appreciable voltage degradation of the SEL (Stack Engineering Lab) produced MEA. Additionally, the voltage level drop across each of the plates remained low (<5mv) over the full test period; The system integration and control team focused on the initial layout and configuration of the system; and the Reference powertrain and commercialization studies are currently under review.

  7. Microfluidic Microbial Fuel Cells for Microstructure Interrogations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parra, Erika Andrea

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applications of Microscale Microbial Fuel Cell SystemsApplications of Microscale Microbial Fuel Cell Systems Infrom the use of microscale microbial fuel cells is that of

  8. Microfluidic Microbial Fuel Cells for Microstructure Interrogations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parra, Erika Andrea

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Model of hydrogen fuel cell kinetic losses includingschematic of typical hydrogen fuel cell performancephase factors on hydrogen fuel cell theoretical efficiency,

  9. Market Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation) Market Transformation: Fuel Cell Early Adoption (Presentation) Presented at the DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop held...

  10. Fuel Cells - Current Technology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cells - Current Technology Fuel Cells - Current Technology Today, fuel cells are being developed to power passenger vehicles, commercial buildings, homes, and even small...

  11. Microfluidic Microbial Fuel Cells for Microstructure Interrogations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parra, Erika Andrea

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sediment microbial fuel cells demonstrating marine (left)Model of hydrogen fuel cell kinetic losses including5 FutureWork 5.1 Microfluidic Microbial Fuel Cell Continued

  12. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Accomplishments and Progress |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Fuel Cell Technologies Office Fuel Cell Technologies Office Accomplishments and Progress Fuel Cell Technologies Office Accomplishments and Progress The U.S. Department of...

  13. PEM Electrolyzer Incorporating an Advanced Low Cost Membrane

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Virginia Tech University (Academic)- Membrane Development Collaborations 3M Fuel Cell Components Program- NSTF Catalyst & Membrane Entegris - Carbon Cell...

  14. Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farooque, Mohammad (Huntington, CT); Novacco, Lawrence J. (Brookfield, CT); Allen, Jeffrey P. (Naugatuck, CT)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

  15. Sustainable Power Generation in Microbial Fuel Cells Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Sustainable Power Generation in Microbial Fuel Cells Using Bicarbonate Buffer and Proton Transfer applications, especially for wastewater treatment. Introduction Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has drawn of electrodes (6­9), (iii) selection and treatment of membranes (10­12), and (iv) optimization of the MFC design

  16. PEM fuel cell degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The durability of PEM fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. While significant progress has been made in understanding degradation mechanisms and improving materials, further improvements in durability are required to meet commercialization targets. Catalyst and electrode durability remains a primary degradation mode, with much work reported on understanding how the catalyst and electrode structure degrades. Accelerated Stress Tests (ASTs) are used to rapidly evaluate component degradation, however the results are sometimes easy, and other times difficult to correlate. Tests that were developed to accelerate degradation of single components are shown to also affect other component's degradation modes. Non-ideal examples of this include ASTs examining catalyst degradation performances losses due to catalyst degradation do not always well correlate with catalyst surface area and also lead to losses in mass transport.

  17. Stationary Fuel Cells: Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers stationary fuel cells and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

  18. Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carson, Stephen; Mountz, David; He, Wensheng; Zhang, Tao

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct methanol fuel cell membranes were developed using blends of different polyelectrolytes with PVDF. The membranes showed complex relationships between polyelectrolyte chemistry, morphology, and processing. Although the PVDF grade was found to have little effect on the membrane permselectivity, it does impact membrane conductivity and methanol permeation values. Other factors, such as varying the polyelectrolyte polarity, using varying crosslinking agents, and adjusting the equivalent weight of the membranes impacted methanol permeation, permselectivity, and areal resistance. We now understand, within the scope of the project work completed, how these inter-related performance properties can be tailored to achieve a balance of performance.

  19. Extended Platinum Nanotubes as Fuel Cell Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alia, S.; Pivovar, B. S.; Yan, Y.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy consumption has relied principally on fossil fuels as an energy source; fuel cells, however, can provide a clean and sustainable alternative, an answer to the depletion and climate change concerns of fossil fuels. Within proton exchange membrane fuel cells, high catalyst cost and poor durability limit the commercial viability of the device. Recently, platinum nanotubes (PtNTs) were studied as durable, active catalysts, providing a platform to meet US Department of Energy vehicular activity targets.[1] Porous PtNTs were developed to increase nanotube surface area, improving mass activity for oxygen reduction without sacrificing durability.[2] Subsurface platinum was then replaced with palladium, forming platinum-coated palladium nanotubes.[3] By forming a core shell structure, platinum utilization was increased, reducing catalyst cost. Alternative substrates have also been examined, modifying platinum surface facets and increasing oxygen reduction specific activity. Through modification of the PtNT platform, catalyst limitations can be reduced, ensuring a commercially viable device.

  20. NETL: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and water concerns associated with fossil fuel based electric power generation. The NETL Fuel Cell Program maintains a portfolio of RD&D projects that address the technical issues...

  1. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None available

    2001-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  2. Fuel cell gas management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur (Marietta, GA)

    2000-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell gas management system including a cathode humidification system for transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell equal to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  3. Center for Intelligent Fuel Cell Materials Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santurri, P.R., (Chemsultants International); Hartmann-Thompson, C.; Keinath, S.E. (Michigan Molecular Inst.)

    2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this work was to develop a composite proton exchange membrane utilizing 1) readily available, low cost materials 2) readily modified and 3) easily processed to meet the chemical, mechanical and electrical requirements of high temperature PEM fuel cells. One of the primary goals was to produce a conducting polymer that met the criteria for strength, binding capability for additives, chemical stability, dimensional stability and good conductivity. In addition compatible, specialty nanoparticles were synthesized to provide water management and enhanced conductivity. The combination of these components in a multilayered, composite PEM has demonstrated improved conductivity at high temperatures and low humidity over commercially available polymers. The research reported in this final document has greatly increased the knowledge base related to post sulfonation of chemically and mechanically stable engineered polymers (Radel). Both electrical and strength factors for the degree of post sulfonation far exceed previous data, indicating the potential use of these materials in suitable proton exchange membrane architectures for the development of fuel cells. In addition compatible, hydrophilic, conductive nano-structures have been synthesized and incorporated into unique proton exchange membrane architectures. The use of post sulfonation for the engineered polymer and nano-particle provide cost effective techniques to produce the required components of a proton exchange membrane. The development of a multilayer proton exchange membrane as described in our work has produced a highly stable membrane at 170°C with conductivities exceeding commercially available proton exchange membranes at high temperatures and low humidity. The components and architecture of the proton exchange membrane discussed will provide low cost components for the portable market and potentially the transportation market. The development of unique components and membrane architecture provides a key element for the United States: 1) to transition the country from a fossil fuel based energy economy to a renewable energy based economy, and 2) to reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Developments of this program will serve as an important step toward continuing PEMFC technology and ultimately the broad-based commercial availability of this technology and its benefits.

  4. Fuel Cell Technologies Overview: 2011 Fuel Cell Seminar | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartment ofEnergy 3 Fuel Cell2 FuelEnergyEnergy

  5. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Gabrielle

    2004-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the first year of operation of a fuel cell power plant located at the Sheraton Edison Hotel, Edison, New Jersey. PPL EnergyPlus, LLC installed the plant under a contract with the Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc. A DFC{reg_sign}300 fuel cell, manufactured by FuelCell Energy, Inc. of Danbury, CT was selected for the project. The fuel cell successfully operated from June 2003 to May 2004. This report discusses the performance of the plant during this period.

  6. Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    high volume production of 500,000 unitsyear Fuel Cell Barriers A. Durability B. Cost C. Performance D. Water Transport within the Stack E. System Thermal and Water...

  7. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Zhang, Gong (Murrysville, PA)

    2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  8. Ceramic Fuel Cells (SOFC)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof EnergyAdministration-Desertof Energy Presentation

  9. Developmental Cell MPK-1 ERK Controls Membrane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Developmental Cell Article MPK-1 ERK Controls Membrane Organization in C. elegans Oogenesis via/ERK in the proximal germ- line to control plasma membrane biogenesis and organization during oogenesis and oocyte production is dramatically downregulated. The RTK-RAS-ERK pathway relays physiological and devel

  10. Identification and Characterization of Near-Term Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Markets

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This document provides information about near-term markets (such as for forklifts and telecommunications) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  11. Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel-Cell Commercialization Working Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penner, S.S.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  12. Fuel Cell Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Peter M. [Brown University] [Brown University

    2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary In conjunction with the Brown Energy Initiative, research Projects selected for the fuel cell research grant were selected on the following criteria: ? They should be fundamental research that has the potential to significantly impact the nation’s energy infrastructure. ? They should be scientifically exciting and sound. ? They should synthesize new materials, lead to greater insights, explore new phenomena, or design new devices or processes that are of relevance to solving the energy problems. ? They involve top-caliper senior scientists with a record of accomplishment, or junior faculty with outstanding promise of achievement. ? They should promise to yield at least preliminary results within the given funding period, which would warrant further research development. ? They should fit into the overall mission of the Brown Energy Initiative, and the investigators should contribute as partners to an intellectually stimulating environment focused on energy science. Based on these criteria, fourteen faculty across three disciplines (Chemistry, Physics and Engineering) and the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory were selected to participate in this effort.1 In total, there were 30 people supported, at some level, on these projects. This report highlights the findings and research outcomes of the participating researchers.

  13. How Fuel Cells Work | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    30 likes How Fuel Cells Work Fuel cells produce electrical power without any combustion and operate on fuels like hydrogen, natural gas and propane. This clean energy technology...

  14. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D eReviewEducation » ForFuel Cells Hydrogen

  15. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Fuel Cells Fact Sheet |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D eReviewEducation » ForFuel Cells

  16. Fuel Cell Case Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologies Program (FCTP) (Fact Sheet) |Energy 12Kathy

  17. Fuel Cell Financing Options

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologies Program (FCTP) (Fact Sheet)UTC Power Corporation 195

  18. Fuel Cells Go Live

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologies Program (FCTP)Overviewgreen h y d r o g e n f u e l

  19. Fuel Cells at NASCAR

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologies Program (FCTP)Overviewgreen h y d r o g e n

  20. Fuel Cells in Telecommunications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologies Program (FCTP)Overviewgreen h y d r o g|

  1. Ohio Fuel Cell Initiative

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartment of OrderSUBCOMMITTEEEnergy0 9IssueFebruary 22,Top 5

  2. Financing Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy June 6-7, 2013 MeetingEA # 1440Energy Upgrades for K-12

  3. Bonded polyimide fuel cell package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan; Graff, Robert T.; Bettencourt, Kerry

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Described herein are processes for fabricating microfluidic fuel cell systems with embedded components in which micron-scale features are formed by bonding layers of DuPont Kapton.TM. polyimide laminate. A microfluidic fuel cell system fabricated using this process is also described.

  4. Energy 101: Fuel Cell Technology

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Learn how fuel cell technology generates clean electricity from hydrogen to power our buildings and transportation-while emitting nothing but water. This video illustrates the fundamentals of fuel cell technology and its potential to supply our homes, offices, industries, and vehicles with sustainable, reliable energy.

  5. Zirconia fuel cells and electrolyzers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isaacs, H.S.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of the historical development, operation, and problems of solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and electrolyzers is given. The thermodynamic principles of operation are reviewed, and the overvoltage losses during operation of fuel cells and steam electrolyzers are discussed including physical factors and electrochemical factors. (WHK)

  6. Energy 101: Fuel Cell Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Learn how fuel cell technology generates clean electricity from hydrogen to power our buildings and transportation-while emitting nothing but water. This video illustrates the fundamentals of fuel cell technology and its potential to supply our homes, offices, industries, and vehicles with sustainable, reliable energy.

  7. Bronx Zoo Fuel Cell Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoang Pham

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A 200 kW Fuel Cell has been installed in the Lion House, Bronx Zoo, NY. The Fuel Cell is a 200 kW phosphoric acid type manufactured by United Technologies Corporation (UTC) and will provide thermal energy at 725,000 Btu/hr.

  8. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; George, R.A.; Shockling, L.A.

    1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  9. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  10. Fuel cell electric power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, H.-S.; Heck, R. M.; Yarrington, R. M.

    1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for generating electricity from a fuel cell includes generating a hydrogen-rich gas as the fuel for the fuel cell by treating a hydrocarbon feed, which may be a normally liquid feed, in an autothermal reformer utilizing a first monolithic catalyst zone having palladium and platinum catalytic components therein and a second, platinum group metal steam reforming catalyst. Air is used as the oxidant in the hydrocarbon reforming zone and a low oxygen to carbon ratio is maintained to control the amount of dilution of the hydrogen-rich gas with nitrogen of the air without sustaining an insupportable amount of carbon deposition on the catalyst. Anode vent gas may be utilized as the fuel to preheat the inlet stream to the reformer. The fuel cell and the reformer are preferably operated at elevated pressures, up to about a pressure of 150 psia for the fuel cell.

  11. Fuel cell electric power production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hwang, Herng-Shinn (Livingston, NJ); Heck, Ronald M. (Frenchtown, NJ); Yarrington, Robert M. (Westfield, NJ)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for generating electricity from a fuel cell includes generating a hydrogen-rich gas as the fuel for the fuel cell by treating a hydrocarbon feed, which may be a normally liquid feed, in an autothermal reformer utilizing a first monolithic catalyst zone having palladium and platinum catalytic components therein and a second, platinum group metal steam reforming catalyst. Air is used as the oxidant in the hydrocarbon reforming zone and a low oxygen to carbon ratio is maintained to control the amount of dilution of the hydrogen-rich gas with nitrogen of the air without sustaining an insupportable amount of carbon deposition on the catalyst. Anode vent gas may be utilized as the fuel to preheat the inlet stream to the reformer. The fuel cell and the reformer are preferably operated at elevated pressures, up to about a pressure of 150 psia for the fuel cell.

  12. Fuel Cells | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFife EnergyFreight BestFuel Cell ControlCells Jump to:

  13. Climate Change Fuel Cell Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alice M. Gitchell

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 200 kW, natural gas fired fuel cell was installed at the Richard Stockton College of New Jersey. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the financial and operational suitability of retrofit fuel cell technology at a medium sized college. Target audience was design professionals and the wider community, with emphasis on use in higher education. ''Waste'' heat from the fuel cell was utilized to supplement boiler operations and provide domestic hot water. Instrumentation was installed in order to measure the effectiveness of heat utilization. It was determined that 26% of the available heat was captured during the first year of operation. The economics of the fuel cell is highly dependent on the prices of electricity and natural gas. Considering only fuel consumed and energy produced (adjusted for boiler efficiency), the fuel cell saved $54,000 in its first year of operation. However, taking into account the price of maintenance and the cost of financing over the short five-year life span, the fuel cell operated at a loss, despite generous subsidies. As an educational tool and market stimulus, the fuel cell attracted considerable attention, both from design professionals and the general public.

  14. Electrocatalysts for Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract ManagementDiscoveringESnetEffectiveElectricApril 2015

  15. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Y.; Meng, W.J.; Swathirajan, S.; Harris, S.J.; Doll, G.L.

    1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention contemplates a PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements (including bipolar plates/septums) comprising a titanium nitride coated light weight metal (e.g., Al or Ti) core, having a passivating, protective metal layer intermediate the core and the titanium nitride. The protective layer forms a barrier to further oxidation/corrosion when exposed to the fuel cell`s operating environment. Stainless steels rich in Cr, Ni, and Mo are particularly effective protective interlayers. 6 figs.

  16. Fuel Cell Technologies Program Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologies Program (FCTP)Overview Fuel CellFueleere.energy.gov

  17. Fuel Cell Technologies Program Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologies Program (FCTP)Overview Fuel CellFueleere.energy.gov

  18. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJulyD&D Project|StatementDOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office

  19. Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartment of Energy's2ofFuel Cell Financing forEnergy

  20. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF CHANNEL POROUS LAYER INTERFACES IN PEM FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehrhardt, Matthias

    MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF CHANNEL ­ POROUS LAYER INTERFACES IN PEM FUEL CELLS M. EHRHARDT, J, Germany ABSTRACT In proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, the transport of the fuel to the active diffusion layers. In order to improve existing mathematical and numerical models of PEM fuel cells, a deeper

  1. Double interconnection fuel cell array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; Zymboly, G.E.

    1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell array is made, containing number of tubular, elongated fuel cells which are placed next to each other in rows (A, B, C, D), where each cell contains inner electrodes and outer electrodes, with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where the electrolyte and outer electrode are discontinuous, having two portions, and providing at least two opposed discontinuities which contain at least two oppositely opposed interconnections contacting the inner electrode, each cell having only three metallic felt electrical connectors which contact surrounding cells, where each row is electrically connected to the other. 5 figures.

  2. Navy fuel cell demonstration project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Billy D.; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report on a field evaluation by the Department of the Navy of twenty 5-kW PEM fuel cells carried out during 2004 and 2005 at five Navy sites located in New York, California, and Hawaii. The key objective of the effort was to obtain an engineering assessment of their military applications. Particular issues of interest were fuel cell cost, performance, reliability, and the readiness of commercial fuel cells for use as a standalone (grid-independent) power option. Two corollary objectives of the demonstration were to promote technological advances and to improve fuel performance and reliability. From a cost perspective, the capital cost of PEM fuel cells at this stage of their development is high compared to other power generation technologies. Sandia National Laboratories technical recommendation to the Navy is to remain involved in evaluating successive generations of this technology, particularly in locations with greater environmental extremes, and it encourages their increased use by the Navy.

  3. Climate Change Fuel Cell Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Belard

    2006-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Verizon is presently operating the largest Distributed Generation Fuel Cell project in the USA. Situated in Long Island, NY, the power plant is composed of seven (7) fuel cells operating in parallel with the Utility grid from the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA). Each fuel cell has an output of 200 kW, for a total of 1.4 mW generated from the on-site plant. The remaining power to meet the facility demand is purchased from LIPA. The fuel cell plant is utilized as a co-generation system. A by-product of the fuel cell electric generation process is high temperature water. The heat content of this water is recovered from the fuel cells and used to drive two absorption chillers in the summer and a steam generator in the winter. Cost savings from the operations of the fuel cells are forecasted to be in excess of $250,000 per year. Annual NOx emissions reductions are equivalent to removing 1020 motor vehicles from roadways. Further, approximately 5.45 million metric tons (5 millions tons) of CO2 per year will not be generated as a result of this clean power generation. The project was partially financed with grants from the New York State Energy R&D Authority (NYSERDA) and from Federal Government Departments of Defense and Energy.

  4. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 14012: Fuel Cell System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Results from the analysis were communicated to the FCT Office at the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation 3 and at a meeting of the...

  5. Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    simulation tool for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, Journal ofApplication on Direct Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles, 2008. Acsystem for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles Fig. 3 Driver

  6. Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus Lands at Hickam AFB: Hydrogen Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hybrid Bus Lands at Hickam AFB: Hydrogen Fuel Cell & Infrastructure Technologies Program, Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Project (Fact Sheet) Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus Lands at Hickam AFB:...

  7. Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An Indirect Methanol Pem Fuel Cell System, SAE 2001, (paperof automotive PEM fuel cell stacks, SAE 2000 (paper numberParasitic Loads in Fuel Cell Vehicles, International Journal

  8. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rechargeable Zinc-Air Battery System for Electric Vehicles,"hthium/polymer* Zinc-air battery (Electric Fuel)* NickelThe discharge rate for the zinc/air battery was 5 hours at a

  9. DOE HydrogenDOE Hydrogen Fuel CellsFuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    efficiency of stationary fuel cell systems (natural gas) $45/kW by 2010$250/kWG. Reduce cost - vehicle fuel to taking these cars from laboratory to showroom so that the first car driven by a child born today could

  10. 1986 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ninety nine brief papers are arranged under the following session headings: gas industry's 40 kw program, solid oxide fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell technology, molten carbonate fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell systems, power plants technology, fuel cell power plant designs, unconventional fuels, fuel cell application and economic assessments, and plans for commerical development. The papers are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  11. Intra-Fuel Cell Stack Measurements of Transient Concentration Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partridge Jr, William P [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL; Green Jr, Johney Boyd [ORNL; Armstrong, Timothy R. [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intra-fuel-cell measurements are required to understand detailed fuel-cell chemistry and physics, validate models, optimize system design and control, and realize enhanced efficiency regimes; in comparison, conventional integrated fuel-cell supply and effluent measurements are fundamentally limited in value. Intra-reactor measurements are needed for all fuel cell types. This paper demonstrates the ability of a capillary-inlet mass spectrometer to resolve transient species distributions within operating polymer-electrolyte-membrane (PEM) fuel cells and at temperatures typical of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). This is the first such demonstration of a diagnostic that is sufficiently minimally invasive as to allow measurements throughout an operating fuel cell stack. Measurements of transient water, hydrogen, oxygen and diluent concentration dynamics associated with fuel-cell load switching suggest oxygen-limited chemistry. Intra-PEM fuel cell measurements of oxygen distribution at various fuel-cell loads are used to demonstrate concentration gradients, non-uniformities, and anomalous fuel cell operation.

  12. Fuel Cell Handbook (Seventh Edition)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget(DANCE)FrequentlyLecturesFuel Cell Handbook

  13. Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy, science,SpeedingWu,IntelligenceYou are here ‹FIRST Center TheFuel Cell

  14. Additive Manufacturing for Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Blake Marshall, AMO's lead for Additive Manufacturing Technologies, will provide an overview of current R&D activities in additive manufacturing and its application to fuel cell prototyping and...

  15. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Walneuski

    2004-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    ChevronTexaco has successfully operated a 200 kW PC25C phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant at the corporate data center in San Ramon, California for the past two years and seven months following installation in December 2001. This site was chosen based on the ability to utilize the combined heat (hot water) and power generation capability of this modular fuel cell power plant in an office park setting . In addition, this project also represents one of the first commercial applications of a stationary fuel cell for a mission critical data center to assess power reliability benefits. This fuel cell power plant system has demonstrated outstanding reliability and performance relative to other comparably sized cogeneration systems.

  16. Fuel Cell Kickoff Meeting Agenda

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hamrock, 3M 9:40 New Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells J. Kerr, LBNL 10:00 The Design of Novel Materials Consisting of a Semi- Interpenetrating Network of...

  17. Fuel cell technology for prototype logistic fuel cell mobile systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sederquist, R.A.; Garow, J.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the aegis of the Advanced Research Project Agency`s family of programs to develop advanced technology for dual use applications, International Fuel Cells Corporation (IFC) is conducting a 39 month program to develop an innovative system concept for DoD Mobile Electric Power (MEP) applications. The concept is to integrate two technologies, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) with an auto-thermal reformer (ATR), into an efficient fuel cell power plant of nominally 100-kilowatt rating which operates on logistic fuels (JP-8). The ATR fuel processor is the key to meeting requirements for MEP (including weight, volume, reliability, maintainability, efficiency, and especially operation on logistic fuels); most of the effort is devoted to ATR development. An integrated demonstration test unit culminates the program and displays the benefits of the fuel cell system, relative to the standard 100-kilowatt MEP diesel engine generator set. A successful test provides the basis for proceeding toward deployment. This paper describes the results of the first twelve months of activity during which specific program aims have remained firm.

  18. Fuel Cells for Portable Power: 1. Introduction to DMFCs; 2. Advanced Materials and Concepts for Portable Power Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zelenay, Piotr [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Thanks to generally less stringent cost constraints, portable power fuel cells, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) in particular, promise earlier market penetration than higher power polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) for the automotive and stationary applications. However, a large-scale commercialization of DMFC-based power systems beyond niche applications already targeted by developers will depend on improvements to fuel cell performance and performance durability as well as on the reduction in cost, especially of the portable systems on the higher end of the power spectrum (100-250 W). In this part of the webinar, we will focus on the development of advanced materials (catalysts, membranes, electrode structures, and membrane electrode assemblies) and fuel cell operating concepts capable of fulfilling two key targets for portable power systems: the system cost of $5/W and overall fuel conversion efficiency of 2.0-2.5 kWh/L. Presented research will concentrate on the development of new methanol oxidation catalysts, hydrocarbon membranes with reduced methanol crossover, and improvements to component durability. Time permitted, we will also present a few highlights from the development of electrocatalysts for the oxidation of two alternative fuels for the direct-feed fuel cells: ethanol and dimethyl ether.

  19. Cornell Fuel Cell Institute: Materials Discovery to Enable Fuel Cell Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abruna, H.D.; DiSalvo, Francis J.

    2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery and understanding of new, improved materials to advance fuel cell technology are the objectives of the Cornell Fuel Cell Institute (CFCI) research program. CFCI was initially formed in 2003. This report highlights the accomplishments from 2006-2009. Many of the grand challenges in energy science and technology are based on the need for materials with greatly improved or even revolutionary properties and performance. This is certainly true for fuel cells, which have the promise of being highly efficient in the conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy. Fuel cells offer the possibility of efficiencies perhaps up to 90 % based on the free energy of reaction. Here, the challenges are clearly in the materials used to construct the heart of the fuel cell: the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The MEA consists of two electrodes separated by an ionically conducting membrane. Each electrode is a nanocomposite of electronically conducting catalyst support, ionic conductor and open porosity, that together form three percolation networks that must connect to each catalyst nanoparticle; otherwise the catalyst is inactive. This report highlights the findings of the three years completing the CFCI funding, and incudes developments in materials for electrocatalyts, catalyst supports, materials with structured and functional porosity for electrodes, and novel electrolyte membranes. The report also discusses developments at understanding electrocatalytic mechanisms, especially on novel catalyst surfaces, plus in situ characterization techniques and contributions from theory. Much of the research of the CFCI continues within the Energy Materials Center at Cornell (emc2), a DOE funded, Office of Science Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC).

  20. Variable area fuel cell cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kothmann, Richard E. (Churchill Borough, PA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell arrangement having cooling fluid flow passages which vary in surface area from the inlet to the outlet of the passages. A smaller surface area is provided at the passage inlet, which increases toward the passage outlet, so as to provide more uniform cooling of the entire fuel cell. The cooling passages can also be spaced from one another in an uneven fashion.

  1. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Yang (Troy, MI); Meng, Wen-Jin (Okemos, MI); Swathirajan, Swathy (West Bloomfield, MI); Harris, Stephen Joel (Bloomfield, MI); Doll, Gary Lynn (Orion Township, Oakland County, MI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention contemplates a PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements (including bipolar plates/septums) comprising a titanium nitride coated light weight metal (e.g., Al or Ti) core, having a passivating, protective metal layer intermediate the core and the titanium nitride. The protective layer forms a barrier to further oxidation/corrosion when exposed to the fuel cell's operating environment. Stainless steels rich in CR, Ni, and Mo are particularly effective protective interlayers.

  2. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Yang (Troy, MI); Meng, Wen-Jin (Okemos, MI); Swathirajan, Swathy (West Bloomfield, MI); Harris, Stephen J. (Bloomfield, MI); Doll, Gary L. (Orion Township, Oakland County, MI)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention contemplates a PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements (including bipolar plates/septums) comprising a titanium nitride coated light weight metal (e.g., Al or Ti) core, having a passivating, protective metal layer intermediate the core and the titanium nitride. The protective layer forms a barrier to further oxidation/corrosion when exposed to the fuel cell's operating environment. Stainless steels rich in CR, Ni, and Mo are particularly effective protective interlayers.

  3. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Yang; Meng, Wen-Jin; Swathirajan, Swathy; Harris, Stephen Joel; Doll, Gary Lynn

    2001-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention contemplates a PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements (including bipolar plates/septums) comprising a titanium nitride coated light weight metal (e.g., Al or Ti) core, having a passivating, protective metal layer intermediate the core and the titanium nitride. The protective layer forms a barrier to further oxidation/corrosion when exposed to the fuel cell's operating environment. Stainless steels rich in CR, Ni, and Mo are particularly effective protective interlayers.

  4. Stationary Fuel Cell Evaluation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This powerpoint presentation discusses its objectives: real world operation data from the field and state-of-the-art lab; collection; analysis for independent technology validation; collaboration with industry and end users operating stationary fuel cell systems and reporting on technology status, progress and technical challenges. The approach and accomplishments are: A quarterly data analysis and publication of first technical stationary fuel cell composite data products (data through June 2012).

  5. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid Integration NREL isData and ResourcesEnergy AnalysisCells

  6. A Parametric Study of Cathode Catalyst Layer Structural Parameters on the Performance of a PEM Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and how changes in its structural parameters affect performance. These results give useful guidelines for manufactures of PEMFC catalyst layers. Keywords: PEM fuel cell In a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (or PEMFC), electrical energy is generated directly through

  7. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 14014: Fuel Cell System...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 14014: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 14014: Fuel Cell System Cost - 2014 Program record 14014...

  8. Solar-Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLuchi, Mark A.; Ogden, Joan M.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. A. (1992). Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles. Re- koebensteinthan both. Solar-hydrogen and fuel-cell vehicles wouldberegulation. Solar-Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles MarkA. DeLuchi

  9. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Manufacturing Overview Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Manufacturing R Reserved. 3 The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrochemistry #12;Copyright © 2011 Versa Power Systems. All Rights

  10. Microfluidic Microbial Fuel Cells for Microstructure Interrogations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parra, Erika Andrea

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sediment microbial fuel cells demonstrating marine (left)5 FutureWork 5.1 Microfluidic Microbial Fuel Cell Continuedthe micro- patterned microbial fuel cell. Note that V oc,max

  11. Solar-Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLuchi, Mark A.; Ogden, Joan M.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nosulfur. fA methanol/fuel-cell vehicle wouldhaveno tailpipeanalysis of fuel cell vehicles using methanol and hy- drogenused fuel-cell vehicles and (d) biomass-derived methanol

  12. Fuel Cells for Transportation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE R&D Activities Fuel Cells for Transportation Fuel Cells for Transportation Photo of Ford Focus fuel cell car in front of windmills The transportation sector is the single...

  13. Fuel Cell Program 2003 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Merit Review Meeting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel Cell Program 2003 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Merit Review Meeting Rod Borup, Michael Inbody, Jose in Fuel Cell Reformers #12;Fuel Cell Program Technical Objectives: Examine Fuel Effects on Fuel Processor) · Fuel Pr. Start-up/Transient (fuel effect on light-off) · Cost. (Barrier N) (effect on catalyst loading

  14. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Adam E. Calihman; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Tom F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Mike J. Holmes; Aaron L. Wagner

    2001-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members, are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, ceramic, cermet (ceramic/metal), and thin film membranes were prepared, characterized, and evaluated for H{sub 2} transport. For selected ceramic membrane compositions an optimum range for transition metal doping was identified, and it was determined that highest proton conductivity occurred for two-phase ceramic materials. Furthermore, a relationship between transition metal dopant atomic number and conductivity was observed. Ambipolar conductivities of {approx}6 x 10{sup -3} S/cm were achieved for these materials, and {approx} 1-mm thick membranes generated H{sub 2} transport rates as high as 0.3 mL/min/cm{sup 2}. Cermet membranes during this quarter were found to have a maximum conductivity of 3 x 10{sup -3} S/cm, which occurred at a metal phase contact of 36 vol.%. Homogeneous dense thin films were successfully prepared by tape casting and spin coating; however, there remains an unacceptably high difference in shrinkage rates between the film and support, which led to membrane instability. Further improvements in high pressure membrane seals also were achieved during this quarter, and a maximum pressure of 100 psig was attained. CoorsTek optimized many of the processing variables relevant to manufacturing scale production of ceramic H{sub 2} transport membranes, and SCI used their expertise to deposit a range of catalysts compositions onto ceramic membrane surfaces. Finally, MTI compiled relevant information regarding Vision 21 fossil fuel plant operation parameters, which will be used as a starting point for assessing the economics of incorporating a H{sub 2} separation unit.

  15. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J. (Fairport, NY); Venkiteswaran, Arun (Karnataka, IN)

    2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  16. Canadian Fuel Cell Commercialization Roadmap Update: Progress...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Commercialization Roadmap Update: Progress of Canada's Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Industry Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Canadian Fuel Cell...

  17. Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Technologies | Clean Energy | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cell Technologies SHARE Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technologies Oak Ridge National Laboratory pursues activities that address the barriers facing the development and deployment of...

  18. Characterization of Fuel-Cell Diffusion Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunterman, Haluna Penelope Frances

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to take up or eject fluid. Most fuel-cell materials arethe wetting fluid. Therefore, P C for fuel-cell systems is

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: DOE Fuel Cell Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cell Technologies New Report Describes Joint Opportunities for Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicle Markets On March 6, 2015, in Capabilities, Center for Infrastructure...

  20. Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program: 2002 Annual Progress Report Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program: 2002 Annual Progress Report...

  1. Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program FY2003 Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program FY2003...

  2. Webinar: National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording and text version of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar titled "National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC)," originally presented on March 11, 2014.

  3. Fuel Cell Animation- Chemical Process (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts.

  4. Fuel Cell Technology Challenges | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Challenges Fuel Cell Technology Challenges Cost and durability are the major challenges to fuel cell commercialization. However, hurdles vary according to the...

  5. Evaluation of Stationary Fuel Cell Deployments, Costs, and Fuels (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ainscough, C.; Kurtz, J.; Peters, M.; Saur, G.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation summarizes NREL's technology validation of stationary fuel cell systems and presents data on number of deployments, system costs, and fuel types.

  6. Rapidly refuelable fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joy, R.W.

    1982-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A rapidly refuelable dual cell of an electrochemical type is described wherein a single anode cooperates with two cathodes and wherein the anode has a fixed position and the cathodes are urged toward opposite faces of the anodes at constant and uniform force. The associated cathodes are automatically retractable to permit the consumed anode remains to be removed from the housing and a new anode inserted between the two cathodes.

  7. The Business Case for Fuel Cells 2012 America's Partner in Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ................................................................................................................... 5 Fuel Cells + Biogas...

  8. Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells M.J. Kermani1 J and N2, through the cathode of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is studied numerically) an energy equation, written in a form that has enthalpy as the dependent variable. Keywords: PEM fuel cells

  9. A non-isothermal PEM fuel cell model including two water transport mechanisms in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Münster, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität

    A non-isothermal PEM fuel cell model including two water transport mechanisms in the membrane K Freiburg Germany A dynamic two-phase flow model for proton exchange mem- brane (PEM) fuel cells and the species concentrations. In order to describe the charge transport in the fuel cell the Poisson equations

  10. Fuel Cells prognostics using Echo State Network S. Morando1,2,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fuel Cells prognostics using Echo State Network S. Morando1,2,3 , S. Jemei1,2 , R. Gouriveau2,3 , N department / ENSMM Abstract-- One remaining technological bottleneck to develop industrial Fuel Cell (FC Life of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell. Developments emphasize on the prediction of the mean

  11. A SHARP INTERFACE REDUCTION FOR MULTIPHASE TRANSPORT IN A POROUS FUEL CELL ELECTRODE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    A SHARP INTERFACE REDUCTION FOR MULTIPHASE TRANSPORT IN A POROUS FUEL CELL ELECTRODE KEITH exchange membrane fuel cell is a highly porous material which acts to distribute reactant gases uniformly perturbation, fuel cell electrodes, free surface. AMS subject classifications. 35B40, 35K55, 76R99, 76S05 1

  12. Preparation of Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell Binders Based on Fluorinated Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Preparation of Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell Binders Based on Fluorinated Poly to be used in a Solid Alkaline Fuel Cell (SAFC) needs to (i) be insoluble in both aqueous solutions,10% > 320 °C). When used in a fuel cell as a binder in the membrane-electrodes assembly (MEA

  13. Science Highlight December 2010 Electrochemical Surface Science: Hard X-rays Probe Fuel Cell Model Catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Science Highlight ­ December 2010 Electrochemical Surface Science: Hard X-rays Probe Fuel Cell. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are promising power sources since they can generate distribution network. Large-scale deployment of fuel cells, however, has been hampered by cost and performance

  14. Three-Dimensional Computational Analysis of Transport Phenomena in a PEM Fuel Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Three-Dimensional Computational Analysis of Transport Phenomena in a PEM Fuel Cell by Torsten or other means, without permission of the author. #12;Supervisor: Dr. N. Djilali Abstract Fuel cells-isothermal computational model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The model was developed to improve

  15. Author's personal copy Performance of an alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Author's personal copy Performance of an alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel cell L. An, T.S. Zhao ethanol fuel cell Alkaline-acid Species concentrations Membrane thickness Power density a b s t r a c t This paper reports on the performance of an alkaline-acid direct ethanol fuel cell (AA-DEFC) that is composed

  16. Development of high-power electrodes for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development of high-power electrodes for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell C. Lim, C.Y. Wang for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were fabricated by using a novel method of modi®ed Na.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Direct methanol fuel cells; Membrane-electrode assembly (MEA); Polymer

  17. Dramatic Reduction of Water Crossover in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells by Cathode Humidification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    concentration methanol fuel cells, the water transport coefficient through the membrane must be reducedDramatic Reduction of Water Crossover in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells by Cathode Humidification much higher than 60°C and in active air-flowing direct methanol fuel cell systems with high power

  18. Mitochondrial Targeted Coenzyme Q, Superoxide, and Fuel Selectivity in Endothelial Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fink, Brian D.; O'Malley, Yunxia; Dake, Brian L.; Ross, Nicholette C.; Prisinzano, Thomas E.; Sivitz, William I.

    2009-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    on mitochondrial respiration, measured respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential in intact cells, and tested the intriguing hypothesis that mitoquinone might impart fuel selectivity in intact BAE cells. In mitochondria respiring on differing concentrations...

  19. Direct Carbon Fuel Cell System Utilizing Solid Carbonaceous Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turgut Gur

    2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This 1-year project has achieved most of its objective and successfully demonstrated the viability of the fluidized bed direct carbon fuel cell (FB-DCFC) approach under development by Direct Carbon technologies, LLC, that utilizes solid carbonaceous fuels for power generation. This unique electrochemical technology offers high conversion efficiencies, produces proportionately less CO{sub 2} in capture-ready form, and does not consume or require water for gasification. FB-DCFC employs a specialized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement coupled to a Boudouard gasifier where the solid fuel particles are fluidized and reacted by the anode recycle gas CO{sub 2}. The resulting CO is electrochemically oxidized at the anode. Anode supported SOFC structures employed a porous Ni cermet anode layer, a dense yttria stabilized zirconia membrane, and a mixed conducting porous perovskite cathode film. Several kinds of untreated solid fuels (carbon and coal) were tested in bench scale FBDCFC prototypes for electrochemical performance and stability testing. Single cells of tubular geometry with active areas up to 24 cm{sup 2} were fabricated. The cells achieved high power densities up to 450 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C using a low sulfur Alaska coal char. This represents the highest power density reported in the open literature for coal based DCFC. Similarly, power densities up to 175 mW/cm{sup 2} at 850 C were demonstrated with carbon. Electrical conversion efficiencies for coal char were experimentally determined to be 48%. Long-term stability of cell performance was measured under galvanostatic conditions for 375 hours in CO with no degradation whatsoever, indicating that carbon deposition (or coking) does not pose any problems. Similar cell stability results were obtained in coal char tested for 24 hours under galvanostatic conditions with no sign of sulfur poisoning. Moreover, a 50-cell planar stack targeted for 1 kW output was fabricated and tested in 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2}) that simulates the composition of the coal syngas. At 800 C, the stack achieved a power density of 1176 W, which represents the largest power level demonstrated for CO in the literature. Although the FB-DCFC performance results obtained in this project were definitely encouraging and promising for practical applications, DCFC approaches pose significant technical challenges that are specific to the particular DCFC scheme employed. Long term impact of coal contaminants, particularly sulfur, on the stability of cell components and cell performance is a critically important issue. Effective current collection in large area cells is another challenge. Lack of kinetic information on the Boudouard reactivity of wide ranging solid fuels, including various coals and biomass, necessitates empirical determination of such reaction parameters that will slow down development efforts. Scale up issues will also pose challenges during development of practical FB-DCFC prototypes for testing and validation. To overcome some of the more fundamental problems, initiation of federal support for DCFC is critically important for advancing and developing this exciting and promising technology for third generation electricity generation from coal, biomass and other solid fuels including waste.

  20. Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 2011 IPHE Stationary...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 2011 IPHE Stationary Fuel Cell Workshop Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 2011 IPHE Stationary Fuel Cell Workshop...

  1. Overview of Fuel Cell Electric Bus Development | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuel Cell Electric Bus Development Overview of Fuel Cell Electric Bus Development Presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar ""Fuel Cell Buses"" held...

  2. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Adam E. Calihman; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Pamela M. Van Calcar; Richard A. Mackay; Tom F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Tim R. Armstrong; Mike J. Holmes; Aaron L. Wagner

    2001-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members, are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, it was demonstrated that increasing the transition metal loading in a model perovskite composition resulted in an increase in hydrogen flux. Improved flux corresponded to the emergence of additional phases in the ceramic membrane, and highest flux was achieved for a composite consisting of pseudo-cubic and rhombohedral perovskite phases. A 0.9-mm thick membrane of this material generated a hydrogen flux in excess of 0.1 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which was approximately 35 times greater than analogs with lower transition metal levels. The dopant level and crystal structure also correlated with membrane density and coefficient of thermal expansion, but did not appear to affect grain size or shape. Additionally, preliminary ceramic-metal (cermet) composite membranes demonstrated a 10-fold increase in flux relative to analogous membranes composed of only the ceramic component. The hydrogen flux for these cermet samples corresponded to a conductivity of {approx} 10{sup -3} S/cm, which was consistent with the predicted proton conductivity of the ceramic phase. Increasing the sweep gas flow rate in test reactors was found to significantly increase hydrogen flux, as well as apparent material conductivity for all samples tested. Adding humidity to the feed gas stream produced a small increase in hydrogen flux. However, the catalyst on ceramic membrane surfaces did not affect flux, which suggested that the process was membrane-diffusion limited. Representative samples and fabrication processes were evaluated on the basis of manufacturing practicality. it was determined that optimum membrane densification occurs over a very narrow temperature range for the subject ceramics. Additionally, calcination temperatures currently employed result in powders that are difficult mill and screen. These issues must be addressed to improve large-scale fabricability.

  3. Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies ProgramHydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Program Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies ProgramHydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure.5Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program (EERE) President's Office of Science Berkeley, California #12;President Bush Launches the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative "Tonight I am proposing $1

  4. Dynamics, Optimization and Control of a Fuel Cell Based Combined Heat Power (CHP) System for Shipboard Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Dynamics, Optimization and Control of a Fuel Cell Based Combined Heat Power (CHP) System, a natural gas fuel processor system (FPS), a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM-FC) and a catalytic) systems based on fuel cells and fuel processing technologies have great potential for future shipboard

  5. Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells using hydrocarbon fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Won Yong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency conversion devices that use hydrogen or light hydrocarbon (HC) fuels in stationary applications to produce quiet and clean power. While successful, HC-fueled SOFCs face ...

  6. DIGESTER GAS - FUEL CELL - PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr.-Eng. Dirk Adolph; Dipl.-Eng. Thomas Saure

    2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GEW has been operating the first fuel cell in Europe producing heat and electricity from digester gas in an environmentally friendly way. The first 9,000 hours in operation were successfully concluded in August 2001. The fuel cell powered by digester gas was one of the 25 registered ''Worldwide projects'' which NRW presented at the EXPO 2000. In addition to this, it is a key project of the NRW State Initiative on Future Energies. All of the activities planned for the first year of operation were successfully completed: installing and putting the plant into operation, the transition to permanent operation as well as extended monitoring till May 2001.

  7. Improving the lifetime performance of ceramic fuel cells Fuel cells generate electricity from fuels more efficiently and with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    2014 Improving the lifetime performance of ceramic fuel cells Fuel cells generate electricity from to produce electricity from fuels. To speed the search for why fuel cell performance decreases over time fuels more efficiently and with fewer emissions per watt than burning fossil fuels. But as fuel cells

  8. Fuel Cell Distributed Power Package Unit: Fuel Processing Based On

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel Cell Distributed Power Package Unit: Fuel Processing Based On Autothermal Cyclic Reforming have been metAll milestones have been met #12;4 Autothermal Cyclic Reforming for PEM Fuel Cell CH4 + H2 is not mixed with fuel70-80%High H2 Purity from Reformer AdvantagesAutothermal Cyclic Reformer (ACR) Metric #12

  9. 2008 FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES MARKET REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008 FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES MARKET REPORT JUNE 2010 #12;2008 FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES MARKET REPORT i and the fuel cell industry. The authors especially wish to thank Sunita Satyapal, Nancy Garland, and the staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program for their support and guidance

  10. FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Safety, Codes, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Many odorants can also contaminate fuel cells. Hydrogen burns very quickly. Under optimal combustionFUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Safety, Codes, and Standards Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, nuclear, natural gas, and coal with carbon sequestration. Fuel cells provide a highly efficient means

  11. PEM fuel cell monitoring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, M.A.; Grot, S.A.

    1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for monitoring the performance of H{sub 2}--O{sub 2} PEM fuel cells. Outputs from a cell/stack voltage monitor and a cathode exhaust gas H{sub 2} sensor are corrected for stack operating conditions, and then compared to predetermined levels of acceptability. If certain unacceptable conditions coexist, an operator is alerted and/or corrective measures are automatically undertaken. 2 figs.

  12. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report, November 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  13. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  14. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  15. Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    cells as a heat and electrical power source for residential combined heat and power (CHP characterization provided data to assess the CHP potential of the Nexa and validate the model used ambient temperature. #12;iv To improve performance as a CHP heat engine, the Nexa and other air-cooled PEM

  16. 1990 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains author prepared short resumes of the presentations at the 1990 Fuel Cell Seminar held November 25-28, 1990 in Phoenix, Arizona. Contained herein are 134 short descriptions organized into topic areas entitled An Environmental Overview, Transportation Applications, Technology Advancements for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells, Technology Advancements for Solid Fuel Cells, Component Technologies and Systems Analysis, Stationary Power Applications, Marine and Space Applications, Technology Advancements for Acid Type Fuel Cells, and Technology Advancement for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

  17. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fronk, Matthew Howard; Borup, Rodney Lynn; Hulett, Jay S.; Brady, Brian K.; Cunningham, Kevin M.

    2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

  18. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fronk, Matthew Howard (Honeoye Falls, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY); Hulett, Jay S. (Rochester, NY); Brady, Brian K. (North Chili, NY); Cunningham, Kevin M. (Romeo, MI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

  19. Fuel Cell Technologies Program Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Administration's Clean Energy Goals 99 Double RenewableDouble Renewable Energy Capacity by 2012 9 Invest $150. Benefits · Efficiencies can be 60% (electrical) and 3 60% (electrical) and 85% (with CHP) · > 90% reduction (> 40% increase over 2008) Fuel cells can be a cost-competitive option for critical

  20. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Adam Calihman; Andy Girard; Pamela M. Van Calcar; Richard Mackay; Tom Barton; Sara Rolfe

    2001-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. Membranes testing during this reporting period were greater than 1 mm thick and had the general perovskite composition AB{sub 1-x}B'{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where 0.05 {<=} x {<=} 0.3. These materials demonstrated hydrogen separation rates between 1 and 2 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which represents roughly 20% of the target goal for membranes of this thickness. The sintered membranes were greater than 95% dense, but the phase purity decreased with increasing dopant concentration. The quantity of dopant incorporated into the perovskite phase was roughly constant, with excess dopant forming an additional phase. Composite materials with distinct ceramic and metallic phases, and thin film perovskites (100 {micro}m) also were successfully prepared, but have not yet been tested for hydrogen transport. Finally, porous platinum was identified as a excellent catalyst for evaluation of membrane materials, however, lower cost nickel catalyst systems are being developed.

  1. Fuel cell system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maru, Hansraj C. (Brookfield Center, CT); Farooque, Mohammad (Huntington, CT)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell system comprising a fuel cell including first and second electrolyte-communicative passage means, a third electrolyte-isolated passage means in thermal communication with a heat generating surface of the cell, independent first, second and third input manifolds for the first, second and third passage means, the first input manifold being adapted to be connected to a first supply for a first process gas and one of the second and third input manifold means being adapted to be connected to a second supply for a second process gas, and means for conveying a portion of the gas passing out of the passage means fed by the one input manifold means to the other of the second and third input manifold means.

  2. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Stewart R. Schesnack; Scott R. Morrison; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2003-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and NORAM are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Over the past 12 months, this project has focused on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites containing hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. The ceramic/ceramic composites demonstrate the lowest hydrogen permeation rates, with a maximum of approximately 0.1 mL/min/cm{sup 2} for 0.5-mm thick membranes at 800 to 950 C. Under equivalent conditions, cermets achieve a hydrogen permeation rate near 1 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, and the metal phase also improves structural stability and surface catalysis for hydrogen dissociation. Furthermore, if metals with high hydrogen permeability are used in cermets, permeation rates near 4 mL/min/cm{sup 2} are achievable with relatively thick membranes. Layered composite membranes have by far the highest permeation rates with a maximum flux in excess of 200 mL {center_dot} min{sup -1} {center_dot} cm{sup -2}. Moreover, these permeation rates were achieved at a total pressure differential across the membrane of 450 psi. Based on these results, effort during the next year will focus on this category of membranes. This report contains long-term hydrogen permeation data over eight-months of continuous operation, and permeation results as a function of operating conditions at high pressure for layered composite membranes. Additional progress with cermet and thin film membranes also is presented.

  3. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Stewart R. Schesnack; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. (Balu) Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2003-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, and Argonne National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize hydrogen permeation without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, a composite metal membrane based on an inexpensive hydrogen permeable metal achieved permeation rates in excess of 25 mL/min/cm{sup 2}. Preliminary attempts to incorporate this metal into a cermet were successful, and a thick cermet membrane (0.83 mm) with 40 vol.% metal phase achieved a permeation rate of nearly 0.4 mL/min/cm{sup 2}. Increasing the metal phase content and decreasing membrane thickness should significantly increase permeation, while maintaining the benefits derived from cermets. Two-phase ceramic/ceramic composite membranes had low hydrogen permeability, likely due to interdiffusion of constituents between the phases. However, these materials did demonstrate high resistance to corrosion, and might be good candidates for other composite membranes. Temperature-programmed reduction measurements indicated that model cermet materials absorbed 2.5 times as much hydrogen than the pure ceramic analogs. This characteristic, in addition to higher electron conductivity, likely explains the relatively high permeation for these cermets. Incorporation of catalysts with ceramics and cermets increased hydrogen uptake by 800 to more than 900%. Finally, new high-pressure seals were developed for cermet membranes that maintained a pressure differential of 250 psi. This result indicated that the approach for high-pressure seal development could be adapted for a range of compositions. Other items discussed in this report include mechanical testing, new proton conducting ceramics, supported thin films, and alkane to olefin conversion.

  4. Investigation of Fuel Cell System Performance and Operation: A Fuel Cell as a Practical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Investigation of Fuel Cell System Performance and Operation: A Fuel Cell as a Practical Distributed of Fuel Cell System Performance and Operation: A Fuel Cell as a Practical Distributed Generator George Research Center program. This report is of work done under the PSERC project "Investigation of Fuel Cell

  5. 1 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Fuel Cell Technologies Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and Specialty Vehicles Fuel cells can be a cost-competitive option for critical-load facilities, backup power1 | Fuel Cell Technologies Program eere.energy.gov Fuel Cell Technologies Program DOE Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Overview Dr. Sunita Satyapal Program Manager U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies

  6. Design and development of a DC-DC converter for a fuel cell inverter system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopinath, Rajesh

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) c) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) d) Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) Table I: Types of Fuel Cells and Comparison PAFC ELECTROLYTE Phosphoric Acid MCFC Molten Carbonate Salt SOFC Ceramic PEMFC Polymer OPERATING.../Air 40-50% COi/0, /Air 50-60% 0, /Air 45-55% Oi/Air 40-50% Fuel cells are typically grouped mto three sections as shown m Figure 1: 1. Fuel Processor HRAV~O &Aim IO tl 'c operate at higher temperatures (up to 1000'C for solid oxide fuel...

  7. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. (Balu) Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; George Farthing; Dan Rowley; Tim R. Armstrong; R.D. Carneim; P.F. Becher; C-H. Hsueh; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur.

  8. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Yimin (Urbana, IL); Kahn, Zakia (Palatine, IL); Man, Malcolm (Vancouver, CA)

    2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  9. Analysis of Fuel Cell Systems Rangan Banerjee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Rangan

    Analysis of Fuel Cell Systems Rangan Banerjee Energy Systems Engineering IIT Bombay Lecture in CEP Course on `Fuel Cell' at IIT 14th November 2007 #12;Overview of Talk Energy Crisis ­ Motivation for fuel biological Hydrogen Gasification Fermentation Cracking + Shift Reaction Fuel Cell #12;ENERGY FLOW DIAGRAM

  10. Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Hydrogen Storage 2. Hydrogen Production 3. Fuel Cell Cost Reduction #12;Major Fuel Cell Decisions FuelOffice of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (proposed) Steve Chalk May 6, 2002 #12 DAS Associate DASIndustrial Technologies Implementation A Director Solar Energy Technologies Director

  11. Electrochemical impedance study of electrode-membrane assemblies in PEM fuel cells. 1: Electro-oxidation of H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/CO mixtures on Pt-based gas-diffusion electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciureanu, M.; Wang, H.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ EIS data are presented on the anodic process in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and the influence of CO poisoning of the Pt gas-diffusion electrodes (GDE) is examined. A characterization of the effects of interfacial kinetics in determining polarization losses in the presence of CO is performed by comparing impedance patterns obtained for cells of the type H{sub 2}/H{sub 2} with H{sub 2}/(H{sub 2} + CO). The impedance spectrum of the poisoned electrode is strongly dependent on potential and on the CO concentration in the gas feed. In the range between 0 and 0.3 V the impedance increases rapidly with the potential, while at potentials higher than 0.3 V a pseudoinductive behavior is observed, in which a positive loop at higher frequencies is accompanied by a low frequency (LF) loop in the fourth quadrant. The latter was assigned to a new rate-determining process, the oxidation of CO{sub ads} by Pt-H{sub 2}O{sub ads}. As a critical potential V{sub crit} is attained, the diameters of the two loops become almost equal and the LF limit of the impedance (R{sub o}) approaches the value for unpoisoned electrode, showing that the activity of the electrode activity has been restored. The value of V{sub crit} is 0.43 and 0.58 V for electrodes poisoned with 100 ppm and 2% CO, respectively. At very high potentials, where the oxidizing species are Pt-OH{sub ads}, the impedance pattern is reserved to the second and third quadrants. Stripping voltammetry and polarization curves recorded in situ, are used to support the conclusions obtained from impedance measurements.

  12. Fuel Processing Valri Lightner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Catalysts for Autothermal Reforming · Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor · Hydrogen Enhancement #12;Fuel Applications · Fuel Cell Distributed Power Package Unit: Fuel Processing Based on Autothermal Cyclic Reforming

  13. Distributed/Stationary Fuel Cell Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DistributedStationary Fuel Cell Systems DistributedStationary Fuel Cell Systems Photo of stationary fuel cell The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing high-efficiency fuel...

  14. Moving toward a commercial market for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Moving toward a commercial market for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles Moving toward a commercial market for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles Fuel cell vehicles and fueling stations...

  15. Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: February 2011...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Fuel Cell Activities: February 2011 Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee Meeting Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: February 2011 Hydrogen and Fuel...

  16. Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 2011 IPHE Stationary...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    1 IPHE Stationary Fuel Cell Workshop Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Activities: 2011 IPHE Stationary Fuel Cell Workshop Presentation by Rick Farmer at the IPHE Stationary Fuel...

  17. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. (Balu) Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; George Farthing; Dan Rowley; Tim R. Armstrong; M.K. Ferber; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2002-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Eltron Research Inc. and their team members are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, new cermet compositions were tested that demonstrated similar performance to previous materials. A 0.5-mm thick membrane achieved at H{sub 2} transport rate of 0.2 mL/min/cm{sup 2} at 950 C, which corresponded to an ambipolar conductivity of 3 x 10{sup -3} S/cm. Although these results were equivalent to those for other cermet compositions, this new composition might be useful if it demonstrates improved chemical or mechanical stability. Ceramic/ceramic composite membranes also were fabricated and tested; however, some reaction did occur between the proton- and electron-conducting phases, which likely compromised conductivity. This sample only achieved a H{sub 2} transport rate of {approx} 0.006 mL/min/cm{sup 2} and an ambipolar conductivity of {approx}4 x 10{sup -4} S/cm. Chemical stability tests were continued, and candidate ceramic membranes were found to react slightly with carbon monoxide under extreme testing conditions. A cermet compositions did not show any reaction with carbon monoxide, but a thick layer of carbon formed on the membrane surface. The most significant technical accomplishment this quarter was a new high-pressure seal composition. This material maintained a pressure differential across the membrane of {approx} 280 psi at 800 C, and is still in operation.

  18. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Alexandra Z. LaGuardia; Tom F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Mike J. Holmes; Aaron L. Wagner

    2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, mixed proton/electron conductivity and hydrogen transport was measured as a function of metal phase content for a range of ceramic/metal (cermet) compositions. It was found that optimum performance occurred at 44 wt.% metal content for all compositions tested. Although each cermet appeared to have a continuous metal phase, it is believed that hydrogen transport increased with increasing metal content partially due to beneficial surface catalyst characteristics resulting from the metal phase. Beyond 44 wt.% there was a reduction in hydrogen transport most likely due to dilution of the proton conducting ceramic phase. Hydrogen separation rates for 1-mm thick cermet membranes were in excess of 0.1 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which corresponded to ambipolar conductivities between 1 x 10{sup -3} and 8 x 10{sup -3} S/cm. Similar results were obtained for multiphase ceramic membranes comprised of a proton-conducting perovskite and electron conducting metal oxide. These multi-phase ceramic membranes showed only a slight improvement in hydrogen transport upon addition of a metal phase. The highest hydrogen separation rates observed this quarter were for a cermet membrane containing a hydrogen transport metal. A 1-mm thick membrane of this material achieved a hydrogen separation rate of 0.3 mL/min/cm{sup 2} at only 700 C, which increased to 0.6 mL/min/cm{sup 2} at 950 C.

  19. Hydrogen Separation Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roark, Shane E.; Mackay, Richard; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Eltron Research and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. By appropriately changing the catalysts coupled with the membrane, essentially the same system can be used to facilitate alkane dehydrogenation and coupling, aromatics processing, and hydrogen sulfide decomposition.

  20. Fuel Cell Demonstration Program - Central and Remote Sites 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald Brun

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to promote clean energy projects and aid in the commercialization of new fuel cell technologies, the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) initiated a Fuel Cell Demonstration Program in 1999 with six month deployments of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) non-commercial Beta model systems at partnering sites throughout Long Island. These projects facilitated significant developments in the technology, providing operating experience that allowed the manufacturer to produce fuel cells that were half the size of the Beta units and suitable for outdoor installations. In 2001, LIPA embarked on a large-scale effort to identify and develop measures that could improve the reliability and performance of future fuel cell technologies for electric utility applications and the concept to establish a fuel cell farm (Farm) of 75 units was developed. By the end of October of 2001, 75 Lorax 2.0 fuel cells had been installed at the West Babylon substation on Long Island, making it the first fuel cell demonstration of its kind and size anywhere in the world at the time. Designed to help LIPA study the feasibility of using fuel cells to operate in parallel with LIPA's electric grid system, the Farm operated 120 fuel cells over its lifetime of over 3 years including 3 generations of Plug Power fuel cells (Lorax 2.0, Lorax 3.0, Lorax 4.5). Of these 120 fuel cells, 25 Lorax 4.5 units operated under this Award from April 2003 to December 2004. In parallel with the operation of the Farm, LIPA recruited government, commercial, and residential customers to demonstrate fuel cells as on-site distributed generation. The deployment of the 20 Lorax 4.5 units for the Remote Sites phase of the project began in October 2004. To date, 10 fuel cells have completed their demonstrations while 10 fuel cells are currently being monitored at various customer sites throughout Long Island. As of June 30, 2006 the 45 fuel cells operating under this Award produced a total of 1,585,093 kWh. As fuel cell technology became more mature, performance improvements included increases in system efficiency and availability. Including equipment, design, fuel, maintenance, installation, and decommissioning the total project budget was approximately $3.7 million.