National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for membrane electrode assemblies

  1. Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) A revolutionary method of building a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for...

  2. Nanoengineered membrane electrode assembly interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A

    2013-08-06

    A membrane electrode structure suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) that comprises membrane-affixed metal nanoparticles whose formation is controlled by a photochemical process that controls deposition of the metal nanoparticles using a photocatalyst integrated with a polymer electrolyte membrane, such as an ionomer membrane. Impregnation of the polymer membrane with the photocatalyst prior to metal deposition greatly reduces the required amount of metal precursor in the deposition reaction solution by restricting metal reduction substantially to the formation of metal nanoparticles affixed on or near the surface of the polymer membrane with minimal formation of metallic particles not directly associated with the membrane.

  3. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S

    2014-02-25

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  4. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2012-07-24

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  5. Membrane-electrode assemblies for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swathirajan, Sundararajan; Mikhail, Youssef M.

    1993-01-01

    A combination, unitary, membrane and electrode assembly with a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, and first and second electrodes at least partially embedded in opposed surfaces of the membrane. The electrodes each comprise a respective group of finely divided carbon particles, very finely divided catalytic particles supported on internal and external surfaces of the carbon particles and a proton conductive material intermingled with the catalytic and carbon particles. A first group of finely divided carbon particles forming the first electrode has greater water attraction and retention properties, and is more hydrophilic than a second group of carbon particles forming the second electrode. In a preferred method, the membrane electrode assembly of the invention is prepared by forming a slurry of proton conductive material and at least one group of the carbon and catalyst particles. The slurry is applied to the opposed surfaces of the membrane and heated while being pressed to the membrane for a time and at a temperature and compressive load sufficient to embed at least a portion of the particles into the membrane.

  6. Methods of making membrane electrode assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Lee, Kwan -Soo; Rockward, Tommy Q. T.

    2015-07-28

    Method of making a membrane electrode assembly comprising: providing a membrane comprising a perfluorinated sulfonic acid; providing a first transfer substrate; applying to a surface of the first transfer substrate a first ink, said first ink comprising an ionomer and a catalyst; applying to the first ink a suitable non-aqueous swelling agent; forming an assembly comprising: the membrane; and the first transfer substrate, wherein the surface of the first transfer substrate comprising the first ink and the non-aqueous swelling agent is disposed upon one surface of the membrane; and heating the assembly at a temperature of 150.degree. C. or less and at a pressure of from about 250 kPa to about 3000 kPa or less for a time suitable to allow substantially complete transfer of the first ink and the second ink to the membrane; and cooling the assembly to room temperature and removing the first transfer substrate and the second transfer substrate.

  7. Nanofiber membrane-electrode-assembly and method of fabricating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pintauro, Peter N.; Ballengee, Jason; Brodt, Matthew

    2016-02-02

    In one aspect of the present invention, a fuel cell membrane-electrode-assembly (MEA) has an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, and a membrane disposed between the anode electrode and the cathode electrode. At least one of the anode electrode, the cathode electrode and the membrane is formed of electrospun nanofibers.

  8. PBI-Phosphoric Acid Based Membrane Electrode Assemblies: Status...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PBI-Phosphoric Acid Based Membrane Electrode Assemblies: Status Update PBI-Phosphoric Acid Based Membrane Electrode Assemblies: Status Update Presentation at the MCFC and PAFC R&D ...

  9. Breakout Group 2: Membrane Electrode Assemblies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    January 23-24, 2008 Breakout Group 2: Membrane Electrode Assemblies PARTICIPANTS Name Organization Jim Goldbach Arkema, Inc. Kev Adjemian Nissan Motor Co. Eric Funkenbusch 3M John Kerr Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Jonathan Sharman Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells Jean St-Pierre University of South Carolina Huyen Dinh National Renewable Energy Laboratory Bryan Pivovar Los Alamos National Laboratory Jim Martin Lockheed Martin Sami Mardini Superprotonic Reg Tyler U.S. Department of

  10. Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Durable Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA) Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact ... The pt loading was 0.2 and 0.4 mgcm2. Technology Marketing SummaryThe membrane electrode ...

  11. PBI-Phosphoric Acid Based Membrane Electrode Assemblies: Status Update |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy PBI-Phosphoric Acid Based Membrane Electrode Assemblies: Status Update PBI-Phosphoric Acid Based Membrane Electrode Assemblies: Status Update Presentation at the MCFC and PAFC R&D Workshop held Nov. 16, 2009 in Palm Springs, CA mcfc_pafc_workshop_de_castro.pdf (328.63 KB) More Documents & Publications MCFC and PAFC R&D Workshop Summary Report Manufacturing Barriers to High Temperature PEM Commercialization Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature

  12. Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Challenges … Membrane Electrode Assembly

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Challenges - Membrane Electrode Assembly Sheraton Grand Phoenix, 340 N. 3 rd St, Phoenix, AZ 85004 April 1, 2016 Yu Seung Kim Los Alamos National Laboratory (yskim@lanl.gov) 1 H 2 /O 2 , 60 o C, 1 atm Current density (A/cm 2 ) 0 1 2 3 4 Cell voltage (V) 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 PEMFC AMFC Objective 2/21 Comparison of PEMFC and AMFC performance Anode/cathode catalyst: Pt/C 0.4 mg Pt /cm 2 ; AMFC membrane: 50 µm thick, aQAPS-S 8 ; PEMFC membrane: 50 µm thick, Nafion 212, fully humidified H 2 /O 2

  13. Breakout Group 2: Membrane Electrode Assemblies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: Membrane Electrode Assemblies Breakout Group 2: Membrane Electrode Assemblies Report from Breakout Group 2 of the Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop, January 23-24, 2008 fc_pre-solicitation_workshop_mea.pdf (55.13 KB) More Documents & Publications Breakout Group 3: Water Management DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group 2: MEAs, Components, and Integration Breakout Group 1: Catalysts and Supports

  14. PBI-Phosphoric Acid Based Membrane Electrode Assemblies: Status Update

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    .11.2009 1 PBI-Phosphoric Acid Based Membrane Electrode Assemblies: Status update PAFC Workshop 16 November 2009 Emory De Castro 10.11.2009 2 BASF Fuel Cell - Formed from legacy companies with history of catalyst, gas diffusion electrodes, and membrane innovation Customer application lab in Japan opens April 2008 BASF merges fuel cell activities and forms BASF Fuel Cell BASF acquires PEMEAS and Engelhard E-TEK becomes division of PEMEAS Celanese and investors form PEMEAS Celanese Ventures

  15. Method of making membrane-electrode assemblies for electrochemical cells and assemblies made thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swathirajan, Sundararajan; Mikhail, Youssef M.

    1994-01-01

    A method of making a combination, unitary, membrane and electrode assembly having a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, and first and second electrodes at least partially embedded in opposed surfaces of the membrane. The electrodes each comprise a respective group of finely divided carbon particles, very finely divided catalytic particles supported on internal and external surfaces of the carbon particles and a proton conductive material intermingled with the catalytic and carbon particles. A first group of finely divided carbon particles forming the first electrode has greater water attraction and retention properties, and is more hydrophilic than a second group of carbon particles forming the second electrode. In a preferred method, the membrane electrode assembly of the invention is prepared by forming a slurry of proton conductive material and at least one group of the carbon and catalyst particles. The slurry is applied to the opposed surfaces of the membrane and heated while being pressed to the membrane for a time and at a temperature and compressive load sufficient to embed at least a portion of the particles into the membrane.

  16. Method of making membrane-electrode assemblies for electrochemical cells and assemblies made thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swathirajan, S.; Mikhail, Y.M.

    1994-05-31

    A method is described for making a combination, unitary, membrane and electrode assembly having a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, and first and second electrodes at least partially embedded in opposed surfaces of the membrane. The electrodes each comprise a respective group of finely divided carbon particles, very finely divided catalytic particles supported on internal and external surfaces of the carbon particles and a proton conductive material intermingled with the catalytic and carbon particles. A first group of finely divided carbon particles forming the first electrode has greater water attraction and retention properties, and is more hydrophilic than a second group of carbon particles forming the second electrode. In a preferred method, the membrane electrode assembly of the invention is prepared by forming a slurry of proton conductive material and at least one group of the carbon and catalyst particles. The slurry is applied to the opposed surfaces of the membrane and heated while being pressed to the membrane for a time and at a temperature and compressive load sufficient to embed at least a portion of the particles into the membrane. 10 figs.

  17. Simplified process for leaching precious metals from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shore, Lawrence; Matlin, Ramail

    2009-12-22

    The membrane electrode assemblies of fuel cells are recycled to recover the catalyst precious metals from the assemblies. The assemblies are cryogenically embrittled and pulverized to form a powder. The pulverized assemblies are then mixed with a surfactant to form a paste which is contacted with an acid solution to leach precious metals from the pulverized membranes.

  18. High Speed, Low Cost Fabrication of Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Membrane Electrode Assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeCastro, Emory S.; Tsou, Yu-Min; Liu, Zhenyu

    2013-09-20

    Fabrication of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) depends on creating inks or pastes of catalyst and binder, and applying this suspension to either the membrane (catalyst coated membrane) or gas diffusion media (gas diffusion electrode) and respectively laminating either gas diffusion media or gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) to the membrane. One barrier to cost effective fabrication for either of these approaches is the development of stable and consistent suspensions. This program investigated the fundamental forces that destabilize the suspensions and developed innovative approaches to create new, highly stable formulations. These more concentrated formulations needed fewer application passes, could be coated over longer and wider substrates, and resulted in significantly lower coating defects. In March of 2012 BASF Fuel Cell released a new high temperature product based on these advances, whereby our customers received higher performing, more uniform MEAs resulting in higher stack build yields. Furthermore, these new materials resulted in an “instant” increase in capacity due to higher product yields and material throughput. Although not part of the original scope of this program, these new formulations have also led us to materials that demonstrate equivalent performance with 30% less precious metal in the anode. This program has achieved two key milestones in DOE’s Manufacturing R&D program: demonstration of processes for direct coating of electrodes and continuous in-line measurement for component fabrication.

  19. Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Applications | Department of Energy the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications These slides were presented at the 2010 New Fuel Cell Projects Meeting on September 28, 2010. 10_dupont_perry.pdf (204.87 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop - Breakout Group 2: MEAs, Components, and Integration Membranes and MEAs

  20. Process for recycling components of a PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shore, Lawrence

    2012-02-28

    The membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of a PEM fuel cell can be recycled by contacting the MEA with a lower alkyl alcohol solvent which separates the membrane from the anode and cathode layers of the assembly. The resulting solution containing both the polymer membrane and supported noble metal catalysts can be heated under mild conditions to disperse the polymer membrane as particles and the supported noble metal catalysts and polymer membrane particles separated by known filtration means.

  1. Method for recovering catalytic elements from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shore, Lawrence; Matlin, Ramail; Heinz, Robert

    2012-06-26

    A method for recovering catalytic elements from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly is provided. The method includes converting the membrane electrode assembly into a particulate material, wetting the particulate material, forming a slurry comprising the wetted particulate material and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve at least one of the catalytic elements into a soluble catalytic element salt, separating the slurry into a depleted particulate material and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt, and washing the depleted particulate material to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted particulate material.

  2. Efficient process for previous metal recovery from cell membrane electrode assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shore, Lawrence; Matlin, Ramail; Heinz, Robert

    2010-05-04

    A method is provided for recovering a catalytic element from a fuel cell membrane electrode assembly. The method includes grinding the membrane electrode assembly into a powder, extracting the catalytic element by forming a slurry comprising the powder and an acid leachate adapted to dissolve the catalytic element into a soluble salt, and separating the slurry into a depleted powder and a supernatant containing the catalytic element salt. The depleted powder is washed to remove any catalytic element salt retained within pores in the depleted powder and the catalytic element is purified from the salt.

  3. METHOD TO PREVENT SULFUR ACCUMULATION INSIDE MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.; Steeper, T.; Herman, D.; Colon-Mercado, H.; Elvington, M.

    2009-06-22

    HyS is conceptually the simplest of the thermochemical cycles and involves only sulfur chemistry. In the HyS Cycle hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}) is produced at the cathode of the electrochemical cell (or electrolyzer). Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is oxidized at the anode to form sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and protons (H{sup +}) as illustrated below. A separate high temperature reaction decomposes the sulfuric acid to water and sulfur dioxide which are recycled to the electrolyzers, and oxygen which is separated out as a secondary product. The electrolyzer includes a membrane that will allow hydrogen ions to pass through but block the flow of hydrogen gas. The membrane is also intended to prevent other chemical species from migrating between electrodes and undergoing undesired reactions that could poison the cathode or reduce overall process efficiency. In conventional water electrolysis, water is oxidized at the anode to produce protons and oxygen. The standard cell potential for conventional water electrolysis is 1.23 volts at 25 C. However, commercial electrolyzers typically require higher voltages ranging from 1.8 V to 2.6 V [Kirk-Othmer, 1991]. The oxidation of sulfur dioxide instead of water in the HyS electrolyzer occurs at a much lower potential. For example, the standard cell potential for sulfur dioxide oxidation at 25 C in 50 wt % sulfuric acid is 0.29 V [Westinghouse, 1980]. Since power consumption by the electrolyzers is equal to voltage times current, and current is proportional to hydrogen production, a large reduction in voltage results in a large reduction in electrical power cost per unit of hydrogen generated.

  4. Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    g y Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications Through the Fundamental Understanding of Membrane and MEA Degradation Pathways DE-EE0003772 2010 DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell Project Kick-Off Randal L. Perry E.I. duPont de Nemours September 28 2010 September 28, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information" 2 Overview Timeline (tentative) Start date: Oct 1 2010 Start date: Oct 1,

  5. Measuring electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bordenick, J.E.

    1988-04-26

    A pH measuring electrode assembly for immersion in a solution includes an enclosed cylindrical member having an aperture at a lower end thereof. An electrolyte is located in the cylindrical member above the level of the aperture and an electrode is disposed in this electrolyte. A ring formed of an ion porous material is mounted relative to the cylindrical member so that a portion of this ring is rotatable relative to and is covering the aperture in the cylindrical member. A suitable mechanism is also provided for indicating which one of a plurality of portions of the ring is covering the aperture and to keep track of which portions of the ring have already been used and become clogged. Preferably, the electrode assembly also includes a glass electrode member in the center thereof including a second electrolyte and electrode disposed therein. The cylindrical member is resiliently mounted relative to the glass electrode member to provide for easy rotation of the cylindrical member relative to the glass electrode member for changing of the portion of the ring covering the aperture. 2 figs.

  6. Measuring electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bordenick, John E.

    1989-01-01

    A pH measuring electrode assembly for immersion in a solution includes an enclosed cylindrical member having an aperture at a lower end thereof. An electrolyte is located in the cylindrical member above the level of the aperture and an electrode is disposed in this electrolyte. A ring formed of an ion porous material is mounted relative to the cylindrical member so that a portion of this ring is rotatable relative to and is covering the aperture in the cylindrical member. A suitable mechanism is also provided for indicating which one of a plurality of portions of the ring is covering the aperture and to keep track of which portions of the ring have already been used and become clogged. Preferably, the electrode assembly also includes a glass electrode member in the center thereof including a second electrolyte and electrode disposed therein. The cylindrical member is resiliently mounted relative to the glass electrode member to provide for easy rotation of the cylindrical member relative to the glass electrode member for changing of the portion of the ring covering the aperture.

  7. Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications through the Fundamental Understanding of Membrane and MEA Degradation Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, Randal L.

    2013-10-31

    The Project focused on mitigation of degradation processes on membrane electrode assemblies. The approach was to develop a model to improve understanding of the mechanisms, and to use it to focus mitigation strategies. The detailed effects of various accelerated stress tests (ASTs) were evaluated to determine the best subset to use in model development. A combination of ASTs developed by the Fuel Cell Commercialization Conference of Japan and the Fuel Cell Tech Team were selected for use. The ASTs were compared by measuring effects on performance, running in-situ diagnostics, and performing microscopic analyses of the membrane electrode assemblies after the stress tests were complete. Nissan ran FCCJ AST protocols and performed in situ and ex-situ electrochemical testing. DuPont ran FCTT and USFCC AST protocols, performed scanning and transmission electron microscopy and ran in-situ electrochemical tests. Other ex-situ testing was performed by IIT, along with much of the data analysis and model development. These tests were then modified to generate time-dependent data of the degradation mechanisms. Three different catalyst types and four membrane variants were then used to generate data for a theoretically-based degradation model. An important part of the approach was to use commercially available materials in the electrodes and membranes made in scalable semiworks processes rather than lab-based materials. This constraint ensured all materials would be practicable for full-scale testing. The initial model for the electrode layer was tested for internal consistency and agreement with the data. A Java-based computer application was developed to analyze the time-dependent AST data using polarization curves with four different cathode gas feeds and generate model parameters. Data showed very good reproducibility and good consistency as cathode catalyst loadings were varied. At the point of termination of the project, a basic electrode model was in hand with several

  8. Membrane reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo; Bloom, Ira D.

    1989-01-01

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured with high spatial resolution.

  9. Membrane reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

    1988-01-21

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

  10. Development of Polybenzimidazole-Based High-Temperature Membrane and Electrode Assemblies for Stationary and Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, John A.

    2008-09-03

    The program began on August 1, 2003 and ended on July 31, 2007. The goal of the project was to optimize a high-temperature polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane to meet the performance, durability, and cost targets required for stationary fuel cell applications. These targets were identified in the Fuel Cell section (3.4) of DOE’s Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan. A membrane that operates at high temperatures is important to the fuel cell industry because it is insensitive to carbon monoxide (a poison to low-temperature fuel cells), and does not require complex water management strategies. Together, these two benefits greatly simplify the fuel cell system. As a result, the high-temperature fuel cell system realizes a cost benefit as the number of components is reduced by nearly 30%. There is also an inherent reliability benefit as components such as humidifiers and pumps for water management are unnecessary. Furthermore, combined heat and power (CHP) systems may be the best solution for a commercial, grid-connected, stationary product that must offer a cost benefit to the end user. For a low-temperature system, the quality of the heat supplied is insufficient to meet consumer needs and comfort requirements, so peak heaters or supplemental boilers are required. The higher operating temperature of PBI technology allows the fuel cell to meet the heat and comfort demand without the additional equipment. Plug Power, working with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) Polymer Science Laboratory, made significant advances in optimizing the PBI membrane material for operation at temperatures greater than 160oC with a lifetime of 40,000 hours. Supporting hardware such as flow field plates and a novel sealing concept were explored to yield the lower-cost stack assembly and corresponding manufacturing process. Additional work was conducted on acid loss, flow field design and cathode electrode

  11. Membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschemekat, J.

    1994-03-15

    A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

  12. Membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen

    1994-01-01

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  13. Electrode assembly for a fluidized bed apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schora, Jr., Frank C.; Matthews, Charles W.; Knowlton, Ted M.

    1976-11-23

    An electrode assembly comprising a high voltage electrode having a generally cylindrical shape and being electrically connected to a high voltage source, where the cylinder walls may be open to flow of fluids and solids; an electrically grounded support electrode supporting said high voltage electrode by an electrically insulating support where both of the electrically grounded and electrically insulating support may be hollow; and an electrically grounded liner electrode arranged concentrically around both the high voltage and support electrodes. This assembly is specifically adapted for use in a fluidized bed chemical reactor as an improved heating means therefor.

  14. Gas separation membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynn, Nicholas P; Fulton, Donald A.

    2009-03-31

    A gas-separation membrane module assembly and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly includes a set of tubes, each containing gas-separation membranes, arranged within a housing. The housing contains a tube sheet that divides the space within the housing into two gas-tight spaces. A permeate collection system within the housing gathers permeate gas from the tubes for discharge from the housing.

  15. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  16. NREL Develops Technique to Measure Membrane Thickness and Defects in Polymer Electrode Membrane Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in fuel cell membrane electrode assembly research and development. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center and the National Center for Photovoltaics.

  17. Metal stub and ceramic body electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rolf, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    An electrically conductive ceramic electrode body having an opening therein is threadably engaged with a metal stub having at least a slot therein to provide space for expansion of the stub without damage to the electrode body.

  18. Metal stub and ceramic body electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rolf, R.L.

    1984-05-22

    An electrically conductive ceramic electrode body having an opening therein is threadably engaged with a metal stub having at least a slot therein to provide space for expansion of the stub without damage to the electrode body. 3 figs.

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electrode Architecture-Assembly of Battery Materials and Electrodes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Hydro Quebec at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electrode architecture-assembly...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Electrode Architecture-Assembly of Battery Materials and Electrodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Hydro-Québec at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about electrode architecture-assembly...

  1. Method of making a unitized electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Niksa, M.J.; Pohto, G.R.; Lakatos, L.K.; Wheeler, D.J.; Solomon, F.; Niksa, A.J.; Schue, T.J.; Genodman, Y.; Turk, T.R.; Hagel, D.P.

    1988-12-06

    A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom. 6 figs.

  2. Method of making a unitized electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Niksa, Marilyn J.; Pohto, Gerald R.; Lakatos, Leslie K.; Wheeler, Douglas J.; Solomon, Frank; Niksa, Andrew J.; Schue, Thomas J.; Genodman, Yury; Turk, Thomas R.; Hagel, Daniel P.

    1988-01-01

    A battery assembly of the consumable metal anode type has now been constructed for ready assembly as well as disassembly. In a non-conductive and at least substantially inert cell body, space is provided for receiving an open-structured, non-consumable anode cage. The cage has an open top for facilitating insertion of an anode. A modular cathode is used, comprising a peripheral current conductor frame clamped about a grid reinforced air cathode in sheet form. The air cathode may be double gridded. The cathode frame can be sealed, during assembly, with electrolyte-resistant-sealant as well as with adhesive. The resulting cathode module can be assembled outside the cell body and readily inserted therein, or can later be easily removed therefrom.

  3. Four-port gas separation membrane module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynn, Nicholas P.; Fulton, Donald A.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; Kaschemekat, Jurgen

    2010-07-20

    A gas-separation membrane assembly, and a gas-separation process using the assembly. The assembly incorporates multiple gas-separation membranes in an array within a single vessel or housing, and is equipped with two permeate ports, enabling permeate gas to be withdrawn from both ends of the membrane module permeate pipes.

  4. Self-assembling membranes and related methods thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capito, Ramille M; Azevedo, Helena S; Stupp, Samuel L

    2013-08-20

    The present invention relates to self-assembling membranes. In particular, the present invention provides self-assembling membranes configured for securing and/or delivering bioactive agents. In some embodiments, the self-assembling membranes are used in the treatment of diseases, and related methods (e.g., diagnostic methods, research methods, drug screening).

  5. Metal spring stub and ceramic body electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rolf, Richard L.; Sharp, Maurice L.

    1984-01-01

    An electrode assembly comprising an electrically conductive ceramic electrode body having an opening therein and a metal stub retained in the opening with at least a surface of the stub in intimate contact with a surface of the body and the stub adapted with a spring to flex and prevent damage to the body from expansion of the stub when subjected to a temperature differential.

  6. Metal spring stub and ceramic body electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rolf, R.L.; Sharp, M.L.

    1984-06-26

    An electrode assembly is disclosed comprising an electrically conductive ceramic electrode body having an opening therein and a metal stub retained in the opening with at least a surface of the stub in intimate contact with a surface of the body and the stub adapted with a spring to flex and prevent damage to the body from expansion of the stub when subjected to a temperature differential. 1 fig.

  7. Method of fabricating electrode catalyst layers with directionally oriented carbon support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia; Yang, Junbing

    2012-03-20

    A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) of the invention comprises an anode and a cathode and a proton conductive membrane therebetween, the anode and the cathode each comprising a patterned sheet of longitudinally aligned transition metal-containing carbon nanotubes, wherein the carbon nanotubes are in contact with and are aligned generally perpendicular to the membrane, wherein a catalytically active transition metal is incorporated throughout the nanotubes.

  8. Process for producing elements from a fused bath using a metal strap and ceramic electrode body nonconsumable electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrne, S.C.

    1984-07-03

    A nonconsumable electrode assembly is described suitable for use in the production of metal by electrolytic reduction of a metal compound dissolved in a molten salt, the assembly comprising a ceramic electrode body and a metal subassembly of a metal conductor rod and at least one metal strap affixed to an end of the rod with opposing portions extending radially outwardly from the rod axis and having the ends of the strap attached to the electrode body. 7 figs.

  9. Process for producing elements from a fused bath using a metal strap and ceramic electrode body nonconsumable electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrne, Stephen C.

    1984-01-01

    A nonconsumable electrode assembly suitable for use in the production of metal by electrolytic reduction of a metal compound dissolved in a molten salt, the assembly comprising a ceramic electrode body and a metal subassembly of a metal conductor rod and at least one metal strap affixed to an end of the rod with opposing portions extending radially outwardly from the rod axis and having the ends of the strap attached to the electrode body.

  10. Self-assembly of submicron particles between electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Z.-Z.; Meng, Q.-B.; Hayami, S.; Fujishima, A.; Sato, O.

    2001-08-15

    A method for the fabrication of opal films between parallel transparent electrodes is described. Monodispersed particles are assembled by taking advantage of the rheological force induced by the evaporation of a solvent in a thin capillary cell. Three-dimensional opal films with controllable thickness could be fabricated, in which a regular hexagonal arrangement of particles parallel to the substrates over a large area was observed. Such a sandwich-like photonic device may find applications in fabricating electrically tunable photonic crystals. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  11. DOE Technical Targets for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell components: membrane electrode assemblies, membranes, electrocatalysts, and bipolar plates. These targets have been developed with ...

  12. Potentiometric measurement of polymer-membrane electrodes based on lanthanum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saefurohman, Asep Buchari, Noviandri, Indra; Syoni

    2014-03-24

    Quantitative analysis of rare earth elements which are considered as the standard method that has a high accuracy, and detection limits achieved by the order of ppm is inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). But these tools are expensive and valuable analysis of the high cost of implementation. In this study be made and characterized selective electrode for the determination of rare earth ions is potentiometric. Membrane manufacturing techniques studied is based on immersion (liquid impregnated membrane) in PTFE 0.5 pore size. As ionophores to be used tri butyl phosphate (TBP) and bis(2-etylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate. There is no report previously that TBP used as ionophore in polymeric membrane based lanthanum. Some parameters that affect the performance of membrane electrode such as membrane composition, membrane thickness, and types of membrane materials studied in this research. Manufacturing of Ion Selective Electrodes (ISE) Lanthanum (La) by means of impregnation La membrane in TBP in kerosene solution has been done and showed performance for ISE-La. FTIR spectrum results for PTFE 0.5 pore size which impregnated in TBP and PTFE blank showed difference of spectra in the top 1257 cm{sup ?1}, 1031 cm{sup ?1} and 794.7 cm{sup ?1} for P=O stretching and stretching POC from group ?OP =O. The result showed shift wave number for P =O stretching of the cluster (?OP=O) in PTFE-TBP mixture that is at the peak of 1230 cm{sup ?1} indicated that no interaction bond between hydroxyl group of molecules with molecular clusters fosforil of TBP or R{sub 3}P = O. The membrane had stable responses in pH range between 1 and 9. Good responses were obtained using 10{sup ?3} M La(III) internal solution, which produced relatively high potential. ISE-La showed relatively good performances. The electrode had a response time of 294.5 second and could be use for 50 days. The linear range was between 10{sup ?5} and 10{sup ?1} M.

  13. One-step fabrication of free-standing flexible membranes reinforced with self-assembled arrays of carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grilli, S.; Coppola, S.; Vespini, V.; Pagliarulo, V.; Ferraro, P.; Nasti, G.; Carfagna, C.

    2014-10-13

    Here, we report on a single step approach for fabricating free-standing polymer membranes reinforced with arrayed self-assembled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The CNTs are self-assembled spontaneously by electrode-free DC dielectrophoresis based on surface charge templates. The electrical charge template is generated through the pyroelectric effect onto periodically poled lithium niobate ferroelectric crystals. A thermal stimulus enables simultaneously the self-assembly of the CNTs and the cross-linking of the host polymer. Examples of thin polydimethylsiloxane membranes reinforced with CNT patterns are shown.

  14. Nonconsumable electrode assembly and use thereof for the electrolytic production of metals and silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrne, Stephen C.; Ray, Siba P.

    1984-01-01

    A nonconsumable electrode assembly suitable for use in the production of metal by electrolytic reduction of a metal compound dissolved in a molten salt, the assembly comprising a metal conductor attached to a ceramic electrode body by a metal bond on a portion of the body having a level of free metal or metal alloy sufficient to effect a metal bond.

  15. Diffusion welded nonconsumable electrode assembly and use thereof for electrolytic production of metals and silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrne, Stephen C.; Vasudevan, Asuri K.

    1984-01-01

    A nonconsumable electrode assembly suitable for use in the production of metal by electrolytic reduction of a metal compound dissolved in a molten salt, the assembly comprising a metal conductor diffusion welded to a portion of a ceramic electrode body having a level of free metal or metal alloy sufficient to effect a metal bond.

  16. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; Li, Jianlin; Wu, Ji

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficiently accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.

  17. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; Li, Jianlin; Wu, Ji

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficientlymore » accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.« less

  18. Directed Spontaneous Assembly of Membrane Protein with Amphiphilic Block

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copolymers - Energy Innovation Portal Directed Spontaneous Assembly of Membrane Protein with Amphiphilic Block Copolymers Colorado School of Mines Contact CSM About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThis invention describes a method for using membrane proteins (MPs) in synthetic systems for biosensor design, high-throughput drug-screening, catalysis or energy harvesting. DescriptionCurrent efforts in the art face a challenge that practical applications involving liposomes have been

  19. Friction welded nonconsumable electrode assembly and use thereof for electrolytic production of metals and silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Byrne, Stephen C. (Monroeville, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Rapp, Robert A. (Columbus, OH)

    1984-01-01

    A nonconsumable electrode assembly suitable for use in the production of metal by electrolytic reduction of a metal compound dissolved in a molten salt, the assembly comprising a metal conductor and a ceramic electrode body connected by a friction weld between a portion of the body having a level of free metal or metal alloy sufficient to effect such a friction weld and a portion of the metal conductor.

  20. Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    These slides were presented at the 2010 New Fuel Cell Projects Meeting on September 28, 2010. 10dupontperry.pdf (204.87 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE Fuel Cell ...

  1. Method to prevent sulfur accumulation in membrane electrode assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steimke, John L; Steeper, Timothy J; Herman, David T

    2014-04-29

    A method of operating a hybrid sulfur electrolyzer to generate hydrogen is provided that includes the steps of providing an anolyte with a concentration of sulfur dioxide, and applying a current. During steady state generation of hydrogen a plot of applied current density versus concentration of sulfur dioxide is below a boundary line. The boundary line may be linear and extend through the origin of the graph with a slope of 0.001 in which the current density is measured in mA/cm2 and the concentration of sulfur dioxide is measured in moles of sulfur dioxide per liter of anolyte.

  2. Development of a Low-Cost, Durable Membrane and Membrane Electrode Assemby for Stationary and Mobile Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michel Foure; Gaboury, Scott; Goldbach, Jim; Mountz, David; Yi, Jung

    2008-01-31

    The development of low cost, durable membranes and membranes electrode assemblies (MEAs) remain a critical challenge for the successful introduction of fuel cells into mass markets. It was the goal of the team lead by Arkema, Inc. (formerly Atofina, Inc.) to address these shortages. Thus, this project addresses the following technical barriers from the Fuel Cells section of the Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: (A) Durability (B) Cost Arkema’s approach consisted in using blends of polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and proprietary sulfonated polyelectrolytes. The strength and originality of Arkema’s approach lies in the decoupling of ion conductivity from the other requirements. Kynar® (Arkema trade name for PVDF) provides an exceptional combination of properties that make it ideally suited for a membrane matrix. In a first phase, Arkema demonstrated the feasibility of the concept with the M31 membrane generation. After MEA optimization, it was shown that the beginning-of-life (BOL) performance of M31 MEAs was essentially on a par with that of PFSA MEAs at 60ºC under fully humidified conditions. On the other hand, long-term durability studies showed a high decay rate of 45µV/h over a 2100 hr. test. Arkema then designed several families of polyelectrolyte candidates, which, in principle, could not undergo the same failure mechanisms. A new membrane candidate was developed: M41. It offered the same generally good mechanical, ex-situ conductivity and gas barrier properties as M31. In addition, ex-situ accelerated testing suggested a several orders of magnitude improvement in chemical stability. M41 based MEAs showed comparable BOL performance with that of PFSA (80ºC, 100% RH). M41 MEAs were further shown to be able to withstand several hours temperature excursions at 120ºC without apparent damage. Accelerated studies were carried out using the DOE and/or US Fuel Cell Council

  3. Planar ceramic membrane assembly and oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Dyer, legal representative, Kathryn Beverly; Wilson, Merrill Anderson; Ohrn, Ted R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Peterson, David; Chen, Christopher M.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Dyer, Paul Nigel

    2009-04-07

    Planar ceramic membrane assembly comprising a dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material, wherein the dense layer has a first side and a second side, a porous layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material in contact with the first side of the dense layer, and a ceramic channeled support layer in contact with the second side of the dense layer. The planar ceramic membrane assembly can be used in a ceramic wafer assembly comprising a planar ceramic channeled support layer having a first side and a second side; a first dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the first side of the ceramic channeled support layer; a first outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the first dense layer; a second dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the second side of the ceramic channeled layer; and a second outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the second dense layer.

  4. Planar ceramic membrane assembly and oxidation reactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis; Dyer, legal representative, Kathryn Beverly; Wilson, Merrill Anderson; Ohm, Ted R.; Kneidel, Kurt E.; Peterson, David; Chen, Christopher M.; Rackers, Keith Gerard; Dyer, deceased, Paul Nigel

    2007-10-09

    Planar ceramic membrane assembly comprising a dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material, wherein the dense layer has a first side and a second side, a porous layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material in contact with the first side of the dense layer, and a ceramic channeled support layer in contact with the second side of the dense layer. The planar ceramic membrane assembly can be used in a ceramic wafer assembly comprising a planar ceramic channeled support layer having a first side and a second side; a first dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the first side of the ceramic channeled support layer; a first outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the first dense layer; a second dense layer of mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the second side of the ceramic channeled layer; and a second outer support layer comprising porous mixed-conducting multi-component metal oxide material and having an inner side and an outer side, wherein the inner side is in contact with the outer side of the second dense layer.

  5. Membrane-Electrode Structures for Low Cost Molecular Catalysts in Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells and Other Electrochemical Devices - Energy Innovation Portal Membrane-Electrode Structures for Low Cost Molecular Catalysts in Fuel Cells and Other Electrochemical Devices Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary A team of Berkeley Lab researchers has developed a technology to coat electrode surfaces with a homogeneous catalyst that has been immobilized within a polymer layer. The team demonstrated that a 3-D distributed array

  6. Potentiometric Response Characteristics of Membrane-BasedCs+-Selective Electrodes Containing Ionophore-Functionalized Polymeric Microspheres

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peper, Shane; Gonczy, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Cs+-selective solvent polymeric membrane-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) were developed by doping ethylene glycol-functionalized cross-linked polystyrene microspheres (P-EG) into a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix containing sodium tetrakis-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl) borate (TFPB) as the ion exchanger. A systematic study examining the effects of the membrane plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), and 2-fluorophenyl nitrophenyl ether (FPNPE) on the potentiometric response and selectivity of the corresponding electrodes was performed. Under certain conditions, P-EG-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) containing TFPB and plasticized with NPOE exhibited a super-Nernstian response between110?3and110?4?M Cs+, a response characteristic not observed in analogous membranes plasticized with either DOS or FPNPE.moreAdditionally, the performance of P-EG-based ISEs was compared to electrodes based on two mobile ionophores, a neutral lipophilic ethylene glycol derivative (ethylene glycol monooctadecyl ether (U-EG)) and a charged metallacarborane ionophore, sodium bis(dicarbollyl)cobaltate(III) (CC). In general, P-EG-based electrodes plasticized with FPNPE yielded the best performance, with a linear range from 10-110-5?M Cs+, a conventional lower detection limit of8.110?6?M Cs+, and a response slope of 57.7?mV/decade. The pH response of P-EG ISEs containing TFPB was evaluated for membranes plasticized with either NPOE or FPNPE. In both cases, the electrodes remained stable throughout the pH range 312, with only slight proton interference observed below pH 3.less

  7. Potentiometric Response Characteristics of Membrane-Based Cs + -Selective Electrodes Containing Ionophore-Functionalized Polymeric Microspheres

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peper, Shane; Gonczy, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Csmore » + -selective solvent polymeric membrane-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) were developed by doping ethylene glycol-functionalized cross-linked polystyrene microspheres (P-EG) into a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix containing sodium tetrakis-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl) borate (TFPB) as the ion exchanger. A systematic study examining the effects of the membrane plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), and 2-fluorophenyl nitrophenyl ether (FPNPE) on the potentiometric response and selectivity of the corresponding electrodes was performed. Under certain conditions, P-EG-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) containing TFPB and plasticized with NPOE exhibited a super-Nernstian response between 1 × 10 − 3 and 1 × 10 − 4  M+ , a response characteristic not observed in analogous membranes plasticized with either DOS or FPNPE. Additionally, the performance of P-EG-based ISEs was compared to electrodes based on two mobile ionophores, a neutral lipophilic ethylene glycol derivative (ethylene glycol monooctadecyl ether (U-EG)) and a charged metallacarborane ionophore, sodium bis(dicarbollyl)cobaltate(III) (CC). In general, P-EG-based electrodes plasticized with FPNPE yielded the best performance, with a linear range from 10 -1 –10 -5  M+ , a conventional lower detection limit of 8.1 × 10 − 6  M+ , and a response slope of 57.7 mV/decade. The pH response of P-EG ISEs containing TFPB was evaluated for membranes plasticized with either NPOE or FPNPE. In both cases, the electrodes remained stable throughout the pH range 3–12, with only slight proton interference observed below pH 3.« less

  8. Method of fabricating electrode catalyst layers with directionally oriented carbon support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia; Yang, Junbing

    2010-07-20

    A method of making a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) having an anode and a cathode and a proton conductive membrane there between. A bundle of longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes with a catalytically active transition metal incorporated in the nanotubes forms at least one portion of the MEA and is in contact with the membrane. A combination selected from one or more of a hydrocarbon and an organometallic compound containing an catalytically active transition metal and a nitrogen containing compound and an inert gas and a reducing gas is introduced into a first reaction zone maintained at a first reaction temperature for a time sufficient to vaporize material therein. The vaporized material is transmitted to a second reaction zone maintained at a second reaction temperature for a time sufficient to grow longitudinally aligned carbon nanotubes with a catalytically active transition metal incorporated throughout the nanotubes. The nanotubes are in contact with a portion of the MEA at production or being positioned in contact thereafter. Methods of forming a PEMFC are also disclosed.

  9. High performance radiation-grafted membranes and electrodes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nezu, Shinji; Seko, Hideo; Gondo, Masaki; Ito, Naoki

    1996-12-31

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) have attracted much attention for stationary and electric vehicle applications. Much progress has been made to improve their performance recently. However there are still several problems to overcome for commercialization. Among them, the cost of polymer electrolyte membranes seems to be rather critical, because a cost estimate of a practical fuel cell stack shows that the membrane cost must be reduced at least by two orders of magnitude based on current perfluorosulfonic acid membranes eg. Nafion{reg_sign}. Thus the development of new membrane materials is strongly desired. Styrene grafted tetrafluoroethylene-hexafluoropropylene copolymer (FEP) membranes have been studied for a fuel cell application by G. Scherer et al. These authors showed that membranes obtained by radiation grafting served as an alternative membrane for fuel cells although there were several problems to overcome in the future. These problems include shorter life time which was concluded to result from the decomposition of grafted polystyrene side chains. We report here the performance of our fuel cells which were fabricated from our radiation grafted membranes (IMRA MEMBRANE) and gas diffusion electrodes.

  10. A lipid membrane intercalating conjugated oligoelectrolyte enables electrode driven succinate production in Shewanella

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, AW; Garner, LE; Nevin, KP; Woodard, TL; Franks, AE; Lovley, DR; Sumner, JJ; Sund, CJ; Bazan, GC

    2013-06-01

    An amphiphilic conjugated oligoelectrolyte (COE) that spontaneously intercalates into lipid membranes enables Shewanella oneidensis to use a graphite electrode as the sole electron donor for succinate production. Current consumed in a poised electrochemical system by Shewanella with micromolar concentrations of COE correlates well with the succinate produced via fumarate reduction as determined by HPLC analysis. Confocal microscopy confirms incorporation of the COE into the microbes on the electrode surface. This work presents a unique strategy to induce favorable bio-electronic interactions for the production of reduced microbial metabolites.

  11. Gas permeable electrode for electrochemical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Frank A.; Townsend, Carl W.

    1989-01-01

    An electrode apparatus adapted for use in electrochemical systems having an anode compartment and a cathode compartment in which gas and ions are produced and consumed in the compartments during generation of electrical current. The electrode apparatus includes a membrane for separating the anode compartment from the cathode compartment wherein the membrane is permeable to both ions and gas. The cathode and anode for the assembly are provided on opposite sides of the membrane. During use of the membrane-electrode apparatus in electrochemical cells, the gas and ions generated at the cathode or anode migrate through the membrane to provide efficient transfer of gas and ions between the anode and cathode compartments.

  12. Self-Assembled Monolayers of n-Alkanethiols Suppress Hydrogen Evolution and Increase the Efficiency of Rechargeable Iron Battery Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Manohar, AK; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-01-09

    Iron-based rechargeable batteries, because of their low cost, eco-friendliness, and durability, are extremely attractive for large-scale energy storage. A principal challenge in the deployment of these batteries is their relatively low electrical efficiency. The low efficiency is due to parasitic hydrogen evolution that occurs on the iron electrode during charging and idle stand. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that linear alkanethiols are very effective in suppressing hydrogen evolution on alkaline iron battery electrodes. The alkanethiols form self-assembled monolayers on the iron electrodes. The degree of suppression of hydrogen evolution by the alkanethiols was found to be greater than 90%, and the effectiveness of the alkanethiol increased with the chain length. Through steady-state potentiostatic polarization studies and impedance measurements on high-purity iron disk electrodes, we show that the self-assembly of alkanethiols suppressed the parasitic reaction by reducing the interfacial area available for the electrochemical reaction. We have modeled the effect of chain length of the alkanethiol on the surface coverage, charge-transfer resistance, and double-layer capacitance of the interface using a simple model that also yields a value for the interchain interaction energy. We have verified the improvement in charging efficiency resulting from the use of the alkanethiols in practical rechargeable iron battery electrodes. The results of battery tests indicate that alkanethiols yield among the highest faradaic efficiencies reported for the rechargeable iron electrodes, enabling the prospect of a large-scale energy storage solution based on low-cost iron-based rechargeable batteries.

  13. Method of improving fuel cell performance by removing at least one metal oxide contaminant from a fuel cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Choi, Jong-Ho; Zelenay, Piotr

    2009-08-18

    A method of removing contaminants from a fuel cell catalyst electrode. The method includes providing a getter electrode and a fuel cell catalyst electrode having at least one contaminant to a bath and applying a voltage sufficient to drive the contaminant from the fuel cell catalyst electrode to the getter electrode. Methods of removing contaminants from a membrane electrode assembly of a fuel cell and of improving performance of a fuel cell are also provided.

  14. Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC Presentation on Acid Doped Membranes for High Temperature PEMFC to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group, May 25, 2004 in Philadelphia, PA. pemfc_danish.pdf (641.12 KB) More Documents & Publications Membrane Development for Medium and High Temperature PEMFC in Europe (Presentation) PBI-Phosphoric Acid Based Membrane Electrode Assemblies: Status Update CARISMA: A Networking Project for High

  15. Gas permeable electrode for electrochemical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, F.A.; Townsend, C.W.

    1989-09-12

    An electrode apparatus is described which is adapted for use in electrochemical systems having an anode compartment and a cathode compartment in which gas and ions are produced and consumed in the compartments during generation of electrical current. The electrode apparatus includes a membrane for separating the anode compartment from the cathode compartment wherein the membrane is permeable to both ions and gas. The cathode and anode for the assembly are provided on opposite sides of the membrane. During use of the membrane-electrode apparatus in electrochemical cells, the gas and ions generated at the cathode or anode migrate through the membrane to provide efficient transfer of gas and ions between the anode and cathode compartments. 3 figs.

  16. Gas Diffusion Electrodes and Methods for Fabricating and Testing Same -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Gas Diffusion Electrodes and Methods for Fabricating and Testing Same Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Fabricating and Measuring Low-Platinum Content HOR/HER Gas Diffusion Electrodes (89 KB) Technology Marketing Summary A typical membrane electrode assembly (MEA) consists of five distinct layers: A polymer

  17. Unique battery with a multi-functional, physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and a method making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E; Ruscic, Katarina J; Sears, Devin N; Smith, Luis J; Klinger, Robert J; Rathke, Jerome W

    2013-11-26

    The invention relates to a unique battery having a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and method of making the same. The Applicant's invented battery employs a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode that acts as a separator, electrolyte, and electrode, within the same monolithic structure. The chemical composition, physical arrangement of molecules, and physical geometry of the pores play a role in the sequestration and conduction of ions. In one preferred embodiment, ions are transported via the ion-hoping mechanism where the oxygens of the Al.sub.2O.sub.3 wall are available for positive ion coordination (i.e. Li.sup.+). This active membrane-electrode composite can be adjusted to a desired level of ion conductivity by manipulating the chemical composition and structure of the pore wall to either increase or decrease ion conduction.

  18. Unique battery with a multi-functional, physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and a method making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Ruscic, Katarina J.; Sears, Devin N.; Smith, Luis J.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.

    2012-07-24

    The invention relates to a unique battery having a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode monolith and method of making the same. The Applicant's invented battery employs a physicochemically active membrane separator/electrolyte-electrode that acts as a separator, electrolyte, and electrode, within the same monolithic structure. The chemical composition, physical arrangement of molecules, and physical geometry of the pores play a role in the sequestration and conduction of ions. In one preferred embodiment, ions are transported via the ion-hoping mechanism where the oxygens of the Al2O3 wall are available for positive ion coordination (i.e. Li+). This active membrane-electrode composite can be adjusted to a desired level of ion conductivity by manipulating the chemical composition and structure of the pore wall to either increase or decrease ion conduction.

  19. Towards understanding of Nipah virus attachment protein assembly and the role of protein affinity and crowding for membrane curvature events.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stachowiak, Jeanne C.; Hayden, Carl C.; Negrete, Oscar A.; Davis, Ryan Wesley; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio

    2013-10-01

    Pathogenic viruses are a primary threat to our national security and to the health and economy of our world. Effective defense strategies to combat viral infection and spread require the development of understanding of the mechanisms that these pathogens use to invade the host cell. We present in this report results of our research into viral particle recognition and fusion to cell membranes and the role that protein affinity and confinement in lipid domains plays in membrane curvature in cellular fusion and fission events. Herein, we describe 1) the assembly of the G attachment protein of Nipah virus using point mutation studies to define its role in viral particle fusion to the cell membrane, 2) how lateral pressure of membrane bound proteins induce curvature in model membrane systems, and 3) the role of membrane curvature in the selective partitioning of molecular receptors and specific affinity of associated proteins.

  20. DOE Technical Targets for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Components

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Components DOE Technical Targets for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Components These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell components: membrane electrode assemblies, membranes, electrocatalysts, and bipolar plates. These targets have been developed with input from the U.S. DRIVE Partnership, which includes automotive and energy companies, and

  1. Characterization and basic research investigations at PEFC electrodes and MEA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulze, M.; Wagner, N.; Steinhilber, G.

    1996-12-31

    For the study of electrochemical and transport mechanisms in polymere electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) electrodes and for a further development of PEFC electrodes it is important to characterize these electrodes. The characterization of the electrodes was performed by electrochemical analytical as well as physical methods on both single electrodes and electrode-membrane assemblies (NEA). In addition to voltage-current characteristics the electrodes were electrochemically measured by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronopotentiometry. To determine the pore systems nitrogen adsorption and mercury porosimetry were used. Chemical composition and microstructure of the electrodes were studied by surface science methods like scanning electron microscopy or X-ray induced photoelectron spectroscopy. The results of characterization are the base for theoretical simulation of fuel cells and fuel cell stacks.

  2. Recent palladium membrane reactor development at the tritium systems test assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willms, R.S.; Birdsell, S.A.; Wilhelm, R.C.

    1995-07-01

    The palladium membrane reactor (PMR) is proving to be a simple and effective means for recovering hydrogen isotopes from fusion fuel impurities such as methane and water. This device directly combines two techniques which have long been utilized for hydrogen processing, namely catalytic shift reactions and palladium/silver permeators. A proof-of-principle (PMR) has been constructed and tested at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The first tests with this device showed that is was effective for the proposed purpose. Initial work concluded that a nickel catalyst was an appropriate choice for use in a PMR. More detailed testing of the PMR with such a catalyst was performed and reported in other works. It was shown that a nickel catalyst-packed PMR did, indeed, recover hydrogen from water and methane with efficiencies approaching 100% in a single processing pass. These experiments were conducted over an extended period of time and no failure or need for regeneration was encountered. These positive results have prompted further PMR development. Topics addressed include alternate PMR geometries and initial testing of the PMR with tritium. These are the subjects of this paper.

  3. Automotive Perspective on Membrane Evaluation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Membrane Evaluation Automotive Perspective on Membrane Evaluation Presentation at the 2008 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held June 9, 2008, in Washington, DC waldecker_htmwg_2008.pdf (86.19 KB) More Documents & Publications Transportation Fuel Cell R&D Needs (Presentation) Automotive Fuel Cell Research and Development Needs Analysis of the Durability of PEM FC Membrane Electrode Assemblies in Automotive Applications

  4. High Sensitivity Proteomics Assisted Discovery of a Novel Operon Involved in the Assembly of Photosystem II, a Membrane Protein Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegener, Kimberly M.; Welsh, Eric A.; Thornton, Leeann E.; Keren, Nir S.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Hixson, Kim K.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2008-10-10

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a large membrane protein complex that performs the water oxidation reactions of the photosynthetic electron transport chain in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Utilizing a high-throughput proteomic analysis of isolated PSII complexes from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, we have identified four PSII associated proteins that are encoded by the cofactor integration operon (cio). This operon contains genes with putative binding domains for chlorophyll, iron-sulfur centers, and bilins. Protein levels of this operon are more abundant in several PSII lumenal mutants, suggesting an accumulation of cio products in partially assembled PSII complexes. This provides a rare example of a bacterial operon whose protein products are translationally coordinated and associated with a single protein complex. Genetic deletion of cio results in decreased oxygen evolution by PSII, suggesting that cio products may function as regulators of PSII complex assembly or degradation, maybe facilitating an uncharacterized step in PSII assembly.

  5. Full membrane spanning self-assembled monolayers as model systems for UHV-based studies of cell-penetrating peptides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franz, Johannes; Graham, Daniel J.; Baio, Joe E.; Lelle, Marco; Peneva, Kalina; Müllen, Klaus; Castner, David G.; Weidner, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Biophysical studies of the interaction of peptides with model membranes provide a simple yet effective approach to understand the transport of peptides and peptide based drug carriers across the cell membrane. Therein, the authors discuss the use of self-assembled monolayers fabricated from the full membrane-spanning thiol (FMST) 3-((14-((4'-((5-methyl-1-phenyl-35-(phytanyl)oxy-6,9,12,15,18,21,24,27,30,33,37-undecaoxa-2,3-dithiahenpentacontan-51-yl)oxy)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)oxy)tetradecyl)oxy)-2-(phytanyl)oxy glycerol for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) based experiments. UHV-based methods such as electron spectroscopy and mass spectrometry can provide important information about how peptides bind and interact with membranes, especially with the hydrophobic core of a lipid bilayer. Moreover, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectra and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data showed that FMST forms UHV-stable and ordered films on gold. XPS and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiles indicated that a proline-rich amphipathic cell-penetrating peptide, known as sweet arrow peptide is located at the outer perimeter of the model membrane.

  6. Novel Stack Concepts: Patterned Aligned Carbon Nanotubes as Electrodes in MEAs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stack Concepts: Patterned Aligned Carbon Nanotubes as Electrodes in MEAs Di-Jia Liu Chemical Engineering Division Argonne National Laboratory Presentation at Fuel Cell Kickoff Meeting U. S. Department of Energy, Washington D. C. February 13-14, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information Objective „ To develop a novel aligned carbon nanotube (ACNT)-based membrane electrode assembly and fuel cell with: - improved efficiency - reduced Pt usage - simplified

  7. Recent palladium membrane reactor development at the tritium systems test assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, W.R.; Birdsell, S.A.; Wilhelm, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The palladium membrane reactor (PMR) is being investigated as a means for recovering hydrogen isotopes (including tritium) from compounds such as water and methane. Previous work with protiated water and methane showed that this device can be used to obtain high hydrogen recovery efficiencies using a single processing pass and with essentially no waste production. With these successful proof-of-principle results completed, recent work has focused on PMR development. This included studies of various geometries and testing with tritium. The results, which are reported here, have led to a better understanding of the PMR and will lead to the ultimate goal of building a production PMR and putting it into practical tritium processing service. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Binding and Direct Electrochemistry of OmcA, an Outer-Membrane Cytochrome from an Iron Reducing Bacterium, with Oxide Electrodes: A Candidate Biofuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggleston, Carrick M.; Voros, Janos; Shi, Liang; Lower, Brian H.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Colberg, Patricia J.

    2008-02-15

    Dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria transfer electrons to solid ferric respiratory electron acceptors. Outer-membrane cytochromes expressed by these organisms are of interest in both microbial fuel cells and biofuel cells. We use optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS) to show that OmcA, an 85 kDa decaheme outer-membrane c-type cytochrome from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, adsorbs to isostructural Al2O3 and Fe2O3 in similar amounts. Adsorption is ionic-strength and pH dependent (peak adsorption at pH 6.57.0). The thickness of the OmcA layer on Al2O3 at pH 7.0 [5.8 1.1 (2r) nm] from OWLS is similar, within error, to that observed using atomic force microscopy (4.8 2 nm). The highest adsorption density observed was 334 ng cm 2 (2.4 1012 molecules cm 2), corresponding to a monolayer or 9.9 nm diameter spheres or submonolayer coverage by smaller molecules. Direct electrochemistry of OmcA on Fe2O3 electrodes was observed using cyclic voltammetry, with cathodic peak potentials of 380 to 320 mV versus Ag/AgCl. Variations in the cathodic peak positions are speculatively attributed to redox-linked conformation change or changes in molecular orientation. OmcA can exchange electrons with ITO electrodes at higher current densities than with Fe2O3. Overall, OmcA can bind to and exchange electrons with several oxides, and thus its utility in fuel cells is not restricted to Fe2O3.

  9. DC source assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  10. Innovative production technique for PEFC electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevers, D.; Guelzow, E.; Helmbold, A.; Mueller, B.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cells are high efficient and low polluting energy conversation devices. Using hydrogen as a fuel gas they are applicable to solve environmental problems e.g. CO{sub 2} impact on the climate. Thus international research efforts have been increased in recent years. Low temperature fuel cells e.g. the PEFC are specially applicable for future transportation and stationary energy supply systems. Application and economics success of his technology is obstructed by the high investment costs with respect to conventional energy conversion devices. The intent of our activities is the improvement of electrodes and membrane-electrode-assemblies as used in PEFC. Commercial and technical aspects of electrode manufacturing have been considered in early stages of the development of the production procedure. Two different techniques are developed at DLR. The first is a rolling procedure as used for production for batteries and alkaline fuel cells which has been modified and adapted to the specific demand of PEFC electrodes. The second technique is a new printing process to produce ultra thin layers of catalyst directly on the electrolyte. In this paper we will show the first results of the first electrode technique which have been tested in fuel cells and a short description of the second very new method.

  11. Method for the electro-addressable functionalization of electrode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A method for preparing an electrochemical biosensor uses bias-assisted assembly of unreactive -onium molecules on an electrode array followed by post-assembly electro-addressable ...

  12. Uncharged positive electrode composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1977-03-08

    An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound other than sulfide, e.g., lithium carbide, and a transition metal powder. The composition along with a binder, such as electrolytic salt or a thermosetting resin is applied onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within an electrochemical cell opposite to a negative electrode containing a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium. During charging, lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode. Excess negative electrode capacity over that from the transition metal sulfide is provided due to the electrochemical reaction of the other than sulfide alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound.

  13. Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop 3 Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AMFC Workshop 3 Overview Bryan Pivovar National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Sheraton Grand Phoenix, AZ April 1, 2016 2 Agenda 8:30 - 8:50 am AMFC Challenges-Anion Exchange Membrane: Chulsung Bae (RPI) 8:50 - 9:15 am AMFC Challenges-Electrocatalysis: Yushan Yan (U. Delaware) 9:15 - 9:30 am BREAK 9:30 - 10:00 am AMFC Challenges-Membrane Electrode Assembly: Yu Seung Kim (LANL) 10:00 -10:20 am AMFC Challenges-System/Other Issues (Water/Carbonate): Miles Page (Elbit Energy) 10:20 -12:00

  14. Fabrication of ultrathin solid electrolyte membranes of β-Li3PS4 nanoflakes by evaporation-induced self-assembly for all-solid-state batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Hui; Hood, Zachary D.; Xia, Younan; Liang, Chengdu

    2016-04-25

    All-solid-state lithium batteries are attractive candidates for next-generation energy storage devices because of their anticipated high energy density and intrinsic safety. Owing to their excellent ionic conductivity and stability with metallic lithium anodes, nanostructured lithium thiophosphate solid electrolytes such as β-Li3PS4 have found use in the fabrication of all-solid lithium batteries for large-scale energy storage systems. However, current methods for preparing air-sensitive solid electrolyte membranes of lithium thiophosphates can only generate thick membranes that compromise the battery's gravimetric/volumetric energy density and thus its rate performance. To overcome this limitation, the solid electrolyte's thickness needs to be effectively decreased to achievemore » ideal energy density and enhanced rate performance. In this paper, we show that the evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) technique produces ultrathin membranes of a lithium thiophosphate solid electrolyte with controllable thicknesses between 8 and 50 μm while maintaining the high ionic conductivity of β-Li3PS4 and stability with metallic lithium anodes up to 5 V. Finally, it is clearly demonstrated that this facile EISA approach allows for the preparation of ultrathin lithium thiophosphate solid electrolyte membranes for all-solid-state batteries.« less

  15. Electrically conductive connection for an electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hornack, Thomas R.; Chilko, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    An electrically conductive connection for an electrode assembly of an electrolyte cell in which aluminum is produced by electrolysis in a molten salt is described. The electrode assembly comprises an electrode flask and a conductor rod. The flask has a collar above an area of minimum flask diameter. The electrically conductive connection comprises the electrode flask, the conductor rod and a structure bearing against the collar and the conductor rod for pulling the conductor rod into compressive and electrical contact with the flask.

  16. Lithium battery electrodes with ultra-thin alumina coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Se-Hee, Lee; George, Steven M.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Yoon Seok, Jung; Dillon, Anne C.

    2015-11-24

    Electrodes for lithium batteries are coated via an atomic layer deposition process. The coatings can be applied to the assembled electrodes, or in some cases to particles of electrode material prior to assembling the particles into an electrode. The coatings can be as thin as 2 .ANG.ngstroms thick. The coating provides for a stable electrode. Batteries containing the electrodes tend to exhibit high cycling capacities.

  17. Electrode for electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.; Nelson, P.A.; Miller, W.E.

    1980-05-09

    An electrode structure for a secondary electrochemical cell includes an outer enclosure defining a compartment containing electrochemical active material. The enclosure includes a rigid electrically conductive metal sheet with perforated openings over major side surfaces. The enclosure can be assembled as first and second trays each with a rigid sheet of perforated electrically conductive metal at major side surfaces and normally extending flanges at parametric margins. The trays can be pressed together with moldable active material between the two to form an expandable electrode. A plurality of positive and negative electrodes thus formed are arranged in an alternating array with porous frangible interelectrode separators within the housing of the secondary electrochemical cell.

  18. Control of edge effects of oxidant electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Peter; Chi, Chen H.

    1981-09-08

    Described is an electrode assembly comprising; a. a porous electrode having a first and second exterior face with a cavity formed in the interior between said exterior faces thereby having first and second interior faces positioned opposite the first and second exterior faces; b. a counter electrode positioned facing each of the first and second exterior faces of the porous electrode; c. means for passing an oxidant through said porous electrode; and d. screening means for blocking the interior face of the porous electrode a greater amount than the blocking of the respective exterior face of the porous electrode, thereby maintaining a differential of oxidant electrode surface between the interior face and the exterior face. The electrode assembly is useful in a metal, halogen, halogen hydrate electrical energy storage device.

  19. Minimizing electrode contamination in an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Zelenay, Piotr; Johnston, Christina

    2014-12-09

    An electrochemical cell assembly that is expected to prevent or at least minimize electrode contamination includes one or more getters that trap a component or components leached from a first electrode and prevents or at least minimizes them from contaminating a second electrode.

  20. Power module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Jeremy B.; Newson, Steve

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  1. Electrode compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Block, J.; Fan, X.

    1998-10-27

    An electrode composition is described for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C{sub 8}-C{sub 15} alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5--4.5 volts.

  2. Electrode compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Block, Jacob (Rockville, MD); Fan, Xiyun (Orange, TX)

    1998-01-01

    An electrode composition for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5-4.5 volts.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boquist, Carl W.; Marchant, David D.

    1978-01-01

    A ceramic-metal composite suitable for use in a high-temperature environment consists of a refractory ceramic matrix containing 10 to 50 volume percent of a continuous high-temperature metal reinforcement. In a specific application of the composite, as an electrode in a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the one surface of the electrode which contacts the MHD fluid may have a layer of varying thickness of nonreinforced refractory ceramic for electrode temperature control. The side walls of the electrode may be coated with a refractory ceramic insulator. Also described is an electrode-insulator system for a MHD channel.

  4. Electrochemical cell assembled in discharged state

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yao, Neng-Ping; Walsh, William J.

    1976-01-01

    A secondary, electrochemical cell is assembled in a completely discharged state within a sealed containment. As assembled, the cell includes a positive electrode separated from a negative electrode by a molten salt electrolyte. The positive electrode is contained within a porous structure, permitting passage of molten electrolyte, and includes one or more layers of a metallic mesh, e.g. iron, impregnated with an intimate mixture of lithium sulfide and the electrolyte. The negative electrode is a porous plaque of aluminum metal. Prior to using the cell, an electrical charge forms lithium-aluminum alloy within the negative electrode and metal sulfide within the positive electrode.

  5. Composite fuel cell membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plowman, Keith R. (Lake Jackson, TX); Rehg, Timothy J. (Lake Jackson, TX); Davis, Larry W. (West Columbia, TX); Carl, William P. (Marble Falls, TX); Cisar, Alan J. (Cypress, TX); Eastland, Charles S. (West Columbia, TX)

    1997-01-01

    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  6. Composite fuel cell membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plowman, K.R.; Rehg, T.J.; Davis, L.W.; Carl, W.P.; Cisar, A.J.; Eastland, C.S.

    1997-08-05

    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane is described suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  7. Laterally Mobile, Functionalized Self-Assembled Monolayers at the Fluorous?Aqueous Interface in a Plug-Based Microfluidic System: Characterization and Testing with Membrane Protein Crystallization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreutz, Jason E.; Li, Liang; Roach, L. Spencer; Hatakeyama, Takuji; Ismagilov, Rustem F.; (UC)

    2009-11-04

    This paper describes a method to generate functionalizable, mobile self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) in plug-based microfluidics. Control of interfaces is advancing studies of biological interfaces, heterogeneous reactions, and nanotechnology. SAMs have been useful for such studies, but they are not laterally mobile. Lipid-based methods, though mobile, are not easily amenable to setting up the hundreds of experiments necessary for crystallization screening. Here we demonstrate a method, complementary to current SAM and lipid methods, for rapidly generating mobile, functionalized SAMs. This method relies on plugs, droplets surrounded by a fluorous carrier fluid, to rapidly explore chemical space. Specifically, we implemented his-tag binding chemistry to design a new fluorinated amphiphile, RfNTA, using an improved one-step synthesis of RfOEG under Mitsunobu conditions. RfNTA introduces specific binding of protein at the fluorous-aqueous interface, which concentrates and orients proteins at the interface, even in the presence of other surfactants. We then applied this approach to the crystallization of a his-tagged membrane protein, Reaction Center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, performed 2400 crystallization trials, and showed that this approach can increase the range of crystal-producing conditions, the success rate at a given condition, the rate of nucleation, and the quality of the crystal formed.

  8. Electrically conductive connection for an electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hornack, T.R.; Chilko, R.J.

    1986-09-02

    An electrically conductive connection for an electrode assembly of an electrolyte cell in which aluminum is produced by electrolysis in a molten salt is described. The electrode assembly comprises an electrode flask and a conductor rod. The flask has a collar above an area of minimum flask diameter. The electrically conductive connection comprises the electrode flask, the conductor rod and a structure bearing against the collar and the conductor rod for pulling the conductor rod into compressive and electrical contact with the flask. 2 figs.

  9. Method for the electro-addressable functionalization of electrode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Method for the electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays A method for preparing an electrochemical biosensor uses bias-assisted assembly of unreactive -onium ...

  10. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  11. Composite electrode/electrolyte structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2004-01-27

    Provided is an electrode fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. Onto this electrode in the green state, a green ionic (e.g., electrolyte) film is deposited and the assembly is co-fired at a temperature suitable to fully densify the film while the substrate retains porosity. Subsequently, a catalytic material is added to the electrode structure by infiltration of a metal salt and subsequent low temperature firing. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems.

  12. Reference electrode for electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kessie, R.W.

    1988-07-28

    A reference electrode device is provided for a high temperature electrolytic cell used to electrolytically recover uranium from spent reactor fuel dissolved in an anode pool, the device having a glass tube to enclose the electrode and electrolyte and serve as a conductive membrane with the cell electrolyte, and an outer metal tube about the glass tube to serve as a shield and basket for any glass sections broken by handling of the tube to prevent their contact with the anode pool, the metal tube having perforations to provide access between the bulk of the cell electrolyte and glass membrane. 4 figs.

  13. Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I.; York, Cynthia A.; Waszczuk, Piotr; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2009-08-04

    A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

  14. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  15. Method for control of edge effects of oxidant electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Peter; Chi, Chen H.

    1980-12-23

    Described is an electrode assembly comprising; a. a porous electrode having a first and second exterior face with a cavity formed in the interior between said exterior faces thereby having first and second interior faces positioned opposite the first and second exterior faces; b. a counter electrode positioned facing each of the first and second exterior faces of the porous electrode; c. means for passing an oxidant through said porous electrode; and d. screening means for blocking the interior face of the porous electrode a greater amount than the blocking of the respective exterior face of the porous electrode, thereby maintaining a differential of oxidant electrode surface between the interior face and the exterior face. The electrode assembly is useful in a metal, halogen, halogen hydrate electrical energy storage device.

  16. Method for the electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Dirk, Shawn M.; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan M.

    2015-12-15

    A method for preparing an electrochemical biosensor uses bias-assisted assembly of unreactive -onium molecules on an electrode array followed by post-assembly electro-addressable conversion of the unreactive group to a chemical or biological recognition group. Electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays enables the multi-target electrochemical sensing of biological and chemical analytes.

  17. Catalyzed enzyme electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Wilson, Mahlon S.; Rishpon, Judith; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    1993-01-01

    An enzyme electrode is prepared with a composite coating on an electrical conductor. The composite coating is formed from a casting solution of a perfluorosulfonic acid polymer, an enzyme, and a carbon supported catalyst. The solution may be cast directly on the conductor surface or may be formed as a membrane and applied to the surface. The perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer formed from the casting solution provides an insoluble biocompatible protective matrix for the enzyme and acts to retain the enzyme for long term availability in the electrode structure. The carbon supported catalyst provides catalytic sites throughout the layer for the oxidation of hydrogen peroxide from the enzyme reactions. The carbon support then provides a conductive path for establishing an electrical signal to the electrical conductor. In one embodiment, the electrical conductor is a carbon cloth that permits oxygen or other gas to be introduced to the perfluorosulfonic polymer to promote the enzyme reaction independent of oxygen in the solution being tested.

  18. Fuel cell assembly unit for promoting fluid service and electrical conductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Daniel O.

    1999-01-01

    Fluid service and/or electrical conductivity for a fuel cell assembly is promoted. Open-faced flow channel(s) are formed in a flow field plate face, and extend in the flow field plate face between entry and exit fluid manifolds. A resilient gas diffusion layer is located between the flow field plate face and a membrane electrode assembly, fluidly serviced with the open-faced flow channel(s). The resilient gas diffusion layer is restrained against entering the open-faced flow channel(s) under a compressive force applied to the fuel cell assembly. In particular, a first side of a support member abuts the flow field plate face, and a second side of the support member abuts the resilient gas diffusion layer. The support member is formed with a plurality of openings extending between the first and second sides of the support member. In addition, a clamping pressure is maintained for an interface between the resilient gas diffusion layer and a portion of the membrane electrode assembly. Preferably, the support member is spikeless and/or substantially flat. Further, the support member is formed with an electrical path for conducting current between the resilient gas diffusion layer and position(s) on the flow field plate face.

  19. Cermet electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1988-08-30

    Disclosed is a cermet electrode consisting of metal particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or alloys or mixtures thereof immobilized by zirconia stabilized in cubic form which contains discrete deposits of about 0.1 to about 5% by weight of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof. The solid oxide electrode can be made by covering a substrate with particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixtures thereof, growing a stabilized zirconia solid oxide skeleton around the particles thereby immobilizing them, contacting the skeleton with a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, and heating the skeleton to a temperature of at least 500.degree. C. The electrode can also be made by preparing a slurry of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixture and a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, depositing the slurry on a substrate, heating the slurry to dryness, and growing a stabilized zirconia skeleton around the metal particles.

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marchant, David D.; Killpatrick, Don H.

    1978-01-01

    An electrode capable of withstanding high temperatures and suitable for use as a current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator consists of a sintered powdered metal base portion, the upper surface of the base being coated with a first layer of nickel aluminide, an intermediate layer of a mixture of nickel aluminide - refractory ceramic on the first layer and a third or outer layer of a refractory ceramic material on the intermediate layer. The sintered powdered metal base resists spalling by the ceramic coatings and permits greater electrode compliance to thermal shock. The density of the powdered metal base can be varied to allow optimization of the thermal conductivity of the electrode and prevent excess heat loss from the channel.

  1. Method for manufacturing magnetohydrodynamic electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Killpatrick, D.H.; Thresh, H.R.

    1980-06-24

    A method of manufacturing electrodes for use in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator is described comprising the steps of preparing a billet having a core of a first metal, a tubular sleeve of a second metal, and an outer sheath of an extrusile metal; evacuating the space between the parts of the assembled billet; extruding the billet; and removing the outer jacket. The extruded bar may be made into electrodes by cutting and bending to the shape required for an MHD channel frame. The method forms a bond between the first metal of the core and the second metal of the sleeve strong enough to withstand a hot and corrosive environment.

  2. Carbon cloth supported electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen-Tong P. (Upper St. Clair, PA); Ammon, Robert L. (Baldwin both of, PA)

    1982-01-01

    A flow-by anode is disclosed made by preparing a liquid suspension of about to about 18% by weight solids, the solids comprising about 3.5 to about 8% of a powdered catalyst of platinum, palladium, palladium oxide, or mixtures thereof; about 60 to about 76% carbon powder (support) having a particle size less than about 20 m.mu.m and about 20 to about 33% of an inert binder having a particle size of less than about 500 m.mu.m. A sufficient amount of the suspension is poured over a carbon cloth to form a layer of solids about 0.01 to about 0.05 cm thick on the carbon cloth when the electrode is completed. A vacuum was applied to the opposite side of the carbon cloth to remove the liquid and the catalyst layer/cloth assembly is dried and compressed at about 10 to about 50 MPa's. The binder is then sintered in an inert atmosphere to complete the electrode. The electrode is used for the oxidation of sulfur dioxide in a sulfur based hybrid cycle for the decomposition of water.

  3. Assembly for electrical conductivity measurements in the piston cylinder device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watson, Heather Christine; Roberts, Jeffrey James

    2012-06-05

    An assembly apparatus for measurement of electrical conductivity or other properties of a sample in a piston cylinder device wherein pressure and heat are applied to the sample by the piston cylinder device. The assembly apparatus includes a body, a first electrode in the body, the first electrode operatively connected to the sample, a first electrical conductor connected to the first electrode, a washer constructed of a hard conducting material, the washer surrounding the first electrical conductor in the body, a second electrode in the body, the second electrode operatively connected to the sample, and a second electrical conductor connected to the second electrode.

  4. SBIR/STTR Phase I Release 2 Technical Topics Announced for FY14...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    technologies and on developing cost-effective, durable membrane electrode assemblies. ... Cost-Effective Membrane Electrode Assemblies Utilizing Novel Membranes and Non-Platinum ...

  5. Gas diffusion electrode setup for catalyst testing in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiberg, Gustav K. H. E-mail: m.arenz@chem.ku.dk; Fleige, Michael; Arenz, Matthias E-mail: m.arenz@chem.ku.dk

    2015-02-15

    We present a detailed description of the construction and testing of an electrochemical cell setup allowing the investigation of a gas diffusion electrode containing carbon supported high surface area catalysts. The setup is designed for measurements in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperature, i.e., very close to the actual conditions in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). The cell consists of a stainless steel flow field and a PEEK plastic cell body comprising the electrochemical cell, which exhibits a three electrode configuration. The cell body and flow field are braced using a KF-25 vacuum flange clamp, which allows an easy assembly of the setup. As demonstrated, the setup can be used to investigate temperature dependent electrochemical processes on high surface area type electrocatalysts, but it also enables quick screening tests of HT-PEMFC catalysts under realistic conditions.

  6. Perovskite electrodes and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.

    2009-09-22

    The invention relates to perovskite oxide electrode materials in which one or more of the elements Mg, Ni, Cu, and Zn are present as minority components that enhance electrochemical performance, as well as electrode products with these compositions and methods of making the electrode materials. Such electrodes are useful in electrochemical system applications such as solid oxide fuel cells, ceramic oxygen generation systems, gas sensors, ceramic membrane reactors, and ceramic electrochemical gas separation systems.

  7. Perovskite electrodes and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Swartz, Scott L.

    2005-09-20

    The invention relates to perovskite oxide electrode materials in which one or more of the elements Mg, Ni, Cu, and Zn are present as minority components that enhance electrochemical performance, as well as electrode products with these compositions and methods of making the electrode materials. Such electrodes are useful in electrochemical system applications such as solid oxide fuel cells, ceramic oxygen generation systems, gas sensors, ceramic membrane reactors, and ceramic electrochemical gas separation systems.

  8. Method of preparing a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1979-01-01

    A method of preparing an electrochemical cell including a metal sulfide as the positive electrode reactant and lithium alloy as the negative electrochemical reactant with an alkali metal, molten salt electrolyte is disclosed which permits the assembly to be accomplished in air. The electrode reactants are introduced in the most part as a sulfide of lithium and the positive electrode metal in a single-phase compound. For instance, Li.sub.2 FeS.sub.2 is a single-phase compound that is produced by the reaction of Li.sub.2 S and FeS. This compound is an intermediate in the positive electrode cycle from FeS.sub.2 to Fe and Li.sub.2 S. Its use minimizes volumetric changes from the assembled to the charged and discharged conditions of the electrode and minimizes electrode material interaction with air and moisture during assembly.

  9. Lead Research and Development Activity for DOE's High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program (Topic 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Fenton, PhD; Darlene Slattery, PhD; Nahid Mohajeri, PhD

    2012-09-05

    The Department of Energy’s High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program was begun in 2006 with the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) as the lead organization. During the first three years of the program, FSEC was tasked with developing non-Nafion® proton exchange membranes with improved conductivity for fuel cells. Additionally, FSEC was responsible for developing protocols for the measurement of in-plane conductivity, providing conductivity measurements for the other funded teams, developing a method for through-plane conductivity and organizing and holding semiannual meetings of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG). The FSEC membrane research focused on the development of supported poly[perfluorosulfonic acid] (PFSA) – Teflon membranes and a hydrocarbon membrane, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The fourth generation of the PFSA membrane (designated FSEC-4) came close to, but did not meet, the Go/No-Go milestone of 0.1 S/cm at 50% relative humidity at 120 °C. In-plane conductivity of membranes provided by the funded teams was measured and reported to the teams and DOE. Late in the third year of the program, DOE used this data and other factors to decide upon the teams to continue in the program. The teams that continued provided promising membranes to FSEC for development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) that could be tested in an operating fuel cell. FSEC worked closely with each team to provide customized support. A logic flow chart was developed and discussed before MEA fabrication or any testing began. Of the five teams supported, by the end of the project, membranes from two of the teams were easily manufactured into MEAs and successfully characterized for performance. One of these teams exceeded performance targets, while the other requires further optimization. An additional team developed a membrane that shows great promise for significantly reducing membrane costs and increasing membrane lifetime.

  10. Low inductance busbar assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holbrook, Meghan Ann (Manhattan Beach, CA)

    2010-09-21

    A busbar assembly for electrically coupling first and second busbars to first and second contacts, respectively, on a power module is provided. The assembly comprises a first terminal integrally formed with the first busbar, a second terminal integrally formed with the second busbar and overlapping the first terminal, a first bridge electrode having a first tab electrically coupled to the first terminal and overlapping the first and second terminals, and a second tab electrically coupled to the first contact, a second bridge electrode having a third tab electrically coupled to the second terminal, and overlapping the first and second terminals and the first tab, and a fourth tab electrically coupled to the second contact, and a fastener configured to couple the first tab to the first terminal, and the third tab to the second terminal.

  11. Epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly (phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hibbs, Michael; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Norman, Kirsten; Hickner, Michael A.

    2010-10-19

    An epoxy-crosslinked sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer composition used as proton exchange membranes, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cell, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes, and in sulfur dioxide electrolyzers. These improved membranes are tougher, have higher temperature capability, and lower SO.sub.2 crossover rates.

  12. Trifluorostyrene containing compounds, and their use in polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choudhury, Biswajit; Roelofs, Mark Gerrit; Yang; Zhen-Yu

    2009-07-21

    A fluorinated ion exchange polymer is prepared by grafting a monomer onto a base polymer, wherein the grafting monomer is selected from the group consisting of structure 1a, 1b and mixture thereof; ##STR00001## wherein Y is selected from the group consisting of --R.sub.FSO.sub.2F, --R.sub.FSO.sub.3M, --R.sub.SO.sub.2NH.sub.2 and --R.sub.FSO.sub.2N(M)SO.sub.2R.sup.2.sub.F, where in M is hydrogen, an alkali cation or ammonium; and R.sub.F and R.sup.2.sub.F are perfluorinated or partially fluorinated, and may optionally include ether oxygens; and n is between 1 and 2 for 1a, or n is between 1 and 3 for 1b. These ion exchange polymers are useful is preparing catalyst coated membranes and membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  13. Method of electrode fabrication and an electrode for metal chloride...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Method of electrode fabrication and an electrode for metal chloride battery Title: Method of electrode fabrication and an electrode for metal chloride battery A method of ...

  14. Electrospun Nafion®/Polyphenylsulfone composite membranes for regenerative Hydrogen bromine fuel cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Park, Jun; Wycisk, Ryszard; Pintauro, Peter N.; Yarlagadda, Venkata; Van Nguyen, Trung

    2016-02-29

    Here, the regenerative H2/Br2-HBr fuel cell, utilizing an oxidant solution of Br2 in aqueous HBr, shows a number of benefits for grid-scale electricity storage. The membrane-electrode assembly, a key component of a fuel cell, contains a proton-conducting membrane, typically based on the perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer. Unfortunately, the high cost of PFSA membranes and their relatively high bromine crossover are serious drawbacks. Nanofiber composite membranes can overcome these limitations. In this work, composite membranes were prepared from electrospun dual-fiber mats containing Nafion® PFSA ionomer for facile proton transport and an uncharged polymer, polyphenylsulfone (PPSU), for mechanical reinforcement, and swelling control.more » After electrospinning, Nafion/PPSU mats were converted into composite membranes by softening the PPSU fibers, through exposure to chloroform vapor, thus filling the voids between ionomer nanofibers. It was demonstrated that the relative membrane selectivity, referenced to Nafion® 115, increased with increasing PPSU content, e.g., a selectivity of 11 at 25 vol% of Nafion fibers. H2-Br2 fuel cell power output with a 65 m thick membrane containing 55 vol% Nafion fibers was somewhat better than that of a 150 m Nafion® 115 reference, but its cost advantage due to a four-fold decrease in PFSA content and a lower bromine species crossover make it an attractive candidate for use in H2/Br2-HBr systems.« less

  15. Optimization of electrode characteristics for the Br-2/H-2 redox flow cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, MC; Cho, KT; Weber, AZ; Lin, GY; Nguyen, TV

    2014-10-17

    The Br-2/H-2 redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. The effect of various aspects of material selection, processing, and assembly of electrodes on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the system is determined. In particular, (+) electrode thickness, cell compression, hydrogen pressure, and (-) electrode architecture are investigated. Increasing hydrogen pressure and depositing the (-) catalyst layer on the membrane instead of on the carbon paper backing layers have a large positive impact on performance, enabling a limiting current density above 2 A cm(-2) and a peak power density of 1.4 W cm(-2). Maximum energy efficiency of 79 % is achieved. In addition, the root cause of limiting-current behavior in this system is elucidated, where it is found that Br- reversibly adsorbs at the Pt (-) electrode for potentials exceeding a critical value, and the extent of Br- coverage is potential-dependent. This phenomenon limits maximum cell current density and must be addressed in system modeling and design. These findings are expected to lower system cost and enable higher efficiency.

  16. Optimization of electrode characteristics for the Br₂/H₂ redox flow cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, Michael C.; Cho, Kyu Taek; Weber, Adam Z.; Lin, Guangyu; Van Nguyen, Trung

    2014-10-17

    The Br₂/H₂ redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. The effect of various aspects of material selection, processing, and assembly of electrodes on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the system is determined. In particular, (+) electrode thickness, cell compression, hydrogen pressure, and (–) electrode architecture are investigated. Increasing hydrogen pressure and depositing the (–) catalyst layer on the membrane instead of on the carbon-paper backing layers have a large positive impact on performance, enabling a limiting current density above 2 A cm-2 and a peak power density of 1.4 W cm-2. Maximum energy efficiency of 79% is achieved. In addition, the root cause of limiting-current behavior in this system is elucidated, where it is found that Br- reversibly adsorbs at the Pt (–) electrode for potentials exceeding a critical value, and the extent of Br- coverage is potential-dependent. This phenomenon limits maximum cell current density and must be addressed in system modeling and design. These findings are expected to lower system cost and enable higher efficiency.

  17. Optimization of electrode characteristics for the Br?/H? redox flow cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, Michael C.; Cho, Kyu Taek; Weber, Adam Z.; Lin, Guangyu; Van Nguyen, Trung

    2015-01-01

    The Br?/H? redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. The effect of various aspects of material selection, processing, and assembly of electrodes on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the system is determined. In particular, (+) electrode thickness, cell compression, hydrogen pressure, and () electrode architecture are investigated. Increasing hydrogen pressure and depositing the () catalyst layer on the membrane instead of on the carbon-paper backing layers have a large positive impact on performance, enabling a limiting current density above 2 A cm-2 and a peak power density of 1.4 W cm-2. Maximum energy efficiency of 79% is achieved. In addition, the root cause of limiting-current behavior in this system is elucidated, where it is found that Br- reversibly adsorbs at the Pt () electrode for potentials exceeding a critical value, and the extent of Br- coverage is potential-dependent. This phenomenon limits maximum cell current density and must be addressed in system modeling and design. These findings are expected to lower system cost and enable higher efficiency.

  18. Optimization of electrode characteristics for the Br₂/H₂ redox flow cell

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tucker, Michael C.; Cho, Kyu Taek; Weber, Adam Z.; Lin, Guangyu; Van Nguyen, Trung

    2014-10-17

    The Br₂/H₂ redox flow cell shows promise as a high-power, low-cost energy storage device. The effect of various aspects of material selection, processing, and assembly of electrodes on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the system is determined. In particular, (+) electrode thickness, cell compression, hydrogen pressure, and (–) electrode architecture are investigated. Increasing hydrogen pressure and depositing the (–) catalyst layer on the membrane instead of on the carbon-paper backing layers have a large positive impact on performance, enabling a limiting current density above 2 A cm-2 and a peak power density of 1.4 W cm-2. Maximum energy efficiencymore » of 79% is achieved. In addition, the root cause of limiting-current behavior in this system is elucidated, where it is found that Br- reversibly adsorbs at the Pt (–) electrode for potentials exceeding a critical value, and the extent of Br- coverage is potential-dependent. This phenomenon limits maximum cell current density and must be addressed in system modeling and design. These findings are expected to lower system cost and enable higher efficiency.« less

  19. Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemsler, J. Paul; Dempsey, Michael D.

    1986-01-01

    Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

  20. In-membrane micro fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Omosebi, Ayokunle; Besser, Ronald

    2016-09-06

    An in-membrane micro fuel cell comprises an electrically-insulating membrane that is permissive to the flow of cations, such as protons, and a pair of electrodes deposited on channels formed in the membrane. The channels are arranged as conduits for fluids, and define a membrane ridge between the channels. The electrodes are porous and include catalysts for promoting the liberation of a proton and an electron from a chemical species and/or or the recombination of a proton and an electron with a chemical specie. The fuel cell may be provided a biosensor, an electrochemical sensor, a microfluidic device, or other microscale devices fabricated in the fuel cell membrane.

  1. EVALUATION OF PROTON-CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR USE IN A SULFUR-DIOXIDE DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Colon-Mercado, H.

    2009-11-11

    The chemical stability, sulfur dioxide transport, ionic conductivity, and electrolyzer performance have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). The SDE's function is to produce hydrogen by using the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, a sulfur based electrochemical/thermochemical hybrid cycle. Membrane stability was evaluated using a screening process where each candidate PEM was heated at 80 C in 60 wt. % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 24 hours. Following acid exposure, chemical stability for each membrane was evaluated by FTIR using the ATR sampling technique. Membrane SO{sub 2} transport was evaluated using a two-chamber permeation cell. SO{sub 2} was introduced into one chamber whereupon SO{sub 2} transported across the membrane into the other chamber and oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at an anode positioned immediately adjacent to the membrane. The resulting current was used to determine the SO{sub 2} flux and SO{sub 2} transport. Additionally, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared from candidate membranes to evaluate ionic conductivity and selectivity (ionic conductivity vs. SO{sub 2} transport) which can serve as a tool for selecting membranes. MEAs were also performance tested in a HyS electrolyzer measuring current density versus a constant cell voltage (1V, 80 C in SO{sub 2} saturated 30 wt% H2SO{sub 4}). Finally, candidate membranes were evaluated considering all measured parameters including SO{sub 2} flux, SO{sub 2} transport, ionic conductivity, HyS electrolyzer performance, and membrane stability. Candidate membranes included both PFSA and non-PFSA polymers and polymer blends of which the non-PFSA polymers, BPVE-6F and PBI, showed the best selectivity.

  2. Methods and systems for in-situ electroplating of electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zappi, Guillermo Daniel; Zarnoch, Kenneth Paul; Huntley, Christian Andrew; Swalla, Dana Ray

    2015-06-02

    The present techniques provide electrochemical devices having enhanced electrodes with surfaces that facilitate operation, such as by formation of a porous nickel layer on an operative surface, particularly of the cathode. The porous metal layer increases the surface area of the electrode, which may result in increasing the efficiency of the electrochemical devices. The formation of the porous metal layer is performed in situ, that is, after the assembly of the electrodes into an electrochemical device. The in situ process offers a number of advantages, including the ability to protect the porous metal layer on the electrode surface from damage during assembly of the electrochemical device. The enhanced electrode and the method for its processing may be used in any number of electrochemical devices, and is particularly well suited for electrodes in an electrolyzer useful for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen.

  3. Microfluidic device for the assembly and transport of microparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Conrad D.; Kumar, Anil; Khusid, Boris; Acrivos, Andreas

    2010-06-29

    A microfluidic device comprising independently addressable arrays of interdigitated electrodes can be used to assembly and transport large-scale microparticle structures. The device and method uses collective phenomena in a negatively polarized suspension exposed to a high-gradient strong ac electric field to assemble the particles into predetermined locations and then transport them collectively to a work area for final assembly by sequentially energizing the electrode arrays.

  4. Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamrock, Steven J

    2011-06-30

    The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA's comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20ºC to 120ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA's, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the 2005 Hydrogen

  5. Method for manufacturing magnetohydrodynamic electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Killpatrick, Don H.; Thresh, Henry R.

    1982-01-01

    A method of manufacturing electrodes for use in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator comprising the steps of preparing a billet having a core 10 of a first metal, a tubular sleeve 12 of a second metal, and an outer sheath 14, 16, 18 of an extrusile metal; evacuating the space between the parts of the assembled billet; extruding the billet; and removing the outer jacket 14. The extruded bar may be made into electrodes by cutting and bending to the shape required for an MDH channel frame. The method forms a bond between the first metal of the core 10 and the second metal of the sleeve 12 strong enough to withstand a hot and corrosive environment.

  6. Linear particle accelerator with seal structure between electrodes and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Broadhurst, John H.

    1989-01-01

    An electrostatic linear accelerator includes an electrode stack comprised of primary electrodes formed or Kovar and supported by annular glass insulators having the same thermal expansion rate as the electrodes. Each glass insulator is provided with a pair of fused-in Kovar ring inserts which are bonded to the electrodes. Each electrode is designed to define a concavo-convex particle trap so that secondary charged particles generated within the accelerated beam area cannot reach the inner surface of an insulator. Each insulator has a generated inner surface profile which is so configured that the electrical field at this surface contains no significant tangential component. A spark gap trigger assembly is provided, which energizes spark gaps protecting the electrodes affected by over voltage to prevent excessive energy dissipation in the electrode stack.

  7. Ignition system monitoring assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brushwood, John Samuel

    2003-11-04

    An ignition system monitoring assembly for use in a combustion engine is disclosed. The assembly includes an igniter having at least one positioning guide with at least one transmittal member being maintained in a preferred orientation by one of the positioning guides. The transmittal member is in optical communication with a corresponding target region, and optical information about the target region is conveyed to the reception member via the transmittal member. The device allows real-time observation of optical characteristics of the target region. The target region may be the spark gap between the igniter electrodes, or other predetermined locations in optical communication with the transmittal member. The reception member may send an output signal to a processing member which, in turn, may produce a response to the output signal.

  8. High frequency reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  9. Flexible retinal electrode array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2006-10-24

    An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

  10. Controlled porosity in electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Bae, Chang-Jun; Halloran, John William; Fu, Qiang; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Erdonmez, Can K.

    2015-06-23

    Porous electrodes in which the porosity has a low tortuosity are generally provided. In some embodiments, the porous electrodes can be designed to be filled with electrolyte and used in batteries, and can include low tortuosity in the primary direction of ion transport during charge and discharge of the battery. In some embodiments, the electrodes can have a high volume fraction of electrode active material (i.e., low porosity). The attributes outlined above can allow the electrodes to be fabricated with a higher energy density, higher capacity per unit area of electrode (mAh/cm.sup.2), and greater thickness than comparable electrodes while still providing high utilization of the active material in the battery during use. Accordingly, the electrodes can be used to produce batteries with high energy densities, high power, or both compared to batteries using electrodes of conventional design with relatively highly tortuous pores.

  11. Micromachined electrode array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2007-12-11

    An electrode array is disclosed which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array, in certain embodiments, can include a plurality of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. In other embodiments of the electrode array, the electrodes can be fixed to the substrate. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, and can include electrode tips having an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis.

  12. High frequency reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  13. Low cost electrode development and performance in Ballard advanced stack hardware

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hards, G.A.; Ralph, T.R.; Wilkinson, D.P.; Campbell, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    Cost reduction is a critical requirement for the widespread commercial application of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology. Significant stack cost savings are available through materials cost reductions and the development of low cost, high volume, manufacturing processes. This paper summarizes progress made by Ballard Power Systems and Johnson Matthey in the development of lower cost stack component technology. Single cell performance in Ballard Mark V hardware, of membrane electrode assemblies (NEAs) employing volume manufactured electrodes with catalyst loadings below 1.0 mgPtcm{sup -2}, are comparable to current stack MEAs comprising unsupported platinum based catalysts with loadings of 8.0 mgPtcm{sup -2}. In the advanced stack hardware, under development for motive and utility applications, the low cost MEAs exhibit high performance and minimal voltage decays after over 3,000 hours of stack operation. Cell to cell reproducibility is excellent, highlighting the high consistency of product available from the manufacturing processes. The MEAs represent a significant progress in the commercialization of PEMFC systems. Incorporation of the technology in commercial prototype stacks is underway.

  14. Production of permeable cellulose triacetate membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Bruce M.

    1986-01-01

    A phase inversion process for the preparation of cellulose triacetate (CTA) and regenerated cellulose membranes is disclosed. Such membranes are useful as supports for liquid membranes in facilitated transport processes, as microfiltration membranes, as dialysis or ultrafiltration membranes, and for the preparation of ion-selective electrodes. The process comprises the steps of preparing a casting solution of CTA in a solvent comprising a mixture of cyclohexanone and methylene chloride, casting a film from the casting solution, and immersing the cast film in a methanol bath. The resulting CTA membrane may then be hydrolyzed to regenerated cellulose using conventional techniques.

  15. Production of permeable cellulose triacetate membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, B.M.

    1986-12-23

    A phase inversion process for the preparation of cellulose triacetate (CTA) and regenerated cellulose membranes is disclosed. Such membranes are useful as supports for liquid membranes in facilitated transport processes, as microfiltration membranes, as dialysis or ultrafiltration membranes, and for the preparation of ion-selective electrodes. The process comprises the steps of preparing a casting solution of CTA in a solvent comprising a mixture of cyclohexanone and methylene chloride, casting a film from the casting solution, and immersing the cast film in a methanol bath. The resulting CTA membrane may then be hydrolyzed to regenerated cellulose using conventional techniques.

  16. High performance cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of increasing the operating cell voltage of a solid oxide electrochemical cell having metal electrode particles in contact with an oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte. The metal electrode is heated with the cell, and oxygen is passed through the oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte to the surface of the metal electrode particles so that the metal electrode particles are oxidized to form a metal oxide layer between the metal electrode particles and the electrolyte. The metal oxide layer is then reduced to form porous metal between the metal electrode particles and the ceramic electrolyte.

  17. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

    2012-12-18

    properties of experimental membranes, 9) fabrication and FC performance testing of membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) from experimental membranes, and 10) measurement of ex situ and in situ membrane durability of experimental membranes. Although none of the experimental hydrocarbon membranes that issued from the project displayed proton conductivities that met DOE requirements, the project contributed to our basic understanding of membrane structure-property relationships in a number of key respects. An important finding of the benchmark studies is that physical degradation associated with humidity and temperature variations in the FC tend to open new fuel crossover pathways and act synergistically with chemical degradation to accelerate overall membrane degradation. Thus, for long term membrane survival and efficient fuel utilization, membranes must withstand internal stresses due to humidity and temperature changes. In this respect, rigid aromatic hydrocarbon fuel cell membranes, e.g. PAES, offer an advantage over un-modified Nafion membranes. The benchmark studies also showed that broadband dielectric spectroscopy is a potentially powerful tool in assessing shifts in the fundamental macromolecular dynamics caused by Nafion chemical degradation, and thus, this technique is of relevance in interrogating proton exchange membrane durability in fuel cells and macromolecular dynamics as coupled to proton migration, which is of fundamental relevance in proton exchange membranes in fuel cells. A key finding from the hydrocarbon membrane synthesis effort was that rigid aromatic polymers containing isolated ion exchange groups tethered tightly to the backbone (short tether), such as HPPS, provide excellent mechanical and durability properties but do not provide sufficient conductivity, in either random or block configuration, when used as the sole ion exchange monomer. However, we continue to hypothesize that longer tethers, and tethered groups spaced more closely within the

  18. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  19. Multifunctional reference electrode (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multifunctional reference electrode Title: Multifunctional reference electrode A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the ...

  20. Inactive end cell assembly for fuel cells for improved electrolyte management and electrical contact

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuh, Chao-Yi; Farooque, Mohammad; Johnsen, Richard

    2007-04-10

    An assembly for storing electrolyte in a carbonate fuel cell is provided. The combination of a soft, compliant and resilient cathode current collector and an inactive anode part including a foam anode in each assembly mitigates electrical contact loss during operation of the fuel cell stack. In addition, an electrode reservoir in the positive end assembly and an electrode sink in the negative end assembly are provided, by which ribbed and flat cathode members inhibit electrolyte migration in the fuel cell stack.

  1. Electrochemical cell and method of assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimotake, Hiroshi; Voss, Ernst C. H.; Bartholme, Louis G.

    1979-01-01

    A method of preparing an electrochemical cell is disclosed which permits the assembly to be accomplished in air. The cell includes a metal sulfide as the positive electrode reactant, lithium alloy as the negative electrode reactant and an alkali metal, molten salt electrolyte. Positive electrode reactant is introduced as Li.sub.2 FeS.sub.2, a single-phase compound produced by the reaction of Li.sub.2 S and FeS. The use of this compound permits introduction of lithium in an oxidized form. Additional lithium can be introduced in the negative electrode structure enclosed within an aluminum foil envelope between layers of porous aluminum. Molten salt electrolyte is added after assembly and evacuation of the cell by including an interelectrode separator that has been prewet with an organic solution of KCl.

  2. Corneal-shaping electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doss, James D.; Hutson, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a circulating saline electrode for changing corneal shape in eyes. The electrode comprises a tubular nonconductive electrode housing having an annular expanded base which has a surface substantially matched to a subject corneal surface. A tubular conductive electrode connected to a radiofrequency generating source is disposed within the electrode housing and longitudinally aligned therewith. The electrode has a generally hemispherical head having at least one orifice. Saline solution is circulated through the apparatus and over the cornea to cool the corneal surface while radiofrequency electric current emitted from the electrode flows therefrom through the cornea to a second electrode, on the rear of the head. This current heats the deep corneal stroma and thereby effects corneal reshaping as a biological response to the heat.

  3. Atmospheric corrosion of lithium electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1981-10-01

    Atmospheric corrosion of lithium during lithium-cell assembly and the dry storage of cells prior to electrolyte fill has been found to initiate lithium corrosion pits and to form corrosion products. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate lithium pitting and the white floccullent corrosion products. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Auger spectroscopy in combination with X-ray diffraction were used to characterize lithium surfaces. Lithium surfaces with corrosion products were found to be high in carbonate content indicating the presence of lithium carbonate. Lithium electrodes dry stored in unfilled batteries were found to contain high concentration of lithium flouride a possible corrosion product from gaseous materials from the carbon monofluoride cathode. Future investigations of the corrosion phenomena will emphasize the effect of the corrosion products on the electrolyte and ultimate battery performance. The need to protect lithium electrodes from atmospheric exposure is commonly recognized to minimize corrosion induced by reaction with water, oxygen, carbon dioxide or nitrogen (1). Manufacturing facilities customarily limit the relative humidity to less than two percent. Electrodes that have been manufactured for use in lithium cells are typically stored in dry-argon containers. In spite of these precautions, lithium has been found to corrode over a long time period due to residual gases or slow diffusion of the same into storage containers. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the nature of the lithium corrosion.

  4. Compartmented electrode structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi; Gay, Eddie C.; Martino, Fredric J.

    1977-06-14

    Electrodes for secondary electrochemical cells are provided with compartments for containing particles of the electrode reactant. The compartments are defined by partitions that are generally impenetrable to the particles of reactant and, in some instances, to the liquid electrolyte used in the cell. During cycling of the cell, reactant material initially loaded into a particular compartment is prevented from migrating and concentrating within the lower portion of the electrode or those portions of the electrode that exhibit reduced electrical resistance.

  5. Membrane stabilizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mingenbach, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material.

  6. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, Greg; Fischer, Anne ,; Bennett, Jason; Lowe, Michael

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  7. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

  8. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E.; Miller, John L.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window.

  9. Microresonator electrode design

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsson, III, Roy H.; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Branch, Darren W.

    2016-05-10

    A microresonator with an input electrode and an output electrode patterned thereon is described. The input electrode includes a series of stubs that are configured to isolate acoustic waves, such that the waves are not reflected into the microresonator. Such design results in reduction of spurious modes corresponding to the microresonator.

  10. Fuel cell electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strmcnik, Dusan; Cuesta, Angel; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad

    2015-06-23

    A process includes patterning a surface of a platinum group metal-based electrode by contacting the electrode with an adsorbate to form a patterned platinum group metal-based electrode including platinum group metal sites blocked with adsorbate molecules and platinum group metal sites which are not blocked.

  11. Near-electrode imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.; Woelk, Klaus; Gerald, II, Rex E.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus, near-electrode imager, for employing nuclear magnetic resonance imaging to provide in situ measurements of electrochemical properties of a sample as a function of distance from a working electrode. The near-electrode imager uses the radio frequency field gradient within a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator to provide high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectral information on electrolyte materials.

  12. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  13. Pervaporation assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynn, Nicholas P; Huang, Yu; Aldajani, Tiem; Fulton, Donald A

    2012-02-28

    The invention is a pervaporation process and pervaporation equipment, using a series of membrane modules, and including inter-module reheating of the feed solution under treatment. The inter-module heating is achieved within the tube or vessel in which the modules are housed, thereby avoiding the need to repeatedly extract the feed solution from the membrane module train.

  14. Negative electrode composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Chilenskas, Albert A.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell and a negative electrode composition for use therewith comprising a positive electrode containing an active material of a chalcogen or a transiton metal chalcogenide, a negative electrode containing a lithium-aluminum alloy and an amount of a ternary alloy sufficient to provide at least about 5 percent overcharge capacity relative to a negative electrode solely of the lithium-aluminum alloy, the ternary alloy comprising lithium, aluminum, and iron or cobalt, and an electrolyte containing lithium ions in contact with both of the positive and the negative electrodes. The ternary alloy is present in the electrode in the range of from about 5 percent to about 50 percent by weight of the electrode composition and may include lithium-aluminum-nickel alloy in combination with either the ternary iron or cobalt alloys. A plurality of series connected cells having overcharge capacity can be equalized on the discharge side without expensive electrical equipment.

  15. Reactor vessel using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Zeltner, Walter A. (Oregon, WI)

    1992-08-11

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane.

  16. Fuel cell with electrolyte matrix assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Arthur; Pudick, Sheldon; Wang, Chiu L.

    1988-01-01

    This invention is directed to a fuel cell employing a substantially immobilized electrolyte imbedded therein and having a laminated matrix assembly disposed between the electrodes of the cell for holding and distributing the electrolyte. The matrix assembly comprises a non-conducting fibrous material such as silicon carbide whiskers having a relatively large void-fraction and a layer of material having a relatively small void-fraction.

  17. Seal assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Roger Neal; Longfritz, William David

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that seals a gap formed by a groove comprises a seal body, a biasing element, and a connection that connects the seal body to the biasing element to form the seal assembly. The seal assembly further comprises a concave-shaped center section and convex-shaped contact portions at each end of the seal body. The biasing element is formed from an elastic material and comprises a convex-shaped center section and concave-shaped biasing zones that are opposed to the convex-shaped contact portions. The biasing element is adapted to be compressed to change a width of the seal assembly from a first width to a second width that is smaller than the first width. In the compressed state, the seal assembly can be disposed in the groove. After release of the compressing force, the seal assembly expands. The contact portions will move toward a surface of the groove and the biasing zones will move into contact with another surface of the groove. The biasing zones will bias the contact portions of the seal body against the surface of the groove.

  18. Cell-free system for synthesizing membrane proteins cell free method for synthesizing membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laible, Philip D; Hanson, Deborah K

    2013-06-04

    The invention provides an in vitro method for producing proteins, membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins, and soluble proteins that interact with membrane-associated proteins for assembly into an oligomeric complex or that require association with a membrane for proper folding. The method comprises, supplying intracytoplasmic membranes from organisms; modifying protein composition of intracytoplasmic membranes from organism by modifying DNA to delete genes encoding functions of the organism not associated with the formation of the intracytoplasmic membranes; generating appropriate DNA or RNA templates that encode the target protein; and mixing the intracytoplasmic membranes with the template and a transcription/translation-competent cellular extract to cause simultaneous production of the membrane proteins and encapsulation of the membrane proteins within the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  19. Membrane stabilizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mingenbach, W.A.

    1988-02-09

    A device is provided for stabilizing a flexible membrane secured within a frame, wherein a plurality of elongated arms are disposed radially from a central hub which penetrates the membrane, said arms imposing alternately against opposite sides of the membrane, thus warping and tensioning the membrane into a condition of improved stability. The membrane may be an opaque or translucent sheet or other material. 10 figs.

  20. Nanoscopic electrode molecular probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krstic, Predrag S. (Knoxville, TN); Meunier, Vincent (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-05-22

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for enhancing the electron transport property measurements of a molecule when the molecule is placed between chemically functionalized carbon-based nanoscopic electrodes to which a suitable voltage bias is applied. The invention includes selecting a dopant atom for the nanoscopic electrodes, the dopant atoms being chemically similar to atoms present in the molecule, and functionalizing the outer surface and terminations of the electrodes with the dopant atoms.

  1. battery electrode percolating network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    battery electrode percolating network - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel ...

  2. Corneal-shaping electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doss, J.D.; Hutson, R.L.

    1979-12-05

    The invention relates to corneal reshaping and more particularly to electrodes utilizing radiofrequency electrical current to heat and thereby induce reshaping of the cornea in humans and animals.

  3. Uncharged positive electrode composition (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Uncharged positive electrode composition Title: Uncharged positive electrode composition An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another ...

  4. Hinge assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandergriff, David Houston (Powell, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A hinge assembly having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf.

  5. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques.

  6. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.

    1994-05-03

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques. 2 figures.

  7. Latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frederickson, J.R.; Harper, W.H.; Perez, R.

    1984-08-17

    A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing. 2 figs.

  8. Latch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frederickson, James R.; Harper, William H.; Perez, Raymond

    1986-01-01

    A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing.

  9. Electrokinetic electrode system for extraction of soil contaminants from unsaturated soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Mattson, Earl D.

    1995-01-01

    There is presented an electrokinetic electrode assembly for use in extraction of soil contaminants from unsaturated soil in situ. The assembly includes a housing for retaining a liquid comprising an electrolyte solution, pure water, and soil water, the housing being in part of porous material capable of holding a vacuum. An electrode is mounted in the housing. The housing is provided with a vacuum orifice for effecting a vacuum within the housing selectively to control flow of soil water through the housing into the chamber and to control outflow of the liquid from the chamber. The assembly further includes conduit means for removing the liquid from the housing and returning the electrolyte solution to the housing, and a conduit for admitting pure water to the housing. There is further presented an electrode system and method for extraction of soil contaminants, the system and method utilizing at least two electrode assemblies as described above.

  10. Electrokinetic electrode system for extraction of soil contaminants from unsaturated soils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindgren, E.R.; Mattson, E.D.

    1995-07-25

    An electrokinetic electrode assembly is described for use in extraction of soil contaminants from unsaturated soil in situ. The assembly includes a housing for retaining a liquid comprising an electrolyte solution, pure water, and soil water, the housing being in part of porous material capable of holding a vacuum. An electrode is mounted in the housing. The housing is provided with a vacuum orifice for effecting a vacuum within the housing selectively to control flow of soil water through the housing into the chamber and to control outflow of the liquid from the chamber. The assembly further includes conduit means for removing the liquid from the housing and returning the electrolyte solution to the housing, and a conduit for admitting pure water to the housing. An electrode system and method are also revealed for extraction of soil contaminants. The system and method utilize at least two electrode assemblies as described above. 5 figs.

  11. Graphene-based Electrode Leads to Highest Capacity Lithium-Air...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Graphene-based Electrode Leads to Highest Capacity Lithium-Air Batteries New approach to ... The Impact This study developed a new self-assembly approach to obtain 3-dimensional (3D) ...

  12. Electrodes for microfluidic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crocker, Robert W.; Harnett, Cindy K.; Rognlien, Judith L.

    2006-08-22

    An electrode device for high pressure applications. These electrodes, designed to withstand pressure of greater than 10,000 psi, are adapted for use in microfluidic devices that employ electrokinetic or electrophoretic flow. The electrode is composed, generally, of an outer electrically insulating tubular body having a porous ceramic frit material disposed in one end of the outer body. The pores of the porous ceramic material are filled with an ion conductive polymer resin. A conductive material situated on the upper surface of the porous ceramic frit material and, thus isolated from direct contact with the electrolyte, forms a gas diffusion electrode. A metal current collector, in contact with the gas diffusion electrode, provides connection to a voltage source.

  13. HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRODES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murray, J.J.

    1963-04-23

    S>This patent relates to electrode structure for creating an intense direct current electric field which may have a field strength of the order of two to three times that heretofore obtained, with automatic suppression of arcing. The positive electrode is a conventional conductive material such as copper while the negative electrode is made from a special material having a resistivity greater than that of good conductors and less than that of good insulators. When an incipient arc occurs, the moderate resistivity of the negative electrode causes a momentary, localized decrease in the electric field intensity, thus suppressing the flow of electrons and avoiding arcing. Heated glass may be utilized for the negative electrode, since it provides the desired combination of resistivity, capacity, dielectric strength, mechani-cal strength, and thermal stability. (AEC)

  14. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technologies: Improved Electrode-Electrode...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technologies: Improved Electrode-Electrode Structures for Solid State Electrochemical Devices Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This ...

  15. Furnace assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panayotou, N.F.; Green, D.R.; Price, L.S.

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  16. Furnace assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panayotou, Nicholas F. (Kennewick, WA); Green, Donald R. (Richland, WA); Price, Larry S. (Pittsburg, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  17. Narrow groove welding gas diffuser assembly and welding torch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rooney, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    A diffuser assembly is provided for narrow groove welding using an automatic gas tungsten arc welding torch. The diffuser assembly includes a manifold adapted for adjustable mounting on the welding torch which is received in a central opening in the manifold. Laterally extending manifold sections communicate with a shield gas inlet such that shield gas supplied to the inlet passes to gas passages of the manifold sections. First and second tapered diffusers are respectively connected to the manifold sections in fluid communication with the gas passages thereof. The diffusers extend downwardly along the torch electrode on opposite sides thereof so as to release shield gas along the length of the electrode and at the distal tip of the electrode. The diffusers are of a transverse width which is on the order of the thickness of the electrode so that the diffusers can, in use, be inserted into a narrow welding groove before and after the electrode in the direction of the weld operation.

  18. Layered electrode for electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swathirajan, Swathy; Mikhail, Youssef M.

    2001-01-01

    There is provided an electrode structure comprising a current collector sheet and first and second layers of electrode material. Together, the layers improve catalyst utilization and water management.

  19. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo; Vissers, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  20. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1981-12-30

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  1. Sensor assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2004-04-13

    A ribbon-like sensor assembly is described wherein a length of an optical fiber embedded within a similar lengths of a prepreg tow. The fiber is ""sandwiched"" by two layers of the prepreg tow which are merged to form a single consolidated ribbon. The consolidated ribbon achieving a generally uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin does not ""pool"" around the periphery of the embedded fiber.

  2. Dump assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldmann, Louis H.

    1986-01-01

    A dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough.

  3. Multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer proton exchange membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Hibbs, Michael; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2012-02-07

    Improved multi-block sulfonated poly(phenylene) copolymer compositions, methods of making the same, and their use as proton exchange membranes (PEM) in hydrogen fuel cells, direct methanol fuel cells, in electrode casting solutions and electrodes. The multi-block architecture has defined, controllable hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. These improved membranes have better ion transport (proton conductivity) and water swelling properties.

  4. Search for: All records | DOE Patents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of ...

  5. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2006-02-28

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the pre-formed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  6. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  7. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, T.L.

    1998-05-05

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  8. Zinc electrode with cement additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charkey, Allen

    1982-06-01

    A zinc electrode having a cement additive, preferably, Portland Cement, distributed in the zinc active material.

  9. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... hydrogen and fuel cells, electrodes - solar, mechanical behavior, charge transport, ... The electrode catalyst may be used in a membrane electrode assembly for a fuel cell. Full ...

  10. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes without electrode separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Wang, Francis T.; Hickman, Robert G.; Lewis, Patricia R.

    1996-01-01

    An electrochemical cell/electrolyte/mediator combination for the efficient destruction of organic contaminants using metal salt mediators in a sulfuric acid electrolyte, wherein the electrodes and mediator are chosen such that hydrogen gas is produced at the cathode and no cell membrane is required.

  11. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes without electrode separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.; Hickman, R.G.; Lewis, P.R.

    1996-05-14

    An electrochemical cell/electrolyte/mediator combination is described for the efficient destruction of organic contaminants using metal salt mediators in a sulfuric acid electrolyte, wherein the electrodes and mediator are chosen such that hydrogen gas is produced at the cathode and no cell membrane is required. 3 figs.

  12. Multicomponent membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    A multicomponent membrane which may be used for separating various components which are present in a fluid feed mixture comprises a mixture of a plasticizer such as a glycol and an organic polymer cast upon a porous organic polymer support. The membrane may be prepared by casting an emulsion or a solution of the plasticizer and polymer on the porous support, evaporating the solvent and recovering the membrane after curing.

  13. Shingle assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2007-02-20

    A barrier, such as a PV module, is secured to a base by a support to create a shingle assembly with a venting region defined between the barrier and base for temperature regulation. The first edge of one base may be interengageable with the second edge of an adjacent base to be capable of resisting first and second disengaging forces oriented perpendicular to the edges and along planes oriented parallel to and perpendicular to the base. A deflector may be used to help reduce wind uplift forces.

  14. Dump assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldmann, L.H.

    1984-12-06

    This is a claim for a dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough. 4 figs.

  15. Pushrod assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, J.D.

    1984-03-30

    A pushrod assembly including a carriage mounted on a shaft for movement therealong and carrying a pushrod engageable with a load to be moved is described. A magnet is mounted on a supporting bracket for movement along such shaft. Means are provided for adjustably spacing magnet away from the carriage to obtain a selected magnetic attractive or coupling force therebetween. Movement of the supporting bracket and the magnet carried thereby pulls the carriage along with it until the selected magnetic force is exceeded by a resistance load acting on the carriage.

  16. Pushrod assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, Jerry D.

    1987-01-01

    A pushrod assembly including a carriage mounted on a shaft for movement therealong and carrying a pushrod engageable with a load to be moved. A magnet is mounted on a supporting bracket for movement along such shaft. Means are provided for adjustably spacing said magnet away from said carriage to obtain a selected magnetic attractive or coupling force therebetween. Movement of the supporting bracket and the magnet carried thereby pulls the carriage along with it until the selected magnetic force is exceeded by a resistance load acting on the carriage.

  17. Method for making thin carbon foam electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, Richard W.; Mayer, Steven T.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Morrison, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    A method for fabricating thin, flat carbon electrodes by infiltrating highly porous carbon papers, membranes, felts, metal fibers/powders, or fabrics with an appropriate carbon foam precursor material. The infiltrated carbon paper, for example, is then cured to form a gel-saturated carbon paper, which is subsequently dried and pyrolyzed to form a thin sheet of porous carbon. The material readily stays flat and flexible during curing and pyrolyzing to form thin sheets. Precursor materials include polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde, catechol/formaldehyde, phenol/formaldehyde, etc., or mixtures thereof. These thin films are ideal for use as high power and energy electrodes in batteries, capacitors, and fuel cells, and are potentially useful for capacitive deionization, filtration and catalysis.

  18. Method for making thin carbon foam electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pekala, R.W.; Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Morrison, R.L.

    1999-08-03

    A method for fabricating thin, flat carbon electrodes by infiltrating highly porous carbon papers, membranes, felts, metal fibers/powders, or fabrics with an appropriate carbon foam precursor material is disclosed. The infiltrated carbon paper, for example, is then cured to form a gel-saturated carbon paper, which is subsequently dried and pyrolyzed to form a thin sheet of porous carbon. The material readily stays flat and flexible during curing and pyrolyzing to form thin sheets. Precursor materials include polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polymethylacrylonitrile (PMAN), resorcinol/formaldehyde, catechol/formaldehyde, phenol/formaldehyde, etc., or mixtures thereof. These thin films are ideal for use as high power and energy electrodes in batteries, capacitors, and fuel cells, and are potentially useful for capacitive deionization, filtration and catalysis.

  19. Capacitive de-ionization electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daily, III, William D.

    2013-03-19

    An electrode "cell" for use in a capacitive deionization (CDI) reactor consists of the electrode support structure, a non-reactive conductive material, the electrode accompaniment or substrate and a flow through screen/separator. These "layers" are repeated and the electrodes are sealed together with gaskets between two end plates to create stacked sets of alternating anode and cathode electrodes in the CDI reactor.

  20. Liquid-permeable electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Folser, George R.

    1980-01-01

    Electrodes for use in an electrolytic cell, which are liquid-permeable and have low electrical resistance and high internal surface area are provided of a rigid, porous, carbonaceous matrix having activated carbon uniformly embedded throughout. The activated carbon may be catalyzed with platinum for improved electron transfer between electrode and electrolyte. Activated carbon is mixed with a powdered thermosetting phenolic resin and compacted to the desired shape in a heated mold to melt the resin and form the green electrode. The compact is then heated to a pyrolyzing temperature to carbonize and volatilize the resin, forming a rigid, porous structure. The permeable structure and high internal surface area are useful in electrolytic cells where it is necessary to continuously remove the products of the electrochemical reaction.

  1. Porous electrode preparation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.

    1983-10-18

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity. 2 figs.

  2. Porous electrode preparation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arons, Richard M.; Dusek, Joseph T.

    1983-01-01

    A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity.

  3. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  4. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  5. Micromanifold assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renzi, Ronald F.; Ferko, Scott M.

    2012-04-24

    A micromanifold for connecting external capillaries to the inlet and/or outlet ports of a microfluidic device can employ a ferrule/capillary assembly that includes: (a) a ferrule comprising an elongated member and having a bore traversing from a proximal end to a distal end of the member, wherein the bore has an inner surface and wherein the distal end of the ferrule has a tapered, threaded exterior surface, and (b) a capillary that is positioned within the bore wherein the capillary's outer surface is in direct contact with the bore's inner surface. No mating sleeve is required for the one-piece ferrule. Alternatively, the capillaries can be bonded to channels that traverse the manifold and therefore obviate the need for a ferrule.

  6. Micromanifold assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renzi, Ronald F.; Ferko, Scott

    2009-06-30

    A micromanifold for connecting external capillaries to the inlet and/or outlet ports of a microfluidic device can employ a ferrule/capillary assembly that includes: (a) a ferrule comprising an elongated member and having a bore traversing from a proximal end to a distal end of the member, wherein the bore has an inner surface and wherein the distal end of the ferrule has a tapered, threaded exterior surface, and (b) a capillary that is positioned within the bore wherein the capillary's outer surface is in direct contact with the bore's inner surface. No mating sleeve is required for the one-piece ferrule. Alternatively, the capillaries can be bonded to channels that traverse the manifold and therefore obviate the need for a ferrule.

  7. Swivel assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael; Bradford, Kline; Rawle, Michael; Bartholomew, David B.; McPherson, James

    2007-03-20

    A swivel assembly for a downhole tool string comprises a first and second coaxial housing cooperatively arranged. The first housing comprises a first transmission element in communication with surface equipment. The second housing comprises a second transmission element in communication with the first transmission element. The second housing further comprises a third transmission element adapted for communication with a network integrated into the downhole tool string. The second housing may be rotational and adapted to transmit a signal between the downhole network and the first housing. Electronic circuitry is in communication with at least one of the transmission elements. The electronic circuitry may be externally mounted to the first or second housing. Further, the electronic circuitry may be internally mounted in the second housing. The electronic circuitry may be disposed in a recess in either first or second housing of the swivel.

  8. Thermocouple assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thermos, Anthony Constantine; Rahal, Fadi Elias

    2002-01-01

    A thermocouple assembly includes a thermocouple; a plurality of lead wires extending from the thermocouple; an insulating jacket extending along and enclosing the plurality of leads; and at least one internally sealed area within the insulating jacket to prevent fluid leakage along and within the insulating jacket. The invention also provides a method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple including the steps of a) attaching a plurality of lead wires to a thermocouple; b) adding a heat sensitive pseudo-wire to extend along the plurality of lead wires; c) enclosing the lead wires and pseudo-wire inside an insulating jacket; d) locally heating axially spaced portions of the insulating jacket to a temperature which melts the pseudo-wire and fuses it with an interior surface of the jacket.

  9. RETORT ASSEMBLY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loomis, C.C.; Ash, W.J.

    1957-11-26

    An improved retort assembly useful in the thermal reduction of volatilizable metals such as magnesium and calcium is described. In this process a high vacuum is maintained in the retort, however the retort must be heated to very high temperatures while at the same time the unloading end must bo cooled to condense the metal vapors, therefore the retention of the vacuum is frequently difficult due to the thermal stresses involved. This apparatus provides an extended condenser sleeve enclosed by the retort cover which forms the vacuum seal. Therefore, the seal is cooled by the fluid in the condenser sleeve and the extreme thermal stresses found in previous designs together with the deterioration of the sealing gasket caused by the high temperatures are avoided.

  10. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, John R. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1983-09-20

    The invention is directed to an anode-cathode structure for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the structure is comprised of a carbon anode assembly which straddles a wedge-shaped refractory hard metal cathode assembly having steeply sloped cathodic surfaces, each cathodic surface being paired in essentially parallel planar relationship with an anode surface. The anode-cathode structure not only takes into account the structural weakness of refractory hard metal materials but also permits the changing of the RHM assembly during operation of the cell. Further, the anode-cathode structure enhances the removal of anode gas from the interpolar gap between the anode and cathode surfaces.

  11. Ceramic component for electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marchant, David D.

    1979-01-01

    A ceramic component suitable for preparing MHD generator electrodes consists of HfO.sub.2 and sufficient Tb.sub.4 O.sub.7 to stabilize at least 60 volume percent of the HfO.sub.2 into the cubic structure. The ceramic component may also contain a small amount of PrO.sub.2, Yb.sub.2 O.sub.3 or a mixture of both to improve stability and electronic conductivity of the electrode. The component is highly resistant to corrosion by molten potassium seed and molten coal slag in the MHD fluid and exhibits both ionic and electronic conductivity.

  12. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1988-08-16

    A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

  13. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  14. Sandwich-type electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Wen-Tong P.; Garcia, Earl R.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is an improvement on a method of making an electrode wherein a suspension in a liquid is prepared of a powdered catalyst containing a noble metal, carbon powder and a binder, and the suspension is poured over a carbon substrate dried, compressed and sintered to form a solid catalyst layer bonded to the carbon substrate. The improvement is placing a carbon paper on the catalyst layer prior to compressing. The improved electrode can be used as either a cathode or an anode in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer in a process for producing hydrogen from water.

  15. Dual porosity gas evolving electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Townsend, C.W.

    1994-11-15

    A dual porosity electrode is described for use in thermoelectrochemical systems where simultaneous transport of gas and liquid into and/or out of the electrode is required. The electrode includes catalytic electrode particles having diameters ranging from about 25 to 100 angstroms. The catalytic electrode particles are anchored to a support network in clusters which have internal pores ranging in size from 25 to 100 angstroms. The pores between the clusters range in size from between about 1 to 20 microns. A method for making the dual porosity electrodes is also disclosed.

  16. Dual porosity gas evolving electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Townsend, Carl W.

    1994-01-01

    A dual porosity electrode for use in thermoelectrochemical systems where simultaneous transport of gas and liquid into and/or out of the electrode is required. The electrode includes catalytic electrode particles having diameters ranging from about 25 to 100 angstroms. The catalytic electrode particles are anchored to a support network in clusters which have internal pores ranging in size from 25 to 100 angstroms. The pores between the clusters range in size from between about 1 to 20 microns. A method for making the dual porosity electrodes is also disclosed.

  17. Virtual electrodes for high-density electrode arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cela, Carlos J.; Lazzi, Gianluca

    2015-10-13

    The present embodiments are directed to implantable electrode arrays having virtual electrodes. The virtual electrodes may improve the resolution of the implantable electrode array without the burden of corresponding complexity of electronic circuitry and wiring. In a particular embodiment, a virtual electrode may include one or more passive elements to help steer current to a specific location between the active electrodes. For example, a passive element may be a metalized layer on a substrate that is adjacent to, but not directly connected to an active electrode. In certain embodiments, an active electrode may be directly coupled to a power source via a conductive connection. Beneficially, the passive elements may help to increase the overall resolution of the implantable array by providing additional stimulation points without requiring additional wiring or driver circuitry for the passive elements.

  18. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, Gerald K.; Andrew, Michael G.; Eskra, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  19. ENGINEERED ELECTRODES AND ELECTRODE-ORGANIC INTERFACES FOR HIGH-EFFICIENCY ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin J. Marks; R.P.H. Chang; Tom Mason; Ken Poeppelmeier; Arthur J. Freeman

    2008-11-13

    Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells offer the ultimate promise of low cost, readily manufacturable, and durable solar power. While recent advances have led to cells with impressive performance levels, OPV cells have yet to break the double-digit efficiency barrier. Further gains in efficiency and durability, to that competitive with high-performance inorganic photovoltaics will require breakthroughs in transparent electrode and interfacial materials science and engineering. This project involved an integrated basic research effort carried out by an experienced and highly collaborative interdisciplinary team to address in unconventional ways, critical electrode-interfacial issues underlying OPV performance--controlling band offsets between transparent electrodes and organics, addressing current loss/leakage problems at interfaces, enhancing adhesion, interfacial stability, and device durability while minimizing cost. It synergistically combined materials and interfacial reagent synthesis, nanostructural and photovoltaic characterization, and high level quantum theory. The research foci were: 1) understanding of/development of superior transparent electrode materials and materials morphologies--i.e., better matched electronically and chemically to organic active layers, 2) understanding-based development of inorganic interfacial current-collecting/charge-blocking layers, and 3) understanding-based development of self-assembled adhesion/current-collecting/charge-blocking/cross-linking layers for high-efficiency OPV interfaces. Pursing the goal of developing the fundamental scientific understanding needed to design, fabricate, prototype and ultimately test high-efficiency OPV cells incorporating these new concepts, we achieved a record power conversion efficiency of 5.2% for an organic bulk-heterjunction solar cell.

  20. Device and method for the measurement of gas permeability through membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Pradeep K.; Ackerman, John; Borgialli, Ron; Hamann, Jerry; Muknahalliptna, Suresh

    2006-08-08

    A device for the measuring membrane permeability in electrical/electrochemical/photo-electrochemical fields is provided. The device is a permeation cell and a tube mounted within the cell. An electrode is mounted at one end of the tube. A membrane is mounted within the cell wherein a corona is discharged from the electrode in a general direction toward the membrane thereby generating heated hydrogen atoms adjacent the membrane. A method for measuring the effects of temperature and pressure on membrane permeability and selectivity is also provided.

  1. Electrochemical cell utilizing molten alkali metal electrode-reactant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Virkar, Anil V.; Miller, Gerald R.

    1983-11-04

    An improved electrochemical cell comprising an additive-modified molten alkali metal electrode-reactant and/or electrolyte is disclosed. Various electrochemical cells employing a molten alkali metal, e.g., sodium, electrode in contact with a cationically conductive ceramic membrane experience a lower resistance and a lower temperature coefficient of resistance whenever small amounts of selenium are present at the interface of the electrolyte and the molten alkali metal. Further, cells having small amounts of selenium present at the electrolyte-molten metal interface exhibit less degradation of the electrolyte under long term cycling conditions.

  2. Copper-substituted perovskite compositions for solid oxide fuel cell cathodes and oxygen reduction electrodes in other electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rieke, Peter C.; Coffey, Gregory W.; Pederson, Larry R.; Marina, Olga A.; Hardy, John S.; Singh, Prabhaker; Thomsen, Edwin C.

    2010-07-20

    The present invention provides novel compositions that find advantageous use in making electrodes for electrochemical cells. Also provided are electrochemical devices that include active oxygen reduction electrodes, such as solid oxide fuel cells, sensors, pumps and the like. The compositions comprises a copper-substituted ferrite perovskite material. The invention also provides novel methods for making and using the electrode compositions and solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide fuel cell assemblies having cathodes comprising the compositions.

  3. Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode Coatings Development of ...

  4. Monolithic Composite Electrodes Comprising Silicon Nanoparticles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Monolithic Composite Electrodes Comprising Silicon Nanoparticles Embedded in ... Title: Monolithic Composite Electrodes Comprising Silicon Nanoparticles Embedded in ...

  5. High Performance Binderless Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Performance Binderless Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries National ... Electrode for fast-charging Lithium Ion Batteries, Accelerating Innovation Webinar ...

  6. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, J.R.

    1983-09-20

    The invention is directed to an anode-cathode structure for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the structure is comprised of a carbon anode assembly which straddles a wedge-shaped refractory hard metal cathode assembly having steeply sloped cathodic surfaces, each cathodic surface being paired in essentially parallel planar relationship with an anode surface. The anode-cathode structure not only takes into account the structural weakness of refractory hard metal materials but also permits the changing of the RHM assembly during operation of the cell. Further, the anode-cathode structure enhances the removal of anode gas from the interpolar gap between the anode and cathode surfaces. 10 figs.

  7. Long life reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yonco, Robert M.; Nagy, Zoltan

    1989-01-01

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservior and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved.

  8. Long life reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yonco, R.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1989-04-04

    An external, reference electrode is provided for long term use with a high temperature, high pressure system. The electrode is arranged in a vertical, electrically insulative tube with an upper portion serving as an electrolyte reservoir and a lower portion in electrolytic communication with the system to be monitored. The lower end portion includes a flow restriction such as a porous plug to limit the electrolyte release into the system. A piston equalized to the system pressure is fitted into the upper portion of the tube to impart a small incremental pressure to the electrolyte. The piston is selected of suitable size and weight to cause only a slight flow of electrolyte through the porous plug into the high pressure system. This prevents contamination of the electrolyte but is of such small flow rate that operating intervals of a month or more can be achieved. 2 figs.

  9. Inert electrode connection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weyand, J.D.; Woods, R.W.; DeYoung, D.H.; Ray, S.P.

    1985-02-19

    An inert electrode connection is disclosed wherein a layer of inert electrode material is bonded to a layer of conductive material by providing at least one intermediate layer of material therebetween comprising a predetermined ratio of inert material to conductive material. In a preferred embodiment, the connection is formed by placing in a die a layer of powdered inert material, at least one layer of a mixture of powdered inert material and conductive material, and a layer of powdered conductive material. The connection is then formed by pressing the material at 15,000--20,000 psi to form a powder compact and then densifying the powder compact in an inert or reducing atmosphere at a temperature of 1,200--1,500 C. 5 figs.

  10. Inert electrode connection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weyand, John D.; Woods, Robert W.; DeYoung, David H.; Ray, Siba P.

    1985-01-01

    An inert electrode connection is disclosed wherein a layer of inert electrode material is bonded to a layer of conductive material by providing at least one intermediate layer of material therebetween comprising a predetermined ratio of inert material to conductive material. In a preferred embodiment, the connection is formed by placing in a die a layer of powdered inert material, at least one layer of a mixture of powdered inert material and conductive material, and a layer of powdered conductive material. The connection is then formed by pressing the material at 15,000-20,000 psi to form a powder compact and then densifying the powder compact in an inert or reducing atmosphere at a temperature of 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C.